WorldWideScience

Sample records for source gas supply

  1. Middle east gas: supply source of Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivies, P. de

    1995-01-01

    The evolution of gas demand, the decreasing of reserves leads to the question of European future needs satisfaction. The european market can call on the russian production or middle east production. Iran has the most important reserves but the needs of the population can limit the gas supply. Yemen and Oman which have less important reserves but also less important needs to satisfy can be a serious alternative; Abu dhabi reserves are destined to asia market. The qatar has the most important gas offshore field in the world. The LNG (liquefied natural gas) seems to have a better position than gas pipeline to dispatch gas towards Europe

  2. Demand grows in N. America as gas supply sources shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, M.M.

    1996-01-01

    Growing demand for gas as a power-generation fuel is combining with changing patterns of gas transportation to present North American producers and pipelines with a series of new challenges. Results of a recent Enron study show how natural gas supplies available to US markets continue to shift their center of gravity toward Canadian and western sources. These changes--demand growth paced by electricity generation and supply source relocation--plus extraordinary gas basin price differentials this winter, point to (a) the opportunities for and risks of adding pipeline capacity in the US and Canada, on the one hand, and (b) tough decisions that may need to be made by Gulf of Mexico and Midcontinent area producers, on the other, to compete in an environment of changing economics and infrastructure

  3. The growth of GaN films by alternate source gas supply hot-mesh CVD method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komae, Yasuaki; Saitou, Takeshi [Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan); Suemitsu, Maki; Ito, Takashi [Center of Interdisciplinary Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Endoh, Tetsuo [Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Nakazawa, Hideki [Faculty of Science and Technology, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki 036-8561 (Japan); Narita, Yuzuru [Faculty of Engineering, Yamagata University, Yonezawa 992-8510 (Japan); Takata, Masasuke; Akahane, Tadashi [Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan); Yasui, Kanji, E-mail: kyasui@vos.nagaokaut.ac.j [Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan)

    2009-04-30

    Gallium nitride (GaN) films and Aluminium nitride (AlN) layers were deposited on SiC/Si (111) substrates by an alternating source gas supply or an intermittent supply of a source gas such as ammonia (NH{sub 3}), trimethylgallium (TMG) or trimethylaluminum (TMA) in a hot-mesh chemical vapor deposition (CVD) apparatus. The AlN layer was deposited as a buffer layer using NH{sub 3} and TMA on a SiC layer grown by carbonization on Si substrates using propane (C{sub 3}H{sub 8}). GaN films were grown on an AlN layer by a reaction between NH{sub x} radicals generated on a ruthenium (Ru) coated tungsten (W)-mesh and TMG molecules. An alternating source gas supply or an intermittent supply of one of the source gases during the film growth are expected to be effective for the suppression of gas phase reactions and for the enhancement of precursor migration on the substrate surface. By the intermittent supply of alkylmetal gas only during the growth of the AlN layer, the defect generation in the GaN films was reduced. GaN film growth by intermittent supply on an AlN buffer layer, however, did not lead to the improvement of the film quality.

  4. Forecasting world natural gas supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Fattah, S. M.; Startzman, R. A.

    2000-01-01

    Using the multi-cyclic Hubert approach, a 53 country-specific gas supply model was developed which enables production forecasts for virtually all of the world's gas. Supply models for some organizations such as OPEC, non-OPEC and OECD were also developed and analyzed. Results of the modeling study indicate that the world's supply of natural gas will peak in 2014, followed by an annual decline at the rate of one per cent per year. North American gas production is reported to be currently at its peak with 29 Tcf/yr; Western Europe will reach its peak supply in 2002 with 12 Tcf. According to this forecast the main sources of natural gas supply in the future will be the countries of the former Soviet Union and the Middle East. Between them, they possess about 62 per cent of the world's ultimate recoverable natural gas (4,880 Tcf). It should be noted that these estimates do not include unconventional gas resulting from tight gas reservoirs, coalbed methane, gas shales and gas hydrates. These unconventional sources will undoubtedly play an important role in the gas supply in countries such as the United States and Canada. 18 refs., 2 tabs., 18 figs

  5. Vancouver Island gas supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Des Brisay, C.

    2005-01-01

    Terasen Gas is pursuing alternatives for the supply of additional natural gas capacity to Vancouver Island. Its subsidiary, Terasen Gas (Vancouver Island) Inc. (TGVI), is responding to the need for delivery of increased gas supply and, is supporting plans for new gas-fired power generation on Vancouver Island. TGVI's proposal for new natural gas capacity involves a combination of compression and pipeline loops as well as the addition of a storage facility for liquefied natural gas (LNG) at Mt. Hayes to help manage price volatility. This presentation outlined the objectives and components of the resource planning process, including demand forecast scenarios and the preferred infrastructure options. tabs., figs

  6. Gas in Europe: supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    It is predicted that natural gas consumption in western Europe could rise by more than 55% over the next two decades, from 290bn cubic metres (cm) in 1991 to 450bn cm in 2010. This growth, projected by the consultants, Arthur D Little, reflects the environmental and economic attractions of natural gas, particularly in the power generation sector. Another consultant, Poten and Partners, predicts an even greater rise in gas consumption, from 301bn cm in 1992 to 482 bn cm in 2010. However, while demand is forecast to increase in all major European gas markets, indigenous production within Europe is expected to remain stable for the foreseeable future, with indigenous supplies projected to peak at approximately 350bn cubic metres per year (cm/y) in the late 1990s. This raises the prospect of significant supply constraints emerging in Europe. (author)

  7. The geopolitics of natural gas. The countries bordering the Caspian viewed as new sources of supply in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudry, P.

    2004-01-01

    The Caspian region could constitute an additional source of supply of natural gas for Europe, in addition to the imports currently obtained from Northern Europe (Norway) North-Eastern Europe (North Russia) and from the South (Algeria and Libya). Although the producer nations concerned, (Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan and Iran), have expressed a wish to export their gas to Europe, the means of getting this gas to the end-destination are not yet in place and certain geopolitical factors will have an influence when it comes to investment in infrastructure and transportation contracts. The disagreements concerning the status of the Caspian Sea, something which has been argued over since the independence gained by the republics of the former Soviet Union, has created a climate which is not particularly favourable to multilateral agreements, and makes it highly unlikely that Turkmenistan will be able to export its gas to Europe via Azerbaijan, without passing via Russia. The most likely scenario is that Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan will remain within Russia's orbit, with the latter creating a common market for gas also including the Ukraine and Belarus. For European buyers, purchasing gas in Turkmenistan actually means buying the gas in Russia, which will give Russia increasing negotiating power vis-a-vis Europe. Iran also has ambitions to export gas to Europe, and should gradually manage this despite the slow pace of political and industrial processes. The key problem for Iran will be reaching an agreement with Turkey in order to be able to sell its gas to Europe under satisfactory conditions. It should be possible to export Azeri gas to Europe thanks to a gas pipeline running alongside the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline which is currently under construction. As a result, Azerbaijan is gradually continuing with its process of emancipation from Russia and turning directly towards Turkey and Europe. Turkey should become a key country for the transportation of gas from

  8. Oil and gas. Gas supply under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, A.

    2008-01-01

    The latest review of natural gas markets from the International Energy Agency (IEA) paints a picture of growing demand in the face of rising prices, a strengthening link between gas and electricity markets, and a globalising influence from increasingly flexible LNG supplies. But there are growing signs that security of supply is under threat from underinvestment, delays and cost escalation

  9. U.S. gas supply overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, R.

    1999-01-01

    The most recent outlook by Purvin and Gertz regarding the long-term supply potential of oil and gas producing basins in the United States was presented. The role that technology will play in extending their economic reach was also discussed. The focus of this paper was on regional supply, inter regional gas flows and related issues such as pricing. A series of maps depicting production (in Tcf) of various basins in North America showed that the important supply sources are in the deepwater Gulf of Mexico, Rocky Mountains, onshore Texas and Canada. Natural gas pricing from 1990 to 2020 has been forecasted to steadily increase. 1 tab., 11 figs

  10. 41 CFR 101-26.602-5 - Procurement of natural gas from the wellhead and other supply sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Procurement of natural... Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 26-PROCUREMENT SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.6-Procurement Sources Other Than GSA § 101...

  11. Gas supply and Yorkshire Electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-04-01

    Yorkshire Electricity, among other independent suppliers of gas, now competes for a share of the United Kingdom gas market, previously monopolised by British Gas. The experience of this successful electric utility company, expanding into the industrial and domestic gas supply market is described in the article. The company`s involvement stems partly from the fact that significant volumes of gas are landed at three terminals within its franchise area. The company will also seek to use subsidaries to generate electric power from gas turbine power plants and explore the possibilities of developing combined heat and power (CHP) plants where appropriate. (UK)

  12. Gas supply device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Tokihiro.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: When injecting gas during plasma discharge, to prevent erronous operation of the piezoelectric valves due to vibrations and to inject gas into the vacuum vessel by accurately controlling gas flow. Constitution: The piezoelectric valve designed to control the flow of gas when charging vacuum vessels is installed between the vacuum vessel and the gas cylinder and a pulse voltage generator to control the valve (open/close) and the reverse voltage generator to apply a reverse current to the valve element are also provided. When a voltage is applied to the piezoelectric element, the piezoelectric element bends. However, when the polarity is changed, the direction of the bend is also reversed. The seat portion is pressed in proportion to the degree of bending. When gas is injected while plasma is being discharged, the gap created, due to vibrations, between the piezoelectric element and the sealing material is prevented by the application of a reverse current. This allows precise control of the gas injection volume as well as the injection interval. This assures maintenance of precise test conditions when testing thermonuclear devices. (Horiuchi, T.)

  13. North American natural gas supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goobie, G.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation was given by leading energy analysts Pervin and Gertz, and provided their outlook on the North American natural gas supply and demand as well as transportation and processing options for the Mackenzie Valley project and the Alaska natural gas project. Arctic gas development was discussed in relation to larger North American and world energy markets. The impacts of liquefied natural gas (LNG) infrastructure development were compared with the potential impacts of the Alaska and Mackenzie Valley pipelines. A review of North American gas supplies was presented. LNG imports to the United States are expected to exceed 8 BCF/D by 2010. In addition, huge growth in the LNG markets is expected in middle eastern countries as well as in Africa. There is currently strong growth in liquefaction capacity in most regions. However, many proposed LNG terminals will not proceed due to opposition on the west coast of North America. It is also expected that natural gas liquids (NGL) delivered to Alberta from the Mackenzie Valley Gas project are expected to be used by the heavy oil industry. Canadian crude supplies are expected to grow to nearly 4 million barrels per day by 2015. The impacts of Alaska and Mackenzie Valley gas projects on western NGL markets and the petrochemicals industry were reviewed. It was concluded that major investments in supply and infrastructure are need in order to develop Arctic gas, as LNG is likely to be the largest source of incremental supply. tabs., figs

  14. Role of stranded gas in increasing global gas supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    This report synthesizes the findings of three regional studies in order to evaluate, at the global scale, the contribution that stranded gas resources can make to global natural gas supplies. Stranded gas, as defined for this study, is natural gas in discovered conventional gas and oil fields that is currently not commercially producible for either physical or economic reasons. The regional studies evaluated the cost of bringing the large volumes of undeveloped gas in stranded gas fields to selected markets. In particular, stranded gas fields of selected Atlantic Basin countries, north Africa, Russia, and central Asia are screened to determine whether the volumes are sufficient to meet Europe’s increasing demand for gas imports. Stranded gas fields in Russia, central Asia, Southeast Asia, and Australia are also screened to estimate development, production, and transport costs and corresponding gas volumes that could be supplied to Asian markets in China, India, Japan, and South Korea. The data and cost analysis presented here suggest that for the European market and the markets examined in Asia, the development of stranded gas provides a way to meet projected gas import demands for the 2020-to-2040 period. Although this is a reconnaissance-type appraisal, it is based on volumes of gas that are associated with individual identified fields. Individual field data were carefully examined. Some fields were not evaluated because current technology was insufficient or it appeared the gas was likely to be held off the export market. Most of the evaluated stranded gas can be produced and delivered to markets at costs comparable to historical prices. Moreover, the associated volumes of gas are sufficient to provide an interim supply while additional technologies are developed to unlock gas diffused in shale and hydrates or while countries transition to making a greater use of renewable energy sources.

  15. Canadian gas supply : an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochefort, T.

    1998-01-01

    An overview of the daily production from the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) from 1986 to 1997 was presented. This presentation also outlined Canadian production trends, Canadian reserves and resources, and supply challenges. Ultimate conventional marketable gas from the WCSB, the Scotian Shelf, the Beaufort Sea and Canada's Arctic region was estimated at 591 TCF. Issues regarding supply and demand of natural gas such as the impact of electricity restructuring on pricing, generation fuel mix, the capacity of the U.S. market to absorb Canadian heavy oil production, and the influence of the rate of technological advances on supply and demand were outlined. The overall conclusion confirmed the health and competitiveness of the Canadian upstream sector and expressed confidence that the WCSB can support rising levels of production to meet the expected continued market growth. tabs., figs

  16. International performance indicators: gas supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    This study evaluates the performance of Australian's natural gas utilities against world best practice. In particular, it examines whether Australia's traded goods sector is disadvantaged by the performance of domestic infrastructure service industries. It reports on the operating efficiency of the natural gas industry using Data Envelopment Analysis. It concludes that the Australian gas industry as a whole is performing relatively well in term of operating efficiency and that its prices are comparable with prices in North America, once differences in consumption per customer are taken into consideration. Appendixes 1 and 2 provide a summary of the structure and regulation of the gas supply industry in Australia and selected overseas countries, while the Appendix 3 gives an econometric analysis of the relationships between consumption per customer and residential price-cost margins. refs., tabs., figs

  17. Canadian gas supply: going up? or down?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woronuk, R. H.

    1999-01-01

    With regard to Canada's gas reserves there are clear indications that the gas market is moving from a supply/demand balance controlled by demand to one that is controlled by supply. There is evidence of a recognition that the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) , the source of most of Canada's gas supply is a mature basin, with over half of its reserves already discovered, that consumption has exceeded reserve additions for all but one of the last sixteen years, and that under these conditions consumption cannot grow, or even be maintained indefinitely. The central argument advanced in this paper is that the era of ever increasing production from the WCSB is nearing its end and that a more aggressive approach to exploration and development in the WCSB, especially in the deeper and more environmentally sensitive areas, together with the exploitation of conventional gas in frontier areas and unconventional resources will be necessary to prevent projected declines in supply. Identification of new geological plays, exploration for and connection of reserves from frontier regions and the development of technologies for enhanced recoveries will involve increasingly long lead times, therefore, initiatives to address forthcoming supply issues must begin immediately. 4 refs., 17 figs

  18. Natural gas supply - a producer's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papa, M.G.

    1994-01-01

    The supply of natural gas from the producers standpoint is discussed. The following factors in the marketing demand for natural gas are considered to be important: gas demand is growing, U.S. gas resource base is large, chronic gas bubble has shrunk, and North American supply is more resilient than expected

  19. North American natural gas supply dynamics: A focus on U.S. supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses US natural gas supply dynamics in the context of the North American gas marketplace. Supply fundamentals are examined, methodology is briefly presented, regional supply outlooks are discussed. Assumptions, drivers and issues are highlighted. The analysis and outlook indicate that the sizeable North American resource base can be economically developed to supply growing US natural gas requirements. The major incremental supply sources are likely to come from deepwater Gulf of Mexico, Rocky Mountain regions, onshore Texas and imports from Canada. Given this outlook, major business and investment opportunities exist for the gas upstream and midstream sectors despite some short-term challenges

  20. The challenge of implementing green gas into the gas supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkering, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In order to gain a more mature share in the future energy supply, green gas supply chains face some interesting challenges. In this thesis green gas supply chains, based on codigestion of cow manure and maize, are considered. The produced biogas is upgraded to natural gas quality and injected into

  1. Gas markets and security of supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibot, G.

    1997-01-01

    In the natural gas business, some European states and companies seem to be concerned by security of supply. Security of supply for a governmental organisation is discussed, to share the author's conception and experience. The targets of a security of supply policy and the measures that can be set are described. The possible changes in implementing this policy are considered, according to recent developments in the field of gas security. The specificity of European gas markets justify the concern in security of supply, as concluded the Commission and the IEA. The integration of national gas markets in Europe will give new opportunities for managing this security of supply. (R.P.)

  2. Reconstruction of Low Pressure Gas Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Osipov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current reconstruction of residential areas in large cities especially with the developed heat-supply systems from thermal power stations and reduction of heat consumption for heating due to higher thermal resistance of building enclosing structures requires new technical solutions in respect of gas-supply problems. While making reconstruction of a gas-supply system of the modernized or new buildings in the operating zone of one gas-distribution plant it is necessary to change hot water-supply systems from gas direct-flow water heaters to centralized heat-supply and free gas volumes are to be used for other needs or gas-supply of new buildings with the current external gas distribution network.Selection of additional gas-line sections and points of gas-supply systems pertaining to new and reconstructed buildings for their connection to the current distribution system of gas-supply is to be executed in accordance with the presented methodology.

  3. Southwest British Columbia natural gas supply and deliverability: Discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    A review is presented of energy in British Columbia, the role of natural gas, and options available to enhance gas supply security in the province's most densely populated area, the southwest. British Columbia has abundant natural gas supplies, and production exceeds domestic demand. In 1992, natural gas supplied ca 25% of total provincial end-use energy requirements, but this share is expected to rise to 30% by 2015. Although some say that the province's natural gas production and transmission system should serve only domestic needs, this would have significant negative impacts. Domestic gas supply policy allows gas consumers to contract their own supplies, but contract security is required. Provincial guidelines allow demand-side programs to compete with supply sources to ensure that the resource profile is achieved at least cost. In the southwest, natural gas demand is projected to increase from 189 PJ in 1991 to 262 PJ by 2005. Most gas supplied to this region comes from northeast British Columbia through pipelines that are generally fully contracted. Short-term deliverability can be a problem, especially in peak winter demand periods. The gas industry's contingency plans for shortages are outlined and alternatives to enhance deliverability to the southwest are assessed, including storage, expansion of the pipeline system, supply curtailment, and peaking supply contracts. Aspects of provincial natural gas planning are discussed, including security of supply and deliverability, economic and environmental impacts, consumer costs, safety, and the public interest. A least-cost option for enhancing deliverability (underground storage and an additional liquefied natural gas plant) is estimated to cost consumers $3.69/GJ over 20 years. 9 figs., 1 tab

  4. Wingas in natural gas supply in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Recently Wingas has become active in the transport and supply of natural gas in Belgium and succeeded in entering contracts for the supply of natural gas which cover 6% of the Belgian market. Wingas is a German-Russian joint venture between BASF-daughter Wintershall and OAO Gasprom [nl

  5. California GAMA Special Study: An isotopic and dissolved gas investigation of nitrate source and transport to a public supply well in California's Central Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singleton, M J; Moran, J E; Esser, B K; Roberts, S K; Hillegonds, D J

    2010-04-14

    This study investigates nitrate contamination of a deep municipal drinking water production well in Ripon, CA to demonstrate the utility of natural groundwater tracers in constraining the sources and transport of nitrate to deep aquifers in the Central Valley. The goal of the study was to investigate the origin (source) of elevated nitrate and the potential for the deep aquifer to attenuate anthropogenic nitrate. The site is ideal for such an investigation. The production well is screened from 165-325 feet below ground surface and a number of nearby shallow and deep monitoring wells were available for sampling. Furthermore, potential sources of nitrate contamination to the well had been identified, including a fertilizer supply plant located approximately 1000 feet to the east and local almond groves. A variety of natural isotopic and dissolved gas tracers including {sup 3}H-{sup 3}He groundwater age and the isotopic composition of nitrate are applied to identify nitrate sources and to characterize nitrate transport. An advanced method for sampling production wells is employed to help identify contaminant contributions from specific screen intervals. Nitrate transport: Groundwater nitrate at this field site is not being actively denitrified. Groundwater parameters indicate oxic conditions, the dissolved gas data shows no evidence for excess nitrogen as the result of denitrification, and nitrate-N and -O isotope compositions do not display patterns typical of denitrification. Contaminant nitrate source: The ambient nitrate concentration in shallow groundwater at the Ripon site ({approx}12 mg/L as nitrate) is typical of shallow groundwaters affected by recharge from agricultural and urban areas. Nitrate concentrations in Ripon City Well 12 (50-58 mg/L as nitrate) are significantly higher than these ambient concentrations, indicating an additional source of anthropogenic nitrate is affecting groundwater in the capture zone of this municipal drinking water well. This

  6. The cost of longer-run gas supply to Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odell, P. R.

    1996-01-01

    The supply, demand and price outlook for natural gas in Europe were examined in detail. Demand for natural gas estimated to grow an average of 2.3% per annum, which will increase import dependence from 130 to 320 BCM over the next 30 years. For the immediate future profitable indigenous supply was predicted, aided by large proven and probable reserves, and technological advances. Indigenous output was forecast to increase by some 60% by 2025. Future international oil prices indicate gas-equivalent border values adequate to secure profitable supply from a variety of external sources leading to continuing competition for markets by producers and continuing diversification of imports. 30 refs., 9 tabs

  7. Natural gas supply and demand in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comaschi, C.; Di Giulio, E.; Sormani, E.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the dynamics between natural gas supply and demand in Italy. In order to supply Italy with increasing volumes of gas, several new pipelines and re gasification plants are expected in the next future, but their implementation is uncertain. Thus, there exist the possibility of natural gas shortage in the future. On the other hand, if all the expected projects will be implemented, situations of oversupply cannot be excluded. A system dynamics model deepens such as issue [it

  8. Natural gas supply strategies for European energy market actors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girault, Vincent

    2007-06-01

    The liberalization of the European energy markets leads to the diversification of supplies. Hence, we analyse the natural gas importation problem in a power producer point of view. Upstream and downstream natural gas markets are concentrated. In this oligopoly context, our topic is to focus on strategies which modify natural gas sourcing price. This by studying the surplus sharing on the natural gas chain. A European firm can bundle gas and electricity outputs to increase its market share. Therefore, a bundling strategy of a power producer in competition with a natural gas reseller on the final European energy market increases upstream natural gas price. Bundling also acts as a raising rival cost strategy and reduces the rivals' profit. Profits opportunities incite natural gas producers to enter the final market. Vertical integration between a natural gas producer and a European gas reseller is a way, for producers, to catch end consumer surplus. Vertical integration results in the foreclosure of the power producer on the upstream natural gas market. To be active on the natural gas market, the power producer could supply bundles. But, this strategy reallocates the rent. The integrated firm on natural gas gets the rent of electricity market in expenses of the power producer. Then, a solution for the power producer is to supply gas and electricity as complements. Then, we consider a case where vertical integration is not allowed. Input price discrimination by a monopolist leads to a lower natural gas price for the actor which diversifies its supplying sources. Furthermore, a bundling strategy increases the gap between the price proposed to the firm which also diversify its output and the firm which is fully dependent from the producer to supply natural gas on final market. (author)

  9. Diversification of gas supplies to Romania: options and constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, A.

    1996-01-01

    The issue of diversifying natural gas supply to Romania gained importance after 1989. Currently, there are several factors which reinforce the need for the diversification: energy consumption structure; ratio of domestic production to import and traditionally strong natural gas industry. The mentioned points lead to the conclusion that ROMGAZ has to integrate further into the European gas market, to diversify sources of supply and to attract foreign investments. It is clear that the supply diversification depends on three crucial factors: economic recovery (partially achieved after 1992); general price stability (ending permanent depreciation of lev against US dollar); and raising natural gas prices to economic levels. Once those factors are in place, the possibility of gas supply diversification would become more tangible

  10. Gas engine supplied with fermentation gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cupial, K

    1978-01-01

    A CH/sub 4/-rich fermentation gas from the waste-treatment plant at Czestochowa is used as fuel to drive the generating set composed of an electric generator and a piston diesel engine adapted to operation with the fermentation gas. The adaption involved the use of a classical car ignition installation instead of the injection pumps and injector. The gas contains approximately CH/sub 4/ 60, CO/sub 2/ 32, N 5, and H 3 volume%.

  11. Outlook for Noth American natural gas supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuuskraa, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    The underlying resource base for North America natural gas is large, sufficient for nearly 100 years of current consumption. As such, the issues are not the size of the resource, but how to convert this resource into economically competitive supply. The key questions are: Will the cost (price) of natural gas remain competitive? What is the status of near-term deliverability? Will there be enough supply to meet growing demand? These economic and market issues frame the outlook for gas supplies in North America. Most importantly, they will determine how natural gas emerges from its competition for markets with other fuels and electricity. The paper addresses these questions by examining: (1) the underlying nature of the natural gas resource base; (2) the current status and trends in deliverability; and, (3) the potential of new technologies for producing gas more cost-effectively. (author)

  12. Development of Shale Gas Supply Chain Network under Market Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Chebeir

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand of energy has turned the shale gas and shale oil into one of the most promising sources of energy in the United States. In this article, a model is proposed to address the long-term planning problem of the shale gas supply chain under uncertain conditions. A two-stage stochastic programming model is proposed to describe and optimize the shale gas supply chain network. Inherent uncertainty in final products’ prices, such as natural gas and natural gas liquids (NGL, is treated through the utilization of a scenario-based method. A binomial option pricing model is utilized to approximate the stochastic process through the generation of scenario trees. The aim of the proposed model is to generate an appropriate and realistic supply chain network configuration as well as scheduling of different operations throughout the planning horizon of a shale gas development project.

  13. World gas supply-demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rushby, I.L.

    1996-01-01

    The rapid growth in demand for natural gas from a global perspective is documented in this paper. Low prices compared to other fuels and a return to normal winter temperatures is argued to be the cause of this increase in consumption. Natural gas production and prices for 1995 are discussed and forecasts made for future years, in particular the prospects for LNG in Asia. Data on energy growth and gas specific information in world markets are included. (UK)

  14. Gas supplies of interstate natural gas pipeline companies 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This publication provides information on the interstate pipeline companies' supply of natural gas in the United States during calendar year 1990, for use by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission for regulatory purposes. It also provides information to other Government agencies, the natural gas industry, as well as policy makers, analysts, and consumers interested in current levels of interstate supplies of natural gas and trends over recent years

  15. Norwegian gas supplies for the European market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, B.L.

    1994-01-01

    The conference paper deals with the Norwegian key role in the European gas market with increasing market shares. The supply capacity in a long-term perspective can be 65-70 bcm/year or more if export prices support the development of new and more costly gas resources. The main challenges for the Norwegian shelf are discussed. 5 figs

  16. Demand and supply in Russian gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milovidov, K.N.

    1997-01-01

    The big volume of gas supplies for current and future energy and natural gas balances in Russia is important to understand the likely future dynamics of demand for gas. The path of future demand in Russia is uncertain and the range of possible scenarios is wide. For creating the new gas consumption structure, more deep diversification and development of the gas distribution systems, large investments and considerable periods of time are necessary. The factors usually studied in detail in the conditions of market economy can not be used here as a basis for strategic planning due to several reasons. (R.P.)

  17. Natural gas supply and demand outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGill, C.B.

    1998-01-01

    The outlook for U.S. natural gas supply and demand in the residential, commercial, industrial/cogeneration, electricity and transportation sectors for 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2015 was presented. A summary of gas well completions from 1990 to 1997 was also provided. The Canadian natural gas resource was estimated at 184 trillion cubic feet. In 1996, Canada produced 5.6 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, half of which was exported to the U.S. New pipeline projects have been proposed to transport natural gas from eastern offshore areas and the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. A table representing U.S. and Canada gas trade from 1990 to 1997 and a map of proposed Canadian and U.S. natural gas pipeline routes were also included. Looking into the future, this speaker predicted continued volatility in natural gas prices. 9 tabs., 9 figs

  18. The importance of North Sea gas to European energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probert, R.

    1992-01-01

    Natural gas can, of course, be transported over very long distances but, because of the economics of gas transmission, its impact is most often local. This has certainly been the case with North Sea gas, which has clearly contributed significantly to European energy supply and will continue to do so for some time to come. The historical importance of the discovery of gas in the North Sea has been that it has enabled natural gas industries to grow rapidly in North West Europe. Without North Sea gas and Dutch gas it is difficult to see how town gas would have been replaced in North West Europe. Certainly, a much smaller natural gas industry would have emerged. North Sea gas has inevitably had the greatest impact on gas markets in the countries of the European Community and this will remain the case in future. Nevertheless, it is inevitable that gas will, in future, flow across more national boundaries than in the past, and that North Sea gas will have an important part to play in meeting the Central European demand for competitively priced, secure supplies. This paper discusses the United Kingdom market for gas and future demand both in the United Kingdom and more widely in Europe. An examination of the availability of gas supplies from the North Sea suggests that it is unlikely that there will be a surplus of gas for export from the United Kingdom continental shelf. Norway will remain the main source of exports, with the Netherlands also in a strong position. Transportation and political aspects are also considered. (author)

  19. PETROBRAS Northeast gas security of supply study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faertes, Denise; Heil, Luciana; Saker, Leonardo; Vieira, Flavia; Risi, Francisco [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Domingues, Joaquim; Alvarenga, Tobias; Mussel, Patricia [DNV, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the study developed jointly by PETROBRAS Gas and Power Department and Det Norske Veritas (Brazil and United Kingdom office). The study was carried out with the objective of evaluating the security of supply 2009 PETROBRAS Northeast gas network. This network provides gas to thermo plants, to vehicles and to industrial and residential consumers. The occurrence of contract shortfalls implies on heavy fines for the suppliers. To provide best in class analysis, state of the art software was used in order to count on powerful tools to model the gas supply system and to quantify the availability and the efficiency of the overall network and of its individual components. It also provides the prioritization of investment, based on cost benefit analysis, and as a by-product, contingency plans that were developed, considering the identified failure scenarios. (author)

  20. Logistics Sourcing Strategies in Supply Chain Design

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Liwen

    2007-01-01

    A company's logistics sourcing strategy determines whether it structures and organizeslogistics within the company or company group or integrates logistics upstream and downstreamin the supply chain. First, three different types of logistics sourcing strategies in supply chaindesign are described and the theoretical background for the development of these strategies,including both transaction cost theory and network theory, is analyzed. Two special casesabout logistics sourcing strategy decis...

  1. Natural gas supply, demand and price outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Natural gas consumption in the US grew 15.9 percent between 1986 and 1989. Its share of total primary energy use in the US grew from 22.5 percent to 23.8 percent. Despite unusually warm weather and an economic downturn, natural gas use in the first eight months of 1990 fell only modestly from its 1989 pace - while its market share of US total primary energy use has remained stable. The American Gas Association's Total Energy Resource Analysis energy modeling system (A.G.A.-TERA) projects continued growth in natural gas demand and supply. Natural gas is projected to gain a growing share of total US primary use. Natural gas prices are projected to be sufficient to encourage growth in well completions and reserve additions, yet competitive with electricity, fuel oil and other alternative forms of energy

  2. BC gas takes new approach to gas supply optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawdery, J.; Swoveland, C.

    1992-01-01

    Wide-ranging changes have taken place in the US and Canada since the mid-1980s in the way that local gas distribution utilities and large industrial customers contract for their gas supplies. This paper reports that these changes have been brought about by open-access policies, the intent of which was to allow customers more latitude to make their gas purchase and transportation arrangements and to improve the access of shippers to available gas transmission capacity. The effects of the new open-access regime have been profound on both sides of the border. More than 70% of North American gas supplies are now sold under unbundled arrangements in which gas supply is contracted under separate commodity and transportation agreements. For local distribution utilities, the numbers of potential supply options have become extremely large. Analysis of these options has become increasingly complex with the need to take account of complicated contract provisions, a wider range of storage options and swap arrangements with other utilities, opportunities for some customers to purchase gas directly and uncertainty about future demand, prices and supplier reliability

  3. Heavy ion source support gas mixing experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, E.D.; Mallory, M.L.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments on mixing an easily ionized support gas with the primary ion source gas have produced large beam enhancements for high charge state light ions (masses less than or equal to 20). In the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC), the beam increase has been a factor of 5 or greater, depending on ion species and charge state. Approximately 0.1 cc/min of the easily ionized support gas (argon, krypton, or xenon) is supplied to the ion source through a separate gas line and the primary gas flow is reduced by approximately 30 percent. The proposed mechanism for increased intensity is as follows: The heavier support gas ionizes readily to a higher charge state, providing increased cathode heating. The increased heating permits a reduction in primary gas flow (lower pressure) and the subsequent beam increase

  4. 46 CFR 197.340 - Breathing gas supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing gas supply. 197.340 Section 197.340 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.340 Breathing gas supply. (a) A primary breathing gas supply for surface-supplied diving must be sufficient to support the following for the...

  5. Ensuring future national gas supplies. High stakes for research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojey, A.

    1996-01-01

    A considerable increase in natural gas demand has been forecast for the coming years. Present-day supply sources will be unable to cover the growing demand in Europe and new suppliers will need to be called on more and more. Diversifying to new supply sources will entail heavy investments and is bound to mean rising costs. Technical progress is necessary to reduce costs, while protecting the environment and providing improved safety conditions. Innovative solutions in the areas of production, processing, transportation and chemical conversion should in the future widen the options and outlets available to operators. (author)

  6. Public water supply sources - the practical problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, E.G.W.

    1990-01-01

    A complex system of reservoirs, streams, treatment works and pipe networks is used to provide the public water supply to consumers in Strathclyde. The manner in which a nuclear event would affect the quality of water available from this supply would depend on a wide variety of factors. The extent to which the quality from each source could be maintained or improved if found to be unsatisfactory would depend on the extent of contamination and the particular characteristics of each source. Development of contingency plans will incorporate monitoring of supplies and development of effective communications both internally and externally. (author)

  7. Gas supplies of interstate natural gas pipeline companies, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This publication provides information on the total reserves, production, and deliverability capabilities of the 64 interstate pipeline companies required to file the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Form 15, ''Interstate Pipeline's Annual Report of Gas Supply.'' Data reported on this form are not considered to be confidential. This publication is the 29th in a series of annual reports on the total gas supplies of interstate pipeline companies since the inception of individual company reports to the Federal Power Commission (FPC) in 1964 for report year 1963

  8. Balancing gas supply and demand with a sustainable gas supply chain : a study based on field data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkering, Jan; Broekhuis, A. A.; van Gemert, Wim; Hengeveld, Evert Jan

    The possibilities of balancing gas supply and demand with a green gas supply chain were analyzed. The considered supply chain is based on co-digestion of cow manure and maize, the produced biogas is upgraded to (Dutch) natural gas standards. The applicability of modeling yearly gas demand data in a

  9. Balancing gas supply and demand with a sustainable gas supply chain : A study based on field data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkering, J.; Broekhuis, A. A.; van Gemert, W. J. T.; Hengeveld, E. J.

    2013-01-01

    The possibilities of balancing gas supply and demand with a green gas supply chain were analyzed. The considered supply chain is based on co-digestion of cow manure and maize, the produced biogas is upgraded to (Dutch) natural gas standards. The applicability of modeling yearly gas demand data in a

  10. Long term contracts in portfolios of core LDC gas supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, F.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper recommends that local distribution companies (LDCs) should use a portfolio approach for their gas supply strategy. The author recommends that LDCs not rely on spot supplies to meet the peak needs of the core residential and commercial markets. He recommends that a secure supply through long-term contracts are better sources than spot or even intermediate term suppliers. The paper provides a brief outline format of the advantages to the use of a portfolio approach which include the rapid restructuring of the market, general changes in the market, and general market performance. By maintaining a portfolio, a list of available natural gas suppliers is always available. This portfolio also acts to compare pricing between short, medium, and long-term pricing for the LDCs

  11. A strategic model of European gas supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holz, Franziska; Hirschhausen, Christian von; Kemfert, Claudia

    2005-01-01

    Structural changes in the European natural gas market such as liberalization, increasing demand, and growing import dependency have triggered new attempts to model these markets accurately. This paper proposes a model of the European natural gas supply including the possibility of strategic behavior of the agents along the value-added chain. We structure it as a two-stage-game of successive natural gas exports to Europe (first stage) and wholesale trade within Europe (second stage). In the case of non-cooperative Cournot competition at both stages, which is the most realistic scenario, this yields a market outcome with double marginalization, that is suppliers at both stages generate a mark-up, at the expense of the final customers. Our results suggest that the main suppliers of natural gas to Europe remain dominant (Norway, the Netherlands), although some lose market shares (Algeria, UK, and especially Russia). Traditional exports will be complemented in the future by overseas supplies of LNG from the Middle East, Nigeria, Trinidad and Tobago which are becoming competitive. The model also enables us to identify transport infrastructure bottlenecks; we find that transport capacity on the upstream market is sufficient but the capacity constraint is binding for many intra-EU trade relations. (Author)

  12. Analysis of natural gas supply strategies at Fort Drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stucky, D.J.; Shankle, S.A.; Anderson, D.M.

    1992-07-01

    This analysis investigates strategies for Fort Drum to acquire a reliable natural gas supply while reducing its gas supply costs. The purpose of this study is to recommend an optimal supply mix based on the life-cycle costs of each strategy analyzed. In particular, this study is intended to provide initial guidance as to whether or not the building and operating of a propane-air mixing station is a feasible alternative to the current gas acquisition strategy. The analysis proceeded by defining the components of supply (gas purchase, gas transport, supplemental fuel supply); identifying alternative options for each supply component; constructing gas supply strategies from different combinations of the options available for each supply component and calculating the life-cycle costs of each supply strategy under a set of different scenarios reflecting the uncertainty of future events

  13. Operational modeling of a sustainable gas supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkering, Jan; Broekhuis, A. A.; van Gemert, Wim

    2010-01-01

    Biogas production from codigestion of cattle manure and biomass can have a significant contribution to a sustainable gas supply when this gas is upgraded to specifications prescribed for injection into the national gas grid and injected into this grid. In this study, we analyzed such a gas supply

  14. The life cycle greenhouse gas implications of a UK gas supply transformation on a future low carbon electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, Geoffrey P.; O'Grady, Áine

    2017-01-01

    Natural gas used for power generation will be increasingly sourced from more geographically diverse sites, and unconventional sources such as shale and biomethane, as natural gas reserves diminish. A consequential life cycle approach was employed to examine the implications of an evolving gas supply on the greenhouse gas (GHG) performance of a future United Kingdom (UK) electricity system. Three gas supply mixes were developed based on supply trends, from present day to the year 2050. The contribution of upstream gas emissions - such as extraction, processing/refining, - is not fully reported or covered by UK government legislation. However, upstream gas emissions were seen to be very influential on the future electricity systems analysed; with upstream gas emissions per MJ rising between 2.7 and 3.4 times those of the current supply. Increased biomethane in the gas supply led to a substantial reduction in direct fossil emissions, which was found to be critical in offsetting rising upstream emissions. Accordingly, the modelled high shale gas scenario, with the lowest biomethane adoption; resulted in the highest GHG emissions on a life cycle basis. The long-term dynamics of upstream processes are explored in this work to help guide future decarbonisation policies. - Highlights: • United Kingdom is set to undergo a large gas supply transformation. • Three potential gas mix scenarios were developed based on supply trends. • A consequential life cycle approach was taken to examine the evolving gas supply. • Upstream emissions were seen to rise substantially for all gas supply scenarios. • High shale gas mix resulted in greatest emissions due to low influx of biomethane.

  15. City gas supply management system. Toshi gas kyokyu kanri system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ota, S [Tokyo Gas Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-07-05

    Supply and control system of city gas (about 90% is LNG) at Tokyo Gas Company is summarized. The LNG is delivered from the high pressure, A-middle pressure and B-middle pressure stations through the low pressure governors at about 3,000 locations to the low-pressure conduit networks. The information system department uses a large-size general purpose IBM computer as a host computer, control computers at each station, and communication networks consisted mainly of the in-house wireless networks. The trunk lines are all looped, and the important facilities are dualized. Characteristic functions include the supply prediction, which takes into account the past supply and ambient temperature records, a day of the week for a particular date, and demand fluctuation trends; adjustments of each holder based on the prediction and restrictions; and piping network simulation to decide gas manufacturing patterns, and determine reasonability of local construction of complicated conduits. The monitoring and control system as the central nerve includes a quick block-wide operation at an accident from earthquake and the like to prevent wide area disasters. 8 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Gas supply planning for new gas-fired electricity generation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slocum, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper explores several key issues in gas supply planning for new gas fired electric generation facilities. This paper will have two main sections, as follows: developing the gas supply plan for a gas-fired electricity generation facility and exploring key gas supply contract pricing issues

  17. Mackenzie Gas Project : gas resource and supply study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.G.; Braaten, K.M.

    2004-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the future gas supply for the Mackenzie Gas Project. The economically recoverable gas resources and deliverability in the region were assessed in order to support construction of the Mackenzie Valley pipeline and the associated gathering system. This supply study was based on a 25 year timeframe for resource development. Production forecasts were also prepared for 50 years following the date of the study. Natural gas forecasts for the general area to be served by the proposed pipeline were also presented. This report includes an introduction to the final gas resource and supply study as well as the regional geology relating to discovered and undiscovered resources. The following regions were included in the study area: onshore Mackenzie Delta including the Niglintgak, Parsons Lake and Taglu anchor fields; central Mackenzie Valley region extending from the Mackenzie Delta south to 63 degrees latitude; northern portion of the Yukon Territory; and, portions of the offshore Mackenzie Delta region limited to a water depth of 30 metres. Forecasts and economic analyses were prepared for the following 3 scenarios: contingent onshore resources only; contingent and prospective onshore resources; and, contingent and prospective onshore and offshore resources. Sensitivity forecasts were prepared for a fully expanded pipeline capacity of 1.8 bcf/day with an equal capacity gathering system. In addition, the National Energy Board estimates of resources for the 3 anchor field were used in place of the operator's estimates. A geological review was included for the plays in the study area. 15 refs., 43 tabs., 38 figs

  18. A simulation approach for analysis of short-term security of natural gas supply in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villada, Juan; Olaya, Yris

    2013-01-01

    Achieving security of gas supply implies diversifying gas sources, while having enough supply, transportation, and storage capacity to meet demand peaks and supply interruptions. Devising a strategy for securing gas supply is not straightforward because gas supply depends on complex interactions of production, demand and infrastructure, and it is exposed to economic, regulatory, political, environmental and technical risks. To address this complexity, we propose a simulation approach that replicates the structure of the gas supply chain, including transportation constraints and demand fluctuations. We build and calibrate a computer model for the Colombian gas sector, and run the model to assess the impact of expanding transportation capacity and increasing market flexibility on the security of supply. Our analysis focuses on the operation and planned and proposed expansions of the transportation infrastructure because adequate regulation and development of this infrastructure can contribute to increase the security of supply in the gas sector. We find that proposed import facilities, specifically LNG import terminals at Buenaventura, increase system's security under the current market structure. - Highlights: ► We build a simulation model for analyzing natural gas trade in Colombia. ► The model captures the structure of the gas network and on market rules. ► We simulate investment decisions to increase short-term security of supply. ► Securing supply would need LNG imports and expansion of pipeline capacity.

  19. Long-term trends in U.S. gas supply and prices: 1991 edition of the GRI baseline projection of U.S. energy supply and demand to 2010, April 1991. Gas research insights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, T.J.

    1991-04-01

    The report summarizes the gas supply and price outlook in the 1991 Edition of the GRI Baseline Projection of U.S. Energy Supply and Demand. Projected U.S. gas production, gas imports, and other sources of gas supply are discussed along with the sensitivity of the outlook to changes in price expectations. The critical uncertainties and issues affecting the gas supply and price outlook are discussed. Appendixes include a comparison of the 1991 and the 1989 projections of gas supply and price trends; and a description of the GRI Hydrocarbon Model

  20. German natural gas market and the international supply situation. Pt. 1. Supply market for natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolinski, U [Deutsches Inst. fuer Wirtschaftsforschung, Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Bergbau und Energie

    1978-01-01

    Since the oil crisis the buyers's market started to change to a seller's market as a result of the worldwide rising demand for natural gas. This development will be amplified with the increasing significance and volume of LNG trade. This depends upon the availability of handling and tanker capacities. It is considered that technical solutions are available. The internationalisation of the world natural gas market imposes changes in terms of trade for the Federal Republic of Germany. In the sixties, terms of trade made under sales considerations presented no problems. But gas buyers today are forced to accept sellers' terms looking for the buyer offering the highest prices and other sales advantages. The world gas market has assumed the features of a polypolistic market. The security of supply is not a matter of adequate reserves, but almost entirely that of terms of contract on which the natural gas supply can be ensured. It is thereby decisive, whether it will be possible in future to procure the required amount of gas at such terms that it can be sold on the German energy market at competetive rates.

  1. Natural-gas supply-and-demand problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatamian, H.

    1998-01-01

    World natural-gas consumption quadrupled in the 30 years from 1966 to 1996, and natural gas now provides 22% of the total world energy demand. The security of natural-gas supply is paramount and rests with the suppliers and the consumers. This paper gives an overview of world natural-gas supply and demand and examines the main supply problems. The most important nonpredictable variables in natural-gas supply are worldwide gas price and political stability, particularly in regions with high reserves. Other important considerations are the cost of development/processing and the transport of natural gas to market, which can be difficult to maintain if pipelines pass through areas of political instability. Another problem is that many countries lack the infrastructure and capital for effective development of their natural-gas industry. Unlike oil, the cost of transportation of natural gas is very high, and, surprisingly, only approximately 16% of the total world production currently is traded internationally

  2. Indicators of security of natural gas supply in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabalu, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Natural gas has become an increasingly valuable resource and a global commodity. The demand for it has significantly increased. Japan, Korea and Taiwan heavily rely on liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports for their gas supplies from Malaysia, Brunei, Indonesia, Australia and the Middle East. On the other hand, countries like Thailand and Singapore import gas via trans-border pipelines. Gas supply interruptions, volatile gas prices, transportation and distribution bottlenecks, and a growing reliance on imports over longer distances have renewed interest on gas security in Asia. This paper examines the relative vulnerability to natural gas supply disruptions of seven gas-importing countries in Asia for year 2008. Based on four indicators of security of gas supply, a composite gas supply security index is estimated as an overall indication of gas vulnerability for our sample countries. The results demonstrate that there are differences in the values of the overall indicator of gas vulnerability among countries and the assessment is useful in developing an effective strategy of natural gas supply security in countries in the Asian region. (author)

  3. Electrical energy supply with permanent energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    It can be shown that there are no chances for solar and wind power plants in Northern Europe when estimating the investment costs and the floor space required. However, the decentralized utilization of the plants which is likely to become very interesting in a few years shows other results. As a complete annual balance by traditional stores would cause a considerably uneconomic increase of the investment costs supplementary energy sources are inevitable. The author points out how the various primary energy sources in question can be utilized and combined with each other. He describes the converters for the permanent (regenerative) energy sources, the available electrochemical stores and their application as well as the fundamental structures of the energy supply systems. Finally some advice is given regarding the recycling of energy and the operation by the consumers.

  4. Full speed ahead on the Western Canada gas supply treadmill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flint, D.; Dixon, B.

    2005-01-01

    The sustainability of natural gas supply in Western Canada was discussed and a background of the Forward Energy Group Inc., was provided, including details of goals, investments and assets. Various challenges to sustainable supply were outlined, including details of total production, competing processes of decline and growth, rate additions from new wells and the fact that since 1989, wells onstream produce 80 per cent of all natural gas. Annual challenges include production and decline rates, as well as additional declines in base volumes of pre-1990 wells. Various industry responses were presented. Rate additions have responded to prices, cash flow, acquisition and capital markets. Growth has been punctuated by low investment. A composite decline was presented, revealing that the decline rate of all wells onstream were increasing. In addition, production gaps grow larger due to the increase of composite decline rates. It was noted that composite decline rates may stabilize. Other factors contributing to decline rates were reserves-based contracts, the absence of pipeline capacity and storage, as well as recession. Rate losses and rate additions were presented. Solution to address these challenges include low deliverability zones, new pools, new areas, tight gas, and technology. It was noted that all activity growth is from low deliverability wells. Rate additions by deliverability class, discovery period, and fracturing were provided. In addition, rate additions per foot drilled were also discussed. Various drivers of the Western Canada Sedimentary (WCSB) rate additions include world gas demand; North American gas supply; capital investment in WCSB; WCSB projects and competition; and capital efficiency. A chart of gas cash flow and investment was presented, as well as a forecast of increasing costs. It was concluded that the WCSB is an important supply source for North America and that the key challenge is to sustain production profitably. Higher prices and

  5. Oil and gas supply : hurdles and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giusti, L.

    2006-01-01

    Brazil has a modest dependency. The important players on the supply side include Mexico, Brazil, Venezuela and Trinidad/Tobago. Also, Colombia is a player with its excellent exploration and production model, its stability and institutional strength. It was suggested that Bolivia could become an important player if changes take place to promote the development of its huge natural gas resources

  6. Optimisation of a green gas supply chain : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkering, Jan; Broekhuis, A. A.; van Gemert, Wim

    In this review the knowledge status of and future research options on a green gas supply based on biogas production by co-digestion is explored. Applications and developments of the (bio)gas supply in The Netherlands have been considered, whereafter literature research has been done into the several

  7. Optimisation of a green gas supply chain - A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkering, J.; Broekhuis, A. A.; van Gernert, W. J. T.; van Gemert, W. J. T.

    In this review the Knowledge status of and future research options on a green gas supply based on biogas production by co-digestion is explored. Applications and developments of the (bio)gas supply in The Netherlands have been considered, whereafter literature research has been done into the several

  8. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions through operations and supply chain management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plambeck, Erica L.

    2012-01-01

    The experiences of the largest corporation in the world and those of a start-up company show how companies can profitably reduce greenhouse gas emissions in their supply chains. The operations management literature suggests additional opportunities to profitably reduce emissions in existing supply chains, and provides guidance for expanding the capacity of new “zero emission” supply chains. The potential for companies to profitably reduce emissions is substantial but (without effective climate policy) likely insufficient to avert dangerous climate change. - Highlights: ► Describes how firms are profitably reducing greenhouse gas emissions in their supply chains ► Highlights academic literature relevant to supply chain emission reduction

  9. Natural gas supply in Denmark - A model of natural gas transmission and the liberalized gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bregnbaek, L.

    2005-01-01

    In the wake of the liberalization of European energy markets a large area of research has spawned. This area includes the development of mathematical models to analyze the impact of liberalization with respect to efficiency, supply security and environment, to name but a few subjects. This project describes the development of such a model. In Denmark the parallel liberalization of the markets of natural gas and electricity and the existence of an abundance of de-centralized combined heat and power generators of which most are natural gas fired, leads to the natural assumption that the future holds a greater deal of interdependency for these markets. A model is developed describing network flows in the natural gas transmission system, the main arteries of natural gas supply, from a technical viewpoint. This yields a technical bounding on the supply available in different parts of the country. Additionally the economic structure of the Danish natural gas market is formulated mathematically giving a description of the transmission, distribution and storage options available to the market. The supply and demand of natural gas is put into a partial equilibrium context by integrating the developed model with the Balmorel model, which describes the markets for electricity and district heat. Specifically on the demand side the consumption of natural gas for heat and power generation is emphasized. General results and three demonstration cases are presented to illustrate how the developed model can be used to analyze various energy policy issues, and to disclose the strengths and weaknesses in the formulation. (au)

  10. Metering in the gas supply sector; Metering in der Gasversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernekinck, U. [RWE Westfalen-Weser-Ems, Recklinghausen (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    The new conditions of competition in the gas supply sector have strongly increased the requirements on gas grid operators. Mainly an exact gas metering and -accouting will become more and more important. The systems and procedures are presented in detail in this contribution. (GL)

  11. Documentation of the Oil and Gas Supply Module (OGSM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Oil and Gas Supply Model (OGSM), to describe the model`s basic approach, and to provide detail on how the model works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. Projected production estimates of US crude oil and natural gas are based on supply functions generated endogenously within National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) by the OGSM. OGSM encompasses domestic crude oil and natural gas supply by both conventional and nonconventional recovery techniques. Nonconventional recovery includes enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and unconventional gas recovery (UGR) from tight gas formations, Devonian/Antrim shale and coalbeds. Crude oil and natural gas projections are further disaggregated by geographic region. OGSM projects US domestic oil and gas supply for six Lower 48 onshore regions, three offshore regions, and Alaska. The general methodology relies on forecasted profitability to determine exploratory and developmental drilling levels for each region and fuel type. These projected drilling levels translate into reserve additions, as well as a modification of the production capacity for each region. OGSM also represents foreign trade in natural gas, imports and exports by entry region. Foreign gas trade may occur via either pipeline (Canada or Mexico), or via transport ships as liquefied natural gas (LNG). These import supply functions are critical elements of any market modeling effort.

  12. The security of gas supply-a critical issue for Europe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisser, Hellmuth

    2007-01-01

    Gas is competing with oil for being the dominant energy source. In electricity generation gas is to play as pivotal a role as oil in transportation. The security equation of gas and electricity become unseparably interrelated. Energy disruptions have considerable influence on the national accounts far beyond the direct cost of market participants (asymmetry). The present gas supply to the EU depends dangerously on too few sources and venues. There is a decided lack of optionality. The EU directly or through its members needs a clear proactive policy on 'Security of Gas Supply' with a strong multilateral direction. The measures developed for the oil industry over the last 30 years can at least serve as a starting point for a constructive debate. When discussing security of supply dependence it is useful to clearly define the various risks one wishes to protect against. Free riders relying on alternative fuels without participating in their security systems are not permissible

  13. Gas supply for independent power projects: Drilling programs and reserve acquisitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, J.D.; Walker, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    Developers of gas-fired independent power projects, although drawn to gas as the fuel of choice for economic and environmental reasons, are finding the problem of cost-effective gas supply to be intractable. By one estimate, there are $6 billion worth of gas-fired projects languishing in the planning stage for want of long-term gas supply that is acceptable to project lenders. Worse still, as the authors are aware, some currently operating gas-fired projects lack such a supply, thus forcing the developer to rely on the spot market for gas as an interim (and unsatisfactory) solution. Although spot market prices in the deregulated natural gas industry have remained relatively low over several years, long-term gas supply has become problematic, particularly for power projects whose economics typically require an assured supply at a determined price over a multiyear period. In short, while there is an increasing demand for gas as a preferred source of fuel supply for power projects, there are discontinuities in the approaches taken to contracting for that supply by producers and developers. These concern primarily allocation of the risk of commodity-driven price increases during the term of the fuel supply contract. Without a means of accommodating price-related risk, the parties will inevitably find themselves at an impasse in contract negotiations. If there is a barrier to the independent power generation industry's vertical integration into gas production, it is the fundamental insularity of the two industries. As they have discovered, it may be indispensable for gas producers and power developers to employ intermediaries familiar with both industries in order to consummate appropriate joint-venture drilling programs and reserve acquisitions. Given the economic consequences of doing so successfully, however, they believe such programs and acquisitions may become an integral part of independent power developers' business strategy in the 1990s and beyond

  14. Optimisation of a green gas supply chain--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkering, J; Broekhuis, A A; van Gemert, W J T

    2010-01-01

    In this review the knowledge status of and future research options on a green gas supply based on biogas production by co-digestion is explored. Applications and developments of the (bio)gas supply in The Netherlands have been considered, whereafter literature research has been done into the several stages from production of dairy cattle manure and biomass to green gas injection into the gas grid. An overview of a green gas supply chain has not been made before. In this study it is concluded that on installation level (micro-level) much practical knowledge is available and on macro-level knowledge about availability of biomass. But on meso-level (operations level of a green gas supply) very little research has been done until now. Future research should include the modeling of a green gas supply chain on an operations level, i.e. questions must be answered as where to build digesters based on availability of biomass. Such a model should also advise on technology of upgrading depending on scale factors. Future research might also give insight in the usability of mixing (partly upgraded) biogas with natural gas. The preconditions for mixing would depend on composition of the gas, the ratio of gases to be mixed and the requirements on the mixture.

  15. North American natural gas pipeline and supply update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molyneaux, M.

    1999-01-01

    A series of overhead viewgraphs accompanied this presentation which presented an update of North American natural gas supply. Some of the graphs depicted the following: (1) natural gas consumption in the United States, (2) U.S. imports of Canadian natural gas, (3) natural gas prices differential: Henry Hub versus Empress, (4) natural gas production in the U.S., and (5) Baker Hughes active rig count, U.S. gas rigs. First Energy's view of U.S. natural gas supply is that the estimate of 50.0 Bcf/d for U.S. domestic production is looking too high. The first quarter 1999 exit production rates are behind expectations. U.S. domestic natural gas expenditure budgets are still down by more than 40 per cent compared to 1998 levels. The impact that this will have on prices was discussed. 21 figs

  16. Energy supply: No gas from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempkens, W

    1983-03-01

    In the last twelve years the share of natural gas in the total consumption of primary energy has increased twelve-fold and now amounts to 16 per cent. One-third of this is produced in West Germany. Although world deposits will last well into the next century, attempts are already being made to perfect techniques for obtaining gas from coal. However, the cubic metre price of synthetic gas is still anything but competitive.

  17. Will implementation of green gas into the gas supply be feasible in the future?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkering, J.; Hengeveld, E. J.; van Gemert, W. J. T.; Broekhuis, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    The energy efficiency, greenhouse gas reduction and cost price of a green gas supply chain were evaluated. The considered supply chain is based on co-digestion of dairy cattle manure and maize, biogas upgrading and injection into a distribution gas grid. A reference scenario was defined which

  18. Will implementation of green gas into the gas supply be feasible in the future?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkering, Jan; Hengeveld, Evert Jan; van Gemert, Wim; Broekhuis, A.A.

