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Sample records for source frm ii

  1. FRM-II research neutron source commissioned

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    On March 2, 2004, the Heinz Maier-Leibnitz research neutron source (FRM-II) generated neutrons for the first time. This marked the most important step on the way to using FRM-II for scientific purposes. On this occasion, this unique research facility in the world was dedicated in a ceremony attended by approximately 1000 representatives of politics, industry, and science. The keynote speaker, Federal Minister of the Interior Otto Schily; Bavarian Minister President Edmund Stoiber; Professor Claus Weyrich (Member of the Executive Board of Siemens AG); Dr. Thomas Goppel (Bavarian State Minister for Science, Research, and Arts); Professor Wolfgang A. Herman (President of the Technical University of Munich); Hannelore Gabor (2nd Mayor of the host municipality of Garching); and Professor Winfried Petry (Scientific Director of FRM-II) underlined the great importance of FRM-II for science, research, medicine, and technology. FRM-II will not only fill the 'neutron gap', but create extremely brilliant working conditions thanks to its considerably higher neutron flux compared to that of its predecessor, the legendary Atomic Egg. After the first conceptual design studies starting in 1980, the ground breaking ceremony in August 1996, and the third partial permit issued at Easter of 2003, a unique tool is now available for modern science and for medical and technical applications. (orig.) [de

  2. FRM-II research neutron source commissioned; Eroeffnung der Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz - FRM-II

    Anon.

    2004-07-01

    On March 2, 2004, the Heinz Maier-Leibnitz research neutron source (FRM-II) generated neutrons for the first time. This marked the most important step on the way to using FRM-II for scientific purposes. On this occasion, this unique research facility in the world was dedicated in a ceremony attended by approximately 1000 representatives of politics, industry, and science. The keynote speaker, Federal Minister of the Interior Otto Schily; Bavarian Minister President Edmund Stoiber; Professor Claus Weyrich (Member of the Executive Board of Siemens AG); Dr. Thomas Goppel (Bavarian State Minister for Science, Research, and Arts); Professor Wolfgang A. Herman (President of the Technical University of Munich); Hannelore Gabor (2nd Mayor of the host municipality of Garching); and Professor Winfried Petry (Scientific Director of FRM-II) underlined the great importance of FRM-II for science, research, medicine, and technology. FRM-II will not only fill the 'neutron gap', but create extremely brilliant working conditions thanks to its considerably higher neutron flux compared to that of its predecessor, the legendary Atomic Egg. After the first conceptual design studies starting in 1980, the ground breaking ceremony in August 1996, and the third partial permit issued at Easter of 2003, a unique tool is now available for modern science and for medical and technical applications. (orig.) [German] Am 2. Maerz 2004 hat die Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM-II) erstmals Neutronen erzeugt. Damit war der wichtigste Schritt erreicht, der den Weg zur wissenschaftlichen Nutzung des FRM-II einleitet. Aus diesem Anlass wurde unter Teilnahme von rund 1 000 Vertretern aus Politik, Wirtschaft und Wissenschaft diese weltweit einmalige Forschungseinrichtung eroeffnet und ihrer Bestimmung uebergeben. Die Festredner, Bundesinnenminister Otto Schily, der bayerische Ministerpraesident Edmund Stoiber, Professor Claus Weyrich (Mitglied des Vorstands der Siemens AG), Dr

  3. The new German neutron source FRM-II

    Nuding, M.; Axmann, A.; Boening, K.

    2002-01-01

    The construction of a new high-flux research reactor, the FRM-II is finished. This new reactor shall replace the existing FRM, which has been operated very successfully for about 43 years. The report at first presents the main applications of the FRM-II and its core and plant design. After that a description of the tests performed during the licensing procedure is given. At the end some current topics are discussed and an outlook on the time schedule is presented [ru

  4. Status of the FRM-II hot neutron source

    Mueller, C.; Gutsmiedl, E.

    2001-01-01

    The new research reactor FRM-II will be equipped with a hot neutron source. This secondary source will shift a part of the thermal neutron energy spectrum in the D 2 O moderator to energies from 0.1 to 1 eV. The hot neutron source consists of a graphite cylinder (200 mm diameter, 300 mm high), which is heated by gamma radiation up to a maximum temperature of about 2400 C. The graphite cylinder is surrounded by a high-temperature insulation of carbon fiber, to achieve this high temperature. We have accomplished mock-up tests of the carbon fiber in a high temperature furnace, to investigate the insulation properties of the material. The graphite cylinder and the insulation are covered with two vessels made out of Zircaloy 4. The space between the vessels is filled with helium. The hot neutron source is permanent under control by pressure and temperature measurements. The temperature inside the graphite cylinder will be measured by a purpose-built noise thermometer due to the extremely harsh environment conditions (temperature and nuclear radiation). The hot neutron source is designed and manufactured according to the general specification basic safety and to the German nuclear atomic rules (KTA). The source will be installed in year 2001. (orig.)

  5. Concepts of UCN sources for the FRM-II

    Trinks, U; Paul, S; Schott, W

    2000-01-01

    Three concepts for sources of ultra-cold neutrons (UCN) for the reactor FRM-II at Garching near Munich are studied: one, Mini-D sub 2 , is a source with 170 cm sup 3 of solid deuterium in the beam tube SR4 and the second one a large solid-deuterium source (volume about 30 dm sup 3), mounted in the beam tube SR5 as an advanced cold source with a number of neutron guides. The third one, Mark 3000, uses superfluid sup 4 He at a cold-neutron guide. A UCN density of up to 7x10 sup 4 cm sup - sup 3 may possibly be achieved in the storage volumes of Mini-D sub 2 yielding more than 10 sup 9 UCN for extraction to an attached experimental setup. The usable UCN flux at the periphery of the large deuterium source is predicted to be 2x10 sup 7 cm sup - sup 2 s sup - sup 1. Mark 3000, finally, is expected to yield a UCN density of about 10 sup 5 cm sup - sup 3.

  6. The new German neutron source FRM-II

    Nuding, M.

    2003-01-01

    The 'Technische Universitaet Muenchen' has built a new high-flux research reactor, the 'Forschungsreaktor Muenchen'-II. This new reactor will replace the 'Forschungsreaktor Muenchen' which has been operated very successfully for about 43 years. The 'Forschungsreaktor Muenchen'-II has been developed with first priority for beam-tube experiments, but it will also provide possibilities for irradiation experiments or isotope production. The reactor was designed to obtain a high and spectrally pure thermal neutron flux is available in a large volume outside of the core, where it is accessible for experimental use. In addition to beam-tubes which will end in the thermal neutron field there will be beam-tubes that will provide - with the help of 'spectrum shifters' -cold; hot and fast neutrons. Even through the thermal power of the 'Forschungsreaktor Muenchen'-II was limited to 20 MW an unperturbed maximum thermal neutron flux of about 8 x 10 14 cm -2 s -1 will be reached. Because of its 'compact-core-concept' the 'Forschungsreaktor Muenchen'-II will have the best flux-to-power-ratio worldwide: The fuel element and its highly enriched U 3 Si 2 -Al-fuel were tested during the licensing procedure of the 'Forschungsreaktor Muenchen'-II. Within the scope of this 'hydraulic test' the stability and the vibration behavior of the fuel plates as well as the long-tem behavior of the fuel element were investigated (Authors)

  7. Advanced neutron instrumentation at FRM-II

    Petry, Winfried

    2003-01-01

    The construction of the new German high flux neutron source FRM-II is finished and FRM-II is waiting for its licence to start nuclear operation. With the beginning of the routine operation 22 instruments will be in action, including 5 irradiation facilities and 17 beam tube instruments, most of them use neutron scattering techniques. Additional instruments are under construction. Some of these instruments are unique, others are expected to be the best of their kind, all instruments are based on innovative techniques. (author)

  8. Mini-D{sub 2} a source for ultracold neutrons at FRM-II

    Altarev, I.; Hartmann, F.J.; Paul, S.; Schott, W.; Trinks, U.; Gobrecht, K.; Gutsmiedl, E. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Scheuer, A. [TUEV Rheinland, Koeln (Germany)

    2001-03-01

    The new Munich high-flux reactor FRM-II offers the possibility to install a unique source for ultracold neutrons (UCN), the Mini-D{sub 2} UCN source, with a small volume of solid deuterium at a temperature of 5 K as converter, exposed to the cold neutron flux. This new source, being dedicated for storage experiments, is designed to be much superior to any existing UCN facility. In the pulsed operation mode the Mini-D{sub 2} source is expected to provide UCN densities up to 10{sup 4} n/cm{sup 3}. This density is orders of magnitude larger than that from the best existing source at Institut Laue Langevin (ILL) in Grenoble ({approx}50 n/cm{sup 3} at the exit of the neutron turbine). The large gain factor will enable new precision measurements of elementary properties of the free neutron, especially the electric dipole moment, the lifetime, and the angular correlation coefficients of the decay. These quantities are of fundamental interest in particle physics. Operated in the continuous mode, the UCN source will provide an UCN flux density of up to 5{center_dot}10{sup 5} n/cm{sup 2}s at the exit, to be compared with {approx}3{center_dot}10{sup 4} n/cm{sup 2}s at ILL. This improved UCN-flux offers new possibilities for traditional studies with UCN. (author)

  9. FRM-II conversion revisited

    Glaser, A.; Pistner, C.; Liebert, W.

    2000-01-01

    The possibilities for a conversion of the currently constructed research reactor FRM-II has been extensively discussed at various RERTR meetings over the past years. In order to support the ongoing decision-making process in Germany, we prepared computer simulations providing extra information on the scientific usability of the converted reactor based on designs proposed by ANL and TUM. The most important results of these calculations are presented and discussed. Special attention is thereby given to the specific German context. (author)

  10. Transient analysis of the new Cold Source at the FRM-II

    Gutsmiedl, E.; Posselt, H.; Scheuer, A.

    2003-01-01

    The new Cold Source (CNS) at the FRM-II research reactor is completely installed. This paper reports on the results of the transient analysis in the design status for this facility for producing cold neutrons for neutron experiments, the implementation of the results in the design of the mechanical components, the measurements at the cold tests and the comparison with the data of the transient analysis. The important load cases are fixed in the system description and the design data sheet of the CNS. A transient analysis was done with the computer program ESATAN, the nodal configuration was identical with the planned system of the CNS and the boundary conditions were chosen so, that conservative results can be expected. The following transients of the load cases in the piping system behind the inpile part 1) normal storage of D 2 at the hydride storage vessel 2) breakdown of cooling system of the CNS and transfer of D 2 to the buffer tank 3) rapid charge of D 2 to the buffer tank with break of the insulation vacuum and flooding of Neon 4) reloading of the D 2 from the buffer tank to the D 2 hydride storage vessel were calculated. Additionally the temperature distribution for these transients in the connecting flanges of the systems to the inpile part were analysed. The temperature distributions in the flange region were take into account for the strength calculation of the flange construction. The chosen construction shows allowable values and a leak tight flange connection for the load cases. The piping system was designed to the lowest expected temperatures. The load cases in the moderator tank were take into account in the stress analysis and the fatigue analysis of the vacuum vessel and the moderator vessel. The results shows allowable stresses. The results shows that a transient analysis is necessary and helpful for good design of the CNS. (author)

  11. Status of the FRM-II project

    Boening, K.

    1994-01-01

    The new research reactor FRM-II at Garching near Munich is planned to become a high performance source of slow neutrons in Germany. Its design concept provides for a very compact reactor core cooled by light water and placed within a heavy water moderator tank, where a high thermal neutron flux will be obtained at only 20 MW power. - This paper begins with an overview over some of the essential design features and some more recent design modifications. It then reports on the status of the project, the most important event being a positive decision which the Bavarian State Government has made in January 1993 and which represented a green light for the project to enter the next project phase. Consequently, two official requests have been made by the Technical University of Munich, one for the nuclear licensing of the facility and the other for the so called 'Raumordnungsverfahren'. In this context the final version of the FRM-II safety report has been submitted to the nuclear licensing authority. (author)

  12. Status report on the cold neutron source of the Garching neutron research facility FRM-II

    Gobrecht, K.; Gutsmiedl, E.; Scheuer, A.

    2001-01-01

    The new high flux research reactor of the Technical University of Munich (Technische Universitaet Muenchen, TUM) will be equipped with a cold neutron source (CNS). The centre of the CNS will be located in the D2O-reflector tank at 400 mm from the reactor core axis, close to the thermal neutron flux maximum. The power of 4500 W developed by the nuclear heating in the 16 litres of liquid deuterium at 25 K, and in the structures, is evacuated by a two phase thermal siphon avoiding film boiling and flooding. The thermal siphon is a single tube with counter current flow. It is inclined by 10deg from vertical, and optimised for a deuterium flow rate of 14 g/s. Optimisation of structure design and material, as well as safety aspects will be discussed. Those parts of the structure, which are exposed to high thermal neutron flux, are made from Zircaloy 4 and 6061T6 aluminium. Structure failure due to embrittlement of the structure material under high rapid neutron flux is very importable during the life time of the CNS (30 years). Double, in pile even triple, containment with inert gas liner guarantees lack of explosion risk and of tritium contamination to the environment. Adding a few percent of hydrogen (H2) to the deuterium (D2) will improve the moderating properties of our relatively small moderator volume. Nearly all of the hydrogen is bound in the form of HD molecules. The new reactor will have 13 beam tubes, 4 of which are looking at the cold neutron source (CNS), including two for very cold (VCN) and ultra-cold neutron (UCN) production. The latter will take place in the horizontal beam tube SR4, which will house an additional cryogenic moderator (e.g. solid deuterium). More than 60% of the experiments foreseen in the new neutron research facility will use cold neutrons from the CNS. The mounting of the hardware components of the CNS into the reactor has started in the spring of 2000. The CNS will go into trial operation in the end of year 2000. (J.P.N.)

  13. Status report on the cold neutron source of the Garching neutron research facility FRM-II

    Gobrecht, K.

    1999-01-01

    The new high flux research reactor of the Technical University of Munich (Technische Universitaet Muenchen, TUM) will be equipped with a cold neutron source (CNS). The centre of the CNS will be located in the D 2 O-reflector tank at 400 mm from the reactor core axis, close to the thermal neutron flux maximum. The power of 4000 W developed by the nuclear heating in the 16 litres of liquid deuterium at 25 K, and in the structures, is evacuated by a two phase thermal siphon avoiding film boiling and flooding. The thermal siphon is a single tube with counter current flow. It is inclined by 10 deg from vertical, and optimised for a deuterium flow rate of 14 g/s. Optimisation of structure design and material, as well as safety aspects will be discussed. Those parts of the structure, which are exposed to high thermal neutron flux, are made from Zircaloy 4 and 6061T6 aluminium. Structure failure due to embrittlement of the structure material under high rapid neutron flux is very improbable during the life time of the CNS (30 years). Double, in pile even triple, containment with inert gas liner guarantees lack of explosion risk and of tritium contamination to the environment. Adding a few percent of hydrogen (H 2 ) to the deuterium (D 2 ) will improve the moderating properties of our relatively small moderator volume. Nearly all of the hydrogen is bound in the form of HD molecules. A long term change of the hydrogen content in the deuterium is avoided be storing the mixture not in a gas buffer volume but as a metal hydride at low pressure. The metal hydride storage system contains two getter beds, one with 250 kg of LaCo 3 Ni 2 , the other one with 150 kg of ZrCo(0.8)Ni(0.2). Each bed can take the total gas inventory, both beds together can absorb the total gas inventory in less than 6 minutes at a pressure < 3 bar. The new reactor will have 13 beam tubes, 4 of which are looking at the cold neutron source (CNS), including two for very cold (VCN) and ultra-cold neutron (UCN

  14. Status report on the cold neutron source of the Garching neutron research facility FRM-II

    Gobrecht, K.; Gutsmiedl, E.; Scheuer, A.

    2002-01-01

    The new high flux research reactor of the Technical University of Munich (Technische Universität München, TUM) will be equipped with a cold neutron source (CNS). The centre of the CNS will be located in the D 2O-reflector tank at 400 mm from the reactor core axis close to the thermal neutron flux maximum. The power of 4500 W developed by the nuclear heating in the 16 l of liquid deuterium at 25 K, and in the structures, is evacuated by a two-phase thermal siphon avoiding film boiling and flooding. The thermal siphon is a single tube with counter current flow. It is inclined by 10° from vertical, and optimised for a deuterium flow rate of 14 g/s. Optimisation of structure design and material, as well as safety aspects will be discussed. Those parts of the structure, which are exposed to high thermal neutron flux, are made from Zircaloy 4 and 6061T6 aluminium. Structure failure due to embrittlement of the structure material under high rapid neutron flux is very improbable during the lifetime of the CNS (30 years). Double, in pile even triple, containment with inert gas liner guarantees lack of explosion risk and of tritium contamination to the environment. Adding a few percent of hydrogen (H 2) to the deuterium (D 2) will improve the moderating properties of our relatively small moderator volume. Nearly all of the hydrogen is bound in the form of HD molecules. A long-term change of the hydrogen content in the deuterium is avoided by storing the mixture not in a gas buffer volume but as a metal hydride at low pressure. The metal hydride storage system contains two getter beds, one with 250 kg of LaCo 3Ni 2, the other one with 150 kg of ZrCo 0.8Ni 0.2. Each bed can take the total gas inventory, both beds together can absorb the total gas inventory in cold (VCN) and ultra-cold neutron (UCN) production. The latter will take place in the horizontal beam tube SR4, which will house an additional cryogenic moderator (e.g. solid deuterium). More than 60% of the experiments

  15. Status report on the cold neutron source of the Garching neutron research facility FRM-II

    Gutsmiedl, E.; Gobrecht, K.

    2001-01-01

    The new high flux research reactor of the Technical University of Munich (Technische Universitaet Muenchen, TUM) will be equipped with a cold neutron source (CNS). The centre of the CNS will be located in the D2O-reflector tank at 400 mm from the reactor core axis, close to the thermal neutron flux maximum. The power of 4500 W developed by the nuclear heating in the 16 litres of liquid deuterium at 25 K, and in the structures, is evacuated by a two phase thermal siphon avoiding film boiling and flooding. The thermal siphon is a single tube with counter current flow. It is inclined by 10 from vertical, and optimised for a deuterium flow rate of 14 g/s. Optimisation of structure design and material, as well as safety aspects will be discussed. Those parts of the structure, which are exposed to high thermal neutron flux, are made from Zircaloy 4 and 6061T6 aluminium. Structure failure due to embrittlement of the structure material under high rapid neutron flux is very improbable during the life time of the CNS (30 years). Double, in pile even triple, containment with inert gas liner guarantees lack of explosion risk and of tritium contamination to the environment. Adding a few percent of hydrogen (H2) to the deuterium (D2) will improve the moderating properties of our relatively small moderator volume. Nearly all of the hydrogen is bound in the form of HD molecules. A long term change of the hydrogen content in the deuterium is avoided be storing the mixture not in a gas buffer volume but as a metal hydride at low pressure. The metal hydride storage system contains two getter beds, one with 250 kg of LaCo3Ni2, the other one with 150 kg of ZrCo(0.8)Ni(0.2). Each bed can take the total gas inventory, both beds together can absorb the total gas inventory in less than 6 minutes at a pressure < 3 bar. (orig.)

  16. Horizontal beam tubes in FRM-II

    Coors, D.; Vanvor, D.

    2001-01-01

    The new research reactor in Garching FRM-II is equipped with 10 leak tight horizontal beam tubes (BT1 - BT10), each of them consisting of a beam tube structure taking an insert with neutron channels. The design of all beam tube structures is similar whereas the inserts are adapted to the special requirements of the using of each beam tube. Inside the reflector tank the beam tube structures are shaped by the inner cones which are made of Al-alloy with circular and rectangular cross sections. They are located in the region of maximum neutron flux (exception BT10), they are directly connected to the flanges of the reflector tank, their lengths are about 1.5 m (exception BT10) and their axes are directed tagentially to the core centre thus contributing to a low γ-noise at the experiments. (orig.)

  17. FRM-II: status of construction, licensing fuel tests

    Axmann, A.; Boening, K.; Nuding, M.; Didier, H.J.

    2001-01-01

    The research reactor FRM-II of the Technische Universitaet Muenchen is now ready for the nuclear start-up, but still waiting for the operational license. The high-flux neutron-source FRM-II (8 x 10 14 n/(s cm 2 ) is a unique tool for solid state physics and materials research by neutron scattering, positron annihilation experiments and activation analysis, as well as for fundamental physics, isotope production, silicone doping, cancer therapy by irradiation with fission neutrons and for tomography with fast and thermal neutrons. Reactor built in facilities as a hot source, a cold source, an uranium loaded converter plate producing an intense beam of fission neutrons, allow to expand the range of usable neutron energies far beyond the thermal spectrum. In addition, a source providing an intense beam of fission products is planned to be constructed by the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen and a source of ultra cold neutrons is planned by the Physics Department of the Technische Universitaet Muenchen. The reactor is already prepared for both of these facilities. (author)

  18. Optimizing a neutron-beam focusing device for the direct geometry time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF at the FRM II reactor source

    Rasmussen, N. G.; Simeoni, G. G.; Lefmann, K.

    2016-01-01

    A dedicated beam-focusing device has been designed for the direct geometry thermal-cold neutron time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF at the neutron facility FRM II (Garching, Germany). The prototype, based on the compressed Archimedes' mirror concept, benefits from the adaptive-optics technology (a...... than 3.5 would have only marginal influence on the optimal behaviour, whereas comparable spectrometers could take advantage of longer focusing segments, with particular impact for the thermal region of the neutron spectrum....

  19. Use of highly enriched uranium at the FRM-II

    Boening, K. [Forschungs-Neutronenquelle FRM-II, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85747 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    The new FRM-II research reactor in Munich, Germany, provides a high flux of thermal neutrons outside of the core at only 20 MW power. This is achieved by using a single compact, cylindrical fuel element with highly enriched uranium (HEU) which is cooled by light water and placed in the center of a large heavy water tank. The paper outlines the arguments which have led to this core concept and summarizes its performance. It also reports on alternative studies which have been performed for the case of low enriched uranium (LEU) and compares the data of the two concepts, with the conclusion that the FRM-II cannot be converted to LEU. A concept using medium enriched uranium (MEU) is described as well as plans to develop such a fuel element in the future. Finally, it is argued that the use of HEU fuel elements at the FRM-II does not - realistically -involve any risk of proliferation. (author)

  20. Commercial Applications at FRM II Based on Neutron Irradiations

    Gerstenberg, H.; Draack, A.; Kastenmuller, A. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Munchen (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Due to its design as a heavy water moderated reactor with a very compact core FRM II, Germany's most modern and most powerful research reactor, offers excellent conditions for basic research using beam tubes. On the other hand it is equipped with various irradiation facilities to be used mainly for industrial purposes. From the very beginning of reactor operation a dedicated department had been implemented in order to provide a neutron irradiation service to interested parties on a commercial basis. As of today the most widely used application is Si doping. The semiautomatic doping facility accepts ingots with diameters between 125 mm and 200 mm and a maximum height of 500 mm. The irradiation channel is located deep in the heavy water tank and exhibits a ratio of thermal/fast neutron flux density of > 1000. This value allows the doping of Si to a target resistivity as high as 1100 Ωcm within the tight limits regarding accuracy and homogeneity specified by the customer. Typically the throughput of Si doped in FRM II sums up to about 15 t/year. Another topic of growing importance is the use of FRM II aiming the production of radioisotopes mainly for the radiopharmaceutical industry. The maybe most challenging example is the production of Lu-177 n. c. a. based on the irradiation of Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3} to a high fluence of thermal neutrons of typically 1.5E20 cm{sup -2}. The Lu-177 activity delivered to the customer is in the range of 750 GBq. With respect to further processing it turned out to be a highly advantageous to have the laboratories of ITG, the company extracting the Lu-177 from the freshly irradiated Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3} on site FRM II. Further irradiation facilities are available at FRM II in order to allow the activation of samples for analytical purposes or to irradiate samples for geochronological investigations using the fission track technique. Finally a project on the future installation of a facility dedicated to the irradiation of U-targets for

  1. Reduced enrichment program for the FRM-II, status 2004

    Roehrmoser, A.; Petry, W.; Boening, K; Wieschalla, N.

    2005-01-01

    The new research reactor FRM-II of the Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM) has been designed to provide a maximal thermal neutron flux at mere 20 MW power. The single element design uses silicide fuel of densities 3.0 and 1.5 g/cm 3 of highly enriched uranium (HEU, 93 % U-235). With the nuclear license, that was granted in May 2003, a condition was imposed to reduce the enrichment of FRM-II to medium enriched uranium (MEU) with not more than 50 % U-235 until the end of the year 2010. The TUM has established an international working group to meet this target. This paper presents the backgrounds and the results and plannings for the first of three 2 1/2 year periods to reach the conversion in time. (author)

  2. An alternative LEU design for the FRM-II

    Hanan, N.A.; Mo, S.C.; Smith, R.S.; Matos, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    The Alternative LEU Design for the FRM-II proposed by the RERTR Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has a compact core consisting of a single fuel element that uses LEU silicide fuel with a uranium density of 4.5 g/cm 3 and has a power level of 32 MW. Both the HEU design by the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and the alternative LEU design by ANL have the same fuel lifetime (50 days) and the same neutron flux performance. LEU silicide fuel with 4.5 g/cm 3 has been thoroughly tested and is fully-qualified, licensable, and available now for use in a high flux reactor such as the FRM-II. The following issues raised by TUM were addressed in Ref. 1: qualification of HEU and LEU silicide fuels, gamma heating in the heavy water reflector, radiological consequences of larger fission product and plutonium inventories in the LEU core, and cost and schedule. The conclusions of these analyses are summarized below. This paper addresses three additional safety issues that were raised by TUM in Ref. 2: stability of the involute fuel plates, a hypothetical accident involving the configuration of the reflector, and a loss of primary coolant flow transient due to an interrupted power supply. Based on the excellent results for the Alternative LEU Design that were obtained in these analyses, the RERTR Program concludes that all of the major technical issues regarding use of LEU fuel instead of HEU fuel in the FRM-II have been successfully resolved and that it is definitely feasible to use LEU fuel in the FRM-II without compromising the safety or performance of the facility

  3. An alternative LEU design for the FRM-II

    Hanan, N.A.; Mo, S.C.; Smith, R.S.; Matos, J.E.

    1997-02-01

    The Alternative LEU Design for the FRM-II proposed by the RERTR Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has a compact core consisting of a single fuel element that uses LEU silicide fuel with a uranium density of 4.5 g/cm[sup 3] and has a power level of 32 MW. Both the HEU design by the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and the alternative LEU design by ANL have the same fuel lifetime (50 days) and the same neutron flux performance (8 x 10[sup 14] n/cm[sup 2]/s in the reflector). LEU silicide fuel with 4.5 g/cm[sup 3] has been thoroughly tested and is fully-qualified, licensable, and available now for use in a high flux reactor such as the FRM-II. Computer models for the HEU and LEU designs have been exchanged between TUM and ANL and discrepancies have been resolved. The following issues are addressed: qualification of HEU and LEU silicide fuels, stability of the fuel plates, gamma heating in the heavy water reflector, a hypothetical accident involving the configuration of the reflector, a loss of primary coolant flow transient due to an interrupted power supply, the radiological consequences of larger fission product and plutonium inventories in the LEU core, and cost and schedule. Calculations were also done to address the possibility that new high density LEU fuels could be developed that would allow conversion of the TUM HEU design to LEU fuel. Based on the excellent results for the Alternative LEU Design that were obtained in these analyses, the RERTR Program concludes that all of the major technical issues regarding use of LEU fuel instead of HEU fuel in the FRM-II have been successfully resolved and that it is definitely feasible to use LEU fuel in the FRM-II without compromising the safety or performance of the facility

  4. Implementation of neutron phase contrast imaging at FRM-II

    Lorenz, Klaus

    2008-11-12

    At ANTARES, the beam line for neutron imaging at the Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM-II) in Garching, the option to do phase contrast imaging besides conventional absorption based neutron imaging was implemented and successfully used for the non-destructive testing of various types of objects. The used propagation-based technique is based on the interference of neutron waves in the detector plane that were differently strong diffracted by the sample. A comparison with other phase-sensitive neutron imaging techniques highlights assets and drawbacks of the different methods. In preliminary measurements at ANTARES and the spallation source SINQ at PSI in Villigen, the influence of the beam geometry, the neutron spectrum and the detector on the quality of the phase contrast measurements were investigated systematically. It was demonstrated that gamma radiation and epithermal neutrons in the beam contribute severely to background noise in measurements, which motivated the installation of a remotely controlled filter wheel for a quick and precise positioning of different crystal filters in the beam. By the installation of a similar aperture wheel, a quick change between eight different beam geometries was made possible. Besides pinhole and slit apertures, coded apertures based on non redundant arrays were investigated. The possibilities, which arise by the exploitation of the real part of the refractive index in neutron imaging, were demonstrated in experiments with especially designed test samples and in measurements with ordinary, industrial components. (orig.)

  5. Implementation of neutron phase contrast imaging at FRM-II

    Lorenz, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    At ANTARES, the beam line for neutron imaging at the Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM-II) in Garching, the option to do phase contrast imaging besides conventional absorption based neutron imaging was implemented and successfully used for the non-destructive testing of various types of objects. The used propagation-based technique is based on the interference of neutron waves in the detector plane that were differently strong diffracted by the sample. A comparison with other phase-sensitive neutron imaging techniques highlights assets and drawbacks of the different methods. In preliminary measurements at ANTARES and the spallation source SINQ at PSI in Villigen, the influence of the beam geometry, the neutron spectrum and the detector on the quality of the phase contrast measurements were investigated systematically. It was demonstrated that gamma radiation and epithermal neutrons in the beam contribute severely to background noise in measurements, which motivated the installation of a remotely controlled filter wheel for a quick and precise positioning of different crystal filters in the beam. By the installation of a similar aperture wheel, a quick change between eight different beam geometries was made possible. Besides pinhole and slit apertures, coded apertures based on non redundant arrays were investigated. The possibilities, which arise by the exploitation of the real part of the refractive index in neutron imaging, were demonstrated in experiments with especially designed test samples and in measurements with ordinary, industrial components. (orig.)

  6. The new high flux neutron source FRM-2 in Munich

    Roegler, H.J.; Wierheim, G.

    2002-01-01

    Quite some years ago in 1974 to be exact, the first consideration on a new neutron source started at the technical university of Munich (Germany). 27 years later the new high flux neutron source (FRM-2) was read for hot operation, now delayed by a refused approval for its third partial license by the federal government of Germany despite a wide support from the scientific community. FRM-2 is a tank-type research reactor cooled by water, moderated by heavy water and whose thermal power was limited to 20 MW maximum. The extreme compact core together with the applied inverse flux principle led to a neutron flux design value of 8.10 18 n/m 2 .s at the reflector peak. 10 beam tubes will allow an optimized use of the high neutron flux. A hot neutron source with graphite at about 2200 Celsius degrees and a cold neutron source with liquid D 2 at about 25 K will provide shifted energy spectra. The utilization of FRM-2 is many-fold: neutronography and tomography, medical irradiation, radio-nuclide production, doping of pure silicon, neutron activation analysis. (A.C.)

  7. Experimental installations and instruments at the FRM-II

    Steichele, E.

    1999-01-01

    The new research reactor FRM-II of the Technical University Munich will be the strongest neutron source in Germany when going into operation in 2001/2002. From the beginnings on it was designed as a multipurpose research reactor based on local traditions, recent experience and new ideas. The reactor will be used for neutron scattering and material science, for fundamental physics with cold and ultracold neutrons, for isotope production, fission fragment acceleration, medical tumor treatment and for a manifold of technical and practical applications like computer tomography with fast and cold neutrons. According to the wide spectrum of applications the reactor needs a manifold of special installations and instruments, which will be introduced in the present paper. The reactor will be equipped with a liquid-D 2 cold source for high resolution neutron scattering and a solid-D 2 UCN source for fundamental physics, with a graphite hot source for high-Q neutron diffraction and a 'converter', which is a U-235 target in the thermal flux maximum to produce fast fission neutrons for medical applications and technical tomography. A series of irradiation plants is designed for production and study of radio-isotopes with half-lives as short as seconds and for phosphor-doping of semiconductor silicon crystals with diameters up to 8 inch. The reactor will be equipped with ten horizontal, one vertical and two inclined beam-tubes, one of the latter ones will take up a most intense, newly developed positron source for solid state physics. Three horizontal beam tubes will look onto the cold source, one of which will take up six neutron guides going into a neutron guide hall 50 x 25 m 2 . Most of the neutron guides will be coated with super-mirror which allows to build effective beam switches for many end-position experiments. The first generation of about 20 instruments and experimental installations as recommended by the instruments committee will be financed by the Federal and

  8. Optimizing a neutron-beam focusing device for the direct geometry time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF at the FRM II reactor source

    Rasmussen, N.G. [Nanoscience Center, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Simeoni, G.G., E-mail: ggsimeoni@outlook.com [Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ) and Physics Department, Technical University of Munich, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Lefmann, K. [Nanoscience Center, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark)

    2016-04-21

    A dedicated beam-focusing device has been designed for the direct geometry thermal-cold neutron time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF at the neutron facility FRM II (Garching, Germany). The prototype, based on the compressed Archimedes' mirror concept, benefits from the adaptive-optics technology (adjustable supermirror curvature) and the compact size (only 0.5 m long). We have simulated the neutron transport across the entire guide system. We present a detailed computer characterization of the existing device, along with the study of the factors mostly influencing the future improvement. We have optimized the simulated prototype as a function of the neutron wavelength, accounting also for all relevant features of a real instrument like the non-reflecting side edges. The results confirm the “chromatic” displacement of the focal point (flux density maximum) at fixed supermirror curvature, and the ability of a variable curvature to keep the focal point at the sample position. Our simulations are in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions and the experimentally measured beam profile. With respect to the possibility of a further upgrade, we find that supermirror coatings with m-values higher than 3.5 would have only marginal influence on the optimal behaviour, whereas comparable spectrometers could take advantage of longer focusing segments, with particular impact for the thermal region of the neutron spectrum.

  9. Aspects of ultra-cold neutron production in radiation fields at the FRM II

    Wlokka, Stephan Albrecht

    2016-08-17

    Neutrons are called ''ultra-cold'', if they are reflected by a material surface under all angles of incident. They can then be stored for long times (ca. 1000s). In the new UCN source at the FRM II, Deuterium will be used to produce the UCN. Its behaviour under irradiation was investigated. Additionally the transport properties of new UCN guides were tested. Also, the helium-3 content of purified helium samples was examined, because using this type of helium greatly reduces the tritium production when used at the reactor.

  10. Radiography and tomography using fission neutrons at FRM-II

    Buecherl, T.; Lierse von Gostomski, Ch.

    2004-01-01

    Fission neutrons offer complementary information in radiography and tomography compared to the well established techniques using X-rays, gamma-rays, thermal or cold neutrons. They penetrate thick layers of high density materials with only little attenuation, while for light, specially for hydrogen containing materials, their attenuation is high. In the past, fast neutrons for NDT (non-destructive testing) were only available at accelerator driven systems. These high energy neutrons have to be moderated to achieve acceptable detection efficiencies thus drastically reducing the available neutron intensities and either resulting in a high beam divergence or in additional losses in neutron intensities due to beam collimation. The recently installed neutron computerized tomography and radiography system NECTAR at the Forschungsreaktor Muenchen-II (FRM-II) overcomes these disadvantages by using fission neutrons of about 1.7 MeV mean energy created in two converter plates set-up of highly enriched uranium. The beam quality, i.e. the neutron divergence can be adapted to the object to be measured by using different collimators, resulting in L/D-values up to 300. The available neutron beam intensity at the measuring position is up to 1.7E+08 cm -2 s -1 for a maximum beam area of 40 cm x 40 cm. For conventional imaging a two-dimensional detector system based on a CCD-camera is used, other more specialised systems are available. (author)

  11. Radiography and tomography using fission neutrons at FRM-II

    Buecherl, T.; Lierse von Gostomski, Ch. [Inst. fuer Radiochemie, TU-Muenchen, Garching (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Fission neutrons offer complementary information in radiography and tomography compared to the well established techniques using X-rays, gamma-rays, thermal or cold neutrons. They penetrate thick layers of high density materials with only little attenuation, while for light, specially for hydrogen containing materials, their attenuation is high. In the past, fast neutrons for NDT (non-destructive testing) were only available at accelerator driven systems. These high energy neutrons have to be moderated to achieve acceptable detection efficiencies thus drastically reducing the available neutron intensities and either resulting in a high beam divergence or in additional losses in neutron intensities due to beam collimation. The recently installed neutron computerized tomography and radiography system NECTAR at the Forschungsreaktor Muenchen-II (FRM-II) overcomes these disadvantages by using fission neutrons of about 1.7 MeV mean energy created in two converter plates set-up of highly enriched uranium. The beam quality, i.e. the neutron divergence can be adapted to the object to be measured by using different collimators, resulting in L/D-values up to 300. The available neutron beam intensity at the measuring position is up to 1.7E+08 cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} for a maximum beam area of 40 cm x 40 cm. For conventional imaging a two-dimensional detector system based on a CCD-camera is used, other more specialised systems are available. (author)

  12. Fluxes at experiment facilities in HEU and LEU designs for the FRM-II

    Hanan, N. A.

    1998-01-01

    An Alternative LEU Design for the FRM-II proposed by the RERTR Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has a compact core consisting of a single fuel element that uses LEU silicide fuel with a uranium density of 4.5 g/cm 3 and has a power level of 32 MW. Both the HEU design by the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and the alternative LEU design by ANL have the same fuel lifetime(50 days) and the same neutron flux performance (8 x 10 14 n/cm 2 -s in the reflector). LEU silicide fuel with 4.5 g/cm 3 has been thoroughly tested and is fully-qualified, licensable, and available now for use in a high flux reactor such as the FRM-II. Several issues that were raised by TUM have been addressed in Refs. 1-3. The conclusions of these analyses are summarized below. This paper addresses four additional issues that have been raised in several forums, including Ref 4: heat generation in the cold neutron source (CNS), the gamma and fast neutron fluxes which are components of the reactor noise in neutron scattering experiments in the experiment hall of the reactor, a fuel cycle length difference, and the reactivity worth of the beam tubes and other experiment facilities. The results show that: (a) for the same thermal neutron flux, the neutron and gamma heating in the CNS is smaller in the LEU design than in the HEU design, and cold neutron fluxes as good or better than those of the HEU design can be obtained with the LEU design; (b) the gamma and fast neutron components of the reactor noise in the experiment hall are about the same in both designs; (c) the fuel cycle length is 50 days for both designs; and (d) the absolute value of the reactivity worth of the beam tubes and other experiment facilities is smaller in the LEU design, allowing its fuel cycle length to be increased to 53 or 54 days. Based on the excellent results for the Alternative LEU Design that were obtained in all analyses, the RERTR Program reiterates its conclusion that there are no major technical

  13. Expert's statement on the research reactor Munich II (FRM-II); Gutachterliche Stellungnahme zum Forschungsreaktor Muenchen II (FRM-II)

    Liebert, Wolfgang; Friess, Friederike; Gufler, Klaus; Arnold, Nikolaus [Univ. fuer Bodenkultur (BOKU), Wien (Austria). Inst. fuer Sicherheits- und Risikowissenschaften (ISR)

    2017-12-15

    The Expert's statement on the research reactor FRM-II covers the following issues: The situation in Germany with respect to HEU (highly enriched uranium) fuel elements, the proliferation problems related to HEU fuel and the generated high-level radioactive wastes, possible safety hazards of an interim storage of HEU containing wastes, for instance in the interim storage facility Ahaus, possible safety hazards of final disposal of HEU containing radioactive wastes, possibilities to avoid the use of HEU fuel in order to prevent further production of these wastes, requirement of processing spent HEU containing fuel elements for final disposal.

  14. U-target irradiation at FRM II aiming the production of Mo-99 - A feasibility study

    Gerstenberg, H.; Mueller, C.; Neuhaus, I.; Roehrmoser, A.

    2010-01-01

    Following the shortage in radioisotope availability the Technische Unversitaet Muenchen and the Belgian Institut National des Radioelements conducted a common study on the suitability of the FRM II reactor for the generation of Mo-99 as a fission product. A suitable irradiation channel was determined and neutronic calculations resulted in sufficiently high neutron flux densities to make FRM II a promising candidate for Mo-99 production. In addition the feasibility study provides thermohydraulic calculations as input for the design and integration of the additional cooling circuit into the existing heat removal systems of FRM II. The required in-house processes for a regular uranium target irradiation programme have been defined and necessary upgrades identified. Finally the required investment cost was estimated and a possible time schedule was given. (author)

  15. FRM-II project status and safety of its compact fuel element

    Nuding, M.; Rottmann, M.; Axmann, A.; Boening, K.

    2000-01-01

    The construction of the new research reactor FRM-II is close to completion and the nuclear start-up is scheduled to begin in January 2001. This contribution provides an overview on the concept of the facility and the safety features of the reactor. It also describes some of the tests performed during the licensing procedure of the compact fuel element and their results. At the end a short status report is given. (author)

  16. FRM-II project status and safety of its compact fuel element

    Nuding, M.; Rottmann, M.; Axmann, A.; Boening, K. [Technical University of Munich, D-85747 Garching (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    The construction of the new research reactor FRM-II is close to completion and the nuclear start-up is scheduled to begin in January 2001. This contribution provides an overview on the concept of the facility and the safety features of the reactor. It also describes some of the tests performed during the licensing procedure of the compact fuel element and their results. At the end a short status report is given. (author)

  17. Plans for the utilization of a new research reactor FRM II

    Glaeser, W.

    1999-01-01

    The construction of the new research reactor FRM II is close to completion. The start of nuclear operation is planned for the year 2001. After a short description of the concept and figures of merit of the facility, the scientific instrumentation and user installations for basic and applied research (worked out largely by the German user community) being under construction will be summarized. Besides the introduction of several new techniques considerable progress in the performance of standard neutron techniques is envisaged. (author)

  18. Comparison of the FRM-II HEU design with an alternative LEU design. Attachment

    Hanan, N.A.; Mo, S.C.; Smith, R.S.; Matos, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    After presentation of the foregoing paper by Dr. Nelson Hanan of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) proposing an alternative LEU core with one fuel ring and a power level of 33 MW, a presentation was made by Dr. Klaus Boning of the Technical University of Munich comparing the FRM-II HEU design with an LEU design by Tlm that had two fuel rings and a power level of 40 MW. Dr. Boning raised the following issues concerning the use of LEU fuel in FRM-H reactor designs: (1) qualification of HEU and LEU silicide fuels, (2) gamma heating in the heavy water reflector, (3) the radiological consequences of hypothetical accidents, and (4) cost and schedule. These issues are addressed in this Attachment. In his presentation, Dr. Hanan mentioned that ANL was also investigating other LEU designs. This work led to a second alternative LEU design that has the same neutron flux performance (8 x 10 14 n/cm 2 /s peak neutron flux in the reflector) and the same fuel lifetime (50 full power days) as the HEU design, but uses LEU silicide fuel with a uranium density of only 4.5 g/cm 3 . This design was achieved by using a fuel plate that has a fuel meat thickness of 0.76 mm, a cladding thickness of 0.38 mm, and a water channel gap of 2.2 mm. A comparison is shown of the main characteristics of this second alternative LEU design with those of the FRM-II HEU design. The ANL core again has one fuel ring with the same dimensions. With this LEU design, a two stage process is no longer necessary because LEU silicide fuel with a uranium density of 4.5 g/cm 3 is fully qualified, licensable, and available now for use in a high flux reactor such as the FRM-II

  19. Comparison of the FRM-II HEU design with an alternative LEU design

    Mo, S.C.; Hanan, N.A.; Matos, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    The FRM-II reactor design of the Technical University of Munich has a compact core that utilizes fuel plates containing highly-enriched uranium (HEU, 93%). This paper presents an alternative core design utilizing low-enriched uranium (LEU, 3 that provides nearly the same neutron flux for experiments as the HEU design, but has a less favourable fuel cycle economy. If an LEU fuel with a uranium density of 6.0 - 6.5 g/cm 3 . were developed, the alternative design would provide the same neutron flux and use the same number of cores per year as the HEU design. The results of this study show that there are attractive possibilities for using LEU fuel instead of HEU fuel in the FRM-II. Further optimization of the LEU design and near-term availability of LEU fuel with a uranium density greater than 4.8 g/cm 3 would enhance the performance of the LEU core. The REKIR Program is ready to exchange information with the Technical University of Munich to resolve any differences that may exist and to identify design modifications that would optimize reactor performance utilizing LEU fuel. (author)

  20. Minimizing civilian use of highly enriched uranium - FRM II and global developments

    Englert, Matthias [Oeko-Institut e.V., Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The need to use highly enriched uranium (HEU) in civil nuclear applications is shrinking due to international efforts worldwide in the last three decades. Today low enriched uranium (LEU) that is not suitable for nuclear weapon purposes can be used instead in almost all civil applications. An overview of the current HEU use worldwide will be presented before focusing more on the use of HEU in research reactors and the conversion of existing reactors to LEU. Specifically interesting is the case of the German research reactor in Munich, the FRM-II. The reactor operates since ten years after intense national and international discussions over the use of weapon usable HEU to fuel the reactor. Since its construction the reactor is therefore obliged to convert to lower enrichment levels as soon as a suitable fuel becomes available. Despite huge international efforts to develop new fuels it is still not clear if and when the reactor can be converted.

  1. A new search for the atomic EDM of {sup 129}Xe at FRM-II

    Kuchler, F., E-mail: florian.kuchler@tum.de [Excellence Cluster Universe and Technische Universität München (Germany); Babcock, E. [Juelich Center for Neutron Science (Germany); Burghoff, M. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (Germany); Chupp, T.; Degenkolb, S. [University of Michigan (United States); Fan, I. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (Germany); Fierlinger, P. [Excellence Cluster Universe and Technische Universität München (Germany); Gong, F. [University of Michigan (United States); Kraegeloh, E. [Excellence Cluster Universe and Technische Universität München (Germany); Kilian, W.; Knappe-Grüneberg, S. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (Germany); Lins, T.; Marino, M.; Meinel, J.; Niessen, B. [Excellence Cluster Universe and Technische Universität München (Germany); Sachdeva, N. [University of Michigan (United States); Salhi, Z. [Juelich Center for Neutron Science (Germany); Schnabel, A.; Seifert, F. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (Germany); Singh, J. [Michigan State University and NSCL (United States); and others

    2016-12-15

    Permanent electric dipole moments (EDMs) arise due to the breaking of time-reversal or, equivalently, CP-symmetry. Although EDM searches have so far only set upper limits, which are many orders of magnitude larger than Standard Model (SM) predictions, the motivation for more sensitive searches is stronger than ever. A new effort at FRM-II incorporating {sup 129}Xe and {sup 3}He as a co-magnetometer can potentially improve the current limit. The noble gas mixture of {sup 129}Xe and {sup 3}He is simultanously polarized by spin-exchange optical pumping and then transferred into a high-performance magnetically shielded room. Inside, both species can freely precess in the presence of applied magnetic and electric fields. The precession signals are detected by LTc SQUID sensors. In EDM cells with silicon electrodes we observed spin lifetimes in excess of 2500 s without and with high-voltage applied. This meets one requirement to achieve our goal of improving the EDM limit on {sup 129}Xe by several orders of magnitude.

  2. Coupled neutronics and thermal hydraulics of high density cores for FRM II

    Breitkreutz, Harald

    2011-03-04

    According to the 'Verwaltungsvereinbarung zwischen Bund und Land vom 30.5.2003' and its updating on 13.11.2010, the Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz, Frm II, has to convert its fuel element to an uranium enrichment which is significantly lower than the current 93%, in case this is economically reasonable and doesn't impact the reactor performance immoderate. In the framework of this conversion, new calculations regarding neutronics and thermal hydraulics for the anticipated core configurations have to be made. The computational power available nowadays allows for detailed 3D calculations, on the neutronic as well as on the thermal hydraulic side. In this context, a new program system, 'X{sup 2}', was developed. It couples the Monte Carlo code McnpX, the computational fluid dynamics code Cfx and the burn-up code sequence MonteBurns. The codes were modified and extended to meet the requirements of the coupled calculation concept. To verify the new program system, highly detailed calculations for the current fuel element were made and compared to simulations and measurements that were performed in the past. The results strengthen the works performed so far and show that the original, conservative approach overestimates all critical thermal hydraulic values. Using the CFD software, effects like the impact of the combs that fix the fuel plates and the pressure drop at the edges of the fuel plates were studied in great detail for the first time. Afterwards, a number of possible new fuel elements with lower enrichment, based on disperse and monolithic UMo (uranium with 8 wt.-% Mo) were analysed. A number of straight-forward conversion scenarios was discussed, showing that a further compaction of the fuel element, an extended cycle length or an increased reactor power is needed to compensate the flux loss, which is caused by the lower enrichment. This flux loss is in excess of 7%. The discussed new fuel elements include a 50

  3. Optimisation of the PGAA instrument at FRM II for low background and 2D measurements

    Canella, Lea

    2011-01-01

    At the beginning of 2008, the new Prompt Gamma-ray Activation Analysis (PGAA) facility started operation at the Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II). The main characteristic of this facility is the relatively intense cold neutron beam. This property is due to the special construction of the neutron beam guide; the last 7m are elliptically tapered, which means that the neutrons are focused on the sample. This arrangement allows for a max. neutron flux of 6.07 . 10 10 cm -2 s -1 , which is currently the highest cold neutron flux worldwide. Due to this high flux, the main problem encountered was the beam background, i.e. the radiation background created from irradiation of construction materials. The first part of this work was dedicated to the optimisation of the instrument. The goal achieved was a reduction of the background by a factor of 15. Once the instrument was optimised, measurements were dedicated to special elements like Cd, Sm, Eu, and Gd, that have very good characteristics for this method and to archaeological samples (old greek coins). Another improvement of the instrument was the development of a 2D imaging system. A new setup was installed in order to obtain spacial information about the distribution of elements inside samples. This imaging method was first applied to a small piece of the Allende meteorite with a different setup developed in the frame of the European Project ANCIENT CHARM. This setup was thought for 3D imaging, so the conditions were not optimal for 2D mapping. With this insight a second setup was built later specially dedicated for this application. In particular, the neutron field was reduced to a small spot of about 2 x 2 mm 2 and a two stage motor was built in order to allow the movement of the sample in two dimensions. Moreover, the possibility to evacuate the sample chamber was added. With this second setup the measurements on the Allende meteorite were repeated for a comparison. The 2D-setup was also applied

  4. Coupled neutronics and thermal hydraulics of high density cores for FRM II

    Breitkreutz, Harald

    2011-01-01

    According to the 'Verwaltungsvereinbarung zwischen Bund und Land vom 30.5.2003' and its updating on 13.11.2010, the Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz, Frm II, has to convert its fuel element to an uranium enrichment which is significantly lower than the current 93%, in case this is economically reasonable and doesn't impact the reactor performance immoderate. In the framework of this conversion, new calculations regarding neutronics and thermal hydraulics for the anticipated core configurations have to be made. The computational power available nowadays allows for detailed 3D calculations, on the neutronic as well as on the thermal hydraulic side. In this context, a new program system, 'X 2 ', was developed. It couples the Monte Carlo code McnpX, the computational fluid dynamics code Cfx and the burn-up code sequence MonteBurns. The codes were modified and extended to meet the requirements of the coupled calculation concept. To verify the new program system, highly detailed calculations for the current fuel element were made and compared to simulations and measurements that were performed in the past. The results strengthen the works performed so far and show that the original, conservative approach overestimates all critical thermal hydraulic values. Using the CFD software, effects like the impact of the combs that fix the fuel plates and the pressure drop at the edges of the fuel plates were studied in great detail for the first time. Afterwards, a number of possible new fuel elements with lower enrichment, based on disperse and monolithic UMo (uranium with 8 wt.-% Mo) were analysed. A number of straight-forward conversion scenarios was discussed, showing that a further compaction of the fuel element, an extended cycle length or an increased reactor power is needed to compensate the flux loss, which is caused by the lower enrichment. This flux loss is in excess of 7%. The discussed new fuel elements include a 50% enriched disperse UMo core with

  5. Comment on the contribution of S.C. Mo, N.A. Hanan and J.E. Matos: 'Comparison of the FRM-II HEU design with an alternative LEU design'

    Boening, K.

    2004-01-01

    The results of the reference paper, which came to our attention for the first time during this RERTR Meeting, are more or less consistent with neutronic data we have obtained earlier within the FRM-II project (i.e. with own calculations and extrapolations). However, a realistic comparison of the HEU design of the FR.M-II (HEU = highly enriched uranium, 93 % U-235) with an alternative LEU design (LEU = low enriched uranium, 20 % U-235) is only possible on the basis of identical assumptions on the input parameters and has to consider more than neutronic data only. Serious scientists and experts should not confuse the politicians with academic studies touching some aspects of the full story only. The comparison has shown that the performance and reliability of the FRM-II design, which uses HEU fuel, is so advantageous that it can not - not even approximately - be met by an alternative design using LEU fuel. A change of the FRM-II design from HEU to LEU fuel with the results as shown above - i.e. less performance, higher costs, more nuclear waste and higher risk potential, and all of this with a delay of at least 5 years this could never be justified. If a future development of more advanced fuels should allow us to achieve our scientific goals at the conditions as identified above also with uranium of reduced enrichment - there would be no objection to a corresponding later conversion. Activities to realize a new neutron source in Germany go back to the late 70's with the project of a new middle flux beam reactor (MSR), which was abandoned shortly later in favour of an ambitious new spallation neutron source (SNQ). After this project also having been terminated around 1985 because of too high costs and technological risks, the hopes of the German community of neutron scientists focussed on the FRM-II. If non-technical pressure would damage this project this would equally provide irreversible damage to the large and still prospering field of neutron research in Germany

  6. Coupled 3D neutronic and thermohydraulic calculations for a compact fuel element with disperse UMo fuel at FRM II

    Breitkreutz, H.; Roehrmoser, A.; Petry, W.

    2010-01-01

    The newly developed X 2 program system is intended to be used for high-detail 3D calculations on compact research reactor cores. Using this system, the efforts to calculate scenarios for a new fuel element for FRM II using disperse UMo (8wt% Mo, 50% enrichment) are continued. By now, a radial symmetric core model with averaged built-in components for the D 2 O tank is used. Two different scenarios are compared: The minimum fuel density of 7.5 g U/cm 3 and 8.0 g U/cm 3 with 60 days cycle length. In addition, two 'flux loss compensating' scenarios based on 8.0 g U/cm 3 with 10% higher power/longer reactor cycles are regarded. (author)

  7. Possible ways and aspects of conversions for the German low power research reactors BER II, FRM, and FMRB

    Roegler, H.-J.

    1983-01-01

    Based on the overall agreement about methods and principal results on core conversions from HEU to MEU within the work done for the IAEA Guidebook, investigations were started of the three specific cases, that means the conversions of the German Research Reactors within the German AF-Program. The first step of this work was done for the three low power MTR-reactors: the Ber II in Berlin operating at KW, FMRB in Brunswick operating at 1 MW, and FRM near Munich operating at 4 W. The simplest core from the point of view of conversion calculations was the BER II reactor. The core is made up out of 33 fuel elements and 5 control elements, it is built up on a 8 x 8 grid plate. On three sides the core is surrounded by reflector elements partially made of graphite and partially of beryllium. The main purpose of the core is to provide high neutron fluxes for the 12 beam tubes on all reflector sides. A little bit more complicated - from the conversion point of view - was the status of the Munich FRM. This is on one hand due to the two different cores they operate: a so-called normal core and a smaller beryllium core and on the other other hand due to the different uranium-loadings of fuel elements partially 230 g 235-U per element and partially 180 g 235-U per element with control elements of both plate loadings as well. The third reactor investigated was the Brunswick FMRB, which has specific design features that cause specific problems. The core is split into two parts, the so-called north core and the south core interacting via a heavy water reflector in between. Calculations with LEU-fuel - in these three cases no MEU-fuel was used - were done looking at different criteria for the conversion. The first group we call cycle length criteria and they are split into two versions, the same cycle length for LEU-fuel as for the existing HEU-fuel measured in MWd with the same excess reactivity at EOL as it exists at present; the same criterion as the previous except the cycle

  8. FaNGaS: a New Instrument for Fast Neutron Gamma Spectroscopy at FRM II Research Reactor at Garching

    Randriamalala, T.; Rossbach, M.; Genreith, C. [Institute of Energy and Climate Research, IEK-6: Nuclear Waste and Reactor Safety Fuel Cycle, Forchungszentrum Juelich GmbH in der Helmholtz-Gemeinshaft, 52428 Juelich (Germany); Revay, Zs.; Kudejova, P.; Soellradl, S.; Wagner, F.M. [Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum - MLZ, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lichtenbergstrasse 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    For the identification and quantification of actinides in radioactive packages, the non-destructive method of Prompt-Gamma Activation Analysis (PGAA) is applied. To investigate the inelastic (n, n 'γ) scattering, a new instrumentation was installed at the FRM II research reactor. It is designed to exploit the 10{sup 8} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} neutrons at an average neutron energy of 1.9 MeV delivered by the SR10 beam line. The outgoing prompt γ-rays are measured utilizing a 50% efficiency HPGe detector. Since the cross sections are expected to be low for such a process, two related factors had to be taken into account for the design of the instrumentation: the high beam intensity at the sample position and the high signal-to-background ratio seen by the detector. Eventual low energy neutrons due to the multiple scatterings through the beam line can be minimized using collimators in the beam tube. This has also an effect to a prior neutrons and photons background reduction of the experimental environment. A higher efficiency of the counting can be achieved by the lowering of background at the detector. In this case, a heavy shielding for both neutrons and photons, is designed around the detector while optimizing the sample-detector distance. Monte-Carlo simulation studies were conducted to effectively design the fast neutron beam collimators and the detector shield. A detailed description of the setup characterization and results from simulations and experimental measurements will be discussed through this contribution. (authors)

  9. Characterization of a solid deuterium converter for ultra-cold neutrons (UCN) in the framework of the Mini-D{sub 2} project at the FRM-II reactor in Munich

    Tortorella, D.

    2007-02-07

    Spontaneous breaking of fundamental symmetries is an attractive topic in modern particles physic. Understanding qualitative and quantitative the parameters involved in these kind of processes could help to explain the unbalanced presence in the universe of matter (baryons) with respect to antimatter (anti-baryons). Due to their intrinsic properties, ultra cold neutrons (UCN) are excellent candidates in experiments measuring with high level of accuracy parameters like the electric dipole moment (EDM), the axial-vector coupling constant (g{sub A}), the neutron lifetime ({tau}{sub n}) or in search of quantum effect of gravity. In this work are presented several contributions in the framework of the Mini-D2 project, an innovative strong UCN source under construction at the FRM-II reactor in Munich. An important component of this facility, the solid deuterium UCN converter, is one subject of the thesis. (orig.)

  10. Characterization of a solid deuterium converter for ultra-cold neutrons (UCN) in the framework of the Mini-D2 project at the FRM-II reactor in Munich

    Tortorella, D.

    2007-01-01

    Spontaneous breaking of fundamental symmetries is an attractive topic in modern particles physic. Understanding qualitative and quantitative the parameters involved in these kind of processes could help to explain the unbalanced presence in the universe of matter (baryons) with respect to antimatter (anti-baryons). Due to their intrinsic properties, ultra cold neutrons (UCN) are excellent candidates in experiments measuring with high level of accuracy parameters like the electric dipole moment (EDM), the axial-vector coupling constant (g A ), the neutron lifetime (τ n ) or in search of quantum effect of gravity. In this work are presented several contributions in the framework of the Mini-D2 project, an innovative strong UCN source under construction at the FRM-II reactor in Munich. An important component of this facility, the solid deuterium UCN converter, is one subject of the thesis. (orig.)

  11. Optimization of a partially non-magnetic primary radiation shielding for the triple-axis spectrometer PANDA at the Munich high-flux reactor FRM-II

    Pyka, N M; Rogov, A

    2002-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations have been used to optimize the monochromator shielding of the polarized cold-neutron triple-axis spectrometer PANDA at the Munich high-flux reactor FRM-II. By using the Monte Carlo program MCNP-4B, the density of the total spectrum of incoming neutrons and gamma radiation from the beam tube SR-2 has been determined during the three-dimensional diffusion process in different types of heavy concrete and other absorbing material. Special attention has been paid to build a compact and highly efficient shielding, partially non-magnetic, with a total biological radiation dose of less than 10 mu Sv/h at its outsides. Especially considered was the construction of an albedo reducer, which serves to reduce the background in the experiment outside the shielding. (orig.)

  12. Dose-response relationship of dicentric chromosomes in human lymphocytes obtained for the fission neutron therapy facility MEDAPP at the research reactor FRM II.

    Schmid, E; Wagner, F M; Romm, H; Walsh, L; Roos, H

    2009-02-01

    The biological effectiveness of neutrons from the neutron therapy facility MEDAPP (mean neutron energy 1.9 MeV) at the new research reactor FRM II at Garching, Germany, has been analyzed, at different depths in a polyethylene phantom. Whole blood samples were exposed to the MEDAPP beam in special irradiation chambers to total doses of 0.14-3.52 Gy at 2-cm depth, and 0.18-3.04 Gy at 6-cm depth of the phantom. The neutron and gamma-ray absorbed dose rates were measured to be 0.55 Gy min(-1) and 0.27 Gy min(-1) at 2-cm depth, while they were 0.28 and 0.25 Gy min(-1) at 6-cm depth. Although the irradiation conditions at the MEDAPP beam and the RENT beam of the former FRM I research reactor were not identical, neutrons from both facilities gave a similar linear-quadratic dose-response relationship for dicentric chromosomes at a depth of 2 cm. Different dose-response curves for dicentrics were obtained for the MEDAPP beam at 2 and 6 cm depth, suggesting a significantly lower biological effectiveness of the radiation with increasing depth. No obvious differences in the dose-response curves for dicentric chromosomes estimated under interactive or additive prediction between neutrons or gamma-rays and the experimentally obtained dose-response curves could be determined. Relative to (60)Co gamma-rays, the values for the relative biological effectiveness at the MEDAPP beam decrease from 5.9 at 0.14 Gy to 1.6 at 3.52 Gy at 2-cm depth, and from 4.1 at 0.18 Gy to 1.5 at 3.04 Gy at 6-cm depth. Using the best possible conditions of consistency, i.e., using blood samples from the same donor and the same measurement techniques for about two decades, avoiding the inter-individual variations in sensitivity or the differences in methodology usually associated with inter-laboratory comparisons, a linear-quadratic dose-response relationship for the mixed neutron and gamma-ray MEDAPP field as well as for its fission neutron part was obtained. Therefore, the debate on whether the fission

  13. The Effectors and Sensory Sites of Formaldehyde-responsive Regulator FrmR and Metal-sensing Variant *

    Osman, Deenah; Piergentili, Cecilia; Chen, Junjun; Sayer, Lucy N.; Usón, Isabel; Huggins, Thomas G.; Robinson, Nigel J.; Pohl, Ehmke

    2016-01-01

    The DUF156 family of DNA-binding transcriptional regulators includes metal sensors that respond to cobalt and/or nickel (RcnR, InrS) or copper (CsoR) plus CstR, which responds to persulfide, and formaldehyde-responsive FrmR. Unexpectedly, the allosteric mechanism of FrmR from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is triggered by metals in vitro, and variant FrmRE64H gains responsiveness to Zn(II) and cobalt in vivo. Here we establish that the allosteric mechanism of FrmR is triggered directly by formaldehyde in vitro. Sensitivity to formaldehyde requires a cysteine (Cys35 in FrmR) conserved in all DUF156 proteins. A crystal structure of metal- and formaldehyde-sensing FrmRE64H reveals that an FrmR-specific amino-terminal Pro2 is proximal to Cys35, and these residues form the deduced formaldehyde-sensing site. Evidence is presented that implies that residues spatially close to the conserved cysteine tune the sensitivities of DUF156 proteins above or below critical thresholds for different effectors, generating the semblance of specificity within cells. Relative to FrmR, RcnR is less responsive to formaldehyde in vitro, and RcnR does not sense formaldehyde in vivo, but reciprocal mutations FrmRP2S and RcnRS2P, respectively, impair and enhance formaldehyde reactivity in vitro. Formaldehyde detoxification by FrmA requires S-(hydroxymethyl)glutathione, yet glutathione inhibits formaldehyde detection by FrmR in vivo and in vitro. Quantifying the number of FrmR molecules per cell and modeling formaldehyde modification as a function of [formaldehyde] demonstrates that FrmR reactivity is optimized such that FrmR is modified and frmRA is derepressed at lower [formaldehyde] than required to generate S-(hydroxymethyl)glutathione. Expression of FrmA is thereby coordinated with the accumulation of its substrate. PMID:27474740

  14. A new method of Debye-Scherrer pattern integration on two-dimensional detectors, demonstrated for the new structure powder diffractometer (SPODI) at the FRM-II in Garching

    Elf, F; Artus, G R J; Roth, S

    2002-01-01

    The expected diffraction patterns of the new powder diffractometer SPODI, currently under construction at the FRM-II in Garching, will be smeared Debye-Scherrer rings as depicted by Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. To overcome this disadvantage, a concept based on the combination of MC simulations and empirical approximation methods is developed to reverse the smearing by deconvolution and then summing up along the rings, including corrections for different arc lengths, resulting in conventional one-dimensional diffraction patterns suitable for Rietveld-refinement programs without further processing. (orig.)

  15. From CRM to Social CRM and FRM

    Maria Cristina ENACHE

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available C-R-M stands for Customer Relationship Management. At its simplest, a CRM system allows businesses to manage business relationships and the data and information associated with them. While a CRM system may not elicit as much enthusiasm these days as social networking platforms like Facebook or Twitter, any CRM system is similarly built around people and relationships. And that’s exactly why it can be so valuable for a fast-growing business. FRM was developed from learning of success and failures on conventional CRM. FRM – Relationship Management is a unique way to build and love your fans, is a form a Social CRM. Traditional Customer Relationship Management focuses on collecting and managing static customer data, such as past purchase information, contact history and customer demographics. This information is often sourced from email and phone interactions, commonly limited to direct interactions between the company and the customer. Social CRM adds a deeper layer of information onto traditional CRM by adding data derived from social networks like Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn or any other social network where a user publicly shares information. The key benefit of Social CRM is the ability for companies to interact with customers in a multichannel retailing environment (commonly referred to as omnichannel and talk to customers the way they talk to each other. Social CRM enables companies to track a customer's social influence and source data from conversations occurring outside of formal, direct communication. Social CRM also allows companies to keep a full audit history of all customer interactions, regardless of social channel they choose to use, available to all customer care employees. FRM delivers probability while ensuring client partner expectation in revenue generation and customer expectation.

  16. The new Munich neutron source

    Herrmann, W.A.

    1998-01-01

    The Munich FRM II neutron source currently under construction is to replace the FRM I research reactor in Munich, also known as 'atomic egg'. The project is executed by the Free State of Bavaria as a construction project of the Munich Technical University and managed by the University. As main contractor for the construction project, Siemens AG is also co-applicant in the licensing procedure under the Atomic Energy Act for the construction phase. The project is carried out to build a modern high flux neutron source required for a broad range of applications in research and technology mainly with thermal and cold neutrons. The 'neutron gap' existing in Germany is to be closed with the FRM II. As a national research installation, the FRM II is available to all interested scientists from a variety of disciplines. (orig.) [de

  17. BEPC II positron source

    Pei Guoxi; Sun Yaolin; Liu Jintong; Chi Yunlong; Liu Yucheng; Liu Nianzong

    2006-01-01

    BEPC II-an upgrade project of the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC) is a factory type of e + e - collider. The fundamental requirements for its injector linac are the beam energy of 1.89 GeV for on-energy injection and a 40 mA positron beam current at the linac end with a low beam emittance of 1.6 μm and a low energy spread of ±0.5% so as to guarantee a higher injection rate (≥50 mA/min) to the storage ring. Since the positron flux is proportional to the primary electron beam power on the target, the authors will increase the electron gun current from 4A to 10A by using a new electron gun system and increase the primary electron energy from 120 MeV to 240 MeV. The positron source itself is an extremely important system for producing more positrons, including a positron converter target chamber, a 12kA flux modulator, the 7m focusing module with DC power supplies and the support. The new positron production linac from the electron gun to the positron source has been installed into the tunnel. In what follows, the authors will emphasize the positron source design, manufacture and tests. (authors)

  18. Neutron scattering. Lectures of the JCNS laboratory course held at Forschungszentrum Juelich and the research reactor FRM II of TU Munich

    Brueckel, T.; Heger, G.; Richter, D.; Zorn, R.

    2007-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Fourier transform, basic assumptions of quantum mechanics and the Born approximation, symmtery in crystals, neutron sources, neutron elastic scattering and properties, polarized neutron scattering, correlation functions measured by scattering experiments, grazing incidence neutron scattering, neutron diffractometers, small-angle scattewring inelastic crystal spectrometers, time-of-flight spectrometers using NSE, structure determination, inelastic neutron scattering with phonon and magnon excitations, structure of complex fluids and macromolecules, polymer dynamics, magnetism. (HSI)

  19. From CRM to Social CRM and FRM

    Maria Cristina ENACHE; Cornelia NOVAC UDUDEC; Corina SBUGHEA

    2016-01-01

    C-R-M stands for Customer Relationship Management. At its simplest, a CRM system allows businesses to manage business relationships and the data and information associated with them. While a CRM system may not elicit as much enthusiasm these days as social networking platforms like Facebook or Twitter, any CRM system is similarly built around people and relationships. And that’s exactly why it can be so valuable for a fast-growing business. FRM was developed from learning of success and failu...

  20. 1-D hybrid code for FRM dynamics

    Stark, R.A.; Miley, G.H.

    1985-01-01

    A 1-D radial hybrid code has been written to study the start-up of the FRM via neutral-beam injection. This code, named FROST (Field Reversed One-dimensional STart-up), models the plasma as azimuthal symmetric with no axial dependence. A multi-group method in energy and canonical angular momentum describes the large-orbit ions from the beam. This method is designed to be more efficient than those employing particle tracking, since the characteristic timescale of the simulation is the ion slowing down time, rather than the much shorter cyclotron period. A time-differentiated Grad-Shafranov equation couples the ion current to massless fluid equations describing electrons and low energy ions. Flux coordinates are used in this fluid model, in preference to an Eulerian framework, so that coupling of plasma at the two different radii of a closed flux surface may be treated with ease. Since a fluid treatment for electrons is invalid near a field null, a separate model for the electron current has been included for this region, a unique feature. Results of simulation of injection into a 2XIIB-like plasma are discussed. Electron currents are found to retard, but not prevent reversal of the magnetic field at the plasma center

  1. RTNS-II [Rotating Target Neutron Source II] operational summary

    Heikkinen, D.W.

    1988-09-01

    The Rotating Target Neutron Source II facility (RTNS-II) operated for over nine years. Its purpose was to provide high intensities of 14 MeV neutrons for materials studies in the fusion energy program. For the period from 1982-1987, the facility was supported by both the US (Department of Energy) and Japan (Ministry of Education, Culture, and Science). RTNS-II contains two accelerator-based neutron sources which use the T(d,n) 4 He reaction. In this paper, we will summarize the operational history of RTNS-II. Typical operating parameters are given. In addition, a brief description of the experimental program is presented. The current status and future options for the facility are discussed. 7 refs., 5 tabs

  2. 1-D hybrid code for FRM start-up

    Stark, R.A.; Miley, G.H.