    Energy efficiency, greenhouse gas reduction and cost price of a green gas supply chain were evaluated. This supply chain is based on co-digestion of dairy cattle manure and maize, biogas upgrading and injection into a distribution gas grid. A defined reference scenario reflects the current state of

  19. Will implementation of green gas into the gas supply be feasible in the future?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ir. J. Bekkering; prof. dr. Wim van Gemert; A.A. Broekhuis; Drs. E.J. Hengeveld

    2015-01-01

    energy efficiency, greenhouse gas reduction and cost price of a green gas supply chain were evaluated. This supply chain is based on co-digestion of dairy cattle manure and maize, biogas upgrading and injection into a distribution gas grid. A defined reference scenario reflects the current state of

  20. All quiet on the eastern front? Disruption scenarios of Russian natural gas supply to Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, Philipp M.; Holz, Franziska

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 Russian–Ukrainian crisis reignited European concerns about natural gas supply security recalling the experiences of 2006 and 2009. However, the European supply situation, regulation and infrastructure have changed, with better diversified import sources, EU member states being better connected and a common regulation on the security of supply has been introduced. Nevertheless, European dependency on natural gas remained high. This paper investigates different Russian natural gas export disruptions scenarios and analyses short- and long-term reactions in Europe. We use the Global Gas Model (GGM), a large-scale mixed complementarity representation of the natural gas sector with a high level of technical granularity with respect to storage and transportation infrastructure. While we find that most of the EU member states are not severely affected by Russian disruptions, some East European countries are very vulnerable. Prioritizing the removal of infrastructure bottlenecks is critical for securing a sufficient natural gas supply to all EU member states. - Highlights: • We analyze disruption scenarios of Russian natural gas exports to Europe. • Most EU countries are only weakly affected by a complete Russian supply disruption. • We find that Eastern Europe is vulnerable to Russian supply disruptions. • We identify infrastructure bottlenecks in the European natural gas network. • We find that the large EU LNG import capacity is not sufficiently connected

  1. Market opening: how will European gas supply evolve?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delon, Ch.

    1999-01-01

    With the implementation of the gas directive, European gas companies are facing many new challenges. Some concern the upstream gas sector in particular, notably with the new rules of competition in Europe, the changes in the structure of gas industries and their adaptation to the new Europe-wide market. For this first round table to the 116. gas conference, chaired by Sophie Mayeux, journalist and editor of the Est Eco journal, four representatives of major European companies and one representative of the banking sector examined the possible future scenarios for gas supply in Europe. (authors)

  2. Industrial natural gas supply options in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Information is provided on the availability and cost of natural gas in British Columbia for use by firms interested in establishing gas-intensive industrial facilities in the province. British Columbia has an abundant supply of natural gas, originating mainly from deposits in the westernmost part of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin in the northeast part of the province. Recoverable resources in British Columbia are estimated at 1,000-1,400 billion m 3 . Over 200 producers compete to sell natural gas for both domestic and export markets. Gathering, processing, and transmission of the gas is undertaken mainly by the Westcoast Energy pipeline system, and distribution is undertaken by several distribution utilities. At present, all large industrial gas users buy their firm gas requirements directly from gas producers, often using gas marketers or brokers to assist in purchasing. Regulation of the gas industry is performed by the British Columbia Utilities Commission, which sets rules for energy supply contracts, and by the National Energy Board, which sets tolls for gathering, processing, and transporting gas. Factors affecting gas pricing are discussed, with reference to both the wellhead price and the cost of gathering, processing, and transportation. Firm gas costs for two hypothetical industrial loads in British Columbia are illustrated. Potential intensive uses of natural gas in the province are outlined, including power generation, liquefaction for export, manufacturing, production of direct reduced iron, and as petrochemical feedstocks. 5 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Commercial gas utilization in the Netherlands. Six years of the Marketing Plan Public Gas Supply (MOG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoelen, Q.E.J.J.M.; Bartholomeus, P.H.J.; Mallon, W.Ch.

    1998-01-01

    In 1992, Gasunie (Dutch natural gas trading company) started its marketing plan for the public natural gas supply (MOG, abbreviated in Dutch). The aim is to promote the use of natural gas in cooperation with gas utilities. For the commercial sector many different gas appliances are available: high-efficiency deep-frying pans for the catering sector, gas-fired air humidifiers for office and public buildings, gas-fired tumble dryers for small and medium-sized businesses, etc

  4. Gas-supply strategy until 2020; Strategija opskrbe plinom do 2020. godine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolundzic, S; Sekulic, G [Zagreb (Croatia)

    1997-12-31

    Development of Croatian economy manifests itself through more rapid (as distinguished from the last 5 years) and more effective development of energy sector. There is a substantial impact of gas which makes already 27% (in 1995) of energy consumption. According to consumption estimates, this share will continue to grow till 2020. That is the main reason for both gas industry and the state to find an appropriate gas-supply strategy. In this report there are gas-consumption estimates and possible supply-sources. Furthermore, essential conditions and strategies are analysed here, necessary for the increase of gas consumption, matching with global European and world trends of expanding the gas industry world-wide and balancing conditions of gas transactions and development. One of the most important condition is safety of delivery and the corresponding activities. Then there is the issue of gas prices: how to achieve the necessary price-increase, which makes the main source of financing the future infrastructure facilities and gas projects. It will be necessary to devise and apply the adequate regulations (such as price rates system, taxes, privatisation, safety measures, etc.) promptly, and thus successfully realize the gas-supply strategy. These regulations would resemble those in countries with market economy according to global importance of gas industry and Croatian orientation to more intensive participation in world economy. (author). 5 tabs., 4 figs., 24 refs.

  5. The Functions of Sourcing Intermediaries in Global Supply Risk Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Mette; Ellegaard, Chris

    The aim of this work-in-progress paper is to uncover the supply risk management functions performed by sourcing intermediaries. The purchasing and supply chain management literature, including the part of it concerned with supply risk, pays little attention to sourcing intermediaries....... But the fields of marketing and international business have investigated the intermediary including its high supply risk reducing potentials, suggesting that this supply chain entity may be highly relevant to supply risk management. In order to get a better understanding of the supply risk reducing properties...... of sourcing intermediaries, we perform a study of the Danish clothing industry. The study incorporate interviews across a range of functions and companies in this industry including retailers, producers, suppliers, and various types of intermediaries. We contribute by coupling the supply risk management...

  6. A NEW APPROACH TO THE ASSESSMENT OF EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF GAS SUPPLY DIVERSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleh Dzoba

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to study the current state and trends in the development of the basic indicators of the EU gas sector, to generalize the theoretical and methodological approaches to calculating the gas diversification factor, assess and analyze its level in the EU countries in 2001-2015, and study the experience of European countries in addressing the diversification problems. Methodology. The methodological basis of the study was the works of domestic and foreign scientists devoted to the issues of gas supply diversification. The study is based on the analysis of the gas sector indicators and used analysis, synthesis, combination grouping and statistical-economic methods. Results of the of the study showed that in the EU countries in recent years there has been a noticeable tendency to reduce natural gas reserves, reduce the level of its production and increase consumption, which leads to an increase in import dependence. The largest consumers of natural gas in the EU are the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and France. The main external importers of pipeline gas to the EU countries are the Russian Federation, Algeria and Norway, and liquefied gas – Qatar, Algeria and Nigeria. It is established that at the end of 2015, the most diversified gas supply is to countries such as France, Belgium and Italy; a low level of gas supply diversification is observed in Hungary, Poland and Greece. Practical implications. The analysis of basic indicators which characterize the state and development of trends of the European gas market in 2000-2015 is carried out. The assessment and analysis of the level of diversification of natural gas supplies in the EU countries in 2001-2015 have been analyzed. Value/originality. It was proposed an original approach to calculate the gas diversification factor, which takes into account both the number of sources and the structure of the volumes of supplies from different sources.

  7. EU Security of Gas Supplies: Solidarity Runs Through the Pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoun, Marie-Claire; Rutten, Daan

    2016-05-01

    The ongoing efforts to lessen the European Union's (EU) vulnerability to gas shortages by adopting internal measures were triggered by the Ukrainian gas disputes of 2006 and 2009. The latter deprived several EU Member States of 20% of their gas supplies (30% of imports) for 14 days in the middle of winter due to tensions with Russia. This prompted Member States in 2010 to adopt a Regulation for the Security of Gas Supply, replacing the skeletal 2004 Directive. Since 2014, tensions have increased significantly between the EU and Russia, the block's main gas supplier. Although this has not led to any gas supply disruptions in Europe, and this time Ukraine has been able to revert to reverse flows, national production and storage withdrawals to replace the Russian gas flows, there remains a perceived elevated risk of gas supply disruptions to the EU, especially by certain Member States. This led the European Commission (EC) to publish its first-ever European Energy Security Strategy in May 2014, which was followed by the Gas Stress Tests of October 2014. In February 2015, the EC published its Energy Union Strategy Framework, which was strongly motivated by energy security concerns. In that context, the EC announced a series of proposals for its gas and electricity markets in 2016 and 2017, among which was the 'Sustainable Energy Security Package' (hereafter: Package). This Package, published in February 2016, consists of four proposals. Two of them have a legislative nature, namely a Regulation for Security of Gas Supply and a Decision on Intergovernmental Agreements on energy. The two non-legislative proposals are strategy papers dealing respectively with LNG and Gas Storage, and Heating and Cooling. The purpose of this paper is to focus on the proposed Regulation and to offer considerations on some of its provisions, in particular on the move from the national to the regional level of cooperation and on the legislative formalization of solidarity. (author)

  8. Supply Chain Sourcing Game: A Negotiation Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumus, Mehmet; Love, Ernie C.

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces an exercise that simulates the negotiation process in a dynamic supply chain. The retailer and wholesaler roles are assigned to student groups who negotiate supply contracts in a number of rounds during a class period. Each group makes pricing, inventory, and ordering decision concurrently, and competes with others to…

  9. Gas supply triggers development at Connaught Bridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffs, E.

    Malaysia aims to become a fully developed country by the year 2020, which means a steady 20% annual rate of growth of electricity demand to the end of the century. Much of this growth is centered in the area around Kuala Lumpur so that Tenaga Nasional Bhd (Tenaga) urgently needs to bring new generating capacity into the capital area. Access to gas on the west coast of the malay peninsula has given Tenaga Nasional Berhad the opportunity to convert their Connaught Bridge power station to a combined cycle and to install four open-cycle gas turbines. The expansion of Connaught Bridge is the first of several projects which are being developed. In early 1991, as site preparation was getting under way for the combined cycle, Tenaga ordered eight gas turbines for peak load duty from NEI-ABB Gas Turbines. Four of these are the 150 MW Type GT13E with water injection for NOx control which have been installed in parallel with the construction of the steam cycle on the Connaught Bridge site. At sea level and 32[degrees]C site ambient, these gas turbines are rated 130MW on gas for a total 520MW of peak load capacity. The last of these was synchronized on 12 October last year. There are no plans to convert these to combined cycles.

  10. Gas and metal ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oaks, E.; Yushkov, G.

    1996-01-01

    The positive ion sources are now of interest owing to both their conventional use, e.g., as injectors in charged-particle accelerators and the promising capabilities of intense ion beams in the processes related to the action of ions on various solid surfaces. For industrial use, the sources of intense ion beams and their power supplies should meet the specific requirements as follows: They should be simple, technologically effective, reliable, and relatively low-cost. Since the scanning of an intense ion beam is a complicated problem, broad ion beams hold the greatest promise. For the best use of such beams it is desirable that the ion current density be uniformly distributed over the beam cross section. The ion beam current density should be high enough for the treatment process be accomplished for an acceptable time. Thus, the ion sources used for high-current, high-dose metallurgical implantation should provide for gaining an exposure dose of ∼ 10 17 cm -2 in some tens of minutes. So the average ion current density at the surface under treatment should be over 10 -5 A/cm 2 . The upper limit of the current density depends on the admissible heating of the surface under treatment. The accelerating voltage of an ion source is dictated by its specific use; it seems to lie in the range from ∼1 kV (for the ion source used for surface sputtering) to ∼100 kV and over (for the ion sources used for high-current, high-dose metallurgical implantation)

  11. A New EU Gas Security of Supply Architecture?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Jong, J. [Clingendael International Energy Programme CIEP, The Hague (Netherlands); Glachant, J.M.; Ahner, N. [European University Institute EUI, San Domenico di Fiesole (Italy); Hafner, M.; Tagliapietra, S. [Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei FEEM, Milan (Italy)

    2012-07-15

    A series of workshops has been organized in order to take stock and discuss a possible new architecture for EU gas security. Discussions and reflections reported from the workshops held under this project have developed into the concluding ideas and recommendations for a new EU gas security of supply architecture, which are reflected in this article.

  12. World natural gas supply and demand: Brief pause in production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coccia, G.

    1993-01-01

    With reference to the 1992 CEDIGAZ (Centre International sur le Gas Naturel et tous Hydrocarbures Gazeux) report on world natural gas supply and demand, this paper assesses current market and production trends in this industry. The slight drop in production in 1992, the first which has which has occurred after many consecutive years of steady increases, is ascribed to ownership disputes among the former-USSR republics and major changes in the organizational structure of the former-USSR's natural gas industry. Strong increases in demand are forecasted due to expected strong population growth and increased industrialization to take place in China and India. Price trends in natural gas should remain steady as a result of plentiful supplies of this fuel and coal, a major competitor. The use of relatively clean natural gas is suggested as a practical alternative to energy taxes now being proposed as a means for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions

  13. The generalized model of organization and planning of regional gas supply monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria V. Shevchenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available At the moment, gas is one of the most promising types of fuel in Ukraine. In this regard, the problems associated with its transportation in the regional system of gas supply are relevant. Now it is not completely solved and needs detailed study the problem of monitoring the regional gas supply system. Aim: The aim of the study is to improve the efficiency of the regional gas supply system at the expense of the organization and planning of gas transport monitoring and, in the future, the synthesis of the monitoring system of regional gas supply. Materials and Methods: The generalized model of organization and planning of monitoring regional gas suppliers were developed to achieve this goal. It allows making decisions on the organization of the monitoring system. In addition, this model makes it possible to plan under conditions of multicriteriality and uncertainty of the source data. Results: The basic criteria and constraints for solving the problem of organizing and planning the monitoring system of regional gas supply are proposed in this work. The corresponding computations were made to confirm the assumptions. The calculations were carried out in context of uncertainty of input data using a set of methods for the analysis of hierarchies, exhaustive search, as well as the methods of decision making in context of uncertainty.

  14. Reliability modelling - PETROBRAS 2010 integrated gas supply chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faertes, Denise; Heil, Luciana; Saker, Leonardo; Vieira, Flavia; Risi, Francisco; Domingues, Joaquim; Alvarenga, Tobias; Carvalho, Eduardo; Mussel, Patricia

    2010-09-15

    The purpose of this paper is to present the innovative reliability modeling of Petrobras 2010 integrated gas supply chain. The model represents a challenge in terms of complexity and software robustness. It was jointly developed by PETROBRAS Gas and Power Department and Det Norske Veritas. It was carried out with the objective of evaluating security of supply of 2010 gas network design that was conceived to connect Brazilian Northeast and Southeast regions. To provide best in class analysis, state of the art software was used to quantify the availability and the efficiency of the overall network and its individual components.

  15. Gas supply from WCSB -- Matured more rapidly than expected

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, D. J.

    2003-01-01

    A 2002 National Energy Board report forecast a decline in short-term gas deliverability from the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) through 2004. However, this report contradicts a 1999 report which forecast a robust supply of natural gas through 2010. To obtain some clarity about the situation, this article undertakes an assessment of the information on gas supply in Alberta during the second half of the 1990s, in an attempt to account for the dramatic shift in outlook for gas supply in the WCSB by 2002. After a thorough examination of natural gas activities in the Basin during the 1990s, the author concludes that gas production in the WCSB has matured more rapidly than expected; moreover, there were clear indications that this might occur as early as the mid-1990s. Further curtailment in Alberta gas production might be expected as the debate on gas production in the Athabasca area heats up. The result of the assessment is that new resources of gas such as coal-bed methane and natural gas deposits in northeast British Columbia may come on stream, but governments will be challenged to provide incentives for sustaining gas pipeline activity in the WCSB. In the longer term there is potential for a gas pipeline from Alaska, but there is still much uncertainty about the route, line size, operating pressure, utilization of downstream pipelines and ultimate timing. In Canada, there is considerable support for a gas pipeline in the Mackenzie Valley, and plans for development are well advanced. 9 refs., 7 figs

  16. Security of supply and retail competition in the European gas market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abada, Ibrahim, E-mail: ibrahim.abada@polytechnique.edu [IFP Energies nouvelles, 1 et 4 avenue de Bois Preau, 92852 Rueil-Malmaison (France); EDF Research and Development, 1 avenue du General de Gaulle, 92140 Clamart (France); EconomiX-CNRS, University of Paris Ouest (France); Massol, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.massol@ifpen.fr [Center for Economics and Management, IFP School, 228-232 av. Napoleon Bonaparte, 92852 Rueil-Malmaison (France); Department of Economics, City University London, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    In this paper, we analyze the impact of uncertain disruptions in gas supply upon gas retailer contracting behavior and consequent price and welfare implications in a gas market characterized by long-term gas contracts using a static Cournot model. In order to most realistically describe the economical situation, our representation divides the market into two stages: the upstream market that links, by means of long-term contracts, producers in exporting countries (Russia, Algeria, etc.) to local retailers who bring gas to the consuming countries to satisfy local demands in the downstream market. Disruption costs are modeled using short-run demand functions. First we mathematically develop a general model and write the associated KKT conditions, then we propose some case studies, under iso-elasticity assumptions, for the long-short-run inverse-demand curves in order to predict qualitatively and quantitatively the impacts of supply disruptions on Western European gas trade. In the second part, we study in detail the German gas market of the 1980s to explain the supply choices of the German retailer, and we derive interesting conclusions and insights concerning the amounts and prices of natural gas brought to the market. The last part of the paper is dedicated to a study of the Bulgarian gas market, which is greatly dependent on the Russian gas supplies and hence very sensitive to interruption risks. Some interesting conclusions are derived concerning the necessity to economically regulate the market, by means of gas amounts control, if the disruption probability is high enough. - Highlights: > We model retail competition using a Nash-Cournot framework. > Risk-neutral retailers decide their import policy among a set of risky producers. > Case 1: the German gas trade of the 1980s to understand the gas sources' choices. > Case 2: the current Bulgarian gas trade to study the market properties. > Conclusions about the market regulation for welfare optimization reasons.

  17. Security of supply and retail competition in the European gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abada, Ibrahim; Massol, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the impact of uncertain disruptions in gas supply upon gas retailer contracting behavior and consequent price and welfare implications in a gas market characterized by long-term gas contracts using a static Cournot model. In order to most realistically describe the economical situation, our representation divides the market into two stages: the upstream market that links, by means of long-term contracts, producers in exporting countries (Russia, Algeria, etc.) to local retailers who bring gas to the consuming countries to satisfy local demands in the downstream market. Disruption costs are modeled using short-run demand functions. First we mathematically develop a general model and write the associated KKT conditions, then we propose some case studies, under iso-elasticity assumptions, for the long-short-run inverse-demand curves in order to predict qualitatively and quantitatively the impacts of supply disruptions on Western European gas trade. In the second part, we study in detail the German gas market of the 1980s to explain the supply choices of the German retailer, and we derive interesting conclusions and insights concerning the amounts and prices of natural gas brought to the market. The last part of the paper is dedicated to a study of the Bulgarian gas market, which is greatly dependent on the Russian gas supplies and hence very sensitive to interruption risks. Some interesting conclusions are derived concerning the necessity to economically regulate the market, by means of gas amounts control, if the disruption probability is high enough. - Highlights: → We model retail competition using a Nash-Cournot framework. → Risk-neutral retailers decide their import policy among a set of risky producers. → Case 1: the German gas trade of the 1980s to understand the gas sources' choices. → Case 2: the current Bulgarian gas trade to study the market properties. → Conclusions about the market regulation for welfare optimization

  18. Tax revenue and innovations in natural gas supply: New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulibarri, C.A.; Marsh, T.L.

    1994-10-01

    This paper develops an econometric model of natural gas supply at the state-level using New Mexico as a case study. The supply model is estimated using annual time series observations on production levels, delivered prices, proved reserves, existing wells, and extraction costs. The authors validate the model against historical data and then use it to consider the fiscal impacts on state tax revenue from innovations in extraction technologies

  19. Electric power supply: the viability of natural gas cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paula, C.P. de; Ennes, S.A.W.

    1991-01-01

    The technical and economical aspects of Natural Gas conversion into electricity through cogeneration, analysing the potentials and costs of the power systems connections to downstream processes is related. The insertion impacts of these cogeneration potentials into the Electrical Network are also analysed, with special emphasis on the supply deficit risk reduction. The generation conditions for both auto-sufficiency and exceeding supply to network are determined, regarding the purposes of attendance efficiency improvement and the necessary new service stimulus. (author)

  20. Will implementation of green gas into the gas supply be feasible in the future?

    OpenAIRE

    Bekkering, J.; Gemert, van, Wim; Broekhuis, A.A.; Hengeveld, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    energy efficiency, greenhouse gas reduction and cost price of a green gas supply chain were evaluated. This supply chain is based on co-digestion of dairy cattle manure and maize, biogas upgrading and injection into a distribution gas grid. A defined reference scenario reflects the current state of practice, assuming that input energy is from fossil origin. Possible improvements of this reference scenario were investigated. For this analysis two new definitions for energy input-output ratio w...

  1. Strategic gas reserves and EU security-of-supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austvik, Ole Gunnar

    2003-01-01

    The author attempts to distinguish a country's ''normal'' dependence on imports of a commodity from sensitivity and vulnerability dependence. We will then discuss how the risk for disruptions in supplies may be viewed as an externality in imports and, thus, consumption of gas. The model presented demonstrates how environmental externalities as a result of increased domestic production can be evaluated together with the security-of-supply problem. Finally, it is discussed how gas reserves can be used as a means in an emergency situation

  2. Gas centrifuge power supplies (inverters): Key components and subassemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This document was prepared to serve as a guide for export control officials in their interpretation, understanding, and implementation of exports laws that relate to the international trigger list entry for gas centrifuge power supplies (also known as frequency changers, convertors, or inverters) and parts, components, and subassemblies of such power supplies. Particular emphasis is placed on descriptions of the key parts, components, and subassemblies of such power supplies, which were previously unspecified, so as to clarify the intent of the international trigger list entry

  3. Natural gas, NGL's and crude: supply, demand and price forecasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauft, T.L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the major issues to watch in the crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids (NGL) markets in North America. The presentation began with background information concerning Purvin and Gertz, an employee-owned consulting firm whose employees are chemical engineers, holders of a Master of Business Administration (MBA), or economists. They specialize in providing strategic, commercial, and technical advice to the international energy industry. A closer look at each individual market was provided, looking at demand, supply, price drivers and others. The author concluded that world oil prices continue to be influenced by a war premium. Oil prices support natural gas, as well as the possibility of a supply issue. The gas processing margins have remained strong. The unknown quantities are the weather and economic recovery. figs

  4. Long term contracts in portfolios of gas supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper promotes the idea of long-term contracting for natural gas local distributors and utilities. It presents a brief history of how the spot-market developed and the effects spot-marketing can have in times of supply shortages. This has also resulted in a drastic decrease in exploration and development in the gas industry as gas supplies have exceeding demand, driving the prices down. The paper proposes several methods to restabilize the long-term contracting of gas by considering volume and pricing flexibility. Some brief discussions of industry-wide statistics are presented to show reserve replacement costs which would be needed to preserve the industry in a profit-making situation

  5. Natural gas and local heat supply. Erdgas und Nahwaerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berge, W. (Gasversorgungsgesellschaft Filstal mbH (Germany, F.R.) Stadtwerke Goeppingen (Germany, F.R.))

    Local heat supply consists of a thermal power station of a dual-purpose plant, a heat destribution system and the heating systems of the users. A combination of gas heat-pumps, cogeneration plant and gas turbine operated as basic load aggregates is a precondition for the flexible application of energy-saving though investment-intensive technologies. Several existing plants are described in order to explain the structure and functioning of various types of plants. (BWI).

  6. Security of Gas Supply in the Countries of the Visegrád Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Tarnawski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In spite of efforts on the part of the European Union to promote renewable sources of energy, conventional resources such as oil, natural gas and coal still dominate in individual EU energy mixes. With the rising costs of resources, their uneven distribution and limited supply, each state is busy trying to ensure its energy security. Secure and stable supply of energy resources has becoming the main preoccupation, especially in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Over the recent years, the Visegrád Group states have made particularly intensive efforts to ensure their supply of natural gas. The unstable political situation in the east of Europe as well as changes in natural gas markets (shale gas revolution in the USA, increased importance of LNG gave rise to new challenges when it comes to ensuring gas security, but also new opportunities to become independent of eastern imports. It is precisely the fact of being dependent on natural gas imported from Russia that determines the situation of Visegrád Group states. The present paper tries to analyse the situation in Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary in terms of security of their natural gas supply.

  7. Natural gas participation on brazilian demand supply of liquefied petroleum gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas Rachid, L.B. de

    1991-01-01

    Natural Gas Liquids Production, Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) among them, has undergone a continuous growth and technological development until the first half of the eighties. This paper presents the natural gas processing activity development in Brazil, in the last 20 years, and the increasing share of LPG produced from natural gas in the supply of LPG domestic market. Possibilities of achieving greater shares are discussed, based on economics of natural gas processing projects. Worldwide gas processing installed capacity and LPG pricing tendencies, and their influence in the construction of new Natural Gas Processing Units in Brazil, are also discussed. (author)

  8. Intense neutron source: high-voltage power supply specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedel, A.A.

    1980-08-01

    This report explains the need for and sets forth the electrical, mechanical and safety specifications for a high-voltage power supply to be used with the intense neutron source. It contains sufficient information for a supplier to bid on such a power supply

  9. Effective sourcing strategies for perishable product supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijpkema, W.A.; Rossi, R.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to assess whether an existing sourcing strategy can effectively supply products of appropriate quality with acceptable levels of product waste if applied to an international perishable product supply chain. The authors also analyse whether the effectiveness of

  10. Electricity, Gas and Water Supply. Industry Training Monograph No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbrell, Tom

    Australia's electricity, gas, and water supply industry employs only 0.8% of the nation's workers and employment in the industry has declined by nearly 39% in the last decade. This industry is substantially more dependent on the vocational education and training (VET) sector for skilled graduates than is the total Australian labor market. Despite…

  11. 18 CFR 2.105 - Gas supply charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gas supply charges. 2.105 Section 2.105 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... prior to nominations by the customers a firm price or pricing formula for the service, and hold that...

  12. Developments on the European energy market. Part 1. Natural gas supply. Extra import covers growing natural gas demand in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Gelder, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    This first part of a series on developments in the European gas market features the growth in gas supply. 35% of the gas demand must be covered from sources outside Europe. For the future additional imports are required from countries such as the Russian Federation, Algeria and Nigeria. Over the next few years the artificial link between ga and oil prices will disappear, bringing the gas price to a structurally lower level. It will be of crucial importance that gas suppliers will not be able to form cartels to keep prices high. All competing projects will curb price increases on the European market, but will definitely result in more freedom of choice for European natural gas consumers

  13. Gas Supply, Pricing Mechanism and the Economics of Power Generation in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanxin Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available During the “13th Five-Year Plan” period, green energy is the top priority for China. China has realized that natural gas, as a low-carbon energy source, fits with the nation’s energy demand and will play a critical role in the energy transition, but the actual industry development is slower than expected. By analyzing the major gas corporations around the world, the paper finds that the key factors of the sector are supply and price of the energy resource. A comprehensive analysis on domestic and foreign imported gas reveals a trend of oversupply in China in the future. Given the critical import dependence, China has introduced a series of gas price reforms since 2013, which have led to negative impacts on important gas consumption sectors including power generation. With the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE model, we find that under the prevailing gas supply structure and price level, the economy of utility gas power generation will remain unprofitable, while combined cooling heating and power (CCHP is only commercially feasible in coastal developed regions. If continuing, such a trend will not only bring forth disastrous consequences to gas power industry, but also damage the upstream gas industry, more importantly, impede the energy transition. We conclude the paper with policy implications on pricing mechanism reform, developing domestic unconventional gas and the R&D of gas turbine.

  14. Electricity supply, district heating and supply of natural- and gas-works gas 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This report is based on information covering enterprises producing, selling and transmitting electrical energy or producing and distributing hot water for district heating. The producers of electricity included in this report have either at least 100 kW in prime movers for electrical generation or at least 400 kW in prime movers and no public distribution. Enterprises are obliged by law to report these data. Data are requested concerning three types of statistical units: power stations, heating plants, and units reporting complete economic information (deliveries, sales value, production costs etc.). Power stations may be regarded as technical units and data are collected on technical equipment, consumption of fuels, production and own consumption of electrical energy. For heating plants data are collected on production and turnover of steam and hot water and on consumption of fuels and electrical energy. At the end of 1998 the installed capacity of generators amounted to 34 389 MW. Hydro-electrical capacity accounted for 48 % of total installed capacity. Compared to 1997 the capacity increased by 55 MW for hydro-electrical power and, decreased by 254 MW for conventional thermal power. Total capacity decreased by 147 MW or 0.4 %. The net production of electrical energy in 1998 amounted to 154 552 GWh, an increase of 6.4 % compared to 1997 The production of hydro-electrical power increased by 8.2 %. Hydro-electrical power accounted for 47 % of total production. Nuclear-power production increased by 6.2 % Conventional thermal-power production decreased by 28.9 %. The consumption of electricity (excl. transmission losses) increased by 0,8 % to 133 096 GWh. By consumption sectors the percentage changes were: in agriculture, etc. -9.9 %; in mining, quarrying and manufacturing +2.2 %; in construction -7.8 %; in electricity, heating, gas and water services -4.6 %; in commerce, real estate, etc. +1.8 %; in transport, storage and communication -2.9 %; in community, social

  15. Documentation of the oil and gas supply module (OGSM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Oil and Gas Supply Model (OGSK, to describe the model`s basic approach, and to provide detail on how the model works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. It is prepared in accordance with the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its statistical and forecast reports (Public Law 93-275, Section 57(b)(2). OGSM is a comprehensive framework with which to analyze oil and gas supply potential and related issues. Its primary function is to produce forecast of crude oil, natural gas production, and natural gas imports and exports in response to price data received endogenously (within NEMS) from the Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) and the Petroleum Market Model (PMM). To accomplish this task, OGSM does not provide production forecasts per se, but rather parameteres for short-term domestic oil and gas production functions and natural gas import functions that reside in PMM and NGTDM.

  16. Documentation of the oil and gas supply module (OGSM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Oil and Gas Supply Model (OGSK, to describe the model's basic approach, and to provide detail on how the model works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. It is prepared in accordance with the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its statistical and forecast reports (Public Law 93-275, Section 57(b)(2). OGSM is a comprehensive framework with which to analyze oil and gas supply potential and related issues. Its primary function is to produce forecast of crude oil, natural gas production, and natural gas imports and exports in response to price data received endogenously (within NEMS) from the Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) and the Petroleum Market Model (PMM). To accomplish this task, OGSM does not provide production forecasts per se, but rather parameteres for short-term domestic oil and gas production functions and natural gas import functions that reside in PMM and NGTDM

  17. Europe's gas consumption and imports to increase with adequate low cost supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odell, P.R.

    1997-01-01

    Gas in Europe has always been sold above its long-run supply price. Lower prices, however, still permit profitable indigeneous supply expansion. As further reductions in production and transport costs from technological advances are expected, this will continue based on the exploitation of large proven and probable reserves. By 2025, indigeneous output will be 60% up on 1995. Nevertheless, an average 2.2%/annum growth in gas demand will increase import dependence from 130 to 320 BCM over this period. Future international oil prices indicate gas-equivalent border values adequate to secure profitable supply from a range of external sources, leading to continuing competition for markets and the diversification of imports. (9 tables; 31 references). (author)

  18. Will implementation of green gas into the gas supply be feasible in the future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekkering, J.; Hengeveld, E.J.; Gemert, W.J.T. van; Broekhuis, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The relation between energy efficiency, greenhouse gas reduction and cost price of a green gas supply chain was analyzed. • Opportunities for improving a green gas supply chain were evaluated. • Fossil and renewable energy resources are made explicit in energy efficiency definition. • Switching to green electricity is the major contributor to improving the energy efficiency and greenhouse gas reduction. - Abstract: The energy efficiency, greenhouse gas reduction and cost price of a green gas supply chain were evaluated. The considered supply chain is based on co-digestion of dairy cattle manure and maize, biogas upgrading and injection into a distribution gas grid. A reference scenario was defined which reflects the current state of practice, assuming that input energy is from fossil origin. Possible improvements of this reference scenario were investigated. For this analysis two new definitions for energy input–output ratio were introduced; one based on input of primary energy from all origin, and one related to energy from fossil origin only. The influence of the improvements on greenhouse gas reduction and cost price was assessed too. Results show that electricity (from fossil origin) is the major contributor to energy input in the reference scenario. Switching to green electricity significantly improves the energy efficiency (both definitions) and greenhouse gas reduction. Preventing methane leakage during digestion and upgrading, and re-using heat within the supply chain also show improvements on these parameters as well as on cost price, although their influence is smaller. Decreasing the share of energy crops in the substrate mix shows a negative effect. It is shown that greenhouse gas reduction of more than 80% is possible with current technology. To meet this high sustainability level, multiple improvement options will have to be implemented in the green gas supply chain. Doing so will result in a modest decrease of the green gas

  19. Electricity and gas supplies under pressure. 2005 winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewiner, C.; David, P.; Coquet, P.

    2005-10-01

    Point of view on the demand for electricity and gas in light of European deregulation in 2005. Demand for electricity and gas by consumers and businesses soared to record highs as temperatures continued to fall steeply across Europe in January and February 2005. While unexpected seasonal trends have always had a major impact on electricity and gas supplies, this time, it occurred at a time when deregulation across all European markets is bringing new complexity notably in pricing and availability of supply. So what conclusions can be drawn from this acute market situation? Is deregulation delivering what it promised? What are the possible impacts on the business model of suppliers? What trends are we likely to observe in response to the challenges of operating in the new deregulated market place?

  20. Crude oil and natural gas supplies and demands for Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackay, R.M.; Probert, S.D.

    1995-01-01

    A novel technique for forecasting the supply and extraction life-cycle of a depleting fossil fuel resource has been developed. The supply side utilises a 'skewed-normal production-profile' model that yields a better representation than earlier approaches. A simple model for extrapolating crude oil and natural gas demands has also been devised, based on the so called 'modified logit function'. The predicted crude oil and natural gas balances for the period up to AD 2010 indicate the disparity between indigenous production and future consumption for Denmark. These forecasts depend on current estimates of remaining oil and gas reserves. It will consequently be necessary to revise periodically the present projections as more reliable reserve estimates become available. (author)

  1. EMF 9 scenarios Canadian natural gas: Potential demand and supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The basic analytical perspectives of this work are: (1) Canada is a price taker on the US natural gas market; (2) Gas competes with HFO in both markets, and Canada is integrated into the international oil market; (3) Canadian and US income growth rates are consistent with each other, given the major influence of US economic performance on that of the Canadian economy; and (4) Given the price, income and other assumptions, we used the Board's Energy Demand Model to calculate annual demand for natural gas in each price case. We used the Board's models for reserves additions and productive capacity estimation to calculate potential annual supply. The difference between demand and potential supply is the potential exportable volume. The annual productive capacity curve assumes, agnostically, that all potential production is sold yearly

  2. Supply and demand forecasts for natural gas in the WCSB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowfoot, C.; Laustsen, G.

    2001-01-01

    A historical review of supply of natural gas in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) was presented along with export capacity versus demand and the affect of reconnection on Alberta prices. This power point presentation included several graphs and charts which showed that the decline rate per well groupings suggest the pre-1996 wells are declining at about 10 per cent and flattening. The productivity profiles of recent well additions exhibit a very steep initial decline, indicating that a basin decline of 25 per cent is apparent with an expected flattening to a decline of around 20 per cent. This presentation also included a review of WCSB natural gas drilling activity and discussed natural gas well completions by type in Western Canada and British Columbia. Pipeline capacity and throughput for 1999 was also discussed with an illustration of the North American natural gas transportation grid and a graphical illustration of gas exports and Canadian sales. tabs., figs

  3. Kalimantan field development hikes gas supply for LNG export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suharmoko, G.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of Tambora and Tunu gas fields in Kalimantan that have increased available gas supply for the export of liquefied natural gas (LNG) from Indonesia. The demand for LNG is increasing in the energy thirsty Far East market. And Indonesia, the world's largest exporter, is keeping pace by expanding the Bontang liquefaction plant in East Kalimantan. A fifth train, with a capacity of around 2.5 million tons/year, began operating in January 1990. Start-up of a sixth train, of identical capacity, is planned for January 1994. The Bontang plant is operated by PT Badak on behalf of Pertamina, the Indonesian state oil and gas mining company. The feed to the fifth train comes primarily from the first-phase development of Total Indonesie's two gas fields, Tambora and Tunu. The sixth train will be fed by a second-phase development of the Tunu field

  4. Natural gas supply for the EU in the short to medium term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahan, A.

    2004-03-01

    For the European Union it is predicted that gas will become the fastest growing source of energy, increasing in share of total EU energy consumption from 21% in 2001 to 27% in 2020. At the same time indigenous production will decrease so that the EU will increasingly become dependent on imports. This paper makes an inventory of and critically reviews the widely quoted publications which assess the options for the EU's natural gas supply up to 2010. In contrast to the more optimistic tone set by most of the publications used as reference material for this study, the paper concludes that supply for especially the North West European market might easily be very tight by 2010. The report features an overview of the perspectives for supplies from Norway, Algeria, Russia and LNG sources. Particular attention is also paid to the increasing importance of indigenous production and flexibility instruments for the accommodation of growing import volumes

  5. Measuring energy security: Trends in the diversification of oil and natural gas supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Gail; Joutz, Frederick; Loungani, Prakash

    2011-01-01

    We present evidence on one facet of energy security in OECD economies-the extent of diversification in sources of oil and natural gas supplies. Viewed from the perspective of the energy-importing countries as a whole, there has not been much change in diversification in oil supplies over the last decade, but diversification in sources of natural gas supplies has increased steadily. We document the considerable cross-country heterogeneity in the extent of diversification. We also show how the extent of diversification changes if account is taken of the political risk attached to suppliers; the size of the importing country; and transportation risk. - Highlights: → Global diversification is constant but large differences exist among countries. → Political risk and distance have large impacts on diversity measures. → Size has little impact on diversity measures. → France, US, and UK show low vulnerability for both fuels. → Smaller European countries show high vulnerability for both fuels.

  6. Biogas supply to the natural gas supply grid. Study; Einspeisung von Biogas in das Erdgasnetz. Studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinski, S. [DBI Gas- und Umwelttechnik GmbH, Leipzig (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Biogas supply to the public gas grid is a new option discussed in the most recent publication of Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe (FNR) e.V. The biogas is purified, upgraded to natural gas quality and fed into an existing gas grid. Once there, it can be transported across long distances and also used for electric power generation at the consumer side. The study investigates inhowfar and in what instances this method is feasible and promising. It discusses the technical background and the regional potential of biogas. Seven model biogas systems are presented as examples. (orig.)

  7. Forecasting: Canada's NGL [natural gas liquids] supply outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    A perspective is given on Canada's supply and demand balance of ethane, propane, and butane, and Canada's participation in meeting the expected increases in United States import requirements. Increases in Canadian natural gas liquids (NGL) supply depends on increases in natural gas production. Since new production (except for the Shell Caroline gas discovery) is tending to have lower yields of liquids, NGL supply will not increase as much as the increase in natural gas production. Nearly 50% of Canadian NGLs are produced in straddle plants located at the inlet of gas transmission lines. Surpluses of ethane and high capital costs means that new straddle plants will not be built in the near future, but expansions of existing plants will occur to maximize propane and butane production. The potential ethane supply will increase, notably from the Shell Caroline project. The primary market for ethane in Canada is the Alberta petrochemical industry, and a new ethylene plant to be started up in 1994 will increase demand. The use of ethane for miscible flooding will decrease to the end of the decade. Propane production is expected to increase to a total of 180,000 bbl/d by 2000; demand growth in traditional markets such as heating and cooking is expected to be marginal, and the petrochemical sector is expected to show the largest growth in propane demand. The use of butane for producing methyl tertiary butyl ether is expected to increase butane demand for the rest of the decade. Exports of NGL to the USA are largely via the Cochin pipeline system. Modest increases in NGL exports are expected. A number of gas pipeline projects are at various stages of planning, and completion of these projects would enable an increase in Canadian exports. 8 figs

  8. Liberalisation and the security of gas supply in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Philip

    2005-01-01

    This paper contests the view held by the current UK government and its industry regulator, OFGEM, that liberalisation is good for security of supply. Focusing on the downstream aspects of the security of UK gas supply, on system security, it considers the impact of the different aspects of liberalisation: of legal governance, supply competition, de-integration, market simulation, regulation and the interaction of liberalised gas and electricity markets. Categorising these impacts in terms of security threats and threats to security response, it finds that individually and as a complex collectivity they have increased the risks of supply failure, either potential or already realised, in a variety of ways: from creating increased uncertainty and failing to signal adequate or appropriate investment, to legal ambiguity which divorces responsibility from liability and renders legal liability indeterminate ex ante. Moreover, one of the UK government's responses to these increased dangers, which it does appear to perceive, is revealed as itself paralysed by the liberalisation paradigm: the government can only intervene pre-emptively with information in attempt to persuade the market to behave as it thinks it should. Meanwhile, however, the government has also had to recognise its default responsibility for security of supply and make preparations to intervene in an emergency situation: liberalisation can only be challenged when it is already too late

  9. Panorama 2014 - The importance of underground storage in the security of European gas supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2013-12-01

    While European capacity for underground gas storage has increased by 16% over the last three years, levels of stock at the beginning of the 2013/2014 winter, in relation to capacity, are the lowest that have been seen since 2010; they represent only 84% of storage capacity. The suppliers of gas have no incentive to reserve storage capacity, for which the cost is considered too high in relation to the spread, currently very low, between the price of gas in winter and in summer. They also rely on sufficient gas supply thanks to other sources of flexibility available on the market: flexibility of production or imports, spot LNG purchases, purchases in the spot market... or even use of the storage capacities of neighbouring countries via European network interconnections. Yet, the 2013/2014 winter is beginning in a gas supply context in Europe that is more difficult: imports of LNG, which had already dropped sharply in 2012, have continued to contract, faced with increased competition from Asian buyers on the international LNG market. Gas imports from Norway are also declining following production limits in that country. Only Russia has strongly increased its exports to Europe in 2013. However, the dispute between Ukraine and Russia about the price of Russian gas delivered to Ukraine still raises the spectre of a threat to the European supply of Russian gas, nearly 60% of which transits via Ukraine. Under these circumstances, as demonstrated by the gas crises of 2006 and 2009 and the cold conditions of February 2012 and March/April 2013, storage is the most efficient means of securing the supply of gas providing, of course, that the storage sites are filled at the beginning of winter. (author)

  10. Future European gas supply in the resource triangle of the Former Soviet Union, the Middle East and Northern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remme, Uwe; Blesl, Markus; Fahl, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    A steady increase of natural gas demand can be observed in Europe over the last decades. Due to the European obligation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the framework of the Kyoto Protocol, the trend toward natural gas is expected to continue in the future. The increased consumption is faced by comparably low indigenous gas resources within Europe, so that the dependency of Europe on gas imports from abroad will rise in the future. In addition to the existing supply sources Russia and Algeria, gas resources from the Middle East and the Caspian and the Central Asian regions may be supply options to cover Europe's gas demand in the future. Against this background, possible natural gas supply options as well as the transport infrastructure to and within Europe are discussed regarding their technical capacity and their costs. With the help of a cost-minimization model of the European gas supply system, the gas flows and the infrastructure capacity development up to the year 2030 are analyzed. In a sensitivity analysis, the impacts of demand variations on the choice of supply sources are studied. (author)

  11. The world's first supply ship powered by natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The article describes the newly developed natural gas powered supply ship ''Viking Energy'', which reduces the emission of NOx by 200 tonnes per year. The shipping company has for many years been working on the developing of environmentally friendly ships with less fuel consumption. The gas is stored in liquid form at a temperature of 160 o C. The engines can run on gas or diesel as needed. These dual-fuel engines offers great flexibility, which is very desirable since liquid natural gas is not widely available along the coast. This type of engine has been used in power stations and on offshore platforms, but not in ships. The operating conditions are quite different for ships than for power stations. So far, both investment and operating costs are higher than for conventional ships

  12. An improved electron impact ion source power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaver, E.M.

    1974-01-01

    An electron impact ion source power supply has been developed that offers improved ion beam stability. The electrical adjustments of ion source parameters are more flexible, and safety features are incorporated to protect the electron emitting filament from accidental destruction. (author)

  13. Conference Proceedings: The Quest for gas: tapping additional supplies for a growing market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The two-day conference attracted 375 attendees from 19 U.S. states, 10 Canadian provinces and territories and several delegates from Europe. The conference reviewed the supply picture in Western Canada and the U.S., the market outlook with special reference to the robust electricity and industrial market, the outlook on gas prices and how the recent high prices impact on gas producers, royalty owners, industrial process users, the expansion of frontier gas, and competing sources of electrical generation, mainly existing coal and nuclear plants. The focus of the discussions centered on the so-called '30 Tcf vision' the recent National Petroleum Council Study in the United States. Further integration of the US and Canadian gas industry, primarily in the area of gas supply, was predicted. Evidence for this integration is the tremendous expansion of the role of frontier gas supplies from the Gulf of Mexico, LNG and coal seam gas in the USA and from the Scotian Shelf, the Liard Valley, north of the sixtieth parallel, Alaska's North Slope and Canada's Mackenzie Delta, to meet North American market demand. A resurgence in the role of large companies was also predicted, displacing the variety of independents, large and small, that have sprung up during the past decade

  14. European future natural gas demand and supply diversification: key issues for Central and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Elschner, E.

    1996-01-01

    After the breakdown of the former Soviet Union and the COMECON the demarcation line between western Europe and central/eastern Europe has disappeared. The central and eastern European economies as a whole and their gas industries as well as the western European gas companies are preparing for the future enlarged market in creating the prerequisites to participate successfully in such a market and to seize the opportunities this market is offering. The framework for this future European Gas Market has to be created now. The European gas industries and gas markets are in transition and are in a process of reshaping, with the following challenges: (1) In Central and Eastern European countries: To complete the privatization and restructuring process from centrally-planned economies to market-oriented structures with deregulated prices, market-oriented tariff systems and new legal and regulatory frameworks. These are the essential prerequisites for an integration of the central and eastern European countries into a single European gas market and the basis for an effective and successful trans border gas co-operation between east and west. (2) In western European countries: To pursue nearly similar processes of restructuring which are underway: privatization by reducing state participation and influence in gas and energy companies, with the accent on liberalization and deregulation of market structures with fewer market entry barriers, and more competition by reducing the influence of state or private monopolies. Gas companies are undertaking cost-efficiency measures to be prepared to meet the requirements of more competitive market structures and also of a more advanced internationalized gas business. The fundamental rules on which western European gas industries based their operations up to now have to be reconsidered. The old western European structures which have developed under the shelter of governmental protection are under pressure from several sources. EU energy

  15. Emergency management in the gas and water supply; Notfallmanagement in der Gas- und Wasserversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boy, Stephan [KKI GmbH, Kompetenzzentrum Kritische Infrastrukturen GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-06-15

    Gas and water pipes belong to the critical infrastructure in Germany. Their protection requires a holistic risk analysis, which also keep an eye on the dependence of the power supply. [German] Gas- und Wasserleitungen gehoeren zu den kritischen Infrastrukturen in Deutschland. Ihr Schutz erfordert eine ganzheitliche Risikoanalyse, die auch die Abhaengigkeit von der Stromversorgung im Blick hat.

  16. Gas prices in the UK: markets and insecurity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, P.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, Professor P. Wright argues that the high and volatile gas price experienced by UK consumers over the last 3 years are the result of the extend of liberalization in the UK - which has made UK prices much more sensitive to insecurities of supply. Businesses pay the cost of this, straightaway, while the strategies which gas companies have used to respond to heightened price risks means domestic consumers also bear the cost of higher supply-markups. The prospect of high levels of demand in bad winters then just adds to price risk and its associated costs. The implication of this analysis is that it is illogical for the UK's regulator and government to blame the UK's high prices on the slow progress of liberalization in the rest of Europe - greater liberalization in Europe might simply replicate the UK's price difficulties throughout Europe

  17. Gas prices in the UK: markets and insecurity of supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, P.

    2006-01-01

    In this article Professor Philip Wright argues that the high and volatile gas prices experienced by UK consumers over the last 3 years are the result of the extent of liberalization in the UK which has made UK prices much more sensitive to insecurities of supply. Businesses pay the cost of this, straightaway, while the strategies which gas companies have used to respond to heightened price risks means domestic consumers also bear the cost of higher supply-markups. The prospect of high levels of demand in bad winters then just adds to price risk and its associated costs. The implication of this analysis is that it is illogical for the UK's regulator and government to blame the UK's high prices on the slow progress of liberalization in the rest of Europe - greater liberalization in Europe might simply replicate the UK's price difficulties throughout Europe. (author)

  18. Selection of Alternatives for the Natural Gas Supply in Colombia using the Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Becerra Fernández

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Context: Colombia consumes natural gas in different sectors, especially in the ones that are residential and vehicular transport. Gas consumption serves as backup for power generation in situations of reduced hydroelectric capacity. Nowadays, gas reserve levels have been reduced and it is essential to ensure the uninterrupted supply of the resource. To achieve such objective, there are some alternatives which are difficult to implement at the same time, given the limited financial budget and implementation times that they demanded. In this way, several studies have advanced in the application of models to prioritize alternatives for both supplying power and reducing emissions in the generation, especially regarding the evaluation of energy sources and technology selection for supply. Method: The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP based in the Delphi method to define preferences according to the experts judgment, was applied to evaluate the selection of alternatives supply of natural gas in Colombia, considering technical, environmental and social criteria, which is reliable and policy oriented to guarantee supply of resources in the country. Results: Once the model was applied, we evaluated the criteria and alternatives for infrastructure to support gas supply, finding that reliability is the most relevant criterion as well as alternative of building the ‘Regasification Pacific Plant’ followed by the construction of the ‘Buenaventura-Cali pipeline’ and the ‘Storage Plant in Bogotá'. Conclusions: As the results indicate, in Colombia efforts should be focus on imports of the resource through the construction of regasification plants and pipelines to facilitate transport inland to demand points. The latter may help decision makers facing various alternatives to ensure the supply of this resource, which is relevant to various economic sectors, including generation of electricity in the country. Language: Spanish

  19. The Eastring gas pipeline in the context of the Central and Eastern European gas supply challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mišík, Matúš; Nosko, Andrej

    2017-11-01

    Ever since the 2009 natural gas crisis, energy security has been a crucial priority for countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Escalating in 2014, the conflict between Ukraine and Russia further fuelled negative expectations about the future development of energy relations for the region predominantly supplied by Russia. As a response to the planned cessation of gas transit through the Brotherhood pipeline, which brings Russian gas to Europe via Ukraine and Slovakia, the Slovak transmission system operator Eustream proposed the Eastring pipeline. This Perspective analyses this proposal and argues that neither the perceived decrease in Slovak energy security nor the loss of economic rent from the international gas transit should be the main policy driver behind such a major infrastructure project. Although marketed as an answer to current Central and Eastern European gas supply security challenges, the Eastring pipeline is actually mainly focused on issues connected to the Slovak gas transit.

  20. TRANSPETRO gas security of supply program; Programa de confiabilidade de suprimento de gas natural da TRANSPETRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faertes, Denise [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the Gas Security of Supply Program that is being implemented at TRANSPETRO since 2002. It includes the application of the state of the art techniques and models related to reliability engineering. The main objective of the program is to evaluate and optimize overall gas network performance and to provide gas to different consumers (industrial, residential, thermo-plants and vehicles) in compliance with stated reliability levels. Heavy fines will be applied to PETROBRAS in case of occurrence of shortfalls. We hope that this paper can contribute to a wider discussion about this subject of performance indicators involving security of supply, safety and environment preservation. (author)

  1. Nitrogen Gas Heating and Supply System for SST-1 Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Ziauddin; Pathan, Firozkhan; Paravastu, Yuvakiran; George, Siju; Ramesh, Gattu; Bindu, Hima; Raval, Dilip C.; Thankey, Prashant; Dhanani, Kalpesh; Pradhan, Subrata

    2013-01-01

    Steady State Tokamak (SST-1) vacuum vessel baking as well as baking of the first wall components of SST-1 are essential to plasma physics experiments. Under a refurbishment spectrum of SST-1, the nitrogen gas heating and supply system has been fully refurbished. The SST-1 vacuum vessel consists of ultra-high vacuum (UHV) compatible eight modules and eight sectors. Rectangular baking channels are embedded on each of them. Similarly, the SST-1 plasma facing components (PFC) are comprised of modular graphite diverters and movable graphite based limiters. The nitrogen gas heating and supply system would bake the plasma facing components at 350°C and the SST-1 vacuum vessel at 150°C over an extended duration so as to remove water vapour and other absorbed gases. An efficient PLC based baking facility has been developed and implemented for monitoring and control purposes. This paper presents functional and operational aspects of a SST-1 nitrogen gas heating and supply system. Some of the experimental results obtained during the baking of SST-1 vacuum modules and sectors are also presented here. (fusion engineering)

  2. Management of natural gas supply reliability and modulation in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupas, D.

    1995-01-01

    France imports most of its gas, and demand for gas varies considerably between summer and winter. Faced with insufficient flexibility in its supply contracts to deal with the gas balance, Gaz de France decided to develop a policy based on combined and consistent use of a large-scale underground storage system, a suspendable clientele, and a rate policy to maintain the balance. It was the integrated character of the company that makes it possible to optimize the arrangement of these adjustment facilities. Most of the seasonal modulation is taken up by underground storage in water tables, and the peak cold complement comes from salt dome storage. Underground storage also contributes, as does the suspendable clientele, to supply reliability, with a specific quality due to their speed and versatility of use. The prime purpose of the suspendable clientele portfolio is rather to respond to supply failures, but the demand too, during periods of extreme cold, is reduced by curtailing deliveries whose contractual suspension notice time is short. (author). 3 figs

  3. Nitrogen gas supply device in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, Masami

    1991-01-01

    The present invention concerns a nitrogen gas supply device in a nuclear power plant for supplying nitrogen gases to a reactor container and equipments working with the nitrogen gas as the load. A liquid nitrogen storage pool is disposed to a concrete nuclear buildings and has a two-vessel structure of inner and outer vessels, in which heat insulators are disposed between the inner and the outer vessels. Further, the nitrogen gas supply mechanism is disposed in an evaporation chamber disposed in adjacent with the liquid nitrogen storage pool in the reator building. Accordingly, since liquid nitrogen is stored in the liquid nitrogen storage pool having a structure surrounded by concrete walls, direct sunlight is completely interrupted, thereby enabling to prevent the heat caused by the direct sunlight from conducting to the liquid nitrogen. Further, since the outer vessel is not exposed to the surrounding atmosphere, heat conduction rate relative to the external air is small. This can reduce the amount of liquid nitrogen released to the atmospheric air due to natural evaporation. (I.N.)

  4. Magnet power supplies for the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, L.T.; Lutz, I.C.

    1989-03-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is building an Advanced Light Source (ALS) to produce synchrotron radiation. An electron linear accelerator, and a booster synchrotron are used to accelerate the electron beam to 1.5 GeV to fill the storage ring. This paper describes the power supplies used for the magnets in the booster and the storage ring and the interface requirements for computer control and monitoring the power supplies and magnet currents. 1 ref., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Sourcing and pricing strategies for two retailers in a decentralized supply chain system under supply disruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Azarmehr

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the decentralized supply chain with two suppliers and two competing retailers. It also investigates the sourcing and pricing strategies of two retailers in a decentralized supply chain system under a supply disruption environment. These retailers face their individual stochastic demand markets; however, they compete with each other through a two-stage price and service operation. The interactive dynamics among retailers is characterized, including the existence and uniqueness of the Nash Equilibrium in service and price games demonstrated.

  6. Tetrode bias power supply for Indus-1, synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, A.; Badapanda, M.K.; Tyagi, R.; Upadhyay, R.; Bohrey, A.; Hannurkar, P.R.

    2009-01-01

    An AC regulator based 7 kV, 3 A high voltage DC power supply is designed, fabricated and tested on dummy load for BEL make Tetrode type 15000CX, used in the high power RF amplifier at 31.613 MHz employed with INDUS-1, Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS). Various protections features like over voltage, under voltage, over current, phase failure and phase reversal are incorporated in this power supply and presented in this paper. As Tetrode amplifier requires various other power supplies in addition to this bias power supply and they are operated in a particular sequence for its healthy operation, suitable interlock arrangements have been incorporated and also presented in this paper. The reliable operation of protection and interlock features incorporated in this power supply has been checked with dummy load under simulated conditions. Three numbers of series limiting inductors, one in each phase, have been incorporated in this power supply to limit fault currents under unfavourable conditions and there by increasing the overall life of this power supply. It will replace existing 7 kV, 3 A HVDC power supply, which is in operation for more than fifteen years with Indus-1 SRS and is likely to be helpful in reducing the down time of Indus-1 SRS. It has better performance features than the existing power supply. The long term voltage stability better than 0.3 % and output ripple less than 0.3 % have been achieved for this Tetrode bias power supply. This power supply is likely to be integrated with INDUS-1 SRS soon. (author)

  7. Supply and distribution for γ-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Takeo

    1997-01-01

    Japan Atomic energy Research Institute (JAERI) is the only facility to supply and distribute radioisotopes (RI) in Japan. The γ-ray sources for medical use are 192 Ir and 169 Yb for non-destructive examination and 192 Ir, 198 Au and 153 Gd for clinical use. All of these demands in Japan are supplied with domestic products at present. Meanwhile, γ-ray sources imported are 60 Co sources for medical and industrial uses including sterilization of medical instruments, 137 Cs for irradiation to blood and 241 Am for industrial measurements. The major overseas suppliers are Nordion International Inc. and Amersham International plc. RI products on the market are divided into two groups; one is the primary products which are supplied in liquid or solid after chemical or physical treatments of radioactive materials obtained from reactor and the other is the secondary product which is a final product after various processing. Generally these secondary products are used in practice. In Japan, both of the domestic and imported products are supplied to the users via JRIA (Japan Radioisotope Association). The association participates in the sales and the distributions of the secondary products and also in the processings of the primary ones to their sealed sources. Furthermore, stable supplying systems for these products are almost established according to the half life of each nuclide only if there is no accident in the reactor. (M.N.)