    1982-01-01

    A one-D hybrid has been developed to study the start-up of the FRM via neutral-beam injection. The code uses a multi-group numerical model originally developed by J. Willenberg to describe fusion product dynamics in a solenoidal plasma. Earlier we described such a model for use in determining self-consistent ion currents and magnetic fields in FRM start-up. However, consideration of electron dynamics during start-up indicate that the electron current will oppose the injected ion current and may even foil the attempt to achieve reversal. For this reason, we have combined the multi-group ion (model) with a fluid treatment for electron dynamics to form the hybrid code FROST (Field Reversed One-dimensional STart-up). The details of this merger, along with sample results of operation of FROST, are given

  3. Joint annual report 2016 of the MLZ and FRM II

    NONE

    2017-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Scientific highlights, materials science, quantum phenomena, soft matter, structure research, neutron methods, instrumental upgrades and services, reactor and industry. (HSI)

  4. User's guide for FRMOD, a zero dimensional FRM burn code

    Driemeryer, D.; Miley, G.H.

    1979-01-01

    The zero-dimensional FRM plasma burn code, FRMOD is written in the FORTRAN language and is currently available on the Control Data Corporation (CDC) 7600 computer at the Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center (MFECC), sponsored by the US Department of Energy, in Livermore, CA. This guide assumes that the user is familiar with the system architecture and some of the utility programs available on the MFE-7600 machine, since online documentation is available for system routines through the use of the DOCUMENT utility. Users may therefore refer to it for answers to system related questions

  5. Safety assessments relating to the use of new fuels in research reactors: application to the case of FRM 2 reactor fuel

    Abou Yehia, H.; Bars, G.; Tran Dai

    2001-01-01

    After giving a brief reminder of the procedure applied in France for the licensing of the use of a new fuel type or design in a research reactor, we outline the main safety aspects associated with such a modification. Finally, by way of an example, we focus on the safety assessment relating to the IRIS irradiation device used in SILOE reactor, in particular for the qualification of the fuel dedicated to FRM II reactor of the Technical University of Munich. This qualification was carried out on a U 3 Si 2 fuel plate enriched to about 90 % in weight of 235 U and containing 1.5 g of uranium per cm 3 . The evaluation performed by the IPSN for GRS did not call into question the choice of U 3 Si 2 fuel plates for the FRM-II reactor. (authors)

  6. Searching for Compact Radio Sources Associated with UCH ii Regions

    Masqué, Josep M.; Trinidad, Miguel A.; Rodríguez-Rico, Carlos A. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Guanajuato, Apdo. Postal 144, 36000 Guanajuato, México (Mexico); Rodríguez, Luis F.; Kurtz, Stan; Loinard, Laurent [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Morelia 58089, México (Mexico); Dzib, Sergio A. [Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2017-02-10

    Ultra-compact (UC)H ii regions represent a very early stage of massive star formation. The structure and evolution of these regions are not yet fully understood. Interferometric observations showed in recent years that compact sources of uncertain nature are associated with some UCH ii regions. To examine this, we carried out VLA 1.3 cm observations in the A configuration of selected UCH ii regions in order to report additional cases of compact sources embedded in UCH ii regions. With these observations, we find 13 compact sources that are associated with 9 UCH ii regions. Although we cannot establish an unambiguous nature for the newly detected sources, we assess some of their observational properties. According to the results, we can distinguish between two types of compact sources. One type corresponds to sources that are probably deeply embedded in the dense ionized gas of the UCH ii region. These sources are photoevaporated by the exciting star of the region and will last for 10{sup 4}–10{sup 5} years. They may play a crucial role in the evolution of the UCH ii region as the photoevaporated material could replenish the expanding plasma and might provide a solution to the so-called lifetime problem of these regions. The second type of compact sources is not associated with the densest ionized gas of the region. A few of these sources appear resolved and may be photoevaporating objects such as those of the first type, but with significantly lower mass depletion rates. The remaining sources of this second type appear unresolved, and their properties are varied. We speculate on the similarity between the sources of the second type and those of the Orion population of radio sources.

  7. Multi-Channel Tunable Source for Atomic Sensors, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase II SBIR will seek to develop a prototype laser source suitable for atomic interferometry from compact, robust, integrated components. AdvR's design is...

  8. Current status for TRR-II Cold Neutron Source

    Lee, C.H.; Guung, T.C.; Lan, K.C.; Wang, C.H.; Chan, Y.K.; Shieh, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    The Taiwan Research Reactor (TRR) project (TRR-II) is carrying out at Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) from October 1998 to December 2006. The purpose of Cold Neutron Source (CNS) project is to build entire CNS facility to generate cold neutrons within TRR-II reactor. The objective of CNS design is to install CNS facility with a competitive brightness of cold neutron beam to other facilities in the world. Based on the TRR-II CNS project schedule, the conceptual design for TRR-II CNS facility has been completed and the mock-up test facility for full-scale hydrogen loop has been designed. (author)

  9. Gas discharge ion source. II. Duopigatron

    Bacon, F.M.; Bickes, R.W. Jr.; O'Hagan, J.B.

    1978-01-01

    Ion source performance characteristics consisting of total ion current, ion energy distribution, mass distribution, and ion current density distribution have been measured for several models of a duopigatron. Variations on the duopigatron design involved plasma expansion cup material and dimensions, secondary cathode material, and interelectrode spacings. Of the designs tested, the one with a copper and molybdenum secondary cathode, and a mild steel plasma expansion cup proved to give the best results. The ion current density distribution was peaked at the center of the plasma expansion cup and fell off to 80% of the peak value at the cup wall for a cup 15.2 mm deep. A total ion current of 180 mA consisting of 60%-70% atomic ions was produced with an arc current of 20 A and source pressure of 9.3 Pa. More shallow cups produced a larger beam current and a more sharply peaked ion current density distribution. Typical ion energy distributions were bellshaped curves with a peak 10-20 V below anode potential and with ion energies extending 30-40 V on either side of the peak

  10. Phase II beam lines at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    Thomlinson, W.

    1984-06-01

    The expansion of the National Synchrotron Light Source has been funded by the US Department of Energy. The Phase II program consists of both increased conventional facilities and six new beam lines. In this paper, an overview of the six beam lines which will be constructed during Phase II is presented. For five of the lines special radiation sources are necessary and the designs of four of the devices are complete. The relevant parameters of the insertion devices under construction and development are presented

  11. Impedance-Source Networks for Electric Power Conversion Part II

    Siwakoti, Yam P.; Peng, Fang Zheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    Impedance-source networks cover the entire spectrum of electric power conversion applications (dc-dc, dc-ac, ac-dc, ac-ac) controlled and modulated by different modulation strategies to generate the desired dc or ac voltage and current at the output. A comprehensive review of various impedance......-source-network-based power converters has been covered in a previous paper and main topologies were discussed from an application point of view. Now Part II provides a comprehensive review of the most popular control and modulation strategies for impedance-source network-based power converters/inverters. These methods...

  12. Research applications of the Livermore RTNS-II neutron sources

    Davis, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory has completed construction of the Rotating Target Neutron Source-II (RTNS-II) Facility. These sources, built and operated for the Office of Fusion Energy of the Department of Energy, will be operated by LLL as a national facility for the study of materials damage processes induced by 14-MeV neutrons. Design strength of the sources is 4 x 10 13 n/s with a maximum flux of 1 X 10 13 n/cm 2 s. The 400 keV, 150 mA D + accelerators and 5000 rpm titanium--tritide target assemblies were built using experience gained with LLL's RTNS-I neutron source. The RTNS-I source, producing 6 x 10 12 n/s, is currently the most intense 14-MeV source available. RTNS-I has been used for fusion reactor materials studies for the past six years. The experimental program for the new sources will be oriented toward fundamental measurements of high energy neutron-induced effects. The data produced will be used to develop models of damage processes to help guide materials selection for future fusion reactors

  13. Identification of an operon involved in fluoride resistance in Enterobacter cloacae FRM

    Liu, Xiaoqing; Tian, Jian; Liu, Lihui; Zhu, Tao; Yu, Xiaoxia; Chu, Xiaoyu; Yao, Bin; Wu, Ningfeng; Fan, Yunliu

    2017-01-01

    Fluorine is ubiquitous and the most active non-metal element in nature. While many microorganisms have developed fluoride resistance as a result of the widespread and prolonged application of oral hygiene products, the mechanisms used by these organisms to overcome fluoride toxicity are incompletely understood. In this study, a fluoride-resistant strain, Enterobacter cloacae FRM, was identified which could grow well at a fluoride concentration of 4,000?mg/L. According to comparative genomics,...

  14. LEVIS lithium ion source experiments on PBFA-II

    Renk, T.J.; Tisone, G.C.; Adams, R.G.; Lopez, M.; Clark, B.F.; Schroeder, J.; Bailey, J.E.; Filuk, A.B.; Carlson, A.L.

    1992-01-01

    PBFA-II is a pulsed power generator designed to apply up to a 25 MV, 20 ns pulse to a focusing 15 cm-radius Applied-B ion diode for inertial confinement fusion applications. Several different approaches have been pursued to produce a high-purity (> 90%), high-current density (5--10 kA/cm 2 ) singly ionized lithium ion source for acceleration in this diode. In addition to having high source purity, such a source should be active, i.e. the ions should be produced before the power pulse arrives, to provide better electrical coupling from the accelerator to the diode. In the LEVIS (Laser EVaporation Ion Source) process, energy from two lasers impinges on a thin (500 nm) lithium or lithium-bearing film on an insulating substrate. The authors will discuss a new series of LEVIS experiments, with a number of improvements: (1) the laser distribution cone was redesigned, resulting in a more uniform illumination of the 4 cm-tall Li-producing surface; (2) the anode surface is being slow-heated to 120--150 C to help drive off contaminants; and (3) they have expanded the number of source and beam diagnostics

  15. Linac Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) Conceptual Design Report

    Stohr, J.

    2011-01-01

    The LCLS-II Project is designed to support the DOE Office of Science mission, as described in the 22 April 2010 Mission Need Statement. The scope of the Project was chosen to provide an increase in capabilities and capacity for the facility both at project completion in 2017 and in the subsequent decade. The Project is designed to address all points of the Mission Need Statement (MNS): (1) Expanded spectral reach; (2) Capability to provide x-ray beams with controllable polarization; (3) Capability to provide 'pump' pulses over a vastly extended range of photon energies to a sample, synchronized to LCLS-II x-ray probe pulses with controllable inter-pulse time delay; and (4) Increase of user access through parallel rather than serial x-ray beam use within the constraint of a $300M-$400M Total Project Cost (TPC) range. The LCLS-II Project will construct: (1) A hard x-ray undulator source (2-13 keV); (2) A soft x-ray undulator source (250-2,000 eV); (3) A dedicated, independent electron source for these new undulators, using sectors 10-20 of the SLAC linac; (4) Modifications to existing SLAC facilities for the injector and new shielded enclosures for the undulator sources, beam dumps and x-ray front ends; (5) A new experiment hall capable of accommodating four experiment stations; and (6) Relocation of the two soft x-ray instruments in the existing Near Experiment Hall (NEH) to the new experiment hall (Experiment Hall-II). A key objective of LCLS-II is to maintain near-term international leadership in the study of matter on the fundamental atomic length scale and the associated ultrafast time scales of atomic motion and electronic transformation. Clearly, such studies promise scientific breakthroughs in key areas of societal needs like energy, environment, health and technology, and they are uniquely enabled by forefront X-ray Free Electron Laser (X-FEL) facilities. While the implementation of LCLS-II extends to about 2017, it is important to realize that LCLS-II only

  16. Linac Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) Conceptual Design Report

    Stohr, J

    2011-11-16

    The LCLS-II Project is designed to support the DOE Office of Science mission, as described in the 22 April 2010 Mission Need Statement. The scope of the Project was chosen to provide an increase in capabilities and capacity for the facility both at project completion in 2017 and in the subsequent decade. The Project is designed to address all points of the Mission Need Statement (MNS): (1) Expanded spectral reach; (2) Capability to provide x-ray beams with controllable polarization; (3) Capability to provide 'pump' pulses over a vastly extended range of photon energies to a sample, synchronized to LCLS-II x-ray probe pulses with controllable inter-pulse time delay; and (4) Increase of user access through parallel rather than serial x-ray beam use within the constraint of a $300M-$400M Total Project Cost (TPC) range. The LCLS-II Project will construct: (1) A hard x-ray undulator source (2-13 keV); (2) A soft x-ray undulator source (250-2,000 eV); (3) A dedicated, independent electron source for these new undulators, using sectors 10-20 of the SLAC linac; (4) Modifications to existing SLAC facilities for the injector and new shielded enclosures for the undulator sources, beam dumps and x-ray front ends; (5) A new experiment hall capable of accommodating four experiment stations; and (6) Relocation of the two soft x-ray instruments in the existing Near Experiment Hall (NEH) to the new experiment hall (Experiment Hall-II). A key objective of LCLS-II is to maintain near-term international leadership in the study of matter on the fundamental atomic length scale and the associated ultrafast time scales of atomic motion and electronic transformation. Clearly, such studies promise scientific breakthroughs in key areas of societal needs like energy, environment, health and technology, and they are uniquely enabled by forefront X-ray Free Electron Laser (X-FEL) facilities. While the implementation of LCLS-II extends to about 2017, it is important to realize that

  17. Tank waste source term inventory validation. Volume II. Letter report

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This document comprises Volume II of the Letter Report entitled Tank Waste Source Term Inventory Validation. This volume contains Appendix C, Radionuclide Tables, and Appendix D, Chemical Analyte Tables. The sample data for selection of 11 radionuclides and 24 chemical analytes were extracted from six separate sample data sets, were arranged in a tabular format and were plotted on scatter plots for all of the 149 single-shell tanks, the 24 double-shell tanks and the four aging waste tanks. The solid and liquid sample data was placed in separate tables and plots. The sample data and plots were compiled from the following data sets: characterization raw sample data, recent core samples, D. Braun data base, Wastren (Van Vleet) data base, TRAC and HTCE inventories.

  18. Tank waste source term inventory validation. Volume II. Letter report

    1995-04-01

    This document comprises Volume II of the Letter Report entitled Tank Waste Source Term Inventory Validation. This volume contains Appendix C, Radionuclide Tables, and Appendix D, Chemical Analyte Tables. The sample data for selection of 11 radionuclides and 24 chemical analytes were extracted from six separate sample data sets, were arranged in a tabular format and were plotted on scatter plots for all of the 149 single-shell tanks, the 24 double-shell tanks and the four aging waste tanks. The solid and liquid sample data was placed in separate tables and plots. The sample data and plots were compiled from the following data sets: characterization raw sample data, recent core samples, D. Braun data base, Wastren (Van Vleet) data base, TRAC and HTCE inventories

  19. Background sources and masks for Mark II detector at PEP

    Kadyk, J.

    1981-06-01

    The shielding masks currently at use in several of the current experiments at PEP are the result of an early organized effort to understand the sources of particle background expected at PEP, followed by the evolution of the conceptual designs into actual hardware. The degree and kind of background particle loading which could be tolerated was expected to differ significantly among the different experiments, and several designs emerged from the common study. Qualitatively, the types of radiations studied were, Synchrotron Radiation (SR), Beam Gas Bremsstrahlung (BGB), and, to a limited extent others, e.g., Electroproduction (EP). Calculations will be given of predicted occupancies in the pipe counter and other sensitive elements at small radius, since these will be most susceptible to the SR and BGB backgrounds. The calculations presented in this note are specific to the Mark II detector. Some general statements will be made first about the character of each of the various types of backgrounds considered, then some detailed calculations made for application to the Mark II detector

  20. Study of Research and Development Processes through Fuzzy Super FRM Model and Optimization Solutions

    Flavius Aurelian Sârbu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to measure resources for R&D (research and development at the regional level in Romania and also obtain primary data that will be important in making the right decisions to increase competitiveness and development based on an economic knowledge. As our motivation, we would like to emphasize that by the use of Super Fuzzy FRM model we want to determine the state of R&D processes at regional level using a mean different from the statistical survey, while by the two optimization methods we mean to provide optimization solutions for the R&D actions of the enterprises. Therefore to fulfill the above mentioned aim in this application-oriented paper we decided to use a questionnaire and for the interpretation of the results the Super Fuzzy FRM model, representing the main novelty of our paper, as this theory provides a formalism based on matrix calculus, which allows processing of large volumes of information and also delivers results difficult or impossible to see, through statistical processing. Furthermore another novelty of the paper represents the optimization solutions submitted in this work, given for the situation when the sales price is variable, and the quantity sold is constant in time and for the reverse situation.

  1. Status of TRR-II cold neutron source

    Lee, C.H.; Guung, T.C.; Lan, K.C.; Chan, Y.K.; Wang, C.H.; Chen, S.K.

    2001-01-01

    The Taiwan research reactor improvement and the utilization promotion project (TRR-II) with a vertical cold neutron source (CNS) is carrying out at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER). The CNS with a two-phase thermosiphon loop consists of an annular cylindrical moderator cell, a single moderator transfer tube and a condenser. A cylindrical annulus moderator cell with boiling liquid hydrogen at 1.2 bar and 20.7 K gives an optimum moderation for cold neutrons in the wavelength range between 4 A and 15 A. The moderator cell lies around 400 mm away from the core center. Its perturbed thermal flux is about 1.4 x 10 14 cm -2 s -1 . It is close to the maximum thermal neutron flux area in D 2 O tank to get the maximum possible brightness about 1 x 10 12 n cm -2 s -1 A -1 sterad -1 at 4 A. An experimental study for thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the two-phase thermosiphon loop has been performed on a full-scale mockup loop using a Freon-11 as a working fluid. The objective of the mockup testing is to validate operation and heat removal capacity in CNS hydrogen loop design. Moreover, this loop will be used to demonstrate no onset of flooding and flow oscillations in a single transfer tube under CNS normal and abnormal conditions. The flooding limitation, the liquid level, and the void fraction in the moderator cell as a function of the initial Freon-11 inventory, the heat load, and the moderator cell geometry are also reported. (orig.)

  2. The concept of the new structure powder diffractometer (SPODI) at the FRM-II in Garching

    Gilles, R.; Krimmer, B.; Šaroun, Jan; Boysen, H.; Fuess, H.

    378-3, - (2001), s. 282-287 ISSN 0255-5476 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : Monte Carlo * neutron optics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.461, year: 2001

  3. Calculation of spatial distribution of the EURACOS II converter source

    Santo, A.C.F. de

    1985-01-01

    It is obtained the neutron spatial flux from the EURACOS (Enriched Uranium Converter Source) device, adjusted to experimental measures. The EURACOS device is a converter source which is constituted a circle plate of highly enriched uranium (90%). The converter provides an intense source of fast neutrons which has the energetic spectrum near to the fission spectrum. (M.C.K.) [pt

  4. Top-up operation at Pohang Light Source-II

    Hwang, I.; Huang, J. Y.; Kim, M.; Lee, B.-J.; Kim, C.; Choi, J.-Y.; Kim, M.-H.; Lee, H. S.; Moon, D.; Lee, E. H.; Kim, D.-E.; Nam, S. H.; Shin, S. [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang, Kyungbuk 790-834 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Moohyun [Department of Physics, POSTECH, Pohang, Kyungbuk 790-834 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    After three years of upgrading work, PLS-II (S. Shin, Commissioning of the PLS-II, JINST, January 2013) is now successfully operating. The top-up operation of the 3 GeV linear accelerator had to be delayed because of some challenges encountered, and PLS-II was run in decay mode at the beginning in March 2012. The main difficulties encountered in the top-up operation of PLS-II are different levels between the linear accelerator and the storage ring, the 14 narrow gap in-vacuum undulators in operation, and the full energy injection by 3 GeV linear accelerator. Large vertical emittance and energy jitter of the linac were the major obstacles that called for careful control of injected beam to reduce beam loss in the storage ring during injection. The following measures were taken to resolve these problems: (1) The high resolution Libera BPM (see http://www.i-tech.si ) was implemented to measure the beam trajectory and energy. (2) Three slit systems were installed to filter the beam edge. (3) De-Qing circuit was applied to the modulator system to improve the energy stability of injected beam. As a result, the radiation by beam loss during injection is reduced drastically, and the top-up mode has been successfully operating since 19th March 2013. In this paper, we describe the experimental results of the PLS-II top-up operation and the improvement plan.

  5. Improved selection criteria for H II regions, based on IRAS sources

    Yan, Qing-Zeng; Xu, Ye; Walsh, A. J.; Macquart, J. P.; MacLeod, G. C.; Zhang, Bo; Hancock, P. J.; Chen, Xi; Tang, Zheng-Hong

    2018-05-01

    We present new criteria for selecting H II regions from the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) Point Source Catalogue (PSC), based on an H II region catalogue derived manually from the all-sky Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). The criteria are used to augment the number of H II region candidates in the Milky Way. The criteria are defined by the linear decision boundary of two samples: IRAS point sources associated with known H II regions, which serve as the H II region sample, and IRAS point sources at high Galactic latitudes, which serve as the non-H II region sample. A machine learning classifier, specifically a support vector machine, is used to determine the decision boundary. We investigate all combinations of four IRAS bands and suggest that the optimal criterion is log(F_{60}/F_{12})≥ ( -0.19 × log(F_{100}/F_{25})+ 1.52), with detections at 60 and 100 {μ}m. This selects 3041 H II region candidates from the IRAS PSC. We find that IRAS H II region candidates show evidence of evolution on the two-colour diagram. Merging the WISE H II catalogue with IRAS H II region candidates, we estimate a lower limit of approximately 10 200 for the number of H II regions in the Milky Way.

  6. A High Reliability Frequency Stabilized Semiconductor Laser Source, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ultrastable, narrow linewidth, high reliability MOPA sources are needed for high performance LIDARs in NASA for, wind speed measurement, surface topography and earth...

  7. LEVIS ion source and beam characterization on PBFA-II

    Renk, T.J.; Tisone, G.C.; Adams, R.G.; Bailey, J.E.; Filuk, A.B.; Johnson, D.J.; Pointon, T.D.

    1993-01-01

    We report on the continuing development of the LEVIS (Laser Evaporation Ion Source) lithium active ion source for the 15-cm radial focussing ion diode on PBFA-11. We found previously that DC-heating of the anode surface to 150 degrees C maximum for 5 hours resulted in a pure lithium beam. This paper discusses the characterization of LEVIS source uniformity by Faraday cup arrays and multiple lines of sight for visible light spectroscopy. These diagnostics give some evidence of nonuniformity in both A-K gap electric fields and ion current density. Despite this, however, the measured focal spot size appears smaller than with a passive LiF source operated in the same magnetic field topology. Experiments using a curved anode for vertical beam focussing show reduced ion beam turn-on delay by 5 ns by altering the magnetic field topology as well as anode curvature. Another 3--5 ns reduction was achieved by switching from a passive LiF to the active LEVIS source

  8. Finding joy in social work. II: Intrapersonal sources.

    Pooler, David Kenneth; Wolfer, Terry; Freeman, Miriam

    2014-07-01

    Despite the social work profession's strengths orientation, research on its workforce tends to focus on problems (for example, depression, problem drinking, compassion fatigue, burnout). In contrast, this study explored ways in which social workers find joy in their work. The authors used an appreciative inquiry approach, semistructured interviews (N = 26), and a collaborative grounded theory method of analysis. Participants identified interpersonal (making connections and making a difference) and intrapersonal (making meaning and making a life) sources of joy and reflected significant personal initiative in the process of finding joy. The authors present findings regarding these intrapersonal sources of joy.

  9. 238Pu sources for cardiac pacemakers. II. Control

    Pottier, R.; Merigot, S.

    1976-01-01

    The method and the apparatus used for thermal (power) and radioactive control of radioisotopic sources for pacemakers are briefly described. The cybernetic system is also presented, which assumes almost automatically the monitoring of control, mechanical and electronic works, data processing, the measurements and computations, and the works related to quality control [fr

  10. Outer heliospheric radio emissions. II - Foreshock source models

    Cairns, Iver H.; Kurth, William S.; Gurnett, Donald A.

    1992-01-01

    Observations of LF radio emissions in the range 2-3 kHz by the Voyager spacecraft during the intervals 1983-1987 and 1989 to the present while at heliocentric distances greater than 11 AU are reported. New analyses of the wave data are presented, and the characteristics of the radiation are reviewed and discussed. Two classes of events are distinguished: transient events with varying starting frequencies that drift upward in frequency and a relatively continuous component that remains near 2 kHz. Evidence for multiple transient sources and for extension of the 2-kHz component above the 2.4-kHz interference signal is presented. The transient emissions are interpreted in terms of radiation generated at multiples of the plasma frequency when solar wind density enhancements enter one or more regions of a foreshock sunward of the inner heliospheric shock. Solar wind density enhancements by factors of 4-10 are observed. Propagation effects, the number of radiation sources, and the time variability, frequency drift, and varying starting frequencies of the transient events are discussed in terms of foreshock sources.

  11. Hydrocyanation of sulfonylimines using potassium hexacyanoferrate(II) as an eco-friendly cyanide source

    Li, Zheng; Li, Rongzhi; Zheng, Huanhuan; Wen, Fei; Li, Hongbo; Yin, Junjun; Yang, Jingya

    2013-01-01

    An efficient and eco-friendly method for hydrocyanation of sulfonylimines via one-pot two-step procedure using potassium hexacyanoferrate)II) as cyanide source, benzoyl chloride as a promoter, and potassium carbonate as a base is described. This protocol has the features of using nontoxic, nonvolatile and inexpensive cyanide source, high yield, and simple work-up procedure. (author)

  12. Hydrocyanation of sulfonylimines using potassium hexacyanoferrate(II) as an eco-friendly cyanide source

    Li, Zheng; Li, Rongzhi; Zheng, Huanhuan; Wen, Fei; Li, Hongbo; Yin, Junjun; Yang, Jingya, E-mail: lizheng@nwnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Eco-Environment-Related Polymer Materials for Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Gansu (China)

    2013-11-15

    An efficient and eco-friendly method for hydrocyanation of sulfonylimines via one-pot two-step procedure using potassium hexacyanoferrate)II) as cyanide source, benzoyl chloride as a promoter, and potassium carbonate as a base is described. This protocol has the features of using nontoxic, nonvolatile and inexpensive cyanide source, high yield, and simple work-up procedure. (author)

  13. General-purpose heat source development. Phase II: conceptual designs

    Snow, E.C.; Zocher, R.W.; Grinberg, I.M.; Hulbert, L.E.

    1978-11-01

    Basic geometric module shapes and fuel arrays were studied to determine how well they could be expected to meet the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) design requirements. Seven conceptual designs were selected, detailed drawings produced, and these seven concepts analyzed. Three of these design concepts were selected as GPHS Trial Designs to be reanalyzed in more detail and tested. The geometric studies leading to the selection of the seven conceptual designs, the analyses of these designs, and the selection of the three trial designs are discussed

  14. Dietary Sources of High Sodium Intake in Turkey: SALTURK II

    Yunus Erdem

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown daily salt intakes in Turkey to be far above the recommended limits. Knowing the sources of dietary salt could form a basis for preventive strategies aimed towards salt reduction. This study aimed to investigate dietary sources of salt in Turkey. A sub-group (n = 657 was selected from the PatenT2 study population, which represented the urban and rural areas of 4 major cities (Ankara, Istanbul, Izmir, and Konya. A questionnaire inquiring about sociodemographic characteristics, medical histories, detailed histories of diet, and salt consumption was completed. Participants were asked to collect a 24-h urine sample and to record their food intake (dietary recall on the same day. Of 925 participants selected, 657 (71% provided accurate 24-h urine collections, based on creatinine excretion data. The mean daily 24-h urinary sodium excretion was 252.0 ± 92.2 mmol/day, equal to daily salt intake of 14.8 ± 5.4 g. Of the 657 participants with accurate 24-h urine collections, 464 (70% provided fully completed dietary recalls. Among these 464 participants, there was a significant difference between the 24-h urinary sodium excretion-based salt intake estimation (14.5 ± 5.1 g/day and the dietary recall-based salt intake estimation (12.0 ± 7.0 g/day (p < 0.001. On the other hand, a positive correlation was obtained between the dietary recall-based daily salt intake and 24-h urinary sodium excretion-based daily salt intake (r = 0.277, p < 0.001. Bread was the main source of salt (34% followed by salt added during cooking and preparing food before serving (30%, salt from various processed foods (21%, and salt added at the table during food consumption (11%. Conclusively, this study confirmed a very high salt intake of the adult population in four major cities in Turkey. The present findings support the emerging salt reduction strategy in Turkey by promoting lower salt content in baked bread, and less salt use in habitual food

  15. FEASIBILITY STUDY II OF A MUON BASED NEUTRINO SOURCE.

    GALLARDO,J.C.; OZAKI,S.; PALMER,R.B.; ZISMAN,M.

    2001-06-30

    The concept of using a muon storage ring to provide a well characterized beam of muon and electron neutrinos (a Neutrino Factory) has been under study for a number of years now at various laboratories throughout the world. The physics program of a Neutrino Factoryis focused on the relatively unexplored neutrino sector. In conjunction with a detector located a suitable distance from the neutrino source, the facility would make valuable contributions to the study of neutrino masses and lepton mixing. A Neutrino Factory is expected to improve the measurement accuracy of sin{sup 2}(2{theta}{sub 23}) and {Delta}m{sup 2}{sub 32} and provide measurements of sin{sup 2}(2{theta}{sub 13}) and the sign of {Delta}m{sup 2}{sub 32}. It may also be able to measure CP violation in the lepton sector.

  16. Confrontation of the Magnetically Arrested Disc Scenario with Observations of FR II Sources

    Rusinek, Katarzyna; Sikora, Marek, E-mail: krusinek@camk.edu.pl [Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland)

    2017-10-12

    The main aim of our work was to check whether powers of jets in FR II radio galaxies (RGs) and quasars (QSOs) can be reproduced by the Magnetically Arrested Disc (MAD) scenario. Assuming that established in the recent numerical simulations of the MAD scenario the (H/R){sup 2} dependence of the jet production efficiency is correct, we demonstrate that in order to reproduce the observed jet powers in FR II sources: (i) accretion discs must be geometrically much thicker than the standard ones; (ii) and/or that the jet production is strongly modulated.

  17. The Bologna complete sample of nearby radio sources. II. Phase referenced observations of faint nuclear sources

    Liuzzo, E.; Giovannini, G.; Giroletti, M.; Taylor, G. B.

    2009-10-01

    Aims: To study statistical properties of different classes of sources, it is necessary to observe a sample that is free of selection effects. To do this, we initiated a project to observe a complete sample of radio galaxies selected from the B2 Catalogue of Radio Sources and the Third Cambridge Revised Catalogue (3CR), with no selection constraint on the nuclear properties. We named this sample “the Bologna Complete Sample” (BCS). Methods: We present new VLBI observations at 5 and 1.6 GHz for 33 sources drawn from a sample not biased toward orientation. By combining these data with those in the literature, information on the parsec-scale morphology is available for a total of 76 of 94 radio sources with a range in radio power and kiloparsec-scale morphologies. Results: The fraction of two-sided sources at milliarcsecond resolution is high (30%), compared to the fraction found in VLBI surveys selected at centimeter wavelengths, as expected from the predictions of unified models. The parsec-scale jets are generally found to be straight and to line up with the kiloparsec-scale jets. A few peculiar sources are discussed in detail. Tables 1-4 are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  18. Biomass burning impact on PM 2.5 over the southeastern US during 2007: integrating chemically speciated FRM filter measurements, MODIS fire counts and PMF analysis

    R. J. Weber

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Archived Federal Reference Method (FRM Teflon filters used by state regulatory agencies for measuring PM2.5 mass were acquired from 15 sites throughout the southeastern US and analyzed for water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC, water-soluble ions and carbohydrates to investigate biomass burning contributions to fine aerosol mass. Based on over 900 filters that spanned all of 2007, levoglucosan and K+ were studied in conjunction with MODIS Aqua fire count data to compare their performances as biomass burning tracers. Levoglucosan concentrations exhibited a distinct seasonal variation with large enhancement in winter and spring and a minimum in summer, and were well correlated with fire counts, except in winter when residential wood burning contributions were significant. In contrast, K+ concentrations had no apparent seasonal trend and poor correlation with fire counts. Levoglucosan and K+ only correlated well in winter (r2=0.59 when biomass burning emissions were highest, whereas in other seasons they were not correlated due to the presence of other K+ sources. Levoglucosan also exhibited larger spatial variability than K+. Both species were higher in urban than rural sites (mean 44% higher for levoglucosan and 86% for K+. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF was applied to analyze PM2.5 sources and four factors were resolved: biomass burning, refractory material, secondary light absorbing WSOC and secondary sulfate/WSOC. The biomass burning source contributed 13% to PM2.5 mass annually, 27% in winter, and less than 2% in summer, consistent with other souce apportionment studies based on levoglucosan, but lower in summer compared to studies based on K+.

  19. Wormhole solutions sourced by fluids, II: three-fluid two-charged sources

    Azreg-Ainou, Mustapha [Baskent University, Faculty of Engineering, Ankara (Turkey)

    2016-01-15

    Lack of a consistent metric for generating rotating wormholes motivates us to present a new one endowed with interesting physical and geometrical properties. When combined with the generalized method of superposition of fields, which consists in attaching a form of matter to each moving frame, it generates massive and charged (charge without charge) two-fluid-sourced, massive and two-charged three-fluid-sourced, rotating as well as new static wormholes which, otherwise, can hardly be derived by integration. If the lapse function of the static wormhole is bounded from above, no closed timelike curves occur in the rotating counterpart. For positive energy densities dying out faster than 1/r, the angular velocity includes in its expansion a correction term, to the leading one that corresponds to ordinary stars, proportional to ln r/r{sup 4}. Such a term is not present in the corresponding expansion for the Kerr-Newman black hole. Based on this observation and our previous work, the dragging effects of falling neutral objects may constitute a substitute for other known techniques used for testing the nature of the rotating black hole candidates that are harbored in the center of galaxies. We discuss the possibility of generating (n + 1)-fluid-sourced, n-charged, rotating as well as static wormholes. (orig.)

  20. Wormhole solutions sourced by fluids, II: three-fluid two-charged sources

    Azreg-Aïnou, Mustapha, E-mail: azreg@baskent.edu.tr [Faculty of Engineering, Başkent University, Bağlıca Campus, 06810, Ankara (Turkey)

    2016-01-05

    Lack of a consistent metric for generating rotating wormholes motivates us to present a new one endowed with interesting physical and geometrical properties. When combined with the generalized method of superposition of fields, which consists in attaching a form of matter to each moving frame, it generates massive and charged (charge without charge) two-fluid-sourced, massive and two-charged three-fluid-sourced, rotating as well as new static wormholes which, otherwise, can hardly be derived by integration. If the lapse function of the static wormhole is bounded from above, no closed timelike curves occur in the rotating counterpart. For positive energy densities dying out faster than 1 / r, the angular velocity includes in its expansion a correction term, to the leading one that corresponds to ordinary stars, proportional to lnr/r{sup 4}. Such a term is not present in the corresponding expansion for the Kerr–Newman black hole. Based on this observation and our previous work, the dragging effects of falling neutral objects may constitute a substitute for other known techniques used for testing the nature of the rotating black hole candidates that are harbored in the center of galaxies. We discuss the possibility of generating (n+1)-fluid-sourced, n-charged, rotating as well as static wormholes.

  1. Turbulence in extended synchrotron radio sources. I. Polarization of turbulent sources. II. Power-spectral analysis

    Eilek, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Recent theories of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence are used to construct microphysical turbulence models, with emphasis on models of anisotropic turbulence. These models have been applied to the determination of the emergent polarization from a resolved uniform source. It is found that depolarization alone is not a unique measure of the turbulence, and that the turblence will also affect the total-intensity distributions. Fluctuations in the intensity image can thus be employed to measure turbulence strength. In the second part, it is demonstrated that a power-spectral analysis of the total and polarized intensity images can be used to obtain the power spectra of the synchrotron emission. 81 refs

  2. Ferroelectric plasma sources for NDCX-II and heavy ion drivers

    Gilson, E.P., E-mail: egilson@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey, 08543 (United States); Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Kaganovich, I.D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey, 08543 (United States); Kwan, J.W.; Lidia, S.M.; Ni, P.A.; Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California, 94720 (United States); Barnard, J.J.; Friedman, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California, 94550 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    A barium titanate ferroelectric cylindrical plasma source has been developed, tested and delivered for the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment NDCX-II at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The plasma source design is based on the successful design of the NDCX-I plasma source. A 7 kV pulse applied across the 3.8 mm-thick ceramic cylinder wall produces a large polarization surface charge density that leads to breakdown and plasma formation. The plasma that fills the NDCX-II drift section upstream of the final-focusing solenoid has a plasma number density exceeding 10{sup 10} cm{sup −3} and an electron temperature of several eV. The operating principle of the ferroelectric plasma source are reviewed and a detailed description of the installation plans is presented. The criteria for plasma sources with larger number density will be given, and concepts will be presented for plasma sources for driver applications. Plasma sources for drivers will need to be highly reliable, and operate at several Hz for millions of shots.

  3. RadSTraM: Radiological Source Tracking and Monitoring, Phase II Final Report

    Warren, Tracy A [ORNL; Walker, Randy M [ORNL; Hill, David E [ORNL; Gross, Ian G [ORNL; Smith, Cyrus M [ORNL; Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL

    2008-12-01

    This report focuses on the technical information gained from the Radiological Source Tracking and Monitoring (RadSTraM) Phase II investigation and its implications. The intent of the RadSTraM project was to determine the feasibility of tracking radioactive materials in commerce, particularly International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Category 3 and 4 materials. Specifically, Phase II of the project addressed tracking radiological medical isotopes in commerce. These categories of materials are susceptible to loss or theft but the problem is not being addressed by other agencies.

  4. RadSTraM: Radiological Source Tracking and Monitoring, Phase II Final Report

    Warren, Tracy A.; Walker, Randy M.; Hill, David E.; Gross, Ian G.; Smith, Cyrus M.; Abercrombie, Robert K.

    2008-01-01

    This report focuses on the technical information gained from the Radiological Source Tracking and Monitoring (RadSTraM) Phase II investigation and its implications. The intent of the RadSTraM project was to determine the feasibility of tracking radioactive materials in commerce, particularly International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Category 3 and 4 materials. Specifically, Phase II of the project addressed tracking radiological medical isotopes in commerce. These categories of materials are susceptible to loss or theft but the problem is not being addressed by other agencies

  5. Li+ alumino-silicate ion source development for the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX-II)

    Roy, P.K.; Greenway, W.; Kwan, J.W.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.

    2011-01-01

    To heat targets to electron-volt temperatures for the study of warm dense matter with intense ion beams, low mass ions, such as lithium, have an energy loss peak (dE/dx) at a suitable kinetic energy. The Heavy Ion Fusion Sciences (HIFS) program at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory will carry out warm dense matter experiments using Li + ion beam with energy 1.2-4 MeV in order to achieve uniform heating up to 0.1-1 eV. The accelerator physics design of Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX-II) has a pulse length at the ion source of about 0.5 (micro)s. Thus for producing 50 nC of beam charge, the required beam current is about 100 mA. Focusability requires a normalized (edge) emittance ∼2 π-mm-mrad. Here, lithium aluminosilicate ion sources, of β-eucryptite, are being studied within the scope of NDCX-II construction. Several small (0.64 cm diameter) lithium aluminosilicate ion sources, on 70%-80% porous tungsten substrate, were operated in a pulsed mode. The distance between the source surface and the mid-plane of the extraction electrode (1 cm diameter aperture) was 1.48 cm. The source surface temperature was at 1220 C to 1300 C. A 5-6 (micro)s long beam pulsed was recorded by a Faraday cup (+300 V on the collector plate and -300 V on the suppressor ring). Figure 1 shows measured beam current density (J) vs. V 3/2 . A space-charge limited beam density of ∼1 mA/cm 2 was measured at 1275 C temperature, after allowing a conditioning time of about ∼ 12 hours. Maximum emission limited beam current density of (ge) 1.8mA/cm 2 was recorded at 1300 C with 10-kV extractions. Figure 2 shows the lifetime of two typical sources with space-charge limited beam current emission at a lower extraction voltage (1.75 kV) and at temperature of 1265 ± 7 C. These data demonstrate a constant, space-charge limited beam current for 20-50 hours. The lifetime of a source is determined by the loss of lithium from the alumino-silicate material either as ions or as neutral

  6. Getting to the Source: a Survey of Quantitative Data Sources Available to the Everyday Librarian: Part II: Data Sources from Specific Library Applications

    Lisa Goddard

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the second part of a two-part article that provides a survey of data sources which are likely to be immediately available to the typical practitioner who wishes to engage in statistical analysis of collections and services within his or her own library. Part I outlines the data elements which can be extracted from web server logs, and discusses web log analysis tools. Part II looks at logs, reports, and data sources from proxy servers, resource vendors, link resolvers, federated search engines, institutional repositories, electronic reference services, and the integrated library system.

  7. Sources of long-lived atmospheric VOCs at the rural boreal forest site, SMEAR II

    Patokoski, J.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; Kajos, M. K.; Taipale, R.; Rantala, P.; Aalto, J.; Ryyppö, T.; Nieminen, T.; Hakola, H.; Rinne, J.

    2015-12-01

    In this study a long-term volatile organic compound (VOCs) concentration data set, measured at the SMEAR II (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations) boreal forest site in Hyytiälä, Finland during the years 2006-2011, was analyzed in order to identify source areas and profiles of the observed VOCs. VOC mixing ratios were measured using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry. Four-day HYSPLIT 4 (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) backward trajectories and the Unmix 6.0 receptor model were used for source area and source composition analysis. Two major forest fire events in Russia took place during the measurement period. The effect of these fires was clearly visible in the trajectory analysis, lending confidence to the method employed with this data set. Elevated volume mixing ratios (VMRs) of non-biogenic VOCs related to forest fires, e.g. acetonitrile and aromatic VOCs, were observed. Ten major source areas for long-lived VOCs (methanol, acetonitrile, acetaldehyde, acetone, benzene, and toluene) observed at the SMEAR II site were identified. The main source areas for all the targeted VOCs were western Russia, northern Poland, Kaliningrad, and the Baltic countries. Industrial areas in northern continental Europe were also found to be source areas for certain VOCs. Both trajectory and receptor analysis showed that air masses from northern Fennoscandia were less polluted with respect to both the VOCs studied and other trace gases (CO, SO2 and NOx), compared to areas of eastern and western continental Europe, western Russia, and southern Fennoscandia.

  8. Expansion design for a radioactive sources handling laboratory type II class B

    Sanchez S, P. S.; Monroy G, F.; Alanis, J.

    2013-10-01

    The Radioactive Wastes Research Laboratory (RWRL) of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (Mexico), at the moment has three sections: instrumental analysis, radioactive material processes, counting and a license type II class C, to manipulate radioactive material. This license limits the open sources handling to 300 kBq for radionuclides of very high radio-toxicity as the Ra-226, for what is being projected the license extension to type II class B, to be able to manage until 370 MBq of this radionuclides type, and the Laboratory, since the location where is the RWRL have unused area. This work presents a proposal of the RWRL expansion, taking into account the current laboratory sections, as well as the established specifications by the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS). The current planes of the RWRL and the expansion proposal of the laboratory are presented. (Author)

  9. Neutron Imaging in Cultural Heritage Research at the FRM II Reactor of the Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Center

    Burkhard Schillinger

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutron Imaging is ideally suited for applications in cultural heritage even at small reactors with moderate image resolution. However, recently, high resolution imaging is being increasingly used for advanced studies, especially in paleontology. The special contrast for hydrogen and between neighboring elements in the periodic system allows for new applications that are not accessible for X-rays, like organic material in enclosed containers made of ceramics or metals, fossilized bones in chalk rock or in ferrous “red” beds, and even for animal and hominid teeth. Fission neutrons permit the examination of large samples that otherwise show large attenuation for thermal neutrons.

  10. High Fidelity Down-Conversion Source for Secure Communications using On-Demand Single Photons, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this NASA SBIR Phase II effort, AdvR will design and build an efficient, fully integrated, waveguide based, source of spectrally uncorrelated photon pairs that...

  11. Latest experience on insertion devices at the National Synchrotron Light Source-II

    Tanabe, Toshiya; Cappadoro, Peter; Corwin, Todd

    2016-01-01

    National Synchrotron Light Source-II (NSLS-II) is the latest storage ring of 3 GeV energy with the horizontal emittance of the electron beam being 0.9 nm.rad. Nine In-Vacuum Undulators (IVUs) are utilized at the NSLS-II as of February 2016. All IVUs have a unique side window derived from the experience from the CHESS facility in Cornell University. An R and D activity called 'Vacuum Seal Test' was conducted to ensure the viability of aluminum wire seal. Another R and D activity to develop a measurement system for Cryogenic Permanent Magnet Undulator (CPMU) was also performed. Other in-air devices, namely damping wigglers (DWs) and elliptically polarizing undulators (EPUs) utilize extruded aluminum chambers with Non-Evaporable Getter (NEG) coating. The beam-based integral estimates were obtained from the virtual kicks at the upstream and downstream of the undulator that best fit the measured orbit distortion in a model lattice with Tracy. In some cases, there are fairly large discrepancies between magnetic measurement data and observed integrals by the beam. Beam studies were carried out to explain the discrepancies mentioned earlier. The latest experiences on ID development and commissioning are discussed in conjunction with related activities in the world. (author)

  12. Thermal flow in detectors of CNA-II with spontaneous fissions source of 238U

    Mascitti, J. A

    2012-01-01

    The thermal flux in the position of ex-core and in-core CNA-II Nuclear Power Plant (CNA-II) detectors is estimated considering neutron from the 238 U spontaneous fissions as the source, for the reactor cold state (isothermal state with both coolant and moderator at a temperature of 60 o C, a pressure of 35 ata and 15.46 ppm of natural Boron), and 24% inserted control rods (slightly sub-critical). Results are obtained for two different situations: with and without photo-neutrons due to the (γ,n) reaction in D 2 O. It is concluded that the thermal flux is under the detection limit of the boron trifluoride 104-SR or 282-IB detectors (≅10 -1 cm-2.s -1 ). These detectors are located in opposite positions in the inner concrete shielding, having the lowest detection limit among all ex-core detectors. A significant difference is verified in neutron fluxes between both cases, which suggest that photo-neutrons in large heavy water reactors such as CNA-II should not be ignored. The total neutron flux attenuation factor between the inner and outer region of the reactor pressure vessel was estimated to be 7.0 x 10 -7 . It should be mentioned that none of the results here presented has been affected by any correction factor. Each value has a percentage relative error representing the statistical uncertainty due to the probabilistic Monte Carlo method used to obtain it (author)

  13. LEVIS active anode lithium ion source development on PBFA-II

    Renk, T.J.; Tisone, G.C.; Adams, R.G.; Clark, B.F.; Reyes, C.; Bailey, J.E.; Filuk, A.B.; Desjarlais, M.P.; Johnson, D.J.; Carlson, A.L.; Lake, P.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments are ongoing on the PBFA-II Accelerator (10 MV typical, 50 ns) to optimize an active lithium ion source in a 15-cm focusing Applied-B ion diode using the LEVIS (Laser Evaporation Ion Source) process. Two laser pulses impinge on a thin (500 nm) Li or Li-bearing alloy on an insulating substrate. A Nd:YAG laser beam (1 μm, 8 ns, 0.1--0.2 J/cm 2 ) creates a thin (∼1 mm) Li vapor, which is then ionized by a 30--60 mJ/cm 2 dye laser tuned to the first resonant transition of Li (670.8 nm). In order to achieve a high-purity Li beam on PBFA-II with LEVIS, it has proven necessary to clean the anode surface in some way. The principal technique has been DC-heating of the anode to temperatures of 150--200 C for typically 5 hours, and for as long as 13 hours, prior to machine firing. Use of a LiAg alloy and YAG energy densities of 200 mJ/cm 2 have yielded beams of Li purity greater than 90%. They authors also plan to test a diode configuration that deposits Li in-situ on the anode surface just prior to the machine shot, as an alternative to DC-heating

  14. SOURCE REGIONS OF THE TYPE II RADIO BURST OBSERVED DURING A CME–CME INTERACTION ON 2013 MAY 22

    Mäkelä, P.; Reiner, M. J.; Akiyama, S.; Gopalswamy, N.; Krupar, V.

    2016-01-01

    We report on our study of radio source regions during the type II radio burst on 2013 May 22 based on direction-finding analysis of the Wind /WAVES and STEREO /WAVES (SWAVES) radio observations at decameter–hectometric wavelengths. The type II emission showed an enhancement that coincided with the interaction of two coronal mass ejections (CMEs) launched in sequence along closely spaced trajectories. The triangulation of the SWAVES source directions posited the ecliptic projections of the radio sources near the line connecting the Sun and the STEREO-A spacecraft. The WAVES and SWAVES source directions revealed shifts in the latitude of the radio source, indicating that the spatial location of the dominant source of the type II emission varies during the CME–CME interaction. The WAVES source directions close to 1 MHz frequencies matched the location of the leading edge of the primary CME seen in the images of the LASCO/C3 coronagraph. This correspondence of spatial locations at both wavelengths confirms that the CME–CME interaction region is the source of the type II enhancement. Comparison of radio and white-light observations also showed that at lower frequencies scattering significantly affects radio wave propagation.

  15. Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control. Volume II: Control Technology and General Source Inspection.

    Weisburd, Melvin I.

    The Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control, Volume II, explains in detail the following: technology of source control, modification of operations, particulate control equipment, sulfur dioxide removal systems for power plants, and control equipment for gases and vapors; inspection procedures for general sources, fuel…

  16. A characterization and optimization study of Gamble II as an X-ray bremsstrahlung source

    Oliphant, W.F.; Boller, J.R.; Brown, D.G.; Cooperstein, G.; Dozier, C.M.; Stephanakis, S.J.

    1982-01-01

    The adverse effects of radiation on solid state devices are strongly spectrum dependent. It is thus essential that the radiation spectrum from flash x-ray sources be available when they are used as facilities for testing electronic components. This paper describes a preliminary study in which previously developed computer codes were used to calculate the radiation spectrum produced by NRL's Gamble II pulsed power generator. To determine how well the calculated spectrum matched the experimental one, doses in CaF 2 -Mn TLD's were computed for the dosimeters placed behind various thicknesses of Cu and Pb filters and compared with the experimentally measured doses. Using a diode model that was consistent with presently understood electron beam behavior, a spectrum was generated which predicted TLD doses to within about 15% of the experimentally measured values

  17. Shielding NSLS-II light source: Importance of geometry for calculating radiation levels from beam losses

    Kramer, S. L.; Ghosh, V. J.; Breitfeller, M.; Wahl, W.

    2016-11-01

    Third generation high brightness light sources are designed to have low emittance and high current beams, which contribute to higher beam loss rates that will be compensated by Top-Off injection. Shielding for these higher loss rates will be critical to protect the projected higher occupancy factors for the users. Top-Off injection requires a full energy injector, which will demand greater consideration of the potential abnormal beam miss-steering and localized losses that could occur. The high energy electron injection beam produces significantly higher neutron component dose to the experimental floor than a lower energy beam injection and ramped operations. Minimizing this dose will require adequate knowledge of where the miss-steered beam can occur and sufficient EM shielding close to the loss point, in order to attenuate the energy of the particles in the EM shower below the neutron production threshold (weaknesses in the design before a high radiation incident occurs. The effort required to adequately define the accelerator geometry for these codes has been greatly reduced with the implementation of the graphical interface of FLAIR to FLUKA. This made the effective shielding process for NSLS-II quite accurate and reliable. The principles used to provide supplemental shielding to the NSLS-II accelerators and the lessons learned from this process are presented.

  18. The alkaline aluminium/hydrogen peroxide power source in the Hugin II unmanned underwater vehicle

    Hasvold, Øistein; Johansen, Kjell Håvard; Mollestad, Ole; Forseth, Sissel; Størkersen, Nils

    In 1993, The Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI) demonstrated AUV-Demo, an unmanned (untethered) underwater vehicle (UUV), powered by a magnesium/dissolved oxygen seawater battery (SWB). This technology showed that an underwater range of at least 1000 nautical miles at a speed of 4 knots was possible, but also that the maximum hotel load this battery system could support was very limited. Most applications for UUV technology need more power over a shorter period of time. Seabed mapping using a multibeam echo sounder mounted on an UUV was identified as a viable application and the Hugin project was started in 1995 in cooperation with Norwegian industry. For this application, an endurance of 36 h at 4 knots was required. Development of the UUV hull and electronics system resulted in the UUV Hugin I. It carries a Ni/Cd battery of 3 kW h, allowing up to 6 h under-water endurance. In parallel, we developed a battery based on a combination of alkaline Al/air and SWB technology, using a circulating alkaline electrolyte, aluminium anodes and maintaining the oxidant concentration in the electrolyte by continuously adding hydrogen peroxide (HP) to the electrolyte. This concept resulted in a safe battery, working at ambient pressure (balanced) and with sufficient power and energy density to allow the UUV Hugin II to make a number of successive dives, each of up to 36 h duration and with only 1 h deck time between dives for HP refill and electrolyte exchange. After 100 h, an exchange of anodes takes place. The power source consists of a four-cell Al/HP battery, a DC/DC converter delivering 600 W at 30 V, circulation and dosing pumps and a battery control unit. Hugin II is now in routine use by the Norwegian Underwater Intervention AS (NUI) which operates the UUV for high-precision seabed mapping down to a water depth of 600 m.

  19. Site Characterization of the Source Physics Experiment Phase II Location Using Seismic Reflection Data

    Sexton, E. A.; Snelson, C. M.; Chipman, V.; Emer, D. F.; White, R. L.; Emmitt, R.; Wright, A. A.; Drellack, S.; Huckins-Gang, H.; Mercadante, J.; Floyd, M.; McGowin, C.; Cothrun, C.; Bonal, N.

    2013-12-01

    An objective of the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) is to identify low-yield nuclear explosions from a regional distance. Low-yield nuclear explosions can often be difficult to discriminate among the clutter of natural and man-made explosive events (e.g., earthquakes and mine blasts). The SPE is broken into three phases. Phase I has provided the first of the physics-based data to test the empirical models that have been used to discriminate nuclear events. The Phase I series of tests were placed within a highly fractured granite body. The evolution of the project has led to development of Phase II, to be placed within the opposite end member of geology, an alluvium environment, thereby increasing the database of waveforms to build upon in the discrimination models. Both the granite and alluvium sites have hosted nearby nuclear tests, which provide comparisons for the chemical test data. Phase III of the SPE is yet to be determined. For Phase II of the experiment, characterization of the location is required to develop the geologic/geophysical models for the execution of the experiment. Criteria for the location are alluvium thickness of approximately 170 m and a water table below 170 m; minimal fracturing would be ideal. A P-wave mini-vibroseis survey was conducted at a potential site in alluvium to map out the subsurface geology. The seismic reflection profile consisted of 168 geophone stations, spaced 5 m apart. The mini-vibe was a 7,000-lb peak-force source, starting 57.5 m off the north end of the profile and ending 57.5 m past the southern-most geophone. The length of the profile was 835 m. The source points were placed every 5 m, equally spaced between geophones to reduce clipping. The vibroseis sweep was from 20 Hz down to 180 Hz over 8 seconds, and four sweeps were stacked at each shot location. The shot gathers show high signal-to-noise ratios with clear first arrivals across the entire spread and the suggestion of some shallow reflectors. The data were

  20. Source term derivation and radiological safety analysis for the TRICO II research reactor in Kinshasa

    Muswema, J.L.; Ekoko, G.B.; Lukanda, V.M.; Lobo, J.K.-K.; Darko, E.O.; Boafo, E.K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Atmospheric dispersion modeling for two credible accidents of the TRIGA Mark II research reactor in Kinshasa (TRICO II) was performed. • Radiological safety analysis after the postulated initiating events (PIE) was also carried out. • The Karlsruhe KORIGEN and the HotSpot Health Physics codes were used to achieve the objectives of this study. • All the values of effective dose obtained following the accident scenarios were below the regulatory limits for reactor staff members and the public, respectively. - Abstract: The source term from the 1 MW TRIGA Mark II research reactor core of the Democratic Republic of the Congo was derived in this study. An atmospheric dispersion modeling followed by radiation dose calculation were performed based on two possible postulated accident scenarios. This derivation was made from an inventory of peak radioisotope activities released in the core by using the Karlsruhe version of isotope generation code KORIGEN. The atmospheric dispersion modeling was performed with HotSpot code, and its application yielded to radiation dose profile around the site using meteorological parameters specific to the area under study. The two accident scenarios were picked from possible accident analyses for TRIGA and TRIGA-fueled reactors, involving the case of destruction of the fuel element with highest activity release and a plane crash on the reactor building as the worst case scenario. Deterministic effects of these scenarios are used to update the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) of the reactor, and for its current version, these scenarios are not yet incorporated. Site-specific meteorological conditions were collected from two meteorological stations: one installed within the Atomic Energy Commission and another at the National Meteorological Agency (METTELSAT), which is not far from the site. Results show that in both accident scenarios, radiation doses remain within the limits, far below the recommended maximum effective

  1. Source term derivation and radiological safety analysis for the TRICO II research reactor in Kinshasa

    Muswema, J.L., E-mail: jeremie.muswem@unikin.ac.cd [Faculty of Science, University of Kinshasa, P.O. Box 190, KIN XI (Congo, The Democratic Republic of the); Ekoko, G.B. [Faculty of Science, University of Kinshasa, P.O. Box 190, KIN XI (Congo, The Democratic Republic of the); Lukanda, V.M. [Faculty of Science, University of Kinshasa, P.O. Box 190, KIN XI (Congo, The Democratic Republic of the); Democratic Republic of the Congo' s General Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box AE1 (Congo, The Democratic Republic of the); Lobo, J.K.-K. [Faculty of Science, University of Kinshasa, P.O. Box 190, KIN XI (Congo, The Democratic Republic of the); Darko, E.O. [Radiation Protection Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG 80, Legon, Accra (Ghana); Boafo, E.K. [University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe St. North, Oshawa, ONL1 H7K4 (Canada)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Atmospheric dispersion modeling for two credible accidents of the TRIGA Mark II research reactor in Kinshasa (TRICO II) was performed. • Radiological safety analysis after the postulated initiating events (PIE) was also carried out. • The Karlsruhe KORIGEN and the HotSpot Health Physics codes were used to achieve the objectives of this study. • All the values of effective dose obtained following the accident scenarios were below the regulatory limits for reactor staff members and the public, respectively. - Abstract: The source term from the 1 MW TRIGA Mark II research reactor core of the Democratic Republic of the Congo was derived in this study. An atmospheric dispersion modeling followed by radiation dose calculation were performed based on two possible postulated accident scenarios. This derivation was made from an inventory of peak radioisotope activities released in the core by using the Karlsruhe version of isotope generation code KORIGEN. The atmospheric dispersion modeling was performed with HotSpot code, and its application yielded to radiation dose profile around the site using meteorological parameters specific to the area under study. The two accident scenarios were picked from possible accident analyses for TRIGA and TRIGA-fueled reactors, involving the case of destruction of the fuel element with highest activity release and a plane crash on the reactor building as the worst case scenario. Deterministic effects of these scenarios are used to update the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) of the reactor, and for its current version, these scenarios are not yet incorporated. Site-specific meteorological conditions were collected from two meteorological stations: one installed within the Atomic Energy Commission and another at the National Meteorological Agency (METTELSAT), which is not far from the site. Results show that in both accident scenarios, radiation doses remain within the limits, far below the recommended maximum effective

  2. The SRP-II as a Rich Source of Data on the Psychopathic Personality

    Lester, Whitney S.; Salekin, Randall T.; Sellbom, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure, external correlates, and predictive utility of the Self-Report Psychopathy scale (SRP-II; Hare, Harpur, & Hemphill, 1989). Despite a revision of the SRP-II to address, among other criticisms, a lack of items reflecting antisocial behavior, we hypothesized that the SRP-II would have a conceptually coherent…

  3. The Upgrade of the Neutron Induced Positron Source NEPOMUC

    Hugenschmidt, C.; Ceeh, H.; Gigl, T.; Lippert, F.; Piochacz, C.; Pikart, P.; Reiner, M.; Weber, J.; Zimnik, S.

    2013-06-01

    In summer 2012, the new NEutron induced POsitron Source MUniCh (NEPOMUC) was installed and put into operation at the research reactor FRM II. At NEPOMUC upgrade 80% 113Cd enriched Cd is used as neutron-gamma converter in order to ensure an operation time of 25 years. A structure of Pt foils inside the beam tube generates positrons by pair production. Moderated positrons leaving the Pt front foil are electrically extracted and magnetically guided to the outside of the reactor pool. The whole design, including Pt-foils, the electric lenses and the magnetic fields, has been improved in order to enhance both the intensity and the brightness of the positron beam. After adjusting the potentials and the magnetic guide and compensation fields an intensity of about 3·109 moderated positrons per second is expected. During the first start-up, the measured temperatures of about 90°C ensure a reliable operation of the positron source. Within this contribution the features and the status of NEPOMUC upgrade are elucidated. In addition, an overview of recent positron beam experiments and current developments at the spectrometers is given.

  4. Existing and projected neutron sources and low-temperature irradiation facilities in Germany

    Boening, K.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, a contribution given at the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute to the temporal meeting on the design of the facilities for high flux, low temperature irradiation is summarized. The following five subjects were discussed. The project of modernizing the swimming pool type research reactor FRM with 4 MW power at Munich is to achieve relatively high thermal neutron flux, and an extremely compact core is designed. The existing low temperature irradiation facility (LTIF) of the FRM is the most powerful in the world, and has been successfully operated more than 20 years. The fast and thermal neutron fluxes are 2.9 x 10 13 and 3.5 x 10 13 /cm 2 sec, respectively. The experimental techniques in the LTIF of the FRM, such as a measuring cryostat, the mounting of irradiated samples and so on, are described. The installation of new LTIFs in connection with the projects of advanced neutron sources in Germany is likely to be made in the modernized FRM at Garching, in the spallation neutron source SNQ at KFA Juelich and so on. The interesting problems in fundamental and applied researches with LTIFs, and the unusual application of LTIFs are shown. (Kako, I.)

  5. Developments in Polarization and Energy Control of APPLE-II Undulators at Diamond Light Source

    Longhi, E. C.; Bencok, P.; Dobrynin, A.; Rial, E. C. M.; Rose, A.; Steadman, P.; Thompson, C.; Thomson, A.; Wang, H.

    2013-03-01

    A pair of 2m long APPLE-II type undulators have been built for the I10 BLADE beamline at Diamond Light Source. These 48mm period devices have gap as well as four moveable phase axes which provide the possibility to produce the full range of elliptical polarizations as well as linear polarization tilted through a full 180deg. The mechanical layout chosen has a 'master and slave' arrangement of the phase axes on the top and bottom. This arrangement allows the use of symmetries to provide operational ease for both changing energy using only the master phase while keeping fixed linear horizontal or circular polarization, as well as changing linear polarization angle while keeping fixed energy [1]. The design allows very fast motion of the master phase arrays, without sacrifice of accuracy, allowing the possibility of mechanical polarization switching at 1Hz for dichroism experiments. We present the mechanical design features of these devices, as well as the results of magnetic measurements and shimming from before installation. Finally, we present the results of characterization of these devices by the beamline, including polarimetry, which has been done on the various modes of motion to control energy and polarization. These modes of operation have been available to users since 2011.

  6. Developments in Polarization and Energy Control of APPLE-II Undulators at Diamond Light Source

    Longhi, E C; Bencok, P; Dobrynin, A; Rial, E C M; Rose, A; Steadman, P; Thompson, C; Thomson, A; Wang, H

    2013-01-01

    A pair of 2m long APPLE-II type undulators have been built for the I10 BLADE beamline at Diamond Light Source. These 48mm period devices have gap as well as four moveable phase axes which provide the possibility to produce the full range of elliptical polarizations as well as linear polarization tilted through a full 180deg. The mechanical layout chosen has a 'master and slave' arrangement of the phase axes on the top and bottom. This arrangement allows the use of symmetries to provide operational ease for both changing energy using only the master phase while keeping fixed linear horizontal or circular polarization, as well as changing linear polarization angle while keeping fixed energy [1]. The design allows very fast motion of the master phase arrays, without sacrifice of accuracy, allowing the possibility of mechanical polarization switching at 1Hz for dichroism experiments. We present the mechanical design features of these devices, as well as the results of magnetic measurements and shimming from before installation. Finally, we present the results of characterization of these devices by the beamline, including polarimetry, which has been done on the various modes of motion to control energy and polarization. These modes of operation have been available to users since 2011.

  7. Transportation of 33 irradiated MTR fuel assemblies from FRM/Garching to Savannah River Site, USA, using a GNS transport cask and using a new loading device

    Dreesen, K.; Goetze, H.G.; Holst, L.; Gerstenberg, H.; Schreckenbach, K.

    2000-01-01

    According to the Department of Energy program of the return spent fuel from the foreign research reactors operators, 33 irradiated MTR box shaped fuel assemblies from the Technical University Munich were shipped to SRS/USA. The fuel assemblies were irradiated for typically 800 full days and, after a sufficient cooling time, loaded into a GNS 16 cask. The GNS 16 cask is a new transport cask for box shaped MTR fuel assemblies and TRIGA fuel assemblies and was used for the first time at the FRM Garching. The capacity of the cask is 33 box shaped MTR fuel assemblies. During the loading of the fuel assemblies, a newly developed loading device was used. The main components of the loading device are the transfer flask, the shielded loading lock, adapter plate and a mobile water tank. The loading device works mechanically with manpower. For the handling of the transfer flask, a crane with a capacity of 5 metric tons is necessary. During installation of the lid the mobile water pool is filled with demineralized water and the shielded loading passage is taken away. After that the lid is put on the cask. After drainage, the mobile water pool is disassembled, and the cask is dewatered. Finally leak tests of all seals are made. The achieved leakage rate was -5 Pa x I/s. The work in FRM was done between 03.02.99 and 12.02.99 including a dry run and leak test. (author)

  8. Expansion design for a radioactive sources handling laboratory type II class B; Diseno de ampliacion para un laboratorio de manejo de fuentes radiactivas tipo II clase B

    Sanchez S, P. S. [Universidad Mexiquense del Bicentenario, Av. Industria Poniente s/n, Parque Industrial Dona Rosa, 52000 Lerma, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Monroy G, F.; Alanis, J., E-mail: salvador-21@live.com.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Touca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    The Radioactive Wastes Research Laboratory (RWRL) of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (Mexico), at the moment has three sections: instrumental analysis, radioactive material processes, counting and a license type II class C, to manipulate radioactive material. This license limits the open sources handling to 300 kBq for radionuclides of very high radio-toxicity as the Ra-226, for what is being projected the license extension to type II class B, to be able to manage until 370 MBq of this radionuclides type, and the Laboratory, since the location where is the RWRL have unused area. This work presents a proposal of the RWRL expansion, taking into account the current laboratory sections, as well as the established specifications by the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS). The current planes of the RWRL and the expansion proposal of the laboratory are presented. (Author)

  9. The Status of Kasimov Chinggisids during the Reigns of Vasily II and Ivan III according to Written Sources

    M.A. Nesin

    2017-01-01

    Research objective: To study the issue both of the status of Kasimov Chinggisids as well as of the attitude toward the service Tatars and the Tatars who were allied to Moscow during the reigns of the great Moscow princes Vasily II and Ivan III. Research materials: Published and unpublished sources: books of official orders in the Russian state, chronicles, acts, diplomatic documents, etc. Results and novelty of the research: This work is the first comprehensive study of this topic. The ...

  10. THE Low-level Radio Frequency System for the superconducting cavities of National Synchrotron Light Source II

    Ma, H.; Rose, J.; Holub, B.; Cupolo, J.; Oliva, J.; Sikora, R.; Yeddulla, M.

    2011-01-01

    A digital low-level radio frequency (LLRF) field controller has been developed for the storage ring of The National Synchrotron Light Source-II (NSLS-II). The primary performance goal for the LLRF is to support the required RF operation of the superconducting cavities with a beam current of 500mA and a 0.14 degree or better RF phase stability. The digital field controller is FPGA-based, in a standard format 19-inch/I-U chassis. It has an option of high-level control support with MATLAB running on a local host computer through a USB2.0 port. The field controller has been field tested with the high-power superconducting RF (SRF) at Canadian light Source, and successfully stored a high beam current of 250 mA. The test results show that required specifications for the cavity RF field stability are met. This digital field controller is also currently being used as a development platform for other functional modules in the NSLS-II RF systems.

  11. 318-MHz variability of complete samples of extragalactic radio sources. II

    Dennison, B.; Broderick, J.J.; Ledden, J.E.; O'Dell, S.L.; Condon, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    We report the remainder of two- and three-epoch 318-MHz observations of extragalactic sources in samples complete to 3 Jy at 1400 MHz and 1 Jy at 5000 MHz. From analysis of this low-frequency variability survey, we find that steep-spectrum (α> or =0.5) sources do not appear to vary, but about 40% of all flat-spectrum (α<0.5) sources exhibit low-frequency variability exceeding 8% over approx.5 yr. Among the flat-spectrum sources, those with inverted spectra show the largest fractional variations. We also find that the incidence of low-frequency variability is strongly correlated with the determination that a source is an optically violent variable. These statistical properties are consistent with models invoking relativistic beaming of radio and optical emission

  12. 10C survey of radio sources at 15.7 GHz - II. First results

    AMI Consortium; Davies, Mathhew L.; Franzen, Thomas M. O.; Waldram, Elizabeth M.; Grainge, Keith J. B.; Hobson, Michael P.; Hurley-Walker, Natasha; Lasenby, Anthony; Olamaie, Malak; Pooley, Guy G.; Riley, Julia M.; Rodríguez-Gonzálvez, Carmen; Saunders, Richard D. E.; Scaife, Anna M. M.; Schammel, Michel P.; Scott, Paul F.; Shimwell, Timothy W.; Titterington, David J.; Zwart, Jonathan T. L.

    2011-08-01

    In a previous paper (Paper I), the observational, mapping and source-extraction techniques used for the Tenth Cambridge (10C) Survey of Radio Sources were described. Here, the first results from the survey, carried out using the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager Large Array (LA) at an observing frequency of 15.7 GHz, are presented. The survey fields cover an area of ≈27 deg2 to a flux-density completeness of 1 mJy. Results for some deeper areas, covering ≈12 deg2, wholly contained within the total areas and complete to 0.5 mJy, are also presented. The completeness for both areas is estimated to be at least 93 per cent. The 10C survey is the deepest radio survey of any significant extent (≳0.2 deg2) above 1.4 GHz. The 10C source catalogue contains 1897 entries and is available online. The source catalogue has been combined with that of the Ninth Cambridge Survey to calculate the 15.7-GHz source counts. A broken power law is found to provide a good parametrization of the differential count between 0.5 mJy and 1 Jy. The measured source count has been compared with that predicted by de Zotti et al. - the model is found to display good agreement with the data at the highest flux densities. However, over the entire flux-density range of the measured count (0.5 mJy to 1 Jy), the model is found to underpredict the integrated count by ≈30 per cent. Entries from the source catalogue have been matched with those contained in the catalogues of the NRAO VLA Sky Survey and the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-cm survey (both of which have observing frequencies of 1.4 GHz). This matching provides evidence for a shift in the typical 1.4-GHz spectral index to 15.7-GHz spectral index of the 15.7-GHz-selected source population with decreasing flux density towards sub-mJy levels - the spectra tend to become less steep. Automated methods for detecting extended sources, developed in Paper I, have been applied to the data; ≈5 per cent of the sources are found to be extended

  13. Deep UV Semiconductor Sources for Advanced Planetary Science Instruments, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal addresses the need for miniature, narrow-linewidth, deep UV optical sources that operate at very low ambient temperatures for use in advanced in situ...