  8. Computer utilization for the solution of gas supply problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raleigh, J T; Brady, J R

    1968-01-01

    The computer programs in this paper have proven to be useful tools in the solution of gas supply problems. Some of the management type of applications are: (1) long range planning projects; (2) comparison of various proposed gas purchase contracts; (3) to assist with budget and operational planning; (4) to assist in making cost-of-servic and rate predictions; (5) to investigate the feasibility of processing plants at any point on the system; and (6) to assist dispatching in its daily operation for cost and quality control. Competition, not only from the gas industry, but also from other forms of energy, makes it imperative that quantitative and economic information with regard to that marketable resource be available under a variety of assumptions and alternatives. This information can best be made available in a timely manner by the use of the computer.

  9. Contracts Take or Pay, for supply and transport of gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasquez Bermudez, Jesus Maria

    2000-01-01

    The present article has as objective to study the effect that has the contract of supply and of transport of gas that subscribe generators agents of the electric sector with the agents of the market of the gas. The article concentrates on the study of the denominated contracts take or pay. Initially the modeling is analyzed to include the effect of the contracts of gas in the mathematical models that are used to support the works of planning. Later on is studied of optimal form to determining the prices in spot markets of the industries associated to the contracts. Finally is presented the methodology and controlled experiments that allow to identify and to quantify the macro economic effect of the contracts

  10. Natural gas supply and demand projections for the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khin, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    The phenomenon of rapid economic growth in the Asia Pacific has inevitably led the countries of this region to expand and diversify their energy sources in order to satisfy their burgeoning energy demands. Natural gas has become an increasingly marketable energy source in this region benefitting from vast reserves and its advantages as an environmentally clean fuel. As a result of the impact of the two oil shocks of the 1970's on the Asia Pacific economy, the governments in the region set about the development of energy strategies which would make their national economies more resilient to the instabilities of world energy price and supply. The Japanese Gas Industry has estimated that the overall rise in demand for energy in Asia, set at an average rate of 3.7% per annum, will see a corresponding growth in demand for natural gas at 5%. Experts from a number of major oil companies, such as Exxon, expect an annual growth in the Asian natural gas market of 6.0 to 6.3%. These figures are over shadowed by the worldwide demand for natural gas which is expected to gain an 8% increase within the next two decades. Approximately 8.75% of the world's proven natural gas reserves are held in Asia-Pacific region (Table I). Most of the region's natural gas production will provide over 100 years of supply. A review of natural gas supply/demand in the Asia-Pacific region is presented in sub-regions, namely ASIAN, Northeast Asia, the Indian Subcontinent and Oceania

  11. Quickening construction of natural gas infrastructures and ensuring safe supply of natural gas in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Peng; Zhongde, Zhao; Chunliang, Sun; Juexin, Shen

    2010-09-15

    Compared with North America or Europe in respect of natural gas resources, markets and pipeline networks, the current China stands in a special period with natural gas market in quick development, accordingly, it's recommended to strengthen cooperation and coordination between investors by way of diversified investment and joint adventures and on the basis of diversified resource supply modes, so as to accelerate the construction of infrastructures including the natural gas pipeline networks and the storage and peak-shaving facilities, quick up the market development, realize the situation of mutual-win-win, and finally ensure safety of natural gas utilization in the domestic markets.

  12. Saturable reactor-controlled power supply system for TCT/TFTR neutral beam sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, W.R.; Hopkins, D.B.; Dexter, W.L.; Kuenning, R.W.; Smith, B.J.

    1975-11-01

    Each neutral beam source requires one major power supply, the acceleration supply, and four auxiliary power supplies. The power supplies are designed to permit independent interruption of current to any source and crowbarring within 20 μsec, in the event of a source spark, while not disturbing the normal pulsing of all other adjacent sources. The sources are described

  13. Old King Coal to the rescue as gas supplies dwindle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westbury, R. J.; Balash, A.

    2000-01-01

    Rumours persist about an impending shortage of natural gas, despite solid evidence to suggest that there are vast reserves yet to be discovered. The foundation for the rumours are the fact of increasing per capita demand for natural gas; insufficient financial incentive to vigorously pursue exploration since the easily discoverable reserves of oil and gas have been found long ago, and the cost of discovering oil and natural gas in more difficult formations have risen faster than the rate of inflation. Other reasons cited from time to time include the lack of present day technology that can extract the vast amounts of gas and oil in remaining reserves, and references to the exploding population of the developing world such as India, Pakistan and China, who are major users of oil and gas. It is not expected that nuclear power, wind, solar and geothermal energy sources will become fashionable in the near future, leaving hydrocarbons, and mainly coal, as the only readily available energy source. Although because of the high sulphur content coal gets a bad press, it is a fact that coal-fired power plants, equipped with modern scrubbing equipment, could meet the same pollution limits as natural gas-fired plants. For the moment, the power generating industry is reluctant to invest in the costly equipment for clean coal-fired plants, however, this short-sighted view may well lead to increases in the price of natural gas that will mimic the results of the OPEC increases in crude oil in the 1970s. These authors contend that if gas is wasted in power generation, society will suffer the reappearance of coal-fired home heating furnaces with all the attendant increases in air pollution due to the relatively inefficient combustion of coal in domestic space heating appliances

  14. A strategic model of European gas supply (GASMOD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holz, Franziska; Hirschhausen, Christian von; Kemfert, Claudia

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a model of the European natural gas supply, GASMOD, which is structured as a two-stage-game of successive natural gas exports to Europe (upstream market) and wholesale trade within Europe (downstream market) and which explicitly includes infrastructure capacities. We compare three possible market scenarios: Cournot competition in both markets, perfect competition in both markets, and perfect competition in the downstream with Cournot competition in the upstream market (EU liberalization). We find that Cournot competition in both markets is the most accurate representation of today's European natural gas market, where suppliers at both stages generate a mark-up at the expense of the final customer (double marginalization). Our results yield a diversified supply portfolio with newly emerging (LNG) exporters gaining market shares. Enforcing competition in the European downstream market would lead to lower prices and higher quantities by avoiding the welfare-reducing effects of double marginalization. Binding infrastructure capacity restrictions strongly influence the results, and we identify bottlenecks mainly for intra-European trade relations whereas transport capacity in the upstream market is globally sufficient in the Cournot scenario. (author)

  15. Sources Of Incidental Events In Collective Water Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szpak Dawid

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The publication presents the main types of incidental events in collective water supply system. The special attention was addressed to the incidental events associated with a decrease in water quality, posing a threat to the health and life of inhabitants. The security method against incidental contamination in the water source was described.

  16. U.S. natural gas liquids supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urquhart, W.L.

    1996-01-01

    United States supply and demand situation for natural gas liquids (NGL) was reviewed. The presentation was in four parts: (1) key assumptions for U.S. NGL supply and demand, (2) specific balances for ethane, propane, and butane, (3) some of the key changes now occurring at the customer level, and how these might affect NGLs, and (4) a suggestion of where the future might deviate from projections so severely that projections could be fundamentally wrong. Despite such 'exogenous variables' higher demand projections downstream in the chemical industry were said to be appearing, albeit in scattered fashion. It was estimated that even fractionally higher economic growth could add 3.5 billion pounds to ethylene demand in the USA in the year 2005. 15 figs

  17. Recent helicity source and power supply improvements in CTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henins, I.; Knox, S.O.; Jarboe, T.R.; Barnes, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    Since the last CT Symposium, two major changes in CTX have been the introduction of pulse forming networks (PFNs) to drive the coaxial electrode helicity source, and the very recent installation of a larger source with electrode diameters about twice of the previous ones. The power supplies used for CTX have ranged from the simple connection of the capacitor bank across the electrode collector plates (slow mode) to the more sophisticated PFNs, described here, which optimize the energy transfer from the capacitor bank to the magnetic fields of the spheromak. Using the PFNs, the formation and sustainment phase to peak toroidal plasma current lasts longer (approx. =0.7 ms) than in the slow mode (approx. =0.05 ms), thus lowering the peak current that must flow through the electrode surfaces. Also, by supplying the source electrodes with both a square pulse current waveform and a quasi-steady source flux, phi/sub g/, one can generate helicity at a constant source lambda/sub g/ parameter. The use of a larger diameter helicity source will improve the energy efficiency of helicity injection and allow higher source current for the same surface current density because of the larger electrode surface area

  18. Evaluation of natural gas supply options for south east and central Europe. Part 1: Indicator definitions and single indicator analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afgan, Naim H.; Carvalho, Maria G.; Pilavachi, Petros A.; Martins, Nelson

    2007-01-01

    The need for diversification of energy sources is an immanent goal in long term energy strategy. In particular, this is of great importance for the natural gas supply. In this respect, evaluation and assessment of potential natural gas resources and their relation to consumers is of great importance. The natural gas supply in Europe is one of the main issues of European energy strategy to be followed in the future. In particular, the natural gas supply in the southeast countries is important. This paper provides a framework for understanding how much natural gas is available for use in south east and central Europe as well as the links to the recent supply of natural gas and its transport. The analysis is focused on evaluation of the potential routes for natural gas supply to the south east and central European countries. The potential options included in this analysis are the Yamal Route; Nabucco Route; West Balkan Route; LNG NEUM Route and Gas by Wire Route. In this analysis, attention is focused on the following indicators for assessment of potential options: environmental indicator; NG cost indicator; NG transport and royalty indicator; investment indicator; and NG demand indicator. The first part of this paper is devoted to the definition of the indicators and to single indicator analysis. (author)

  19. Power supply system for negative ion source at IPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahlaut, Agrajit; Sonara, Jashwant; Parmar, K. G.; Soni, Jignesh; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Singh, Mahendrajit; Bansal, Gourab; Pandya, Kaushal; Chakraborty, Arun

    2010-02-01

    The first step in the Indian program on negative ion beams is the setting up of Negative ion Experimental Assembly - RF based, where 100 kW of RF power shall be coupled to a plasma source producing plasma of density ~5 × 1012 cm-3, from which ~ 10 A of negative ion beam shall be produced and accelerated to 35 kV, through an electrostatic ion accelerator. The experimental system is modelled similar to the RF based negative ion source, BATMAN presently operating at IPP, Garching, Germany. The mechanical system for Negative Ion Source Assembly is close to the IPP source, remaining systems are designed and procured principally from indigenous sources, keeping the IPP configuration as a base line. High voltage (HV) and low voltage (LV) power supplies are two key constituents of the experimental setup. The HV power supplies for extraction and acceleration are rated for high voltage (~15 to 35kV), and high current (~ 15 to 35A). Other attributes are, fast rate of voltage rise (< 5ms), good regulation (< ±1%), low ripple (< ±2%), isolation (~50kV), low energy content (< 10J) and fast cut-off (< 100μs). The low voltage (LV) supplies required for biasing and providing heating power to the Cesium oven and the plasma grids; have attributes of low ripple, high stability, fast and precise regulation, programmability and remote operation. These power supplies are also equipped with over-voltage, over-current and current limit (CC Mode) protections. Fault diagnostics, to distinguish abnormal rise in currents (breakdown faults) with over-currents is enabled using fast response breakdown and over-current protection scheme. To restrict the fault energy deposited on the ion source, specially designed snubbers are implemented in each (extraction and acceleration) high voltage path to swap the surge energy. Moreover, the monitoring status and control signals from these power supplies are required to be electrically (~ 50kV) isolated from the system. The paper shall present the

  20. Power supply system for negative ion source at IPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gahlaut, Agrajit; Sonara, Jashwant; Parmar, K G; Soni, Jignesh; Bandyopadhyay, M; Singh, Mahendrajit; Bansal, Gourab; Pandya, Kaushal; Chakraborty, Arun

    2010-01-01

    The first step in the Indian program on negative ion beams is the setting up of Negative ion Experimental Assembly - RF based, where 100 kW of RF power shall be coupled to a plasma source producing plasma of density ∼5 x 10 12 cm -3 , from which ∼ 10 A of negative ion beam shall be produced and accelerated to 35 kV, through an electrostatic ion accelerator. The experimental system is modelled similar to the RF based negative ion source, BATMAN presently operating at IPP, Garching, Germany. The mechanical system for Negative Ion Source Assembly is close to the IPP source, remaining systems are designed and procured principally from indigenous sources, keeping the IPP configuration as a base line. High voltage (HV) and low voltage (LV) power supplies are two key constituents of the experimental setup. The HV power supplies for extraction and acceleration are rated for high voltage (∼15 to 35kV), and high current (∼ 15 to 35A). Other attributes are, fast rate of voltage rise (< 5ms), good regulation (< ±1%), low ripple (< ±2%), isolation (∼50kV), low energy content (< 10J) and fast cut-off (< 100μs). The low voltage (LV) supplies required for biasing and providing heating power to the Cesium oven and the plasma grids; have attributes of low ripple, high stability, fast and precise regulation, programmability and remote operation. These power supplies are also equipped with over-voltage, over-current and current limit (CC Mode) protections. Fault diagnostics, to distinguish abnormal rise in currents (breakdown faults) with over-currents is enabled using fast response breakdown and over-current protection scheme. To restrict the fault energy deposited on the ion source, specially designed snubbers are implemented in each (extraction and acceleration) high voltage path to swap the surge energy. Moreover, the monitoring status and control signals from these power supplies are required to be electrically (∼ 50kV) isolated from the system. The paper shall

  1. Pulsed gas feed to the ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Shigeru; Shibata, Takemasa

    1976-11-01

    Hydrogen gas feed to the ion source of a neutral beam injector for the JFT-2 tokamak has been pulsed by a set of gas reservoir, solenoid valve and variable leak. During the pulse width the flow rate is constant except for its initial overshoot. After detailed study of the temporal behaviour, the solenoid valve and variable leak were replaced with a piezo-electric valve, resulting in improvement of the rise and decay. (auth.)

  2. NATURAL GAS SUPPLY PROJECTS FOR EUROPE – SOUTH STREAM AND NABUCCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domagoj Sučić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available South Stream and Nabucco are planned southern corridor projects for natural gas supply to Europe. South Stream is a Russian construction project of the gas pipeline with the capacity of 63 bcm of natural gas per year. It will connect Russia with Austria through Black Sea, Bulgaria, Serbia and Hungary, and with southern Italy through Greece and Ionian Sea, respectively. Nabucco is a European Union planned gas pipeline with the capacity of 31 bcm per year. If built, it will connect Caspian Region and Middle East with Austria through Turkey, Bulgaria, Romania and Hungary. Gas sources for South Stream pipeline are known and available, however it’s construction will be expensive. Nabucco gas pipeline construction costs will be two times less, but the unresolved political relations and non-existent infrastructure have caused it to have no available gas sources at the moment. Countries like Bulgaria and Hungary are involved with both projects, indicating the importance of both projects. In this paper SWOT analysis of the proposed projects was done and it has shown that there is a great chance Nabucco won’t be built if South Stream materializes first (the paper is published in Croatian.

  3. The economics of supplying the supplementary heat in a closed loop water source heat pump system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.P.; Bartkus, V.E.; Singh, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes the details of a research and demonstration project that will be completed in August 1992 at a healthcare facility in northeastern Pennsylvania. The purpose of the project is to compare the economics of several methods of supplying the supplementary heating in a facility served by a closed loop water source heat pump system. The systems being tested include a storage hot water tank with electric resistance heaters and three air source heat pumps that have the ability to supply the same heat during on-peak hours as well as off-peak hours. The paper compares the projected operating costs of the following: (1) Gas boiler supplying the supplementary heat. (2) Stored hot water supplying the supplementary heat which is generated and stored during off-peak hours using resistance heat on PP ampersand L's offpeak rate. (3) Stored hot water supplying the supplementary heat generated during off-peak hours using the air source heat pumps on PP ampersand L's off-peak rate. (4) Hot water generated by the air source heat pumps supplying the supplementary loop heating on PP ampersand L's general service and time-of-day electric rates. It is generally known in the HVAC industry that a closed loop water source heat pump system can provide one of the most efficient means of space conditioning to a building with high internal gains by transferring the excess heat available in one part of the building to another part of the building where it may be needed for heating. The following flow diagram depicts the relationship of the air source heat pumps with the storage tanks and the building closed water loop

  4. Air/fuel supply system for use in a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Timothy A; Schilp, Reinhard; Gambacorta, Domenico

    2014-06-17

    A fuel injector for use in a gas turbine engine combustor assembly. The fuel injector includes a main body and a fuel supply structure. The main body has an inlet end and an outlet end and defines a longitudinal axis extending between the outlet and inlet ends. The main body comprises a plurality of air/fuel passages extending therethrough, each air/fuel passage including an inlet that receives air from a source of air and an outlet. The fuel supply structure communicates with and supplies fuel to the air/fuel passages for providing an air/fuel mixture within each air/fuel passage. The air/fuel mixtures exit the main body through respective air/fuel passage outlets.

  5. Security of gas supply in open markets. LNG and power at a turning point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Since the 'IEA Study on Security of Gas Supply' was published in 1995, many member countries have started to open their gas and electricity markets to competition. Governments progressively withdrew from directly managing the gas sector; they concentrate now on setting objectives and the framework for competition. With the continued growth of gas demand and the decline of domestic reserves, most IEA countries have to import more gas, mainly for power generation. This requires access to gas reserves at competitive conditions, as well as timely investment in new infrastructure to ensure a reliable gas supply. Reform has led to open markets, where supply and demand are balanced by the market. In the gas sector, supply is capacity-bound and large parts of the demand side are inelastic. The study looks at how governments and other stakeholders in IEA countries respond to the need to create a framework that enables the players to deliver secure and reliable gas supply at the border and all the way down to the final customer. This book analyses the most recent developments in security of gas supply and reliability in all IEA regions in the context of open markets and in view of the new demand and supply trends. A CD-Rom featuring the positions of the main stakeholders (governments, regulators, industry, customers and other organisations) is included with the publication. 'Security of Gas Supply in Open Markets' is a follow-up of 'Flexibility in Natural Gas Supply and Demand' in the IEA series on energy market reforms

  6. Is the gas supply market a natural monopoly?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, P.; Weyman-Jones, T.G.

    1996-01-01

    The CRI is pleased to publish this econometric study of British Gas marketing and customer costs to determine their relationship with changes in output. If there are economies of scale, then that may confer significant competitive advantages on the incumbent. It may also suggest that the incumbent is a natural monopoly in certain respects, which would militate against, and possibly frustrate, the introduction of long run, self-sustaining competition. Empirical evidence will need to be collected as the gas supply market opens up over the next two years. It may be that British Gas will be shown to be an inefficient natural monopoly; and this will leave a margin for new entrants which achieves contestability. Alternatively, new entrants themselves may be able to take part in the benefits of economies of scale by being part of larger groups themselves or availing themselves of specialist service firms such as has been set up by United Utilities following the take-over of Norweb by North West Water. Finally, account may have to be taken of the research into activity based costing which has shown that in the long run costs appear to rise more in proportion than is suggested by the short run variations in costs. (UK)

  7. Long-term trends in U.S. gas supply and prices: 1992 edition of the GRI baseline projection of U.S. energy supply and demand to 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, T.J.

    1991-12-01

    The paper summarizes the gas supply outlook in the 1992 Edition of the GRI Baseline Projection of U.S. Energy Supply and Demand, which has been adopted as a major input to the planning cycle leading to the development of the Gas Research Institute (GRI) 1993 research and development program. The 1992 projection presents the GRI planning outlook for the economic and the energy supply and demand situation to the year 2010. It was prepared independently by GRI using publicly available data and a framework of commercially available models that GRI has developed over several years. It is not derived from the views of GRI member companies. The 1992 Edition of the GRI Baseline Projection presents an optimistic outlook for the U.S. gas industry in which increased gas supply can be obtained at competitive prices. The gas prices in the 1992 projection support growth in all major U.S. gas supply sources: lower-48, Alaska, Canada, Mexico, and LNG. By about 2005, U.S. gas supply is at its highest level ever. By 2010, U.S. gas supply has grown to almost 25 quads. U.S. gas production increases 2.6 quads between 1990 and 2010; imports increase 2.2 quads. Although imports do not increase as much as U.S. gas production, they account for an increased share of U.S. gas supply. The import share grows from 7 percent to 12 percent over the projection period. Supplemental gas sources provide about 1 percent of U.S. gas supply

  8. Evaluation on the life of world's natural gas supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Gassier, M.M.

    1993-01-01

    Utilization of natural gas as a primary source of energy has been increasing steadily. It constituted about 22.7% of the primary energy consumed by the world in 1991. In this paper the life of world natural gas reserves is evaluated in relationship to the rate of their consumption. An algorithm is used to calculate the rate of consumption and the life of these reserves as a function of annual growth rate of gas consumption. If the future rate of consumption is kept constant at the level of 1991, i.e., zero annual growth rate, the gas reserves will last for about 62 years. The same reserves will last for only 34 and 28 years for annual growth rates of 3.33% and 5.0%, respectively. Increase in the amount of reserves will only increase its life slightly at high annual growth rates. On the other hand, natural gas reserves can last indefinitely if world annual growth rate is -1.63% or lower. (author)

  9. Trash to Supply Gas (TtSG) Project Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo; Kulis, Michael J.; Lytle, John K.; Fisher, John W.; Vaccaro, Helen; Ewert, Michael K.; Broyan, James L.

    2012-01-01

    Technologies that reduce logistical needs are a key to long term space missions. Currently, trash and waste generated during a mission is carried during the entire roundtrip mission or stored inside a logistic module which is de-orbited into Earth's atmosphere for destruction. The goal of the Trash to Supply Gas (TtSG) project is to develop space technology alternatives for converting trash and other waste materials from human spaceflight into high-value products that might include propellants or power system fuels in addition to life support oxygen and water. In addition to producing a useful product from waste, TtSG will decrease the volume needed to store waste on long term space missions. This paper presents an overview of the TtSG technologies and future plans for the project.

  10. Optimization of the green gas supply chain. Identification of critical choices in designing an efficient (from an energetic and economic perspective) green gas supply chain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grond, Lukas

    2010-01-01

    Summary Global climate change and the need for security of energy supply drive the development of bio-energy production and utilization. Green gas is defined as bio-based gas that has been upgraded to natural gas quality. Amongst other energy carriers, g

  11. Secured electrical supply at least cost: Coal, gas, nuclear, hydro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavor, J. [ENA Ltd., Prague (Czechoslovakia); Stary, O.; Vasicek, J. [Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    Electric power sector in East Central European countries finds in a difficult period. In the situation of demand stagnation, enormous investments must be realized in a very short time. Today`s decisions in the development strategy will influence the long term future of the industry. The optimal structure of the sources is one of the most important problem to be solved. Paper describes the current structure of the sources in electric power sector in the Czech Republic. The importance of coal, oil and gas, nuclear and hydro in electric power generation is compared. Taking into account the different position in the load coverage, economy of individual sources is evaluated and basic results of discounted cash flow calculations are presented. Information on specific investment programs and projects are included and further trends are estimated.

  12. European Gas Market Liberalisation. Competition versus security of supply?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, N.

    2009-01-01

    of regulatory regime on performance indicators reflecting economic and political regulatory goals such as natural gas prices, tariffs, efficiency and investment in natural gas infrastructure. In doing so, we are effectively investigating the effect of layer 3 on layer 4 in Williamson's model. The third part comprises the qualitative case studies with which we aim to move from a static to a more dynamic perspective of the regulatory process. In two case studies, we investigate whether the distribution of energy policy priorities in a multi-authority structure does influence the regulatory outcome (hypothesis 3). Next, in chapter 10, the focus switches to the revision of incentive regulation in the Netherlands, which had the aim of reducing transmission tariffs. The case study seeks to explain the shift from a revenue-cap regulation to rate-of-return regulation taking place in 2007. In chapter 11, we examine the decision by UK regulatory authorities in 2006-07 not to compel the gas industry to provide additional gas storage, which would have reduced price volatility and enhanced security of gas supply. In the concluding chapter, we summarise our main findings and answer our research questions. To facilitate this we revisit our theoretical approach and evaluate the opportunities and limitations of New Institutional Economics in general and, more specifically, Williamson's transaction cost approach in the form of the four-layer model. Following this, the empirical results of the quantitative and qualitative analyses are discussed.

  13. Evaluation of measures for greenhouse gas emissions reduction in energy supply sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khristov, Kh.; Todorova, S.; Vasilev, Kh.; Simeonova, K.

    1996-01-01

    This study performed by the Energoproekt Company, Sofia (BG) is aimed at estimating the economic costs of CO 2 emissions reduction in the electricity supply system for the period 2000-2020. The specific capital investment and cost price of the following technical options have been compared: reduction of electricity and heat loss; gas and steam cycle power plants; micro hydro potential; renewable sources; extension of nuclear power installations; gas steam turbine equipment; combined cycle power plants. The evaluation is made according to requirements of a baseline scenario - to develop an import-independent energy supply policy and an economic growth without sharp structural changes. A 25-year-operation of a hypothetical energy supply system is modelled by the ENPEP code (ANL, US). The three least-cost options identified are: power loss reduction; gas and steam cycle PPs and hydroelectric objects. An optimal combination of measures, so called ' aggregated scenario' is proposed. It would allow for CO 2 reduction by 23,7 mill tons and prime cost reduction by $19,83 per ton reduced emissions. 3 refs., 2 tabs

  14. SELECTION OF HEAT SUPPLY SOURCE FOR MOBILE BUILDING STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Dolgikh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a vortex heat generator with energy transformation of the highest  state  of matter motion  into  the  lowest  one  as  a  heat  supply  source  for a mobile object. Energy transformation coefficient indices close or equal to 1 have been obtained as a result of experiments on efficiency of the vortex heat generator. Such results can be explained with the help of the 2nd Bohr quantum postulate. Standard series of certified VTG heat generators has been proposed for heat supply of the mobile object (field hospital.

  15. Trash to Gas: Converting Space Waste into Useful Supply Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoras, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    The cost of sending mass into space with current propulsion technology is very expensive, making every item a crucial element of the space mission. It is essential that all materials be used to their fullest potential. Items like food, packaging, clothing, paper towels, gloves, etc., normally become trash and take up space after use. These waste materials are currently either burned up upon reentry in earth's atmosphere or sent on cargo return vehicles back to earth: a very wasteful method. The purpose of this project was to utilize these materials and create useful products like water and methane gas, which is used for rocket fuel, to further supply a deep space mission. The system used was a thermal degradation reactor with the configuration of a down-draft gasifier. The reactor was loaded with approximately 100g of trash simulant and heated with two external ceramic heaters with separate temperature control in order to create pyrolysis and gasification in one zone and incineration iri a second zone simultaneously. Trash was loaded into the top half of the reactor to undergo pyrolysis while the downdraft gas experienced gasification or incineration to treat tars and maximize the production of carbon dioxide. Minor products included carbon monoxide, methane, and other hydrocarbons. The carbon dioxide produced can be sent to a Sabatier reactor to convert the gas into methane, which can be used as rocket propellant. In order to maximize the carbon dioxide and useful gases produced, and minimize the unwanted tars and leftover ashen material, multiple experiments were performed with altered parameters such as differing temperatures, flow rates, and location of inlet air flow. According to the data received from these experiments, the process will be further scaled up and optimized to ultimately create a system that reduces trash buildup while at the same time providing enough useful gases to potentially fill a methane tank that could fuel a lunar ascent vehicle or

  16. Shallow Aquifer Methane Gas Source Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin, R. B.; Murgulet, D.; Rose, P. S.; Hay, R.

    2014-12-01

    Shale gas can contribute significantly to the world's energy demand. Hydraulic fracturing (fracking) on horizontal drill lines developed over the last 15 years makes formerly inaccessible hydrocarbons economically available. From 2000 to 2035 shale gas is predicted to rise from 1% to 46% of the total natural gas for the US. A vast energy resource is available in the United States. While there is a strong financial advantage to the application of fracking there is emerging concern about environmental impacts to groundwater and air quality from improper shale fracking operations. Elevated methane (CH4) concentrations have been observed in drinking water throughout the United States where there is active horizontal drilling. Horizontal drilling and hydraulic-fracturing can increase CH4 transport to aquifers, soil and the vadose zone. Seepage can also result from casing failure in older wells. However, there is strong evidence that elevated CH4 concentrations can be associated with topographic and hydrogeologic features, rather than shale-gas extraction processes. Carbon isotope geochemistry can be applied to study CH4source(s) in shallow vadose zone and groundwater systems. A preliminary TAMU-CC isotope data set from samples taken at different locations in southern Texas shows a wide range of CH4 signatures suggesting multiple sources of methane and carbon dioxide. These data are interpreted to distinguish regions with methane contributions from deep-sourced horizontal drilling versus shallow system microbial production. Development of a thorough environmental assessment using light isotope analysis can provide understanding of shallow anthropogenic versus natural CH4sources and assist in identifying regions that require remedial actions.

  17. SAInt – A novel quasi-dynamic model for assessing security of supply in coupled gas and electricity transmission networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pambour, Kwabena Addo; Cakir Erdener, Burcin; Bolado-Lavin, Ricardo; Dijkema, Gerhard P.J.

    2017-01-01

    The integration of renewable energy sources into existing electric power systems is connected with an increased interdependence between natural gas and electricity transmission networks. To analyse this interdependence and its impact on security of supply, we developed a novel quasi-dynamic

  18. SELECTION OF HEAT SUPPLY SOURCE FOR MOBILE BUILDING STRUCTURE

    OpenAIRE

    T. I. Dolgikh; S. V. Morozov; Yu. P. Orlov; A. B. Reis; A. Yu Yakovlev

    2014-01-01

    The paper proposes a vortex heat generator with energy transformation of the highest  state  of matter motion  into  the  lowest  one  as  a  heat  supply  source  for a mobile object. Energy transformation coefficient indices close or equal to 1 have been obtained as a result of experiments on efficiency of the vortex heat generator. Such results can be explained with the help of the 2nd Bohr quantum postulate. Standard series of certified VTG heat generators has been proposed for heat suppl...

  19. Integrating climate forecasts and natural gas supply information into a natural gas purchasing decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changnon, David; Ritsche, Michael; Elyea, Karen; Shelton, Steve; Schramm, Kevin

    2000-09-01

    This paper illustrates a key lesson related to most uses of long-range climate forecast information, namely that effective weather-related decision-making requires understanding and integration of weather information with other, often complex factors. Northern Illinois University's heating plant manager and staff meteorologist, along with a group of meteorology students, worked together to assess different types of available information that could be used in an autumn natural gas purchasing decision. Weather information assessed included the impact of ENSO events on winters in northern Illinois and the Climate Prediction Center's (CPC) long-range climate outlooks. Non-weather factors, such as the cost and available supplies of natural gas prior to the heating season, contribute to the complexity of the natural gas purchase decision. A decision tree was developed and it incorporated three parts: (a) natural gas supply levels, (b) the CPC long-lead climate outlooks for the region, and (c) an ENSO model developed for DeKalb. The results were used to decide in autumn whether to lock in a price or ride the market each winter. The decision tree was tested for the period 1995-99, and returned a cost-effective decision in three of the four winters.

  20. Hybrid district heating system with heat supply from nuclear source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havelka, Z.; Petrovsky, I.

    1987-01-01

    Several designs are described of heat supply from large remote power sources (e.g., WWER-1000 nuclear power plants with a 1000 MW turbine) to localities where mainly steam distribution networks have been built but only some or none networks for hot water distribution. The benefits of the designs stem from the fact that they do not require the conversion of the local steam distribution system to a hot water system. They are based on heat supply from the nuclear power plant to the consumer area in hot water of a temperature of 150 degC to 200 degC. Part of the hot water heat will be used for the production of low-pressure steam which will be compressed using heat pumps (steam compressors) to achieve the desired steam distribution network specifications. Water of lower temperature can be used in the hot water network. The hot water feeder forms an automatic pressure safety barrier in heat supply of heating or technological steam from a nuclear installation. (Z.M.). 5 figs., 9 refs

  1. Natural Gas Exploration and Supply in India and the Prospects of a Bangladesh-to-India Pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Mamunur [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan)

    2009-07-01

    Energy consumption in India is growing very rapidly. India.s own existing as well as any new discoveries of natural gas revenues may meet only a fraction of its growing demand for energy. Hence, it will become more dependent on the global market for the supply of gas. But it is always difficult for different nations to reach a bilateral agreement on joint projects such as gas pipelines. India has been importing natural gas mostly in the form of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). But for the last two decades, it has shown an increasing interest in importing gas from international market by a pipeline. For example, it has planned to import natural gas from Iran, Myanmar, Bangladesh, and Turkmenistan via a pipeline. But India.s best option is to purchase gas from its neighbor Bangladesh via a pipeline. Union Oil of California (Unocal), a large investor in Bangladeshi gas, has proposed to build a pipeline, to sell the gas from its Bibiyana field. A Bangladesh-India pipeline potentially offers several socio-economic benefits. But the project, however, so far has made a little progress. Political issues attached to the project. If the Bangladeshi pipeline plan fails, India will turn other alternative options to meet its gas demand. India already has entered into agreement with International consortiums for LNG purchase. Furthermore, the country is also keen on increasing its effort to develop non-conventional sources in the near future. If these alternatives become viable, India.s demand for and dependence on foreign natural gas will decrease and natural gas (of Bangladesh, for example) might lose some of its value. Keywords: Natural gas exploration and supply in India and Bangladesh, Bangladesh-to-India pipeline, Unocal, natural gas import, market, politics, LNG, non-conventional hydrocarbon sources.

  2. Agricultural sources of greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochette, P.

    2003-01-01

    The author described different sources of greenhouse gas emissions resulting from agricultural activities and the process by which carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane are generated on Canadian farms. The author also proposed some practices that would contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. A brief description of the greenhouse effect was also provided with special emphasis on the agricultural sector. In 1996, the Canadian agricultural sector was responsible for approximately 10 per cent of greenhouse gas emissions in the country. Given the increase in farm animals and more intensive agricultural activities, it is estimated that greenhouse gas emissions generated by the agricultural sector will increase by 20 per cent by 2010 if current practices remain in effect. The most optimistic scenarios indicate that the agricultural sector could achieve or even exceed Canada's Kyoto Protocol commitments mainly through organic material sequestration in soils. The possibility for farmers to sell greenhouse gas credits could motivate farmers into adopting various practices that reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. However, the author indicated that the best motivation for farmers is the fact that adopting such practices would also lead to more efficient agricultural production. 5 refs., 4 figs

  3. Gas engine driven freon-free heat supply system complying with multiple fuels (eco-energy city project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagyu, Sumio; Maekawa, Koich; Sugawara, Koich; Hayashida, Masaru; Fujishima, Ichiro; Fukuyama, Yuji; Morikawa, Tomoyuki; Yamato, Tadao; Obata, Norio [Advanced Technology Lab., Kubota Corp., Amagasaki, Hyogo (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes recent results at Kubota to develop a gas engine driven freon-free heat supply system. Utilizing a gas mixture which consists of CO and H{sub 2} supplied from a broad area energy utilization network, the system produces four heat sources (263 K, 280 K, 318 K, and 353 K) for air-conditioning, hot water supply, and refrigeration in a single system. It also conforms to fuel systems that utilize methane and hydrogen. This multi-functional heat supply system is composed of an efficient gas engine (methanol gas engine) and a freon-free heat pump (heat-assisted Stirling heat pump). The heat-assisted Stirling heat pump is mainly driven by engine shaft power and is partially assisted by thermal power provided by engine exhaust heat. By proportioning the two energy sources to match the characteristics of the driving engine, the heat pump is supplied with the maximum share of the original energy fueling the engine. Developing the system will establish freon-free thermal utilization system technology that satisfies both wide heat demands and various fuel systems. (orig.)

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNICAL DECISIONS FOR HEAT SUPPLY WITH TUBULAR GAS HEATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRODOV V. F.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Annotation. Problems formulation. The problem that is solved is the development of autonomous heat supply systems that reduce the capital costs of construction and increase the efficiency of the use of energy resources. One of the ways to solve this problem is the use of tubular gas heaters. For this, it is necessary to develop new technical solutions for heat supply with tubular gas heaters, as well as scientific and methodological support for the development, construction and operation of heat supply systems with tubular gas heaters. Analysis of recent research. Preliminary studies of infrared tubular gas heaters are considered, which were used to heat industrial enterprises with sufficiently high premises. The task was to extend the principles of heat supply by means of tubular heaters for heating air, water and heating medium in relatively low rooms. Goal and tasks. To lay out the development of technical solutions for heat supply with tubular gas heaters, which increase the efficiency and reliability of heat supply systems and extend the use of tubular gas heaters in heat supply. Results. Technical solutions for heat supply with tubular gas heaters have made it possible to extend their applications for heating air, water and heating medium in relatively low rooms. Scientific novelty. New technical solutions for heat supply with tubular gas heaters increase the efficiency of using fuel and energy resources at low capital costs. Practical significance. Technical solutions for heat supply using tubular heaters have the potential for wide application in the heat supply of industrial, public and residential facilities. Conclusions. For two decades, new technical solutions for heat supply with tubular gas heaters have been developed, which increase the efficiency and reliability of heat supply systems and can be widely used for autonomous heating.

  5. Impacts of imports, government policy and technology on future natural gas supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, E.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation discussed the impacts of imports, government policy and technology on future natural gas supply. Specifically, it discussed projections of natural gas supply and demand; the potential impact of imports on United States natural gas supply; the potential impacts of government policy on natural gas supply and demand; and the impact of technological innovations on natural gas supply such as coalbed methane and methane hydrate. Specific government policies that were examined included the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009; the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009; and the Clean Energy Jobs and American Power Act of 2009. It was concluded that the United States demand for natural gas will expand and that the impact of pending clean energy legislation is unclear. In addition, each potential future resource will face constraints and new resources may come on line in the next 20 years. figs.

  6. Structure and development of the natural gas supply in Bavaria: chances and risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozem, K.

    1994-01-01

    Despite its structural handicap of being a large state, the gas supply in Bavaria has developed very favourabley. Strategies have been worked out for a successful future. What the gas economy needs above all are clear and reliable energy-political framework conditions. Experiments endangering the current security of supply must be dismissed. (orig.) [de

  7. Marketing with regards to the opening of new areas for the supply of gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, U [Westfaelische Ferngas-A.G., Dortmund (Germany, F.R.)

    1978-08-01

    During the last years more and more areas have been opened up for the supply of gas in the Federal Republic of Germany. As a rule, the density of consumption here is lower than in the traditionally supplied areas. Special activities in the marketing field are therefore necessary. The report relates the marketing measures of a regional gas supplying company in their sequential progress. Other measures regarding the opening-up of new areas for the supply of gas which lie outside the area of marketing are drawn into the presentation in order to clarify their objective and progressional association with the marketing activities.

  8. Metallic vapor supplying by the electron bombardment for a metallic ion production with an ECR ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitagawa, Atsushi; Sasaki, Makoto; Muramatsu, Masayuki [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Jincho, Kaoru; Sasaki, Noriyuki; Sakuma, Tetsuya; Takasugi, Wataru; Yamamoto, Mitsugu [Accelerator Engineering Corporation, Chiba (Japan)

    2001-11-19

    To produce the metallic ion beam for the injection into the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), a new gas supply method has been developed for an 18 GHz ECR ion source (NIRS-HEC). A metallic target rod at a high positive potential is melted by the electron bombardment technique. The evaporated gas with a maximum flow rate of 50A/sec is supplied into the ECR plasma in case of Fe metal. (author)

  9. Metallic vapor supplying by the electron bombardment for a metallic ion production with an ECR ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Atsushi; Sasaki, Makoto; Muramatsu, Masayuki; Jincho, Kaoru; Sasaki, Noriyuki; Sakuma, Tetsuya; Takasugi, Wataru; Yamamoto, Mitsugu

    2001-01-01

    To produce the metallic ion beam for the injection into the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), a new gas supply method has been developed for an 18 GHz ECR ion source (NIRS-HEC). A metallic target rod at a high positive potential is melted by the electron bombardment technique. The evaporated gas with a maximum flow rate of 50A/sec is supplied into the ECR plasma in case of Fe metal. (author)

  10. Comparison between Different Power Sources for Emergency Power Supply at Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenasson, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Currently the Swedish nuclear power plants are using diesel generator sets and to some extent gas turbines as their emergency AC power sources and batteries as their emergency DC power sources. In the laws governing Swedish nuclear activity, no specific power sources are prescribed. On the other hand, diversification of safety functions should be considered, as well as simplicity and reliability in the safety systems. So far the choices of emergency power sources have been similar between different power plants, and therefore this project investigated a number of alternative power sources and if they are suitable for use as emergency power on nuclear power plants. The goals of the project were to: - Define the parameters that are essential for rending a power source suitable for use at a nuclear power plant. - Present the characteristics of a number of power sources regarding the defined parameters. - Compile the suitability of the different power sources. - Make implementation suggestions for the less conventional of the investigated power sources. (unconventional in the investigated application) 10 different power sources in total have been investigated and to various degrees deemed suitable Out of the 10 power sources, diesel generators, batteries and to some extent gas turbines are seen as conventional technology at the nuclear power plants. In relation to them the other power sources have been assessed regarding diversification gains, foremost with regards to external events. The power sources with the largest diversification gains are: Internal steam turbine, Hydro power, Thermoelectric generators. The work should first and foremost put focus on the fact that under the right circumstances there are power sources that can complement conventional power sources and yield substantial diversification gains. This paper is a shortened version of the report 'Comparison between different power sources for emergency power supply at nuclear power plants'. The

  11. Water Supply Source Evaluation in Unmanaged Aquifer Recharge Zones: The Mezquital Valley (Mexico Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Hernández-Espriú

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mezquital Valley (MV hosts the largest unmanaged aquifer recharge scheme in the world. The metropolitan area of Mexico City discharges ~60 m3/s of raw wastewater into the valley, a substantial share of which infiltrates into the regional aquifer. In this work, we aim to develop a comprehensive approach, adapted from oil and gas reservoir modeling frameworks, to assess water supply sources located downgradient from unmanaged aquifer recharge zones. The methodology is demonstrated through its application to the Mezquital Valley region. Geological, geoelectrical, petrophysical and hydraulic information is combined into a 3D subsurface model and used to evaluate downgradient supply sources. Although hydrogeochemical variables are yet to be assessed, outcomes suggest that the newly-found groundwater sources may provide a long-term solution for water supply. Piezometric analyses based on 25-year records suggest that the MV is close to steady-state conditions. Thus, unmanaged recharge seems to have been regulating the groundwater balance for the last decades. The transition from unmanaged to managed recharge is expected to provide benefits to the MV inhabitants. It will also be likely to generate new uncertainties in relation to aquifer dynamics and downgradient systems.

  12. Development of the power supplies of the prototype ion source for the EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhimin; Hu Chundong; Liu Sheng; Jiang Caichao; Song Shihua; Xie Yahong; Sheng Peng

    2011-01-01

    For the neutral beam injector (NBI) of the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST), a test stand of a high-current ion source has been in construction. The NBI power supply system includes the plasma generator power supply, plasma electrode power supply, high voltage power divider, negative high voltage power supply, and the transmission lines and the snubber. A multi-megawatt prototype ion source was developed. The arc discharge of the prototype ion source was obtained in the test. The test results for the ion source power supplies and the arc discharge of the ion source are presented. (authors)

  13. Supply and demand of natural gas in the world and in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rissik, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    Based on data from the July 1991 published report of the International Gas Union (IGU) committee Supply and Demand an overview is given of the expectations for the natural gas supply, with special attention to Western Europe and the late Soviet Union. Data are presented for natural gas reserves and natural gas supply and demand in Eastern Europe (mainly USSR), Western Europe, North America (USA and Canada), and reserves in the Middle East. The conclusions drawn concern mainly Western Europe. It appears that the natural gas supplies in the world are still very large and sufficient for decades. Western Europe however must rely on foreign reserves more and more, which will have an impact on the natural gas prices. The reserves in the Soviet Union (mainly Siberia and the Arctic area) will be of great importance to the West European countries. 6 figs., 4 ill

  14. North or East. Germany's crude oil and natural gas supply from Norway and Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spies, M.

    2004-01-01

    This work examines the crude oil and natural gas trade from Norway and Russia to Germany. There is a considerable need for energy import in Germany because only a small part of the national consumption can be met with domestic productions. This applies especially to crude oil and natural gas. Norway and Russia are among the leading crude oil and natural gas producers and exporters in the world. The geographical vicinity of these significant demand and supply potentials leads to extensive energy based relations between Germany and Norway respectively Russia. The focus of this work is on the perception of and attitudes towards Norway and Russia as crude oil and natural gas suppliers for the domestic markets in Germany. Reporting from two leading German newspapers, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung and Sueddeutsche Zeitung, are regarded to be a valid source for detecting these attitudes and perceptions. Relevant articles are analysed with content analysis and further multi- methodological approaches. For this reasons the work provides at the beginning full description of the Norwegian and Russian crude oil and natural gas sector as well as detailed information on the German energy markets and policy. It can be shown that differences in dealing with Norway and Russia in the articles exit. Accordingly, different perceptions and attitudes are detectable as well. This work shows where these differences can be found and examines their quality. It is argued that the reporting and the attitudes are not only based on economical facts but also on 'imagined space'. The need for impartial relations with both supplying countries is stressed. (orig.)

  15. Methane emissions from the global oil and gas supply chain: recent advances and next steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala Araiza, D.; Herndon, S. C.; Roscioli, J. R.; Yacovitch, T. I.; Knighton, W. B.; Johnson, M.; Tyner, D. R.; Hamburg, S.

    2017-12-01

    A wide body of research has characterized methane emissions from the oil and gas system in the US. In contrast, empirical data is limited for other significant oil and gas producing regions across the world. As a consequence, measuring and characterizing methane emissions across global oil and gas operations will be crucial to the design of effective mitigation strategies. Several countries have announced pledges to reduce methane emissions from this system (e.g., North America, Climate and Clean Air Coalition [CCAC] ministers). In the case of Canada, the federal government recently announced regulations supporting a 40-45% reduction of methane emissions from the oil and gas production systems. For these regulations to be effective, it is critical to understand the current methane emission patterns. We present results from a coordinated multiscale (i.e., airborne-based, ground-based) measurement campaign in Alberta, Canada. We use empirically derived emission estimates to characterize site-level emissions and derive an emissions distribution. Our work shows that many major sources of emissions are unmeasured or underreported. Consistent with previous studies in the US, a small fraction of sites disproportionately account for the majority of emissions: roughly 20% of sites accounted for 75% of emissions. An independent airborne-based regional estimate was 40% lower than the ground-based regional estimate, but not statistically different. Finally, we summarize next steps as part of the CCAC Oil and Gas Methane Study: ongoing work that is targeting oil and gas sectors/production regions with limited empirical data on methane emissions. This work builds on the approach deployed in quantifying methane emissions from the oil and gas supply chain in the US, underscoring the commitment to transparency of the collected data, external review, deployment of multiple methodologies, and publication of results in peer-reviewed journals.

  16. North american natural gas supply forecast: the Hubbert method including the effects of institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, D. B.; Kolodziej, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the U.S. and southern Canadian natural gas supply market is considered. An important model for oil and natural gas supply is the Hubbert curve. Not all regions of the world are producing oil or natural gas following a Hubbert curve, even when price and market conditions are accounted for. One reason is that institutions are affecting supply. We investigate the possible effects of oil and gas market institutions in North America on natural gas supply. A multi-cycle Hubbert curve with inflection points similar to the Soviet Union's oil production multi-cycle Hubbert curve is used to determine North American natural gas discovery rates and to analyze how market specific institutions caused the inflection points. In addition, we analyze the latest shale natural gas projections critically. While currently, unconventional resources of natural gas suggest that North American natural gas production will increase without bound, the model here suggests a peak in North American natural gas supplies could happen in 2013. (author)

  17. Russia wants to supply gas to both East and West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhotra, T.C.

    2006-01-01

    Russia's plans of distributing gas to both Europe and Asia are analysed. In Russia the main oil and gas assets have been put back under state control, and there is a fear that Russia will use its massive oil and gas reserves as a political tool to strengthen its national security interests

  18. Availability/reliability of gas supplies are concerns for utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that long-term economical and reliable fuel contracts are imperative for increased use of natural gas. Demand for natural gas grew by 3.3% in 1991 to 19.3 trillion cubic feet (tcf) according to the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA). during 1992, EIA expects natural gas demand to grow about 1.8%. However, EIA predicts that natural gas demand will be down slightly in the electric power sector. This is despite the potential for continuing lower gas prices and availability. wellhead prices for natural gas fell by more than 9% in 1991. Although EIA forecasts a decline in natural gas use by electric utilities, a study undertaken by ICF Resources for Enron Power Services, Inc. expects natural gas consumption in the power industry to increase in the 1990s. ICF says that the growth will occur because many new plants will be gas-fired, many existing electric utility power plants designed for oil and/or natural gas operation will use natural gas, and about half of new non-utility power plants will be gas-fired

  19. Sustainable supply of global energy needs and greenhouse gas reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.I.; Duffey, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear plants emit virtually no greenhouse gases over their full life-cycle. Consequently, continued operation of existing nuclear plants is recognized as essential to meeting even the modest greenhouse gas reduction targets of the Kyoto Accord. However, much expanded nuclear deployment will be needed as developing economies aggressively grow GDP with its associated growth in electrical power. Projecting to 2040 and based on the scenarios of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC), we have examined deploying increased non-carbon energy sources for electricity production, including further conversion of electricity to hydrogen using conventional low-temperature water electrolysis. Our NuWind model has been used to calculate the production costs for hydrogen in typical potential markets, using the actual prices of electricity paid by the Alberta Power Pool and by the Ontario Grid. The analysis shows clearly that by optimizing the co-production of hydrogen and electricity (referred to as the H2/e process) the cost for hydrogen produced can comfortably meet the US Department of Energy's target for realistic nuclear investment costs, hydrogen generation systems, and wind capacity factors. The synergy of nuclear plus wind power for hydrogen generation plus co-production of electricity improves the economics of harnessing wind energy to produce hydrogen. (author)

  20. Flexible LNG supply, storage and price formation in a global natural gas market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Mark Hanley

    The body of work included in this dissertation explores the interaction of the growing, flexible liquefied natural gas (LNG) trade with the fundamentals of pipeline gas supply, gas storage, and gas consumption. By nature of its uses---largely for residential heating and electric power generation---the consumption of natural gas is highly variable both seasonally and on less predictable daily and weekly timescales. Flexible LNG trade will interconnect previously isolated regional gas markets, each with non-correlated variability in gas demand, differing gas storage costs, and heterogeneous institutional structures. The dissertation employs a series of analytical models to address key issues that will affect the expansion of the LNG trade and the implications for gas prices, investment and energy policy. First, I employ an optimization model to evaluate the fundamentals of seasonal LNG swing between markets with non-correlated gas demand (the U.S. and Europe). The model provides insights about the interaction of LNG trade with gas storage and price formation in interconnected regional markets. I then explore how random (stochastic) variability in gas demand will drive spot cargo movements and covariation in regional gas prices. Finally, I analyze the different institutional structures of the gas markets in the U.S. and Europe and consider how managed gas markets in Europe---without a competitive wholesale gas market---may effectively "export" supply and price volatility to countries with more competitive gas markets, such as the U.S.

  1. Reliability and competitiveness of Canadian natural gas supply - discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    A summary of market evolution for the Canadian natural gas industry was provided. Canada's undisputed position as an important supplier of natural gas to domestic and United States consumers was reaffirmed. The industry has marketable potential of 582 trillion cubic feet of conventional natural gas, of which 254 trillion cubic feet is found in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. The role of the Free Trade Agreement of 1988, and the recent deregulation of the Canadian natural gas industry in allowing the gas market to evolve into a competitive, continental market were noted. The end result to consumers is a choice of suppliers, competitive prices, reliability and confidence. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs

  2. High precision power supplies for the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, R.; Langenbach, H.

    1987-04-01

    Since beam stability depends to a considerable degree on the stability of the magnet power supplies, and it is desired to push for 3 GeV operation, it was required that new power supplies be obtained for the quadrupoles and sextupoles. These power supplies were to have the lowest ripple that could be reasonably achieved, and were to have a current regulation of better than 10 PPM. In addition, since they operate over a 5 : 1 voltage range, it was considered desirable to ensure that they operated with a good power factor over the operating range. The dipole power supply was modified to use the techniques employed in the smaller supplies

  3. Households' willingness to pay for safeguarding security of natural gas supply in electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damigos, D.; Tourkolias, C.; Diakoulaki, D.

    2009-01-01

    Security of energy supply is a major issue for all EU Member States due to Europe's increasing dependence on imported fossil-fuel sources and the continuous rise in energy demand. The latter is of particular importance in electricity sector given the continuously increasing use of gas for electricity generation. In order to properly tackle with the problem, concerted actions are required by the EU Member States in several levels, i.e. legislative, political, etc. Nevertheless, these actions will come at an additional cost paid by the society either through increased electricity bills or through public financing for energy security investments. Thus, such policies should be justified on the basis of cost-benefit analysis. Towards this direction, it may be necessary to take into account non-market costs and benefits, i.e. the value that consumers place on interruptions avoided. In order to explore households' perceptions and willingness to pay for securing gas supply for electricity production, an empirical study was conducted by means of the contingent valuation method. The results indicate that consumers are willing to pay a premium on their electricity bills in order to internalize the external costs of electricity production, in terms of energy security, which are caused from imported fuels. (author)

  4. Drought Resilience of Water Supplies for Shale Gas Extraction and Related Power Generation in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedy, R. C.; Scanlon, B. R.; Nicot, J. P.; Uhlman, K.

    2014-12-01

    There is considerable concern about water availability to support energy production in Texas, particularly considering that many of the shale plays are in semiarid areas of Texas and the state experienced the most extreme drought on record in 2011. The Eagle Ford shale play provides an excellent case study. Hydraulic fracturing water use for shale gas extraction in the play totaled ~ 12 billion gallons (bgal) in 2012, representing ~7 - 10% of total water use in the 16 county play area. The dominant source of water is groundwater which is not highly vulnerable to drought from a recharge perspective because water is primarily stored in the confined portion of aquifers that were recharged thousands of years ago. Water supply drought vulnerability results primarily from increased water use for irrigation. Irrigation water use in the Eagle Ford play was 30 billion gallons higher in the 2011 drought year relative to 2010. Recent trends toward increased use of brackish groundwater for shale gas extraction in the Eagle Ford also reduce pressure on fresh water resources. Evaluating the impacts of natural gas development on water resources should consider the use of natural gas in power generation, which now represents 50% of power generation in Texas. Water consumed in extracting the natural gas required for power generation is equivalent to ~7% of the water consumed in cooling these power plants in the state. However, natural gas production from shale plays can be overall beneficial in terms of water resources in the state because natural gas combined cycle power generation decreases water consumption by ~60% relative to traditional coal, nuclear, and natural gas plants that use steam turbine generation. This reduced water consumption enhances drought resilience of power generation in the state. In addition, natural gas combined cycle plants provide peaking capacity that complements increasing renewable wind generation which has no cooling water requirement. However, water

  5. Pulse explosion ion beam source with one pulse regime supply for surface modification of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    A variant of explosion ion beam source with one positive pulse supply for surface modification of materials is described. Ion source consists of vacuum diode and pulse generator Arcadiev-Marx type. Residual gas pressure was p∼5x10 -5 torr in the diode. The sort of ions was fixed by materials initiator anode plasma. The produce carbon ions a carbon-fibrous initiator is used for niobium and titanium-niobium-titanium cable with picking copper matrix. The ions density current regulation is realized by by change of diode gap in the correspondence with Child-Langmuir law. For carbon ions the current density is j∼6A/cm 2 for voltage U∼100kV and j∼32A/cm 2 for voltage U∼300 kV. 7 refs.; 1 fig

  6. Russia set to dominate global gas supplies. Special report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrebowski, C.

    1996-01-01

    This series of linked articles offers an historical prespective on the development of the gas industry in Russia as July 1996 marks the fiftieth anniversary of the completion of the Saratov-Moscow pipeline, marking, as it did, the start of that industry. The highly successful Gazprom, the leading Russian full supplier, looks set to dominate the European and even global market via exports of gas from Russia's huge natural gas reserves. With Western investment becoming available, the industry is likely to see a new era of expansion and development. Natural gas, as a possible alternative fuel for automobiles and aircraft, is considered. (UK)

  7. Nuclear steam supply system KLT-40 enhanced safety as independent power supply source. Employment prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polunichev, V.I.; Sayanov, D.G.; Ardabievsky, A.A.