  14. International Seminar on Advanced Pulsed Neutron Sources PANS-II. Invited talks

    Pepelyshev, Yu.N.

    1994-01-01

    A conceptual design of creating intense pulsed neutron sources based on high-current accelerators and pulsed reactors for neutron scattering experiments is considered. The progress in high-efficiency moderator developments is shown. Results of diffraction studied are presented

  15. A Portable Source of Lattice-Trapped and Ultracold Strontium (PLUS), Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to demonstrate the portable source of lattice-trapped, ultracold strontium (PLUS) designed during Phase I. The device uses simplified and robust...

  16. FIRST 'WINGED' AND X-SHAPED RADIO SOURCE CANDIDATES. II. NEW REDSHIFTS

    Cheung, C. C.; Healey, Stephen E.; Landt, Hermine; Jordan, Andres; Verdoes Kleijn, Gijs

    2009-01-01

    We report optical spectroscopic observations of X-shaped radio sources with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope and Multiple-Mirror Telescope, focused on the sample of candidates from the FIRST survey presented in a previous paper. A total of 27 redshifts were successfully obtained, 21 of which are new, including a newly identified candidate source of this type which is presented here. With these observations, the sample of candidates from the previous paper is over 50% spectroscopically identified. Two new broad emission-lined X-shaped radio sources are revealed, while no emission lines were detected in about one-third of the observed sources; a detailed study of the line properties is deferred to a future paper. Finally, to explore their relation to the Fanaroff-Riley division, the radio luminosities and host galaxy absolute magnitudes of a spectroscopically identified sample of 50 X-shaped radio galaxies are calculated to determine their placement in the Owen-Ledlow plane.

  17. Narrow Wavelength, Frequency Modulated Source at 1.5 Wavelength, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ultrastable, narrow linewidth, tunable, high reliability sources at 1.5 or 2mm are needed for high performance LIDARs for several NASA applications, including wind...

  18. Expansion design for a Laboratory of Radioactive Sources Handling type II, class B

    Sanchez S, P. S.

    2014-01-01

    This work presents the expansion design of the Radioactive Wastes Research Laboratory (RWRL) installation authorized by the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (Mexico) as type II class C, to manage 40 different radionuclides, approximately. The RWRL has 4 areas at the present time: a laboratory of instrumental analysis, one of radioactive material processes, other of counting and a chemical reagents stock, which is not integrated to the operation license of the RWRL. With the purpose of expanding the operation license of the RWRL to an installation type II class B, to manage until 370 MBq of high radio toxicity radionuclides, is presented in this work an expansion proposal of the RWRL. The expansion proposal is based in: (1) the Mexican Nuclear Standard NOM-027-Nucl-1996 for installations type II class B, (2) the current distribution of water, light, electricity, extraction, gas, air and vacuum services of RWRL, and (3) the available areas inside the building that the RWRL occupies. The proposal contemplates the creation of additional new areas for RWRL: 3 laboratories, 2 dressing rooms, 2 bathrooms and 2 warehouses, one for radioactive materials and another for reagents chemical radiologically inactive. Architectural, electric, hydraulic, extraction and gas planes corresponding to the expansion of RWRL were realized. Inside the proposal the budget required to carry out the mentioned expansion is also presented. (Author)

  19. Source apportionment of ambient volatile organic compounds in the Pearl River Delta, China: Part II

    Liu, Ying; Shao, Min; Lu, Sihua; Chang, Chih-Chung; Wang, Jia-Lin; Fu, Linlin

    The chemical mass balance receptor model was applied to the source apportionment of 58 hydrocarbons measured at seven sites in a field campaign that examined regional air quality in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in the fall of 2004. A total of 12 volatile organic compound (VOC) emission sources were considered, including gasoline- and diesel-powered vehicle exhausts, headspace vapors of gasoline and diesel fuel, vehicle evaporative emissions, liquid petroleum gas (LPG) leakage, paint vapors, asphalt emissions from paved roads, biomass combustion, coal combustion, the chemical industry, and petroleum refineries. Vehicle exhaust was the largest source of VOCs, contributing to >50% of ambient VOCs at the three urban sites (Guangzhou, Foshan, and Zhongshan). LPG leakage played an important role, representing 8-16% of emissions at most sites in the PRD. Solvent usage was the biggest emitter of VOCs at Dongguan, an industrial site, contributing 33% of ambient VOCs. Similarly, at Xinken, a non-urban site, the evaporation of solvents and coatings was the largest emission source, accounting for 31% of emissions, probably because it was downwind of Dongguan. Local biomass combustion was a noticeable source of VOCs at Xinken; although its contribution was estimated at 14.3%, biomass combustion was the third largest VOC source at this site.

  20. Radio weak lensing shear measurement in the visibility domain - II. Source extraction

    Rivi, M.; Miller, L.

    2018-05-01

    This paper extends the method introduced in Rivi et al. (2016b) to measure galaxy ellipticities in the visibility domain for radio weak lensing surveys. In that paper, we focused on the development and testing of the method for the simple case of individual galaxies located at the phase centre, and proposed to extend it to the realistic case of many sources in the field of view by isolating visibilities of each source with a faceting technique. In this second paper, we present a detailed algorithm for source extraction in the visibility domain and show its effectiveness as a function of the source number density by running simulations of SKA1-MID observations in the band 950-1150 MHz and comparing original and measured values of galaxies' ellipticities. Shear measurements from a realistic population of 104 galaxies randomly located in a field of view of 1 \\deg ^2 (i.e. the source density expected for the current radio weak lensing survey proposal with SKA1) are also performed. At SNR ≥ 10, the multiplicative bias is only a factor 1.5 worse than what found when analysing individual sources, and is still comparable to the bias values reported for similar measurement methods at optical wavelengths. The additive bias is unchanged from the case of individual sources, but it is significantly larger than typically found in optical surveys. This bias depends on the shape of the uv coverage and we suggest that a uv-plane weighting scheme to produce a more isotropic shape could reduce and control additive bias.

  1. Market Analysis and Consumer Impacts Source Document. Part II. Review of Motor Vehicle Market and Consumer Expenditures on Motor Vehicle Transportation

    1980-12-01

    This source document on motor vehicle market analysis and consumer impacts consists of three parts. Part II consists of studies and review on: motor vehicle sales trends; motor vehicle fleet life and fleet composition; car buying patterns of the busi...

  2. CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF 3C RADIO SOURCES WITH z < 0.3. II. COMPLETING THE SNAPSHOT SURVEY

    Massaro, F. [SLAC National Laboratory and Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Tremblay, G. R. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Harris, D. E.; O' Dea, C. P. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kharb, P.; Axon, D. [Department of Physics, Rochester Institute of Technology, Carlson Center for Imaging Science 76-3144, 84 Lomb Memorial Dr., Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Balmaverde, B.; Capetti, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Strada Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese (Italy); Baum, S. A. [Carlson Center for Imaging Science 76-3144, 84 Lomb Memorial Dr., Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Chiaberge, M.; Macchetto, F. D.; Sparks, W. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martine Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gilli, R. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Giovannini, G. [INAF-Istituto di Radioastronomia di Bologna, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Grandi, P.; Torresi, E. [INAF-IASF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e fisica Cosmica di Bologna, Via P. Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Risaliti, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    We report on the second round of Chandra observations of the 3C snapshot survey developed to observe the complete sample of 3C radio sources with z < 0.3 for 8 ks each. In the first paper, we illustrated the basic data reduction and analysis procedures performed for the 30 sources of the 3C sample observed during Chandra Cycle 9, while here we present the data for the remaining 27 sources observed during Cycle 12. We measured the X-ray intensity of the nuclei and of any radio hot spots and jet features with associated X-ray emission. X-ray fluxes in three energy bands, i.e., soft, medium, and hard, for all the sources analyzed are also reported. For the stronger nuclei, we also applied the standard spectral analysis, which provides the best-fit values of the X-ray spectral index and absorbing column density. In addition, a detailed analysis of bright X-ray nuclei that could be affected by pile-up has been performed. X-ray emission was detected for all the nuclei of the radio sources in our sample except for 3C 319. Among the current sample, there are two compact steep spectrum radio sources, two broad-line radio galaxies, and one wide angle tail radio galaxy, 3C 89, hosted in a cluster of galaxies clearly visible in our Chandra snapshot observation. In addition, we also detected soft X-ray emission arising from the galaxy cluster surrounding 3C 196.1. Finally, X-ray emission from hot spots has been found in three FR II radio sources and, in the case of 3C 459, we also report the detection of X-ray emission associated with the eastern radio lobe as well as X-ray emission cospatial with radio jets in 3C 29 and 3C 402.

  3. Motion of the sources for type II and type IV radio bursts and flare-associated interplanetary disturbances

    Sakurai, K.; Chao, J. K.

    1974-01-01

    Shock waves are indirectly observed as the source of type II radio bursts, whereas magnetic bottles are identified as the source of moving metric type IV radio bursts. The difference between the expansion speeds of these waves and bottles is examined during their generation and propagation near the flare regions. It is shown that, although generated in the explosive phase of flares, the bottles behave quite differently from the waves and that the bottles are generally much slower than the waves. It has been suggested that the waves are related to flare-associated interplanetary disturbances which produce SSC geomagnetic storms. These disturbances may, therefore, be identified as interplanetary shock waves. The relationship among magnetic bottles, shock waves near the sun, and flare-associated disturbances in interplanetary space is briefly discussed.

  4. Neutron stars as X-ray burst sources. II. Burst energy histograms and why they burst

    Baan, W.A.

    1979-01-01

    In this work we explore some of the implications of a model for X-ray burst sources where bursts are caused by Kruskal-Schwarzschild instabilities at the magnetopause of an accreting and rotating neutron star. A number of simplifying assumptions are made in order to test the model using observed burst-energy histograms for the rapid burster MXB 1730--335. The predicted histograms have a correct general shape, but it appears that other effects are important as well, and that mode competition, for instance, may suppress the histograms at high burst energies. An explanation is ventured for the enhancement in the histogram at the highest burst energies, which produces the bimodal shape in high accretion rate histograms. Quantitative criteria are given for deciding when accreting neutron stars are steady sources or burst sources, and these criteria are tested using the X-ray pulsars

  5. The faint radio source population at 15.7 GHz - II. Multi-wavelength properties

    Whittam, I. H.; Riley, J. M.; Green, D. A.; Jarvis, M. J.; Vaccari, M.

    2015-11-01

    A complete, flux density limited sample of 96 faint (>0.5 mJy) radio sources is selected from the 10C survey at 15.7 GHz in the Lockman Hole. We have matched this sample to a range of multi-wavelength catalogues, including Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey, Spitzer Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic survey, United Kingdom Infrared Telescope Infrared Deep Sky Survey and optical data; multi-wavelength counterparts are found for 80 of the 96 sources and spectroscopic redshifts are available for 24 sources. Photometric redshifts are estimated for the sources with multi-wavelength data available; the median redshift of the sample is 0.91 with an interquartile range of 0.84. Radio-to-optical ratios show that at least 94 per cent of the sample are radio loud, indicating that the 10C sample is dominated by radio galaxies. This is in contrast to samples selected at lower frequencies, where radio-quiet AGN and star-forming galaxies are present in significant numbers at these flux density levels. All six radio-quiet sources have rising radio spectra, suggesting that they are dominated by AGN emission. These results confirm the conclusions of Paper I that the faint, flat-spectrum sources which are found to dominate the 10C sample below ˜1 mJy are the cores of radio galaxies. The properties of the 10C sample are compared to the Square Kilometre Array Design Studies Simulated Skies; a population of low-redshift star-forming galaxies predicted by the simulation is not found in the observed sample.

  6. Multisource inverse-geometry CT. Part II. X-ray source design and prototype

    Neculaes, V. Bogdan, E-mail: neculaes@ge.com; Caiafa, Antonio; Cao, Yang; De Man, Bruno; Edic, Peter M.; Frutschy, Kristopher; Gunturi, Satish; Inzinna, Lou; Reynolds, Joseph; Vermilyea, Mark; Wagner, David; Zhang, Xi; Zou, Yun [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York 12309 (United States); Pelc, Norbert J. [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Lounsberry, Brian [Healthcare Science Technology, GE Healthcare, West Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53219 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: This paper summarizes the development of a high-power distributed x-ray source, or “multisource,” designed for inverse-geometry computed tomography (CT) applications [see B. De Man et al., “Multisource inverse-geometry CT. Part I. System concept and development,” Med. Phys. 43, 4607–4616 (2016)]. The paper presents the evolution of the source architecture, component design (anode, emitter, beam optics, control electronics, high voltage insulator), and experimental validation. Methods: Dispenser cathode emitters were chosen as electron sources. A modular design was adopted, with eight electron emitters (two rows of four emitters) per module, wherein tungsten targets were brazed onto copper anode blocks—one anode block per module. A specialized ceramic connector provided high voltage standoff capability and cooling oil flow to the anode. A matrix topology and low-noise electronic controls provided switching of the emitters. Results: Four modules (32 x-ray sources in two rows of 16) have been successfully integrated into a single vacuum vessel and operated on an inverse-geometry computed tomography system. Dispenser cathodes provided high beam current (>1000 mA) in pulse mode, and the electrostatic lenses focused the current beam to a small optical focal spot size (0.5 × 1.4 mm). Controlled emitter grid voltage allowed the beam current to be varied for each source, providing the ability to modulate beam current across the fan of the x-ray beam, denoted as a virtual bowtie filter. The custom designed controls achieved x-ray source switching in <1 μs. The cathode-grounded source was operated successfully up to 120 kV. Conclusions: A high-power, distributed x-ray source for inverse-geometry CT applications was successfully designed, fabricated, and operated. Future embodiments may increase the number of spots and utilize fast read out detectors to increase the x-ray flux magnitude further, while still staying within the stationary target inherent

  7. The Integration of Renewable Energy Sources into Electric Power Distribution Systems, Vol. II Utility Case Assessments

    Zaininger, H.W.

    1994-01-01

    Electric utility distribution system impacts associated with the integration of renewable energy sources such as photovoltaics (PV) and wind turbines (WT) are considered in this project. The impacts are expected to vary from site to site according to the following characteristics: the local solar insolation and/or wind characteristics, renewable energy source penetration level, whether battery or other energy storage systems are applied, and local utility distribution design standards and planning practices. Small, distributed renewable energy sources are connected to the utility distribution system like other, similar kW- and MW-scale equipment and loads. Residential applications are expected to be connected to single-phase 120/240-V secondaries. Larger kW-scale applications may be connected to three+phase secondaries, and larger hundred-kW and y-scale applications, such as MW-scale windfarms, or PV plants, may be connected to electric utility primary systems via customer-owned primary and secondary collection systems. In any case, the installation of small, distributed renewable energy sources is expected to have a significant impact on local utility distribution primary and secondary system economics. Small, distributed renewable energy sources installed on utility distribution systems will also produce nonsite-specific utility generation system benefits such as energy and capacity displacement benefits, in addition to the local site-specific distribution system benefits. Although generation system benefits are not site-specific, they are utility-specific, and they vary significantly among utilities in different regions. In addition, transmission system benefits, environmental benefits and other benefits may apply. These benefits also vary significantly among utilities and regions. Seven utility case studies considering PV, WT, and battery storage were conducted to identify a range of potential renewable energy source distribution system applications. The

  8. Towards adiabatic waveforms for inspiral into Kerr black holes. II. Dynamical sources and generic orbits

    Sundararajan, Pranesh A.; Hughes, Scott A.; Khanna, Gaurav; Drasco, Steve

    2008-01-01

    This is the second in a series of papers whose aim is to generate adiabatic gravitational waveforms from the inspiral of stellar-mass compact objects into massive black holes. In earlier work, we presented an accurate (2+1)D finite-difference time-domain code to solve the Teukolsky equation, which evolves curvature perturbations near rotating (Kerr) black holes. The key new ingredient there was a simple but accurate model of the singular source term based on a discrete representation of the Dirac-delta function and its derivatives. Our earlier work was intended as a proof of concept, using simple circular, equatorial geodesic orbits as a test bed. Such a source is effectively static, in that the smaller body remains at the same coordinate radius and orbital inclination over an orbit. (It of course moves through axial angle, but we separate that degree of freedom from the problem. Our numerical grid has only radial, polar, and time coordinates.) We now extend the time-domain code so that it can accommodate dynamic sources that move on a variety of physically interesting world lines. We validate the code with extensive comparison to frequency-domain waveforms for cases in which the source moves along generic (inclined and eccentric) bound geodesic orbits. We also demonstrate the ability of the time-domain code to accommodate sources moving on interesting nongeodesic worldlines. We do this by computing the waveform produced by a test mass following a kludged inspiral trajectory, made of bound geodesic segments driven toward merger by an approximate radiation loss formula.

  9. Immobilized Tannin from Sanseviera trifasciata on Carbon as Adsorbent For Iron(II in Polluted Water Source

    Irfan Hanafi Arif

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The organic-agricultural waste resulted from local farmer or community gardening recently paid public attention. The presence and easily grown of “Lidah Mertua” or Sanseviera trifasciata being focused on potency investigation for its prospecting application. It was reported contain some phenolic and also tannin extracted from aqueous solvents. This paper revealed recent investigation applying of its isolated tannin from leave part to modifying of activated carbon. The previous report published that carbon were able to adsorb some toxic heavy metals. However, it has some limitation including lower capacity adsorption. Impregnated or immobilized the tannin-isolated from S. trifasciata leaves was able to modify the carbon functionality, physical appearance, pores size, and it adsorption capacity. Both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption mechanism model also disclosed the developed adsorbent mechanism of iron(II adsorption on the adsorbent tannin-immobolized on carbon. The real test using community well drilling water source also gave important finding on the concentration of iron(II contained on water source.

  10. TANAMI: Tracking Active Galactic Nuclei with Austral Milliarcsecond Interferometry. II. Additional sources

    Müller, C.; Kadler, M.; Ojha, R.; Schulz, R.; Trüstedt, J.; Edwards, P. G.; Ros, E.; Carpenter, B.; Angioni, R.; Blanchard, J.; Böck, M.; Burd, P. R.; Dörr, M.; Dutka, M. S.; Eberl, T.; Gulyaev, S.; Hase, H.; Horiuchi, S.; Katz, U.; Krauß, F.; Lovell, J. E. J.; Natusch, T.; Nesci, R.; Phillips, C.; Plötz, C.; Pursimo, T.; Quick, J. F. H.; Stevens, J.; Thompson, D. J.; Tingay, S. J.; Tzioumis, A. K.; Weston, S.; Wilms, J.; Zensus, J. A.

    2018-02-01

    Context. TANAMI is a multiwavelength program monitoring active galactic nuclei (AGN) south of - 30° declination including high-resolution very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) imaging, radio, optical/UV, X-ray, and γ-ray studies. We have previously published first-epoch8.4 GHz VLBI images of the parsec-scale structure of the initial sample. In this paper, we present images of 39 additional sources. The full sample comprises most of the radio- and γ-ray brightest AGN in the southern quarter of the sky, overlapping with the region from which high-energy (> 100 TeV) neutrino events have been found. Aims: We characterize the parsec-scale radio properties of the jets and compare them with the quasi-simultaneous Fermi/LAT γ-ray data. Furthermore, we study the jet properties of sources which are in positional coincidence with high-energy neutrino events compared to the full sample. We test the positional agreement of high-energy neutrino events with various AGN samples. Methods: TANAMI VLBI observations at 8.4 GHz are made with southern hemisphere radio telescopes located in Australia, Antarctica, Chile, New Zealand, and South Africa. Results: Our observations yield the first images of many jets below - 30° declination at milliarcsecond resolution. We find that γ-ray loud TANAMI sources tend to be more compact on parsec-scales and have higher core brightness temperatures than γ-ray faint jets, indicating higher Doppler factors. No significant structural difference is found between sources in positional coincidence with high-energy neutrino events and other TANAMI jets. The 22 γ-ray brightest AGN in the TANAMI sky show only a weak positional agreement with high-energy neutrinos demonstrating that the > 100 TeV IceCube signal is not simply dominated by a small number of the γ-ray brightest blazars. Instead, a larger number of sources have to contribute to the signal with each individual source having only a small Poisson probability for producing an event in

  11. Alpha spectrometry of thick sources. II. Application to the study of radioactive equilibria in uranium ores

    Acena Barrenechea, M.L.; Tormo Ferrero, M.J.

    1977-01-01

    A method for determining nuclide activities in 4n + 2 uranium series using alpha spectrometry of thick sources is described. This method has been applied to several uranium ores, showing different states of radioactive equilibria. The spectra from samples prepared by cold compression show some anomalies, due to the evolution and later decay of 219 Rn and daughters. This phenomenon must be taken in consideration when computing spectra line intensities. (author) [es

  12. THE HST/ACS COMA CLUSTER SURVEY. II. DATA DESCRIPTION AND SOURCE CATALOGS

    Hammer, Derek; Verdoes Kleijn, Gijs; Den Brok, Mark; Peletier, Reynier F.; Hoyos, Carlos; Balcells, Marc; Aguerri, Alfonso L.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Carter, David; Guzman, Rafael; Smith, Russell J.; Lucey, John R.; Graham, Alister W.; Trentham, Neil; Peng, Eric; Puzia, Thomas H.; Jogee, Shardha; Batcheldor, Dan; Bridges, Terry J.

    2010-01-01

    The Coma cluster, Abell 1656, was the target of an HST-ACS Treasury program designed for deep imaging in the F475W and F814W passbands. Although our survey was interrupted by the ACS instrument failure in early 2007, the partially completed survey still covers ∼50% of the core high-density region in Coma. Observations were performed for 25 fields that extend over a wide range of cluster-centric radii (∼1.75 Mpc or 1 0 ) with a total coverage area of 274 arcmin 2 . The majority of the fields are located near the core region of Coma (19/25 pointings) with six additional fields in the southwest region of the cluster. In this paper, we present reprocessed images and SEXTRACTOR source catalogs for our survey fields, including a detailed description of the methodology used for object detection and photometry, the subtraction of bright galaxies to measure faint underlying objects, and the use of simulations to assess the photometric accuracy and completeness of our catalogs. We also use simulations to perform aperture corrections for the SEXTRACTOR Kron magnitudes based only on the measured source flux and its half-light radius. We have performed photometry for ∼73,000 unique objects; approximately one-half of our detections are brighter than the 10σ point-source detection limit at F814W = 25.8 mag (AB). The slight majority of objects (60%) are unresolved or only marginally resolved by ACS. We estimate that Coma members are 5%-10% of all source detections, which consist of a large population of unresolved compact sources (primarily globular clusters but also ultra-compact dwarf galaxies) and a wide variety of extended galaxies from a cD galaxy to dwarf low surface brightness galaxies. The red sequence of Coma member galaxies has a color-magnitude relation with a constant slope and dispersion over 9 mag (-21 F814W < -13). The initial data release for the HST-ACS Coma Treasury program was made available to the public in 2008 August. The images and catalogs described

  13. GALAXY CLUSTERS IN THE IRAC DARK FIELD. II. MID-INFRARED SOURCES

    Krick, J. E.; Surace, J. A.; Yan, L.; Thompson, D.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Hora, J. L.; Gorjian, V.

    2009-01-01

    We present infrared (IR) luminosities, star formation rates (SFR), colors, morphologies, locations, and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) properties of 24 μm detected sources in photometrically detected high-redshift clusters in order to understand the impact of environment on star formation (SF) and AGN evolution in cluster galaxies. We use three newly identified z = 1 clusters selected from the IRAC dark field; the deepest ever mid-IR survey with accompanying, 14 band multiwavelength data including deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging and deep wide-area Spitzer MIPS 24 μm imaging. We find 90 cluster members with MIPS detections within two virial radii of the cluster centers, of which 17 appear to have spectral energy distributions dominated by AGNs and the rest dominated by SF. We find that 43% of the star-forming sample have IR luminosities L IR > 10 11 L sun (luminous IR galaxies). The majority of sources (81%) are spirals or irregulars. A large fraction (at least 25%) show obvious signs of interactions. The MIPS-detected member galaxies have varied spatial distributions as compared to the MIPS-undetected members with one of the three clusters showing SF galaxies being preferentially located on the cluster outskirts, while the other two clusters show no such trend. Both the AGN fraction and the summed SFR of cluster galaxies increase from redshift zero to one, at a rate that is a few times faster in clusters than over the same redshift range in the field. Cluster environment does have an effect on the evolution of both AGN fraction and SFR from redshift one to the present, but does not affect the IR luminosities or morphologies of the MIPS sample. SF happens in the same way regardless of environment making MIPS sources look the same in the cluster and field, however the cluster environment does encourage a more rapid evolution with time as compared to the field.

  14. Physical and chemical properties of Red MSX Sources in the southern sky: H II regions

    Yu, Naiping; Wang, Jun-Jie; Li, Nan

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the physical and chemical properties of 18 southern Red Midcourse Space Experiment Sources (RMSs), using archival data taken from the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) Telescope Large Area Survey of the Galaxy, the Australia Telescope Compact Array, and the Millimeter Astronomy Legacy Team Survey at 90 GHz. Most of our sources have simple cometary/unresolved radio emissions at 4.8 and/or 8.6GHz. The large number of Lyman continuum fluxes (NL) indicates they are probably massive O- or early B-type star formation regions. Archival IRAS infrared data are used to estimate the dust temperature, which is about 30 K of our sources. Then, the H2 column densities and the volume-averaged H2 number densities are estimated using the 870 μm dust emissions. Large-scale infall and ionized accretions may be occurring in G345.4881+00.3148. We also attempt to characterize the chemical properties of these RMSs through molecular line (N2H+ (1-0) and HCO+ (1-0)) observations. Most of the detected N2H+ and HCO+ emissions match well with the dust emission, implying a close link to their chemical evolution in the RMSs. We found that the abundance of N2H+ is one order of magnitude lower than that in other surveys of infrared dark clouds, and a positive correlation between the abundances of N2H+ and HCO+. The fractional abundance of N2H+ with respect to H2 seems to decrease as a function of NL. These observed trends could be interpreted as an indication of enhanced destruction of N2H+, either by CO or through dissociative recombination with electrons produced by central UV photons.

  15. On the physics of power, energy and economics of renewable electric energy sources - Part II

    Skoglund, Annika; Leijon, Mats; Waters, Rafael; Rehn, Alf; Lindahl, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs) are often recognized as less competitive than traditional electric energy conversion systems. Obstacles with renewable electric energy conversion systems are often referred to the intermittency of the energy sources and the relatively high maintenance cost. However, due to an intensified discourse on climate change and its effects, it has from a societal point of view, become more desirable to adopt and install CO 2 neutral power plants. Even if this has increased the competitiveness of RETs in a political sense, the new goals for RET installations must also be met with economical viability. We propose that the direction of technical development, as well as the chosen technology in new installations, should not primarily be determined by policies, but by the basic physical properties of the energy source and the associated potential for inexpensive energy production. This potential is the basic entity that drives the payback of the investment of a specific RET power plant. With regard to this, we argue that the total electric energy conversion system must be considered if effective power production is to be achieved, with focus on the possible number of full loading hours and the Degree of Utilization. This will increase the cost efficiency and economical competitiveness of RET investments, and could enhance faster diffusion of new innovations and installations without over-optimistic subsidies. This paper elaborates on the overall problem of the economy of renewable electric energy conversion systems by studying the interface between physics, engineering and economy reported for RET power plants in different scientific publications. The core objective is to show the practical use of the Degree of Utilization and how the concept is crucial for the design and economical optimization disregarding subsidies. The results clearly indicate that the future political regulative frameworks should consider the choice of renewable energy

  16. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey. II. Data Description and Source Catalogs

    Hammer, Derek; Kleijn, Gijs Verdoes; Hoyos, Carlos; Den Brok, Mark; Balcells, Marc; Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Carter, David; Guzman, Rafael; Peletier, Reynier F.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The Coma cluster, Abell 1656, was the target of a HST-ACS Treasury program designed for deep imaging in the F475W and F814W passbands. Although our survey was interrupted by the ACS instrument failure in early 2007, the partially-completed survey still covers approximately 50% of the core high density region in Coma. Observations were performed for twenty-five fields with a total coverage area of 274 aremin(sup 2), and extend over a wide range of cluster-centric radii (approximately 1.75 Mpe or 1 deg). The majority of the fields are located near the core region of Coma (19/25 pointings) with six additional fields in the south-west region of the cluster. In this paper we present SEXTRACTOR source catalogs generated from the processed images, including a detailed description of the methodology used for object detection and photometry, the subtraction of bright galaxies to measure faint underlying objects, and the use of simulations to assess the photometric accuracy and completeness of our catalogs. We also use simulations to perform aperture corrections for the SEXTRACTOR Kron magnitudes based only on the measured source flux and its half-light radius. We have performed photometry for 76,000 objects that consist of roughly equal numbers of extended galaxies and unresolved objects. Approximately two-thirds of all detections are brighter than F814W=26.5 mag (AB), which corresponds to the 10sigma, point-source detection limit. We estimate that Coma members are 5-10% of the source detections, including a large population of compact objects (primarily GCs, but also cEs and UCDs), and a wide variety of extended galaxies from cD galaxies to dwarf low surface brightness galaxies. The initial data release for the HST-ACS Coma Treasury program was made available to the public in August 2008. The images and catalogs described in this study relate to our second data release.

  17. Symbiotic Stars in X-rays. II. Faint Sources Detected with XMM-Newton and Chandra

    Nunez, N. E.; Luna, G. J. M.; Pillitteri, I.; Mukai, K.

    2014-01-01

    We report the detection from four symbiotic stars that were not known to be X-ray sources. These four object show a ß-type X-ray spectrum, that is, their spectra can be modeled with an absorbed optically thin thermal emission with temperatures of a few million degrees. Photometric series obtained with the Optical Monitor on board XMM-Newton from V2416 Sgr and NSV 25735 support the proposed scenario where the X-ray emission is produced in a shock-heated region inside the symbiotic nebulae.

  18. Technology and applications of broad-beam ion sources used in sputtering. Part II. Applications

    Harper, J.M.E.; Cuomo, J.J.; Kaufman, H.R.

    1982-01-01

    The developments in broad-beam ion source technology described in the companion paper (Part I) have stimulated a rapid expansion in applications to materials processing. These applications are reviewed here, beginning with a summary of sputtering mechanisms. Next, etching applications are described, including microfabrication and reactive ion beam etching. The developing area of surface layer applications is summarized, and related to the existing fields of oxidation and implantation. Next, deposition applications are reviewed, including ion-beam sputter deposition and the emerging technique of ion-assisted vapor deposition. Many of these applications have been stimulated by the development of high current ion sources operating in the energy range of tens of hundreds of eV. It is in this energy range that ion-activated chemical etching is efficient, self-limiting compound layers can be grown, and the physical properties of vapor-deposited films can be modified. In each of these areas, broad ion beam technology provides a link between other large area plasma processes and surface analytical techniques using ion beams

  19. Anoxic and Oxic Oxidation of Rocks Containing Fe(II)Mg-Silicates and Fe(II)-Monosulfides as Source of Fe(III)-Minerals and Hydrogen. Geobiotropy.

    Bassez, Marie-Paule

    2017-12-01

    In this article, anoxic and oxic hydrolyses of rocks containing Fe (II) Mg-silicates and Fe (II)-monosulfides are analyzed at 25 °C and 250-350 °C. A table of the products is drawn. It is shown that magnetite and hydrogen can be produced during low-temperature (25 °C) anoxic hydrolysis/oxidation of ferrous silicates and during high-temperature (250 °C) anoxic hydrolysis/oxidation of ferrous monosulfides. The high-T (350 °C) anoxic hydrolysis of ferrous silicates leads mainly to ferric oxides/hydroxides such as the hydroxide ferric trihydroxide, the oxide hydroxide goethite/lepidocrocite and the oxide hematite, and to Fe(III)-phyllosilicates. Magnetite is not a primary product. While the low-T (25 °C) anoxic hydrolysis of ferrous monosulfides leads to pyrite. Thermodynamic functions are calculated for elementary reactions of hydrolysis and carbonation of olivine and pyroxene and E-pH diagrams are analyzed. It is shown that the hydrolysis of the iron endmember is endothermic and can proceed within the exothermic hydrolysis of the magnesium endmember and also within the exothermic reactions of carbonations. The distinction between three products of the iron hydrolysis, magnetite, goethite and hematite is determined with E-pH diagrams. The hydrolysis/oxidation of the sulfides mackinawite/troilite/pyrrhotite is highly endothermic but can proceed within the heat produced by the exothermic hydrolyses and carbonations of ferromagnesian silicates and also by other sources such as magma, hydrothermal sources, impacts. These theoretical results are confirmed by the products observed in several related laboratory experiments. The case of radiolyzed water is studied. It is shown that magnetite and ferric oxides/hydroxides such as ferric trihydroxide, goethite/lepidocrocite and hematite are formed in oxic hydrolysis of ferromagnesian silicates at 25 °C and 350 °C. Oxic oxidation of ferrous monosulfides at 25 °C leads mainly to pyrite and ferric oxides/hydroxides such as

  20. Indigenous instrumentation for mass spectrometry: Part II - development of plasma source mass spectrometers. PD-5-3

    Nataraju, V.

    2007-01-01

    The growing demands from analytical community, for a precise isotope ratio and ultra trace concentration measurements, has lead to significant improvement in mass spectrometer instrumentation development with respect to sensitivity, detection limits, precision and accuracy. Among the many analytical techniques available, plasma source mass spectrometers like Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS), multi collector (MC) ICPMS and Glow Discharge Mass Spectrometry (GDMS), have matured into reliable tools for the above applications. Where as ICPMS is by far the most successful method for aqueous solutions, GDMS is being applied for bulk and impurity analysis of conducting as well non-conducting solids. VPID, BARC has been developing mass spectrometers for different inorganic applications of DAE users. Over the years expertise has been developed in all the aspects of mass spectrometry instrumentation. Part 1 of this indigenous instrumentation on mass spectrometry gives details of magnetic sector instruments with either EI or TI source for isotopic ratio analysis. The present paper is a continuation of that on plasma source and quadrupole mass spectrometers. This paper covers i) ICP-QMS, ii) MC-ICPMS, iii) GDMS and iv) QMS

  1. Sources

    Duffy, L.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the sources of radiation in the narrow perspective of radioactivity and the even narrow perspective of those sources that concern environmental management and restoration activities at DOE facilities, as well as a few related sources. Sources of irritation, Sources of inflammatory jingoism, and Sources of information. First, the sources of irritation fall into three categories: No reliable scientific ombudsman to speak without bias and prejudice for the public good, Technical jargon with unclear definitions exists within the radioactive nomenclature, and Scientific community keeps a low-profile with regard to public information. The next area of personal concern are the sources of inflammation. This include such things as: Plutonium being described as the most dangerous substance known to man, The amount of plutonium required to make a bomb, Talk of transuranic waste containing plutonium and its health affects, TMI-2 and Chernobyl being described as Siamese twins, Inadequate information on low-level disposal sites and current regulatory requirements under 10 CFR 61, Enhanced engineered waste disposal not being presented to the public accurately. Numerous sources of disinformation regarding low level radiation high-level radiation, Elusive nature of the scientific community, The Federal and State Health Agencies resources to address comparative risk, and Regulatory agencies speaking out without the support of the scientific community

  2. Monte Carlo modeling and analyses of YALINA- booster subcritical assembly Part II: pulsed neutron source

    Talamo, A.; Gohar, M.Y.A.; Rabiti, C.

    2008-01-01

    One of the most reliable experimental methods for measuring the kinetic parameters of a subcritical assembly is the Sjoestrand method applied to the reaction rate generated from a pulsed neutron source. This study developed a new analytical methodology for characterizing the kinetic parameters of a subcritical assembly using the Sjoestrand method, which allows comparing the analytical and experimental time dependent reaction rates and the reactivity measurements. In this methodology, the reaction rate, detector response, is calculated due to a single neutron pulse using MCNP/MCNPX computer code or any other neutron transport code that explicitly simulates the fission delayed neutrons. The calculation simulates a single neutron pulse over a long time period until the delayed neutron contribution to the reaction is vanished. The obtained reaction rate is superimposed to itself, with respect to the time, to simulate the repeated pulse operation until the asymptotic level of the reaction rate, set by the delayed neutrons, is achieved. The superimposition of the pulse to itself was calculated by a simple C computer program. A parallel version of the C program is used due to the large amount of data being processed, e.g. by the Message Passing Interface (MPI). The new calculation methodology has shown an excellent agreement with the experimental results available from the YALINA-Booster facility of Belarus. The facility has been driven by a Deuterium-Deuterium or Deuterium-Tritium pulsed neutron source and the (n,p) reaction rate has been experimentally measured by a 3 He detector. The MCNP calculation has utilized the weight window and delayed neutron biasing variance reduction techniques since the detector volume is small compared to the assembly volume. Finally, this methodology was used to calculate the IAEA benchmark of the YALINA-Booster experiment

  3. Loss distribution approach for operational risk capital modelling under Basel II: Combining different data sources for risk estimation

    Pavel V. Shevchenko

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The management of operational risk in the banking industry has undergone significant changes over the last decade due to substantial changes in operational risk environment. Globalization, deregulation, the use of complex financial products and changes in information technology have resulted in exposure to new risks very different from market and credit risks. In response, Basel Committee for banking Supervision has developed a regulatory framework, referred to as Basel II, that introduced operational risk category and corresponding capital requirements. Over the past five years, major banks in most parts of the world have received accreditation under the Basel II Advanced Measurement Approach (AMA by adopting the loss distribution approach (LDA despite there being a number of unresolved methodological challenges in its implementation. Different approaches and methods are still under hot debate. In this paper, we review methods proposed in the literature for combining different data sources (internal data, external data and scenario analysis which is one of the regulatory requirement for AMA.

  4. Exploring the Variability of the Flat-spectrum Radio Source 1633+382. II. Physical Properties

    Algaba, Juan-Carlos; Lee, Sang-Sung; Rani, Bindu; Kim, Dae-Won; Kino, Motoki; Hodgson, Jeffrey; Zhao, Guang-Yao; Byun, Do-Young; Gurwell, Mark; Kang, Sin-Cheol; Kim, Jae-Young; Kim, Jeong-Sook; Kim, Soon-Wook; Park, Jong-Ho; Trippe, Sascha; Wajima, Kiyoaki

    2018-06-01

    The flat-spectrum radio quasar 1633+382 (4C 38.41) showed a significant increase of its radio flux density during the period 2012 March–2015 August, which correlates with γ-ray flaring activity. Multi-frequency simultaneous very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations were conducted as part of the interferometric monitoring of gamma-ray bright active galactic nuclei (iMOGABA) program and supplemented with additional radio monitoring observations with the OVRO 40 m telescope, the Boston University VLBI program, and the Submillimeter Array. The epochs of the maxima for the two largest γ-ray flares coincide with the ejection of two respective new VLBI components. Analysis of the spectral energy distribution indicates a higher turnover frequency after the flaring events. The evolution of the flare in the turnover frequency-turnover flux density plane probes the adiabatic losses in agreement with the shock-in-jet model. The derived synchrotron self-absorption magnetic fields, of the order of 0.1 mG, do not seem to change dramatically during the flares, and are much weaker, by a factor 104, than the estimated equipartition magnetic fields, indicating that the source of the flare may be associated with a particle-dominated emitting region.

  5. Elevated source SF6-tracer dispersion experiments in the Copenhagen area. Preliminary results II

    Gryning, S.E.; Lyck, E.

    1980-01-01

    The results from 10 experiments, performed in neutral to unstable meteorological conditions, are reported from an ongoing series of elevated-source, urban-scale tracer dispersion experiments in the Copenhagen area. The tracer is released at a height of 115 m from the TV-tower in GLADSAXE, a suburb of Copenhagen, with tracer sampling units positioned at ground-level in 1 to 3 crosswind series, 2 to 6 km downwind of the tower. The lateral dispersion parameter, sigma(y), was estimated from the measured tracer concentration distribution and compared with values of sigma(y), computed by 1) methods based on wind variance measured during the experiments and 2) methods based on a stability classification of the atmospheric conditions. The wind-variance based methods proved superior in predicting the variation of sigma(y) compared with the stability based methods. Moreover, some of the former methods produced significantly biased estimates of sigma(y). The measured tracer concentration distributions were also crosswind integrated, chi(CWI). Estimates of chi(CWI) were computed using sigma (z) -values derived from the aforementioned computations assuming a Gaussian-type vertical tracer concentration distribution. A comparison is measured and calculated values of chi(CWI) showed no significant differences in the ability of the methods to predict the variation of chi(CWI). Only one method, the EPA, came out with a mean fractional error outside the range +-20% which constitutes the uncertainty in the absolute tracer concentration associated with the calibration of the gas chromatograph for tracer analysis

  6. sources

    Shu-Yin Chiang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the simplified models of the ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode multiplexer network with Bernoulli random traffic sources. Based on the model, the performance measures are analyzed by the different output service schemes.

  7. NuSTAR, XMM-Newton and Suzaku Observations of the Ultraluminous X-Ray Source Holmberg II X-1

    Walton, D. J.; Middleton, M. J.; Rana, V.

    2015-01-01

    We present the first broadband 0.3-25.0 keV X-ray observations of the bright ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) Holmberg II X-1, performed by NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku in 2013 September. The NuSTAR data provide the first observations of Holmberg II X-1 above 10 keV and reveal a very steep high...

  8. SELF-CONSISTENT EVOLUTION OF GAS AND COSMIC RAYS IN CYGNUS A AND SIMILAR FR II CLASSICAL DOUBLE RADIO SOURCES

    Mathews, William G.; Guo Fulai

    2010-01-01

    In Cygnus A and other classical FR II double radio sources, powerful opposing jets from the cores of halo-centered galaxies drive out into the surrounding cluster gas, forming hotspots of shocked and compressed cluster gas at the jet extremities. The moving hotspots are sandwiched between two shocks. An inner-facing shock receives momentum and cosmic rays from the jet and creates additional cosmic rays that form a radio lobe elongated along the jet axis. An outer-facing bow shock moves directly into the undisturbed group or cluster gas, creating a cocoon of shocked gas enclosing the radio lobe. We describe computations that follow the self-consistent dynamical evolution of the shocked cluster gas and the relativistic synchrotron-emitting gas inside the lobes. Relativistic and non-relativistic components exchange momentum by interacting with small magnetic fields having dynamically negligible energy densities. The evolution of Cygnus A is governed almost entirely by cosmic ray energy flowing from the hotspots. Mass flowing into hotspots from the jets is assumed to be small, greatly reducing the mass of gas flowing back along the jet, common in previous calculations, that would disrupt the spatial segregation of synchrotron-loss ages observed inside FR II radio lobes. We compute the evolution of the cocoon when the velocity and cosmic ray luminosity of the hotspots are constant and when they vary with time. If cosmic rays mix with cluster gas in hotspots before flowing into the radio lobe, the thermal gas is heated to mildly relativistic temperatures, producing an unobserved pressure inside the lobe.

  9. RTNS-II: experience at 14-MeV source strengths between 1 x 1013 and 4 x 1013 n/s

    Davis, J.C.

    1986-05-01

    The design concepts, operational experience, and modifications of the two RTNS-II (Rotating Target Neutron Source-II) 14 MeV neutron sources are reviewed. The original design called for operation at a peak neutron source strength of 4 x 10 13 n/cm 2 s. The facility was to operate at high plant factor and at an acceptable cost in both dose delivered to operating staff and releases to the environment. The possibilities of higher source strengths are discussed in light of the operating experience to date and of new technologies that may be applied to the problems of high flux generators of this type. Changes in ancillary equipment that would provide more efficient or safe operation are also indicated

  10. Investigation of the transition from forced to natural convection in the research reactor Munich II

    Skreba, S.; Adamek, J.; Unger, H.

    1999-01-01

    The new research reactor Munich II (FRM-II), which is under construction at the Technical University Munich, Germany, makes use of a newly developed compact reactor core consisting of a single fuel element, which is assembled of two concentric pipes. Between the fuel element's inner and outer pipe 113 involutely bent fuel plates are placed rotationally symmetric, forming 113 cooling channels of a constant width of 2.2 mm. After a shut down of the reactor, battery supported cooling pumps are started by the reactor safety system in order to remove the decay heat by a downwards directed forced flow. Three hours after they have been started, the cooling pumps are shut down and so-called 'natural convection flaps' are opened by their own weight. Through a flow path, which is provided by the opening of the natural convection flaps, the decay heat is given off to the water in the reactor pool after the direction of the flow has changed and an upwards directed natural convection flow has developed. At the Department for Nuclear and New Energy Systems of the Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany, a test facility has been built in order to confirm the concept of the decay heat removal in the FRM-II, to acquire data of single and two phase natural convection flows and to detect the dry out in a narrow channel. The thermohydraulics of the FRM-II are simulated by an electrically heated test section, which represents one cooling channel of the fuel element. At first experiments have been performed, which simulated the transition from forced to natural convection in the core of the FRM-II, both at normal operation and at a complete loss of the decay heat removal pumps. In case of normal operation, the transition from forced to natural convection takes place single phased. If a complete loss of the active decay heat removal system occurs, the decay heat removal is ensured by a quasi-steady two phase flow. In a second test series minimum heat flux densities leading to pressure pulsations

  11. The Status of Kasimov Chinggisids during the Reigns of Vasily II and Ivan III according to Written Sources

    M.A. Nesin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Research objective: To study the issue both of the status of Kasimov Chinggisids as well as of the attitude toward the service Tatars and the Tatars who were allied to Moscow during the reigns of the great Moscow princes Vasily II and Ivan III. Research materials: Published and unpublished sources: books of official orders in the Russian state, chronicles, acts, diplomatic documents, etc. Results and novelty of the research: This work is the first comprehensive study of this topic. The author comes to the conclusion that Kasimov’s rulers during this period were considered servitors, vassals in relation to the Moscow principality. This was facilitated by the demesnial position of Kasimov, which was considered part of the grand prince’s domain rather than a sovereign splinter of the Golden Horde. Kasimov Chinggisids did not have a large military force in order to create an independent khanate in the steppe capable of competing, for example, with Kazan, and they relied on the strong Moscow principality performing military service for it, receiving money for proper maintenance and obeying the grand prince’s orders. At the same time, Ivan III even considered the possibility of replacing Daniyar in Kasimov with another serving prince during his lifetime. In addition, the author shows how much the attitude towards the service Tatars and the Tatar detachments, who were allied to Moscow, differed in different Russian lands.

  12. One-pot four-component synthesis of 2-aryl-3,3-dihaloacrylonitriles using potassium hexacyanoferrate(II) as environmentally benign cyanide source

    Zhao, Zhouxing; Li, Zheng

    2011-01-01

    An efficient route to one-pot four-component reactions of aroyl chlorides, potassium hexacyanoferrate(II), triphenylphosphine and carbon tetrahalides to synthesize 2-aryl-3,3-dichloroacrylonitriles and 2-aryl-3,3-dibromoacrylonitriles was described. This protocol has advantages of use of non-toxic cyanide source, high yield and simple work-up procedure. (author)

  13. dena grid study II. Integration of renewable energy sources into the German power supply system until 2020; dena - Netzstudie II. Integration erneuerbarer Energien in die deutsche Stromversorgung bis 2020

    Agricola, Annegret C.; Seidl, Hannes; Zoch, Immo (comps.)

    2010-12-15

    With its broad system approach, dena Grid Study II describes new ways of developing Germany's integrated grid with regard to the expansion of renewable energy sources and taking not only an economically optimised conventional power generation system but also European power trading into account. Basis for detailed grid planning. Having investigated many different transmission technologies, grid management measures and options for increasing flexibility on both the supply and demand side, the study does much more than simply identify grid expansion requirements, it shows the path towards overall optimisation of the energy supply system. In addition to robustly identifying grid expansion requirements, dena Grid Study II provides a very sound basis for further detailed grid planning and the identification of specific power routes in the German power transmission grid. Increasing grid expansion requirements. dena Grid Study II investigates the expansion of electricity generation from renewable energy sources to 39 percent by 2020. However, this is just an interim goal. By as soon as 2030, the German Federal Government is planning to raise the proportion of renewable electricity generation to 50 percent. This shows that even after 2020, further adaptation of grid infrastructure will still be necessary. Practical action required. If the grid expansion required to integrate renewable energy sources is to be achieved rapidly, there is an urgent need to back up the grid expansion scenarios presented in dena Grid Study II with practical action. (orig.)

  14. Possible use of tannin resins belonging to the luztan family in the Cd (II) sorption of watery sources

    Melchor, K.; Lima, L.; Luzardo, F. M.; Vargas, L. M.; Santana, J. L.; E.mail: keniamr@ctn.isctn.edu.cu

    2003-01-01

    There are studied the optimum sorption conditions of the Cd (II) in five different natural sorbent variants obtained from the tannin immobilization and re-immobilization in the vegetal bark of the species Ecualiptus saligna and Pinus caribea for being used to remove this metal from waste water. It was determined the sorption balance time of the Cd (II) in every sorbent, as well as, the corresponding sorption isotherms. The breakdown curves were obtained under dynamic conditions for the absorbents, that experienced a higher sorption for the Cd (II), from these curves, it was obtained the dynamic sorption capacity of them for the Cd (II)

  15. FLICKERING OF 1.3 cm SOURCES IN SGR B2: TOWARD A SOLUTION TO THE ULTRACOMPACT H II REGION LIFETIME PROBLEM

    De Pree, C. G.; Monsrud, A. [Agnes Scott College, 141 East College Avenue, Decatur, GA 30030 (United States); Peters, T. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Zürich, CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland); Mac Low, M.-M. [American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Wilner, D. J.; Keto, E. R. [Harvard-Smithsonian CfA, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Goss, W. M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Galván-Madrid, R. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Klessen, R. S. [Zentrum für Astronomie, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Universität Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-02-01

    Accretion flows onto massive stars must transfer mass so quickly that they are themselves gravitationally unstable, forming dense clumps and filaments. These density perturbations interact with young massive stars, emitting ionizing radiation, alternately exposing and confining their H II regions. As a result, the H II regions are predicted to flicker in flux density over periods of decades to centuries rather than increase monotonically in size as predicted by simple Spitzer solutions. We have recently observed the Sgr B2 region at 1.3 cm with the Very Large Array in its three hybrid configurations (DnC, CnB, and BnA) at a resolution of ∼0.''25. These observations were made to compare in detail with matched continuum observations from 1989. At 0.''25 resolution, Sgr B2 contains 41 ultracompact (UC) H II regions, 6 of which are hypercompact. The new observations of Sgr B2 allow comparison of relative peak flux densities for the H II regions in Sgr B2 over a 23 year time baseline (1989-2012) in one of the most source-rich massive star forming regions in the Milky Way. The new 1.3 cm continuum images indicate that four of the 41 UC H II regions exhibit significant changes in their peak flux density, with one source (K3) dropping in peak flux density, and the other three sources (F10.303, F1, and F3) increasing in peak flux density. The results are consistent with statistical predictions from simulations of high mass star formation, suggesting that they offer a solution to the lifetime problem for UC H II regions.

  16. Expansion design for a Laboratory of Radioactive Sources Handling type II, class B; Diseno de ampliacion para un Laboratorio de Manejo de Fuentes Radiactivas tipo II, clase B

    Sanchez S, P. S.

    2014-07-01

    This work presents the expansion design of the Radioactive Wastes Research Laboratory (RWRL) installation authorized by the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (Mexico) as type II class C, to manage 40 different radionuclides, approximately. The RWRL has 4 areas at the present time: a laboratory of instrumental analysis, one of radioactive material processes, other of counting and a chemical reagents stock, which is not integrated to the operation license of the RWRL. With the purpose of expanding the operation license of the RWRL to an installation type II class B, to manage until 370 MBq of high radio toxicity radionuclides, is presented in this work an expansion proposal of the RWRL. The expansion proposal is based in: (1) the Mexican Nuclear Standard NOM-027-Nucl-1996 for installations type II class B, (2) the current distribution of water, light, electricity, extraction, gas, air and vacuum services of RWRL, and (3) the available areas inside the building that the RWRL occupies. The proposal contemplates the creation of additional new areas for RWRL: 3 laboratories, 2 dressing rooms, 2 bathrooms and 2 warehouses, one for radioactive materials and another for reagents chemical radiologically inactive. Architectural, electric, hydraulic, extraction and gas planes corresponding to the expansion of RWRL were realized. Inside the proposal the budget required to carry out the mentioned expansion is also presented. (Author)

  17. Elemental Composition of Mars Return Samples Using X-Ray Fluorescence Imaging at the National Synchrotron Light Source II

    Thieme, J.; Hurowitz, J. A.; Schoonen, M. A.; Fogelqvist, E.; Gregerson, J.; Farley, K. A.; Sherman, S.; Hill, J.

    2018-04-01

    NSLS-II at BNL provides a unique and critical capability to perform assessments of the elemental composition and the chemical state of Mars returned samples using synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence imaging and X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

  18. FRM: ADVANCED FOREST PRODUCTS MARKETING

    user

    techniques and high cost of transportation are some of the problems encountered in the production and marketing of prosopis condiment in Makurdi metropolis. Key words: ... this, forest managers should no longer be concerned solely with ...

  19. What Are “X-shaped” Radio Sources Telling Us? II. Properties of a Sample of 87

    Saripalli, Lakshmi; Roberts, David H.

    2018-01-01

    In an earlier paper, we presented Jansky Very Large Array multi-frequency, multi-array continuum imaging of a unique sample of low-axial ratio radio galaxies. In this paper, the second in the series, we examine the images to learn the phenomenology of how the off-axis emission relates to the main radio source. Inversion-symmetric offset emission appears to be bimodal and to originate from one of two strategic locations: outer ends of radio lobes (outer-deviation) or from inner ends (inner-deviation). The latter sources are almost always associated with edge-brightened sources. With S- and Z-shaped sources being a subset of outer-deviation sources, this class lends itself naturally to explanations involving black hole axis precession. Our data allow us to present a plausible model for the more enigmatic inner-deviation sources with impressive wings; as for outer-deviation sources these too require black hole axis shifts, although they also require plasma backflows into relic channels. Evolution in morphology over time relates the variety in structures in inner-deviation sources including XRGs. With features such as non-collinearities, central inner-S “spine,” corresponding lobe emission peaks, double and protruding hotspots not uncommon, black hole axis precession, drifts, or flips could be active in a significant fraction of radio sources with prominent off-axis emission. At least 4% of radio galaxies appear to undergo black hole axis rotation. Quasars offer a key signature for recognizing rotating axes. With a rich haul of sources that have likely undergone axis rotation, our work shows the usefulness of low-axial ratio sources in pursuing searches for binary supermassive black holes.

  20. CHANDRA ACIS SURVEY OF X-RAY POINT SOURCES IN NEARBY GALAXIES. II. X-RAY LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS AND ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES

    Wang, Song; Qiu, Yanli; Liu, Jifeng [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Bregman, Joel N., E-mail: songw@bao.ac.cn, E-mail: jfliu@bao.ac.cn [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2016-09-20

    Based on the recently completed Chandra /ACIS survey of X-ray point sources in nearby galaxies, we study the X-ray luminosity functions (XLFs) for X-ray point sources in different types of galaxies and the statistical properties of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs). Uniform procedures are developed to compute the detection threshold, to estimate the foreground/background contamination, and to calculate the XLFs for individual galaxies and groups of galaxies, resulting in an XLF library of 343 galaxies of different types. With the large number of surveyed galaxies, we have studied the XLFs and ULX properties across different host galaxy types, and confirm with good statistics that the XLF slope flattens from lenticular ( α ∼ 1.50 ± 0.07) to elliptical (∼1.21 ± 0.02), to spirals (∼0.80 ± 0.02), to peculiars (∼0.55 ± 0.30), and to irregulars (∼0.26 ± 0.10). The XLF break dividing the neutron star and black hole binaries is also confirmed, albeit at quite different break luminosities for different types of galaxies. A radial dependency is found for ellipticals, with a flatter XLF slope for sources located between D {sub 25} and 2 D {sub 25}, suggesting the XLF slopes in the outer region of early-type galaxies are dominated by low-mass X-ray binaries in globular clusters. This study shows that the ULX rate in early-type galaxies is 0.24 ± 0.05 ULXs per surveyed galaxy, on a 5 σ confidence level. The XLF for ULXs in late-type galaxies extends smoothly until it drops abruptly around 4 × 10{sup 40} erg s{sup −1}, and this break may suggest a mild boundary between the stellar black hole population possibly including 30 M {sub ⊙} black holes with super-Eddington radiation and intermediate mass black holes.

  1. From chemolithoautotrophs to electrolithoautotrophs: CO2 fixation by Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria coupled with direct uptake of electrons from solid electron sources.

    Ishii, Takumi; Kawaichi, Satoshi; Nakagawa, Hirotaka; Hashimoto, Kazuhito; Nakamura, Ryuhei

    2015-01-01

    At deep-sea vent systems, hydrothermal emissions rich in reductive chemicals replace solar energy as fuels to support microbial carbon assimilation. Until recently, all the microbial components at vent systems have been assumed to be fostered by the primary production of chemolithoautotrophs; however, both the laboratory and on-site studies demonstrated electrical current generation at vent systems and have suggested that a portion of microbial carbon assimilation is stimulated by the direct uptake of electrons from electrically conductive minerals. Here we show that chemolithoautotrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacterium, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, switches the electron source for carbon assimilation from diffusible Fe(2+) ions to an electrode under the condition that electrical current is the only source of energy and electrons. Site-specific marking of a cytochrome aa3 complex (aa3 complex) and a cytochrome bc1 complex (bc1 complex) in viable cells demonstrated that the electrons taken directly from an electrode are used for O2 reduction via a down-hill pathway, which generates proton motive force that is used for pushing the electrons to NAD(+) through a bc1 complex. Activation of carbon dioxide fixation by a direct electron uptake was also confirmed by the clear potential dependency of cell growth. These results reveal a previously unknown bioenergetic versatility of Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria to use solid electron sources and will help with understanding carbon assimilation of microbial components living in electronically conductive chimney habitats.

  2. II. The intermediate velocity source in the 40Ca+40Ca reaction at Elab=35 AMeV

    Sosin, Z.; Planeta, R.; Ciszek, T.

    2001-01-01

    The shape of the velocity distributions of charged particles projected on the beam direction can be explained if emissions from the hot projectile-like fragment and the target-like fragment are supplemented by an emission from an intermediate velocity source located between them. The creation of this source is predicted by a two-stage reaction model where, in the second stage, some of the nucleons identified in the first stage as participants form a group of clusters located in the region between the colliding nuclei. The cluster coalescence process is governed on the average by the maximum value of entropy, although its fluctuations are also significant. The properties of the intermediate velocity source are precisely described, including the isotopic composition of the emitted particles. (orig.)

  3. Using a source-receptor approach to characterise VOC behaviour in a French urban area influenced by industrial emissions. Part II: source contribution assessment using the Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) model.

    Badol, Caroline; Locoge, Nadine; Galloo, Jean-Claude

    2008-01-25

    In Part I of this study (Badol C, Locoge N, Leonardis T, Gallo JC. Using a source-receptor approach to characterise VOC behaviour in a French urban area influenced by industrial emissions, Part I: Study area description, data set acquisition and qualitative data analysis of the data set. Sci Total Environ 2007; submitted as companion manuscript.) the study area, acquisition of the one-year data set and qualitative analysis of the data set have been described. In Part II a source profile has been established for each activity present in the study area: 6 profiles (urban heating, solvent use, natural gas leakage, biogenic emissions, gasoline evaporation and vehicle exhaust) have been extracted from literature to characterise urban sources, 7 industrial profiles have been established via canister sampling around industrial plants (hydrocarbon cracking, oil refinery, hydrocarbon storage, lubricant storage, lubricant refinery, surface treatment and metallurgy). The CMB model is briefly described and its implementation is discussed through the selection of source profiles and fitting species. Main results of CMB modellings for the Dunkerque area are presented. (1) The daily evolution of source contributions for the urban wind sector shows that the vehicle exhaust source contribution varies between 40 and 55% and its relative increase at traffic rush hours is hardly perceptible. (2) The relative contribution of vehicle exhaust varies from 55% in winter down to 30% in summer. This decrease is due to the increase of the relative contribution of hydrocarbon storage source reaching up to 20% in summer. (3) The evolution of source contributions with wind directions has confirmed that in urban wind sectors the contribution of vehicle exhaust dominate with around 45-55%. For the other wind sectors that include some industrial plants, the contribution of industrial sources is around 60% and could reach 80% for the sector 280-310 degrees , which corresponds to the most dense

  4. A national reconnaissance for pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants in the United States - II) Untreated drinking water sources

    Focazio, M.J.; Kolpin, D.W.; Barnes, K.K.; Furlong, E.T.; Meyer, M.T.; Zaugg, S.D.; Barber, L.B.; Thurman, M.E.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that a variety of manufactured and natural organic compounds such as pharmaceuticals, steroids, surfactants, flame retardants, fragrances, plasticizers and other chemicals often associated with wastewaters have been detected in the vicinity of municipal wastewater discharges and livestock agricultural facilities. To provide new data and insights about the environmental presence of some of these chemicals in untreated sources of drinking water in the United States targeted sites were sampled and analyzed for 100 analytes with sub-parts per billion detection capabilities. The sites included 25 ground- and 49 surface-water sources of drinking water serving populations ranging from one family to over 8 million people.

  5. ACToR Chemical Structure processing using Open Source ChemInformatics Libraries (FutureToxII)

    ACToR (Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource) is a centralized database repository developed by the National Center for Computational Toxicology (NCCT) at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Free and open source tools were used to compile toxicity data from ove...

  6. Studies and optimization of Pohang Light Source-II superconducting radio frequency system at stable top-up operation with beam current of 400 mA

    Joo, Youngdo; Yu, Inha; Park, Insoo; Chun, Myunghwan; Lee, Byung-Joon; Hwang, Ilmoon; Ha, Taekyun; Shin, Seunghwan; Sohn, Younguk

    2014-01-01

    After three years of upgrading work, the Pohang Light Source-II (PLS-II) is now successfully operating. The final quantitative goal of PLS-II is a top-up user-service operation with beam current of 400 mA to be completed by the end of 2014. During the beam store test up to 400 mA in the storage ring (SR), it was observed that the vacuum pressure around the radio frequency (RF) window of the superconducting cavity rapidly increases over the interlock level limiting the availability of the maximum beam current storing. Although available beam current is enhanced by setting a higher RF accelerating voltage, it is better to keep the RF accelerating voltage as low as possible in the long time top-up operation. We investigated the cause of the window vacuum pressure increment by studying the changes in the electric field distribution at the superconducting cavity and waveguide according to the beam current. In our simulation, an equivalent physical modeling was developed using a finite-difference time-domain code. The simulation revealed that the electric field amplitude at the RF window is exponentially increased as the beam current increases, thus this high electric field amplitude causes a RF breakdown at the RF window, which comes with the rapid increase of window vacuum pressure. The RF accelerating voltage of PLS-II RF system was set to 4.95 MV, which was estimated using the maximum available beam current that works as a function of RF voltage, and the top-up operation test with the beam current of 400 mA was successfully carried out

  7. AN IN-DEPTH VIEW OF THE MID-INFRARED PROPERTIES OF POINT SOURCES AND THE DIFFUSE ISM IN THE SMC GIANT H II REGION, N66

    Whelan, David G.; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Indebetouw, Rémy; Lebouteiller, Vianney; Galliano, Frédéric; Peeters, Els; Bernard-Salas, Jeronimo; Brandl, Bernhard R.

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this work is to study mid-infrared point sources and the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) in the low-metallicity (∼0.2 Z ☉ ) giant H II region N66 in order to determine properties that may shed light on star formation in these conditions. Using the Spitzer Space Telescope's Infrared Spectrograph, we study polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), dust continuum, silicate, and ionic line emission from 14 targeted infrared point sources as well as spectra of the diffuse ISM that is representative of both the photodissociation regions (PDRs) and the H II regions. Among the point source spectra, we spectroscopically confirm that the brightest mid-infrared point source is a massive embedded young stellar object, we detect silicates in emission associated with two young stellar clusters, and we see spectral features of a known B[e] star that are commonly associated with Herbig Be stars. In the diffuse ISM, we provide additional evidence that the very small grain population is being photodestroyed in the hard radiation field. The 11.3 μm PAH complex emission exhibits an unexplained centroid shift in both the point source and ISM spectra that should be investigated at higher signal-to-noise and resolution. Unlike studies of other regions, the 6.2 μm and 7.7 μm band fluxes are decoupled; the data points cover a large range of I 7.7 /I 11.3 PAH ratio values within a narrow band of I 6.2 /I 11.3 ratio values. Furthermore, there is a spread in PAH ionization, being more neutral in the dense PDR where the radiation field is relatively soft, but ionized in the diffuse ISM/PDR. By contrast, the PAH size distribution appears to be independent of local ionization state. Important to unresolved studies of extragalactic low-metallicity star-forming regions, we find that emission from the infrared-bright point sources accounts for only 20%-35% of the PAH emission from the entire region. These results make a comparative data set to other star-forming regions with

  8. Sources and effects of ionizing radiation. UNSCEAR 2000 report to the General Assembly, with scientific annexes. Volume II: Effects

    2000-01-01

    Over the past few years the United Nations Scientific Committee on the effects of Atomic Radiation has undertaken a broad review of the sources and effects of ionizing radiation. In the present report, the Committee, drawing on the main conclusions of its scientific assessment summarizes the developments in radiation science in the years leading up to the next millennium. It covers the following: the effects of radiation exposure; levels of radiation exposure; radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident; sources of radiation exposure including natural exposures, man-made environmental exposures, medical and occupational exposures; radiation associated cancer. This volume includes five Annexes covering: DNA repair and mutagenesis; biological effects at low radiation doses; combined effects of radiation and other agents; epidemiological evaluation of radiation-induced cancer and exposure effects of the Chernobyl accident

  9. The Einstein@Home Gamma-ray Pulsar Survey. II. Source Selection, Spectral Analysis, and Multiwavelength Follow-up

    Wu, J.; Clark, C. J.; Pletsch, H. J.; Guillemot, L.; Johnson, T. J.; Torne, P.; Champion, D. J.; Deneva, J.; Ray, P. S.; Salvetti, D.; Kramer, M.; Aulbert, C.; Beer, C.; Bhattacharyya, B.; Bock, O.; Camilo, F.; Cognard, I.; Cuéllar, A.; Eggenstein, H. B.; Fehrmann, H.; Ferrara, E. C.; Kerr, M.; Machenschalk, B.; Ransom, S. M.; Sanpa-Arsa, S.; Wood, K.

    2018-02-01

    We report on the analysis of 13 gamma-ray pulsars discovered in the Einstein@Home blind search survey using Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) Pass 8 data. The 13 new gamma-ray pulsars were discovered by searching 118 unassociated LAT sources from the third LAT source catalog (3FGL), selected using the Gaussian Mixture Model machine-learning algorithm on the basis of their gamma-ray emission properties being suggestive of pulsar magnetospheric emission. The new gamma-ray pulsars have pulse profiles and spectral properties similar to those of previously detected young gamma-ray pulsars. Follow-up radio observations have revealed faint radio pulsations from two of the newly discovered pulsars and enabled us to derive upper limits on the radio emission from the others, demonstrating that they are likely radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsars. We also present results from modeling the gamma-ray pulse profiles and radio profiles, if available, using different geometric emission models of pulsars. The high discovery rate of this survey, despite the increasing difficulty of blind pulsar searches in gamma rays, suggests that new systematic surveys such as presented in this article should be continued when new LAT source catalogs become available.

  10. The first IRAM/PdBI polarimetric millimeter survey of active galactic nuclei. II. Activity and properties of individual sources

    Trippe, S.; Neri, R.; Krips, M.; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Bremer, M.; Piétu, V.; Winters, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    We present an analysis of the linear polarization of six active galactic nuclei - 0415+379 (3C 111), 0507+179, 0528+134 (OG+134), 0954+658, 1418+546 (OQ+530), and 1637+574 (OS+562). Our targets were monitored from 2007 to 2011 in the observatory-frame frequency range 80-253 GHz, corresponding to a rest-frame frequency range 88-705 GHz. We find average degrees of polarization mL ≈ 2 - 7%; this indicates that the polarization signals are effectively averaged out by the emitter geometries. From a comparison of the fluctuation rates in flux and degree of polarization we conclude that the spatial scales relevant for polarized emission are of the same order of, but probably not smaller than, the spatial scales relevant for the emission of the total flux. We see indication for fairly strong shocks and/or complex, variable emission region geometries in our sources, with compression factors ≲ 0.9 and/or changes in viewing angles by ≳ 10°. An analysis of correlations between source fluxes and polarization parameter points out special cases: the presence of (at least) two distinct emission regions with different levels of polarization (for 0415+379) as well as emission from a single, predominant component (for 0507+179 and 1418+546). Regarding the evolution of flux and polarization, we find good agreement between observations and the signal predicted by "oblique shock in jet" scenarios in one source (1418+546). We attempt to derive rotation measures for all sources, leading to actual measurements for two AGN and upper limits for three sources. We derive values of RM = (-39 ± 1stat ± 13sys) × 103 rad m-2 and RM = (42 ± 1stat ± 11sys) × 104 rad m-2 for 1418+546 and 1637+574, respectively; these are the highest values reported to date for AGN. These values indicate magnetic field strengths of the order ~10-4 G. For 0415+379, 0507+179, and 0954+658 we derive upper limits |RM| < 1.7 × 104 rad m-2. From the relation |RM| ∝ νa we find a = 1.9 ± 0.3 for 1418+546, in

  11. Use of open source software in estimating the effects of a severe accident on the Mark II containment

    Sainz, E.; Arguelles, R.

    2015-09-01

    Because the spectrum of scenarios of severe accident before which must verify the integrity of the containment can be very broad, it arises here a calculation methodology to estimate the structural response of the containment without incurring in high costs for commercial software licenses, or in times and calculation excessive requirements. The capabilities of computer programs with license of open source, OpenFOAM for CFD calculations and Salome-Meca for thermal and mechanical calculations were tested. The methodology begins of the venting of mass and energy that are postulated inside the container and the values of the thermal and mechanical fields are obtained through the walls. (Author)

  12. Continuous-Time Random Walk Models of DNA Electrophoresis in a Post Array: II. Mobility and Sources of Band Broadening

    Olson, Daniel W.; Dutta, Sarit; Laachi, Nabil; Tian, Mingwei; Dorfman, Kevin D.

    2011-01-01

    Using the two-state, continuous-time random walk model, we develop expressions for the mobility and the plate height during DNA electrophoresis in an ordered post array that delineate the contributions due to (i) the random distance between collisions and (ii) the random duration of a collision. These contributions are expressed in terms of the means and variances of the underlying stochastic processes, which we evaluate from a large ensemble of Brownian dynamics simulations performed using different electric fields and molecular weights in a hexagonal array of 1 μm posts with a 3 μm center-to-center distance. If we fix the molecular weight, we find that the collision frequency governs the mobility. In contrast, the average collision duration is the most important factor for predicting the mobility as a function of DNA size at constant Péclet number. The plate height is reasonably well-described by a single post rope-over-pulley model, provided that the extension of the molecule is small. Our results only account for dispersion inside the post array and thus represent a theoretical lower bound on the plate height in an actual device. PMID:21290387

  13. Galaxy evolution and large-scale structure in the far-infrared. II. The IRAS faint source survey

    Lonsdale, C.J.; Hacking, P.B.; Conrow, T.P.; Rowan-Robinson, M.