    1993-01-01

    High quality of KLT-40 nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) providing enhanced safety is attained owing to the development and operation experience of equipments and systems in Soviet nuclear icebreakers. First of all they are the operating nuclear-powered icebreakers open-quotes Arktikaclose quotes, open-quotes Sibirclose quotes, open-quotes Rossiyaclose quotes, open-quotes Sovetsky Soyuzclose quotes, the limited draught icebreakers of joint Soviet-Finnish manufacturing open-quotes Taimyrclose quotes open-quotes Vaigachclose quotes. 30-years trouble-free operation of icebreaker open-quotes Leninclose quotes, the ancestor of nuclear powered fleet, is unprecedented. Operation life of individual equipment items amounts to 107000 hours, that testifies to high reliability and life characteristics of NSSS. Trouble-free operation of the nuclear-powered icebreakers' reactor plants (RPs) exceeded 130 reactor years, that proves high quality of design decisions being underlain in the basis of the KLT-40 NSSS for the lighter-cargo carrier open-quotes Sevmorputclose quotes, which was put into operation into 1988. Besides it testifies to the expediency of KLT-40 NSSS employment as a power source in different power installations. The KLT-40 is a reactor plant with a pwr type reactor. The design is described in detail with diagrams

  8. Coke battery with 51-m{sup 3} furnace chambers and lateral supply of mixed gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V.I. Rudyka; N.Y. Chebotarev; O.N. Surenskii; V.V. Derevich [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    The basic approaches employed in the construction of coke battery 11A at OAO Magnitogorskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat are outlined. This battery includes 51.0-m{sup 3} furnaces and a dust-free coke-supply system designed by Giprokoks with lateral gas supply; it is heated exclusively by low-calorific mixed gas consisting of blast-furnace gas with added coke-oven gas. The 82 furnaces in the coke battery are divided into two blocks of 41. The gross coke output of the battery (6% moisture content) is 1140000 t/yr.

  9. Probabilistic modelling of security of supply in gas networks and evaluation of new infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praks, Pavel; Kopustinskas, Vytis; Masera, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a probabilistic model to study security of supply in a gas network. The model is based on Monte-Carlo simulations with graph theory, and is implemented in the software tool ProGasNet. The software allows studying gas networks in various aspects including identification of weakest links and nodes, vulnerability analysis, bottleneck analysis, evaluation of new infrastructure etc. In this paper ProGasNet is applied to a benchmark network based on a real EU gas transmission network of several countries with the purpose of evaluating the security of supply effects of new infrastructure, either under construction, recently completed or under planning. The probabilistic model enables quantitative evaluations by comparing the reliability of gas supply in each consuming node of the network. - Highlights: • A Monte-Carlo algorithm for stochastic flow networks is presented. • Network elements can fail according to a given probabilistic model. • Priority supply pattern of gas transmission networks is assumed. • A real-world EU gas transmission network is presented and analyzed. • A risk ratio is used for security of supply quantification of a new infrastructure.

  10. Prospects for the natural gas supply in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, B.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is given of the current significance of and future prospects for natural gas in Europe. Special attention is given to the impressive development of natural gas in the energy markets of Europe during the last 20 years, the development of demand for natural gas, the procurement situation, and political framework conditions. By virtue of the environmental and energy political dictates governing modern industrial societies, the European gas economy finds itself dealing in an excellent product whose share in the energy market will continue to grow. The decisive challenge lies in procuring additional quantities, which will largely have to come from outside the territory of the European Community. In order to succeed in this task the gas economies need an energy political framework that strengthens, and not weakens, their position in the Community. (orig./HSCH) [de

  11. Dipole power supply for National Synchrotron Light Source Booster upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, R.; Dabrowski, J.; Murray, J.

    1992-01-01

    The booster at the NSLS is being upgraded from .75 to 2 pulses per second. To accomplish this, new power supplies for the dipole, quadrupole, and sextupole magnets have been designed and are being constructed. This paper will outline the design of the dipole power supply and control system, and will present results obtained thus far

  12. Identifying sources of uncertainty to generate supply chain redesign strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Beulens, A.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Dynamic demands and constraints imposed by a rapidly changing business environment make it increasingly necessary for companies in the food supply chain to cooperate with each other. The main questions individual (food) companies face are whether, why, how and with whom they should start supply

  13. The use of soil gas as radon source in radon chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Azmi, Darwish

    2009-01-01

    A procedure is described in which soil gas is utilized as an alternative to the 226 Ra source for the supply of the radon gas required to fill a radon chamber where radon-measuring devices are calibrated. The procedure offers opportunities to vary the radon concentration within the chamber around an average value of about 500 Bq/m 3 , which is considered to be sufficient for calibrating indoor radon detectors. The procedure is simple and the radon source does not require radiation protection certification (for import and/or use), unlike the commercially produced standard radioactive ( 226 Ra) sources.

  14. Essays on the economics of energy markets. Security of supply and greenhouse gas abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieckhoener, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    In summary, the presented thesis analyzes two distinct economic subjects: security of supply in natural gas markets and greenhouse gas abatement potentials in the residential heating market. These subjects considered both reflect key points in the triangle of energy policy and are both associated with transnational market failures within energy markets. The security of supply analyses in an intermeshed network are approached from a rather normative, top-down perspective of a social planner. On the contrary, the analyses of greenhouse gases emitted by households are positive analyses of consumer choices. The normative analyses of security of supply in natural gas markets and the positive analyses on greenhouse gas abatement in the residential heating market are organized in two parts of the thesis. 1. Normative analyses - Security of supply in natural gas markets: The two papers of the first part of the dissertation thesis are based on a normative approach with the European natural gas market and infrastructure model TIGER that allows for security of supply analyses. The general idea behind the modeling approach is based on the assumption of a social planner and finds an efficient utilization of the natural gas infrastructure. More precisely, the security of supply analyses conducted in the first part of the thesis refer to scenario simulations of disrupted supply routes in the European natural gas network. The effects of these security of supply scenarios on the usage of other infrastructure components, on marginal supply costs and disruptions to consumers are investigated. 2. Positive analyses of greenhouse gas abatement potentials - Econometric modeling of consumer choices and evaluation of public policies: The second part of the thesis includes two positive analyses which investigate household choices to derive greenhouse gas abatement potentials. In the residential heating market, the energy efficiency level exhibited and the type of energy carrier used are

  15. Essays on the economics of energy markets. Security of supply and greenhouse gas abatement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieckhoener, Caroline

    2013-02-01

    In summary, the presented thesis analyzes two distinct economic subjects: security of supply in natural gas markets and greenhouse gas abatement potentials in the residential heating market. These subjects considered both reflect key points in the triangle of energy policy and are both associated with transnational market failures within energy markets. The security of supply analyses in an intermeshed network are approached from a rather normative, top-down perspective of a social planner. On the contrary, the analyses of greenhouse gases emitted by households are positive analyses of consumer choices. The normative analyses of security of supply in natural gas markets and the positive analyses on greenhouse gas abatement in the residential heating market are organized in two parts of the thesis. 1. Normative analyses - Security of supply in natural gas markets: The two papers of the first part of the dissertation thesis are based on a normative approach with the European natural gas market and infrastructure model TIGER that allows for security of supply analyses. The general idea behind the modeling approach is based on the assumption of a social planner and finds an efficient utilization of the natural gas infrastructure. More precisely, the security of supply analyses conducted in the first part of the thesis refer to scenario simulations of disrupted supply routes in the European natural gas network. The effects of these security of supply scenarios on the usage of other infrastructure components, on marginal supply costs and disruptions to consumers are investigated. 2. Positive analyses of greenhouse gas abatement potentials - Econometric modeling of consumer choices and evaluation of public policies: The second part of the thesis includes two positive analyses which investigate household choices to derive greenhouse gas abatement potentials. In the residential heating market, the energy efficiency level exhibited and the type of energy carrier used are

  16. Contract Coordination in Dual Sourcing Supply Chain under Supply Disruption Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Shu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores a coordination model for a three-echelon supply chain including two different manufacturers, one distributer and one retailer via the combined option and back contracts. And one manufacturer provides the high wholesale price with low supply disruption risk and the other is completely the opposite. This differs from the previous supply chain coordination model. Firstly, supply disruption is added to the three-echelon supply chain. Secondly, considering the coordination of the supply chain, we deploy the combined option and back contracts which are seldom used in the previous study. Furthermore, it is interesting that supply disruption risk and buyback factor do not affect the distributor’s order quantity from the manufacturer who has low product price and unreliable operating ability, while the order quantity increases with the rise of option premium and option strike price. The distributor’s order quantity from the manufacturer, which has high product price and reliable operating ability, increases with the rise of supply disruption risk but decreases when the buyback factor, option premium, and option strike price decrease.

  17. Primary energy sources for electricity supply in the FRG - demand and requirements as seen by the electricity supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierhoff, R.

    1977-01-01

    Starting from the present energy supply situation in the FRG, the attempt is made to elucidate basic tendencies for its development until 1990. The author pleads for the necessary growth by means of a series of theses. The supply with electric power being in the foreground can only be secured in the long run by means of greater utilization of coal and nuclear energy. Due to costs, other energy sources - playing a major role - will contribute less to the supply of electric power. (UA) [de

  18. 33 CFR 203.61 - Emergency water supplies due to contaminated water source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (5) Loss of water supply is not a basis for assistance under this authority. (6) Water will not be... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency water supplies due to... PROCEDURES Emergency Water Supplies: Contaminated Water Sources and Drought Assistance § 203.61 Emergency...

  19. Simulation of gas supply and consumption during heating season; Simulacija opskrbe potrosaca plinom tijekom ogrjevne sezone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oklopcic, Z [INA-Naftaplin, Zagreb (Croatia)

    1997-12-31

    In this paper stochastic simulation model of gas supply and consumption during heating season is described. The simulation of gas supply is based on constant import and domestic production and varying production of underground storage which depends on current needs and quantity of gas in the storage. The basis for consumption simulation is the stochastic relationship between gas consumption and mean daily air temperature and type of the day, expressed in the form of linear regression model. Mean daily air temperatures, as one of basic causes of daily gas consumption variations, are simulated, on the basis of statistical characteristics and own air temperature measurements, as a first order autoregression model. By using the developed simulation model the statistical characteristics (expectation, standard deviation) of daily gas consumption and the difference between maximum possible daily supply and consumption (delivery safety margin) are derived for all days in the season. The definition of gas delivery safety is given and critical delivery probabilities for all days in the season and different safety margins are determined. Also, statistical characteristics of critical delivery duration depending on gas reserves status for underground storage is predicted. Predicted gas storage delivery rate is compared against predicted requirements, and on the basis of this comparison possible bottlenecks in gas delivery to consumers and course of future actions are indicated. (author). 3 tabs., 10 figs., 6 refs.

  20. Distributed Supply Coordination for Power-to-Gas Facilities Embedded in Energy Grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkano, Desti; Scherpen, Jacquelien M. A.

    This paper considers hydrogen and renewable electricity from power-to-gas (PtG) facilities supplied to a gas grid, a mobility sector, and a power grid. The PtG facilities are equipped with hydrogen buffers and fuel cells. The goal is to maximize the expected profit of PtG facilities without

  1. Long term outlook for gas supply and demand 2007-2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-05-01

    Given the economic crisis and the even greater focus of energy policy in recent years on energy efficiency and renewables, earlier expectations in respect of gas demand have to be lowered. Nonetheless, there are still good prospects for gas expanding its position in the EU energy market in the medium to long term. Environmental friendliness and highly efficient technologies in all areas of energy supply give gas a key role in a realistic EU climate policy, the goals of which cannot be achieved solely through increased use of renewables. Its green qualities make gas attractive in direct utilisation in homes and businesses, in centralised power generation, in local CHP plant (including micro-CHP), and - in some member states - in the transport sector too. The current slump in demand is accompanied by strong supply pressure on European procurement markets. Experts do not predict that the present excess supply situation will continue in the long term. It is expected that imports to Europe will rise in order to compensate for the impending fall in domestic European production and to supply additional gas. The procurement challenge cannot be considered in isolation from global developments. The increasing demand for gas worldwide will intensify the competition for global gas reserves on international markets. The European gas industry emphasises the importance of fostering long-term relationships with major suppliers, transit countries and key partners in the EU as well as with multilateral organisations and structures.

  2. Renewable energy sources in European energy supply and interactions with emission trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moest, Dominik; Fichtner, Wolf

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a model-based approach, which allows to determine the optimised structure and operation of the EU-15 electricity supply under different political and economic framework conditions, with a focus on the integration of renewable energy sources for electricity generation (RES-E) in the EU-15 countries. The approach is designed to take into account the characteristics of power production from both renewable and conventional sources, including the technological and economic characteristics of existing plants as well as those of future capacity expansion options. Beyond that, fuel supply structures are modelled, as well as the international markets for power and CO 2 -certificates with their restrictions. Thus, a profound evaluation of the exploitation of mid-term renewable potentials and an assessment of the market penetration of the various renewable power generation technologies under the (normative) premise of a cost-optimised evolution of the power system becomes possible. Results show that a promotion of renewable energies reduces the scarcity of CO 2 -emission allowances and thus lowers marginal costs of CO 2 reduction up to 30% in 2030. Despite the higher overall costs, a diversification of the energy resource base by RES-E use is observed, as primarily natural gas and nuclear fuels are replaced.

  3. Role of technology in future gas supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, S.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an outlook for natural gas production and consumption in the United States for the next 15 to 20 years. It discusses the impact of the new environmental laws and regulations on gas exploration and development, showing a marked decline in new resource development. The paper goes on to discuss new developments in technology which will be required to increase the efficiency of natural gas-fired systems to meet the decline in production, increased costs, and environmental restraints. The paper breaks these technology issues down into the transportation sector, the residential sector, the commercial sector, and the industry sector. The types of technology and systems needed to meet these new regulatory requirements while maintaining a cost-effective system is discussed under each sectorial analysis

  4. New models needed to manage gas supply, APPrO conference hears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    Details of a 1 day conference designed to create more efficient interactions between the gas supply and electricity systems in Ontario and new models for gas supply and the electricity system were presented. Market efficiency, generators' perspectives on critical gas issues, an overview of the North American gas and an outline of issues concerning Ontario were discussed. A natural gas industry forecast and issues concerning marketers and producers were presented. The terms on which gas is bought and sold were discussed. Regulatory tools, cost allocation and issues relating to unbundling were also presented. Infrastructure needs were reviewed, as well as basic market structures. It was suggested that appropriate commercial service options need to be developed and approved, including cross-utility services

  5. Strategies of materials sourcing and services in the oil and gas industry; Estrategias de suprimentos de materiais e servicos na industria de oil and gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aun, Rogerio [Arthur Andersen Business Consulting, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Strategic Sourcing is a procurement management technique that aims to establish a globally competitive supply base. By setting an appropriate sourcing strategy to specific sourcing groups considering the purchasing volume and the sourcing complexity, significant savings can be achieved in the total company expenditures. There are four basic sourcing strategies that can be used: purchasing process simplification, purchasing volume leverage, strategic relationship with suppliers, supply assurance. E-procurement is a valuable tool for Strategic Sourcing implementation and can be used to simplify and reduce the cost of the purchasing process. Strategic Sourcing can be applied in most industries, as well as in Oil and Gas Industry. Recently Arthur Andersen was engaged in a Strategic Sourcing project for an Oil and Gas Company resulting in savings of 10% cost reduction on the expenditures analyzed. (author)

  6. Civil unrest in North Africa—Risks for natural gas supply?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochner, Stefan; Dieckhöner, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    The uprising and military confrontation in Libya that began in February 2011 has led to disruptions of gas supplies to Europe. An analysis of how Europe has compensated for these missing gas volumes shows that this situation has not affected security of supply. However, this situation would change if the North African uprising were to spread to Algeria. Since Algeria is a much more important gas supplier to Europe than is Libya, more severe consequences would be likely. Applying a natural gas infrastructure model, we investigate the impact of supplier disruptions from both countries for a summer and winter period. Our analysis shows that disruptions in the low-demand summer months could be compensated for, mainly by LNG imports into several European countries. An investigation of a similar situation at the beginning of the winter shows that security of supply would be severely compromised and that disruptions to Italian consumers would be unavoidable. The analysis thereby highlights the importance of taking the political stability of supply countries into account when assessing the security of European gas imports. - Highlights: ► Impact of political instability on security of natural gas supplies. ► Analysis of export stop during Libyan civil war in 2011. ► Model-based analysis of potential future North African crisis scenarios. ► Findings: spread of uprisings to Algeria more critical for Europe. ► Price effects and potential demand curtailment for consumers.

  7. Increased competition on the supply side of the Western European natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golombek, R.; Gjelsvik, E.; Rosendahl, K.E.

    1998-01-01

    This paper analyzes how the supply side of the Western European natural gas market may react if the demand side becomes competitive. The authors show--using a numerical model of the Western European natural gas market--that once the demand side of the market is liberalized, each gas-producing country has an incentive to break up its gas sellers. The model therefore suggests that there may be numerous producers in a liberalized natural gas market. Hence, in a liberalized market consumers will not be exploited by suppliers

  8. Asian gas and oil supplies, production, and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonchere, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Some changes which have occurred recently, or which are now emerging, allow one to consider commercial energy revolving effectively around three poles--oil, natural gas and electricity, and these to be viewed more and more as commodities for services. A hard core of oil consumption, mainly dedicated to the transportation sector, will continue to fuel the crude oil demand growth. In Asia, such a trend will lead to an increasing reliance on Middle East crudes and thus to the need to upgrade the heavier part of the barrel. For its part, natural gas will help to limit the reliance on oil, and its resource base is large enough to offer it increasing shares in two key energy consuming sectors: electricity generation and nitrogen fertilizers. Moreover, concerns about the need to conserve natural gas reserves for use as a feedstock for nitrogen fertilizers and other petrochemicals, do not affect the picture. Limited amounts would be required and a dynamic approach to the development of fossil fuel resources enables the consideration of natural gas as a transitional fuel for the energy hungry power sector. However, in the meantime it is expected to play a key role both in safeguarding the environment and alleviating the investment burden, particularly in the power and nitrogen fertilizer sectors

  9. Supply, storage and handling of elemental sulfur derived from sour gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, P.D.; Davis, P.M.; Dowling, N.I.; Calgary Univ., AB

    2003-01-01

    This presentation reviews the supply picture for solid elemental sulfur. It also assesses methods for its storage as well as the disposal of the precursor hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) by acid gas injection. Both above and below ground block storage is considered environmentally acceptable for sulfur storage as long as measures are taken to minimize the physical and biological breakdown of the sulfur. The preferred option is to store solid elemental sulfur underground, particularly if it is to remain in storage for a prolonged period. Future changes in supply of sulfur will likely be controlled by incremental production of sour gas and utilization of oil sands bitumen. It is expected that future sulfur production from conventional crude oil will remain static or will slowly decrease. The degree to which acid gas injection is applied to large sour gas developments in the Middle East and the Caspian regions will have a significant impact on world sulfur supply. 9 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  10. The architecture of the European natural gas supply - quantum increase for North Sea gas. Die Architektur der europaeischen Erdgasversorgung - Quantensprung fuer Nordseegas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, B [Ruhrgas AG, Essen (Germany, F.R.)

    1990-12-01

    There will be a marked increase in natural gas consumption to 370 million t.c.e. up to 410 million t.c.e until the year 2005. The development of self-supply in the various countries as well as fixed import contracts form a solid basis for supply. From a long-term point of view, however, Western Europe is facing large-scale acquisition tasks. It is likely that additional West European requirements will be met to a large extent through an increase of Norwegian supplies to some 60 to 70 billion m{sup 3} in 2005. The obvious tendency of increased demand, however, can only be statisfied if import projects from sources outside Europe can be realized. (orig./BWI).

  11. Klystron bias power supplies for Indus-2 synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badapanda, M.K.; Hannurkar, P.R.

    2008-01-01

    The functioning of an alternating current (AC) voltage regulator based high voltage direct current (HVDC) power supplies with better input and output performances has been presented in this paper. The authors have incorporated a 3-phase series limiting inductor, along with detuned passive filter in each power supply, to take care of line harmonics and the input power factor (IPF), which is simple, cost effective, reliable and provides input performance matching that of an equivalent active filter. Such arrangement has special significance for controlled HVDC power supplies supplying to fixed load but operated from widely varying input voltages. It achieves line voltage total harmonic distortion (THD) below 4% and IPF better than 0.97, for 415 V - 30% to 415 V + 10% variations in 3-phase input voltages. A properly designed crowbar, along with suitable limiting elements, is incorporated in each power supply and stringent wire survivability tests were carried out to limit klystron fault energy below 10 Joules. Several simulated waveforms and experiment results are also presented. (author)

  12. Electricity supply, district heating and supply of natural and gasworks gas 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Total domestic use of electricity (including transmission losses) was 143.3 TWh in 1999. This represents a decrease of 0.5 per cent compared to 1998. Usage in the household sector fell by 1.5 per cent to 34.3 TWh (including second homes). In contrast, the industry sector (manufacturing industry, mining and quarrying) increased its usage by 1.1 per cent to 55.3 TWh. Deliveries of steam and hot water for district heating were 43.7 TWh, unchanged compared to 1998. Total net production of electricity decreased in 1999 by 2.5 per cent compared to 1998 and amounted to 150.8 TWh. Hydroelectric production decreased by 4.0 per cent to 70.9 TWh. The production of conventional thermal power also fell, by 5.6 per cent to 9.4 TWh. Nuclear power contributed 70.2 TWh, almost the same as the previous year. Wind power, however, increased its production by 16.2 per cent to 358 GWh. Imports of electricity increased by 0.4 TWh to 8.5 TWh, but exports decreased by 0.9 TWh to 15.9 TWh. Total deliveries of natural gas to final consumers diminished somewhat in 1999 and amounted to 854 million m 3 (equivalent to 9226 GWh). Deliveries of natural gas substitutes (air/liquefied petroleum gas mix) decreased by 5 per cent to 26 million m 3 . The mean price of natural gas rose by approximately 6 per cent compared to 1998. Deliveries of gas-works gas fell in 1999 by 0.6 million m 3 to 109.2 million m 3 . The mean price was about 11 per cent higher than in the preceding year

  13. Placental Gas Exchange and the Oxygen Supply to the Fetus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony M

    2015-01-01

    The oxygen supply of the fetus depends on the blood oxygen content and flow rate in the uterine and umbilical arteries and the diffusing capacity of the placenta. Oxygen consumption by the placenta is a significant factor and a potential limitation on availability to the fetus. The relevance...... anaerobic conditions and even the fetus is adapted to a low oxygen environment. Nevertheless, there is a reserve capacity, and during acute hypoxia the fetus can counter a 50% reduction in oxygen delivery by increasing fractional extraction. During sustained hypoxia, on the other hand, fetal growth...

  14. Security of supply and retail competition in the European gas market. Some model-based insights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abada, Ibrahim; Massol, Olivier

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, we analyze the impact of uncertain disruptions in gas supply upon gas retailer contracting behavior and consequent price and welfare implications in a gas market characterized by long-term gas contracts using a static Cournot model. In order to most realistically describe the economical situation, our representation divides the market into two stages: the upstream market that links, by means of long-term contracts, producers in exporting countries (Russia, Algeria, etc.) to local retailers who bring gas to the consuming countries to satisfy local demands in the downstream market. Disruption costs are modeled using short-run demand functions. First we mathematically develop a general model and write the associated KKT conditions, then we propose some case studies, under iso-elasticity assumptions, for the long-short-run inverse-demand curves in order to predict qualitatively and quantitatively the impacts of supply disruptions on Western European gas trade. In the second part, we study in detail the German gas market of the 1980's to explain the supply choices of the German retailer, and we derive interesting conclusions and insights concerning the amounts and prices of natural gas brought to the market. The last part of the paper is dedicated to a study of the Bulgarian gas market, which is greatly dependent on the Russian gas supplies and hence very sensitive to interruption risks. Some interesting conclusions are derived concerning the necessity to economically regulate the market, by means of gas amounts control, if the disruption probability is high enough. (authors)

  15. Greenhouse gas emission curves for advanced biofuel supply chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daioglou, Vassilis; Doelman, Jonathan C.; Stehfest, Elke; Müller, Christoph; Wicke, Birka; Faaij, Andre; van Vuuren, Detlef P.

    2017-12-01

    Most climate change mitigation scenarios that are consistent with the 1.5-2 °C target rely on a large-scale contribution from biomass, including advanced (second-generation) biofuels. However, land-based biofuel production has been associated with substantial land-use change emissions. Previous studies show a wide range of emission factors, often hiding the influence of spatial heterogeneity. Here we introduce a spatially explicit method for assessing the supply of advanced biofuels at different emission factors and present the results as emission curves. Dedicated crops grown on grasslands, savannahs and abandoned agricultural lands could provide 30 EJBiofuel yr-1 with emission factors less than 40 kg of CO2-equivalent (CO2e) emissions per GJBiofuel (for an 85-year time horizon). This increases to 100 EJBiofuel yr-1 for emission factors less than 60 kgCO2e GJBiofuel-1. While these results are uncertain and depend on model assumptions (including time horizon, spatial resolution, technology assumptions and so on), emission curves improve our understanding of the relationship between biofuel supply and its potential contribution to climate change mitigation while accounting for spatial heterogeneity.

  16. Gas supply during fluidization of spherical particles in FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Kyung Chai; Eom, Sung Ho; Kim, Yeon Ku; Kim, Woong Ki; Kim, Young Min; Lee, Young Woo; Cho, Moon Seong

    2011-11-01

    Calculations of gas flow requirements and of other related parameters in the fluidized-bed process used to coat nuclear fuel particles are presented. These data include: volumes and surfaces of spheres for diameters of 50 to 500μm: number of theses spheres in 1 g for densities of 2 to 11 g/cm 3 : overall densities of coated spheres for initial particle diameters of 50 to 500μm, initial densities of 8 to 11 g/cm 3 , coating densities of 1.0 to 2.2 g/cm 3 , and final particle diameters of 100 to 1000μm: viscosities of Ar, CO 2 , He, and H 2 for temperatures up to 2200 .deg. C: minimum flows of He and Ar necessary to fluidized nuclear fuel particles at 20 .deg. C: coefficients for converting the 20 .deg. C minimum fluidization gas flows to high-temperature flows (up to 2200 .deg. C): variation of particle diameter with time for constant weight deposition rate: variation of coating gas flow for constant linear growth of the coating: comparison of coating time at constant weight deposition rate and at constant coating growth rate

  17. Electricity and gas market design to supply the German transport sector with hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinius, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The German government has set targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 40% by 2020, 55% by 2030, 70% by 2040 and 80-95% by 2050 compared to 1990 as reference year. As well as meeting other requirements, these targets can be achieved by raising the contribution of renewably-generated power to Germany's gross electricity consumption to 80% by 2050. Based on Germany's potential, intermittent energy sources (IES) such as on- and offshore wind, as well as photovoltaics, are necessary sources that must be utilized in order to achieve these ambitious targets. Because of the intermittency of these sources, there will be times in which surplus power generated could be used for example for the transport sector. During these periods of surplus power, the storage capacity of hydrogen allows for a socalled ''power-to-gas'' concept whereby the surplus power can be used to produce hydrogen and oxygen by means of electrolyzers. The aim of this thesis is to identify and develop a market design that is characterized by high penetration levels of IES, supplemented by the use of hydrogen in the transport sector. Furthermore, the aim was to develop a model in which the electricity and gas sector, including a hydrogen pipeline grid, is represented so as to analyze and validate selected market designs. Therefore, potential electricity and gas markets, as well as the most important potential share and stakeholders of a hydrogen infrastructure, are analyzed. With the model developed in this thesis, an existing energy concept has been developed, analyzed and evaluated. In addition, the distribution of the hydrogen production costs was calculated by employing a Monte Carlo Simulation analysis. The developed energy concept relies on 170 GW onshore and 60 GW offshore wind capacity and these dominate the model. This leads to surplus power, especially in the federal states of Lower Saxony, Schleswig-Holstein and Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. To supply the

  18. Energy and greenhouse-gas emissions in irrigated agriculture of SE (southeast) Spain. Effects of alternative water supply scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Gorriz, B.; Soto-García, M.; Martínez-Alvarez, V.

    2014-01-01

    Global warming is leading to a water resources decrease in the Mediterranean basin, where future farming resilience depends on incorporating alternative water sources and improving water-energy use efficiency. This paper assesses water and energy consumption when natural water sources are partially replaced by desalinated sea water. Initially, energy consumption, water supply and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions were recorded for the current farming practices in SE (southeast) Spain. The results of our study indicate that citrus orchards have the lowest energy consumption and GHG emissions. Annual vegetables were the least energy efficient crops. Subsequently, two alternative water supply scenarios were analysed, in which the reduction of natural water resources associated to climate change was compensated with desalinated sea water. The use of 16.8% of desalinated seawater would increase energy consumption by 32.4% and GHG emissions by 19.6%, whereas for the use of 26.5% of desalinated seawater such increases would amount to 50.0% and 30.3%, respectively. Therefore maintaining irrigated agriculture in water-stressed regions by incorporating high energy demanding non-traditional water sources could negatively contribute to combat global warming. - Highlights: • Water supply, energy consumption and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions in irrigated agriculture are very connected. • The use of desalinated sea water will increase the energy consumption, and GHG emissions will rise. • The use of non-traditional water resources enhances global warming processes. • Citrus orchards are the less sensitive crop to alternative water supplied scenarios. • Artichoke is the most sensitive crop to alternative water supplied scenarios

  19. Timing is everything : western Canada natural gas supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, R.

    1998-01-01

    The issue of the energy market's ability to support Western Canadian pipeline expansion projects was re-visited. Related topics discussed included the ex-basin transportation bottleneck, the large 'basis' differential, estimates of the magnitude of impact on 'basis', trends in drilling and the decline in well productivity. The conclusions drawn from the analysis were that drilling activity must remain high, that more gas-directed drilling was needed, along with a reduction in drilling time. A shift towards more exploratory drilling and higher quality reserves further north and west was recommended to 'fill the pipes'. 2 tabs., 5 figs

  20. The development of natural gas supply costs to Europe, the United States and Japan in a globalizing gas market-Model-based analysis until 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochner, Stefan; Bothe, David

    2009-01-01

    Quickly declining natural gas reserves in some parts of the world, increasing demand in today's major gas consuming regions, the emergence of new demand centres and the globalization of natural gas markets caused by the rising importance of liquefied natural gas (LNG) are changing global gas supply structures and will continue to do so over the next decades. Applying a global gas market model, we produce a forecast for global gas supply to 2030 and determine the supplier-specific long-run average costs of gas supplied to three major consuming regions. Results for the three regions are compared and analysed with a focus on costs, supply diversification and the different roles of LNG. We find that while European and Japanese external gas supply will be less diversified in international comparison, gas can be supplied at relatively low costs due to the regions' favourable locations in geographic proximity to large gas producers. The US market's supply structure on the other hand will significantly change from its current situation. The growing dependency on LNG imports from around the world will lead to significantly higher supply costs but will also increase diversification as gas will originate from an increasing number of LNG exporting countries

  1. Gas production strategy of underground coal gasification based on multiple gas sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tianhong, Duan; Zuotang, Wang; Limin, Zhou; Dongdong, Li

    2014-01-01

    To lower stability requirement of gas production in UCG (underground coal gasification), create better space and opportunities of development for UCG, an emerging sunrise industry, in its initial stage, and reduce the emission of blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas, this paper, for the first time, puts forward a new mode of utilization of multiple gas sources mainly including ground gasifier gas, UCG gas, blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas and the new mode was demonstrated by field tests. According to the field tests, the existing power generation technology can fully adapt to situation of high hydrogen, low calorific value, and gas output fluctuation in the gas production in UCG in multiple-gas-sources power generation; there are large fluctuations and air can serve as a gasifying agent; the gas production of UCG in the mode of both power and methanol based on multiple gas sources has a strict requirement for stability. It was demonstrated by the field tests that the fluctuations in gas production in UCG can be well monitored through a quality control chart method.

  2. Gas Production Strategy of Underground Coal Gasification Based on Multiple Gas Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Tianhong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To lower stability requirement of gas production in UCG (underground coal gasification, create better space and opportunities of development for UCG, an emerging sunrise industry, in its initial stage, and reduce the emission of blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas, this paper, for the first time, puts forward a new mode of utilization of multiple gas sources mainly including ground gasifier gas, UCG gas, blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas and the new mode was demonstrated by field tests. According to the field tests, the existing power generation technology can fully adapt to situation of high hydrogen, low calorific value, and gas output fluctuation in the gas production in UCG in multiple-gas-sources power generation; there are large fluctuations and air can serve as a gasifying agent; the gas production of UCG in the mode of both power and methanol based on multiple gas sources has a strict requirement for stability. It was demonstrated by the field tests that the fluctuations in gas production in UCG can be well monitored through a quality control chart method.

  3. Simulating security of supply effects of the Nabucco and South Stream projects for the European natural gas market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieckhoener, Caroline

    2010-12-15

    Due to the increasing European import dependency, significant additional natural gas volumes will be required. In addition to the Nord Stream pipeline, the Nabucco and South Stream pipeline are projects planned for the next decade to provide further gas supplies to the European market. As one of the European Union's energy policies' foci is security of supply, the question can be raised if and how these projects contribute to this objective not only in terms of diversification but also in case of supply disruptions such as occurred in 2009 during the Russia-Ukraine gas crisis. This paper discusses the impact of these two major gas import pipeline projects on the South-Eastern Europe gas supply and analyzes their effects on gas flows and marginal cost prices in general and in case of gas supply disruptions via Ukraine in a model-based analysis with the European natural gas infrastructure and dispatch model TIGER. (orig.)

  4. Supply of Prague with heat from a nuclear heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poul, F.

    1976-01-01

    The proposals are discussed of supplying Prague, the Czechoslovak Capital, with nuclear reactor-generated heat energy. The proposals meet the requirements of the general urban plan of development. The first nuclear heating plant is to be sited in the Kojetice locality, in the northern Prague suburb. It will be commissioned by 1984 and 1985. It is estimated that the maximum heat output in form of hot water will be 821 MW. By 1995 the construction of the second nuclear heating plant should be started southeast or east of Prague. The connection of these two nuclear plants to the hot water mains together with other conventional heating plants will secure the heat supply for Prague and its new housing estates and industrial works. (Oy)

  5. An emerging economic view of world natural gas demand and supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorsett, W.H.; Ackerman, G.B.

    1992-01-01

    Natural gas is swiftly moving from a locally traded commodity in regional markets to a globally traded commodity. This paper describes a numerical model of international gas trade which evaluates the effects of inter- and intra-regional gas trade on demand, supply and price. Preliminary evidence indicates natural gas prices are 15 to 30% lower in real terms when inter-regional trade occurs and local consumption of natural gas increases relative to fuel oil in the local market. Natural gas developers or marketers that explicitly consider the inter-regional impacts of gas trade will have a greater likelihood of understanding the risks in marginal projects and are more likely to embrace economic projects and eschew noneconomic projects

  6. Cross-functional Sourcing Teams – A Purchasing and Supply Management Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Peder Lysholm

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic literature review of scientific papers on cross-functional sourcing teams in top journals within Purchasing and Supply Management. The review identifies four common research topics within the field; Determining factors of sourcing team success, Performance...... management/goals of sourcing teams, Behavior and decisions in sourcing teams and Involvement of purchasing in sourcing teams. Further research on Performance Management and how to create a holistic, teams based perspective in cross-functional sourcing teams is suggested....

  7. Brookhaven National Laboratory source water assessment for drinking water supply wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D.B.; Paquette, D.E.; Klaus, K.; Dorsch, W.R.

    2000-01-01

    The BNL water supply system meets all water quality standards and has sufficient pumping and storage capacity to meet current and anticipated future operational demands. Because BNL's water supply is drawn from the shallow Upper Glacial aquifer, BNL's source water is susceptible to contamination. The quality of the water supply is being protected through (1) a comprehensive program of engineered and operational controls of existing aquifer contamination and potential sources of new contamination, (2) groundwater monitoring, and (3) potable water treatment. The BNL Source Water Assessment found that the source water for BNL's Western Well Field (comprised of Supply Wells 4, 6, and 7) has relatively few threats of contamination and identified potential sources are already being carefully managed. The source water for BNL's Eastern Well Field (comprised of Supply Wells 10, 11, and 12) has a moderate number of threats to water quality, primarily from several existing volatile organic compound and tritium plumes. The g-2 Tritium Plume and portions of the Operable Unit III VOC plume fall within the delineated source water area for the Eastern Well Field. In addition, portions of the much slower migrating strontium-90 plumes associated with the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor, Waste Concentration Facility and Building 650 lie within the Eastern source water area. However, the rate of travel in the aquifer for strontium-90 is about one-twentieth of that for tritium and volatile organic compounds. The Laboratory has been carefully monitoring plume migration, and has made adjustments to water supply operations. Although a number of BNL's water supply wells were impacted by VOC contamination in the late 1980s, recent routine analysis of water samples from BNL's supply wells indicate that no drinking water standards have been reached or exceeded. The high quality of the water supply strongly indicates that the operational and engineered controls implemented over the past

  8. Current supply/demand outlook and its impact on gas marketing strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maffitt, D.

    1994-01-01

    The current supply/demand outlook for natural gas in Canada is discussed, starting with a review of natural gas supply trends since the deregulation of the market in 1985/86. Market demand trends and expansion of export pipeline capacity are summarized to demonstrate how radically the North American gas marketing industry has changed in the last decade. As of January 1st 1993, Canada ranked eleventh in the world with respect to remaining natural gas reserves (96 Tft 3 ), which represents only 2% of global gas reserves. Canada ranks third in gas production (5 Tft 3 /y), behind the USA and former Soviet Union (19 and 29 Tft 3 /y, respectively). In western Canada, gas production rates have increased 75% since deregulation. Canadian domestic demand has grown 24% since 1985 to the 1993 level of 2.1 Tft 3 /y, while exports to the USA have grown 144% to 2.2 Tft 3 /y. The present environment requires a 'just in time' attitude towards developing new gas reserves and arranging transportation and storage. Long term gas marketing transacations are increasingly deliverability-based, firm delivery commitments which include harsh penalties for nonperformance. 7 figs

  9. Long term Gas Supply Security in an Enlarged Europe. Final Report ENGAGED Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Oostvoorn, F.; Likachev, V.; Morgan, T.

    2004-12-01

    The title project concerned a study on the long-term gas supply security in Europe with a focus on the developments, risks and policies in the candidate countries in Eastern Europe. For that reason the report not only includes a European and EU-30 wide scenario analysis but also chapters on specific topics. One study (a chapter in this report) concerns the gas market and regulation developments in a number of relevant candidate countries. Another chapter presents a Russian vision on gas demand, production and supplies from Russia and also includes a paragraph on the supplies from other neighbours and the transit issues in the Ukraine. Finally, the report contains a chapter discussing the required network infrastructure for bringing the gas from external gas suppliers to the EU-30 markets. Hereby it analysis and tests the network flexibility to cope with some unlikely and unexpected supply interruptions in main pipelines to EU markets. The background information of the studies underlying the chapters can be partly found in the annexes and in the individual task reports. During the project the results of the study were discussed at several seminars in candidate countries and particularly on the final seminar in Prague, in June 2003, with different and important stakeholders and market actors

  10. Influence of reactive gas admixture on transition metal cluster nucleation in a gas aggregation cluster source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Tilo; Polonskyi, Oleksandr; Gojdka, Björn; Mohammad Ahadi, Amir; Strunskus, Thomas; Zaporojtchenko, Vladimir; Biederman, Hynek; Faupel, Franz

    2012-12-01

    We quantitatively assessed the influence of reactive gases on the formation processes of transition metal clusters in a gas aggregation cluster source. A cluster source based on a 2 in. magnetron is used to study the production rate of titanium and cobalt clusters. Argon served as working gas for the DC magnetron discharge, and a small amount of reactive gas (oxygen and nitrogen) is added to promote reactive cluster formation. We found that the cluster production rate depends strongly on the reactive gas concentration for very small amounts of reactive gas (less than 0.1% of total working gas), and no cluster formation takes place in the absence of reactive species. The influence of discharge power, reactive gas concentration, and working gas pressure are investigated using a quartz micro balance in a time resolved manner. The strong influence of reactive gas is explained by a more efficient formation of nucleation seeds for metal-oxide or nitride than for pure metal.

  11. Availability of the electrical supply system of emergency sources of 900-MW pressurized water nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blin, A.

    A study made by CEA and EDF on the time-dependent probability of simultaneous loss of the electrical supply system from emergency sources is reported. Aspects covered include the availability of the electrical supply system in all possible conditions (2 available external sources, 1 available external source...) and the probability for repair after total loss of supply sources

  12. Modeling of gas flow in the simulation of H- ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogasawara, M.; Okuda, Y.; Shirai, M.; Mitsuhashi, S.; Hatayama, A.

    1996-01-01

    Actual gas supply into the ion source is modeled. Filling pressure is related to gas flow rate and conductance of the H - extraction system. The rate equation for the H 2 molecule with gas inflow and outflow rates related with the filling pressure are employed in the numerical simulation of a negative hydrogen ion source. With the results of numerical simulation, the H number conservation relation and pressure balance equation are shown to be inaccurate especially for higher electron temperature. Actually for 5 eV of electron temperature, lost H 2 density amounts to 79% and the pressure becomes 5 times the original pressure of 5 mTorr. Even for a low pressure of 3 mTorr, the lost fraction is 67% for 5 eV of the electron temperature. This inaccuracy is large in high power and even for low pressure operation of the ion source. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  13. Source Location of Noble Gas Plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, I.; Ungar, K.; Bourgouin, P.; Yee, E.; Wotawa, G.

    2015-01-01

    In radionuclide monitoring, one of the most significant challenges from a verification or surveillance perspective is the source location problem. Modern monitoring/surveillance systems employ meteorological source reconstruction — for example, the Fukushima accident, CRL emissions analysis and even radon risk mapping. These studies usually take weeks to months to conduct, involving multidisciplinary teams representing meteorology; dispersion modelling; radionuclide sampling and metrology; and, when relevant, proper representation of source characteristics (e.g., reactor engineering expertise). Several different approaches have been tried in an attempt to determine useful techniques to apply to the source location problem and to develop rigorous methods that combine all potentially relevant observations and models to identify a most probable source location and size with uncertainties. The ultimate goal is to understand the utility and limitations of these techniques so they can transition from R&D to operational tools. (author)

  14. Electricity supply, district heating and supply of natural and gasworks gas 2011; El-, gas- och fjaerrvaermefoersoerjningen 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Decline in electricity use: The final consumption of electricity in the country (excluding losses) amounted in 2011 to 130.6 TWh. It meant a decline of 3.4 percent compared with the year before. The industry's use grew by 0.9 percent to 53.8 TWh. Household use (permanent housing and second homes) declined to 33.7 TWh (-9.6 percent). While other application within the service sector and public administration declined to 43.0 TWh (-3.2 percent). Increase in electricity generation: Electricity generation increased in 2011. Net production increased by 1.8 percent to 147.5 TWh, compared with the previous year. The largest increase observed for wind power, which rose by 74.2 percent to 6.1 TWh. Water power was virtually unchanged (66.7 TWh). The conventional thermal power dropped to 16.8 TWh, a decline of 11.9 percent. Nuclear power increased by 4.3 percent to 58.0 TWh. Power exchanges with foreign countries gave in 2011 a surplus of 7.2 TWh. Reduced heating supplies: Deliveries of heat to the final use declined in 2011. Delivered-na totaled 48.1 TWh, which represents a decrease of 16.1 percent compared with the year before.

  15. Natural gas industry optimistic for U.S. and Canadian supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    According to a survey conducted by the Ziff Energy Group, industry insiders are optimistic about natural gas supply and demand during 2000. The survey, which was designed to provide an integrated description of the North American gas industry from wellhead to burner tip, covered 124 companies across North America. Slightly more than half of the U.S. respondents expect to produce at least five per cent more natural gas in 2000 than the previous year, while 19 per cent of the respondents expect production increases to exceed 15 per cent. Among Canadian respondents, some 70 per cent expect production to increase five per cent; another 25 per cent anticipate increases in production to reach or exceed 15 per cent. Canadian natural gas export to the United States are expected to grow by up to 700 million cubic feet per day by almost 50 per cent of Canadian respondents; one third of the respondents expect exports to increase by 700 to 900 million cubic feet per day. Growth in U.S. demand for natural gas are predicted to be moderate in 2000, and increase somewhat in 2001. Canadian growth in sales is expected to be in the one-to-two per cent range. Few of the respondents expect gas prices to decline, and few are concerned that gas prices may put sales at risk. The majority of respondents believe that gas supply growth poses the greatest challenge to increasing pipeline capacity

  16. Source of high-voltage power supply for ozone generators at glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruev, A.A.; Golota, V.I.; Zavada, L.M.; Taran, G.V.

    2000-01-01

    High-voltage power supply source on quasi-resonance inverter base which works at direct current regime is described. This source forms 20 kV voltage with 0 - 10 mA current regulation. It protects the source from current break-downs and feeds ozone generators at glow discharge

  17. Geogenic sources of benzene in aquifers used for public supply, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Matthew K.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Statistical evaluation of two large statewide data sets from the California State Water Board's Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment Program (1973 wells) and the California Department of Public Health (12417 wells) reveals that benzene occurs infrequently (1.7%) and at generally low concentrations (median detected concentration of 0.024 μg/L) in groundwater used for public supply in California. When detected, benzene is more often related to geogenic (45% of detections) than anthropogenic sources (27% of detections). Similar relations are evident for the sum of 17 hydrocarbons analyzed. Benzene occurs most frequently and at the highest concentrations in old, brackish, and reducing groundwater; the detection frequency was 13.0% in groundwater with tritium 1600 μS/cm, and anoxic conditions. This groundwater is typically deep (>180 m). Benzene occurs somewhat less frequently in recent, shallow, and reducing groundwater; the detection frequency was 2.6% in groundwater with tritium ≥1 pCi/L, depth <30 m, and anoxic conditions. Evidence for geogenic sources of benzene include: higher concentrations and detection frequencies with increasing well depth, groundwater age, and proximity to oil and gas fields; and higher salinity and lower chloride/iodide ratios in old groundwater with detections of benzene, consistent with interactions with oil-field brines.

  18. Papers of the Canadian Institute's forum on natural gas purchasing strategies : critical information for natural gas consumers in a time of diminishing natural gas supplies and higher prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This conference provided insight into how to prosper in an increasingly complex natural gas marketplace. The presentations from key industry players offered valuable information on natural gas purchasing strategies that are working in the current volatile price environment. Diminishing natural gas supplies in North America mean that higher prices and volatility will continue. Other market challenges stem from potential cost increases in gas transportation, unbundling of natural gas services, and the changing energy marketing environment. The main factors that will affect prices for the winter of 2004 were outlined along with risk management and the best pricing strategies for businesses. The key strategies for managing the risks associated with natural gas purchase contracts were also reviewed, along with the issue of converging natural gas and electricity markets and the impact on energy consumers. The conference featured 15 presentations, of which 4 have been indexed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  19. Russian gas price reform and the EU-Russia gas relationship: Incentives, consequences and European security of supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spanjer, Aldo

    2007-01-01

    In order to provide a comprehensive picture on the relationship between Russia and the EU, the focus should be on both the external energy relationship as well as Russia's internal organization. This paper sets out to do this by combining both strands of research in order to arrive at recommendations for Europe on the way to adjust its energy policy towards Russia. The emphasis is on whether or not Russia should impose unified gas pricing. Main conclusions are that the perceived advantages of unified Russian gas pricing to Russia as well as Europe are in fact overstated and that EU security of supply might worsen under unified gas prices. Three policy recommendations are that EU policy should (1) more explicitly acknowledge the interdependence between Russia and Europe; (2) not push Russia towards unified gas pricing; and (3) not take for granted any increase in Russian exports flowing to Europe

  20. The Study on Global Oil and Gas Supply and Demand undertaken by the National Petroleum Council

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slutz, James

    2007-07-01

    The National Petroleum Council (NPC) Study on Global Oil and Gas is one of the most comprehensive studies on global oil and gas supply and demand projections ever undertaken to date. This study comprises approximately 250 experts from industry, government, research institutions, academia, energy ministries from around the world, national oil companies, and non-government organizations. The NPC study team has collected and analyzed global data on supply and demand trends through the year 2030. While other studies have examined the economic, environmental, security and geo-policy implications of the oil and gas supply and demand picture, this study examines all three political priorities simultaneously. The multi-dimensional foundations of the policy recommendations, and the diverse expertise of study group members, results in findings which are truly unique, and separate this study from numerous previous studies on global oil and gas supply and demand. Although key findings and policy recommendations will not be released prior to the study's release in June of 2007, the following paper provides the scope of work and the detailed project plan that will result in an energy outlook that is differentiated from all recent studies.

  1. How should communal gas supply be organized?; Wie muss eine kommunale Gasversorgung organisiert sein?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolters, T.

    2000-06-01

    Reliable gas supply requires a reliable and economical organisational and procedural structure. These aspects were discussed theoretically and with the aid of examples in a diploma thesis which received a DVGW award. [German] Eine sichere Gasversorgung verlangt auch nach einer planvollen und angemessenen Aufbau- und Ablauforganisation eines Unternehmens. In einer vom DVGW ausgezeichneten Diplomarbeit wurden diese Aspekte theoretisch und an Beispielen eroertert. (orig.)

  2. Manufacturing Improvement Program for the Oil and Gas Industry Supply Chain and Marketing Cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Robert [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)

    2016-09-28

    This project supported upgrades for manufacturing companies in the oil and natural gas supply chain in Oklahoma. The goal is to provide assistance that will lead to the improved efficiency advancement of the manufacturing processes currently used by the existing manufacturing clients. The basis for the work is to improve the economic environment for the clients and the communities they serve.

  3. Calculation of nonstationary gas-dynamic flows with periodic local supply of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailova, N.V.; Myshetskaya, E.E.; Rakhimov, A.T.; Favorskii, A.P.

    The paper considers the motion of a flow of gas with local supply of energy periodic in time. Solution of the problem in one-dimensional formulation in the approximation of an ideal nonviscous non-heat-conducting gas is carried out by numerical methods. The possibility of emergence of the flow into a periodic regime is established and the rate of this process is calculated. The character of the periodic structure is investigated in dependence on the frequency of the superimposition of perturbations and the Mach number in unperturbed flow of the gas

  4. Russian gas export strategy and security of supply concerns in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    Despite great publicity given to security of supply problems associated with Russian gas exports to Europe, these problems seem to be manageable. While the risk of short term technical breakdown exists, we are more likely to see a significant increase in Russian gas exports to Europe, than a significant fall. Increases could be achieved in the short term by moving more gas through the existing infrastructure. The restructuring of sales and transit relationships between Russia and other former Soviet republics (especially the Ukraine) as well as former CMEA member states in Central/Eastern Europe will be very important if export relationships are to be maintained and expanded. 7 refs., 1 tab

  5. Long-term trends in US gas supply and prices: 1993 edition of the GRI baseline projection of US energy supply and demand to 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, T.J.

    1993-03-01

    A Summary of the gas supply outlook in the 1993 Edition of the GRI Baseline Projection of U.S. Energy Supply and Demand, adopted as a major input to the planning cycle of the 1994 research and development program, is presented. Significant changes were made in developing the gas supply and price trends for the 1993 edition of the projection. The GRI Hydrocarbon Model was expanded to include the Canadian hydrocarbon resource base. Thus, Canadian and lower-48 gas production and prices were developed on a fully integrated basis in the 1993 projection. The lower-48 hydrocarbon resource estimate was increased, reflecting the results of the recent National Petroleum Council gas study and ongoing GRI resource work. The effects of new technology and practice on drilling costs and exploration efficiency were included for the first time. Appendices include comparisons of supply and price trends

  6. Investigation of Solar and Solar-Gas Thermal Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Herec; Jan Zupa

    2003-01-01

    The article deals with the investigation of solar thermal sources of electrical and heat energy as well as the investigation of hybrid solar-gas thermal sources of electrical and heat energy (so called photothermal sources). Photothermal sources presented here utilize computer-controlled injection of the conversion fluid into special capillary porous substance that is adjusted to direct temperature treatment by the concentrated thermal radiation absorption.

  7. Long term natural gas supply in North America: prospects for mexican exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elizalde Baltierra, A.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this work is to discuss the most important factors and uncertainties likely to affect future Mexican natural gas exports to the United States. Firstly, we study the long term natural gas supply/demand balance in North America over the period from 2000 to 2020. Secondly, we analyze the main driving forces determining future natural gas supply and demand in Mexico, which also allows us to discuss the prospects for Mexican gas exports. Finally, our analysis suggests that: in the short and medium term (2000-2010), Mexico will probably continue to increase imports of USA gas in order to satisfy increasing demand and will probably not export large volumes of gas to the USA; in the long term (2020-2020), Mexico could resume exports to the USA in sizeable quantities. Two main conditions appear necessary to resume exports: Premex's budgetary constraints should be relaxed and/or new foreign investment should be able to participate in the Mexican upstream oil and gas sector. (author)

  8. Geopolitics of European natural gas demand: Supplies from Russia, Caspian and the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilgin, Mert

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses issues of natural gas which raise questions about European energy security. It first focuses on the rising gas demand of the EU27 and elaborates alleged risks of dependence on Russia such as Gazprom's disagreement with Ukraine, which became an international gas crisis in January 2006 and also more recently in January 2009. Incentives and barriers of Europe's further cooperation with selected Caspian (Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan) and Middle Eastern (Iran, Iraq and Egypt) countries are discussed. Supplies from Caspian are analyzed with a particular focus on Russia's role and the vested interests in the region. Supplies from the Middle East are elaborated with regard to Iran's huge and Iraq's emerging potentials in terms of natural gas reserves and foreign direct investments in the energy sector. The geopolitical analysis leads to a conclusion that the best strategy, and what seems more likely, for the EU is to include at least two countries from Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Iran and Iraq within its natural gas supply system.

  9. Supply prospects and network integration in the European natural gas sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, B.

    1998-01-01

    At least for the next 10-15 years, natural gas will be the fastest growing energy form in Europe, with a higher rate of growth in consumption (from a lower base) in central Europe than in western Europe. Although most of the prospective demand until 2010 is covered by signed import contracts and indigenous production, important additional gas supply capacity still has to be developed out of a plenitude of reserves within and (in the long run primarily) outside western and central Europe. The real problem is how to mobilise the reserves economically and direct them towards the European market, in competition with other markets. Europe has a sophisticated transmission system whose development has gone hand-in-hand with long-term import agreements. Among the missing links is the Interconnector, which, at the end of 1998, is due to integrate the UK and Ireland into mainland Europe. This is expected to enhance security of supply in both areas, to balance prices and maybe also to foster ideas of liberalisation. Overall, the European gas industry is in an excellent position to develop the supply of gas in an environmentally benign way. The future belongs all the more to natural gas, the fewer the mistakes that are made when it comes to matters of legal frameworks and taxation

  10. Geopolitics of European natural gas demand: Supplies from Russia, Caspian and the Middle East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilgin, Mert, E-mail: mert.bilgin@bahcesehir.edu.t [Bahcesehir University Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Political Science and International Relations Department, Ciragan Caddesi Besiktas, 34353 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2009-11-15

    This paper addresses issues of natural gas which raise questions about European energy security. It first focuses on the rising gas demand of the EU27 and elaborates alleged risks of dependence on Russia such as Gazprom's disagreement with Ukraine, which became an international gas crisis in January 2006 and also more recently in January 2009. Incentives and barriers of Europe's further cooperation with selected Caspian (Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan) and Middle Eastern (Iran, Iraq and Egypt) countries are discussed. Supplies from Caspian are analyzed with a particular focus on Russia's role and the vested interests in the region. Supplies from the Middle East are elaborated with regard to Iran's huge and Iraq's emerging potentials in terms of natural gas reserves and foreign direct investments in the energy sector. The geopolitical analysis leads to a conclusion that the best strategy, and what seems more likely, for the EU is to include at least two countries from Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Iran and Iraq within its natural gas supply system.

  11. Geopolitics of European natural gas demand. Supplies from Russia, Caspian and the Middle East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilgin, Mert [Bahcesehir University Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Political Science and International Relations Department, Ciragan Caddesi Besiktas, 34353 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2009-11-15

    This paper addresses issues of natural gas which raise questions about European energy security. It first focuses on the rising gas demand of the EU27 and elaborates alleged risks of dependence on Russia such as Gazprom's disagreement with Ukraine, which became an international gas crisis in January 2006 and also more recently in January 2009. Incentives and barriers of Europe's further cooperation with selected Caspian (Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan) and Middle Eastern (Iran, Iraq and Egypt) countries are discussed. Supplies from Caspian are analyzed with a particular focus on Russia's role and the vested interests in the region. Supplies from the Middle East are elaborated with regard to Iran's huge and Iraq's emerging potentials in terms of natural gas reserves and foreign direct investments in the energy sector. The geopolitical analysis leads to a conclusion that the best strategy, and what seems more likely, for the EU is to include at least two countries from Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Iran and Iraq within its natural gas supply system. (author)

  12. Improvements in gas supply systems for heavy-water moderated reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, G.; Hassig, J.M.; Laurent, N.; Thomas, B.

    1964-01-01

    In a heavy-water moderated reactor cooled by pressurized gas, an important problem from the point of view, of the reactor block and its economics is the choice of the gas supply system. In the pressure tube solution, the whole of the reactor block structure is at a relatively low temperature, whereas the gas supply equipment is at that of the gas, which is much higher. These parts, through which passes the heat carrying fluid have to present as low a resistance as possible to it so as to avoid costly extra blowing power. Finally, they may only be placed in the reactor block after it has been built; the time required for putting them in position should therefore not be too long. The work reported here concerns the various problems arising in the case of each channel being supplied individually by a tube at the entry and the exit which is connected to a main circuit made up of large size collectors. This individual tubing is sufficiently flexible to absorb the differential expansion and the movement of its ends without stresses or prohibitive reactions being produced; the tubing is also of relatively short length so as to reduce the pressure head of the pressurized gas outside the channels; the small amount of space taken up by the tubing makes it possible to assemble it in a manner which is satisfactory from the point of view both of the time required and of the technical quality. (authors) [fr

  13. Prototype tests on the ion source power supplies of the TEXTOR NI-system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goll, O.; Braunsberger, U.; Schwarz, U.

    1987-01-01

    The PINI ion source for the TEXTOR neutral injector is fed by a new modular transistorized power supply. All modules are located in a high voltage cage on 55 kV dc against ground. The normal operation of the injectors includes frequent grid breakdowns causing transient high voltage stresses on the ion source power supplies. These stresses must not disturb the safe operation of the power supplies. The paper describes the set up for extensive testing of a supply prototype module under the expected operating conditions. The main features of this test program are reviewed and the measures taken for a safe operation are discussed. As a result of the investigations, recommendations for the installation of the power supplies at the TEXTOR NI system are given

  14. Crude oil and natural gas supplies and demands up to the year AD 2010 for France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackay, R.M.; Probert, S.D.

    1995-01-01

    A novel technique for forecasting the supply and extraction life-cycle of a depleting fossil fuel resource has been developed. The supply side utilises a 'skewed-normal production-profile' model that yields a better representation than earlier approaches. A simple model for extrapolating crude oil and natural gas demands has also been devised, based on the so called 'modified logit function'. The predicted crude oil and natural gas balances for the period up to AD 2010 indicate the disparity between indigenous production and future consumption for France. These forecasts depend on current estimates of remaining oil and gas reserves. It will consequently be necessary to revise periodically the present projections as more reliable reserve estimates become available. (author)

  15. Improvement of ionizer and power supply of 860 A sputtering negative ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Kun; Yu Lingda; Wu Bingbing; Wang Guangfu

    2014-01-01

    A transmission surface type ionizer was developed with a φ2.5 mm stainless steel sheath core heating cable, and the ion source power supply was also improved. A continuous adjustable DC switching power supply was employed instead of the original AC power supply as the ionizer power supply, and a 0 - -20 kV DC power supply at the ground potential as the power of the immersion lens replaced the original 10 kV DC power supply suspended in -20 kV. The variation of the beam intensity of H"- in the front Faraday cup of the GIC4117 2 × 1.7 MV tandetron with the ionizer heating current was also shown. (authors)

  16. Cell culture chamber with gas supply for prolonged recording of human neuronal cells on microelectrode array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzer, Joose; Ylä-Outinen, Laura; Mäki, Antti-Juhana; Ristola, Mervi; Narkilahti, Susanna; Kallio, Pasi

    2017-03-15

    Typically, live cell analyses are performed outside an incubator in an ambient air, where the lack of sufficient CO 2 supply results in a fast change of pH and the high evaporation causes concentration drifts in the culture medium. That limits the experiment time for tens of minutes. In many applications, e.g. in neurotoxicity studies, a prolonged measurement of extracellular activity is, however, essential. We demonstrate a simple cell culture chamber that enables stable culture conditions during prolonged extracellular recordings on a microelectrode array (MEA) outside an incubator. The proposed chamber consists of a gas permeable silicone structure that enables gas transfer into the chamber. We show that the culture chamber supports the growth of the human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived neurons both inside and outside an incubator. The structure provides very low evaporation, stable pH and osmolarity, and maintains strong signaling of hESC-derived neuronal networks over three-day MEA experiments. Existing systems are typically complex including continuous perfusion of medium or relatively large amount of gas to supply. The proposed chamber requires only a supply of very low flow rate (1.5ml/min) of non-humidified 5% CO 2 gas. Utilizing dry gas supply makes the proposed chamber simple to use. Using the proposed culture structure on top of MEA, we can maintain hESC-derived neural networks over three days outside an incubator. Technically, the structure requires very low flow rate of dry gas supporting, however, low evaporation and maintaining the pH of the culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Russian natural gas exports-Will Russian gas price reforms improve the European security of supply?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagen, Eirik Lund; Tsygankova, Marina

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we use both theoretical and numerical tools to study potential effects on Russian gas exports from different Russian domestic gas prices and production capacities in 2015. We also investigate whether a fully competitive European gas market may provide incentives for Gazprom, the dominant Russian gas company, to change its export behaviour. Our main findings suggest that both increased domestic gas prices and sufficient production capacities are vital to maintain Gazprom's market share in Europe over the next decade. In fact, Russia may struggle to carry out its current long-term export commitments if domestic prices are sufficiently low. At the same time, if Russian prices approach European net-back levels, Gazprom may reduce exports in favour of a relatively more profitable domestic market

  18. An optimization model for natural gas supply portfolios of a power generation company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jirutitijaroen, Panida; Kim, Sujin; Kittithreerapronchai, Oran; Prina, José

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► An optimization model for daily operation of a natural gas-fired generation company is proposed. ► The model considers uncertainties in electricity price and natural gas price. ► The model is formulated to capture the hedging decisions by the company. ► The solution yields quantities of natural gas, generating schedule and purchasing quantities of electricity. ► Higher profit can be achieved by adapting inventory and production to the actual spot prices of natural gas and electricity. - Abstract: This paper considers a deregulated electricity market environment where a natural gas-fired generation company can engage in different types of contracts to manage its natural gas supply as well as trade on the electricity market. If the contracts are properly designed, they can protect the company from fluctuations in electricity price and demand, at some cost to the company’s expected profit. This reduction in profit can be mitigated by trading on the natural gas and electricity spot markets, but this trading activity may also sometimes result in losses. A stochastic programming model is formulated to capture the hedging decisions made by the company, as well as the interactions between the natural gas and electricity markets. The benefits offered by this approach for profit maximization in a variety of business scenarios, such as the case where the company can hold some amount of gas in storage are studied and presented. It is found that the stochastic model enables the company to optimize the electricity generation schedule and the natural gas consumption, including spot price transactions and gas storage management. Several managerial insights into the natural gas market, natural gas storage, and distribution profit are given

  19. Comparing sourcing strategies in two-echelon supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajadieh, Mohsen S.; Thorstenson, Anders; Akbari Jokar, Mohammad R.

    at a constant rate, and an (r, Q) policy is used to generate replenishment orders. The vendors have a finite production rate and ship to the buyer in equal-sized batches. The delivery lead time is stochastic. Shortages are allowed at the buyer's side and are fully backordered. The cost function comprises five...... elements: inventory holding costs at the buyer and the vendors, backorder costs and ordering costs at the buyer, and setup costs at the vendors. The objective is to minimize the total system costs incurred by the buyer and the vendors. As there is no dominating combined strategy, a major finding...... is that determining the best strategy requires a detailed analysis. Furthermore, when total system costs are taken into account, dual sourcing does not appear as beneficial as sometimes claimed in the literature on lot splitting....

  20. Gas discharge ion source. I. Duoplasmatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacon, F.M.

    1978-01-01

    The effects of the plasma expansion cup on the operation of a duoplasmatron ion source have been investigated by measuring the total ion current and the distributions of the ion energy, mass, and current density. A copper expansion cup did not affect the magnetic field near the anode of the ion source and consequently the ion current density distribution was sharply peaked near the center of the cup. Ion energy distributions were approximately symmetrical about anode potential. The dominant ionic species were D + 3 and D + at low and high arc currents, respectively. Changes in the electrical potential of the copper cup with respect to the anode produced negligible changes in the above data. A mild steel plasma expansion cup caused the magnetic field to diverge and intercept the cup walls, resulting in ion current density distributions that were flatter and more amenable to focusing than the ones with the copper cup. With the steel cup at anode potential, the ion mass distribution was similar to that from the copper cup; however, the ion energy distribution was asymmetrical about the anode potential with a peak about 10-20 V above anode potential. The total ion current from this mode of operation was about one-third the value from the copper cup. If the steel cup assumed floating potential, about 50 V below anode potential, the total current increased to the level observed from the copper cup and the ion energy distribution was similar to that observed with the copper cup but the current density distribution was much flatter than that of the copper cup. The ion mass distribution was 60%-70% atomic ions over the entire arc current range investigated. Based on these data, a modified plasma expansion cup was designed with tapered steel walls lined with a boron nitride insert. The overall performance of the duoplasmatron ion source with this cup was superior to any of the previous three modes of operation

  1. Backup Sourcing Decisions for Coping with Supply Disruptions under Long-Term Horizons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Hou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies a buyer’s inventory control problem under a long-term horizon. The buyer has one major supplier that is prone to disruption risks and one backup supplier with higher wholesale price. Two kinds of sourcing methods are available for the buyer: single sourcing with/without contingent supply and dual sourcing. In contingent sourcing, the backup supplier is capacitated and/or has yield uncertainty, whereas in dual sourcing the backup supplier has an incentive to offer output flexibility during disrupted periods. The buyer’s expected cost functions and the optimal base-stock levels using each sourcing method under long-term horizon are obtained, respectively. The effects of three risk parameters, disruption probability, contingent capacity or uncertainty, and backup flexibility, are examined using comparative studies and numerical computations. Four sourcing methods, namely, single sourcing with contingent supply, dual sourcing, and single sourcing from either of the two suppliers, are also compared. These findings can be used as a valuable guideline for companies to select an appropriate sourcing strategy under supply disruption risks.

  2. Future Oil and Gas Resources of the World: A Coming Supply Crisis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbrandt, T. S.

    2002-05-01

    Is the world running out of oil? Where will future oil and gas supplies come from? To help answer these questions, the U.S. Geological Survey completed in 2000 a new assessment of the undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources and potential additions to reserves from field growth. One hundred and twenty-eight provinces were assessed in a 100 man-year effort from 1995-2000. The assessed provinces included 76 priority provinces containing 95 percent of the world's discovered oil and gas and an additional 52 "boutique" provinces, many of which may be highly prospective. Total Petroleum Systems (TPS) were identified and described for each of these provinces along with associated Assessment Units (AU) that are the basic units for assessing undiscovered petroleum. The assessment process coupled geologic analysis with a probabilistic methodology to estimate remaining potential. Within the 128 assessed provinces, were 159 TPS and 274 AU. For these provinces, the endowment of recoverable oil, which includes cumulative production, remaining reserves, reserve growth, and undiscovered resources is estimated at about 3 trillion barrels of oil (TBO). The natural gas endowment is estimated at 2.6 trillion barrels of oil equivalent (TBOE). Oil reserves are currently 1.1 TBO; world consumption is about .028 TBO per year. Natural gas reserves are about .8 TBOE; world consumption is about .014 TBOE. Thus, without any additional discoveries of oil, gas or natural gas liquids, we have about 2 TBOE of proved petroleum reserves. Of the oil and gas endowment of about 5.6 TBOE, we estimate that the world has consumed about 1 TBOE, or 18 percent leaving about 82 percent of endowment to be utilized or found. Half of the world's undiscovered potential is offshore. Arctic basins with about 25 percent of undiscovered petroleum resources make up the next great frontier. An additional 279 provinces contain some oil and gas and, if considered, would increase the oil and gas endowment

  3. Risk-based prioritisation of point sources through assessment of the impact on a water supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overheu, Niels D.; Tuxen, Nina; Troldborg, Mads

    2011-01-01

    vulnerability mapping, site-specific mass flux estimates on a local scale from all the sources, and 3-D catchment-scale fate and transport modelling. It handles sources at various knowledge levels and accounts for uncertainties. The tool estimates the impacts on the water supply in the catchment and provides...

  4. Commitment to and preparedness for sustainable supply chain management in the oil and gas industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Ahmad, Wan Nurul K; Rezaei, Jafar; Tavasszy, Lóránt A; de Brito, Marisa P

    2016-09-15

    Our current dependency on the oil and gas (O&G) industry for economic development and social activities necessitates research into the sustainability of the industry's supply chains. At present, studies on sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) practices in the industry do not include firm-internal factors that affect the sustainability strategies employed by different functional areas of its supply chains. Our study aims to address this gap by identifying the relevant internal factors and exploring their relationship with SSCM strategies. Specifically, we discuss the commitment to and preparedness for sustainable practices of companies that operate in upstream and downstream O&G supply chain. We study the impact of these factors on their sustainability strategies of four key supply chain functions: supplier management, production management, product stewardship and logistics management. The analyses of data collected through a survey among 81 companies show that management preparedness may enhance sustainable supply chain strategies in the O&G industry more than commitment does. Among the preparedness measures, management of supply chain operational risks is found to be vital to the sustainability of all supply chain functions except for production management practices. The findings also highlight the central importance of supplier and logistics management to the achievement of sustainable O&G supply chains. Companies must also develop an organizational culture that encourages, for example, team collaboration and proactive behaviour to finding innovative sustainability solutions in order to translate commitment to sustainable practices into actions that can produce actual difference to their SSCM practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Gas discharge ion source. II. Duopigatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacon, F.M.; Bickes, R.W. Jr.; O'Hagan, J.B.

    1978-01-01

    Ion source performance characteristics consisting of total ion current, ion energy distribution, mass distribution, and ion current density distribution have been measured for several models of a duopigatron. Variations on the duopigatron design involved plasma expansion cup material and dimensions, secondary cathode material, and interelectrode spacings. Of the designs tested, the one with a copper and molybdenum secondary cathode, and a mild steel plasma expansion cup proved to give the best results. The ion current density distribution was peaked at the center of the plasma expansion cup and fell off to 80% of the peak value at the cup wall for a cup 15.2 mm deep. A total ion current of 180 mA consisting of 60%-70% atomic ions was produced with an arc current of 20 A and source pressure of 9.3 Pa. More shallow cups produced a larger beam current and a more sharply peaked ion current density distribution. Typical ion energy distributions were bellshaped curves with a peak 10-20 V below anode potential and with ion energies extending 30-40 V on either side of the peak

  6. Backscatter absorption gas imaging systems and light sources therefore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulp, Thomas Jan [Livermore, CA; Kliner, Dahv A. V. [San Ramon, CA; Sommers, Ricky [Oakley, CA; Goers, Uta-Barbara [Campbell, NY; Armstrong, Karla M [Livermore, CA

    2006-12-19

    The location of gases that are not visible to the unaided human eye can be determined using tuned light sources that spectroscopically probe the gases and cameras that can provide images corresponding to the absorption of the gases. The present invention is a light source for a backscatter absorption gas imaging (BAGI) system, and a light source incorporating the light source, that can be used to remotely detect and produce images of "invisible" gases. The inventive light source has a light producing element, an optical amplifier, and an optical parametric oscillator to generate wavelength tunable light in the IR. By using a multi-mode light source and an amplifier that operates using 915 nm pump sources, the power consumption of the light source is reduced to a level that can be operated by batteries for long periods of time. In addition, the light source is tunable over the absorption bands of many hydrocarbons, making it useful for detecting hazardous gases.

  7. 80 K - Helium circuit with innovative, gas-bearing, oil-free turbo compressor. Conception, realization, commissioning and test of the 80 K refrigeration supply for the superconducting electron source at HZB; 80 K - Helium-Kreis mit innovativem, gasgelagertem, oelfreiem Turbokompressor. Konzeption, Realisierung, Inbetriebnahme und Test der 80 K-Kaelteversorgung fuer die supraleitenden Elektronenquelle am HZB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gloeckner, Felix [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    The system presented in this paper supplies the test module for the superconducting electron source (GunLab) at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) with 500 W cooling capacity at 80 K.Since direct evaporation of liquid nitrogen in the module is not desirable for safety reasons, the system operates with an intermediate helium circuit. In order to use not only the latent cold of liquid nitrogen, but also the sensitive component, a new concept consisting of a dual heat exchanger and a bath cryostat is used. The coldbox also contains an adjustable bypass with integrated electric heater for test purposes.A new type of warm compressor is used to circulate the helium. The turbo compressor is oil-free, gas-stored and in helium-tight semi-hermetic design. In order to take advantage of these unique properties, Fischer Engineering AG has adapted the turbo compressor for use with helium.The paper concludes with a test of the system and an insight into the current operating experience, as well as a preview of the next, larger version of bERLinPro. [German] Die in diesem Paper vorgestellte Anlage versorgt das Testmodul fuer die supraleitende Elektronenquelle (GunLab) am Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) mit 500 W Kuehlleistung bei 80 K. Da eine Direktverdampfung von Fluessigstickstoff im Modul aus Sicherheitsgruenden nicht erwuenscht ist, arbeitet die Anlage mit einem Heliumzwischenkreis. Um nicht nur die latente Kaelte des fluessigen Stickstoffs, sondern auch den sensiblen Anteil zu nutzen, wird ein neues Konzept, bestehend aus einem Dualwaermeuebertrager und einem Badkryostaten verwendet. Die Coldbox enthaelt fuer Testzwecke darueber hinaus einen regelbaren Bypass mit inte-griertem elektrischem Heizer. Fuer die Umwaelzung des Heliums kommt eine neue Art eines warmen Kompressors zum Einsatz. Der Turbokom-pressor ist oelfrei, gasgelagert und in heliumdichter halb-hermetischer Bauweise ausgefuehrt. Um dessen, in dieser Leistungsklasse einzigartigen Eigenschaften zu nutzen, wurde der

  8. A stochastic inventory management model for a dual sourcing supply chain with disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovou, Eleftherios; Vlachos, Dimitrios; Xanthopoulos, Anastasios

    2010-03-01

    As companies continue to globalise their operations and outsource significant portion of their value chain activities, they often end up relying heavily on order replenishments from distant suppliers. The explosion in long-distance sourcing is exposing supply chains and shareholder value at ever increasing operational and disruption risks. It is well established, both in academia and in real-world business environments, that resource flexibility is an effective method for hedging against supply chain disruption risks. In this contextual framework, we propose a single period stochastic inventory decision-making model that could be employed for capturing the trade-off between inventory policies and disruption risks for an unreliable dual sourcing supply network for both the capacitated and uncapacitated cases. Through the developed model, we obtain some important managerial insights and evaluate the merit of contingency strategies in managing uncertain supply chains.

  9. Korean public's preference for supply security of oil and gas and the impact of protest bidders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jihyo; Kim, Jinsoo; Kim, Yoon Kyung

    2016-01-01

    The Korean governmental support for supply security of oil and gas via overseas exploration and production (E&P) projects are publicly criticized because of some poor projects lacking of economic feasibility, even though it should be expanded from a long-term perspective. Applying the contingent valuation, this study investigates the Korean public's preferences for governmental support for overseas oil and gas E&P projects. The result shows that the governmental support for overseas E&P projects rather decreases public utility. The primary reason behind this utility decrease is that some respondents protested to bid because of their resistance toward tax increase without guaranteeing the efficient government support. This result implies that simple tax increases for expansion of the governmental support may bring about public's strong opposition. In order to overcome this public opposition, this study suggests that it is necessary to arouse public understanding of the necessity of overseas oil and gas E&P projects. - Highlights: • We investigate the Korean public's preferences for an oil and gas supply security. • The respondents are willing to pay USD 0.017 per liter of gasoline or diesel. • Governmental support for overseas E&P projects decreases the public utility. • It is need to increase public understanding of overseas oil and gas E&P projects.

  10. LNG REGASIFICATION TERMINALS ACCESS CAPACITY ANALYSIS FOR SECURITY OF EUROPEAN NATURAL GAS SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matija Veselić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing natural gas consumption, declining North Sea gas reserves, increased production costs and the deregulation of European gas and electricity markets have all combined to create new opportunities for LNG in Europe. In these circumstances, LNG represents an opportunity for many European countries to diversify their natural gas supply, while decreasing their dependence on Russian natural gas import at the same time. The largest exporters of LNG to Europe are Qatar, Algeria, Nigeria, Trinidad & Tobago, Egypt and Oman. Spain, Great Britain and France are the largest European importers of LNG. Spain has six LNG regasification terminals, followed by four in Great Britain, three in France, two in Italy and Turkey and finally Greece and Portugal with one terminal each. New LNG regasification terminals are currently under construction in Italy, Spain, Sweden and Netherlands. In addition, more than 30 new LNG terminal projects have been proposed around Europe. Italy plans to construct as many as 10 new regasification terminals, due to the strong orientation of its national energy policy towards LNG. Many European countries are strongly considering participating in the LNG chain for the first time, namely Albania, Cyprus, Ireland, Lithuania, Germany, Poland, Romania, Ukraine and Croatia. This paper focuses on a specific aspect of the LNG supply chain: the import facility (the paper is published in Croatian.

  11. Changing the Game?: Emissions and Market Implications of New Natural Gas Supplies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntington, Hillard G. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This study evaluates the channels through which shale formations and new natural gas supplies can change energy, economic and environmental opportunities within North America. It concludes that continued shale gas development within North America is likely to have more sweeping impacts on future energy prices than on the economy or the environment. This evaluation was conducted by a working group of 50 experts and advisors from a range of diverse universities, research institutes, corporations and government agencies. Support for the study’s conclusions came from 14 different expert teams using their own energy-economy models.

  12. Microwave Plasma Sources for Gas Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizeraczyk, J.; Jasinski, M.; Dors, M.; Zakrzewski, Z.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper atmospheric pressure microwave discharge methods and devices used for producing the non-thermal plasmas for processing of gases are presented. The main part of the paper concerns the microwave plasma sources (MPSs) for environmental protection applications. A few types of the MPSs, i.e. waveguide-based surface wave sustained MPS, coaxial-line-based and waveguide-based nozzle-type MPSs, waveguide-based nozzleless cylinder-type MPS and MPS for microdischarges are presented. Also, results of the laboratory experiments on the plasma processing of several highly-concentrated (up to several tens percent) volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including Freon-type refrigerants, in the moderate (200-400 W) waveguide-based nozzle-type MPS (2.45 GHz) are presented. The results showed that the microwave discharge plasma fully decomposed the VOCs at relatively low energy cost. The energy efficiency of VOCs decomposition reached 1000 g/kWh. This suggests that the microwave discharge plasma can be a useful tool for environmental protection applications. In this paper also results of the use of the waveguide-based nozzleless cylinder-type MPS to methane reforming into hydrogen are presented

  13. World crude oil and natural gas. A demand and supply model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krichene, Noureddine

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines world markets for crude oil and natural gas over the period 1918-1999; it analyzes the time-series properties of output and prices and estimates demand and supply elasticities during 1918-1973 and 1973-1999. Oil and gas prices were stable during the first period; they became volatile afterwards, reflecting deep changes in the market structure following the oil shock in 1973. Demand price elasticities were too low; however, demand income elasticities were high. Supply price elasticities were also too low. The elasticity estimates help to explain the market power of the oil producers and price volatility in response to shocks, and corroborate elasticity estimates in energy studies

  14. World crude oil and natural gas: a demand and supply model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krichene, N.

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines world markets for crude oil and natural gas over the period 1918-1999; it analyzes the time-series properties of output and prices and estimates demand and supply elasticities during 1918-1973 and 1973-1999. Oil and gas prices were stable during the first period; they became volatile afterwards, reflecting deep changes in the market structure following the oil shock in 1973. Demand price elasticities were too low; however, demand income elasticities were high. Supply price elasticities were also too low. The elasticity estimates help to explain the market power of the oil producers and price volatility in response to shocks, and corroborate elasticity estimates in energy studies. (author)

  15. Power supply for the LBL 40 keV neutral beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, W.R.; Fitzgerald, M.L.; Honey, V.J.

    1975-11-01

    A 20 keV, 50 Amp, 10 millisec pulse D 0 Neutral Beam Source at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory that serves as the prototype for 12 similar sources now in operation on the 2XIIB Mirror Machine at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory has been recently upgraded to operate at 40 keV. The system of electronically regulated and controlled power supplies that drive the Source is described

  16. Modeling and forecasting the supply of oil and gas: a survey of existing approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walls, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper surveys the literature on empirical oil and gas supply modeling. The models fall into two broad categories: geologic/engineering and econometric. Two types of geologic/engineering models are surveyed - play analysis, or simulation models and discovery process models. A third category of supply models, 'hybrids', which contain features of both econometric and discovery process models are also discussed. Particular attention is paid to whether or not the models have linkages between a dynamic model of producer optimizing behaviour and the factors governing supply of the resource; whether or not expectations of future prices, costs, and other stochastic variables are incorporated; whether the physical characteristics of non-renewable resources are captured; and how well the models perform. The paper concludes that the best path for future research efforts is a hybrid approach where the econometric component is derived from a stochastic dynamic optimization model of exploration behaviour. 51 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  17. Gas production and storage - gas transport and supply. Colloquium 7th conference proceedings; Gasfoerderung und Gasspeicherung - Gastransport und Gasversorgung. Kolloquium 7. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, S. [ed.] [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Bohrtechnik und Fluidbergbau; Koeckritz, V. [comp.

    1999-07-01

    The colloquium papers discuss trends in gas supply engineering, automtion of gas storages, liberalisation of the gas market, and gas management systems in integrated supply systems. Rock-mechanical problems of natural gas storage caverns are mentioned. Further subjects are gas extraction rom coal seams, power generation from gas in fuel cells, a model for blowout calculation of real gases, and vortex tubes in gas pressure reduction systems. 19 contributions have been recorded separately in this database. [German] Die einzelnen Beitraege des Kolloquiums befassen sich mit den Entwicklungen in der Gasversorgungstechnik, mit der Automatisierung von Gasspeichern, mit der Liberalisierung des Gasmarktes sowie mit Gasmanagementsystemen in Verbundnetzen. Neben der Gasspeicherung in Porenspeichern und Salzkavernen, deren Sicherheit und der Soleversenkung, sind Betraege zu gebirgsmechanischen Problemen in Erdgasspeicherkavernen enthalten. Weitere Themen sind die Gasfoerderung aus Steinkohlefloezen, die Energieerzeugung aus Gas in Brennstoffzellen, ein Modell zur Blowout-Berechnung realer Gase sowie Wirbelrohre in Anlagen zur Gasdruckminderung. Fuer die Datenbank Energy wurden 19 Beitraege separat aufgenommen.

  18. National greenhouse gas accounts: Current anthropogenic sources and sinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subak, S.; Raskin, P.; Hippel, David von

    1992-01-01

    This study provides spatially disaggregated estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from the major anthropogenic sources for 145 countries. The data compilation is comprehensive in approach, including emissions from CO, CH 4 , N 2 O and ten halocarbons, in addition to CO 2 . The sources include emissions from fossil fuel production and use, cement production, halocarbons, landfills, land use changes, biomass burning, rice and livestock production and fertilizer consumption. The approach used to derive these estimates corresponds closely with the simple methodologies proposed by the Greenhouse Gas Emissions Task Force of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The inventory includes a new estimate of greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion based principally on data from the International Energy Agency. The research methodologies for estimating emissions from all sources is briefly described and compared with other recent studies in the literature. (112 refs.)

  19. 41 CFR 101-26.505-3 - Requests to procure similar items from sources other than GSA supply sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Requests to procure... Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 26-PROCUREMENT SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.5-GSA Procurement Programs § 101-26...

  20. 76 FR 52652 - National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation; Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Availability of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... gas-fired turbines for compressor units A2 and A3 and restaging of centrifugal compressors for units... project includes the following facilities: A new East Aurora Compressor Station, totaling 4,470... Concord Compressor Station in Erie County, to permit bi-directional flow; Modifications to underground...

  1. Organisation of municipal gas supply; Organisation einer kommunalen Gasversorgung. Theoretische und praktische Betrachtungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolters, T.

    2000-07-01

    A safe supply of gas requires more than technically secure facilities and components. A structured and suitable organisation of the company's set-up and proceeding is necessary as well. In a diploma thesis, which was honored by the DVGW, theses aspects were treated as well in theory as well as in examples. Finally, a proposel for a gas supply company was developed which offered to translate into practice the results of the thesis. The thesis discusses issues of maintaining gas supply facilities and issues of the faultclearing service as well as aspects of the worker's protection laws. (orig.) [German] Eine sichere Gasversorgung verlangt mehr als technisch sichere Anlagen und Komponenten. Hierzu ist auch besonders eine planvolle und angemessene Aufbauorganisation und Ablauforganisation des Unternehmens notwendig. In einer vom DVGW ausgezeichneten Diplomarbeit wurden diese Aspekte theoretisch und an Beispielen erarbeitet, um letztlich einem Gasversorgungsunternehmen einen konkreten Vorschlag fuer die Umsetzung des Erarbeiteten zu unterbreiten. Fragen der Instandhaltung von Gasversorgungsanlagen und des Entstoerdienstes finden ebenso Beachtung wie die Umsetzung von Forderungen aus der Arbeitsschutzgesetzgebung. (orig.)

  2. A distribution planning model for natural gas supply chain: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamedi, Maryam; Zanjirani Farahani, Reza; Husseini, Mohammad Moattar; Esmaeilian, Gholam Reza

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a real-world case study of a natural gas supply chain is investigated. By using concepts related to natural gas industry and the relations among the components of transmission and distribution network, a six-level supply chain has been introduced and presented schematically. The defined supply chain is a single-objective, multi-period, and single-product problem that is formulated as a mixed integer non-linear programming model, which can easily be linearized. The objective of this model is to minimize direct or indirect distribution costs. There are six groups of constraints including capacity, input and output balancing, demand satisfaction, network flow continuity, and relative constraints to the required binary variables. The solution algorithm of the problem is hierarchical; in each step, one section of the problem is solved using an exact method; the outputs of this section are passed to the next relative section as inputs. Finally, it is shown that the problem has been solved in a reasonable time and desirable results are attained. The use of proposed model and its solution approach have been studied in two gas trunk lines, to present the priority of its cost saving

  3. Estimates of Future Supply of International Greenhouse Gas Offsets: A Critical Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, Peter; Lazarus, Michael (Stockholm Environment Inst. (United States)), e-mail: mlaz@sei-us.org; Kelly, Alexia (World Resources Inst., (United States))

    2010-07-01

    This report reviews estimates of the projected availability (i.e., supply) of international offsets, evaluates the various methods used and outlines factors that should be incorporated into future analyses of international offset supply and quality. U.S. policymakers have relied on offsets from developing countries as a primary form of cost containment in proposed cap-and-trade legislation. These legislative proposals allow for emitters to use up to 1.5 billion tons CO{sub 2}e of offsets from developing countries to meet their annual compliance obligations. In this paper, we review estimates of the projected availability (i.e., supply) of international offsets, and evaluate the various methods used. We find that: (1) Estimates of supply of international offsets to global markets vary widely, with estimates differing by billions of tons CO{sub 2}e annually in 2020; (2) Despite the variation, existing studies suggest that by 2020 gross international offset supply will likely exceed U.S. demand for international offsets under current Congressional cap-and-trade designs; (3) Competition with governments and entities with emission reduction obligations (e.g. the EU), as well as with policies and measures undertaken by developing countries as part of their own mitigation contributions, could reduce the net offset supply available to U.S. entities; and (4) Several important offset program design and market factors that are central to future offset markets and credit issuance (e.g., sources of offset supply, program stringency and crediting methods, establishment of international governance and market structures) have yet to be systematically considered in offset supply assessments. This paper outlines factors that should be incorporated into future analyses of international offset supply and quality. 7 Such analyses could prove particularly germane as policy makers continue to deliberate on the role of international offsets, including whether and how to recognize credits

  4. A versatile gas interface for routine radiocarbon analysis with a gas ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wacker, L., E-mail: wacker@phys.ethz.ch [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Fahrni, S.M. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Bern, 3012 Berne (Switzerland); Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, 3012 Berne (Switzerland); Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Hajdas, I. [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Molnar, M. [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Institute of Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Synal, H.-A. [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Szidat, S. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Bern, 3012 Berne (Switzerland); Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, 3012 Berne (Switzerland); Zhang, Y.L. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Bern, 3012 Berne (Switzerland); Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, 3012 Berne (Switzerland); Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), 5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2013-01-15

    In 2010 more than 600 radiocarbon samples were measured with the gas ion source at the MIni CArbon DAting System (MICADAS) at ETH Zurich and the number of measurements is rising quickly. While most samples contain less than 50 {mu}g C at present, the gas ion source is attractive as well for larger samples because the time-consuming graphitization is omitted. Additionally, modern samples are now measured down to 5 per-mill counting statistics in less than 30 min with the recently improved gas ion source. In the versatile gas handling system, a stepping-motor-driven syringe presses a mixture of helium and sample CO{sub 2} into the gas ion source, allowing continuous and stable measurements of different kinds of samples. CO{sub 2} can be provided in four different ways to the versatile gas interface. As a primary method, CO{sub 2} is delivered in glass or quartz ampoules. In this case, the CO{sub 2} is released in an automated ampoule cracker with 8 positions for individual samples. Secondly, OX-1 and blank gas in helium can be provided to the syringe by directly connecting gas bottles to the gas interface at the stage of the cracker. Thirdly, solid samples can be combusted in an elemental analyzer or in a thermo-optical OC/EC aerosol analyzer where the produced CO{sub 2} is transferred to the syringe via a zeolite trap for gas concentration. As a fourth method, CO{sub 2} is released from carbonates with phosphoric acid in septum-sealed vials and loaded onto the same trap used for the elemental analyzer. All four methods allow complete automation of the measurement, even though minor user input is presently still required. Details on the setup, versatility and applications of the gas handling system are given.

  5. Analysis of an effective solution to excessive heat supply in a city primary heating network using gas-fired boilers for peak-load compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hai-Chao; Jiao, Wen-Ling; Zou, Ping-Hua; Liu, Jing-Cheng [School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, mail box 2645, 202 Haihe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090 (China)

    2010-11-15

    Through investigation of the Dengfeng heating network in the city of Daqing, China, for the 2007-2008 heating season, we found serious problems of excessive heat supply in the primary heating network. Therefore, we propose the application of gas-fired boilers in underperforming heating substations as peak-load heat sources to effectively adapt to the regulation demands of seasonal heat-load fluctuations and reduce the excessive heat supply. First, we calculated the excessive heat supply rates (EHSRs) of five substations using detailed investigative data. We then discussed the feasibility of the proposed scheme providing energy savings from both energetic and exergetic points of view. The results showed that the average EHSR of the five substations between January and March was 20.57% of the gross heat production but consequently reduced to 6.24% with the installation of the gas-fired boilers. Therefore, the combined heating scheme with coal as the basic heat-source and gas-fired boilers as peak-load heat sources is energy-efficient to some extent, although requires the use of natural gas. Meanwhile, the exergy decreased by 10.97%, which indicates that the combined heating scheme effectively reduces the primary energy consumption and pollutant emission of the heating systems. (author)

  6. Implementations of Riga city water supply system founded on groundwater sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lāce, I.; Krauklis, K.; Spalviņš, A.; Laicāns, J.

    2017-10-01

    Drinking water for Riga city is provided by the groundwater well field complex “Baltezers, Zakumuiza, Rembergi” and by the Daugava river as a surface water source. Presently (2016), the both sources jointly supply 122 thous.metre3day-1 of drinking water. It seems reasonable to use in future only groundwater, because river water is of low quality and its treatment is expensive. The research on this possibility was done by scientists of Riga Technical university as the task drawn up by the company “Aqua-Brambis”. It was required to evaluate several scenario of the groundwater supply for Riga city. By means of hydrogeological modelling, it was found out that groundwater well fields could provide 120-122 thous.metre3day-1 of drinking water for the Riga city and it is possible further not to use water of the Daugava river. However, in order to provide more extensive use of groundwater sources, existing water distribution network shall be adapted to the change of the water sources and supply directions within the network. Safety of water supply shall be ensured. The publication may be of interest for specialists dealing with problems of water supply for large towns.

  7. Angular intensity of a gas-phase field ionization source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orloff, J.; Swanson, L.W.

    1979-01-01

    Angular intensities of 1 μA sr -1 have been measured for a gas-phase field ionization source in an optical column under practical operating conditions. The source, which was differentially pumped and cooled to 77 K, utilized a -oriented iridium emitter and precooled hydrogen gas at 10 -2 Torr. The ion beam was collimated with an electrostatic lens and detected below an aperture subtending 0.164 msr. A transmitted current of approx.10 -10 A was measured at voltages corresponding to a field of approx. =2.2 V/A at the emitter

  8. [Arsenic levels in drinking water supplies from underground sources in the community of Madrid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragonés Sanz, N; Palacios Diez, M; Avello de Miguel, A; Gómez Rodríguez, P; Martínez Cortés, M; Rodríguez Bernabeu, M J

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, arsenic concentrations of more than 50 micrograms/l were detected in some drinking water supplies from underground sources in the Autonomous Community of Madrid, which is the maximum permissible concentration for drinking water in Spain. These two facts have meant the getting under way of a specific plan for monitoring arsenic in the drinking water in the Autonomous Community of Madrid. The results of the first two sampling processes conducted in the arsenic level monitoring plan set out are presented. In the initial phase, water samples from 353 water supplies comprised within the census of the Public Health Administration of the Autonomous Community of Madrid were analyzed. A water supply risk classification was made based on these initial results. In a second phase, six months later, the analyses were repeated on those 35 water supplies which were considered to possibly pose a risk to public health. Seventy-four percent (74%) of the water supplies studied in the initial phase were revealed to have an arsenic concentration of less than 10 micrograms/l, 22.6% containing levels of 10 micrograms/l-50 micrograms/l, and 3.7% over 50 micrograms/l. Most of the water supplies showing arsenic levels of more than 10 micrograms/l are located in the same geographical area. In the second sampling process (six months later), the 35 water supplies classified as posing a risk were included. Twenty-six (26) of these supplies were revealed to have the same arsenic level ((10-50 micrograms/l), and nine changed category, six of which had less than 10 micrograms/l and three more than 50 micrograms/l. In the Autonomous Community of Madrid, less than 2% of the population drinks water coming from supplies which are from underground sources. The regular water quality monitoring conducted by the Public Health Administration has led to detecting the presence of more than 50 micrograms/l of arsenic in sixteen drinking water supplies from underground sources, which is the maximum

  9. Effect of Alternate Supply of Shielding Gases of Tungsten Inert Gas Welding on Mechanical Properties of Austenitic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Neelam Vilas; Telsang, Martand Tamanacharya

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, an attempt is made to study the effect of alternate supply of the shielding gas in comparison with the conventional method of TIG welding with pure argon gas. The two sets of combination are used as 10-10 and 40-20 s for alternate supply of the Argon and Helium shielding gas respectively. The effect of alternate supply of shielding gas is studied on the mechanical properties like bend test, tensile test and impact test. The full factorial experimental design is applied for three set of combinations. The ANOVA is used to find significant parameters for the process and regression analysis used to develop the mathematical model. The result shows that the alternate supply of the shielding gas for 10-10 s provides better result for the bend, tensile and impact test as compared with the conventional argon gas and the alternate supply of 40-20 s argon and helium gas respectively. Welding speed can be increased for alternate supply of the shielding gas that can reduce the total welding cost.

  10. The greenhouse gas emissions performance of cellulosic ethanol supply chains in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauen Ausilio

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calculating the greenhouse gas savings that may be attributed to biofuels is problematic because production systems are inherently complex and methods used to quantify savings are subjective. Differing approaches and interpretations have fuelled a debate about the environmental merit of biofuels, and consequently about the level of policy support that can be justified. This paper estimates and compares emissions from plausible supply chains for lignocellulosic ethanol production, exemplified using data specific to the UK and Sweden. The common elements that give rise to the greatest greenhouse gas emissions are identified and the sensitivity of total emissions to variations in these elements is estimated. The implications of including consequential impacts including indirect land-use change, and the effects of selecting alternative allocation methods on the interpretation of results are discussed. Results We find that the most important factors affecting supply chain emissions are the emissions embodied in biomass production, the use of electricity in the conversion process and potentially consequential impacts: indirect land-use change and fertiliser replacement. The large quantity of electricity consumed during enzyme manufacture suggests that enzymatic conversion processes may give rise to greater greenhouse gas emissions than the dilute acid conversion process, even though the dilute acid process has a somewhat lower ethanol yield. Conclusion The lignocellulosic ethanol supply chains considered here all lead to greenhouse gas savings relative to gasoline An important caveat to this is that if lignocellulosic ethanol production uses feedstocks that lead to indirect land-use change, or other significant consequential impacts, the benefit may be greatly reduced. Co-locating ethanol, electricity generation and enzyme production in a single facility may improve performance, particularly if this allows the number of energy

  11. Development of realtime disaster mitigation system for urban gas supply network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Y.; Koganemaru, K.; Nakayama, W. [Technology Research Inst., Tokyo Gas Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Yamazaki, F. [Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Isoyama, R.; Ishida, E. [Japan Engineering Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    In response to the Kobe earthquake in 1995, efforts were initiated to develop a real-time system to mitigate earthquake-induced damages in gas supply networks which aimed at collecting information quickly and, if necessary, carrying out emergency measures. A new compact seismograph was recently developed, entitled New SI Sensor (SI). This device houses an electronic circuit which determines the SI value more precisely, detects the onset of liquefaction, and transmits the whole time history of seismic acceleration to head quarters. Consequently, a new safety system called SUPer-dense REaltime Monitoring of Earthquake (SUPREME) was developed which makes use of 3,800 new SI sensors. This paper introduces the structure of this new system. The remote shut-off using SUPREME results in quick gas supply shut-off and effectively reduce the risk of gas leakage during earthquakes. With enhanced use of geographic information systems, SUPREME can also conduct damage assessment for gas pipelines. To estimate the distribution of SI values and liquefied depth more precisely, digital map, geological map, topographical map and borehole logging data of about 60,000 sites were collected and compiled. Site amplification factors for SI values were estimated at the boring points. Then, spatial distribution of the site amplification factor was estimated based on weighted average of the amplification factors of surrounding boring points and the geological and topographical maps. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 14 figs.

  12. Europe's thirst for Russian gas increases fears over security of supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, John [nuclear 24, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-15

    A new report from Russian Gazprom indicates that Europe is becoming increasingly reliant on gas from Russia. In 2013 the volume of Gazprom Group's gas sales to countries beyond the Commonwealth of Independent States amounted to 174.3 billion cubic metres, which accounts for one-third of the total gas consumption in Europe. Europe might normally welcome the increasing free-flow of gas to the continent, but the fact that this rising dependency on Russia comes at a time of even greater political tensions should be a wake-up call to policymakers. Policymakers should focus more on what is practical than what is politically correct. If one nation wants to tilt at windmills and abandon the security of energy supply offered by modern, safe and technological solutions of the future, such as baseload nuclear, it does not mean everyone has to follow suit. Europe's collective political leadership would do well to remember that you do not cast out or effectively demonise tried and tested solutions to keeping nations safe, warm, productive and economically vibrant at a time when very real threats to energy supply loom on the horizon.

  13. Gas source localization and gas distribution mapping with a micro-drone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, Patrick P.

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this Ph.D. thesis is the development and validation of a VTOL-based (Vertical Take Off and Landing) micro-drone for the measurement of gas concentrations, to locate gas emission sources, and to build gas distribution maps. Gas distribution mapping and localization of a static gas source are complex tasks due to the turbulent nature of gas transport under natural conditions and becomes even more challenging when airborne. This is especially so, when using a VTOL-based micro-drone that induces disturbances through its rotors, which heavily affects gas distribution. Besides the adaptation of a micro-drone for gas concentration measurements, a novel method for the determination of the wind vector in real-time is presented. The on-board sensors for the flight control of the micro-drone provide a basis for the wind vector calculation. Furthermore, robot operating software for controlling the micro-drone autonomously is developed and used to validate the algorithms developed within this Ph.D. thesis in simulations and real-world experiments. Three biologically inspired algorithms for locating gas sources are adapted and developed for use with the micro-drone: the surge-cast algorithm (a variant of the silkworm moth algorithm), the zigzag / dung beetle algorithm, and a newly developed algorithm called ''pseudo gradient algorithm''. The latter extracts from two spatially separated measuring positions the information necessary (concentration gradient and mean wind direction) to follow a gas plume to its emission source. The performance of the algorithms is evaluated in simulations and real-world experiments. The distance overhead and the gas source localization success rate are used as main performance criteria for comparing the algorithms. Next, a new method for gas source localization (GSL) based on a particle filter (PF) is presented. Each particle represents a weighted hypothesis of the gas source position. As a first step, the PF

  14. Gas source localization and gas distribution mapping with a micro-drone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, Patrick P.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this Ph.D. thesis is the development and validation of a VTOL-based (Vertical Take Off and Landing) micro-drone for the measurement of gas concentrations, to locate gas emission sources, and to build gas distribution maps. Gas distribution mapping and localization of a static gas source are complex tasks due to the turbulent nature of gas transport under natural conditions and becomes even more challenging when airborne. This is especially so, when using a VTOL-based micro-drone that induces disturbances through its rotors, which heavily affects gas distribution. Besides the adaptation of a micro-drone for gas concentration measurements, a novel method for the determination of the wind vector in real-time is presented. The on-board sensors for the flight control of the micro-drone provide a basis for the wind vector calculation. Furthermore, robot operating software for controlling the micro-drone autonomously is developed and used to validate the algorithms developed within this Ph.D. thesis in simulations and real-world experiments. Three biologically inspired algorithms for locating gas sources are adapted and developed for use with the micro-drone: the surge-cast algorithm (a variant of the silkworm moth algorithm), the zigzag / dung beetle algorithm, and a newly developed algorithm called ''pseudo gradient algorithm''. The latter extracts from two spatially separated measuring positions the information necessary (concentration gradient and mean wind direction) to follow a gas plume to its emission source. The performance of the algorithms is evaluated in simulations and real-world experiments. The distance overhead and the gas source localization success rate are used as main performance criteria for comparing the algorithms. Next, a new method for gas source localization (GSL) based on a particle filter (PF) is presented. Each particle represents a weighted hypothesis of the gas source position. As a first step, the PF-based GSL algorithm

  15. Gas source localization and gas distribution mapping with a micro-drone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, Patrick P.

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this Ph.D. thesis is the development and validation of a VTOL-based (Vertical Take Off and Landing) micro-drone for the measurement of gas concentrations, to locate gas emission sources, and to build gas distribution maps. Gas distribution mapping and localization of a static gas source are complex tasks due to the turbulent nature of gas transport under natural conditions and becomes even more challenging when airborne. This is especially so, when using a VTOL-based micro-drone that induces disturbances through its rotors, which heavily affects gas distribution. Besides the adaptation of a micro-drone for gas concentration measurements, a novel method for the determination of the wind vector in real-time is presented. The on-board sensors for the flight control of the micro-drone provide a basis for the wind vector calculation. Furthermore, robot operating software for controlling the micro-drone autonomously is developed and used to validate the algorithms developed within this Ph.D. thesis in simulations and real-world experiments. Three biologically inspired algorithms for locating gas sources are adapted and developed for use with the micro-drone: the surge-cast algorithm (a variant of the silkworm moth algorithm), the zigzag / dung beetle algorithm, and a newly developed algorithm called ''pseudo gradient algorithm''. The latter extracts from two spatially separated measuring positions the information necessary (concentration gradient and mean wind direction) to follow a gas plume to its emission source. The performance of the algorithms is evaluated in simulations and real-world experiments. The distance overhead and the gas source localization success rate are used as main performance criteria for comparing the algorithms. Next, a new method for gas source localization (GSL) based on a particle filter (PF) is presented. Each particle represents a weighted hypothesis of the gas source position. As a first step, the PF-based GSL algorithm

  16. Long-term contracts for European gas supply - an empirical analysis of the changing nature of pipeline and LNG-contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, Anne

    2005-01-01

    As the structure of the European natural gas market is evolving towards more competition and more diverse market structures than before, the nature of the long-term contracts for European natural gas supply is also undergoing change. Experience from other liberalization processes, such as in the U.S. or the UK, suggests that the importance of long-term contracts diminishes over time, but that they remain an important element of supply. In Europe long-term contracts are still considered as a firm basis for investment and financing of capital-intensive infrastructure with a high degree of asset and relationship-specificity. Literature on institutional economics also suggests that long-term contracts act as a device to overcome the ''hold-up'' problem of relationship-specific investments in infrastructure (Klein, Crawford, and Alchian, 1987; Williamson, 1975, 1985). On the other hand, Hartley and Brito (2002) show that more flexible markets also imply a lower degree of asset specificity, thus requiring less fixed contracts. This paper explores the changing nature of long-term contracts for European natural gas supply, with a particular focus on differences between contracts for pipeline gas and liquefied natural gas (LNG). Traditionally, Europe relied on very long-term contracts for pipeline gas (Russia, Norway, Algeria). More recently, increasing LNG supplies are contemplated as a more flexible source of natural gas: The international LNG market is becoming more flexible, LNG can be sourced from a variety of sellers, and the cost of LNG supplies and infrastructure is coming down rapidly (Jensen, 2004). Thus, the evaluation of investing in LNG infrastructure (and the so bought flexibility and possibility of arbitraging profits) may be higher than committing to fixed/predetermined flows of pipeline gas. We ask whether this is reflected in the observed contracts. The paper is based on standard contract theory (Bolton and Dewatripont, 2005). We apply a microeconomic

  17. Enron sees major increases in U.S. gas supply, demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, M.M.; Stram, B.

    1991-01-01

    Enron Corp., Houston, in an extensive study of U.S. natural-gas supply and demand through the year 2000, has found that the U.S. gas-resource base is 1,200 tcf. Despite current weaknesses in natural-gas prices, demand growth will be strong although affected by oil-price assumptions. This paper reports on highlights in the areas of reserves and production which include gains in both categories in the Rockies/Wyoming, San Juan basin, and Norphlet trends (offshore Alabama). The Midcontinent/Hugoton area exhibits reserve declines in a period of flat production. In the U.S. Gulf Coast (USGC) offshore, both production and reserves decline over the forecast period. These projections are derived from a base-case price of $4.07/MMBTU by 2000. U.S. gas production exhibits a production decline in a low oil-price case from 19 to 16.4 tcf by 2000, if prices are 30% below the base case, that is, $2.93/MMBTU. Gains in commercial gas use are strong under either scenario of a base oil price of $29.80 in 1990 dollars in the year 2000 or a low oil price of $20.50 in 1990 dollars in 2000. Demand for natural gas for power generation grows as much as 1.5 tcf by 2000 in the Enron base case and by 300 bcf by 2000 in the low crude-oil price case

  18. Operation of Ferroelectric Plasma Sources in a Gas Discharge Mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunaevsky, A.; Fisch, N.J.

    2004-01-01

    Ferroelectric plasma sources in vacuum are known as sources of ablative plasma, formed due to surface discharge. In this paper, observations of a gas discharge mode of operation of the ferroelectric plasma sources (FPS) are reported. The gas discharge appears at pressures between approximately 20 and approximately 80 Torr. At pressures of 1-20 Torr, there is a transition from vacuum surface discharge to the gas discharge, when both modes coexist and the surface discharges sustain the gas discharge. At pressures between 20 and 80 Torr, the surface discharges are suppressed, and FPS operate in pure gas discharge mode, with the formation of almost uniform plasma along the entire surface of the ceramics between strips. The density of the expanding plasma is estimated to be about 1013 cm-3 at a distance of 5.5 mm from the surface. The power consumption of the discharge is comparatively low, making it useful for various applications. This paper also presents direct measurements of the yield of secondary electron emission from ferroelectric ceramics, which, at low energies of primary electrons, is high and dependent on the polarization of the ferroelectric material

  19. Influence of source parameters on the growth of metal nanoparticles by sputter-gas-aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khojasteh, Malak; Kresin, Vitaly V.

    2017-11-01

    We describe the production of size-selected manganese nanoclusters using a magnetron sputtering/aggregation source. Since nanoparticle production is sensitive to a range of overlapping operating parameters (in particular, the sputtering discharge power, the inert gas flow rates, and the aggregation length), we focus on a detailed map of the influence of each parameter on the average nanocluster size. In this way, it is possible to identify the main contribution of each parameter to the physical processes taking place within the source. The discharge power and argon flow supply the metal vapor, and argon also plays a crucial role in the formation of condensation nuclei via three-body collisions. However, the argon flow and the discharge power have a relatively weak effect on the average nanocluster size in the exiting beam. Here the defining role is played by the source residence time, governed by the helium supply (which raises the pressure and density of the gas column inside the source, resulting in more efficient transport of nanoparticles to the exit) and by the aggregation path length.

  20. Supply risk management functions of sourcing intermediaries – an investigation of the clothing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Mette; Ellegaard, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to uncover how buying companies use sourcing intermediaries to manage supply risks in global sourcing. Design/methodology/approach: We carry out an explorative qualitative study of the clothing industry, interviewing key respondents that occupy different...... intermediary types, characterised by the set of functions they handle. Research limitations/implications: By analysing a limited set of in-depth interviews in one industry we have traded off broader analytical generalization for in-depth exploration and theory building. Therefore, future research should test...... by identifying the supply risk management functions that sourcing intermediaries carry out for buying companies. We also contribute by uncovering different types of sourcing intermediaries, determined by the collection of functions handled....

  1. Heated probe diagnostic inside of the gas aggregation nanocluster source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolpakova, Anna; Shelemin, Artem; Kousal, Jaroslav; Kudrna, Pavel; Tichy, Milan; Biederman, Hynek; Surface; Plasma Science Team

    2016-09-01

    Gas aggregation cluster sources (GAS) usually operate outside common working conditions of most magnetrons and the size of nanoparticles created in GAS is below that commonly studied in dusty plasmas. Therefore, experimental data obtained inside the GAS are important for better understanding of process of nanoparticles formation. In order to study the conditions inside the gas aggregation chamber, special ``diagnostic GAS'' has been constructed. It allows simultaneous monitoring (or spatial profiling) by means of optical emission spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and probe diagnostic. Data obtained from Langmuir and heated probes map the plasma parameters in two dimensions - radial and axial. Titanium has been studied as an example of metal for which the reactive gas in the chamber starts nanoparticles production. Three basic situations were investigated: sputtering from clean titanium target in argon, sputtering from partially pre-oxidized target and sputtering with oxygen introduced into the discharge. It was found that during formation of nanoparticles the plasma parameters differ strongly from the situation without nanoparticles. These experimental data will support the efforts of more realistic modeling of the process. Czech Science Foundation 15-00863S.

  2. Quantitative Analysis of the Impact of Changes in Policies and Regulations for Electricity and Town Gas Supply Industries (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    KAINOU Kazunari

    2005-01-01

    In the 1990s, a series of changes were made to policies and regulations governing electricity and town gas supply industries in Japan. To evaluate how such regulatory changes, channeled through the behavior of power/gas companies, have affected the economic welfare of the electricity and town gas markets, it is necessary to first quantitatively analyze how the power/gas companies reacted to the regulatory changes in terms of management behavior. Specifically, it must be examined what decision...

  3. Audit report on GDF Suez supply costs in natural gas sale regulated tariffs. 4 April 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    After a recall of the context and objectives of this audit performed by the French Commission for Energy Regulation or CRE (legal framework, previously published opinion), this report first presents and comments the main evolutions of the European supply portfolio of GDF Suez in 2012: long term contracts to be negotiated again on significant volumes, a diversified portfolio with 30 per cent of short term purchases. In the second part, it analyses the adequacy between noticed and provisional supply costs on the one hand, and those estimated by means of the tariff formula for the calculation of natural gas sale regulated tariffs on the other hand. The third part gives recommendations regarding future decisions on the evolution of GDF-Suez natural gas regulated sale tariffs: discussion of the relevance of the formula used since January 2013, of perspectives for reviewing this tariff formula, of market share to be integrated, should the occasion occur, in the modified formula, and of the supply range to be taken into account

  4. Tactics at the category level of purchasing and supply management: sourcing levers, contingencies and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesping, Frank

    2015-01-01

    For the ‘front-line’ purchasing agent, it is obvious that not all categories of products and supplier relationships should be managed in the same way. Rather, in a modern category management approach, firms group similar products into ‘sourcing categories’ forming coherent supply markets (e.g.,

  5. Laser Gas-Analyser for Monitoring a Source of Gas Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Gorodnichev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the problem of growing air pollution of the Earth is of relevance. Many countries have taken measures to protect the environment in order to limit the negative anthropogenic impacts.In such a situation an objective information on the actual content of pollutants in the atmosphere is of importance. For operational inspection of the pollutant concentrations and for monitoring pollution sources, it is necessary to create high-speed high-sensitivity gas analysers.Laser meters are the most effective to provide operational remote and local inspection of gas pollution of the Earth atmosphere.Laser meter for routine gas analysis should conduct operational analysis of the gas mixture (air. For this a development of appropriate information support is required.Such information support should include a database with absorption coefficients of pollutants (specific to potential sources of pollution at possible measuring wavelengths (holding data for a particular emitter of the laser meter and an efficient algorithms to search the measuring wavelengths and conduct a quantitative analysis of gas mixtures.Currently, the issues, important for practice and related to the development of information support for the laser gas analyzer to conduct important for practice routine measurements remain unclear.In this paper we develop an algorithm to provide an operational search of the measuring wavelengths of laser gas analyser and an algorithm to recover quantitively the gaseous component concentrations of controlled gas mixture from the laser multi-spectral measurements that take into account a priori information about the source-controlled gas pollution and do not require a large amount of computation. The method of mathematical simulation shows the effectiveness of the algorithms described both for seach of measuring wavelengths and for quantitative analysis of gas releases.