    1990-01-01

    The new IRAS Faint Source Survey data base is used to confirm the conclusion of Hacking et al. (1987) that the 60 micron source counts fainter than about 0.5 Jy lie in excess of predictions based on nonevolving model populations. The existence of an anisotropy between the northern and southern Galactic caps discovered by Rowan-Robinson et al. (1986) and Needham and Rowan-Robinson (1988) is confirmed, and it is found to extend below their sensitivity limit to about 0.3 Jy in 60 micron flux density. The count anisotropy at f(60) greater than 0.3 can be interpreted reasonably as due to the Local Supercluster; however, no one structure accounting for the fainter anisotropy can be easily identified in either optical or far-IR two-dimensional sky distributions. The far-IR galaxy sky distributions are considerably smoother than distributions from the published optical galaxy catalogs. It is likely that structure of the large size discussed here have been discriminated against in earlier studies due to insufficient volume sampling. 105 refs

  14. Atmospheric fate of poly- and perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs): II. Emission source strength in summer in Zurich, Switzerland.

    Wang, Zhanyun; Scheringer, Martin; MacLeod, Matthew; Bogdal, Christian; Müller, Claudia E; Gerecke, Andreas C; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2012-10-01

    Fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) and perfluorooctane sulfonamides (FOSAs) are present in consumer products and are semi-volatile precursors of persistent perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). The high variability of levels of FTOHs and FOSAs in products makes it difficult to derive FTOH- and FOSA-emissions from urban areas based on emission factors. Here we used a multimedia mass balance model that describes the day-night cycle of semi-volatile organic chemicals in air to interpret measurements of 8:2 FTOH, 10:2 FTOH, MeFOSA and EtFOSA from a sampling campaign in summer 2010 in Zurich, Switzerland. The estimated emission source strength of the four substances follows the sequence: 8:2 FTOH (2.6 g/h) > 10:2 FTOH (0.75 g/h) > MeFOSA (0.08 g/h) > EtFOSA (0.05 g/h). There is no FTOHs- or FOSAs-related industry in Zurich. Accordingly, our estimates are representative of diffusive emissions during use and disposal of consumer products, and describe noticeable sources of these PFASs to the environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of potential combustion source impacts on acid deposition using an independently derived inventory. Volume II, appendices

    1983-12-01

    This document contains 2 appendices. The first documents the methodologies used to calculate production, unit energy consumption, fuel type and emission estimates for 16 industries and 35 types of facilities utilizing direct-fired industrial combustion processes, located in 26 states (and the District of Columbia) east of the Mississippi River. As discussed in the text of this report, a U.S. total of 16 industries and 45 types of facilities utilizing direct-fired combustion processes were identified by an elimination type method that was developed based on evaluation of fuel use in industrial SIC codes 20-39 to identify pollutant sources contributing to acid rain. The final population included only plants that have direct-fired fuel consumption greater than or equal to 100 x 10/sup 9/ Btu/yr of equivalent energy consumption. The goal for this analysis was to provide at least a 1980 base year for the data. This was achieved for all of the industries and in fact, 1981 data were used for a number of the industries evaluated. The second contains an analysis of all consumption of major fossil fuels to: (1) identify all fuel usage categories, and (2) identify the kinds of combustion equipment used within each category. This analysis provides a frame of reference for the balance of the study and permits using an energy accounting methodology to quantify the degree to which the inventoried sources in individual consuming sectors are complete and representative of the total population for the sector.

  16. Growth, shoot phenology and physiology of diverse seed sources of black spruce: II 23-year-old field trees

    Kurt H. Johnsen; John R. Seiler; John E. Major

    1996-01-01

    Four sources of 23-year-old black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) from a provenance test at the Petawawa National Forestry Institute (46° N, 77°30¢ W) were assessed for height growth, shoot phenology and seasonal gas exchange. The provenances were designated 7000 (Yukon, 63°34¢ N, 135°55¢ W), 6979 (Alberta 52°22¢ N, 115°15¢ W), 6908 (Ontario, 48°59¢ N, 80°38¢ W)...

  17. X-ray sources in regions of star formation. II. The pre-main-sequence G star HDE 283572

    Walter, F.M.; Brown, A.; Linsky, J.L.; Rydgren, A.E.; Vrba, F.; Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics, Boulder, CO; Computer Sciences Corp., El Segundo, CA; Naval Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ)

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports the detection of HDE 283572, a ninth-magnitude G star 8 arcmin south of RY Tau, as a bright X-ray source. The observations reveal this object to be a fairly massive (about 2 solar masses) pre-main-sequence star associated with the Taurus-Auriga star formation complex. It exhibits few of the characteristics of the classical T Tauri stars and is a good example of a naked T Tauri star. The star is a mid-G subgiant, of about three solar radii and rotates with a period of 1.5 d. The coronal and chromospheric surface fluxes are similar to those of the most active late type stars (excluding T Tauri stars). The X-ray and UV lines most likely arise in different atmospheric structures. Radiative losses are some 1000 times the quiet solar value and compare favorably with those of T Tauri stars. 49 references

  18. Characterization, propagation, and simulation of sources and backgrounds II; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 20-22, 1992

    Clement, Dieter; Watkins, Wendell R.

    Consideration is given to a characterization of the environmental influence on targets, backgrounds, camouflage, and clutter; modeling of physically based dynamics of scene radiation and its propagation; and the relatively sophisticated real-time simulations/simulators for system observer display and testing of some of these dynamic and varied scene changes. Particular attention is given to the hardware-in-the-loop infrared projector technology, a strategic scene generation model, a comparison of night sky spectral radiance measurements with MODTRAN and LOWTRAN 7 predictions, spatiotemporal models for the simulation of infrared backgrounds, computer-based evaluation of camouflage, dual-band infrared polarization measurements of sun glint from the sea surface, an electron gun IR scenario simulator, relaxation processes of vibrationally excited species in the mesosphere and thermosphere, a fiber-optic-based device for the investigation of aerooptic effects, and luminous intensity measurements of sources using a new detector-based illuminance scale. (For individual items see A93-28623 to A93-28625)

  19. An open-source framework for analyzing N-electron dynamics. II. Hybrid density functional theory/configuration interaction methodology.

    Hermann, Gunter; Pohl, Vincent; Tremblay, Jean Christophe

    2017-10-30

    In this contribution, we extend our framework for analyzing and visualizing correlated many-electron dynamics to non-variational, highly scalable electronic structure method. Specifically, an explicitly time-dependent electronic wave packet is written as a linear combination of N-electron wave functions at the configuration interaction singles (CIS) level, which are obtained from a reference time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculation. The procedure is implemented in the open-source Python program detCI@ORBKIT, which extends the capabilities of our recently published post-processing toolbox (Hermann et al., J. Comput. Chem. 2016, 37, 1511). From the output of standard quantum chemistry packages using atom-centered Gaussian-type basis functions, the framework exploits the multideterminental structure of the hybrid TDDFT/CIS wave packet to compute fundamental one-electron quantities such as difference electronic densities, transient electronic flux densities, and transition dipole moments. The hybrid scheme is benchmarked against wave function data for the laser-driven state selective excitation in LiH. It is shown that all features of the electron dynamics are in good quantitative agreement with the higher-level method provided a judicious choice of functional is made. Broadband excitation of a medium-sized organic chromophore further demonstrates the scalability of the method. In addition, the time-dependent flux densities unravel the mechanistic details of the simulated charge migration process at a glance. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Shielding NSLS-II light source: Importance of geometry for calculating radiation levels from beam losses [Shielding Synchrotron Light Sources: Importance of geometry for calculating radiation levels from beam losses

    Kramer, S. L.; Ghosh, V. J.; Breitfeller, M.; Wahl, W.

    2016-01-01

    Third generation high brightness light sources are designed to have low emittance and high current beams, which contribute to higher beam loss rates that will be compensated by Top-Off injection. Shielding for these higher loss rates will be critical to protect the projected higher occupancy factors for the users. Top-Off injection requires a full energy injector, which will demand greater consideration of the potential abnormal beam miss-steering and localized losses that could occur. The high energy electron injection beam produces significantly higher neutron component dose to the experimental floor than a lower energy beam injection and ramped operations. Minimizing this dose will require adequate knowledge of where the miss-steered beam can occur and sufficient EM shielding close to the loss point, in order to attenuate the energy of the particles in the EM shower below the neutron production threshold (<10 MeV), which will spread the incident energy on the bulk shield walls and thereby the dose penetrating the shield walls. Designing supplemental shielding near the loss point using the analytic shielding model is shown to be inadequate because of its lack of geometry specification for the EM shower process. To predict the dose rates outside the tunnel requires detailed description of the geometry and materials that the beam losses will encounter inside the tunnel. Modern radiation shielding Monte-Carlo codes, like FLUKA, can handle this geometric description of the radiation transport process in sufficient detail, allowing accurate predictions of the dose rates expected and the ability to show weaknesses in the design before a high radiation incident occurs. The effort required to adequately define the accelerator geometry for these codes has been greatly reduced with the implementation of the graphical interface of FLAIR to FLUKA. This made the effective shielding process for NSLS-II quite accurate and reliable. Lastly, the principles used to provide

  1. Optical and mechanical design of the extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) beam-line at Indus-II synchrotron source

    Das, N.C.; Jha, S.N.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Sinha, A.K.; Mishra, V.K.; Verma, Vishnu; Ghosh, A.K.

    2002-11-01

    An extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) beam line for x-ray absorption studies using energy dispersive geometry and position sensitive detector is being designed for the INDUS-II Synchrotron source. The beam line would be used for doing x-ray absorption experiments involving measurements of fme structures above the absorption edge of different species of atoms in a material The results of the above experiments would lead to the determination of different important structural parameters of materials viz.. inter-atomic distance. co-ordination number, degree of disorder and radial distribution function etc. The optical design of the beam line has been completed based on the working principle that a single crystal bent in the shape of an ellipse by a crystal bender would act as a dispersing as well as focusing element. The mechanical design of the beam line including the crystal bender has also been completed and discussed here. Calculations have been done to detennine the temperature profile on the different components of the beam line under exposure to synchrotron radiation and proper cooling channels have been designed to bring down the heat load on the components. (author)

  2. cobalt (ii), nickel (ii)

    DR. AMINU

    Department of Chemistry Bayero University, P. M. B. 3011, Kano, Nigeria. E-mail: hnuhu2000@yahoo.com. ABSTRACT. The manganese (II), cobalt (II), nickel (II) and .... water and common organic solvents, but are readily soluble in acetone. The molar conductance measurement [Table 3] of the complex compounds in.

  3. Structural Iron (II) of Basaltic Glass as an Energy Source for Zetaproteobacteria in an Abyssal Plain Environment, Off the Mid Atlantic Ridge.

    Henri, Pauline A; Rommevaux-Jestin, Céline; Lesongeur, Françoise; Mumford, Adam; Emerson, David; Godfroy, Anne; Ménez, Bénédicte

    2015-01-01

    To explore the capability of basaltic glass to support the growth of chemosynthetic microorganisms, complementary in situ and in vitro colonization experiments were performed. Microbial colonizers containing synthetic tholeitic basaltic glasses, either enriched in reduced or oxidized iron, were deployed off-axis from the Mid Atlantic Ridge on surface sediments of the abyssal plain (35°N; 29°W). In situ microbial colonization was assessed by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and basaltic glass alteration was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy, micro-X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure at the Fe-K-edge and Raman microspectroscopy. The colonized surface of the reduced basaltic glass was covered by a rind of alteration made of iron-oxides trapped in a palagonite-like structure with thicknesses up to 150 μm. The relative abundance of the associated microbial community was dominated (39% of all reads) by a single operational taxonomic unit (OTU) that shared 92% identity with the iron-oxidizer Mariprofundus ferrooxydans PV-1. Conversely, the oxidized basaltic glass showed the absence of iron-oxides enriched surface deposits and correspondingly there was a lack of known iron-oxidizing bacteria in the inventoried diversity. In vitro, a similar reduced basaltic glass was incubated in artificial seawater with a pure culture of the iron-oxidizing M. ferrooxydans DIS-1 for 2 weeks, without any additional nutrients or minerals. Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy revealed that the glass surface was covered by twisted stalks characteristic of this iron-oxidizing Zetaproteobacteria. This result supported findings of the in situ experiments indicating that the Fe(II) present in the basalt was the energy source for the growth of representatives of Zetaproteobacteria in both the abyssal plain and the in vitro experiment. In accordance, the surface alteration rind observed on the reduced basaltic glass incubated in situ could at least partly result from their activity.

  4. A kinetic and ESR investigation of iron(II) oxalate oxidation by hydrogen peroxide and dioxygen as a source of hydroxyl radicals

    Park, J S; Wood, P M; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    1997-01-01

    The reaction of Fe(II) oxalate with hydrogen peroxide and dioxygen was studied for oxalate concentrations up to 20 mM and pH 2-5, under which conditions mono- and bis-oxalate complexes (Fe[II](ox) and Fe[II](ox)2[2-]) and uncomplexed Fe2+ must be considered. The reaction of Fe(II) oxalate...... with hydrogen peroxide (Fe2+ + H2O2 --> Fe3+ + .OH + OH-) was monitored in continuous flow by ESR with t-butanol as a radical trap. The reaction is much faster than for uncomplexed Fe2+ and a rate constant, k = 1 x 10(4) M(-1) s(-1) is deduced for Fe(II)(ox). The reaction of Fe(II) oxalate with dioxygen...... by oxalate. Further ESR studies with DMPO as spin trap reveal that reaction of Fe(II) oxalate with hydrogen peroxide can also lead to formation of the carboxylate radical anion (CO2-), an assignment confirmed by photolysis of Fe(II) oxalate in the presence of DMPO....

  5. Power Scaling Feasibility or Chromium-Doped II-VI Laser Sources and the Demonstration of a Chromium-Doped Zinc Selenide Face-Cooled Disk Laser

    McKay, Jason

    2002-01-01

    ...+:ZnSe disk laser design that can produce sufficient output power. Cr2+:II-VI laser materials are found to be susceptible to overheating and thermal lensing, but are otherwise satisfactory laser materials...

  6. Pius II. a utrakvismus

    Šimek, Milan

    2009-01-01

    Milan Šimek Pius II. a utrakvismus Pius II. and utraquism Based on sources work - out, the thesis aims the description and analysis of the attitude alternation of Enea Sylvio Piccolomini - Pius II to the utraquism. The conclusions stress the postulate that Pius II. did not change that attitude, but just did not succed in quelling the utraquist movement. In the sense of political background that finally led to fatal dissention among both leaders, king Jiří of Poděbrady and pope Pius II.

  7. IIS--Integrated Interactome System: a web-based platform for the annotation, analysis and visualization of protein-metabolite-gene-drug interactions by integrating a variety of data sources and tools.

    Carazzolle, Marcelo Falsarella; de Carvalho, Lucas Miguel; Slepicka, Hugo Henrique; Vidal, Ramon Oliveira; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães; Kobarg, Jörg; Meirelles, Gabriela Vaz

    2014-01-01

    High-throughput screening of physical, genetic and chemical-genetic interactions brings important perspectives in the Systems Biology field, as the analysis of these interactions provides new insights into protein/gene function, cellular metabolic variations and the validation of therapeutic targets and drug design. However, such analysis depends on a pipeline connecting different tools that can automatically integrate data from diverse sources and result in a more comprehensive dataset that can be properly interpreted. We describe here the Integrated Interactome System (IIS), an integrative platform with a web-based interface for the annotation, analysis and visualization of the interaction profiles of proteins/genes, metabolites and drugs of interest. IIS works in four connected modules: (i) Submission module, which receives raw data derived from Sanger sequencing (e.g. two-hybrid system); (ii) Search module, which enables the user to search for the processed reads to be assembled into contigs/singlets, or for lists of proteins/genes, metabolites and drugs of interest, and add them to the project; (iii) Annotation module, which assigns annotations from several databases for the contigs/singlets or lists of proteins/genes, generating tables with automatic annotation that can be manually curated; and (iv) Interactome module, which maps the contigs/singlets or the uploaded lists to entries in our integrated database, building networks that gather novel identified interactions, protein and metabolite expression/concentration levels, subcellular localization and computed topological metrics, GO biological processes and KEGG pathways enrichment. This module generates a XGMML file that can be imported into Cytoscape or be visualized directly on the web. We have developed IIS by the integration of diverse databases following the need of appropriate tools for a systematic analysis of physical, genetic and chemical-genetic interactions. IIS was validated with yeast two

  8. Synthesis, spectral and thermal studies of pyridyl adducts of Zn(II) and Cd(II) dithiocarbamates, and their use as single source precursors for ZnS and CdS nanoparticles

    Onwudiwe, Damian C.; Strydom, Christien A.; Jordaan, Anine; Oluwafemi, Oluwatobi S.; Hosten, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis, spectroscopic characterisation, and thermal studies of pyridyl adducts of Zn(II) and Cd(II) complexes of N-ethyl-N-phenyl dithiocarbamate, represented as [ZnL2py] and [CdL2py2], are reported. Single-crystal X-ray structural analysis of the Zn compound showed that it is five-coordinate with four sulphurs from dithiocarbamate and one nitrogen from pyridine in a distorted square pyramidal geometry. The thermogravimetric studies indicate that the zinc and cadmium compou...

  9. World War II Homefront.

    Garcia, Rachel

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Covers various topics such as the homefront, Japanese Americans, women during World War II, posters, and African Americans. Includes lesson plan sources and a list of additional resources. (CMK)

  10. Catalytic generation of methane at 60-100 °C and 0.1-300 MPa from source rocks containing kerogen Types I, II, and III

    Wei, Lin; Schimmelmann, Arndt; Mastalerz, Maria; Lahann, Richard W.; Sauer, Peter E.; Drobniak, Agnieszka; Strąpoć, Dariusz; Mango, Frank D.

    2018-06-01

    Low temperature (60 and 100 °C) and long-term (6 months to 5 years) heating of pre-evacuated and sterilized shales and coals containing kerogen Types I (Mahogany Shale), II (Mowry Shale and New Albany Shale), and III (Springfield Coal and Wilcox Lignite) with low initial maturities (vitrinite reflectance Ro 0.39-0.62%) demonstrates that catalytically generated hydrocarbons may explain the occurrence of some non-biogenic natural gas accumulations where insufficient thermal maturity contradicts the conventional thermal cracking paradigm. Extrapolation of the observed rate of catalytic methanogenesis in the laboratory suggests that significant amounts of sedimentary organic carbon can be converted to relatively dry natural gas over tens of thousands of years in sedimentary basins at temperatures as low as 60 °C. Our laboratory experiments utilized source rock (shale and coal) chips sealed in gold and Pyrex® glass tubes in the presence of hydrogen-isotopically contrasting waters. Parallel heating experiments applied hydrostatic pressures from 0.1 to 300 MPa. Control experiments constrained the influence of pre-existing and residual methane in closed pores of rock chips that was unrelated to newly generated methane. This study's experimental methane yields at 60 and 100 °C are 5-11 orders of magnitude higher than the theoretically predicted yields from kinetic models of thermogenic methane generation, which strongly suggests a contribution of catalytic methanogenesis. Higher temperature, longer heating time, and lower hydrostatic pressure enhanced catalytic methanogenesis. No clear relationships were observed between kerogen type or total organic carbon content and methane yields via catalysis. Catalytic methanogenesis was strongest in Mowry Shale where methane yields at 60 °C amounted to ∼2.5 μmol per gram of organic carbon after one year of hydrous heating at ambient pressure. In stark contrast to the earlier findings of hydrogen isotopic exchange between

  11. Nsls-II Boster

    Gurov, S. M.; Akimov, A. V.; Akimov, V. E.; Anashin, V. V.; Anchugov, O. V.; Baranov, G. N.; Batrakov, A. M.; Belikov, O. V.; Bekhtenev, E. A.; Blum, E.; Bulatov, A. V.; Burenkov, D. B.; Cheblakov, P. B.; Chernyakin, A. D.; Cheskidov, V. G.; Churkin, I. N.; Davidsavier, M.; Derbenev, A. A.; Erokhin, A. I.; Fliller, R. P.; Fulkerson, M.; Gorchakov, K. M.; Ganetis, G.; Gao, F.; Gurov, D. S.; Hseuh, H.; Hu, Y.; Johanson, M.; Kadyrov, R. A.; Karnaev, S. E.; Karpov, G. V.; Kiselev, V. A.; Kobets, V. V.; Konstantinov, V. M.; Kolmogorov, V. V.; Korepanov, A. A.; Kramer, S.; Krasnov, A. A.; Kremnev, A. A.; Kuper, E. A.; Kuzminykh, V. S.; Levichev, E. B.; Li, Y.; Long, J. De; Makeev, A. V.; Mamkin, V. R.; Medvedko, A. S.; Meshkov, O. I.; Nefedov, N. B.; Neyfeld, V. V.; Okunev, I. N.; Ozaki, S.; Padrazo, D.; Petrov, V. V.; Petrichenkov, M. V.; Philipchenko, A. V.; Polyansky, A. V.; Pureskin, D. N.; Rakhimov, A. R.; Rose, J.; Ruvinskiy, S. I.; Rybitskaya, T. V.; Sazonov, N. V.; Schegolev, L. M.; Semenov, A. M.; Semenov, E. P.; Senkov, D. V.; Serdakov, L. E.; Serednyakov, S. S.; Shaftan, T. V.; Sharma, S.; Shichkov, D. S.; Shiyankov, S. V.; Shvedov, D. A.; Simonov, E. A.; Singh, O.; Sinyatkin, S. V.; Smaluk, V. V.; Sukhanov, A. V.; Tian, Y.; Tsukanova, L. A.; Vakhrushev, R. V.; Vobly, P. D.; Utkin, A. V.; Wang, G.; Wahl, W.; Willeke, F.; Yaminov, K. R.; Yong, H.; Zhuravlev, A.; Zuhoski, P.

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II is a third generation light source, which was constructed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This project includes a highly-optimized 3 GeV electron storage ring, linac preinjector, and full-energy synchrotron injector. Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics built and delivered the booster for NSLS-II. The commissioning of the booster was successfully completed. This paper reviews fulfilled work by participants.

  12. NuSTAR Hard X-Ray Survey of the Galactic Center Region. II. X-Ray Point Sources

    Hong, JaeSub; Mori, Kaya; Hailey, Charles J.

    2016-01-01

    persistent luminous X-ray binaries (XBs) and the likely run-away pulsar called the Cannonball. New source-detection significance maps reveal a cluster of hard (>10 keV) X-ray sources near the Sgr. A diffuse complex with no clear soft X-ray counterparts. The severe extinction observed in the Chandra spectra...

  13. Effect of temperature on the optical and structural properties of hexadecylamine capped ZnS nanoparticles using Zinc(II) N-ethyl-N-phenyldithiocarbamate as single source precursor

    Onwudiwe, Damian C., E-mail: dconwudiwe@webmail.co.za [Chemical Resource Beneficiation, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Strydom, Christien [Chemical Resource Beneficiation, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Oluwafemi, Oluwatobi S., E-mail: oluwafemi.oluwatobi@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha Campus, Private Bag X1, Mthatha (South Africa); Songca, Sandile P. [Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, Walter Sisulu University, P.O. Box 19712, Tecoma, East London (South Africa)

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► HDA-capped ZnS nanoparticles were synthesized via thermolysis of a single source precursor. ► Zinc(II) N-ethyl-N-phenyldithiocarbamate was used as the single source precursor. ► The growth temperature was varied to study the optical properties of the nanocrystals. ► Change in growth temperature affects the structural properties of the ZnS nanoparticles. ► Hexagonal wurtzite phase was obtained at lower temperatures while cubic sphalerite phase was obtained at higher growth temperatures. -- Abstract: Reported in this work is the synthesis of HDA (hexadecylamine)-capped ZnS nanoparticles by a single source route using Zinc(II) N-ethyl-N-phenyldithiocarbamate as a precursor. By varying the growth temperature, the temporal evolution of the optical properties and morphology of the nanocrystals were investigated. The as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV–vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). All the particles exhibited quantum confinement in their optical properties with band edge emission at the early stage of the reaction. The XRD showed transition from hexagonal wurtzite phase to cubic sphalerite phase as the growth temperature increases. The TEM image showed that the particles are small and spherical in shape while the HRTEM image confirmed the crystalline nature of the material.

  14. Characterizing and sourcing ambient PM2.5 over key emission regions in China II: Organic molecular markers and CMB modeling

    Zhou, Jiabin; Xiong, Ying; Xing, Zhenyu; Deng, Junjun; Du, Ke

    2017-08-01

    From November 2012 to July 2013, a sampling campaign was completed for comprehensive characterization of PM2.5 over four key emission regions in China: Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH), Yangzi River Delta (YRD), Pearl River Delta (PRD), and Sichuan Basin (SB). A multi-method approach, adopting different analytical and receptor modeling methods, was employed to determine the relative abundances of region-specific air pollution constituents and contributions of emission sources. This paper is focused on organic molecular marker based source apportionment using chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor modeling. Analyses of the organic molecular markers revealed that vehicle emission, coal combustion, biomass burning, meat cooking and natural gas combustion were the major contributors to organic carbon (OC) in PM2.5. The vehicle emission dominated the sources contributing to OC in spring at four sampling sites. During wintertime, the coal combustion had highest contribution to OC at BTH site, while the major source contributing to OC at YRD and PRD sites was vehicle emission. In addition, the relative contributions of different emission sources to PM2.5 mass at a specific location site and in a specific season revealed seasonal and spatial variations across all four sampling locations. The largest contributor to PM2.5 mass was secondary sulfate (14-17%) in winter at the four sites. The vehicle emission was found to be the major source (14-21%) for PM2.5 mass at PRD site. The secondary ammonium has minor variation (4-5%) across the sites, confirming the influences of regional emission sources on these sites. The distinct patterns of seasonal and spatial variations of source apportionment observed in this study were consistent with the findings in our previous paper based upon water-soluble ions and carbonaceous fractions. This makes it essential for the local government to make season- and region-specific mitigation strategies for abating PM2.5 pollution in China.

  15. Synthesis, spectral and thermal studies of pyridyl adducts of Zn(II) and Cd(II) dithiocarbamates, and their use as single source precursors for ZnS and CdS nanoparticles.

    Onwudiwe, Damian C; Strydom, Christien A; Oluwafemi, Oluwatobi S; Hosten, Eric; Jordaan, Anine

    2014-06-21

    The synthesis, spectroscopic characterisation, and thermal studies of pyridyl adducts of Zn(II) and Cd(II) complexes of N-ethyl-N-phenyl dithiocarbamate, represented as [ZnL2py] and [CdL2py2], are reported. Single-crystal X-ray structural analysis of the Zn compound showed that it is five-coordinate with four sulphurs from dithiocarbamate and one nitrogen from pyridine in a distorted square pyramidal geometry. The thermogravimetric studies indicate that the zinc and cadmium compounds undergo fast weight loss, and the temperature at maximum rate of decomposition is at 277 °C and 265 °C respectively, to give the metal (Zn or Cd) sulphide residues. These compounds were used as single molecule precursors to produce nanocrystalline MS (M = Zn, Cd) after thermolysis in hexadecylamine. The morphological and optical properties of the resulting MS nanocrystallites were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-Vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, and powdered X-ray diffraction (XRD). By varying the growth time, the temporal evolution of the optical properties and morphology of the nanocrystals were investigated.

  16. Assessment of the excitation temperatures and Mg II:I line ratios of the direct current (DC) arc source for the analysis of radioactive materials

    Manard, B.T.; Matonic, John; Montoya, Dennis; Jump, Robert; Castro, Alonso; Ning Xu

    2017-01-01

    The direct current (DC) arc plasma has been assessed with an emphasis on excitation temperature (T_e_x_e) and ionization/excitation efficiency by monitoring magnesium ionic:atomic ratios (Mg II:I). The primary goal is to improve the analytical performance of the DC arc instrumentation such that more sensitive and reproducible measurements can be achieved when analyzing trace impurities in nuclear materials. Due to the variety of sample types requiring DC arc analysis, an understanding of the plasma's characteristics will significantly benefit the experimental design when moving forward with LANL's capabilities for trace metal analysis of plutonium metals. (author)

  17. Modeling dry and wet deposition of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium ions in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China using a source-oriented CMAQ model: Part II. Emission sector and source region contributions.

    Qiao, Xue; Tang, Ya; Kota, Sri Harsha; Li, Jingyi; Wu, Li; Hu, Jianlin; Zhang, Hongliang; Ying, Qi

    2015-11-01

    A source-oriented Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model driven by the meteorological fields generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was used to study the dry and wet deposition of nitrate (NO3(-)), sulfate (SO4(2-)), and ammonium (NH4(+)) ions in the Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve (JNNR), China from June to August 2010 and to identify the contributions of different emission sectors and source regions that were responsible for the deposition fluxes. Contributions from power plants, industry, transportation, domestic, biogenic, windblown dust, open burning, fertilizer, and manure management sources to deposition fluxes in JNNR watershed and four EANET sites are determined. In JNNR, 96%, 82%, and 87% of the SO4(2-), NO3(-) and NH4(+) deposition fluxes are in the form of wet deposition of the corresponding aerosol species. Industry and power plants are the two major sources of SO4(2-) deposition flux, accounting for 86% of the total wet deposition of SO4(2-), and industry has a higher contribution (56%) than that of power plants (30%). Power plants and industry are also the top sources that are responsible for NO3(-) wet deposition, and contributions from power plants (30%) are generally higher than those from industries (21%). The major sources of NH4(+) wet deposition flux in JNNR are fertilizer (48%) and manure management (39%). Source-region apportionment confirms that SO2 and NOx emissions from local and two nearest counties do not have a significant impact on predicted wet deposition fluxes in JNNR, with contributions less than 10%. While local NH3 emissions account for a higher fraction of the NH4(+) deposition, approximately 70% of NH4(+) wet deposition in JNNR originated from other source regions. This study demonstrates that S and N deposition in JNNR is mostly from long-range transport rather than from local emissions, and to protect JNNR, regional emission reduction controls are needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All

  18. RESPONSE OF CHILE PEPPER (Capsicum annuum L. TO SALT STRESS AND ORGANIC AND INORGANIC NITROGEN SOURCES: II. NITROGEN AND WATER USE EFFICIENCIES, AND SALT TOLERANCE

    Marco Antonio Huez Lopez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The response to two nitrogen sources on water and nitrogen use efficiencies, and tolerance of salt-stressed chile pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Sandia was investigated in a greenhouse experiment. Low, moderate and high (1.5, 4.5, and 6.5 dS m-1 salinity levels, and two rates of organic-N fertilizer (120 and 200 kg ha-1 and 120 kg ha-1 of inorganic fertilizer as ammonium nitrate were arranged in randomized complete block designs replicated four times. The liquid organic-N source was an organic, extracted with water from grass clippings. Water use decreased about 19 and 30% in moderate and high salt-stressed plants. Water use efficiency decreased only in high salt-stressed plants. Nitrogen use efficiency decreased either by increased salinity or increased N rates. An apparent increase in salt tolerance was noted when plants were fertilized with organic-N source compared to that of inorganic-N source.

  19. Use of Zircaloy 4 material for the pressure vessels of hot and cold neutron sources and beam tubes for research reactors

    Scheuer, A.; Gutsmiedl, E.

    1999-01-01

    The material Zircaloy 4 can be used for the pressure retaining walls for the cold and hot neutron sources and beam tubes. For the research reactor FRM-II of the Technical University Munich, Germany, the material Zircaloy 4 were chosen for the vessels of the cold and hot neutron source and for the beam tube No. 6. The sheets and forgings of Zircaloy 4 were examined in the temperature range between -256 deg. C and 250 deg. C. The thickness of the sheets are 3, 4, 5 and 10 mm, the maximum diameter of the forgings was 560 mm. This great forging diameters are not be treated in the ASTM rule B 351 for nuclear material, so a special approval with independent experts was necessary. The requirements for the material examinations were specified in a material specification and material test sheets which based on the ASTM rules B 351 and B 352 with additional restriction and additional requirements of the basic safety concept for nuclear power plants in Germany, which was take into consideration in the nuclear licensing procedure. Charpy-V samples were carried out in the temperature range between -256 deg. C and 150 deg. C to get more information on the ductile behaviour of the Zircaloy 4. The results of the sheet examination confirm the requirements of the specifications, the results of the forging examination in the tangential testing direction are lower than specified and expected for the tensile strength. The axial and transverse values confirm the specification requirements. For the strength calculation of the pressure retaining wall a reduced material value for the forgings has to take into consideration. The material behaviour of Zircaloy 4 under irradiation up to a fluence of ∼ 1x10 22 n/cm 2 was investigated. The loss of ductility was determined. As an additional criteria the variation of the fracture toughness was studies. Fracture mechanic calculations of the material were carried out in the licensing procedure with the focus to fulfill the leak before rupture

  20. Use of Zircaloy 4 material for the pressure vessels of hot and cold neutron sources and beam tubes for research reactors

    Gutsmiedl, Erwin

    2001-01-01

    The material Zircaloy 4 can be used for the pressure retaining walls for the cold and hot neutron sources and beam tubes. For the research reactor FRM-II of the Technical University Munich, Germany, the material Zircaloy 4 were chosen for the vessels of the cold and hot neutron source and for the beam tube No. 6. The sheets and forgings of Zircaloy 4 were examined in the temperature range between -256degC and 250degC. The thickness of the sheets are 3, 4, 5 and 10 mm, the maximum diameter of the forgings was 560 mm. This great forging diameters are not be treated in the ASTM rule B 351 for nuclear material, so a special approval with independent experts was necessary. The requirements for the material examinations were specified in a material specification and material test sheets which based on the ASTM rules B 351 and B 352 with additional restriction and additional requirements of the basic safety concept for nuclear power plants in Germany, which was taken into consideration in the nuclear licensing procedure. Charpy-V samples were carried out in the temperature range between -256degC and 150degC to get more information on the ductile behaviour of the Zircaloy 4. The results of the sheet examination confirm the requirements of the specifications, the results of the forging examination in the tangential testing direction are lower than specified and expected for the tensile strength. The axial and transverse values confirm the specification requirements. For the strength calculation of the pressure retaining wall a reduced material value for the forgings has to taken into consideration. The material behaviour of Zircaloy 4 under irradiation up to a fluence of ∼1·10 22 n/cm 2 was investigated. The loss of ductility was determined. As an additional criteria the variation of the fracture toughness was studies. Fracture mechanic calculations of the material were carried out in the licensing procedure with the focus to fulfill the leak before rupture criteria of

  1. Use of open source software in estimating the effects of a severe accident on the Mark II containment; Uso de software de fuente abierta en la estimacion de los efectos de un accidente severo sobre la contencion Mark II

    Sainz, E.; Arguelles, R., E-mail: eduardo.sainz@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    Because the spectrum of scenarios of severe accident before which must verify the integrity of the containment can be very broad, it arises here a calculation methodology to estimate the structural response of the containment without incurring in high costs for commercial software licenses, or in times and calculation excessive requirements. The capabilities of computer programs with license of open source, OpenFOAM for CFD calculations and Salome-Meca for thermal and mechanical calculations were tested. The methodology begins of the venting of mass and energy that are postulated inside the container and the values of the thermal and mechanical fields are obtained through the walls. (Author)

  2. Copper (II)

    CLEMENT O BEWAJI

    Valine (2 - amino - 3 – methylbutanoic acid), is a chemical compound containing .... Stability constant (Kf). Gibb's free energy. ) (. 1. −. ∆. Mol. JG. [CuL2(H2O)2] ... synthesis and characterization of Co(ii), Ni(ii), Cu (II), and Zn(ii) complexes with ...

  3. Subproducts from a depurative process of acid mine water with organic residues used as carbon source. Part II; Subproductos en la depuracion de aguas acidas de mineria y empleo de residuos orgnicos como fuente carbonada (Parte II)

    Duran-Barrantes, M. M.; Jimenez-Rodriguez, A. M.; Martel-Villagran, F. J.