  6. Uncertainties in Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Advanced Biomass Feedstock Logistics Supply Chains in Kansas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Nguyen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To meet Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA cellulosic biofuel mandates, the United States will require an annual domestic supply of about 242 million Mg of biomass by 2022. To improve the feedstock logistics of lignocellulosic biofuels in order to access available biomass resources from areas with varying yields, commodity systems have been proposed and designed to deliver quality-controlled biomass feedstocks at preprocessing “depots”. Preprocessing depots densify and stabilize the biomass prior to long-distance transport and delivery to centralized biorefineries. The logistics of biomass commodity supply chains could introduce spatially variable environmental impacts into the biofuel life cycle due to needing to harvest, move, and preprocess biomass from multiple distances that have variable spatial density. This study examines the uncertainty in greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of corn stover logistics within a bio-ethanol supply chain in the state of Kansas, where sustainable biomass supply varies spatially. Two scenarios were evaluated each having a different number of depots of varying capacity and location within Kansas relative to a central commodity-receiving biorefinery to test GHG emissions uncertainty. The first scenario sited four preprocessing depots evenly across the state of Kansas but within the vicinity of counties having high biomass supply density. The second scenario located five depots based on the shortest depot-to-biorefinery rail distance and biomass availability. The logistics supply chain consists of corn stover harvest, collection and storage, feedstock transport from field to biomass preprocessing depot, preprocessing depot operations, and commodity transport from the biomass preprocessing depot to the biorefinery. Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate the spatial uncertainty in the feedstock logistics gate-to-gate sequence. Within the logistics supply chain GHG emissions are most sensitive to the

  7. Strategy of seismic disaster prevention plan of gas supply system in Great Tehran, Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi, A.M.; Yousefi Pour, M.R. [Greater Tehran Gas Company, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yanou, Y.; Ogawa, Y.; Yamada, H. [Osaka Gas Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    Iran has suffered many devastating earthquakes. Tehran is surrounded by active faults including the North Tehran Fault and the South Ray Fault, making the city extremely vulnerable to large earthquakes. This paper proposes and outlines the basic anti-earthquake measures that would protect Greater Tehran Gas Company's (GTGC) gas supply systems from large earthquakes. Anti-earthquake measures focusing on reinforcing existing facilities and disaster prevention are detailed in this paper. The paper shows step-by-step procedures for the construction of a disaster-prevention system. The paper concludes that: GTGC's gas pipeline networks have high quake-resistance because they include welded steel pipes or polyethylene pipes; a gas remote shutoff system or gas automatic shut-off system should be installed as emergency measures in GTGC's earthquake disaster prevention measures; practical and actual training is also very important for all authorities, experts, engineers and staff involved in earthquake disaster prevention measures. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  8. The natural gas: to guarantee a reasonable cost supply; Le gaz naturel: garantir un approvisionnement a un cout raisonnable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The France has got only a few natural gas resources, which will disappear in 2013. Thus it essentially depends on international markets for its supplying. Most of the supplying contracts are long dated contracts indexed on the petroleum products. Since 2005 the pressures of the petroleum and gas markets produce tariffs increases. Facing this situation the Government implemented a tariff fixation policy. (A.L.B.)

  9. Special power supply and control system for the gas-cooled fast reactor-core flow test loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, T.L.

    1981-09-01

    The test bundle in the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor-Core Flow Test Loop (GCFR-CFTL) requires a source of electrical power that can be controlled accurately and reliably over a wide range of steady-state and transient power levels and skewed power distributions to simulate GCFR operating conditions. Both ac and dc power systems were studied, and only those employing silicon-controlled rectifiers (SCRs) could meet the requirements. This report summarizes the studies, tests, evaluations, and development work leading to the selection. it also presents the design, procurement, testing, and evaluation of the first 500-kVa LMPL supply. The results show that the LMPL can control 60-Hz sine wave power from 200 W to 500 kVA

  10. An exploration of intervention options to enhance the management of supply chain greenhouse gas emissions in the UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, Thomas B.; Young, William

    2016-01-01

    The management of greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs) within the supply chains of large organisations is receiving increasing attention as a way to achieve climate mitigation objectives. Climate mitigation policy for direct GHGEs and organisations' role in managing environmental impacts within supply

  11. Analysis of GRI North American Regional Gas Supply-Demand Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesbitt, D.M.; Singh, J.; Pine, G.D.; Kline, D.; Barron, M.; Cheung, P.D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results from the GRI North American Regional Gas Supply-Demand Model using the four scenarios defined for the Energy Modeling Forum Number 9 (EMF-9) described in EMF-9 Working Paper 9.4 (1987). The analysis is designed both to showcase the GRI North American Regional model as well as to infer meaningful results about the North American natural gas system. The focus of the analysis is not R ampersand D per se; R ampersand D analysis using the model is conducted regularly by GRI and described elsewhere. Rather, the objective is to analyze some of the major uncertainties in the North American gas market, uncertainties that potentially affect all players including GRI. In particular, the authors seek to quantify the overall economic environment in which production, transmission, distribution, consumption, and R ampersand D decisions will be made and how different that overall environment might be under alternative assumptions. An attendant objective of this analysis has been to enlist economists from a range of organizations (producers, regulators, GRI, and consultants) to carefully scrutinize the GRI North American Regional model and results. In particular, the coauthors were assembled from diverse organizations to review and evaluate model outputs, applying their particular experience and perspective. The four EMF-9 scenarios upon which this paper is based are described in detail later in this document. Briefly, scenario one represents a world with a surfeit of gas and a relatively high oil price projection; scenario two considers a lower oil price forecast; scenario three assumes a pessimistic outlook for the gas resource base with the same oil prices as scenario one; and scenario four examines a higher level of demand for gas in the North American gas market. An important objective of this analysis is to illustrate the predictive power of multi-scenario comparisons (as contrasted with detailed analysis of any individual scenario)

  12. Supply chain management and economic valuation of real options in the natural gas and liquefied natural gas industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mulan Xiaofeng

    My dissertation concentrates on several aspects of supply chain management and economic valuation of real options in the natural gas and liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry, including gas pipeline transportations, ocean LNG shipping logistics, and downstream storage. Chapter 1 briefly introduces the natural gas and LNG industries, and the topics studied in this thesis. Chapter 2 studies how to value U.S. natural gas pipeline network transport contracts as real options. It is common for natural gas shippers to value and manage contracts by simple adaptations of financial spread option formulas that do not fully account for the implications of the capacity limits and the network structure that distinguish these contracts. In contrast, we show that these operational features can be fully captured and integrated with financial considerations in a fairly easy and managerially significant manner by a model that combines linear programming and simulation. We derive pathwise estimators for the so called deltas and structurally characterize them. We interpret them in a novel fashion as discounted expectations, under a specific weighing distribution, of the amounts of natural gas to be procured/marketed when optimally using pipeline capacity. Based on the actual prices of traded natural gas futures and basis swaps, we show that an enhanced version of the common approach employed in practice can significantly underestimate the true value of natural gas pipeline network capacity. Our model also exhibits promising financial (delta) hedging performance. Thus, this model emerges as an easy to use and useful tool that natural gas shippers can employ to support their valuation and delta hedging decisions concerning natural gas pipeline network transport capacity contracts. Moreover, the insights that follow from our data analysis have broader significance and implications in terms of the management of real options beyond our specific application. Motivated by current developments

  13. The Concept of Autonomous Power Supply System Fed with Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Fedak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable economic development requires the use of renewable energy sources in a rational and thoughtful way. In Polish conditions the use of several types of renewable energy sources on a single setup is a new issue. In particular, hybrid devices in conjunction with intelligent energy systems, such as lighting systems are generally not used. Therefore, the Polish energy production still relies on the burning of coal. Despite their advantages, renewable energy sources are characterized by seasonality and considerable instability. Access to renewable energy varies daily and seasonally, hence activities promoting the use of autonomous, hybrid power systems must be intensified. The presented research aims at the development of the Autonomous Power Supply (APS system based on the so-called energy mix. Such a system works in an isolated arrangement and serves to reliably supply electricity from renewable sources for small residential or public utility devices in an urban area. Systems with up to 3 kW power consist of modules, whose modular design allows the combination of various power configurations and types of renewable energy used. The basic system consists of a primary power source, additional power source, emergency power source, energy storage device, weather station and controller. The energy mix depends on the geographical location of the system. The emergency source can be implemented as an on-grid connector or fuel power generator with the participation of 100% until the primary or accessory power source failure is removed. The energy storage system consists of batteries or supercapacitors. The proposed system can be combined to create a local network that automatically responds to energy shortages in various network nodes by adjusting the supply of electricity within the network depending on its needs. For Poland realistic solutions in this article are the new and modern answer to these requirements.

  14. The Model of Gas Supply Capacity Simulation In Regional Energy Security Framework: Policy Studies PT. X Cirebon Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuryadin; Ronny Rahman Nitibaskara, Tb; Herdiansyah, Herdis; Sari, Ravita

    2017-10-01

    The needs of energy are increasing every year. The unavailability of energy will cause economic losses and weaken energy security. To overcome the availability of gas supply in the future, planning are cruacially needed. Therefore, it is necessary to approach the system, so that the process of gas distribution is running properly. In this research, system dynamic method will be used to measure how much supply capacity planning is needed until 2050, with parameters of demand in industrial, household and commercial sectors. From the model obtained PT.X Cirebon area in 2031 was not able to meet the needs of gas customers in the Cirebon region, as well as with Businnes as usual scenario, the ratio of gas fulfillment only until 2027. The implementation of the national energy policy that is the use of NRE as government intervention in the model is produced up to 2035 PT.X Cirebon area is still able to supply the gas needs of its customers.

  15. Foreign ownership of, influence on, and control of domestic energy sources and supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-11-01

    The report is divided into six sections: (1) Introduction; (2) The petroleum and natural gas industries; (3) The coal industry; (4) The nuclear fuel cycle; (5) Alternate energy sources; (6) U.S. policies regarding foreign investment. Appendix A lists parent companies, U.S. subsidiaries, percentage of ownership or type of investment in petroleum, natural gas, coal, uranium, and alternative fuels and types of activity. Appendix B contains a summary of 1974 and 1975 U.S. energy statistics

  16. Research on Matching Method of Power Supply Parameters for Dual Energy Source Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Q.; Luo, M. J.; Zhang, S. K.; Liao, M. W.

    2018-03-01

    A new type of power source is proposed, which is based on the traffic signal matching method of the dual energy source power supply composed of the batteries and the supercapacitors. First, analyzing the power characteristics is required to meet the excellent dynamic characteristics of EV, studying the energy characteristics is required to meet the mileage requirements and researching the physical boundary characteristics is required to meet the physical conditions of the power supply. Secondly, the parameter matching design with the highest energy efficiency is adopted to select the optimal parameter group with the method of matching deviation. Finally, the simulation analysis of the vehicle is carried out in MATLABSimulink, The mileage and energy efficiency of dual energy sources are analyzed in different parameter models, and the rationality of the matching method is verified.

  17. Electricity supply from thermal power plants and alternative sources at the Adriatic coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurek, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Croatian coastline with its numerous islands offers the most appropriate region in the whole of Croatia for the realisation of energy supply from alternative sources as a substitute for the electricity supplied from coal-driven thermal power plants, not only from the point of view of energy but also financial results. Investment costs of a 100 MW thermal power plant served for the estimation of results which would be achieved with the introduction of alternative sources (the sun, small hydro power plants and biomass) as well as for the rationalisation of consumption and savings of the existing energy sources. The alternative programmes can be conducted partially and the investments financed from savings. However, without a systematic solution for the whole country no significant results can be expected. (author)

  18. Distribution of aquifers, liquid-waste impoundments, and municipal water-supply sources, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, David F.; Maevsky, Anthony

    1980-01-01

    Impoundments of liquid waste are potential sources of ground-water contamination in Massachusetts. The map report, at a scale of 1 inch equals 4 miles, shows the idstribution of aquifers and the locations of municipal water-supply sources and known liquid-waste impoundments. Ground water, an important source of municipal water supply, is produced from shallow sand and gravel aquifers that are generally unconfined, less than 200 feet thick, and yield less than 2,000 gallons per minute to individual wells. These aquifers commonly occupy lowlands and stream valleys and are most extensive in eastern Massachusetts. Surface impoundments of liquid waste are commonly located over these aquifers. These impoundments may leak and allow waste to infiltrate underlying aquifers and alter their water quality. (USGS)

  19. Numerical Simulation of Dispersion from Urban Greenhouse Gas Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottrott, Anders; Tan, Sze; He, Yonggang; Winkler, Renato

    2017-04-01

    Cities are characterized by complex topography, inhomogeneous turbulence, and variable pollutant source distributions. These features create a scale separation between local sources and urban scale emissions estimates known as the Grey-Zone. Modern computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques provide a quasi-deterministic, physically based toolset to bridge the scale separation gap between source level dynamics, local measurements, and urban scale emissions inventories. CFD has the capability to represent complex building topography and capture detailed 3D turbulence fields in the urban boundary layer. This presentation discusses the application of OpenFOAM to urban CFD simulations of natural gas leaks in cities. OpenFOAM is an open source software for advanced numerical simulation of engineering and environmental fluid flows. When combined with free or low cost computer aided drawing and GIS, OpenFOAM generates a detailed, 3D representation of urban wind fields. OpenFOAM was applied to model scalar emissions from various components of the natural gas distribution system, to study the impact of urban meteorology on mobile greenhouse gas measurements. The numerical experiments demonstrate that CH4 concentration profiles are highly sensitive to the relative location of emission sources and buildings. Sources separated by distances of 5-10 meters showed significant differences in vertical dispersion of plumes, due to building wake effects. The OpenFOAM flow fields were combined with an inverse, stochastic dispersion model to quantify and visualize the sensitivity of point sensors to upwind sources in various built environments. The Boussinesq approximation was applied to investigate the effects of canopy layer temperature gradients and convection on sensor footprints.

  20. Optimal usage of low temperature heat sources to supply district heating by heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pieper, Henrik; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical study on the optimal usage of different low temperature heat sources to supply district heating by heat pumps. The study is based on data for the Copenhagen region. The heat sources were prioritized based on the coefficient of performance calculated for each hour...... and the covered demand of each heat source as well as required peak unit capacity. The results showed that heat pumps using different heat sources yield better performance than a heat pump based on a single one. The performance was influenced by the composition of the different heat sources. It was found that 78......% groundwater, 22% seawater and 0% air resulted in highest COP of 3.33 for the given heat demand. Furthermore, the implementation of rule based short term storage made peak units redundant. The variation in base load capacity showed that heat pumps utilizing the analyzed heat sources could perform very...

  1. An Emulated PV Source Based on an Unilluminated Solar Panel and DC Power Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongfu Zhou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review on various PV simulator technologies as well as presents a novel equivalent photovoltaic (PV source that was constructed by using un-illuminated solar panels and a DC power supply that operates in current source mode. The constructed PV source was used for testing photovoltaic converters and various maximum power point tracking (MPPT algorithms required for capturing the maximum possible output power. The mathematical model and electrical characteristics of the constructed PV source were defined and analyzed in detail in the paper. The constructed PV source has the advantages of high bandwidth over the switching circuit based PV simulators. The constructed PV source has been used for testing various power electronics converters and various control techniques effectively in laboratory environments for researchers and university students.

  2. Documentation of the Oil and Gas Supply Module (OGSM). Appendix, Model developers report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting (OIAF) is required to provide complete model documentation to meet the EIA Model Acceptance Standards. The Documentation for the Oil and Gas Supply Module (OGSM) provides a complete description of the OGSM methodology, structure, and relation to other modules in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). This Model Developers Report (MDR) serves as an appendix to the methodology documentation. This report provides an overview of the model and an assessment of the sensitivity of OGSM results to changes in input data or parameters

  3. Kickers and power supplies for the Fermilab Tevatron I antiproton source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellano, T.; Bartoszek, L.; Tilles, E.; Petter, J.; McCarthy, J.

    1985-05-01

    The Fermilab Antiproton Source Accumulator and Debuncher rings require 5 kickers in total. These range in design from conventional ferrite delay line type magnets, with ceramic beam tubes to mechanically complex shuttered kickers situated entirely in the Accumulator Ring's 10 -10 torr vacuum. Power supplies are thyratron switched pulse forming networks that produce microsecond width pulses of several kiloamps with less than 30 nanoseconds rise and fall times. Kicker and power supply design requirements for field strength, vacuum, rise and fall time, timing and magnetic shielding of the stacked beam in the accumulator by the eddy current shutter will be discussed. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Tactics at the category level of purchasing and supply management: sourcing levers, contingencies and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Hesping, Frank

    2015-01-01

    For the ‘front-line’ purchasing agent, it is obvious that not all categories of products and supplier relationships should be managed in the same way. Rather, in a modern category management approach, firms group similar products into ‘sourcing categories’ forming coherent supply markets (e.g., ‘metal sheets’, ‘leather’, ‘displays’, ‘cables’, etc.). Thus, to achieve cost reduction targets, a tailored mix of tactical sourcing levers for each sourcing category may be required. The fundamental q...

  5. Pollution source localization in an urban water supply network based on dynamic water demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xuesong; Zhu, Zhixin; Li, Tian

    2017-10-27

    Urban water supply networks are susceptible to intentional, accidental chemical, and biological pollution, which pose a threat to the health of consumers. In recent years, drinking-water pollution incidents have occurred frequently, seriously endangering social stability and security. The real-time monitoring for water quality can be effectively implemented by placing sensors in the water supply network. However, locating the source of pollution through the data detection obtained by water quality sensors is a challenging problem. The difficulty lies in the limited number of sensors, large number of water supply network nodes, and dynamic user demand for water, which leads the pollution source localization problem to an uncertainty, large-scale, and dynamic optimization problem. In this paper, we mainly study the dynamics of the pollution source localization problem. Previous studies of pollution source localization assume that hydraulic inputs (e.g., water demand of consumers) are known. However, because of the inherent variability of urban water demand, the problem is essentially a fluctuating dynamic problem of consumer's water demand. In this paper, the water demand is considered to be stochastic in nature and can be described using Gaussian model or autoregressive model. On this basis, an optimization algorithm is proposed based on these two dynamic water demand change models to locate the pollution source. The objective of the proposed algorithm is to find the locations and concentrations of pollution sources that meet the minimum between the analogue and detection values of the sensor. Simulation experiments were conducted using two different sizes of urban water supply network data, and the experimental results were compared with those of the standard genetic algorithm.

  6. Experience with an on-line computer for controlling and optimizing the gas supply and the application of various peak-load supply plants of a public utility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poll, J [Technische Werke der Stadt Stuttgart A.G. (Germany, F.R.)

    1977-02-01

    The computer system has the following tasks: 1) On-line control; 2) supply of an information system; 3) performance of a gas marketing forecast; 4) background computations. Measured data are compiled, processed, monitored, recorded, prepared, and stored. The process is controlled by about a dozen programmes, the remaining tasks are taken over by 22 programmes. The system has proved a success.

  7. Performance Analysis of Joule-Thomson Cooler Supplied with Gas Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowska, A.; Chorowski, M.; Dorosz, P.

    2017-02-01

    Joule-Thomson (J-T) cryo-coolers working in closed cycles and supplied with gas mixtures are the subject of intensive research in different laboratories. The replacement of pure nitrogen by nitrogen-hydrocarbon mixtures allows to improve both thermodynamic parameters and economy of the refrigerators. It is possible to avoid high pressures in the heat exchanger and to use standard refrigeration compressor instead of gas bottles or high-pressure oil free compressor. Closed cycle and mixture filled Joule-Thomson cryogenic refrigerator providing 10-20 W of cooling power at temperature range 90-100 K has been designed and manufactured. Thermodynamic analysis including the optimization of the cryo-cooler mixture has been performed with ASPEN HYSYS software. The paper describes the design of the cryo-cooler and provides thermodynamic analysis of the system. The test results are presented and discussed.

  8. An assessment of the natural gas supply potential of the south energy corridor from the Caspian Region to the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavrakis, Dimitrios; Thomaidis, Fotios; Ntroukas, Ioannis

    2006-01-01

    Security and diversification of EU energy supply underlines the importance of an energy corridor bridging the natural gas reserves of the broader Caspian Region with the EU consumption centers. This paper examines the supply potential of this corridor, the major natural gas fields and the already existing networks. An assessment of the supply cost up to the Turkish borders is carried out, while the case of Egypt as a future supplier is also investigated. Conclusions review the prospects for the construction of the considered energy corridor

  9. Evaluating the sustainability of an energy supply system using renewable energy sources: An energy demand assessment of South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Cedric Fitzgerald

    Sustainable energy is defined as a dynamic harmony between the equitable availability of energy-intensive goods and services to all people and the preservation of the earth for future generations. Sustainable energy development continues to be a major focus within the government and regulatory governing bodies in the electric utility industry. This is as a result of continued demand for electricity and the impact of greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generating plants on the environment by way of the greenhouse effect. A culmination of increasing concerns about climate change, the nuclear incident in Fukushima four years ago, and discussions on energy security in a world with growing energy demand have led to a movement for increasing the share of power generation from renewable energy sources. This work studies demand for electricity from primarily residential, commercial, agricultural, and industrial customers in South Carolina (SC) and its effect on the environment from coal-fired electricity generating plants. Moreover, this work studies sustainable renewable energy source-options based on the renewable resources available in the state of SC, as viable options to supplement generation from coal-fired electricity generating plants. In addition, greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants from primarily coal-fired plants will be defined and quantified. Fundamental renewable energy source options will be defined and quantified based on availability and sustainability of SC's natural resources. This work studies the environmental, economic, and technical aspects of each renewable energy source as a sustainable energy option to replace power generation from coal-fired plants. Additionally, social aspect implications will be incorporated into each of the three aspects listed above, as these aspects are explored during the research and analysis. Electricity demand data and alternative energy source-supply data in SC are carried out and are used to develop and

  10. Quantifying, Assessing, and Mitigating Methane Emissions from Super-emitters in the Oil and Gas Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, David Richard

    Methane emissions from the oil and gas (O&G) supply chain reduce potential climate benefits of natural gas as a replacement for other fossil fuels that emit more carbon dioxide per energy produced. O&G facilities have skewed emission rate distributions with a small fraction of sites contributing the majority of emissions. Knowledge of the identity and cause of these high emission facilities, referred to as super-emitters or fat-tail sources, is critical for reducing supply chain emissions. This dissertation addresses the quantification of super-emitter emissions, assessment of their prevalence and relationship to site characteristics, and mitigation with continuous leak detection systems. Chapter 1 summarizes the state of the knowledge of O&G methane emissions. Chapter 2 constructs a spatially-resolved emission inventory to estimate total and O&G methane emissions in the Barnett Shale as part of a coordinated research campaign using multiple top-down and bottom-up methods to quantify emissions. The emission inventory accounts for super-emitters with two-phase Monte Carlo simulations that combine site measurements collected with two approaches: unbiased sampling and targeted sampling of super-emitters. More comprehensive activity data and the inclusion of super-emitters, which account for 19% of O&G emissions, produces a emission inventory that is not statistically different than top-down regional emission estimates. Chapter 3 describes a helicopter-based survey of over 8,000 well pads in seven basins with infrared optical gas imaging to assess high emission sources. Four percent of sites are observed to have high emissions with over 90% of observed sources from tanks. The occurrence of high emissions is weakly correlated to site parameters and the best statistical model explains only 14% of variance, which demonstrates that the occurrence of super-emitters is primarily stochastic. Chapter 4 presents a Gaussian dispersion model for optimizing the placement of

  11. Supply disruptions and regional price effects in a spatial oligopoly. An application to the global gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growitsch, Christian; Hecking, Harald; Panke, Timo

    2013-01-01

    Supply shocks in the global gas market may affect countries differently, as the market is regionally interlinked but not perfectly integrated. Additionally, high supply-side concentration may expose countries to market power in different ways. To evaluate the strategic position of importing countries with regard to gas supplies, we disentangle import price components into increasing and decreasing factors. Due to the complexity of the interrelations in the global gas market, we use an equilibrium model programmed as a mixed complementarity problem (MCP) and simulate the blockage of LNG ows through the Strait of Hormuz. This enables us to account for the oligopolistic nature and the asymmetry of the gas supply. We find that Japan faces the most severe price increases, as the Japanese gas demand completely relies on LNG supply. In contrast, European countries such as the UK benefit from good interconnection to the continental pipeline system and domestic pricetaking production, both of which help to mitigate an increase in physical costs of supply as well as in the exercise of market power.

  12. Possibilities of the natural gas supply in the Republic of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavrovic, S.; Matic, D.

    1996-01-01

    Europe and Croatia meet 70% of their total natural gas demand from indigenous production and import other 30% (20% from the Russian Federation and 10% from Algeria). Croatia imports gas only from Russia. Forecasts and analysis of energy sector development point out that natural gas consumption will be doubled till 2010 when it will reach approximately 555-651 bcm. Natural gas consumption is expected to rise significantly in Croatia. Estimations of required import made by INA and PROHES - preliminary results, are similar. It has been expected that future import in 2010 will be between 2 and 3 bcm depending on considered scenario. Due to expectations of rising gas demand, Europe is turning on to new projects aiming to better connections by pipelines and LNG chains. New projects are considering constructions of new Russian transmission lines, additional lines from North Sea, increasing capacity of lines from Algeria, UK interconnection with Continent, and new pipelines and LNG routes from Middle East and Central Asia. Involvement in some the above mentioned projects is of importance for Croatia because it enables additional natural gas quantities and diversification of sources. (author)

  13. Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China 2012: Inventory and Supply Chain Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Yaowen; Zhao, Xueli; Meng, Jing

    2018-01-01

    Reliable inventory information is critical in informing emission mitigation efforts. Using the latest officially released emission data, which is production based, we take a consumption perspective to estimate the non-CO2 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for China in 2012. The non-CO2 GHG emissions, which cover CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs, and SF6, amounted to 2003.0 Mt. CO2-eq (including 1871.9 Mt. CO2-eq from economic activities), much larger than the total CO2 emissions in some developed countries. Urban consumption (30.1%), capital formation (28.2%), and exports (20.6%) derived approximately four fifths of the total embodied emissions in final demand. Furthermore, the results from structural path analysis help identify critical embodied emission paths and key economic sectors in supply chains for mitigating non-CO2 GHG emissions in Chinese economic systems. The top 20 paths were responsible for half of the national total embodied emissions. Several industrial sectors such as Construction, Production and Supply of Electricity and Steam, Manufacture of Food and Tobacco and Manufacture of Chemicals, and Chemical Products played as the important transmission channels. Examining both production- and consumption-based non-CO2 GHG emissions will enrich our understanding of the influences of industrial positions, final consumption demands, and trades on national non-CO2 GHG emissions by considering the comprehensive abatement potentials in the supply chains.

  14. Natural gas seeps in the French Alps: Sources and pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloppmann, Wolfram; Blessing, Michaela; Proust, Eric; Gal, Frédéric; Bentivegna, Gaetan; Henry, Benoit; Defossez, Pierrick; Catherine, Lerouge; Humez, Pauline; Mayer, Bernhard; Millot, Romain; Gaucher, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Natural gas emanations are part of the geochemical baseline to take into account when assessing global greenhouse gas emissions and potential impacts of conventional and unconventional gas exploration and exploitation on groundwater. Examples of such natural gas macro-seeps are known in several parts of the world (Etiope et al., 2009). Only a limited number of them have been characterized for their gas and isotopic compositions. Such analyses can provide essential information for baseline studies, providing insight in the sources (biogenic vs. thermogenic or modified thermogenic) and pathways of such seeps and may allow for distinction of natural seeps from stray gas leakage associated with human activities. Here, we report gas concentrations and multi-isotope data (δ13C and δ2H of methane and ethane, δ13C and δ18O of CO2, 3He/4He ratio) of two gas seeps in the French subalpine chains, both in a similar geological and structural position within Middle Jurassic claystones along the eastern border of the large synclinal structures of the Vercors and the Chartreuse massifs (Moss, 1992). The "ardent fountain" (fontaine ardente) of Le Gua, 30 km south of Grenoble has most likely the longest continuous written record of existence of any individual natural gas seep, mentioned explicitly as early as the first quarter of the 5th century (Augustin of Hippo (St. Augustin), approx. 426) This natural seep was described in the past as a "wet seep" associated with a spring, whereas the second investigated seep, Rochasson near Meylan north of Grenoble, is a dry seep. Both seeps contain methane and ethane with thermogenic C and H isotope signatures, comparable with a seep in the Northern Swiss Alps at Giswil (Etiope et al., 2010) but with a higher dryness (C1/(C2+C3)>1000) for the Le Gua seep, possibly due to molecular fractionation upon advective fluid+gas migration (Etiope et al., 2009). Maturity (R0) of the reservoir rocks deduced from δ13C(CH4), δ13C(C2H6) is similar to

  15. Proceedings of the 1999 natural gas lookout and strategies forum : Price and supply outlook, trading and purchasing strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    A total of 17 papers were presented at this conference, all of them devoted to a discussion of marketing strategies and price and supply outlook within the natural gas industry in North America. The presentations provided a practical and analytical look at where natural gas prices were heading. They also described winning trading and purchasing strategies. The challenges posed by the deregulation and the expected competition in the natural gas industry in North America also received much attention. tabs., figs

  16. Some new offshore technologic trends and their possible influence on the world gas supply structure; Quelques nouvelles tendances technologiques en offshore et leur influence possible sur la structure de la disponibilite mondiale de gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakushev, V.S. [VNIIGAZ, OAO Gazprom (Russian Federation)

    2000-07-01

    According to Global Energy Scenarios (GES) role of natural gas as primary energy source in 21. century will grow considerably. In the same time gas industry has to response 3 challenges: environmental, technological and political to make these scenarios real. Development of new technological systems uniting offshore gas production, shuttle transport by tankers and CO{sub 2} sequestration looks like the most optimum way of these problems solution. Some new current technological trends are shown and the most probable technologic concept on gas production from deep and ultra-deep waters is suggested. Probable changes in the world gas supply structure caused by these systems application are discussed. (author)

  17. The Environment Friendly Power Source for Power Supply of Mobile Communication Base Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudenko, N. V.; Ershov, V. V.; Evstafiev, V. V.

    2017-05-01

    The article describes the technical proposals to improve environmental and resource characteristics of the autonomous power supply systems of mobile communication base stations based on renewable energy sources, while ensuring the required reliability and security of power supply. These include: the replacement of diesel-generator with clean energy source - an electrochemical generator based on hydrogen fuel cells; the use of wind turbines with a vertical axis; use of specialized batteries. Based on the analysis of the know technical solutions, the structural circuit diagram of the hybrid solar-wind-hydrogen power plant and the basic principles of the algorithm of its work were proposed. The implementation of these proposals will improve the environmental and resource characteristics.

  18. Survey of sources of manpower supply for the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The following is a report of a survey designed to determine sources of manpower supply available to the Nuclear Power Industry. The survey is part of a larger research effort which is also designed to investigate occupational employment and training in the Nuclear Power Industry and competing sources of demand for technically qualified manpower. The results of those other studies have been published separately and are available upon request. This report includes a brief discussion of the background of the study, the research methods employed, the results obtained, and some implications of those findings. The appendices contain copies of the questionnaires used in the survey as well as some additional related data

  19. Proceedings of the Canadian Institute conference on supply chain management in the oil and gas industry : major capital construction projects, maintenance, repair and operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Many companies are now being forced to focus on careful budgeting to ensure that the capital costs of large-scale construction projects do not exceed their budgets. Operators are now investigating the role of supply chain management in reducing project costs. This conference provided a forum for the discussion of issues related to large construction projects for supply chain management in the oil and gas industry. Participants at the conference discussed methods of negotiating with contractors in order to manage higher prices for steel and other commodities. Best practices for maintaining effective purchaser-contractor relations were discussed along with cost benchmarks in contracts and management planning techniques for supply chain processes. The benefits of adopting vendor-managed inventory systems were also examined. Sourcing strategies were presented and issues related to transportation were reviewed along with various planning models. The conference featured 16 presentations. tabs., figs

  20. Transition to a Source with Modified Physical Parameters by Energy Supply or Using an External Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucherov, A. N.

    2017-11-01

    A study has been made of the possibility for the physical parameters of a source/sink, i.e., for the enthalpy, temperature, total pressure, maximum velocity, and minimum dimension, at a constant radial Mach number to be changed by energy or force action on the gas in a bounded zone. It has been shown that the parameters can be controlled at a subsonic, supersonic, and transonic (sonic in the limit) radial Mach number. In the updated source/sink, all versions of a vortex-source combination can be implemented: into a vacuum, out of a vacuum, into a submerged space, and out of a submerged space, partially or fully.

  1. Safety implications of bridging the energy supply/demand gap in Nigeria through associated natural gas utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akeredolu, Funso A.; Sonibare, Jacob A.

    2007-01-01

    There exists a wide energy supply/demand gap in Nigeria. The local generation of electricity meets only 31% of the demand of 10000 MW. By contrast, only 39.6% of the total installed capacity for electricity generation is achieved, owing to aging infrastructure, etc. The energy demand/supply pattern and infrastructure critically reviewed thus suggested the need to increase the electricity generation capacity. Furthermore, Nigeria flares 77% of her associated natural gas. Apart from the environmental penalties that flaring represents, in monetary terms, over the 110 years' life of Nigeria's gas reserves, a conservative estimate of the cost of the gas so-flared was $330 billion (based on $20/barrel average price of crude). It was safely inferred that the way forward in meeting the country's energy demand should include a strong element of gas utilization. In previous publications by this group, it was established that while domestic cooking could reduce the flared gas by about 5.4%, a cohesive policy on associated gas use for electricity generation could eliminate gas flaring. For domestic utilization of the associated gas, burner design and safety concerns were identified as the key challenges to overcome. The paper reports the effectiveness of odorizers in leakage detection/ prevention by the local consumers. It also discusses the issue of prevention of gas explosions. The previous cases of gas accidents were reviewed. The safety approaches proffered in the paper identified the relevant areas of research for safe delivery and consumption of natural gas in Nigeria. (Author)

  2. Source removal strategy development for manufactured gas plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golchin, J.; Nelson, S.

    1994-01-01

    A source removal action plan was developed by Midwest Gas and the Iowa Department of Natural Resources to address the source coal tar contamination within the underground gas holder basin at former Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) sites. The procedure utilizes a mixture of coal, contaminated soil and coal rat sludge to provide a material that had suitable material handling characteristics for shipment and burning in high efficiency utility boilers. Screening of the mixture was required to remove oversized debris and ferrous metal. The resulting mixture did not exhibit toxic characteristics when tested under the Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP). Test results on the coal tar sludges have indicated that the more pure coal tar materials may fail the TCLP test and be classified as a RCRA hazardous waste. The processing procedure was designed to stabilize the coal tar sludges and render those sludges less hazardous and, as a result, able to pass the TCLP test. This procedure was adopted by the Edison Electric Institute to develop a national guidance document for remediation of MGP sites. The EPA Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response recommended this strategy to the Regional Waste Management Directors as a practical tool for handling wastes that may exhibit the RCRA characteristics

  3. Compact permanent magnet H⁺ ECR ion source with pulse gas valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwashita, Y; Tongu, H; Fuwa, Y; Ichikawa, M

    2016-02-01

    Compact H(+) ECR ion source using permanent magnets is under development. Switching the hydrogen gas flow in pulse operations can reduce the gas loads to vacuum evacuation systems. A specially designed piezo gas valve chops the gas flow quickly. A 6 GHz ECR ion source equipped with the piezo gas valve is tested. The gas flow was measured by a fast ion gauge and a few ms response time is obtained.

  4. Basis for the power supply reliability study of the 1 MW neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGhee, D.G.; Fathizadeh, M.

    1993-01-01

    The Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) upgrade to 1 MW requires new power supply designs. This paper describes the tools and the methodology needed to assess the reliability of the power supplies. Both the design and operation of the power supplies in the synchrotron will be taken into account. To develop a reliability budget, the experiments to be conducted with this accelerator are reviewed, and data is collected on the number and duration of interruptions possible before an experiment is required to start over. Once the budget is established, several accelerators of this type will be examined. The budget is allocated to the different accelerator systems based on their operating experience. The accelerator data is usually in terms of machine availability and system down time. It takes into account mean time to failure (MTTF), time to diagnose, time to repair or replace the failed components, and time to get the machine back online. These estimated times are used as baselines for the design. Even though we are in the early stage of design, available data can be analyzed to estimate the MTTF for the power supplies

  5. Quantifying sources of fine sediment supplied to post-fire debris flows using fallout radionuclide tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hugh; Sheridan, Gary; Nyman, Petter; Child, David; Lane, Patrick; Hotchkis, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The supply of fine sediment and ash has been identified as an important factor contributing to the initiation of runoff-generated debris flows after fire. However, despite the significance of fines for post-fire debris flow generation, no investigations have sought to quantify sources of this material in debris flow affected catchments. In this study, we employ fallout radionuclides (Cs-137, excess Pb-210 and Pu-239,240) as tracers to measure proportional contributions of fine sediment (bank sources to levee and terminal fan deposits formed by post-fire debris flows in two forest catchments in southeastern Australia. While Cs-137 and excess Pb-210 have been widely used in sediment tracing studies, application of Pu as a tracer represents a recent development and was limited to only one catchment. The estimated range in hillslope surface contributions of fine sediment to individual debris flow deposits in each catchment was 22-69% and 32-74%, respectively. No systematic change in the source contributions to debris flow deposits was observed with distance downstream from channel initiation points. Instead, spatial variability in source contributions was largely influenced by the pattern of debris flow surges forming the deposits. Linking the sediment tracing with interpretation of depositional evidence allowed reconstruction of temporal sequences in sediment source contributions to debris flow surges. Hillslope source inputs dominated most elevated channel deposits such as marginal levees that were formed under peak flow conditions. This indicated the importance of hillslope runoff and sediment supply for debris flow generation in both catchments. In contrast, material stored within channels that was deposited during subsequent surges was predominantly channel-derived. The results demonstrate that fallout radionuclide tracers may provide unique information on the changing source contributions of fine sediment during debris flow events.

  6. Development of a Simulation Framework for Analyzing Security of Supply in Integrated Gas and Electric Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwabena Addo Pambour

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas and power networks are tightly coupled and interact with each other due to physically interconnected facilities. In an integrated gas and power network, a contingency observed in one system may cause iterative cascading failures, resulting in network wide disruptions. Therefore, understanding the impacts of the interactions in both systems is crucial for governments, system operators, regulators and operational planners, particularly, to ensure security of supply for the overall energy system. Although simulation has been widely used in the assessment of gas systems as well as power systems, there is a significant gap in simulation models that are able to address the coupling of both systems. In this paper, a simulation framework that models and simulates the gas and power network in an integrated manner is proposed. The framework consists of a transient model for the gas system and a steady state model for the power system based on AC-Optimal Power Flow. The gas and power system model are coupled through an interface which uses the coupling equations to establish the data exchange and coordination between the individual models. The bidirectional interlink between both systems considered in this studies are the fuel gas offtake of gas fired power plants for power generation and the power supply to liquefied natural gas (LNG terminals and electric drivers installed in gas compressor stations and underground gas storage facilities. The simulation framework is implemented into an innovative simulation tool named SAInt (Scenario Analysis Interface for Energy Systems and the capabilities of the tool are demonstrated by performing a contingency analysis for a real world example. Results indicate how a disruption triggered in one system propagates to the other system and affects the operation of critical facilities. In addition, the studies show the importance of using transient gas models for security of supply studies instead of successions of

  7. Politics, markets and EU gas supply security. Case studies of the UK and Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, Sandu-Daniel

    2015-03-01

    Publication in the field of social sciences. Sandu-Daniel Kopp investigates whether carbon reduction targets are compatible with market-driven competition in gas (and power) industries, and whether security of supply is compatible with competitive markets. He examines the policy trade-offs which need to be made between the three different elements, and whether these policy judgements should be economically or politically based. The analysis shows the need for a complex set of politically determined options to protect (competitive) markets from price risks and emergency events and demonstrates that this has thus far failed the policy test. Overall, the author argues that the three major elements of EU energy policy are incompatible in important respects and thereby challenges much of the conventional wisdom of EU and Member State policies of the past decade.

  8. Politics, markets and EU gas supply security. Case studies of the UK and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopp, Sandu-Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Publication in the field of social sciences. Sandu-Daniel Kopp investigates whether carbon reduction targets are compatible with market-driven competition in gas (and power) industries, and whether security of supply is compatible with competitive markets. He examines the policy trade-offs which need to be made between the three different elements, and whether these policy judgements should be economically or politically based. The analysis shows the need for a complex set of politically determined options to protect (competitive) markets from price risks and emergency events and demonstrates that this has thus far failed the policy test. Overall, the author argues that the three major elements of EU energy policy are incompatible in important respects and thereby challenges much of the conventional wisdom of EU and Member State policies of the past decade.

  9. Improvement in supply chain management for oil and gas sector using drag reduction theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjum, A.A.; Chughtai, A.; Shafeeq, A.; Muhammad, A.

    2010-01-01

    Supply chain management is an integrative philosophy about managing the flow of distribution channels from supplier to the consumer. PARCO, an oil and gas company in Pakistan has three existing pipelines. Out of three, two pipelines are running parallel from Karachi to Mehmood kot. One pipeline is of crude oil and meeting the demand of PARCO refinery while second pipeline is of High Speed Diesel (HSD) and third pipeline is of (HSD and Kerosene) running from Mehmood Kot to Machhike (Sheikhupura). PARCO supply petroleum products from Shikarpur, Mehmood Kot, Faisalabad and Machhike to oil marketing companies (OMCs) as per their share, standard and demand. The purpose of these pipelines is to meet the country demand for petroleum products at various locations all over Pakistan. In the peak season when OMCs have high demand and receipt of product from PARCO pipelines are less, there is a need to enhance the flow rate of oil inside the PARCO pipelines to fulfill the demand of OMCs. This could be done economically by the application of drag reduction theory. So by injecting drag reducer, dragging of the oil inside the pipeline could appreciably be reduced thereby improving the pumping of oil. (author)

  10. Electricity supply for remote places in the Danube Delta using non-conventional sources of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaides, E.P.

    1993-06-01

    The results of the theoretical studies and experiments performed by the author during the last years, the testing of the technical solutions based on PV and wind turbines, are the premises which allow the start of a new project regarding the electricity supply for remote places in the Danube Delta using non-conventional sources of energy. The aim of the project is to supply electricity to remote places such as: schools, medical centers, telecommunications, data logging equipment for floods preventing. The technical solutions envisage the design of a hybrid systems based on PVs and WTs. The paper emphasizes the elements of progress, the general concept of the design and is looking forward to raise the interest of other research teams which might take part into such project. (author). 7 refs, 11 figs, 3 tabs

  11. Status of magnet power supply development for the APS [Advanced Photon Source] storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGhee, D.

    1989-01-01

    To simplify installation and speed testing of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring magnets, vacuum chambers and magnet power supplies, a modular approach was developed. All but the dipole magnets are independently controlled. Pulse width modulated dc-to-dc converters are used to power the individual magnets, with 12-pulse power supplies providing the raw dc to the converters. A magnet support base is the heart of a module and may hold as many as 7 magnets with 8 individually powered coils. The dc-to-dc converters are part of each magnet base module. This paper will show the modular approach which is used for the storage ring magnet systems and will give the test results of the prototype topology for the dc-to-dc converters that are being built and tested to power 680 quadrupole and sextupole magnets. 4 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  12. Levels and sources of fat in the U.S. food supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raper, N R; Marston, R M

    1986-01-01

    The amount of fat in the U.S. food supply increased one-third between 1909-13 and 1984, from 124 grams to 166 grams per capita per day. Also, the proportion of food energy provided by fat increased from 32 to 43 percent. The gain in fat in the food supply was due to an increase in fat from vegetable sources. The share of fat from vegetable sources increased from 17 to 42 percent between 1909-13 and 1984. Although animal fats provided the largest share of fat, their proportionate contribution declined from 83 to 58 percent between 1909-13 and 1984. Three food groups--fats and oils; meat, poultry, and fish; and dairy products--provided about 90 percent of the fat in the food supply throughout the past 75 years. However, the shares of fat provided by these groups changed. The share from the fats and oils group increased from 37 to 44 percent between 1909-13 and 1984, while the share from the meat, poultry, and fish group declined from 37 to 34 percent, and the share from the dairy products group declined from 15 to 12 percent. Fat from the fats and oils group increased 59 percent between 1909-13 and 1984. Most of the gain in fat from this group was due to increased use of edible oils. Margarine replaced much of the butter and shortening replaced much of the lard as sources of fat. Fat from the meat, poultry, and fish group increased 24 percent between 1909-13 and 1984. Pork accounted for the largest proportion of fat from this group and beef ranked second. The share of fat from poultry, although much smaller than either pork or beef, almost tripled. Fat from dairy products was about the same in 1984 as in 1909-13. Cheese was the leading source of fat from dairy products by 1984. Until recent years, whole milk was the leading source, although its share declined substantially after the late 1950's. Despite their low fat content, the share of fat from skim and lowfat milks increased as use increased, particularly in the past 25 years. The proportion of fat provided by

  13. Estimating U.S. Methane Emissions from the Natural Gas Supply Chain. Approaches, Uncertainties, Current Estimates, and Future Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, Garvin [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States); Warner, Ethan [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States); Steinberg, Daniel [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States); Brandt, Adam [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    A growing number of studies have raised questions regarding uncertainties in our understanding of methane (CH4) emissions from fugitives and venting along the natural gas (NG) supply chain. In particular, a number of measurement studies have suggested that actual levels of CH4 emissions may be higher than estimated by EPA" tm s U.S. GHG Emission Inventory. We reviewed the literature to identify the growing number of studies that have raised questions regarding uncertainties in our understanding of methane (CH4) emissions from fugitives and venting along the natural gas (NG) supply chain.

  14. An inverted cylindrical sputter magnetron as metal vapor supply for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weichsel, T., E-mail: tim.weichsel@fep.fraunhofer.de; Hartung, U.; Kopte, T. [Fraunhofer Institute for Electron Beam and Plasma Technology, 01277 Dresden (Germany); Zschornack, G. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Dresden University of Technology, 01062 Dresden, Germany and Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Dresden (Germany); Kreller, M.; Silze, A. [DREEBIT GmbH, 01900 Grossroehrsdorf (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    An inverted cylindrical sputter magnetron device has been developed. The magnetron is acting as a metal vapor supply for an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. FEM simulation of magnetic flux density was used to ensure that there is no critical interaction between both magnetic fields of magnetron and ECR ion source. Spatially resolved double Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy measurements show an increase in electron density by one order of magnitude from 1 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup −3} to 1 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −3}, when the magnetron plasma is exposed to the magnetic mirror field of the ECR ion source. Electron density enhancement is also indicated by magnetron plasma emission photography with a CCD camera. Furthermore, photographs visualize the formation of a localized loss-cone - area, when the magnetron is operated at magnetic mirror field conditions. The inverted cylindrical magnetron supplies a metal atom load rate of R > 1 × 10{sup 18} atoms/s for aluminum, which meets the demand for the production of a milliampere Al{sup +} ion beam.

  15. Characteristics of the positive ion source at reduced gas feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, S. K., E-mail: sksharma@ipr.res.in; Bharathi, P.; Prahlad, V.; Patel, P. J.; Choksi, B.; Jana, M. R.; Bansal, L. K.; Qureshi, K.; Sumod, C. B.; Vadher, V.; Thakkar, D.; Gupta, L. N.; Rambabu, S.; Parmar, S.; Contractor, N.; Sahu, A. K.; Pandya, B.; Sridhar, B.; Pandya, S.; Baruah, U. K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar (India)

    2014-11-15

    The neutral beam injector of steady state superconducting tokamak (SST1-NBI) at IPR is designed for injecting upto 1.7 MW of neutral beam (Hº, 30–55 keV) power to the tokamak plasma for heating and current drive. Operations of the positive ion source (PINI or Plug-In-Neutral-Injector) of SST1-NBI were carried out on the NBI test stand. The PINI was operated at reduced gas feed rate of 2–3 Torr l/s, without using the high speed cryo pumps. Experiments were conducted to achieve a stable beam extraction by optimizing operational parameters namely, the arc current (120–300 A), acceleration voltage (16–40 kV), and a suitable control sequence. The beam divergence, power density profiles, and species fractions (H{sup +}:H{sub 2}{sup +}:H{sub 3}{sup +}) were measured by using the diagnostics such as thermal calorimetry, infrared thermography, and Doppler shift spectroscopy. The maximum extracted beam current was about 18 A. A further increase of beam current was found to be limited by the amount of gas feed rate to the ion source.

  16. Procurement of natural gas in power supply companies. Strategies of procurement for EVU; Gasbeschaffung in Energieversorgungsunternehmen. Beschaffungsstrategien fuer EVU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Janina; Soennecken, Arno [IEBT GmbH Institute for Energy Business and Technology, Herdecke (Germany)

    2012-09-10

    Since the implementation of the EU directive on the liberalization of the gas market, the time of monopolistic areal supply is gone. Within the Energy Economy Law (EnWG) the European regulations on the internal electricity and gas market have been transposed into national law. Due to the rapid development utility companies need to burst old structures in order to remain competitive and to take advantage of opportunities arising in the market.

  17. Design of power supply system for the prototype RF-driven negative ion source for neutral beam injection application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Caichao; Hu, Chundong [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Graduate school, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Wei, Jianglong, E-mail: jlwei@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Xie, Yahong; Xu, Yongjian; Liang, Lizhen; Chen, Shiyong; Liu, Sheng; Liu, Zhimin; Xie, Yuanlai [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • A supporting power supply system was designed in details for a RF-driven prototype negative ion source at ASIPP. • The RF power supply for plasma generation adopts an all-solid-state power supply structure. • The extraction grid power supply adopts the pulse step modulator (PSM) technology. - Abstract: In order to study the generation and extraction of negative ions for neutral beam injection application, a prototype RF-driven negative ion source and the corresponding test bed are under construction at Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ASIPP). The target of the negative ion source is extracting a negation ion beam of 350 A/m{sup 2} for 3600 s plasma duration and 100 s beam duration. According to the required parameters of test bed, the design of power supply system is put forward for earlier study. In this paper, the performance requirements and design schemes of RF power supply for plasma generation, impedance matching network, bias voltage power supply, and extraction voltage power supply for negative beam extraction are introduced in details. The schemes provide a reference for the construction of power supply system and lay a foundation for the next phase of experimental operation.

  18. Development of microcontroller based remote control system for HV power supply of ECR ion source for ADSS project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.; Misra, A.; Thakur, S.K.; Pandey, H.K.; Pandit, V.S.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we will describe the design and development of the microcontroller based interface card used to control and monitor the operation of High Voltage Power supply 120kV/50mA (HVPS). This power supply is deployed for the extraction of proton beam from the microwave ion source in the ADSS project. (author)

  19. Will the supply meet the demand? The future of the natural gas liquids market in the WCSB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauft, T.

    2004-01-01

    Natural Gas Liquids (NGL) price influences were reviewed in this presentation, as well as issues concerning North American propane demand and waterborne imports. A review of U.S. propane stocks was provided as well as regional temperature outlooks for 2004-2005. A cracking feedstock parity forecast was presented, as well as United States gross gas plant margins and propane prices to July 2005. Canadian propane inventories and prices were reviewed. A propane supply and demand forecast to 2020 was presented. Alberta's natural gas supply and intra-Alberta oil sand gas demand growth were discussed. Various market uncertainties include higher levels of activity; the potential of petroleum prices falling due to a reduction of geopolitical risk; the possibility of a U.S. recession; and the growth of Alberta's oil sands industry, with resulting demand for natural gas. It was concluded that the NGL market in North America will continue to be balanced, with waterborne imports becoming more critical. It was suggested that inventories are adequate for the expected winter season. It was also suggested that Canadian NGL supplies are expected to decline, and that prices are expected to soften in the spring of 2005, with falling natural gas and crude oil prices. refs., tabs., figs

  20. Solid-state high voltage modulator and its application to rf source high voltage power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tooker, J.F.; Huynh, P.; Street, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    A solid-state high voltage modulator is described in which series-connected insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) are switched at a fixed frequency by a pulse width modulation (PWM) regulator, that adjusts the pulse width to control the voltage out of an inductor-capacitor filter network. General Atomics proposed the HV power supply (HVPS) topology of multiple IGBT modulators connected to a common HVdc source for the large number of 1 MW klystrons in the linear accelerator of the Accelerator Production of Tritium project. The switching of 24 IGBTs to obtain 20 kVdc at 20 A for short pulses was successfully demonstrated. This effort was incorporated into the design of a -70 kV, 80 A, IGBT modulator, and in a short-pulse test 12 IGBTs regulated -5 kV at 50 A under PWM control. These two tests confirm the practicality of solid-state IGBT modulators to regulate high voltage at reasonable currents. Tokamaks such as ITER require large rf heating and current drive systems with multiple rf sources. A HVPS topology is presented that readily adapts to the three rf heating systems on ITER. To take advantage of the known economy of scale for power conversion equipment, a single HVdc source feeds multiple rf sources. The large power conversion equipment, which is located outside, converts the incoming utility line voltage directly to the HVdc needed for the class of rf sources connected to it, to further reduce cost. The HVdc feeds a set of IGBT modulators, one for each rf source, to independently control the voltage applied to each source, maximizing operational flexibility. Only the modulators are indoors, close to the rf sources, minimizing the use of costly near-tokamak floor space.

  1. Lead isotopes in tap water: implications for Pb sources within a municipal water supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Zhongqi; Foland, Kenneth A.

    2005-01-01

    Residential tap waters were investigated to examine the feasibility of using isotopic ratios to identify dominant sources of water Pb in the Columbus (Ohio, USA) municipal supply system. Overall, both the concentrations, which are generally low (0.1-28 μg/L), and isotopic compositions of tap water Pb show wide variations. This contrasts with the situation for a limited number of available service lines, which exhibit only a limited Pb-isotope variation but contain Pb of two very different types with one significantly more radiogenic than the other. Most tap water samples in contact with Pb service lines have Pb-isotope ratios that are different from the pipe Pb. Furthermore, the Pb isotope compositions of sequentially drawn samples in the same residence generally are similar, but those from separate residences are different, implying dominant Pb sources from domestic plumbing. A separate pilot study at two residences without Pb service lines shows isotopic similarity between water and solders in each house, further suggesting that the major Pb sources are domestic in these cases and dominated by Pb from solder joints. Although complicated by the broad range of overall Pb-isotope variations observed and limited by sample availability, the results suggest that Pb isotopes can be used effectively to constrain the sources of Pb in tap waters, especially for individual houses where multiple source candidates can be identified

  2. Natural gas market assessment. Natural gas supply, western Canada: Recent developments (1982-1992), [and] short-term deliverability outlook (1993-1996)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    A review is presented of the evolution of gas supply from western Canada over the last ten years and a short-term forecast of gas deliverability. To illustrate the changed supply conditions, selected trends and market developments are summarized, including trends in excess deliverability, changes in reserves, the regional distribution of cumulative production, the pace of tieing-in of previously discovered pools for production, the expansion in deliverability from gas storage reservoirs, and recent increases in drilling activity. On the basis of analyses and observations, it is concluded that estimated productive capacity is likely to exceed pipeline capacity on a peak-day basis by a narrow margin over 1993-96. Increasing deliverability from gas storage reservoirs located in the producing provinces is an important factor in handling peak day requirements. From time to time, high demand due to extreme weather conditions could result in pronounced tightness and price fluctuations similar to those seen in winter 1992/93. A strong economic recovery could also result in market tightness, depending on the speed and size of supply response. The growing estimates of resource potential in the western Canada sedimentary basin provide an encouraging indication of the availability of future supply. 29 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Screening of sustainable groundwater sources for integration into a regional drought-prone water supply system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lucas

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the qualitative and quantitative screening of groundwater sources for integration into the public water supply system of the Algarve, Portugal. The results are employed in a decision support system currently under development for an integrated water resources management scheme in the region. Such a scheme is crucial for several reasons, including the extreme seasonal and annual variations in rainfall, the effect of climate change on more frequent and long-lasting droughts, the continuously increasing water demand and the high risk of a single-source water supply policy. The latter was revealed during the severe drought of 2004 and 2005, when surface reservoirs were depleted and the regional water demand could not be met, despite the drilling of emergency wells.

    For screening and selection, quantitative criteria are based on aquifer properties and well yields, whereas qualitative criteria are defined by water quality indices. These reflect the well's degree of violation of drinking water standards for different sets of variables, including toxicity parameters, nitrate and chloride, iron and manganese and microbiological parameters. Results indicate the current availability of at least 1100 l s−1 of high quality groundwater (55% of the regional demand, requiring only disinfection (900 l s−1 or basic treatment, prior to human consumption. These groundwater withdrawals are sustainable when compared to mean annual recharge, considering that at least 40% is preserved for ecological demands. A more accurate and comprehensive analysis of sustainability is performed with the help of steady-state and transient groundwater flow simulations, which account for aquifer geometry, boundary conditions, recharge and discharge rates, pumping activity and seasonality. They permit an advanced analysis of present and future scenarios and show that increasing water demands and decreasing rainfall will make

  4. Reactor units for power supply to the Russian Arctic regions: Priority assessment of nuclear energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mel'nikov N. N.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Under conditions of competitiveness of small nuclear power plants (SNPP and feasibility of their use to supply power to remote and inaccessible regions the competition occurs between nuclear energy sources, which is caused by a wide range of proposals for solving the problem of power supply to different consumers in the decentralized area of the Russian Arctic power complex. The paper suggests a methodological approach for expert assessment of the priority of small power reactor units based on the application of the point system. The priority types of the reactor units have been determined based on evaluation of the unit's conformity to the following criteria: the level of referentiality and readiness degree of reactor units to implementation; duration of the fuel cycle, which largely determines an autonomy level of the nuclear energy source; the possibility of creating a modular block structure of SNPP; the maximum weight of a transported single equipment for the reactor unit; service life of the main equipment. Within the proposed methodological approach the authors have performed a preliminary ranking of the reactor units according to various criteria, which allows quantitatively determining relative difference and priority of the small nuclear power plants projects aimed at energy supply to the Russian Arctic. To assess the sensitivity of the ranking results to the parameters of the point system the authors have observed the five-point and ten-point scales under variations of importance (weights of different criteria. The paper presents the results of preliminary ranking, which have allowed distinguishing the following types of the reactor units in order of their priority: ABV-6E (ABV-6M, "Uniterm" and SVBR-10 in the energy range up to 20 MW; RITM-200 (RITM-200M, KLT-40S and SVBR-100 in the energy range above 20 MW.

  5. 75 FR 8323 - National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PF10-1-000] National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Planned Line N Projects, Notice of Public Scoping Meeting, and Request for Comments on Environmental Issues February 18, 2010. The staff of the Federal Energy...

  6. View of the LP gas supply/demand in Asia and a survey of the Middle East trend; Asia no LP gas jukyu tenbo to Chuto doko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    A study was made on the LP gas supply/demand in Asia including an outlook for 2000. Eleven countries in Asia including NIES countries, ASEAN countries, China and India have been continuing their rapid growth of economy and have rapidly been increasing their energy consumption. There, LP gas spreads as a home use fuel, and countries excluding some LP gas producing countries depend considerably upon the import from the Middle East. The LP gas consumption quantity is steadily increasing in China and India having huge population, etc., and dependence of LP gas is increasing upon LP gas producing countries of the Middle East. Nevertheless, in the Middle East, the domestic consumption of LP gas, mostly butane, is increasing. Namely, butane is used as raw material of MTBE, and LP gas as that of petroleum chemicals. The Middle East has a lot of plant projects of a sizable size in the future, which predicts that LP gas export from LP gas producing countries of the Middle East is decreasing. 2 refs., 62 figs., 57 tabs.

  7. Natural gas: An essential source of energy in the Romanian economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coconea, G.

    1993-01-01

    The Romanian natural gas industry has existed since the early 1900s. The share of natural gas in Romania's current energy consumption is around 40%. The state gas company Romgaz operates ca 150 gas fields and 3,600 producing wells, but only 20% of annual production is being replaced by new discoveries. Declining gas production is caused by such factors as improper well completion, delayed workovers, water encroachment, and sand consolidation. Romgaz also transports imported natural gas from Russia and provides transportation services to natural gas importers in neighboring countries. The gas transmission network comprises ca 11,000 km of pipelines and 82,800 kW of installed compressor capacity. The distribution system supplies gas to over 2.5 million customers over some 15,000 km of pipeline. Future projects include expansion of production and increasing recoverable reserves, modernization of equipment, constructing an interconnecting pipeline with the Ukraine, installing a liquefied natural gas terminal on the Black Sea, rehabilitating the gas transmission grid, and installing supervisory control and data acquisition systems. The gas consumption pattern of 1990 (57% industrial, 31% power generation, 8% households) is expected to change with a substantial increase in household and commercial supplies, as well as replacement of gas-fired generation with hydroelectric and nuclear generation. A governmental restructuring strategy is being implemented to enhance oil and gas production, to improve operational efficiency of the sector, and to address environmental pollution. Components of the strategy are outlined

  8. Quality of Source Water from Public-Supply Wells in the United States, 1993-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toccalino, Patricia L.; Norman, Julia E.; Hitt, Kerie J.

    2010-01-01

    More than one-third of the Nation's population receives their drinking water from public water systems that use groundwater as their source. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) sampled untreated source water from 932 public-supply wells, hereafter referred to as public wells, as part of multiple groundwater assessments conducted across the Nation during 1993-2007. The objectives of this study were to evaluate (1) contaminant occurrence in source water from public wells and the potential significance of contaminant concentrations to human health, (2) national and regional distributions of groundwater quality, and (3) the occurrence and characteristics of contaminant mixtures. Treated finished water was not sampled. The 932 public wells are widely distributed nationally and include wells in selected parts of 41 states and withdraw water from parts of 30 regionally extensive aquifers used for public water supply. These wells are distributed among 629 unique public water systems-less than 1 percent of all groundwater-supplied public water systems in the United States-but the wells were randomly selected within the sampled hydrogeologic settings to represent typical aquifer conditions. Samples from the 629 systems represent source water used by one-quarter of the U.S. population served by groundwater-supplied public water systems, or about 9 percent of the entire U.S. population in 2008. One groundwater sample was collected prior to treatment or blending from each of the 932 public wells and analyzed for as many as six water-quality properties and 215 contaminants. Consistent with the terminology used in the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), all constituents analyzed in water samples in this study are referred to as 'contaminants'. More contaminant groups were assessed in this study than in any previous national study of public wells and included major ions, nutrients, radionuclides, trace elements, pesticide compounds, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and fecal

  9. Life-cycle energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions for electricity generation and supply in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou, Xunmin; Xiaoyu, Yan; Zhang, Xiliang

    2011-01-01

    The Well-to-Meter (WTM) analysis module in the Tsinghua-CA3EM model has been used to examine the primary fossil energy consumption (PFEC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for electricity generation and supply in China. The results show that (1) the WTM PFEC and GHG emission intensities for the 2007 Chinese electricity mix are 3.247 MJ/MJ and 297.688 g carbon dioxide of equivalent (gCO 2,e )/MJ, respectively; (2) power generation is the main contributing sub-stage; (3) the coal-power pathway is the only major contributor of PFEC (96.23%) and GHG emissions (97.08%) in the 2007 mix; and (4) GHG emissions intensity in 2020 will be reduced to 220.470 gCO 2,e /MJ with the development of nuclear and renewable energy and to 169.014 gCO 2,e /MJ if carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technology is employed. It is concluded that (1) the current high levels of PFEC and GHG emission for electricity in China are largely due to the dominant role of coal in the power-generation sector and the relatively low efficiencies during all the sub-stages from resource extraction to final energy consumption and (2) the development of nuclear and renewable energy as well as low carbon technologies such as CCS can significantly reduce GHG emissions from electricity. (author)

  10. Life-cycle energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions for electricity generation and supply in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou, Xunmin [Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Beijing 100084 (China); School of Public Policy and Management (SPPM), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Xiaoyu, Yan [Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 2BQ (United Kingdom); Zhang, Xiliang [Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Beijing 100084 (China)

    2011-01-15

    The Well-to-Meter (WTM) analysis module in the Tsinghua-CA3EM model has been used to examine the primary fossil energy consumption (PFEC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for electricity generation and supply in China. The results show that (1) the WTM PFEC and GHG emission intensities for the 2007 Chinese electricity mix are 3.247 MJ/MJ and 297.688 g carbon dioxide of equivalent (gCO{sub 2,e})/MJ, respectively; (2) power generation is the main contributing sub-stage; (3) the coal-power pathway is the only major contributor of PFEC (96.23%) and GHG emissions (97.08%) in the 2007 mix; and (4) GHG emissions intensity in 2020 will be reduced to 220.470 gCO{sub 2,e}/MJ with the development of nuclear and renewable energy and to 169.014 gCO{sub 2,e}/MJ if carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technology is employed. It is concluded that (1) the current high levels of PFEC and GHG emission for electricity in China are largely due to the dominant role of coal in the power-generation sector and the relatively low efficiencies during all the sub-stages from resource extraction to final energy consumption and (2) the development of nuclear and renewable energy as well as low carbon technologies such as CCS can significantly reduce GHG emissions from electricity. (author)

  11. Proceedings of the CERI North American natural gas conference and Calgary energy show 2005 : walking the tightrope : supply and demand in delicate balance. CD ROM ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This conference addressed issues concerning current and immediate supplies of natural gas in the North American marketplace, with particular reference to supply and demand growth. Alberta's resource potential as well as its position in the North American market were reviewed, along with the decline of onshore resources in the United States. Exogenous future supplies were reviewed, as well as supplies in Arctic Canada and Alaska. Gas hydrates were discussed as a possible fuel for the future. North American demand issues were examined, including the Alaska Gas Pipeline and Mexico's natural gas potential. Pricing issues were also reviewed along with issues concerning natural gas end-users such as wholesalers and offshore manufacturers of petro-chemical feedstocks. The volatility of the natural gas market was discussed with reference to future gas prices. The conference featured 24 presentations, of which 5 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs

  12. Robust remediation strategies at gas-work sites: a case of source recognition and source characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, P.O. de

    2005-01-01

    In The Netherlands there have been gasworks at about 260 to 270 locations. Most of these locations are or were heavily polluted with tar, ashes and cyanides and many of them belong to the locations where remediation actions have already been executed. It seems however that many of them also belong to the locations where remediation actions were not quite as successful as was expected. So, for many gas-work sites that were already 'remedied' in the 80's and early 90's of the foregoing century, new programs for site remediation are planned. Of course the mistakes from the past should now be avoided. The current remediation strategy in The Netherlands for gas-work sites can be comprised in four steps: 1 - removing spots in the top soil, 2 - removing spots with mobile components in the shallow subsoil, 3 - controlling spots with mobile components in the deep subsoil, 4 - creating a 'steady endpoint situation' in the plume. At many former gas-work sites real sources, i.e. in a physico-chemical sense, are not very well known. This can easily lead to insufficient removal of some or part of these sources and cause a longer delivery of contaminants to the groundwater plume, with higher endpoint concentrations, higher costs and more restrictions for future use. The higher concentrations and longer deliveries originating from not recognized or not localized sources are often not sufficiently compensated by the proposed plume management in current remediation strategies. Remediation results can be improved by using knowledge about the processes that determine the delivery of contaminants to the groundwater, the materials that cause these delivery and the locations at the site where these are most likely found. When sources are present in the deep subsoil or the exact localization of sources is uncertain, robust remediation strategies should be chosen and wishful thinking about removing sources with in situ techniques should be avoided. Robust strategies are probably less

  13. Two Functionally Distinct Sources of Actin Monomers Supply the Leading Edge of Lamellipodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitriol, Eric A.; McMillen, Laura M.; Kapustina, Maryna; Gomez, Shawn M.; Vavylonis, Dimitrios; Zheng, James Q.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Lamellipodia, the sheet-like protrusions of motile cells, consist of networks of actin filaments (F-actin) regulated by the ordered assembly from and disassembly into actin monomers (G-actin). Traditionally, G-actin is thought to exist as a homogeneous pool. Here, we show that there are two functionally and molecularly distinct sources of G-actin that supply lamellipodial actin networks. G-actin originating from the cytosolic pool requires the monomer binding protein thymosin β4 (Tβ4) for optimal leading edge localization, is targeted to formins, and is responsible for creating an elevated G/F-actin ratio that promotes membrane protrusion. The second source of G-actin comes from recycled lamellipodia F-actin. Recycling occurs independently of Tβ4 and appears to regulate lamellipodia homeostasis. Tβ4-bound G-actin specifically localizes to the leading edge because it doesn’t interact with Arp2/3-mediated polymerization sites found throughout the lamellipodia. These findings demonstrate that actin networks can be constructed from multiple sources of monomers with discrete spatiotemporal functions. PMID:25865895

  14. Study on Utilization of an Artesian Well as a Source of Water Supply at Raw Water Backup System (GBA01)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santosa Pujiarta; Yuyut Suraniyanto; Amril; Setyo Budi Utomo

    2012-01-01

    Raw water supply system (GBA01) is a unit of ponds used as a provider of raw water for secondary cooling system and free mineral water production systems. Source of raw water pond has been supplied from PAM Puspiptek with water conductivity between 126-310 μS / cm and a pH of 6 to 8, and this condition is maintained because there is no other source that is used to supply water to the reactor cooling water supply. This conductivity is always unstable, if during the dry season the conductivity is low trend, but in the rainy season the conductivity will be increase because the water contains a lot of mud. And one more problem that is important is if the PAM Puspiptek failed to supply fresh water to the reactor. So to handling and anticipate these things, necessary to optimize the deep well former Interatom legacy as a backup water supply for raw water supply system of the reactor. With a conductivity of 136 μS / cm, pH 7,4 and total hardness 37 ppm, the water from deep wells can be used as a backup supply of secondary raw water cooling system. (author)

  15. Global dual-sourcing strategy: is it effective in mitigating supply disruption?

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Mustaffa, Nurakmal

    2015-01-01

    Most firms are still failing to think strategically and systematically about managing supply disruption risk and most of the supply chain management efforts are focused on reducing supply chain operation costs rather than managing disruption. Some innovative firms have taken steps to implement supply chain risk management (SCRM). Inventory management is part of SCRM because supply disruptions negatively affect the reliability of deliveries from suppliers and the costs associate...

  16. Social Sustainability in Apparel Supply Chains—The Role of the Sourcing Intermediary in a Developing Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Köksal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available After considering significant literature on sustainable supply chain management (SSCM, it is evident that research has neglected the social dimension and still lacks in highlighting the role of sourcing intermediaries in supply chains. The apparel supply chain has increased enormously in length and complexity, driving apparel retailers to employ sourcing intermediaries who manage their sourcing activities with suppliers from developing countries overseas. Thus, the purpose of this study is to enrich existing findings on SSCM by exploring the management of social sustainability when sourcing intermediaries are in between the focal company and the respective developing country factories. More specifically, this study aims to understand the role of apparel sourcing intermediaries for the implementation of social management strategies based on the perception of multiple supply chain actors. Qualitative data was collected through semi-structured interviews conducted in Vietnam and Europe. Ultimately ten propositions are presented, all explicitly concentrating on the apparel intermediary’s role as a significant enabler for social sustainability in apparel supply chains. The roles are social sustainability, supplier developer and coordinator, gatekeeper and safeguard, cultural broker, and social risk manager. The social sustainability roles assumed by the apparel sourcing intermediary offer great opportunities to both apparel retailers and developing country factories.

  17. Background gas density and beam losses in NIO1 beam source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartori, E., E-mail: emanuele.sartori@igi.cnr.it; Veltri, P.; Serianni, G. [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), C.so Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Cavenago, M. [INFN-LNL, v.le dell’Università 2, I-35020 Legnaro (PD) (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    NIO1 (Negative Ion Optimization 1) is a versatile ion source designed to study the physics of production and acceleration of H- beams up to 60 keV. In ion sources, the gas is steadily injected in the plasma source to sustain the discharge, while high vacuum is maintained by a dedicated pumping system located in the vessel. In this paper, the three dimensional gas flow in NIO1 is studied in the molecular flow regime by the Avocado code. The analysis of the gas density profile along the accelerator considers the influence of effective gas temperature in the source, of the gas temperature accommodation by collisions at walls, and of the gas particle mass. The calculated source and vessel pressures are compared with experimental measurements in NIO1 during steady gas injection.

  18. Factors influencing the choice of performance measures for the oil and gas supply chain – exploratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menhat, Masha; Yusuf, Y.

    2018-04-01

    The current value of the oil price per barrel has severely impacted the oil and gas industry around the world. This has worsened the situation due to the fact that it has long been the backbone of the country through the energy supply, employability and also its role as the major economic contributor. Due to multiple external factors that affect this industry such as crude oil availability, oil price fluctuation, high transportation cost, as well as exposure to high uncertainties, it is sensible for the supply chain practitioner to shift their focus in managing their resources and capabilities. To maximise the potential of supply chain activities in improving overall company performance, it is important to pay extra attention on their performance management. This includes the design of meaningful performance measurement framework to assess organisational performance. This study will explore the influencing factors in choosing performance measures for the oil and gas supply chain. Five in-depth interviews were conducted with supply chain experts within the industry. Eight influencing factors have been identified through the interviews.

  19. Environmental concerns and regulatory initiatives related to hydraulic fracturing in shale gas formations: potential implications for North American gas supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumi, Lisa [Earthworks (Canada)

    2010-09-15

    Shale gas resources have been referred to as a game changer for North America and it is expected that shale gas will account for over 30% of the natural gas production in North America by 2020. However, the development of this resource has raised several concerns, notably in terms of water use and contamination; more stringent regulations could be implemented in the coming years. The aim of this paper is to present the effect that more stringent regulations would have on gas development in the Marcellus shale, which accounts for 20% of North American shale gas production. Information on hydraulic fracturing and its environmental impacts is provided herein, along with information on the regulatory initiatives underway in the Marcellus shale region. This paper pointed out that novel regulations relating to shale gas development could significantly reduce the growth in shale gas production.

  20. Estimates of water source contributions in a dynamic urban water supply system inferred via a Bayesian stable isotope mixing model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameel, M. Y.; Brewer, S.; Fiorella, R.; Tipple, B. J.; Bowen, G. J.; Terry, S.

    2017-12-01

    Public water supply systems (PWSS) are complex distribution systems and critical infrastructure, making them vulnerable to physical disruption and contamination. Exploring the susceptibility of PWSS to such perturbations requires detailed knowledge of the supply system structure and operation. Although the physical structure of supply systems (i.e., pipeline connection) is usually well documented for developed cities, the actual flow patterns of water in these systems are typically unknown or estimated based on hydrodynamic models with limited observational validation. Here, we present a novel method for mapping the flow structure of water in a large, complex PWSS, building upon recent work highlighting the potential of stable isotopes of water (SIW) to document water management practices within complex PWSS. We sampled a major water distribution system of the Salt Lake Valley, Utah, measuring SIW of water sources, treatment facilities, and numerous sites within in the supply system. We then developed a hierarchical Bayesian (HB) isotope mixing model to quantify the proportion of water supplied by different sources at sites within the supply system. Known production volumes and spatial distance effects were used to define the prior probabilities for each source; however, we did not include other physical information about the supply system. Our results were in general agreement with those obtained by hydrodynamic models and provide quantitative estimates of contributions of different water sources to a given site along with robust estimates of uncertainty. Secondary properties of the supply system, such as regions of "static" and "dynamic" source (e.g., regions supplied dominantly by one source vs. those experiencing active mixing between multiple sources), can be inferred from the results. The isotope-based HB isotope mixing model offers a new investigative technique for analyzing PWSS and documenting aspects of supply system structure and operation that are

  1. Long-term trends in U.S. gas transportation: 1992 edition of the GRI baseline projection of U.S. energy supply and demand to 2010, June 1992. Gas Research Insights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lihn, M.L.; Woods, T.J.

    1992-06-01

    The paper summarizes the trends in lower-48 gas transportation in the 1992 Edition of the GRI Baseline Projection of U.S. Energy Supply and Demand to 2010, which has been adopted as a major input to the planning cycle leading to the development of the Gas Research Institute (GRI) 1993 research and development program. The 1992 projection presents an optimistic outlook for the U.S. gas industry in which increased gas supply can be obtained at competitive prices

  2. Long-pulse neutral beam power supply system for LBL 20 kV, 10 A sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honey, V.J.; Baker, W.R.; Fitzgerald, M.L.

    1976-05-01

    A description is given of the power supplies and control system for the LBL 20 kV, 10 A, 10 sec long-pulse neutral beam source test facility, now in operation. Such sources are used in a number of existing and planned fusion power experiments

  3. Transient Processes in Electric Power Supply System for Oil Terminal with Own Gas-Turbine Power Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Hаshimov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains results of the investigations concerning influence of symmetrical and non-symmetrical short circuits at main power network on electric power supply system of a huge oil terminal which is powered by own gas-turbine power station. Calculations have been made in accordance with the IEC and IEEЕ requirements. Estimations for voltage level and distribution of short circuit current in the electric power supply system of the Sangachal oil terminal being operated in parallel with the AzerEnerji grid are presented in the paper

  4. Science-based decision-making on complex issues: Marcellus shale gas hydrofracking and New York City water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, Timothy T.

    2013-01-01

    Complex scientific and non-scientific considerations are central to the pending decisions about “hydrofracking” or high volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF) to exploit unconventional natural gas resources worldwide. While incipient plans are being made internationally for major shale reservoirs, production and technology are most advanced in the United States, particularly in Texas and Pennsylvania, with a pending decision in New York State whether to proceed. In contrast to the narrow scientific and technical debate to date, focused on either greenhouse gas emissions or water resources, toxicology and land use in the watersheds that supply drinking water to New York City (NYC), I review the scientific and technical aspects in combination with global climate change and other critical issues in energy tradeoffs, economics and political regulation to evaluate the major liabilities and benefits. Although potential benefits of Marcellus natural gas exploitation are large for transition to a clean energy economy, at present the regulatory framework in New York State is inadequate to prevent potentially irreversible threats to the local environment and New York City water supply. Major investments in state and federal regulatory enforcement will be required to avoid these environmental consequences, and a ban on drilling within the NYC water supply watersheds is appropriate, even if more highly regulated Marcellus gas production is eventually permitted elsewhere in New York State. - Highlights: • Analyses of hydrofracking for natural gas production worldwide are too focused. • Energy benefits are great but so are environmental/public health liabilities. • Current dependence on even more damaging coal-fired power can be reduced. • Protecting watersheds for NYC and other municipality water supply is paramount. • Strengthening of regulation is needed for reducing potential adverse impacts

  5. Science-based decision-making on complex issues: Marcellus shale gas hydrofracking and New York City water supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, Timothy T., E-mail: Timothy.Eaton@qc.cuny.edu

    2013-09-01

    Complex scientific and non-scientific considerations are central to the pending decisions about “hydrofracking” or high volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF) to exploit unconventional natural gas resources worldwide. While incipient plans are being made internationally for major shale reservoirs, production and technology are most advanced in the United States, particularly in Texas and Pennsylvania, with a pending decision in New York State whether to proceed. In contrast to the narrow scientific and technical debate to date, focused on either greenhouse gas emissions or water resources, toxicology and land use in the watersheds that supply drinking water to New York City (NYC), I review the scientific and technical aspects in combination with global climate change and other critical issues in energy tradeoffs, economics and political regulation to evaluate the major liabilities and benefits. Although potential benefits of Marcellus natural gas exploitation are large for transition to a clean energy economy, at present the regulatory framework in New York State is inadequate to prevent potentially irreversible threats to the local environment and New York City water supply. Major investments in state and federal regulatory enforcement will be required to avoid these environmental consequences, and a ban on drilling within the NYC water supply watersheds is appropriate, even if more highly regulated Marcellus gas production is eventually permitted elsewhere in New York State. - Highlights: • Analyses of hydrofracking for natural gas production worldwide are too focused. • Energy benefits are great but so are environmental/public health liabilities. • Current dependence on even more damaging coal-fired power can be reduced. • Protecting watersheds for NYC and other municipality water supply is paramount. • Strengthening of regulation is needed for reducing potential adverse impacts.

  6. Forecasting natural gas supply in China: Production peak and import trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Boqiang; Wang Ting

    2012-01-01

    China's natural gas consumption has increased rapidly in recent years making China a net gas importer. As a nonrenewable energy, the gas resource is exhaustible. Based on the forecast of this article, China's gas production peak is likely to approach in 2022. However, China is currently in the industrialization and urbanization stage, and its natural gas consumption will persistently increase. With China's gas production peak, China will have to face a massive expansion in gas imports. As the largest developing country, China's massive imports of gas will have an effect on the international gas market. In addition, as China's natural gas price is still controlled by the government and has remained at a low level, the massive imports of higher priced gas will exert great pressure on China's gas price reform. - Highlights: ► We figured out the natural gas production peak of China. ► We predict the import trends of natural gas of China. ► We study the international and national impacts of China's increasing import of gas. ► It is important for China to accelerate price reformation of natural gas.

  7. European gas markets and Russian LNG. Prospects for the development of European gas markets and model simulations of possible new LNG supplies from year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldegard, Tom [Foundation for Research in Economics and Business Administration, Bergen (Norway)

    1996-07-01

    The study aims at clarifying the framework for possible LNG exports from Northern Russia and focuses on the European natural gas markets. The first stage provides general background information on the market structure and related topics. In the second stage this information is used to develop a formal market model and subject it to simulations with various assumptions of the future gas supply. The model is described and results from simulations are given. In the first stage facts from the history of the European natural gas market are outlined. Underlying conditions for the development of natural gas markets in Europe are addressed. The EU has been promoting trade liberalisation in the energy sector but most counties resist freer gas trade across the boarders. New infrastructure development for natural gas are either underway or planned. Some important projects are mentioned. Gas in a global perspective is discussed. The cost structure of the LNG chain is mentioned and an overview of existing LNG export capacities world-wide and major reception terminals in Europe and the USA is given. The second stage employs a scenario analysis to evaluate the economic effects of hypothetical LNG deliveries from Northern Russia. The model is developed for the analysis of West European natural gas markets and designed to allow users to create a structural system of interconnected producers and market regions. Basic assumptions for the evolution of natural gas markets till 2005 is developed and base case scenarios calculated for the years 2000 and 2005 and used as a point of reference for the alternative scenarios considered. According to the analysis the introduction of a new LNG supplier in the European gas market will inflict a substantial loss upon all the existing producers. The primary keys to this result are the assumptions made for gas demand and supply capacity. The LNG alternative will hardly be approved for purely economic reasons as long as the Russians maintain

  8. European gas markets and Russian LNG. Prospects for the development of European gas markets and model simulations of possible new LNG supplies from year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldegard, Tom

    1996-01-01

    The study aims at clarifying the framework for possible LNG exports from Northern Russia and focuses on the European natural gas markets. The first stage provides general background information on the market structure and related topics. In the second stage this information is used to develop a formal market model and subject it to simulations with various assumptions of the future gas supply. The model is described and results from simulations are given. In the first stage facts from the history of the European natural gas market are outlined. Underlying conditions for the development of natural gas markets in Europe are addressed. The EU has been promoting trade liberalisation in the energy sector but most counties resist freer gas trade across the boarders. New infrastructure development for natural gas are either underway or planned. Some important projects are mentioned. Gas in a global perspective is discussed. The cost structure of the LNG chain is mentioned and an overview of existing LNG export capacities world-wide and major reception terminals in Europe and the USA is given. The second stage employs a scenario analysis to evaluate the economic effects of hypothetical LNG deliveries from Northern Russia. The model is developed for the analysis of West European natural gas markets and designed to allow users to create a structural system of interconnected producers and market regions. Basic assumptions for the evolution of natural gas markets till 2005 is developed and base case scenarios calculated for the years 2000 and 2005 and used as a point of reference for the alternative scenarios considered. According to the analysis the introduction of a new LNG supplier in the European gas market will inflict a substantial loss upon all the existing producers. The primary keys to this result are the assumptions made for gas demand and supply capacity. The LNG alternative will hardly be approved for purely economic reasons as long as the Russians maintain

  9. Greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural food production to supply Indian diets: Implications for climate change mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Sylvia H; Sapkota, Tek B; Hillier, Jon; Stirling, Clare M; Macdiarmid, Jennie I; Aleksandrowicz, Lukasz; Green, Rosemary; Joy, Edward J M; Dangour, Alan D; Smith, Pete

    2017-01-16

    Agriculture is a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions globally. The growing global population is putting pressure on agricultural production systems that aim to secure food production while minimising GHG emissions. In this study, the GHG emissions associated with the production of major food commodities in India are calculated using the Cool Farm Tool. GHG emissions, based on farm management for major crops (including cereals like wheat and rice, pulses, potatoes, fruits and vegetables) and livestock-based products (milk, eggs, chicken and mutton meat), are quantified and compared. Livestock and rice production were found to be the main sources of GHG emissions in Indian agriculture with a country average of 5.65 kg CO 2 eq kg -1 rice, 45.54 kg CO 2 eq kg -1 mutton meat and 2.4 kg CO 2 eq kg -1 milk. Production of cereals (except rice), fruits and vegetables in India emits comparatively less GHGs with foods could greatly increase GHG emissions from Indian agriculture. A range of mitigation options are available that could reduce emissions from current levels and may be compatible with increased future food production and consumption demands in India.

  10. The relationship between security of supply and its drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-10-01

    The relationship between security of supply of natural gas in the UK and three possible drivers were considered. The drivers discussed are (1) supply margin, (2) reliability of supply and (3) diversity of supply. The department for Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform's gas security of supply model may be applied to estimate 'expected energy unserved (EEU)' according to a range of conditions of supply and demand. Supply margin and mix can be varied in the model, as can the reliability of supply sources. The paper describes work exploring the impact on the EEU of changes in these three drivers

  11. Greenhouse Gas Source Attribution: Measurements Modeling and Uncertainty Quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Safta, Cosmin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sargsyan, Khachik [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Najm, Habib N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); LaFranchi, Brian W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Ivey, Mark D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Schrader, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Michelsen, Hope A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Bambha, Ray P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    In this project we have developed atmospheric measurement capabilities and a suite of atmospheric modeling and analysis tools that are well suited for verifying emissions of green- house gases (GHGs) on an urban-through-regional scale. We have for the first time applied the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to simulate atmospheric CO2 . This will allow for the examination of regional-scale transport and distribution of CO2 along with air pollutants traditionally studied using CMAQ at relatively high spatial and temporal resolution with the goal of leveraging emissions verification efforts for both air quality and climate. We have developed a bias-enhanced Bayesian inference approach that can remedy the well-known problem of transport model errors in atmospheric CO2 inversions. We have tested the approach using data and model outputs from the TransCom3 global CO2 inversion comparison project. We have also performed two prototyping studies on inversion approaches in the generalized convection-diffusion context. One of these studies employed Polynomial Chaos Expansion to accelerate the evaluation of a regional transport model and enable efficient Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the posterior for Bayesian inference. The other approach uses de- terministic inversion of a convection-diffusion-reaction system in the presence of uncertainty. These approaches should, in principle, be applicable to realistic atmospheric problems with moderate adaptation. We outline a regional greenhouse gas source inference system that integrates (1) two ap- proaches of atmospheric dispersion simulation and (2) a class of Bayesian inference and un- certainty quantification algorithms. We use two different and complementary approaches to simulate atmospheric dispersion. Specifically, we use a Eulerian chemical transport model CMAQ and a Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model - FLEXPART-WRF. These two models share the same WRF

  12. Vital signs: oil supplies improving but natural gas tight enough to keep prices high

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunan, D.

    2000-01-01

    Canada's 1999 year-end oil reserves were boosted by 2.1 million barrels by the launch of new oil sands mining projects near Fort McMurray and revisions in two existing operations, offsetting a decline of 3.7 per cent in remaining conventional reserves. Total oil reserves at year end stood at some 11.9 billion barrels, up from 9.8 billion barrels a year earlier. Conventional crude reserves dropped to 4.37 billion barrels. Despite the decline, the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) were encouraged by a 70 per cent replacement rate, on production of 441 million barrels of oil, despite low activity resulting from soft prices in early part of 1999. Production from offshore Newfoundland sites amounted to 38.6 million barrels; remaining reserves in the Hibernia and Terra Nova field are estimated at 868 million barrels. Meanwhile, natural gas reserves slipped by about a trillion cubic feet to about 61 trillion cubic feet, reflecting an 83 per cent replacement rate which, however, represented an improvement from 76 per cent in 1998. Reserves replacement in 2000 is expected to improve over 1999 due to improved prices resulting in increased activity in 2000 which is expected to continue into 2001. Despite improvements in replacement, consumers have much to worry about as far as further consumer price increases are concerned. The situation can be traced back to the summer 2000 storage injection period when supplies normally stored for use in the winter were sold instead, to take advantage of high prices. The injection for storage was reduced due largely to continued strong demand from the US electric power generating sector. This situation will continue, barring a dramatic softening of the US economy

  13. Varying gas quality - Gas supply in Sweden 2011 and onwards; Varierande gaskvalitet - Gasfoersoerjning i Sverige 2011och framaat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelsson, Corfitz

    2011-10-15

    Since fall 2010 limited volumes of gas are imported from Germany to Denmark, which also reaches Sweden, but only between 10-30 % of the total volume of gas in winter. The gas which is imported from Germany has a composition that differs slightly from the Danish North Sea gas which has consequences for Swedish gas distributors and customers. The report highlights various possible consequences and how these are managed primarily in Denmark. One can conclude that for the time being, there is limited import capacity between Denmark and Germany, but work is underway to strengthen the capacity and within five years there is a possibility that by import support large parts of Sweden and Denmark, where necessary. In the current situation one can normally expect between 10-40 % imported gas in the gas that reach Sweden, which means a relatively limited impact on Swedish customers. In the current situation one can normally expect between 10-40 % import gas in the gas that reaches Sweden, which means a relatively limited impact on Swedish customers. If a number of different events coincides may temporarily the impact be high, but this is considered less likely in the short term. There are still a number of issues that need to be investigated further claims alleged, taxes and fees as well as billing and discounting.

  14. Scrap supply in Bosnian after war situation - sources, quality, regulation and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pihura, Dervis

    1999-01-01

    Before the war, the Bosnian foundry and steel industry were supplied with scrap partly from domestic sources but mainly from foreign market. The annual steel production before the war recorded 130,000 tonnes of casting and 2,000.000 tonnes of crude steel. Most of the scrap was imported to secure and stabilize the production. During and after the war, despite a significant loss of production, efforts have been made to return to the normal production level in many ways. In the wake of the war, there has been a growing concern over the import of radioactive contaminated metallurgical scrap or low quality raw materials which are uncontrolled or of unidentified sources. In this regard, it is urgently required to establish an effective system to prevent from, to detect and to control the flow of the radioactive contaminated metallurgical scrap. The system should be established in such a way that all sorts of radioactive metallurgical elements should be controlled and prevented from use in all the metallurgical manufacturing processes, ferrous and non-ferrous alike. The coverage of control should start from the border or (air) port checkpoint where the flow of the scrap begins to the final steel product. The control system should take a form of internationally common and acceptable standards and regulations. Equipments and measurement techniques should also be internationally common. (author)

  15. Analysis of the Degradation of MOSFETs in Switching Mode Power Supply by Characterizing Source Oscillator Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyan Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Switching Mode Power Supply (SMPS has been widely applied in aeronautics, nuclear power, high-speed railways, and other areas related to national strategy and security. The degradation of MOSFET occupies a dominant position in the key factors affecting the reliability of SMPS. MOSFETs are used as low-voltage switches to regulate the DC voltage in SMPS. The studies have shown that die-attach degradation leads to an increase in on-state resistance due to its dependence on junction temperature. On-state resistance is the key indicator of the health of MOSFETs. In this paper, an online real-time method is presented for predicting the degradation of MOSFETs. First, the relationship between an oscillator signal of source and on-state resistance is introduced. Because oscillator signals change when they age, a feature is proposed to capture these changes and use them as indicators of the state of health of MOSFETs. A platform for testing characterizations is then established to monitor oscillator signals of source. Changes in oscillator signal measurement were observed with aged on-state resistance as a result of die-attach degradation. The experimental results demonstrate that the method is efficient. This study will enable a method to predict the failure of MOSFETs to be developed.

  16. The Impacts of Regulations and Financial Development on the Operations of Supply Chains with Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhuang; Tian, Yixiang; Yuan, Zheng

    2018-01-01

    To establish a micro foundation to understand the impacts of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission regulations and financial development levels on firms’ GHG emissions, we build a two-stage dynamic game model to incorporate GHG emission regulations (in terms of an emission tax) and financial development (represented by the corresponding financing cost) into a two-echelon supply chain. With the subgame perfect equilibrium, we identify the conditions to determine whether an emission regulatory policy and/or financial development can affect GHG emissions in the supply chain. We also reveal the impacts of the strictness of GHG emission regulation, the financial development level, and the unit GHG emission rate on the operations of the supply chain and the corresponding profitability implications. Managerial insights are also discussed. PMID:29470451

  17. Open-Source ERP: Is It Ripe for Use in Teaching Supply Chain Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Minh Q.; Chu, Hung W.

    2011-01-01

    The field of supply chain management has changed greatly and rapidly. With the advent of enterprise systems, supply chains are now operating with up-to-the-minute information. The value of the information flow is marked by speed, accessibility, accuracy, and most of all relevancy. As it continually evolves, the supply chain management curriculum…

  18. Solid core dipoles and switching power supplies: lower cost light sources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benesch, J.; Philip, S.

    2015-05-01

    As a result of improvements in power semiconductors, moderate frequency switching supplies can now provide the hundreds of amps typically required by accelerators with zero-to-peak noise in the kHz region ~ 0.06% in current or voltage mode. Modeling was undertaken using a finite electromagnetic program to determine if eddy currents induced in the solid steel of CEBAF magnets and small supplemental additions would bring the error fields down to the 5ppm level needed for beam quality. The expected maximum field of the magnet under consideration is 0.85 T and the DC current required to produce that field is used in the calculations. An additional 0.1% current ripple is added to the DC current at discrete frequencies 360 Hz, 720 Hz or 7200 Hz. Over the region of the pole within 0.5% of the central integrated BdL the resulting AC field changes can be reduced to less than 1% of the 0.1% input ripple for all frequencies, and a sixth of that at 7200 Hz. Doubling the current, providing 1.5 T central field, yielded the same fractional reduction in ripple at the beam for the cases checked. A small dipole was measured at 60, 120, 360 and 720 Hz in two conditions and the results compared to the larger model for the latter two frequencies with surprisingly good agreement. For light sources with aluminum vacuum vessels and full energy linac injection, the combination of solid core dipoles and switching power supplies may result in significant cost savings. The work may also be used to guide retrofit of existing machines to reduce the level of ripple in the particle beam path.

  19. Development of a gas-phase field ionization ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, G.L.; Legge, G.J.F.

    1983-01-01

    A field ionization ion source has been developed to investigate the suitability of using such a source with the Melbourne Proton Microprobe. Operating parameters have been measured, and the source has been found to be brighter than the radiofrequency ion source presently used in the Melbourne 5U Pelletron Accelerator. Improvements to the source geometry to increase the current output are planned

  20. Design of helium-gas supplying facility of out-of-pile demonstration test for HTTR heat utilization system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hino, Ryutaro; Fujisaki, Katsuo; Kobayashi, Toshiaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment] [and others

    1996-09-01

    One of the objectives of the High-Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) is to demonstrate effectiveness of high-temperature heat utilization. Prior to connect a heat utilization system to the HTTR, a series of out-of-pile demonstration test is indispensable to improve components` performance, to demonstrate operation, control and safety technologies and to verify analysis codes for design and safety evaluation. After critical review and discussion on the out-of-pile demonstration test, a test facility have been designed. In this report, a helium-gas supplying facility simulated the HTTR system was described in detail, which supplies High-temperature helium-gas of 900degC to a steam reforming facility mocking-up the HTTR heat utilization system. Components of the Helium Engineering Demonstration Loop (HENDEL) were selected to reuse in the helium-gas supplying facility in order to decrease construction cost. Structures and specifications of new components such as a high-temperature heater and a preheater were decided after evaluation of thermal and hydraulic performance and strength. (author)

  1. On determining the sources of hot gas in the halo

    OpenAIRE

    R. L. Shelton

    2000-01-01

    El gas caliente sobre el disco gal actico representa un problema importante e interesante. >Podr a este gas haber sido lanzado desde el disco por burbujas calientes, provenir de fuera de la Galaxia o ser calentado in situ? Cada una de estas posibilidades tiene consecuencias importantes para la evoluci on de la Galaxia, por lo que es necesario tener mejores pruebas. Discutimos varios modelos sobre el origen del gas caliente, su historial de ionizaci on y su apariencia espectral...

  2. DUV light source availability improvement via further enhancement of gas management technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Daniel J.; O'Brien, Kevin; Brown, Daniel J. W.

    2011-04-01

    The continuous evolution of the semiconductor market necessitates ever-increasing improvements in DUV light source uptime as defined in the SEMI E10 standard. Cymer is developing technologies to exceed current and projected light source availability requirements via significant reduction in light source downtime. As an example, consider discharge chamber gas management functions which comprise a sizable portion of DUV light source downtime. Cymer's recent introduction of Gas Lifetime Extension (GLXTM) as a productivity improvement technology for its DUV lithography light sources has demonstrated noteworthy reduction in downtime. This has been achieved by reducing the frequency of full gas replenishment events from once per 100 million pulses to as low as once per 2 billion pulses. Cymer has continued to develop relevant technologies that target further reduction in downtime associated with light source gas management functions. Cymer's current subject is the development of technologies to reduce downtime associated with gas state optimization (e.g. total chamber gas pressure) and gas life duration. Current gas state optimization involves execution of a manual procedure at regular intervals throughout the lifetime of light source core components. Cymer aims to introduce a product enhancement - iGLXTM - that eliminates the need for the manual procedure and, further, achieves 4 billion pulse gas lives. Projections of uptime on DUV light sources indicate that downtime associated with gas management will be reduced by 70% when compared with GLX2. In addition to reducing downtime, iGLX reduces DUV light source cost of operation by constraining gas usage. Usage of fluorine rich Halogen gas mix has been reduced by 20% over GLX2.

  3. Distinguishing the Source of Natural Gas Accumulations with a Combined Gas and Co-produced Formation Water Geochemical Approach: a Case Study from the Appalachian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study is to discuss the use of gas and co-produced formation water geochemistry for identifying the source of natural gas and present gas geochemistry for the northern Appalachian Basin.

  4. Heat supply systems using natural gas in the residential sector: The case of the agglomeration of Seoul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hi-Chun; Kim, Hoseok

    2008-01-01

    Combined heat and power (CHP) and district heating (DH) promotion policies are based on the assumption of high energy efficiencies. In the last two decades, however, there has been a big increase in energy efficiencies of combined-cycle gas power plants (CCs) including CHPs and gas-condensing boilers. This study tries to verify the validity of the assumption of high energy efficiency of DH. The experience in the agglomeration of Seoul shows that DH in combination with large modern CHPs is not more energy efficient but substantially more expensive compared to individual gas heating by efficient condensing boilers in combination with CCs. We argue that the Korean government should review its CHP/DH support programs and abandon the so-called heat supply monopoly for DH operators in newly developed residential areas. Such a policy intervention only distorts the space heating market and wastes valuable financial resources. Furthermore, the public should be properly informed on energy efficiency as well as energy- and system-related costs of various heat supply systems. In the light of the present improvements in the performance of gas-condensing boilers and CCs, the validity of the assumption of high energy efficiency of CHP/DH in other countries has to be reviewed

  5. Impacts of Mackenzie gas project on water supply systems of northern communities : Fort Simpson as a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathrani, M.; Johnson, K.

    2007-01-01

    The proposed Mackenzie Gas Project (MGP) is a 1220-kilometre natural gas pipeline system along the Mackenzie Valley of Canada's Northwest Territories. The line will connect northern onshore gas fields with North American markets. Four major Canadian oil and gas companies and a group representing the Aboriginal peoples of Canada's Northwest Territories are partners in the proposed MGP. The MGP is currently in the project definition stage that involves examining the effect of the project on northern communities. Fort Simpson is located on an island, on the forks of the Mackenzie and Liard Rivers and is proposed as the major route for the MGP with the construction of barge handling areas, storage areas, camps/housing units and use of air and highway facilities. These activities are expected to result in burden on local civil infrastructure systems including water supply systems. Although the environmental impacts of the project on the community's infrastructure systems are projected by the MGP proponents, the local authority wanted to conduct its own assessment of the impacts on local water supply system. This paper presented the results of a study that examined the amount of water used by the community based upon available water use records and the current operational and maintenance costs based upon available financial documents. The study also estimated future water requirements based upon MGP activities and associated population growth. Current and future economic rates were also determined. 13 refs., 6 tabs

  6. Brachytherapy source calibration, reviews, and consistency of 192Ir high-dose rate afterloading sources supplied over the period of 10 years: a retrospective analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagappan, Balasubramanian; Kumar, Yogesh; Patel, Narayan P.; Dhull, Anil Kumar; Kaushal, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Measurement and verification of strength of monomodal high-dose rate (mHDR) 192 Ir source supplied by the vendor is a major part of quality assurance program. Reference air kerma rate (RAKR) or air kerma strength (AKS) is the recommended quantity to specify the strength of gamma emitting brachytherapy sources. Physicist in our institution performed the source calibration as soon as each 192 Ir new source was loaded on the mHDR afterloading machine. The AKS accurately measured using a physikalisch technische werkstatten (PTW) re-entrant chamber-electrometer system in a scatter-free geometry was used to compute the air kerma rate (AKR) at one-meter distance in the air. To ensure accurate dose delivery to brachytherapy patients, measured AKS or RAKR should be entered correctly in both HDR treatment console station (TCS) as well as treatment planning system (TPS) associated with it. The clinical outcome mainly depends not only on the accuracy of the source strength measurement in the hospital but also on the correct source strength entered into both TCS and TPS software. A retrospective study on 22 mHDR V2 sources supplied by the vendor for the period of 10 years was taken up to access the accuracy of source strength supplied to the Radiotherapy department. The results are analyzed and reported. The accuracy in measured RAKR of all 22 sources supplied by vendor was well within the tolerance limits set by the national regulatory body and international recommendations. The deviations observed between measured RAKR versus manufacturer's quoted RAKR were in the range from -1.71% to +1.15%. In conclusion, the measured RAKR have good agreement with vendor quoted RAKR values. (author)

  7. Line-Interactive Transformerless Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS with a Fuel Cell as the Primary Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Iftikhar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents line-interactive transformerless Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS with a fuel cell as the prime energy source. The proposed UPS consists of three major parts (i.e., an output inverter, a unidirectional DC–DC converter, and a battery charger/discharger. Non-isolated topologies of both the unidirectional converter and battery charger/discharger ensure transformerless operation of the UPS system. A new topology of high gain converter is employed for boosting the low voltage of the fuel cell to a higher DC link voltage, with minimum semiconductor count, and high efficiency. A high-gain battery charger/discharger realizes the bidirectional operation between the DC link and the battery bank. Besides, it regulates the DC link voltage during the cold start of fuel cells and keeps the battery bank voltage to only 24 V. A new inverter control scheme is introduced that regulates the output voltage and minimizes the total harmonic distortion for non-linear loading condition. The proposed control scheme integrates proportional-resonant control with slide mode control, which improves the controller’s performance in transient conditions. The proposed UPS system is validated by developing a 1-kVA experimental prototype.

  8. An open source hydroeconomic model for California's water supply system: PyVIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, M. S.; White, E.; Herman, J. D.; Hart, Q.; Merz, J.; Medellin-Azuara, J.; Lund, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Models help operators and decision makers explore and compare different management and policy alternatives, better allocate scarce resources, and predict the future behavior of existing or proposed water systems. Hydroeconomic models are useful tools to increase benefits or decrease costs of managing water. Bringing hydrology and economics together, these models provide a framework for different disciplines that share similar objectives. This work proposes a new model to evaluate operation and adaptation strategies under existing and future hydrologic conditions for California's interconnected water system. This model combines the network structure of CALVIN, a statewide optimization model for California's water infrastructure, along with an open source solver written in the Python programming language. With the flexibilities of the model, reservoir operations, including water supply and hydropower, groundwater pumping, and the Delta water operations and requirements can now be better represented. Given time series of hydrologic inputs to the model, typical outputs include urban, agricultural and wildlife refuge water deliveries and shortage costs, conjunctive use of surface and groundwater systems, and insights into policy and management decisions, such as capacity expansion and groundwater management policies. Water market operations also represented in the model, allocating water from lower-valued users to higher-valued users. PyVIN serves as a cross-platform, extensible model to evaluate systemwide water operations. PyVIN separates data from the model structure, enabling model to be easily applied to other parts of the world where water is a scarce resource.

  9. Audit report on GDF Suez's supply costs and non-supply related costs in natural gas regulated sale tariffs - May 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    After having recalled the legal context of objectives of this audit performed by the French Commission for Energy Regulation (CRE), this report proposes an analysis of GDF Suez's dissociated accounting which showed that costs are covered by natural gas regulated sale tariffs. In the second part, it comments the current market indexing used in tariff formula, comments current and present negotiations and their consequences for the market indexing share in long term contracts, discusses the issue of tariff volatility related to an increased market indexing share, discusses the possible re-examination of indices at the occasion of formula reviewing, and outlines that the diversified supplier portfolio allows optimisation operations. The third part addresses non-supply related costs: evolution of different infrastructure costs (related to distribution, transport, and storage) to be taken into account in regulated sale tariffs, evolution of commercial costs. Some recommendations are then made regarding the perspective of a tariff formula revision, and the perspectives of evolution of non-supply related costs

  10. Draft of law relating to revamping of natural gas supply public service and to development of gas enterprises; Avant projet de loi relatif a la modernisation du service public du gaz naturel et au developpement des entreprises gazieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bricq [ed.] [Deputee de Seine-et-Marne, Assemblee Nationale, Paris (France)

    2000-02-07

    The state secretariat for industry has launched a large public debate between June and October 1999 based on a white book titled 'Towards the future organization of the gas sector'. The suggestions obtained were substantial. A brief presentation is added to the draft of the law devoted to revamping of natural gas supply public service and to development of gas enterprises. The presentation addresses the following points: 1. A public gas supply service modern and thought to reconcile the dynamism, equity and solidarity. 2. A controlled opening of the natural gas market towards competition: participating to the struggle for employment. 3. Tools ensuring the quality of gas supply and security of resources. 4. A transparent and efficient regulation: creating the conditions of a nondiscriminatory competition. 5. Requirements for developing the transport of natural gas regime. 6. Storage. 7. Social questions. The draft of the law relating to revamping of natural gas supply public service and to development of gas enterprises is a working document, not engaging the government. It is based on six titles. Title 1 and Title 2 treat the points 1 and 2 mentioned above. Title 3 contains two chapters devoted to transparency and accounting dissociation and to regulation in the natural gas sector, respectively. The Title 4 contains three chapters devoted to: 1. authorization of the works of natural gas transport; 2. gas distribution and 3. exploitation of the transport and natural gas distribution network. The fifth Title is dedicated to underground storage. The sixth Title presents diverse directives.

  11. A thermoelectric-conversion power supply system using a strontium heat source of high-level radioactive nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikazawa, Yoshitaka

    2011-01-01

    A thermoelectric-conversion power supply system with radioactive strontium in high-level radioactive waste has been proposed. A combination of Alkali Metal Thermo-Electric Conversion (AMTEC) and a strontium fluoride heat source can provide a compact and long-lived power supply system. A heat source design with strontium fluoride pin bundles with Hastelloy cladding and intermediate copper has been proposed. This design has taken heat transportation into consideration, and, in this regard, the feasibility has been confirmed by a three-dimensional thermal analysis using Star-CD code. This power supply system with an electric output of 1 MW can be arranged in a space of 50 m 2 and approximately 1.1 m height and can be operated for 15 years without refueling. This compact and long-lived power supply is suitable for powering sources for remote places and middle-sized ships. From the viewpoint of geological disposal of high-level waste, the proposed power supply system provides a financial base for strontium-cesium partitioning. That is, a combination of minor-actinide recycling and strontium-cesium partitioning can eliminate a large part of decay heat in high-level waste and thus can save much space for geological disposal. (author)

  12. Emission quantification using the tracer gas dispersion method: The influence of instrument, tracer gas species and source simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delre, Antonio; Mønster, Jacob; Samuelsson, Jerker

    2018-01-01

    The tracer gas dispersion method (TDM) is a remote sensing method used for quantifying fugitive emissions by relying on the controlled release of a tracer gas at the source, combined with concentration measurements of the tracer and target gas plumes. The TDM was tested at a wastewater treatment...... plant for plant-integrated methane emission quantification, using four analytical instruments simultaneously and four different tracer gases. Measurements performed using a combination of an analytical instrument and a tracer gas, with a high ratio between the tracer gas release rate and instrument...... precision (a high release-precision ratio), resulted in well-defined plumes with a high signal-to-noise ratio and a high methane-to-tracer gas correlation factor. Measured methane emission rates differed by up to 18% from the mean value when measurements were performed using seven different instrument...

  13. Feasibility of landfill gas as a liquefied natural gas fuel source for refuse trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietsman, Josias; Bari, Muhammad Ehsanul; Rand, Aaron J; Gokhale, Bhushan; Lord, Dominique; Kumar, Sunil

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a methodology to evaluate the feasibility of using landfill gas (LFG) as a liquefied natural gas (LNG) fuel source for heavy-duty refuse trucks operating on landfills. Using LFG as a vehicle fuel can make the landfills more self-sustaining, reduce their dependence on fossil fuels, and reduce emissions and greenhouse gases. Acrion Technologies Inc. in association with Mack Trucks Inc. developed a technology to generate LNG from LFG using the CO2 WASH process. A successful application of this process was performed at the Eco Complex in Burlington County, PA. During this application two LNG refuse trucks were operated for 600 hr each using LNG produced from gases from the landfill. The methodology developed in this paper can evaluate the feasibility of three LFG options: doing nothing, electricity generation, and producing LNG to fuel refuse trucks. The methodology involved the modeling of several components: LFG generation, energy recovery processes, fleet operations, economic feasibility, and decision-making. The economic feasibility considers factors such as capital, maintenance, operational, and fuel costs, emissions and tax benefits, and the sale of products such as surplus LNG and food-grade carbon dioxide (CO2). Texas was used as a case study. The 96 landfills in Texas were prioritized and 17 landfills were identified that showed potential for converting LFG to LNG for use as a refuse truck fuel. The methodology was applied to a pilot landfill in El Paso, TX. The analysis showed that converting LFG to LNG to fuel refuse trucks proved to be the most feasible option and that the methodology can be applied for any landfill that considers this option.

  14. Optimization of Gas Supply as a Component of the Energy Strategy of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrypnyk Andrii V.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available There considered the trade in natural gas in four regional markets, namely the market of North America, the market of Central and South America, the market of Europe and Eurasia, and the Pacific market. The process of a global convergence of regimes of trading in natural gas is studied, and a hypothesis on the prospect of creating a world natural gas market is proposed. The hypothesis is based on reducing the dispersion of prices and increasing the share of liquefied natural gas in the total world sales of natural gas. Two optimization models are constructed: the first one relates to minimization of the transport costs on distributing the imported and domestically produced natural gas on the territory of Ukraine; the second model considers determination of the optimal structure of purchasing natural gas by Ukraine and its further distribution on the territory of the country, taking into account the prices of each supplier and the distances between the consumers and suppliers. There identified advantages for Ukraine from the possible formation of a world natural gas market, in particular improving the state of energy security and independence as well as reducing the amount of costs associated with meeting the domestic demand for natural gas.

  15. Increased competition on the supply side of the Western European natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golombek, R.; Gjelsvik, E.; Rosendahl, K.N.

    1996-01-01

    This publication discusses the impact of breaking up national gas sales consortia in Western Europe. A numerical model of the Western European natural gas market is used to show that once the demand side of the market is liberalized, each producing country has an incentive to break up its national gas sales consortium. The situation is not stable, however, since each country has an incentive to increase the number of domestic producers in response to more competitors. Consequently the model suggests that there may be a large number of producers in a completely liberalized natural gas market. 19 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  16. Security of natural gas supply in Central Europe - Case study: Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klepac, Jan

    2010-09-15

    Europe's dependence on imported hydrocarbons is increasing. Being the second largest consumer in the world, EU will need of billions of euro over the next 20 years to satisfy the expected energy demand and to replace the ageing infrastructure. Slovakia is the main transport corridor for the Russian gas delivered to the EU countries, 20% of the natural gas consumption in the EU countries is covered by transit through the Slovak territory. Slovakia is also almost 100% dependent on import of the Russian gas. Diversification of the natural gas resources therefore belongs to the key energy security issues in Slovakia.

  17. Sustainable synthesis gas from biomass. A bridge to a sustainable supply of energy and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Uil, H.; Van Ree, R.; Van der Drift, A.; Boerrigter, H.

    2004-04-01

    Synthesis gas is currently primarily used in the (petro)chemical industry and for the production of liquid fuels. Smaller amounts are being used for electricity and synthetic natural gas (=SNG) production. Finite fossil resources, the dependence on political instable regimes and the Kyoto-protocol are drivers for the attention for renewable synthesis gas. In this report the market for, production of, use of and economy of renewable synthesis gas are analysed. Current synthesis gas use is limited to about 3% of the Dutch primary energy consumption; worldwide this is about 2%. Driven by the targets for renewable energy and the wide range of possible uses, the market for renewable synthesis gas has a large potential. When using synthesis gas for the production of SNG, electricity, liquid fuels and chemicals, the Dutch market for renewable synthesis gas can be 150 PJ in 2010, doubling about every decade to 1500 PJ in 2040. SNG and electricity, together about 80%. To reach these market volumes, import of biomass will be required due to the limited availability of local biomass resources in the Netherlands. The specifications for synthesis gas are dependent on the application. For (petro)chemical use and the production of liquid fuels high H2 and CO concentrations are required, for SNG and electricity production high CH4 concentrations are preferred. Due to the different specifications the names synthesis gas and product gas are used in this study. The name synthesis gas is claimed for a large number of gasification processes under development. But only for a number of processes this claim is justified. The gasification temperature determines the type of gas produced. At high temperatures, above 1300C, synthesis gas is produced, at low temperatures, 700-1000C, so-called product gas is being produced. Entrained-flow gasification is the only possibility for large-scale synthesis gas production in one step. For this process the particle size of the feed has to be small

  18. The factors for the competitiveness in the supply of natural gas; Los factores para la competitividad en la oferta del gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escobar Toledo, Carlos; Aguirre Portillo, Alejandro [Facultad de Quimica, UNAM (Mexico)

    1996-07-01

    The environmental restrictions have caused an increasing demand of natural gas on world-wide scale. In this paper the analysis of the present situation of the natural gas in Mexico and throughout the world is presented, taking into account the structure of the production costs of the natural gas in the reservoirs, as well as the transportation and distribution costs destined to the natural gas consumption in specific markets. It is possible to emphasize that at the moment the transportation of this power source is more expensive than the corresponding one of the crude and of the oil-producing products obtained from oil refinement. [Spanish] Las restricciones medioambientales han provocado una creciente demanda de gas natural a escala mundial. En este trabajo se presenta un analisis de la situacion actual del gas natural en Mexico y en el mundo entero, tomando en cuenta la estructura de los costos de produccion del gas natural en los yacimientos, asi como los costos de transporte y distribucion destinados al consumo de gas natural en mercados especificos. Cabe destacar que actualmente el transporte de esta fuente energetica es mas caro que el correspondiente al crudo y a los productos petroliferos obtenidos de la refinacion de aquel.

  19. A Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube-based Biosensor for Monitoring Microcystin-LR in Sources of Drinking Water Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    A multi-walled carbon nanotube-based electrochemical biosensor is developed for monitoring microcystin-LR (MC-LR), a toxic cyanobacterial toxin, in sources of drinking water supplies. The biosensor electrodes are fabricated using dense, mm-long multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) arrays gro...

  20. Comparison study between a Renewable Energy Supply System and a supergrid for achieving 100% from renewable energy sources in Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xydis, George

    2013-01-01

    in combination with the technical restrictions of diesel generators of the existing conventional power stations are a major concern of power supply system. Reversing the roles of diesel generators and wind farms (WFs), to use WF as the basic energy source and diesel generators as stand-by system changed in fact...

  1. The Energy, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Cost Implications of Municipal Water Supply & Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Winter, Thelma

    All man-made structures and materials have a design life. Across the United States there is a common theme for our water and wastewater treatment facilities and infrastructure. The design life of many of our mid 20 th century water and wastewater infrastructures in the United States have reached or are reaching life expectancy limits (ASCE, 2010). To compound the financial crisis of keeping up with the degradation, meeting and exceeding quality standards has never been more important in order to protect local fresh water supplies. This thesis analyzes the energy consumption of a municipal water and wastewater treatment system from a Lake Erie intake through potable treatment and back through wastewater treatment then discharge. The system boundary for this thesis includes onsite energy consumed by the treatment system and distribution/reclamation system as well as the energy consumed by the manufacturing of treatment chemicals applied during the study periods. By analyzing energy consumption, subsequent implications from greenhouse gas emissions and financial expenditures were quantified. Through the segregation of treatment and distribution processes from non-process energy consumption, such as heating, lighting, and air handling, this study identified that the potable water treatment system consumed an annual average of 2.42E+08 kBtu, spent 5,812,144 for treatment and distribution, and emitted 28,793 metric tons of CO2 equivalent emissions. Likewise, the wastewater treatment system consumed an annual average of 2.45E+08 kBtu, spent 3,331,961 for reclamation and treatment, and emitted 43,780 metric tons of CO2 equivalent emissions. The area with the highest energy usage, financial expenditure, and greenhouse gas emissions for the potable treatment facility and distribution system was from the manufacturing of the treatment chemicals, 1.10E+08 kBtu, 3.7 million, and 17,844 metric tons of CO2 equivalent, respectively. Of the onsite energy (1.4E-03 kWh per gallon

  2. Opportunities of energy supply of farm holdings on the basis of small-scale renewable energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efendiev, A. M.; Nikolaev, Yu. E.; Evstaf'ev, D. P.

    2016-02-01

    One of the major national economic problems of Russia is raising of agricultural production, which will provide strategic security and sustainable supply of the population with provisions. Creation of subsidiary small holdings, farm holdings, and peasant farm holdings will require addressing issues of energy supply. At considerable distance of small farms from centralized energy systems (by fuel, electricity and thermal energy) it is proposed to create a system of local energy networks on the basis of low-powered power plants using renewable energy sources (RES). There is economic unreasonableness of use of imported components of small power plants. Creation of new combined small power plants on renewable energy sources produced by domestic manufacturers is recommended. Schemes of arrangements of small power plants based on renewable energy sources are proposed, variants and characteristics of a basic source are provided—biogas plants developed by the authors. Calculations revealed that heat and power supply of self-contained farms distant from small power plants based on renewable energy sources is 2.5-2.6 times cheaper than from centralized networks. Production of biogas through anaerobic fermentation of organic waste of cattle complexes is considered as the basis. The analysis of biowaste output in various cattle farms is carried out, and the volume of biogas is determined to meet the requirements of these farms in electrical and thermal energy. The objective of the present article is to study the possibility of creating small combined power plants in Russia based on renewable sources of energy for independent consumers.

  3. Energy economics and supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    This section of the book, Part I, consists of four chapters (1--4). Chapter 1, Energy and the Economic Future, covers the following subjects: general economics of energy; predicting energy demand; a model of energy and the economy; and interpretations. Chapter 2, Uranium and Fossil Fuel Supplies, covers the following subjects: uranium resources; oil and gas supplies; coal resources. Chapter 3, Economics of Nuclear Power, covers information on sources of uncertainty; cost of nuclear power; cost of coal-generated electricity. Chapter 4, Alternative Energy Sources, sums information on solar energy, geothermal energy, fusion power, conservation, and transmission

  4. Power supply for nuclear power plant home consumption using inverter sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepar, V.; Tvrdik, J.

    1988-01-01

    A description is presented of the system configuration of a nuclear power plant with WWER-440 and WWER-1000 units and of a system of guaranteed power supply for the plant home consumption network for a WWER-440 power plant. The power supply network consists of 6 inverter supplies for safety systems, 4 supplies for nonsystem facilities and of a minimum of three power supplies for facilities outside the units. A diagram is shown and the principle described of the currently used ABP 1500 power supply system of Soviet origin. Using the experience from its operation, a Czechoslovak inverter supply system was designed featuring parallel operation of the inverter units. The principles are given for the design of a power supply system of an output of 75 kVA, the diagram is shown and the principle described. The design allows implementing and using the system without redundancy or in redundant operation of the 2 from 3 type at an installed capacity of 66%, or of the 1 from 2 type at an installed capacity of 50% of the output. The system is undergoing tests that should verify its reliability. (J.B.). 3 figs., 1 tab

  5. Preparation and electrical properties of boron and boron phosphide films obtained by gas source molecular beam deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumashiro, Y.; Yokoyama, T.; Sakamoto, T.; Fujita, T. [Yokohama National Univ. (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Boron and boron phosphide films were prepared by gas source molecular beam deposition on sapphire crystal at various substrate temperatures up to 800{degrees}C using cracked B{sub 2}H{sub 6} (2% in H{sub 2}) at 300{degrees}C and cracked PH{sub 3} (20% in H{sub 2}) at 900{degrees}C. The substrate temperatures and gas flow rates of the reactant gases determined the film growth. The boron films with amorphous structure are p type. Increasing growth times lead to increasing mobilities and decreasing carrier concentrations. Boron phosphide film with maximum P/B ratio is obtained at a substrate temperature of 600{degrees}C, below and above which they become phosphorous deficient due to insufficient supply of phosphorus and thermal desorption of the phosphorus as P{sub 2}, respectively, but they are all n type conductors due to phosphorus vacancies.

  6. Regional power supply with decentral and renewable energy sources; Regionale Energieversorgung mit dezentralen und erneuerbaren Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonow, Martin [Genossenschaftsverband, Neu-Isenburg/Zeppelinheim-Ost (Germany); George, Wolfgang [GenoPortal, Neu-Isenburg (Germany); Klement, Martin [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich 6 - Architektur, Stadtplanung, Landschaftsplanung

    2009-04-15

    The contribution starts by assuming a region as a business organisation; on this basis, the authors develop the idea of a regional value-adding chain with regard to regional power supply. After presenting the central actors and their manner of integration, the contribution discusses concepts for sustainable power supply as well as the central parameters of such a development in terms of quality of life, attractivity of the region, future success of technologies, and criteria of value-adding. Finally, the implementation of regional power supply with the aid of a so-called 'balanced scorecard' is explained, which involves balancing of the various perspectives of the process up to the establishment of the final regional power supply concept. Finally, the contribution briefly discusses co-operative models for the establishment of a regional power supply concept. (orig.)

  7. Differences in healthy food supply and stocking practices between small grocery stores, gas-marts, pharmacies and dollar stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Caitlin Eicher; Pelletier, Jennifer E; Harnack, Lisa; Erickson, Darin J; Laska, Melissa N

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about the practices for stocking and procuring healthy food in non-traditional food retailers (e.g., gas-marts, pharmacies). The present study aimed to: (i) compare availability of healthy food items across small food store types; and (ii) examine owner/manager perceptions and stocking practices for healthy food across store types. Descriptive analyses were conducted among corner/small grocery stores, gas-marts, pharmacies and dollar stores. Data from store inventories were used to examine availability of twelve healthy food types and an overall healthy food supply score. Interviews with managers assessed stocking practices and profitability. Small stores in Minneapolis and St. Paul, MN, USA, not participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children. One hundred and nineteen small food retailers and seventy-one store managers. Availability of specific items varied across store type. Only corner/small grocery stores commonly sold fresh vegetables (63% v. 8% of gas-marts, 0% of dollar stores and 23% of pharmacies). More than half of managers stocking produce relied on cash-and-carry practices to stock fresh fruit (53%) and vegetables (55%), instead of direct store delivery. Most healthy foods were perceived by managers to have at least average profitability. Interventions to improve healthy food offerings in small stores should consider the diverse environments, stocking practices and supply mechanisms of small stores, particularly non-traditional food retailers. Improvements may require technical support, customer engagement and innovative distribution practices.

  8. Debris-free soft x-ray source with gas-puff target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Qiliang; Chen, Bo; Gong, Yan; Cao, Jianlin; Lin, Jingquan; Lee, Hongyan

    2001-12-01

    We have been developing a debris-free laser plasma light source with a gas-puff target system whose nozzle is driven by a piezoelectric crystal membrane. The gas-puff target system can utilize gases such as CO2, O2 or some gas mixture according to different experiments. Therefore, in comparison with soft X-ray source using a metal target, after continuously several-hour laser interaction with gas from the gas-puff target system, no evidences show that the light source can produce debris. The debris-free soft X-ray source is prepared for soft X-ray projection lithography research at State Key Laboratory of Applied Optics. Strong emission from CO2, O2 and Kr plasma is observed.

  9. Ground Source Heat Supply in Moscow Oblast: Temperature Potential and Sustainable Depth of Heat Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'ev, G. P.; Gornov, V. F.; Dmitriev, A. N.; Kolesova, M. V.; Yurchenko, V. A.

    2018-01-01

    The paper is devoted to a problem of increasing the efficiency of low-potential geothermal heat in heat pump systems of residential buildings the Moscow oblast of Russia, including Moscow. Estimates of a natural geothermal potential in the Moscow oblast (based on climatological data for the period from 1982 to 2011) are presented and a "Typical climatic year of natural soil temperature variations for the geoclimatic conditions of the Moscow oblast, including the city of Moscow" is proposed. Numerical simulation of the influence of geothermal energy potential and the depth of heat wells on the efficiency of ground source heat pump systems for the heat supply of residential buildings is carried out. Analysis of the numerical simulation showed that the operation of a heat pump system in a house heating mode under the geoclimatic conditions of the Moscow oblast leads to a temperature drop of the heat-exchange medium circulating through heat wells to 5-6°C by the end of the first 10 years of operation, and the process stabilizes by the 15th year of operation, and further changes in the heat-exchange medium temperature do not any longer significantly affect the temperature of the heat-exchange medium in the heat well. In this case, the exact dependence of the heat-exchange medium temperature drop on the depth is not revealed. Data on the economically expedient heat well depth for the conditions of the Moscow oblast ensuring a net present value for the whole residential building life cycle are presented. It is found that the heat well depth of 60 m can be considered as an endpoint for the Moscow oblast, and a further heat well deepening is economically impractical.

  10. Thermal analysis of LOFT waste gas processing system nitrogen supply for process line purge and blower seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatar, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    The LOFT Waste Gas Processing System uses gaseous nitrogen (GN 2 ) to purge the main process line and to supply pressure on the blower labyrinth seal. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the temperature of the GN 2 at the blower seals and the main process line. Since these temperatures were below 32 0 F the heat rate necessary to raise these temperatures was calculated. This report shows that the GN 2 temperatures at the points mentioned above were below 10 0 F. A heat rate into the GN 2 of 389 Watts added at the point where the supply line enters the vault would raise the GN 2 temperature above 32 0 F

  11. Production planning and backup sourcing strategy of a buyer-dominant supply chain with random yield and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kebing; Xiao, Tiaojun

    2015-11-01

    This paper studies the backup sourcing strategy of the buyer and the production planning of the supplier in presence of both random yield and random demand. Since the production is susceptible to the randomness of yield beyond the control of the supplier, the buyer may access to a backup sourcing option for the finished items. We analyse the value of backup sourcing for both the decentralised and centralised channels. Backup sourcing strategy of the buyer may lower the supply chain's performance. We show that the order quantity of the buyer does not change the stocking factor of the supplier's input. Meanwhile, compared with the centralised operation, the decentralised operation is more dependent on the backup sourcing to reduce supply shortage of the contracting supplier. From the channel's perspective, an incentive scheme is developed to facilitate the coordination of both the buyer and the contracting supplier, we show that the proposed option contract can allow the supply chain members to share the respective risks involved in the production and selling processes. Finally, we also provide qualitative insights based on numerical examples of the centralised and decentralised solutions.

  12. Constant-current charging supplies for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) linear accelerator modulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuja, R.; Grelick, A.E.; Meyer, D.

    1997-01-01

    The APS linac beam energy must be stable to within ±1% to match the energy acceptance of the positron accumulator ring. The klystron pulse modulators must therefore provide a pulse-to-pulse repeatability of 0.1% in order for the beam to have the required energy stability. The modulators have had difficulty achieving the necessary repeatability since the pulse forming network (PFN) charging scheme does not include a deQing circuit. Several of the major charging circuit components are also less reliable than desired. In order to increase operating reliability and to improve pulse-to-pulse stability, it is planned to replace the high voltage power supplies in all modulators with constant-current power supplies. A new modulator charging supply that contains two EMI series 303 constant-current power supplies was constructed. Each of these EMI supplies delivers 1.5 A at up to 40 kV. One supply is sufficient for linac operation at up to 45 Hz, and two supplies in parallel enable linac operation at the nominal rf repetition rate of 60 Hz. This paper discusses test results from the new modulator, and also describes the existing modulators and their performance limitations

  13. Herbaceous biomass supply chains : assessing the greenhouse gas balance, economics and ILUC effects of Ukrainian biomass for domestic and Dutch energy markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppens, R.P.; Lesschen, J.P.; Galytska, M.; Jamblinne, de P.; Kraisvitnii, P.; Elbersen, H.W.

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the supply chain performance for three types of biomass feedstock (reed, straw and switchgrass) and for three sustainability aspects, i.e. the greenhouse gas balance, economics and Indirect Land Use change effects (ILUC). Calculations are based on a fictional supply chain

  14. A methodology for handling exploration risk and constructing supply curves for oil and gas plays when resources are stacked

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallaire, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    The use of project economics to estimate full-cycle supply prices for undiscovered oil and gas resources is a straightforward exercise for those regions where oil and gas plays are not vertically superimposed on one another, ie. are not stacked. Exploration risk is incorporated into such an analysis by using a simple two-outcome decision tree model to include the costs of dry and abandoned wells. The decision tree model can be expanded to include multiple targets or discoveries, but this expansion requires additional drilling statistics and resource assessment data. A methodology is suggested to include exploration risk in the preparation of supply curves when stacked resources are expected and little or no information on uphole resources is available. In this method, all exploration costs for wells drilled to targets in the play being evaluated are assigned to that play, rather than prorated among the multiple targets or discoveries. Undiscovered pools are assumed to either bear all exploration costs (full cycle discoveries) or no exploration costs (half cycle discoveries). The weighted full- and half-cycle supply price is shown to be a more realistic estimate of the supply price of undiscovered pools in a play when stacked resources exist. The statistics required for this methodology are minimal, and resource estimates for prospects in other zones are not required. The equation relating the average pool finding cost to the discovery record is applicable to different scenarios regarding the presence of shallower and deeper resources. The equation derived for the two-outcome decision tree model is shown to be a special case of the general expression. 5 refs., 7 figs

  15. Strategies of an incumbent constrained to supply entrants: the case of European gas release programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clastres, Cedric; David, Laurent

    2005-01-01

    To accelerate the development of competition in gas markets, some European regulators (in United Kingdom or in France) have decided to implement gas release programs. These programs compel the incumbent to sell gas that is no longer sold to its customers to its competitors. A first intuition would suggest that such a measure could give the incumbent an incentive to let its own costs rise in order to raise its rival's ones. With a duo-poly model, we found some cases where incentives to raise costs do exist but, in most of the cases there is no such incentives. (authors)

  16. Recent data concerning contribution of various greenhouse effect gas sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, G.

    1991-01-01

    The greenhouse effect contributes to a +33 degrees C warming of the earth atmosphere (mean temperature of +15 deg C instead of -18 deg C without any greenhouse effect). The roles of water vapour, carbon dioxide and methane in greenhouse effect are discussed; the CH 4 raise seems to be due to rice cultivation and cattle farming; the CO 2 raise is mainly due oil, coal and natural gas burning. Greenhouse gas increase will cause a 2 to 4 deg C increase of the earth mean temperature but the anthropogenous causes will be obviously seen only during the next century

  17. The Role and Interdependence of Economic Indicators in Optimal Natural Gas Supply in Macedonia as a transitional Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Mladenovska

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper elaborates the importance of the economic set of indicators relevant for assessing natural gas supply options, as a part of the multi criteria decision making (MCDM method. Such an approach is a useful tool for decision makers. Thus, the paper is not only dealing with economic indicators arising from investment and other types of costs, but it mostly focuses on macroeconomic environment and macroeconomic preconditions strongly related to energy infrastructure. MCDM is firstly utilized to calculate the indicator’s weighting factors, and further, regression analyses are performed in terms of identifying interdependencies among the indicators.

  18. Degradation in the efficiency of glass Resistive Plate Chambers operated without external gas supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baesso, P.; Cussans, D.; Thomay, C.; Velthuis, J.; Burns, J.; Quillin, S.; Stapleton, M.; Steer, C.

    2015-06-01

    Resistive plate chambers (RPC) are particle detectors commonly used by the high energy physics community. Their normal operation requires a constant flow of gas mixture to prevent self-poisoning which reduces the chamber's capability to detect particles. We studied how quickly the efficiency of two RPCs drops when operated in sealed mode, i.e. without refreshing the gas mixture. The test aim is to determine how RPCs could be used as particle detectors in non-laboratory applications, such as those exploiting muon tomography for geological imaging or homeland security. The two sealed RPCs were operated in proportional mode for a period of more than three months, and their efficiencies were recorded continuously and analysed in 8-hours intervals. The results show that the efficiency drops on average by 0.79 ± 0.01 % every 24 hours of operation and returns close to the initial value after purging the old gas mixture and flushing the chambers with fresh gas.

  19. THE ROLE OF SUPPLYING WITH GAS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF REGIONAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. Shelomentsev

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available At the basis of the article is the analysis of the problematic situation, currently taking place in gas distribution. All essential aspects both in the work of gas distributing organizations and in governmental tariff policy are tackled in the article. Specific attention is paid to prospects of gasification development. As well, basic drawbacks of the law currently in force are reflected and ways of solving existing problems are offered.

  20. RSG-Gas Based Radioisotopes And Sharing Program For Regional Back Up Supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soenardjo, Sunarhadijoso; Tamat, Swasono R.; Suparman, Ibon; Purwadi, Bambang

    2003-01-01

    As the owner of the reactors used for radioisotope production, BATAN needs to increase the effectiveness of the reactor operation cost that can be achieved by simultaneously exploiting all the existing irradiation facility, supported by full utilization of the radioisotopes produced. On the other hand, the domestic demand of radioisotopes is much lower than the production capability but sometimes the request is compulsory to be suspended due to reactor operation schedule. As this condition is mostly similar to that of several countries of RCA Member States, a sharing program for regional back up supply seems to be a positive thought to support expectation on the effectiveness of reactor operation cost and the continuity of radioisotope product services as well as the utilization of radioisotopes produced. Based on radioactivity achieved in each production batch at the present, 131 I, 99 Mo, 153 Sm, 125 I and 32 p radioisotopes may be offered for back up supply program. Due to consideration on conformity of user demands with reactor operation and radiochemical processing costs, the concept of back up supply program should performed first by means of full utilization of the available products and not by increasing reactor operation frequency. An information and communication network system, therefore, is absolutely needed to support information exchange between the radioisotope producer, members of back up supply program and radioisotope customers

  1. Fuel Application Efficiency in Ideal Cycle of Gas Turbine Plant with Isobaric Heat Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Nesenchuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reveals expediency to use in prospect fuels with maximum value  Qнр∑Vi and minimum theoretical burning temperature in order to obtain maximum efficiency of the ideal cycle in GTP with isobaric heat supply.

  2. Quantifying greenhouse gas sources and sinks in managed wetland systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen M Ogle; Patrick Hunt; Carl Trettin

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides methodologies and guidance for reporting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and sinks at the entity scale for managed wetland systems. More specifically, it focuses on methods for managed palustrine wetlands.1 Section 4.1 provides an overview of wetland systems and resulting GHG emissions, system boundaries and temporal scale, a summary of the...

  3. Could Shale Gas Become a Reliable Energy Source for Europe and Romania?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANA PAPATULICĂ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available While shale gas and oil is a success story in USA and Canada where production has considerably increased in the last five years the situation is quite different in Europe where exploration and production activities are quite low and prospects are not encouraging. Even in the Eastern Europe the first results of exploration are disappointing for the American companies, which have the technical expertise for exploring and extraction shale gas. Due to global warming there is now at the world scale a fierce confrontation between environmentalists and lobbyists of producing companies regarding the negative effects of hydraulic fracturing. Shale gas development in Europe depends more on the coal substitution by gas and on the use of CCS technologies. The collapse of crude oil prices may delay many projects in the field of shale gas and oil, especially in Europe. The prospects of oil gas in Romania are linked to the energy security concept, whose implementation requires diversification of energy supply on some levels. The development of shale gas in order to diversify the energy supply cannot compensate the groundwater pollution and other negative effects, like earthquake. The temporary withdrawal of Chevron from Romania will have some positive effects, allowing to our country a necessary time-out to better substantiate public policies in the field and to producing companies some time required for carrying out new technologies, less polluting and harmful.

  4. Supply of carbon fiber for a natural gas car tank; Tennen gasu sha tanku muke tanso seni no kyokyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-31

    Mitsubishi Rayon shared investment with the Dynatech Company in Canada to produce carbon fiber tanks used in natural gas cars, and attempted to monopolize the supply of carbon fibers for tanks. As for the natural gas automobile with low air pollution and exhaust of carbon oxide compared to gasoline automobile, a heavy CNG tank is the bottleneck of its popularization, and its weight could be reduced to one fourth of a steel tank by using carbon fibers. In Japan, only steel tank has been licensed until now. Selling will be increasing in Japan by the co-operation with the Dynatech Company since this carbon fiber can be used from this April. (translated by NEDO)

  5. Current-voltage characteristics of a gas field ion source with a supertip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerret, R.; Boehringer, K.; Kalbitzer, S.

    1990-01-01

    The field ionisation properties of a supertip, a fine protrusion on top of a regular emitter, have been studied for hydrogen and the lighter rare gases. The parameter set included tip temperature, tip radius, gas temperature and gas pressure. Due to the local field enhancement at the supertip site, angular current intensities of 35 μA sr -1 and values of brightness up to 10 10 A cm -2 sr -1 have been obtained near the optimum temperature of the gas-tip system. At temperatures below this, the gas density reaches values typical for a condensed phase. In geometrical proportion, the regular tip area appears to serve as a gas supply for the supertip current. (author)

  6. Dealing with security of supply issues in natural gas sales contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. J.

    1999-01-01

    To avoid huge losses in a market where commodity prices can rise dramatically, gas marketers have developed a portfolio of contractual and non-contractual structures to avoid such losses. These structures had the effect of providing a sense of security that have proven to be false, or potentially false pending the outcome of decisions of appeal courts. This paper reviews these structures and examines some of the current issues. Non-contractual strategies employed by gas marketers include corporate warranty, dealing only with financially strong and reputable parties, limiting the dollar amount of exposure, and making short-term deals only. Contractual strategies include dedication of reserves (committing the gas produced from certain specified lands), requiring guarantee from corporate parent, letters of credit, or performance bonds. The concept of 'material adverse change' (MAC) a common method for dealing with the potential need for future security and its consequences, bankruptcies, receivership and set-off are explored and the manner in which the availability of set-off has changed following the recent Blue Range decision. In this decision the Court held that Enron's Master Agreement with Blue Range was not an 'eligible financial contract' because it contemplated the physical delivery of gas. Based on this decision it is possible to argue that set-off is no longer available for contracts intended for the physical delivery of natural gas. The collective consequence of these events and the recent spate of marketing failures require the gas marketing industry to review their forms of agreement and to reconsider their market exposure to any particular purchaser or supplier. The significant losses to companies that resulted from recent bankruptcies and insolvencies provide ample evidence that assuming a safe, closed position based on conventional gas marketing contracts is a risky proposition

  7. GRI baseline projection of U.S. energy supply and demand to 2010. An occasional publication of Gas Research Institute on topics of current interest. December 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtberg, P.D.; Woods, T.J.; Lihn, M.L.; McCabe, N.C.

    1989-12-01

    The report summarizes the 1989 GRI Baseline Projection of U.S. Energy Supply and Demand, which was adopted as a major input to the planning cycle leading to the development of GRI's 1991 R and D program. Summary tables, sectoral breakdowns of energy demand, and the natural gas supply and price trends are presented. Appendixes include a discussion of the methodology and assumptions used to prepare the 1989 projection, and analysis of the potential for higher levels of gas demand, a description of industrial and commercial cogeneration energy supply and demand, a comparison of the 1989 projection with previous GRI projections, and a discussion of additional data used in developing the projection

  8. A geographical perspective on the natural gas supply industry in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, Keith

    2004-11-01

    Natural gas has, over the last 40 years, come to account for a substantial percentage of primary energy consumption (i.e. including inputs to electricity and heat generation) in the United Kingdom (UK). In 2002, this percentage (37.3) was exceeded in only two other European countries, the Netherlands (46.0) and Hungary (43.0) (International Energy Agency, 2003). Although oil has generally attracted greater attention than natural gas, the effects of the latter upon the energy economy of the UK have, in certain respects, been more profound. Most North Sea oil production is exported directly from the UK (69.4 per cent in 2003 (DTI, 2004)) and the balance has been processed within an oil refining system originally established to handle imported oil. By contrast, the availability of natural gas from the North Sea from the mid-1960s transformed the UK gas industry from a producer of secondary energy (i.e. town gas manufactured from coal and oil) to a distributor of primary energy. This transformation had a geographical dimension evident in the contrast between the essentially local distribution systems of the town gas industry and the national system created to deliver natural gas. The development of this system has been accompanied by very significant organisational changes as the gas industry became one of several network utilities transferred from public to private ownership in the UK since the 1980s. This paper reviews these events from a geographical perspective. It is divided into three main sections. The first describes the growth of the natural gas consumption in the UK. The second places this empirical material within a policy framework. The third relates spatial variations in the availability and cost of natural gas to patterns of economic development and welfare. The introduction of natural gas from the North Sea into the UK energy market has clearly had major consequences at the national scale. It rapidly displaced the town gas industry, superimposing a

  9. Gas lantern mantle: a low activity alpha particle source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, B.; Manzoor, S.

    1991-01-01

    Commercially available gas lantern mantles contain a substantial amount of radioactive ThO 2 . Gas lantern mantles purchased from a Sydney camping shop were incinerated, deposited as a thin layer on a aluminium planchette, and the emitted alpha spectrum was measured with a silicon surfacer barrier detector. The specific activity of the samples was estimated by high resolution gamma spectroscopy using a high purity germanium detector as well as CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors. The micro-morphology of the incinerated powder was analysed by scanning electron microscopy. The depth dose and LET distribution of alpha particles in soft tissue were calculated from the energy spectrum. 12 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  10. Design, manufacture and factory testing of the Ion Source and Extraction Power Supplies for the SPIDER experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigi, Marco; Rinaldi, Luigi; Simon, Muriel; Sita, Luca; Taddia, Giuseppe; Carrozza, Saverino; Decamps, Hans; Luchetta, Adriano; Meddour, Abdelraouf; Moressa, Modesto; Morri, Cristiano; Musile Tanzi, Antonio; Recchia, Mauro; Wagner, Uwe; Zamengo, Andrea; Toigo, Vanni

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • 5 MVA ion source power supplies effectively integrated in 150 m"2 Faraday cage. • Load protection and performance requirements met of custom design high voltage power supplies. • 200 kW tetrode oscillator with 200 kHz frequency range successfully tested. - Abstract: The SPIDER experiment, currently under construction at the Neutral Beam Test Facility in Padua, Italy, is a full-size prototype of the ion source for the ITER Neutral Beam Injectors. The Ion Source and Extraction Power Supplies (ISEPS) for SPIDER are supplied by OCEM Energy Technology s.r.l. (OCEM) under a procurement contract with Fusion for Energy (F4E) covering also the units required for MITICA and ITER injectors. The detailed design of SPIDER ISEPS was finalized in 2011 and manufacture of most components completed by end 2013. The Factory Acceptance Tests took place early 2014. ISEPS, with an overall power rating of 5 MVA, form a heterogeneous set of items including solid state power converters and 1 MHz radiofrequency generators of 200 kW output power. The paper presents the main features of the detailed design developed by OCEM, focusing in particular on the high output voltage pulse step modulators, the high output current resonant converters, the radiofrequency generators by HIMMELWERK GmbH and the architecture and implementation of the complex control system. Details are given on non-standard factory tests verifying the insulation requirements specific to this application. Performance of ISEPS during the factory acceptance tests is described, with emphasis on demonstration of the load protection requirements, a crucial point for all neutral beam power supplies. Finally, key dates of SPIDER ISEPS installation and site testing schedule are provided.

  11. Design, manufacture and factory testing of the Ion Source and Extraction Power Supplies for the SPIDER experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigi, Marco, E-mail: marco.bigi@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Rinaldi, Luigi [OCEM Energy Technology, Via della Solidarietà 2/1, 40056 Valsamoggia (località Crespellano), Bologna (Italy); Simon, Muriel [Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Sita, Luca; Taddia, Giuseppe; Carrozza, Saverino [OCEM Energy Technology, Via della Solidarietà 2/1, 40056 Valsamoggia (località Crespellano), Bologna (Italy); Decamps, Hans [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Luchetta, Adriano [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Meddour, Abdelraouf [HIMMELWERK Hoch- und Mittelfrequenzanlagen GmbH, Jopestr. 10, 72072 Tübingen (Germany); Moressa, Modesto [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Morri, Cristiano; Musile Tanzi, Antonio [OCEM Energy Technology, Via della Solidarietà 2/1, 40056 Valsamoggia (località Crespellano), Bologna (Italy); Recchia, Mauro [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Wagner, Uwe [HIMMELWERK Hoch- und Mittelfrequenzanlagen GmbH, Jopestr. 10, 72072 Tübingen (Germany); Zamengo, Andrea; Toigo, Vanni [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • 5 MVA ion source power supplies effectively integrated in 150 m{sup 2} Faraday cage. • Load protection and performance requirements met of custom design high voltage power supplies. • 200 kW tetrode oscillator with 200 kHz frequency range successfully tested. - Abstract: The SPIDER experiment, currently under construction at the Neutral Beam Test Facility in Padua, Italy, is a full-size prototype of the ion source for the ITER Neutral Beam Injectors. The Ion Source and Extraction Power Supplies (ISEPS) for SPIDER are supplied by OCEM Energy Technology s.r.l. (OCEM) under a procurement contract with Fusion for Energy (F4E) covering also the units required for MITICA and ITER injectors. The detailed design of SPIDER ISEPS was finalized in 2011 and manufacture of most components completed by end 2013. The Factory Acceptance Tests took place early 2014. ISEPS, with an overall power rating of 5 MVA, form a heterogeneous set of items including solid state power converters and 1 MHz radiofrequency generators of 200 kW output power. The paper presents the main features of the detailed design developed by OCEM, focusing in particular on the high output voltage pulse step modulators, the high output current resonant converters, the radiofrequency generators by HIMMELWERK GmbH and the architecture and implementation of the complex control system. Details are given on non-standard factory tests verifying the insulation requirements specific to this application. Performance of ISEPS during the factory acceptance tests is described, with emphasis on demonstration of the load protection requirements, a crucial point for all neutral beam power supplies. Finally, key dates of SPIDER ISEPS installation and site testing schedule are provided.

  12. Energy recovery during expansion of compressed gas using power plant low-quality heat sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, Thomas L [Albany, OR; O'Connor, William K [Lebanon, OR

    2006-03-07

    A method of recovering energy from a cool compressed gas, compressed liquid, vapor, or supercritical fluid is disclosed which includes incrementally expanding the compressed gas, compressed liquid, vapor, or supercritical fluid through a plurality of expansion engines and heating the gas, vapor, compressed liquid, or supercritical fluid entering at least one of the expansion engines with a low quality heat source. Expansion engines such as turbines and multiple expansions with heating are disclosed.

  13. Greenhouse Gas reduction for scenarios of power sources development of the Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comendant I.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available For the new power market conditions, Moldova power sources development options up to 2033 are evaluated, and for the six scenarios selected the greenhouse gas reduction impact is determined.

  14. Labour market assessment of the offshore oil and gas industry supply and service sector in Newfoundland and Labrador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    The Petroleum Industry Human Resource Committee (PIHRC) commissioned this study in December 2002 to develop a profile of the labour demand and supply for the upstream production phase of the offshore oil and gas industry. Interviews with representatives from more than 45 countries in the offshore oil and gas sector in Newfoundland and Labrador were conducted. In addition, the results of a mail survey forwarded to an additional 42 companies were included along with a review of secondary labour market research. More than 340 positions were identified in the production phase in the study. Of these, approximately 80 were identified as difficult to recruit for a variety of reasons including: insufficient experience in the oil industry; occupational shortages; short-term or project employment opportunities; very limited employment opportunities and limited occupational supply; lack of specific occupational training programs; and additional projects possibly leading to occupational shortages. The study provided valuable input concerning future labour market and human resource planning and career counselling on the 340 positions previously identified. 10 tabs

  15. Labour market assessment of the offshore oil and gas industry supply and service sector in Newfoundland and Labrador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-01

    The Petroleum Industry Human Resource Committee (PIHRC) commissioned this study in December 2002 to develop a profile of the labour demand and supply for the upstream production phase of the offshore oil and gas industry. Interviews with representatives from more than 45 countries in the offshore oil and gas sector in Newfoundland and Labrador were conducted. In addition, the results of a mail survey forwarded to an additional 42 companies were included along with a review of secondary labour market research. More than 340 positions were identified in the production phase in the study. Of these, approximately 80 were identified as difficult to recruit for a variety of reasons including: insufficient experience in the oil industry; occupational shortages; short-term or project employment opportunities; very limited employment opportunities and limited occupational supply; lack of specific occupational training programs; and additional projects possibly leading to occupational shortages. The study provided valuable input concerning future labour market and human resource planning and career counselling on the 340 positions previously identified. 10 tabs.

  16. Hydrodynamic analysis of the interaction of two operating groundwater sources, case study: Groundwater supply of Bečej

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polomčić Dušan M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing groundwater source 'Vodokanal' for the public water supply of Bečej city in Serbia tapping groundwater from three water-bearing horizons over 15 wells with summary capacity of 100 l/s. Near the public water source of Bečej exists groundwater source 'Soja Protein' for industry with current capacity of 12 l/s which tapped same horizons. In the coming period is planned to increase summary capacity of this groundwater source up to 57 l/s. Also, the increase of summary city's source capacity is planned for 50 l/s in the next few years. That is means an increase of groundwater abstraction for an additional 84 % from the same water-bearing horizons. Application of hydrodynamic modeling, based on numerical method of finite difference will show the impact of increasing the total capacity of the source 'Soja Protein' on the groundwater level in groundwater source 'Vodokanal' and effects of additional decrease in groundwater levels, in all three water-bearing horizons, on the wells of the 'Vodokanala' groundwater source due to operation of industrial source. It was done 7 variant solutions of the extensions of groundwater sources and are their effects for a period of 10 years with the aim of the sustainable management of groundwater.

  17. Study on characteristics of valves for pulsed gas feed into a cyclotron multicharged ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogomolov, S.L.; Efremov, A.A.; Koval'chuk, I.M.; Kutner, V.B.; Pasyuk, A.S.

    1984-01-01

    Different valves (with rotating drum, piezoelectric and electromagnetic) for pulsed gas feed into cyclotron multicharged ion arc source are described. It is shown that piezoelectric and electromagnetic valves provide a possibility of regulating in a wide range the gas flow pulse parameters

  18. Possibilities of the natural gas supply in the Republic of Croatia; Osvrt na mogucnosti opskrbe Republike Hrvatske prirodnim plinom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavrovic, S; Matic, D [Energetski institut Hrvoje Pozar, Zagreb (Croatia)

    1997-12-31

    Europe and Croatia meet 70% of their total natural gas demand from indigenous production and import other 30% (20% from the Russian Federation and 10% from Algeria). Croatia imports gas only from Russia. Forecasts and analysis of energy sector development point out that natural gas consumption will be doubled till 2010 when it will reach approximately 555-651 bcm. Natural gas consumption is expected to rise significantly in Croatia. Estimations of required import made by INA and PROHES - preliminary results, are similar. It has been expected that future import in 2010 will be between 2 and 3 bcm depending on considered scenario. Due to expectations of rising gas demand, Europe is turning on to new projects aiming to better connections by pipelines and LNG chains. New projects are considering constructions of new Russian transmission lines, additional lines from North Sea, increasing capacity of lines from Algeria, UK interconnection with Continent, and new pipelines and LNG routes from Middle East and Central Asia. Involvement in some the above mentioned projects is of importance for Croatia because it enables additional natural gas quantities and diversification of sources. (author). 9 tabs., 3 figs.

  19. Cost Benefit Analysis of Using Clean Energy Supplies to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Global Automotive Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhao

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Automotive manufacturing is energy-intensive. The consumed energy contributes to the generation of significant amounts of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions by the automotive manufacturing industry. In this paper, a study is conducted on assessing the application potential of such clean energy power systems as solar PV, wind and fuel cells in reducing the GHG emissions of the global auto manufacturing industry. The study is conducted on the representative solar PV, wind and fuel cell clean energy systems available on the commercial market in six representative locations of GM’s global facilities, including the United States, Mexico, Brazil, China, Egypt and Germany. The results demonstrate that wind power is superior to other two clean energy technologies in the economic performance of the GHG mitigation effect. Among these six selected countries, the highest GHG emission mitigation potential is in China, through wind power supply. The maximum GHG reduction could be up to 60 tons per $1,000 economic investment on wind energy supply in China. The application of wind power systems in the United States and Germany could also obtain relatively high GHG reductions of between 40–50 tons per $1,000 economic input. When compared with wind energy, the use of solar and fuel cell power systems have much less potential for GHG mitigation in the six countries selected. The range of median GHG mitigation values resulting from solar and wind power supply are almost at the same level.

  20. Monitoring of conditions inside gas aggregation cluster source during production of Ti/TiOx nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousal, J.; Kolpaková, A.; Shelemin, A.; Kudrna, P.; Tichý, M.; Kylián, O.; Hanuš, J.; Choukourov, A.; Biederman, H.

    2017-10-01

    Gas aggregation sources are nowadays rather widely used in the research community for producing nanoparticles. However, the direct diagnostics of conditions inside the source are relatively scarce. In this work, we focused on monitoring the plasma parameters and the composition of the gas during the production of the TiOx nanoparticles. We studied the role of oxygen in the aggregation process and the influence of the presence of the particles on the plasma. The construction of the source allowed us to make a 2D map of the plasma parameters inside the source.

  1. Gas Source Localization via Behaviour Based Mobile Robot and Weighted Arithmetic Mean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Ahmad Shakaff Ali; Kamarudin, Kamarulzaman; Visvanathan, Retnam; Mamduh Syed Zakaria, Syed Muhammad; Zakaria, Ammar; Munirah Kamarudin, Latifah

    2018-03-01

    This work is concerned with the localization of gas source in dynamic indoor environment using a single mobile robot system. Algorithms such as Braitenberg, Zig-Zag and the combination of the two were implemented on the mobile robot as gas plume searching and tracing behaviours. To calculate the gas source location, a weighted arithmetic mean strategy was used. All experiments were done on an experimental testbed consisting of a large gas sensor array (LGSA) to monitor real-time gas concentration within the testbed. Ethanol gas was released within the testbed and the source location was marked using a pattern that can be tracked by a pattern tracking system. A pattern template was also mounted on the mobile robot to track the trajectory of the mobile robot. Measurements taken by the mobile robot and the LGSA were then compared to verify the experiments. A combined total of 36.5 hours of real time experimental runs were done and the typical results from such experiments were presented in this paper. From the results, we obtained gas source localization errors between 0.4m to 1.2m from the real source location.

  2. 18 CFR 2.400 - Statement of interpretation of waste concerning natural gas as the primary energy source for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... interpretation of waste concerning natural gas as the primary energy source for qualifying small power production... concerning natural gas as the primary energy source for qualifying small power production facilities. For purposes of deciding whether natural gas may be considered as waste as the primary energy source pursuant...

  3. Packaging as source of efficient and sustainable advantages in supply chain management. An analysis of briks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus García-Arca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In higher competitive markets, the suitable supply chain management (particularly, in logistic processes and the adoptionof sustainability programs are strategic points in companies. In this context, no many companies have devoted special attentionto the impact of packaging design on logistic efficiency and sustainability.Thus, the integration of logistics and the packaging design has been conceptualized in the term «packaging logistics», par ticularly emphasizing its operational and organizational impact on supply chain performance. Going beyond, authors consider that a greater emphasis should be given to the important strategic connotations to do with packaging design,in many cases this being one of the supports of competitive advantages in the supply chain management from an overall perspective of efficiency and sustainability.To illustrate this statement, in this paper, not only the conceptual field of this concept is developed, but also in its application, analysing a case study in dairy sector, particularly, focused on brik products .

  4. Offshore: nations needing our help to exploit oil and gas. [British offshore supply industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laird, R

    1978-02-23

    The opportunities around the world for Great Britian to sell companies its expertise on petroleum and natural gas drilling are surveyed. Hydrocarbon reserves; development plans, especially offshore drilling plans; needed equipment and technology; and investment requirements are a few of the factors discussed for Venezuela, Brazil, Mexico, India, Australia, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, and Singapore. (MCW)

  5. Krypton gas cylinders as a source of radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Helmut W; Bielefeld, Tom; Hettwig, Bernd

    2010-07-01

    A standard 40 foot shipping container with a cargo of pressurized krypton gas in 159 steel cylinders, which had triggered a radiation alarm, was investigated to address radiation safety and illicit nuclear trafficking concerns. The investigation included contamination and dose rate measurements as well as in situ high resolution gamma spectroscopy. The dose rate measurements gave a maximum value of 0.07 microSv h(-1) above background (0.08 to 0.11 microSv h(-1)) on the cylinder surface and no detectable increase above background at distances of 1 m and higher. Contamination monitor readings showed a similar relative increase (plus 8 cpm) above background (about 12 cpm) to the dose rate readings. Quantitative gamma spectroscopy revealed a contamination of the gas with 85Kr at a level of 3.5 x 10(5) Bq kg(-1). This value was found to be consistent with analytical and numerical estimates based on current data for atmospheric 85Kr, which is captured from ambient air together with stable krypton during the production process. This incident demonstrates an apparent lack of radiation-related knowledge by those who handle krypton gas, as well as by border control personnel and emergency responders. We therefore propose to improve labeling and documentation standards for such shipments. This effort may be facilitated by introducing the new category of "technically enhanced artificial radioactive material," or "TEARM" (similar to the existing "naturally occurring radioactive material" or "NORM" and "technically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material" or "TENORM" categories).

  6. Coal seam gas-supply and impact on U.S. markets and Canadian producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelafant, J.

    1992-01-01

    The basic ways in which coalbed methane differs from natural gas are described. Coalbed methane is stored at a higher capacity in the coal seam, has a different production curve, and exploration costs are lower. Comparing a conventional gas well having 2 billion ft 3 reserves with coalbed methane wells in the San Juan and Warrior basins, gas from the conventional well costs $1.90 per 1,000 ft 3 and methane from the San Juan and Warrior wells costs $1.50 and $2.40 per 1,000 ft 3 respectively. A 90 cent per 1,000 ft 3 tax credit on coalbed methane reduces the two latter costs significantly and is without doubt the driving force behind the coalbed methane industry in some areas. Examples from the Warrior and San Juan basins are described to illustrate the technology driven economics of coalbed methane. Substantial improvements in gas production can be achieved by such means as multiple seam completion technologies, improved well stimulation, optimum well spacing, and the use of cavitation completion. Technically recoverable coalbed methane resources in the USA are estimated at 145 trillion ft 3 , concentrated in the western coal basins. At a wellhead price of $2 per 1,000 ft 3 , the economically recoverable potential is ca 13 trillion ft 3 . Examining future production potential, by developing new technologies or bringing more basins on stream, production could be increased to ca 3 billion ft 3 /d in the late 1990s. It is suggested that the increased volumes of coalbed methane have had minimal impact on gas prices. 9 figs., 12 tabs

  7. The Comparison Study of gas source between two hydrate expeditions in ShenHu area, SCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, X. R.

    2016-12-01

    Two gas hydrate expeditions (GMGS 01&03) were conducted in the Pearl River Mouth Basin, SCS, which were organized by Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey in 2007 and 2015, respectively. Compared with the drilling results of "mixed bio-thermogenic gas and generally dominated by biogenic gas" in 2007, hydrocarbon component measurements revealed a higher content of ethane and propane in 2015 drilling, providing direct evidence that deep thermogenic gas was the source for shallow hydrate formation. According to the geochemical analyses of the results obtained from the industrial boreholes in Baiyun sag, the deep hydrocarbon gas obviously leaked from the reservoir as escape caused by Dongsha movement in the late Miocene, as a result thermogenic gas from Wenchang, Enping and Zhuhai hydrocarbon source rocks migrated to late Miocene shallow strata through faults, diapirs and gas chimney vertically migration. In this paper we report the differences in fluid migration channel types and discuss their effect in fluid vertical migration efficiency in the two Shenhu hydrate drilling areas. For the drilling area in 2007,when the limited deep thermogenic gas experienced long distance migration process from bottom to up along inefficient energy channel, the gas composition might have changed and the carbon isotope fractionation might have happened, which were reflected in the results of higher C1/C2 ratios and lighter carbon isotope in gas hydrate bearing sediments. As a result the gas is with more "biogenic gas" features. It means thermogenic gases in the deep to contributed the formation of shallow gas hydrate indirectly in 2007 Shenhu drill area. On another hand, the gases were transported to the shallow sediment layers efficiently, where gas hydrate formed, through faults and fractures from deep hydrocarbon reservoirs, and as the result they experienced less changes in both components and isotopes in 2015 drilling site.

  8. Permafrost-associated gas hydrates of Northern Alaska: A possible source of atmospheric methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collett, T.S.

    1991-01-01

    Numerous researchers have suggested that destabilized gas hydrates may be contributing to this buildup in atmospheric methane. Little is known about the geologic or geochemical nature of gas hydrates, even though they are known to occur in numerous arctic sedimentary basins. Because of the abundance of available geologic data, the author's research has focused on assessing the distribution of gas hydrates within the onshore regions of northern Alaska; currently, onshore permafrost-associated gas hydrates are believed to be insulated from most atmospheric temperature changes and are not at this time an important source of atmospheric methane. Their onshore gas hydrate studies, however, can be used to develop geologic analogs for potential gas hydrate occurrences within unexplored areas, such as the thermally unstable nearshore continental shelf. On the North Slope, gas hydrates have been identified in 36 industry wells by using well-log responses calibrated to the response of an interval in one well where gas hydrates were recovered in a core by an oil company. Most gas hydrates they identified occur in six laterally continuous Upper Cretaceous and lower Tertiary sandstone and conglomerate units; all these hydrates are geographically restricted to the area overlying the eastern part of the Kuparuk River Oil Field and the western part of the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field. Stable carbon isotope geochemical analysis of well cuttings suggests that the identified hydrates originated from a mixture of deep-source thermogenic gas and shallow microbial gas that was either directly converted to gas hydrate or first concentrated in existing traps and later converted to gas hydrate. They postulate that the thermogenic gas migrated from deeper reservoirs along the faults thought to be migration pathways for the large volumes of shallow, heavy oil found in the same area

  9. Gas Well Top Hole Locations, LP and LNG - Marcellus Gas Well Water Sources View

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This data set contains all approved water sources within water managment plans (WMP). A WMP contains water sources utilized in the fracture stimulation of Marcellus...

  10. The impact of dual sourcing on food supply chain networks: the case of Egyptian strawberries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossi, R.; Rijpkema, W.A.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Supply chain management for fresh produce differs significantly from that of other products. Similarly to other products, fresh produce quality plays a key role in consumer selection behavior. The key difference consists in the fact that, for fresh produce, quality varies over time and it is

  11. Demand-type gas supply system for rocket borne thin-window proportional counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, L. W.; Caravalho, R.; Catura, R. C.; Joki, E. G.

    1977-01-01

    A simple closed loop control system has been developed to maintain the gas pressure in thin-window proportional counters during rocket flights. This system permits convenient external control of detector pressure and system flushing rate. The control system is activated at launch with the sealing of a reference volume at the existing system pressure. Inflight control to plus or minus 2 torr at a working pressure of 760 torr has been achieved on six rocket flights.

  12. Improving the Resiliency of the Natural Gas Supply and Distribution Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    In 1977, an accident at a terminal in Algeria killed one person. Two years later, a leak at the LNG import terminal in Cove Point, Maryland...substation, where the gas ignited and caused an explosion. More recently, a boiler explosion killed twenty seven workers at a large LNG facility in...with 54 Alonzo Plough and Sheldon Krimsky, “The Emergence of Risk Communication Studies: Social and

  13. Operation of a TFTR ion source with a ground potential gas feed into the neutralizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamperschroer, J.H.; Dudek, L.E.; Grisham, L.R.; Newman, R.A.; O'Connor, T.E.; Stevenson, T.N.; von Halle, A.; Williams, M.D.; Wright, K.E.

    1991-01-01

    TFTR long pulse ion sources have been operated with gas fed only into the neutralizer. Gas for the plasma generator entered through the accelerator rather than directly into the arc chamber. This modification has been proposed for tritium beam operation to locate control electronics at ground potential and to simplify tritium plumbing. Source operation with this configuration and with the nominal gas system that feeds gas into both the ion source and the center of the neutralizer are compared. Comparison is based upon accelerator grid currents, beam composition, and neutral power delivered to the calorimeter. Charge exchange in the accelerator can be a significant loss mechanism in both systems at high throughput. A suitable operating point with the proposed system was found that requires 30% less gas than used presently. The extracted D + , D + 2 , and D + 3 fractions of the beam were found to be a function of the gas throughput; at similar throughputs, the two gas feed systems produced similar extracted ion fractions. Operation at the proposed gas efficient point results in a small reduction (relative to the old high throughput mode) in the extracted D + fraction of the beam from 77% to 71%, with concomitant changes in the D + 2 fraction from 18% to 26%, and 6% to 3% for D + 3 . The injected power is unchanged, ∼2.2 MW at 95 kV

  14. Engineering economics applied to supply and demand strategy in the gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, G H

    1978-10-01

    A discussion covers some general aspects of long-term strategy in the gas industry, including the requirement of at least six years to develop storage facilities and gas plant; planning to meet all demands except those in the most severe winter occurring once in 50 yr; forecasting six years ahead (the 50 yr winter, the severe one-day demand, regional demands); development of a plant investment program to meet demands; the Cost Polygon method of determining the best plant mix; the mathematical model approach with which to examine every possible combination of plants available in any one year; the example of construction restraints for LNG storage; orientation of this model toward correct balance in peak shaving for say LNG, SNG, and salt cavities; a second, more powerful model for evaluating a least-cost investment program among the longer term plant options including LNG, SNG from oil or coal, and storage in salt cavities, disused coal mines, aquifers, or spent gas fields.

  15. Intrinsic gas production kinetics of selected intermediates in anaerobic filters for demand-orientated energy supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krümpel, Johannes Hagen; Illi, Lukas; Lemmer, Andreas

    2018-03-01

    As a consequence of a growing share of solar and wind power, recent research on biogas production highlighted a need for demand-orientated, flexible gas production to provide grid services and enable a decentralized stabilization of the electricity infrastructure. Two-staged anaerobic digestion is particularly suitable for shifting the methane production into times of higher demand due to the spatio-temporal separation of hydrolysis and methanogenesis. To provide a basis for predicting gas production in an anaerobic filter, kinetic parameters of gas production have been determined experimentally in this study. A new methodology is used, enabling their determination during continuous operation. An order in methane production rate could be established by comparing the half lives of methane production. The order was beginning with the fastest: acetic acid>ethanol>butyric acid>iso-butyric acid>valeric acid>propionic acid>1,2propanediol>lactic acid. However, the mixture of a natural hydrolysate from the acidification tank appeared to produce methane faster than all single components tested.

  16. Electricity and gas market design to supply the German transport sector with hydrogen; Strom- und Gasmarktdesign zur Versorgung des deutschen Strassenverkehrs mit Wasserstoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinius, Martin

    2015-07-01

    The German government has set targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 40% by 2020, 55% by 2030, 70% by 2040 and 80-95% by 2050 compared to 1990 as reference year. As well as meeting other requirements, these targets can be achieved by raising the contribution of renewably-generated power to Germany's gross electricity consumption to 80% by 2050. Based on Germany's potential, intermittent energy sources (IES) such as on- and offshore wind, as well as photovoltaics, are necessary sources that must be utilized in order to achieve these ambitious targets. Because of the intermittency of these sources, there will be times in which surplus power generated could be used for example for the transport sector. During these periods of surplus power, the storage capacity of hydrogen allows for a socalled ''power-to-gas'' concept whereby the surplus power can be used to produce hydrogen and oxygen by means of electrolyzers. The aim of this thesis is to identify and develop a market design that is characterized by high penetration levels of IES, supplemented by the use of hydrogen in the transport sector. Furthermore, the aim was to develop a model in which the electricity and gas sector, including a hydrogen pipeline grid, is represented so as to analyze and validate selected market designs. Therefore, potential electricity and gas markets, as well as the most important potential share and stakeholders of a hydrogen infrastructure, are analyzed. With the model developed in this thesis, an existing energy concept has been developed, analyzed and evaluated. In addition, the distribution of the hydrogen production costs was calculated by employing a Monte Carlo Simulation analysis. The developed energy concept relies on 170 GW onshore and 60 GW offshore wind capacity and these dominate the model. This leads to surplus power, especially in the federal states of Lower Saxony, Schleswig-Holstein and Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. To supply the

  17. High power light gas helicon plasma source for VASIMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squire, Jared P.; Chang-Diaz, Franklin R.; Glover, Timothy W.; Jacobson, Verlin T.; McCaskill, Greg E.; Winter, D. Scott; Baity, F. Wally; Carter, Mark D.; Goulding, Richard H.

    2006-01-01

    In the Advanced Space Propulsion Laboratory (ASPL) helicon experiment (VX-10) we have measured a plasma flux to input gas rate ratio near 100% for both helium and deuterium at power levels up to 10 kW. Recent results at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) show enhanced efficiency operation with a high power density, over 5 kW in a 5 cm diameter tube. Our helicon is presently 9 cm in diameter and operates up to 10 kW of input power. The data here uses a Boswell double-saddle antenna design with a magnetic cusp just upstream of the antenna. Similar to ORNL, for deuterium at near 10 kW, we find an enhanced performance of operation at magnetic fields above the lower hybrid matching condition

  18. A half-century of production-phase greenhouse gas emissions from food loss & waste in the global food supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephen D; Reay, David S; Higgins, Peter; Bomberg, Elizabeth

    2016-11-15

    Research on loss & waste of food meant for human consumption (FLW) and its environmental impact typically focuses on a single or small number of commodities in a specific location and point in time. However, it is unclear how trends in global FLW and potential for climate impact have evolved. Here, by utilising the Food and Agriculture Organization's food balance sheet data, we expand upon existing literature. Firstly, we provide a differentiated (by commodity, country and supply chain stage) bottom-up approach; secondly, we conduct a 50-year longitudinal analysis of global FLW and its production-phase greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions; and thirdly, we trace food wastage and its associated emissions through the entire food supply chain. Between 1961 and 2011 the annual amount of FLW by mass grew a factor of three - from 540Mt to 1.6Gt; associated production-phase (GHG) emissions more than tripled (from 680Mt to 2.2Gt CO2e). A 44% increase in global average per capita FLW emissions was also identified - from 225kg CO2e in 1961 to 323kg CO2e in 2011. The regional weighting within this global average changing markedly over time; in 1961 developed countries accounted for 48% of FLW and less than a quarter (24%) in 2011. The largest increases in FLW-associated GHG emissions were from developing economies, specifically China and Latin America - primarily from increasing losses in fruit and vegetables. Over the period examined, cumulatively such emissions added almost 68Gt CO2e to the atmospheric GHG stock; an amount the rough equivalent of two years of emissions from all anthropogenic sources at present rates. Building up from the most granular data available, this study highlights the growth in the climate burden of FLW emissions, and thus the need to improve efficiency in food supply chains to mitigate future emissions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Greenhouse gas emissions from tropical forest degradation: an underestimated source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy R. H. Pearson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The degradation of forests in developing countries, particularly those within tropical and subtropical latitudes, is perceived to be an important contributor to global greenhouse gas emissions. However, the impacts of forest degradation are understudied and poorly understood, largely because international emission reduction programs have focused on deforestation, which is easier to detect and thus more readily monitored. To better understand and seize opportunities for addressing climate change it will be essential to improve knowledge of greenhouse gas emissions from forest degradation. Results Here we provide a consistent estimation of forest degradation emissions between 2005 and 2010 across 74 developing countries covering 2.2 billion hectares of forests. We estimated annual emissions of 2.1 billion tons of carbon dioxide, of which 53% were derived from timber harvest, 30% from woodfuel harvest and 17% from forest fire. These percentages differed by region: timber harvest was as high as 69% in South and Central America and just 31% in Africa; woodfuel harvest was 35% in Asia, and just 10% in South and Central America; and fire ranged from 33% in Africa to only 5% in Asia. Of the total emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, forest degradation accounted for 25%. In 28 of the 74 countries, emissions from forest degradation exceeded those from deforestation. Conclusions The results of this study clearly demonstrate the importance of accounting greenhouse gases from forest degradation by human activities. The scale of emissions presented indicates that the exclusion of forest degradation from national and international GHG accounting is distorting. This work helps identify where emissions are likely significant, but policy developments are needed to guide when and how accounting should be undertaken. Furthermore, ongoing research is needed to create and enhance cost-effective accounting approaches.

  20. Opening of energy markets: consequences on the missions of public utility and of security of supplies in the domain of electric power and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This conference was jointly organized by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the French ministry of economy, finances, and industry (general direction of energy and raw materials, DGEMP). It was organized in 6 sessions dealing with: 1 - the public utility in the domain of energy: definition of the public utility missions, experience feedback about liberalized markets, public utility obligation and pricing regulation; 2 - the new US energy policy and the lessons learnt from the California crisis; 3 - the security of electric power supplies: concepts of security of supplies, opinion of operators, security of power supplies versus liberalization and investments; 4 - security of gas supplies: markets liberalization and investments, long-term contracts and security of supplies; 5 - debate: how to integrate the objectives of public utility and of security of supplies in a competing market; 6 - conclusions. This document brings together the available talks and transparencies presented at the conference. (J.S.)