    2004-07-01

    The biological depurative process of acid mine water reducing sulphate concentration from Tinto River produces the alkalinity needed for the selective precipitation of Fe, Cu, Zn and Al. But a suitable carbon source for the working conditions of microorganisms to reduce sulphates is needed. In this work, the results obtained using urban sewage as a carbon source are presented. the optimal conditions obtained are: 65,5% of sulphate reduction in HRT of 10 days for a SO{sub '}'2{sub 4} COD of 1:1 and 580 mg HS/L in the reactor effluent. In the precipitation of metals, a reduction of 77,6% of Fe, 88,6% of Cu, 70,7% of Zn and 71,5% of Al, are obtained depending on the assay applied. Ayesa is developing the technical attendance. This study is being demonstrated under the Acid Water Treatment Program, conducted by the Consejeria del Medio Ambiente (Junta de Andalucia). (Author) 6 refs.

  4. Evaluation of nitrogen sources (15 N) on three wheat varieties in an andisol and an ultisol in the IX Region. II: Isotopic parameters and fertilizer use efficiency

    Pino N, Ines; Buneder B, Mirta; Peyrelongue C, Amelia

    1996-01-01

    A field study was carried out in order to evaluate different N fertilizers sources in three wheat varieties considering an Andisol and an Ultisol soils, in the IX Region of the country. The dilution isotopic techniques was used, with AS, 10% at rates of 20 kg ha -1 of N. The isotopic parameters such as N in the plant derived from the nitrogen sources, the N in the plant derived from the soil, the fertilizer use efficiencies and the agronomic evaluation between them were determined. The Nddfu (%) was associated to the varieties and to the soils. In the Ultisol, Dalcahue variety had a better behaviour with SS and, in the Andisol, Laurel variety showed an special affinity with U. In three varieties, the higher % of N derived from the sources it was in the grain, showing Dalcahue variety a better translocation.The fertilizer use efficiency (FUE) and the physiological efficiency, determined according the isotopic parameters, were higher than the values determined according the conventional methodology. (author)

  5. CO-ANALYSIS OF SOLAR MICROWAVE AND HARD X-RAY SPECTRAL EVOLUTIONS. II. IN THREE SOURCES OF A FLARING LOOP

    Huang Guangli; Li Jianping

    2011-01-01

    Based on the spatially resolvable data of the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) and Nobeyama Radio Heliograph (NoRH), co-analysis of solar hard X-ray and microwave spectral evolution is performed in three separate sources located in one looptop (LT) and two footpoints (FPs) of a huge flaring loop in the 2003 October 24 flare. The RHESSI image spectral evolution in 10-100 keV is always fitted by the well-known soft-hard-soft (SHS) pattern in the three sources. When the total energy is divided into four intervals similar to the Yohkoh/Hard X-ray Telescope, i.e., 12.5-32.5 keV, 32.5-52.5 keV, 52.5-72.5 keV, and 72.5-97.5 keV, the SHS pattern in lower energies is converted gradually to the hard-soft-hard (HSH) pattern in higher energies in all three sources. However, the break energy in the LT and the northeast FP (∼32.5 keV) is evidently smaller than that in the southwest FP (∼72.5 keV). Regarding microwave spectral evolution of the NoRH data, the well-known soft-hard-harder pattern appeared in the southwest FP, while the HSH pattern coexisted in the LT and the northeast FP. The different features of the hard X-ray and microwave spectral evolutions in the three sources may be explained by the loop-loop interaction with another huge loop in the LT and with a compact loop in the northeast FP, where the trapping effect is much stronger than that in the southwest FP. The comparison between the LT and FP spectral indices suggests that the radiation mechanism of X-rays may be quite different in different energy intervals and sources. The calculated electron spectral indices from the predicted mechanisms of X-rays gradually become closer to those from the microwave data with increasing X-ray energies.

  6. “Materials for the Dictionary of the Old Russian Language in the Written Records” by I.I. Sreznevskiy As the Source of Diachronic Research of the Substantive Word-Formation

    Anastasiya Yuryevna Vekolova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the historical research in historical aspect on word-formation based on «Materials for the dictionary of the old Russian language in the written records» by I.I. Sreznevskiy that is characterized as the most important source of lexicographical material for the diachronic research. The dictionary is the only completed lexicographical source that reflects the language in the XI-XVII cent. It includes samples of the old Slavic and the old Russian written monuments, thus demonstrating lexis from the variety of sources. Its entries represent data on lexical, in particular word building system of the Old Russian language. The significance of the «Materials for the dictionary of the old Russian language in the written records» by I.I. Sreznevskiy for the diachronic research of the substantive wordformation is proved with the system of the old Russian substantive derivatives with evaluative suffixes that was allocated in the research. Productive modification formants are revealed, their morphological characteristics are considered. Special attention is concentrated on the analysis of the suffixal frequency. On the basis of the dictionary data connotation of affixes is characterized, options of suffixes are given. It is noted that these morphemes have a positive or negative assessment. The compiler of this dictionary pays attention to the connotation. The suggested indication of the word allows defining the boundaries of suffixes. Examples of the derivatives with evaluative affixes in context are given. It is emphasized that the presence of the usage helps to systematic comprehension of the material.

  7. A new laser vibrometry-based 2D selective intensity method for source identification in reverberant fields: part II. Application to an aircraft cabin

    Revel, G M; Martarelli, M; Chiariotti, P

    2010-01-01

    The selective intensity technique is a powerful tool for the localization of acoustic sources and for the identification of the structural contribution to the acoustic emission. In practice, the selective intensity method is based on simultaneous measurements of acoustic intensity, by means of a couple of matched microphones, and structural vibration of the emitting object. In this paper high spatial density multi-point vibration data, acquired by using a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer, have been used for the first time. Therefore, by applying the selective intensity algorithm, the contribution of a large number of structural sources to the acoustic field radiated by the vibrating object can be estimated. The selective intensity represents the distribution of the acoustic monopole sources on the emitting surface, as if each monopole acted separately from the others. This innovative selective intensity approach can be very helpful when the measurement is performed on large panels in highly reverberating environments, such as aircraft cabins. In this case the separation of the direct acoustic field (radiated by the vibrating panels of the fuselage) and the reverberant one is difficult by traditional techniques. The work shown in this paper is the application of part of the results of the European project CREDO (Cabin Noise Reduction by Experimental and Numerical Design Optimization) carried out within the framework of the EU. Therefore the aim of this paper is to illustrate a real application of the method to the interior acoustic characterization of an Alenia Aeronautica ATR42 ground test facility, Alenia Aeronautica being a partner of the CREDO project

  8. Six-degree-of-freedom near-source seismic motions II: examples of real seismogram analysis and S-wave velocity retrieval

    Brokešová, J.; Málek, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 2 (2015), s. 511-539 ISSN 1383-4649 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/10/0925; GA MŠk LM2010008; GA ČR GAP210/12/2336; GA ČR GA15-02363S Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : seismic rotation * near-source region * rotational seismometer * microearthquakes * West Bohemia/Vogtland region * Gulf of Corinth * Katla region Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.550, year: 2015

  9. Melhoramento do trigo: II. Estudo genético de fontes de nanismo para a cultura do trigo Wheat breeding II: genetic studies of different sources of dwarfism in wheat

    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1981-01-01

    Itararé Experimental Station. All data were determined on an individual plant basis. It was observed partial dominance for tall plants when Siete Cerros, Vicam-71 and Olesen were crossed with IAC-5 and partial dominance for short plants when Tordo was crossed with IAC-5. Broad sense herltability for plant height and grain yield showed high and low values, respectively. Narrow sense heritability and coefficient of determination for plant height were high. Narrow sense heritability for grain yield was low. Results suggest it would be possible to select plant types with semi-dwarf and dwarf height levels in the F2 or Fa populations and for yield in later generations where progeny tests would be possible. Height and yield correlations were also computed for all crosses. In general the magnitude of the environmental, phenotypic and genetic correlations were high and consistent for all crosses. Segregating populations from crosses between the tall cultivar IAC-5 and different sources of dwarfism indicated that the short stature sources could be used efficiently in a breeding program toward the development of semi-dwarf or dwarf wheat cultivars with high yield potential. However, large F2 populations would be required to ensure the frequency of desired recombinants. Tordo would be the best source due to the heigher frequency of short statured individuals.

  10. ENER-IURE Project. Analysis of the legislation regarding renewable energy sources in the E.U. member states. Phase II. Fiscal measures and subsidies

    Alakangas, E.; Janka, P.

    2000-03-01

    The aim of the ENER-IURE project is to contribute towards a better knowledge of the legal, juridical and administrative barriers that renewable energy sources face today. The legislation of the different member states has been analysed during 1998 - 1999 focusing in four main aspects (a) Financial (Fiscal and subsidies measures) (b) Electricity, (c) Planning and Environment (d) Agriculture and Biomass. The report concerning fiscal measures and subsidies in Finland is divided into three parts: the basis report, the analysis report and the conclusion part. The basis report includes taxation, subsidies granted for energy investments, projects and energy conservation as well as subsidies for forestry operations. The analysis report includes energy taxation, investment aid and energy research. The Act on the Excise Tax Levied on Electricity and on Certain Fuels, issued in Helsinki on 30 December 1996 is included as an appendix in the report

  11. (II) complexes

    activities of Schiff base tin (II) complexes. Neelofar1 ... Conclusion: All synthesized Schiff bases and their Tin (II) complexes showed high antimicrobial and ...... Singh HL. Synthesis and characterization of tin (II) complexes of fluorinated Schiff bases derived from amino acids. Spectrochim Acta Part A: Molec Biomolec.

  12. Source rock

    Abubakr F. Makky

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available West Beni Suef Concession is located at the western part of Beni Suef Basin which is a relatively under-explored basin and lies about 150 km south of Cairo. The major goal of this study is to evaluate the source rock by using different techniques as Rock-Eval pyrolysis, Vitrinite reflectance (%Ro, and well log data of some Cretaceous sequences including Abu Roash (E, F and G members, Kharita and Betty formations. The BasinMod 1D program is used in this study to construct the burial history and calculate the levels of thermal maturity of the Fayoum-1X well based on calibration of measured %Ro and Tmax against calculated %Ro model. The calculated Total Organic Carbon (TOC content from well log data compared with the measured TOC from the Rock-Eval pyrolysis in Fayoum-1X well is shown to match against the shale source rock but gives high values against the limestone source rock. For that, a new model is derived from well log data to calculate accurately the TOC content against the limestone source rock in the study area. The organic matter existing in Abu Roash (F member is fair to excellent and capable of generating a significant amount of hydrocarbons (oil prone produced from (mixed type I/II kerogen. The generation potential of kerogen in Abu Roash (E and G members and Betty formations is ranging from poor to fair, and generating hydrocarbons of oil and gas prone (mixed type II/III kerogen. Eventually, kerogen (type III of Kharita Formation has poor to very good generation potential and mainly produces gas. Thermal maturation of the measured %Ro, calculated %Ro model, Tmax and Production index (PI indicates that Abu Roash (F member exciting in the onset of oil generation, whereas Abu Roash (E and G members, Kharita and Betty formations entered the peak of oil generation.

  13. Catch-up validation study of an in vitro skin irritation test method based on an open source reconstructed epidermis (phase II).

    Groeber, F; Schober, L; Schmid, F F; Traube, A; Kolbus-Hernandez, S; Daton, K; Hoffmann, S; Petersohn, D; Schäfer-Korting, M; Walles, H; Mewes, K R

    2016-10-01

    To replace the Draize skin irritation assay (OECD guideline 404) several test methods based on reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) have been developed and were adopted in the OECD test guideline 439. However, all validated test methods in the guideline are linked to RHE provided by only three companies. Thus, the availability of these test models is dependent on the commercial interest of the producer. To overcome this limitation and thus to increase the accessibility of in vitro skin irritation testing, an open source reconstructed epidermis (OS-REp) was introduced. To demonstrate the capacity of the OS-REp in regulatory risk assessment, a catch-up validation study was performed. The participating laboratories used in-house generated OS-REp to assess the set of 20 reference substances according to the performance standards amending the OECD test guideline 439. Testing was performed under blinded conditions. The within-laboratory reproducibility of 87% and the inter-laboratory reproducibility of 85% prove a high reliability of irritancy testing using the OS-REp protocol. In addition, the prediction capacity was with an accuracy of 80% comparable to previous published RHE based test protocols. Taken together the results indicate that the OS-REp test method can be used as a standalone alternative skin irritation test replacing the OECD test guideline 404. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Microbiological and chemical quality of ground water used as a source of public supply in southern Missouri : Phase II, April-July, 1998

    Femmer, Suzanne R.

    2000-01-01

    The protection of public health through quality public ground-water systems is the responsibility of the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and the State of Missouri, through the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Public Drinking Water Program. Approximately 95 percent of the public-water supplies in Missouri use ground water as their source of drinking water through more than 3,700 public wells. Karst terrain, intensive agricultural operations, extensive numbers of on-site sewage systems, and poor well construction can lead to chemical and microbiological contamination of the contributing aquifers. Sitespecific studies and routine regulatory monitoring have produced information on the overall quality and potability of the State's public-drinking-water supplies, but little is known about the presence of viruses. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, sampled 109 public-water supplies to characterize the physical, chemical, bacterial, and viral conditions in southern Missouri. During April to July 1998, these wells were sampled for nutrients, total organic carbon, optical brighteners, indicator bacteria, enteric viruses, and ribonucleic acid and somatic coli phages. These constituents indicate possible surface contamination of the sampled aquifer. Selection of the wells to be sampled depended on the age of the well (pre-1970), land use, geohydrology, and well construction. None of the physical or chemical constituents measured or analyzed exceeded Missouri's Drinking Water Standards set by the Public Drinking Water Program of the Missouri Department of Natural Resources. The majority of ammonia plus organic nitrogen, nitrite, and phosphorus concentrations were below the laboratory's minimum reporting levels. There were a greater number of detects above the minimum reporting level with respect to the nitrite plus nitrate, ammonia, orthophosphate, and total organic carbon concentrations. Analyses

  15. UV-TO-FIR ANALYSIS OF SPITZER/IRAC SOURCES IN THE EXTENDED GROTH STRIP. II. PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS, STELLAR MASSES, AND STAR FORMATION RATES

    Barro, G.; Perez-Gonzalez, P. G.; Gallego, J.; Villar, V.; Zamorano, J.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Kajisawa, M.; Yamada, T.; Miyazaki, S.

    2011-01-01

    Based on the ultraviolet to far-infrared photometry already compiled and presented in a companion paper (Paper I), we present a detailed spectral energy distribution (SED) analysis of nearly 80,000 IRAC 3.6 + 4.5 μm selected galaxies in the Extended Groth Strip. We estimate photometric redshifts, stellar masses, and star formation rates (SFRs) separately for each galaxy in this large sample. The catalog includes 76,936 sources with [3.6] ≤ 23.75 (85% completeness level of the IRAC survey) over 0.48 deg 2 . The typical photometric redshift accuracy is Δz/(1 + z) = 0.034, with a catastrophic outlier fraction of just 2%. We quantify the systematics introduced by the use of different stellar population synthesis libraries and initial mass functions in the calculation of stellar masses. We find systematic offsets ranging from 0.1 to 0.4 dex, with a typical scatter of 0.3 dex. We also provide UV- and IR-based SFRs for all sample galaxies, based on several sets of dust emission templates and SFR indicators. We evaluate the systematic differences and goodness of the different SFR estimations using the deep FIDEL 70 μm data available in the Extended Groth Strip. Typical random uncertainties of the IR-bases SFRs are a factor of two, with non-negligible systematic effects at z ∼> 1.5 observed when only MIPS 24 μm data are available. All data products (SEDs, postage stamps from imaging data, and different estimations of the photometric redshifts, stellar masses, and SFRs of each galaxy) described in this and the companion paper are publicly available, and they can be accessed through our the Web interface utility Rainbow-navigator.

  16. [What do we know about psychosocial risks at work? Part II.The analysis of employee's knowledge of sources and consequences of stress at work].

    Potocka, Adrianna; Merecz-Kot, Dorota

    2010-01-01

    Psychosocial risks at work are the challenge facing the occupational health and safety protection. They are seen as a threat to the employees' health and functioning. They also contribute to negative outcomes in the organizations. The study was focused on the assessment of employees' knowledge of occupational stressors, their consequences and preventive measures. The assessment results will help in the development of an educational program aimed at increasing awareness of occupational stress among employees. 210 employees participated in the study. By the mean of survey "Psychosocial Risks at Work-place" the information on the respondents' knowledge of occupational stress issues was collected. Stressors intrinsic to the job (mostly work overload) were recognized as best known to employees (67.62%). The second place was occupied by stressors originating from interpersonal relationships at work (51.9% of respondents pointed out that problem). Almost no one (0.48%) mentioned home-work interference as a source of occupational stress. According to the respondents' opinion, occupational stress mostly results in health decline. The employees who participated in the study believe that the employer (13.81%) or the superior (19.05%) is responsible for psychosocial risks prevention at the work place. Almost a half of subjects (46.67%) did not know whether there are any law regulations on psychosocial risk at work in Poland. The respondents showed an average level of knowledge of psychosocial risk at the work place and knew almost nothing about occupational stress prevention. The results of the study point to the need for systematic education of employees about stress and stress related issues.

  17. RTNS-II operations guidebook

    Heikkinen, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    This guidebook is intended to provide training criteria, procedures and guidelines for operation of the RTNS-II neutron sources and ancilliary equipment. Use of this document requires full knowledge of the RTNS-II Facility Safety Procedure (FSP) and any Operational Safety Procedures (OSP) in effect. The RTNS-II FSP defines the hazards which may be encountered at RTNS-II and defines the procedures which must be followed in performing any task including operations. The purpose of this document is to provide a central source of detailed information concerning systems and equipment used in operating the RTNS-II neutron sources on a day-to-day basis. All members of the Operations Group are expected to be familiar with its contents. It is also intended to be used in training new members of the Operations Group

  18. Irradiations at RTNS-II

    Heikkinen, D.W.; Logan, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    The RTNS-II 14-MeV neutron source facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is described. Average neutron source parameters are outlined. A brief general description of the irradiation program to the present time is given. A short discussion of guidelines for prospective users is also given

  19. Transport phenomena II essentials

    REA, The Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Transport Phenomena II covers forced convention, temperature distribution, free convection, diffusitivity and the mechanism of mass transfer, convective mass transfer, concentration

  20. Heat transfer II essentials

    REA, The Editors of

    1988-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Heat Transfer II reviews correlations for forced convection, free convection, heat exchangers, radiation heat transfer, and boiling and condensation.

  1. Numerical analysis II essentials

    REA, The Editors of; Staff of Research Education Association

    1989-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Numerical Analysis II covers simultaneous linear systems and matrix methods, differential equations, Fourier transformations, partial differential equations, and Monte Carlo methods.

  2. Algebra & trigonometry II essentials

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Algebra & Trigonometry II includes logarithms, sequences and series, permutations, combinations and probability, vectors, matrices, determinants and systems of equations, mathematica

  3. TBscore II

    Rudolf, Frauke; Lemvik, Grethe; Abate, Ebba

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: The TBscore, based on simple signs and symptoms, was introduced to predict unsuccessful outcome in tuberculosis patients on treatment. A recent inter-observer variation study showed profound variation in some variables. Further, some variables depend on a physician assessing...... them, making the score less applicable. The aim of the present study was to simplify the TBscore. Methods: Inter-observer variation assessment and exploratory factor analysis were combined to develop a simplified score, the TBscore II. To validate TBscore II we assessed the association between start...

  4. Pb II

    Windows User

    This investigation describes the use of non-living biomass of Aspergillus caespitosus for removal of ... Pb(II) production has exceeded 3.5 million tons per year. It has been used in the ... This biomass was selected after screening a wide range of microbes. .... prolonged, which proved better biopolymer in metal uptake (Gadd ...

  5. MAFF–The Munich accelerator for fission fragments

    Research reactors; linear accelerator; beam transport; particle sources and targets; ion sources. Abstract. At the new high flux reactor FRM-II in Munich the accelerator MAFF (Munich accelerator for fission fragments) is under design. In the high neutron flux of 1014 n/cm2 s up to 1014 neutron-rich fission fragments per ...

  6. Dust in H II regions

    Isobe, S.

    1977-01-01

    Several pieces of evidence indicate that H II regions may contain dust: 1) the continuum light scattered by dust grains (O'Dell and Hubbard, 1965), 2) thermal radiation from dust grains at infrared wavelengths (Ney and Allen, 1969), 3) the abnormal helium abundance in some H II regions (Peimbert and Costero, 1969), etc. Although observations of the scattered continuum suggest that the H II region cores may be dust-free, dust grains and gas must be well mixed in view of the infrared observations. This difficulty may be solved by introducing globules with sizes approximately 0.001 pc. These globules and the molecular clouds adjacent to H II regions are the main sources supplying dust to H II regions. (Auth.)

  7. Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II)

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-439 Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense... Bomb Increment II (SDB II) DoD Component Air Force Joint Participants Department of the Navy Responsible Office References SAR Baseline (Production...Mission and Description Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II) is a joint interest United States Air Force (USAF) and Department of the Navy

  8. Electronics II essentials

    REA, The Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Electronics II covers operational amplifiers, feedback and frequency compensation of OP amps, multivibrators, logic gates and families, Boolean algebra, registers, counters, arithmet

  9. Thermodynamics II essentials

    REA, The Editors of

    2013-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Thermodynamics II includes review of thermodynamic relations, power and refrigeration cycles, mixtures and solutions, chemical reactions, chemical equilibrium, and flow through nozzl

  10. Physical chemistry II essentials

    REA, The Editors of

    1992-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Physical Chemistry II includes reaction mechanisms, theoretical approaches to chemical kinetics, gravitational work, electrical and magnetic work, surface work, kinetic theory, collisional and transport properties of gases, statistical mechanics, matter and waves, quantum mechanics, and rotations and vibrations of atoms and molecules.

  11. Statistics II essentials

    Milewski, Emil G

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Statistics II discusses sampling theory, statistical inference, independent and dependent variables, correlation theory, experimental design, count data, chi-square test, and time se

  12. Data structures II essentials

    Smolarski, Dennis C

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Data Structures II includes sets, trees, advanced sorting, elementary graph theory, hashing, memory management and garbage collection, and appendices on recursion vs. iteration, alge

  13. Computer science II essentials

    Raus, Randall

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Computer Science II includes organization of a computer, memory and input/output, coding, data structures, and program development. Also included is an overview of the most commonly

  14. Time-dependent, Bianchi II, rotating universe

    Reboucas, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    An exact cosmological solution of Einstein's equations which has time-dependent rotation is presented. The t-constant sections are of Bianchi type II. The source of this geometry is a fluid which has not been thermalized. (Author) [pt

  15. Tomo II

    Llano Zapata, José Eusebio

    2015-01-01

    Memorias, histórico, físicas, crítico, apologéticas de la América Meridional con unas breves advertencias y noticias útiles, a los que de orden de Su Majestad hubiesen de viajar y describir aquellas vastas regiones. Reino Vegetal, Tomo II. Por un anónimo americano en Cádiz por los años de 1757. Muy Señor mío, juzgo que los 20 artículos del libro que remití a Vuestra Merced le habrán hecho formar el concepto que merece la fecundidad de aquellos países en las producciones minerales. Y siendo es...

  16. Experimental determination of the antineutrino spectrum of the fission products of 238U

    Haag, Nils-Holger

    2013-01-01

    Fission of 238 U contributes about 10 % to the antineutrino emission of a pressurized water reactor. In the present thesis, the beta spectrum of the fission products of 238 U was determined in an experiment at the neutron source FRM II. This beta spectrum was subsequently converted into an antineutrino spectrum. This first measurement of the antineutrino spectrum supports all current and future reactor antineutrino experiments.

  17. Experimental determination of the antineutrino spectrum of the fission products of {sup 238}U

    Haag, Nils-Holger

    2013-10-09

    Fission of {sup 238}U contributes about 10 % to the antineutrino emission of a pressurized water reactor. In the present thesis, the beta spectrum of the fission products of {sup 238}U was determined in an experiment at the neutron source FRM II. This beta spectrum was subsequently converted into an antineutrino spectrum. This first measurement of the antineutrino spectrum supports all current and future reactor antineutrino experiments.

  18. Recent progress at RTNS-II

    Heikkinen, D.W.; Logan, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    The Rotating Target Neutron Source (RTNS-II) facility produces 14-MeV neutrons for materials damage studies. Initial operation for irradiations, which occurred in 1979, began with a neutron source strength of 10 13 n/s utilizing one of the accelerator-based neutron sources. Details are given on improvements which have resulted in both increased neutron production and neutron source strength and improved control and monitoring. 8 references

  19. International cooperation at RTNS-II

    Logan, C.M.

    1984-02-01

    The Rotating Target Neutron Source-II (RTNS-II) facility at LLNL is a unique materials-test facility. It provides the most intense source of 14-MeV neutrons in the world. Dedicated operation in support of the fusion-materials-research community began in early 1979. Three years later, the Japanese Ministry of Education, Science, and Culture (Monbusho) and the US Department of Energy agreed to jointly support the RTNS-II operation and to share in the use of the facility

  20. Source Water Protection Contaminant Sources

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Simplified aggregation of potential contaminant sources used for Source Water Assessment and Protection. The data is derived from IDNR, IDALS, and US EPA program...

  1. Cd(II), Cu(II)

    user

    Depending on the way goethite was pretreated with oxalic acid, affinity for Cd(II) varied ...... Effects and mechanisms of oxalate on Cd(II) adsorption on goethite at different ... precipitation, surfactant mediation, hydrothermal and micro-emulsion.

  2. Agreements concluded by the Federal Republic of Germany under international law in the field of environmental protection. Annex: Treaties with the GDR. (Source index in the Federal Law Gazette, part II). (As of September 15, 1987)

    Lohse, S.

    1987-01-01

    This compilation contains all agreements under international law in the field of environmental protection, the FRG has joined and that have been published and/or announced in the Federal Law Gazette, part II. The summary is of September 15, 1987. The classification is made according to the subjects: waste management law, pollution abatement law, nuclear law and energy and mining law and within these according to the date of treaty/agreement. For easier access, there are a chronological index, an index of the contracting states and an index of the places of contract. In the annex the relevant treaties with the German Democratic Republic are indicated. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Cu(II) AND Zn(II)

    Preferred Customer

    SYNTHESIS OF 2,2-DIMETHYL-4-PHENYL-[1,3]-DIOXOLANE USING ZEOLITE. ENCAPSULATED Co(II), Cu(II) AND Zn(II) COMPLEXES. B.P. Nethravathi1, K. Rama Krishna Reddy2 and K.N. Mahendra1*. 1Department of Chemistry, Bangalore University, Bangalore-560001, India. 2Department of Chemistry, Government ...

  4. Elizabeth II uus kunstigalerii

    1999-01-01

    Tähistamaks oma troonile asumise 50. aastapäeva, avab Elizabeth II 6. II 2002 Buckinghami palees uue kunstigalerii, mis ehitatakse palee tiibhoonena. Arhitekt John Simpson. Elizabeth II kunstikogust

  5. RTNS-II: present status

    Heikkinen, D.W.; Logan, C.M.

    1980-10-01

    The present status of the RTNS-II facility is described and typical operating parameters are given. A brief discussion is given of the methods used in production of the TiT 2 targets as well as their performance and tritium handling at RTNS-II. The various types of non-interactive beam diagnostics presently in use at the neutron sources are outlined. The on-line computer system which provides a time history of an irradiation and records target performance is described. Examples are listed of several representative experimental programs which have been carried out thus far at RTNS-II. These include both active and passive experiments. Finally, several of the major improvements to the facility made since the beginning of the experimental program are given

  6. Positron sources

    Chehab, R.

    1994-01-01

    A tentative survey of positron sources is given. Physical processes on which positron generation is based are indicated and analyzed. Explanation of the general features of electromagnetic interactions and nuclear β + decay makes it possible to predict the yield and emittance for a given optical matching system between the positron source and the accelerator. Some kinds of matching systems commonly used - mainly working with solenoidal field - are studied and the acceptance volume calculated. Such knowledge is helpful in comparing different matching systems. Since for large machines, a significant distance exists between the positron source and the experimental facility, positron emittance has to be preserved during beam transfer over large distances and methods used for that purpose are indicated. Comparison of existing positron sources leads to extrapolation to sources for future linear colliders. Some new ideas associated with these sources are also presented. (orig.)

  7. Sources management

    Mansoux, H.; Gourmelon; Scanff, P.; Fournet, F.; Murith, Ch.; Saint-Paul, N.; Colson, P.; Jouve, A.; Feron, F.; Haranger, D.; Mathieu, P.; Paycha, F.; Israel, S.; Auboiroux, B.; Chartier, P.

    2005-01-01

    Organized by the section of technical protection of the French society of radiation protection ( S.F.R.P.), these two days had for objective to review the evolution of the rule relative to the sources of ionising radiations 'sealed and unsealed radioactive sources, electric generators'. They addressed all the actors concerned by the implementation of the new regulatory system in the different sectors of activities ( research, medicine and industry): Authorities, manufacturers, and suppliers of sources, holders and users, bodies involved in the approval of sources, carriers. (N.C.)

  8. Synthesis and characterisation of Cu(II), Ni(II), Mn(II), Zn(II) and VO(II ...

    Unknown

    Synthesis and characterisation of Cu(II), Ni(II), Mn(II), Zn(II) and VO(II) Schiff base complexes derived from o-phenylenediamine and acetoacetanilide. N RAMAN*, Y PITCHAIKANI RAJA and A KULANDAISAMY. Department of Chemistry, VHNSN College, Virudhunagar 626 001, India e-mail: ra_man@123india.com.

  9. Sourcing Excellence

    Adeyemi, Oluseyi

    2011-01-01

    Sourcing Excellence is one of the key performance indicators (KPIs) in this world of ever changing sourcing strategies. Manufacturing companies need to access and diagnose the reliability and competencies of existing suppliers in order to coordinate and develop them. This would help in managing...

  10. Positron sources

    Chehab, R.

    1989-01-01

    A tentative survey of positron sources is given. Physical processes on which positron generation is based are indicated and analyzed. Explanation of the general features of electromagnetic interactions and nuclear β + decay makes it possible to predict the yield and emittance for a given optical matching system between the positron source and the accelerator. Some kinds of matching systems commonly used - mainly working with solenoidal fields - are studied and the acceptance volume calculated. Such knowledge is helpful in comparing different matching systems. Since for large machines, a significant distance exists between the positron source and the experimental facility, positron emittance has to be preserved during beam transfer over large distances and methods used for that purpose are indicated. Comparison of existing positron sources leads to extrapolation to sources for future linear colliders

  11. Gamma-ray astronomy from the ground and the space: first analyses of the HESS-II hybrid array and search for blazar candidates among the unidentified Fermi-LAT sources

    Lefaucheur, Julien

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript is about high energy gamma-ray astronomy (between 30 GeV and 300 GeV) with the Fermi-LAT satellite and very high energy gamma-ray astronomy (above ∼100 GeV) via the H.E.S.S. experiment. The second phase of the H.E.S.S. experiment began in July 2012 with the inauguration of a fifth 28 m-diameter telescope added to the initial array composed of four 12 m-diameter imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. In the first part of this thesis, we present the development of an analysis in hybrid mode based on a multivariate method dedicated to detect and study sources with different spectral shapes and the first analysis results on real data. The second part is dedicated to the research of blazar candidates among the Fermi-LAT unidentified sources of the 2FGL catalog. A first development is based on a multivariate approach using discriminant parameters built with the 2FGL catalog parameters. A second development is done with the use of the WISE satellite catalog and a non-parametric technic in order to find the blazar-like infrared counterparts of the unidentified sources of the 2FGL catalog. (author)

  12. The experience of Russian Federation in organization of customs control of fissionable and other radioactive materials

    Podchishaev, A.

    2001-01-01

    Among the routine inspection tasks of customs offices are tasks stemming from international commitments of Russia to prevent proliferation of nuclear weapons and material that can be used for making these weapons. These tasks are: radiation monitoring of all vehicles, passengers, their luggage and goods crossing the state border; inspection of fissionable and radioactive materials (FRM) legally transported by participants in the foreign trade activities with a view to checking that the declared data fully correspond to the actual radioactive cargo. Organizational measures involve the Sheremetyevo customs office has a department whose personnel is specially trained in radiation monitoring and can operate radiometric and spectrometric instruments. These specialists are included in shifts on duty responsible for customs clearing and inspection and carry out continuous radiation monitoring of passengers and their luggage, vehicles and goods crossing the border. They work on the 24-hour basis, which allows quickly and skillfully localizing the detected radiation source and avoiding direct contact of customs, officers, airport personnel, and passengers with the radioactive item. Technical measures include provision and everyday use of radiation monitoring instrumentation, classified as: stationary equipment of primary radiation monitoring (SEPRM); hand-held instruments for additional radiation monitoring (RM); spectrometric equipment for control of legal FRM transport. The customs procedure for monitoring of fissionable and radioactive materials is divided into three stages. Stage I, primary RM is carried out by stationary FRM detection systems Yantar for customs applications installed on the customs inspection line next to the X-ray inspection equipment (XIE). Stage II, additional RM is carried out by officer who uses hand-held instruments to check the passenger's luggage for surface contamination; to perform primary identification of the detected radioactive source

  13. NSLS-II Radio Frequency Systems

    Rose J.; Gao F.; Goel, A.; Holub, B.; Kulpin, J.; Marques, C.; Yeddulla, M.

    2015-05-03

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II is a 3 GeV X-ray user facility commissioned in 2014. The NSLS-II RF system consists of the master oscillator, digital low level RF controllers, linac, booster and storage ring RF sub-systems, as well as a supporting cryogenic system. Here we will report on RF commissioning and early operation experience of the system.

  14. Infrared study of seven possible compact H II regions

    Sibille, F.; Lunel, M.; Bergeat, J.

    1976-01-01

    We report observations of seven possible compact H II regions in the infrared with the hydrogen spectrum in order to derive extinction and emission measures. The emission measure is compared with available radio data. For two sources, agreement is found between radio and infrared data. Infrared excess is found in four sources, its origin is discussed. Two sources cannot be interpreted as compact H II regions. (orig.) [de

  15. Long-Term Results of an RTOG Phase II Trial (00-19) of External-Beam Radiation Therapy Combined With Permanent Source Brachytherapy for Intermediate-Risk Clinically Localized Adenocarcinoma of the Prostate

    Lawton, Colleen A., E-mail: clawton@mcw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Yan, Yan [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Statistical Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Lee, W. Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (United States); Gillin, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Firat, Selim [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Baikadi, Madhava [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northeast Radiation Oncology Center, Scranton, PA (United States); Crook, Juanita [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of British Columbia, Kelowna, BC (Canada); Kuettel, Michael [Department of Radiation Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States); Morton, Gerald [Department of Radiation Oncology, Toronto-Sunnybrook Regional Cancer Center, Toronto, ON (Canada); Sandler, Howard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: External-beam radiation therapy combined with low-doserate permanent brachytherapy are commonly used to treat men with localized prostate cancer. This Phase II trial was performed to document late gastrointestinal or genitourinary toxicity as well as biochemical control for this treatment in a multi-institutional cooperative group setting. This report defines the long-term results of this trial. Methods and Materials: All eligible patients received external-beam radiation (45 Gy in 25 fractions) followed 2-6 weeks later by a permanent iodine 125 implant of 108 Gy. Late toxicity was defined by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer late radiation morbidity scoring scheme. Biochemical control was defined by the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) Consensus definition and the ASTRO Phoenix definition. Results: One hundred thirty-eight patients were enrolled from 20 institutions, and 131 were eligible. Median follow-up (living patients) was 8.2 years (range, 2.7-9.3 years). The 8-year estimate of late grade >3 genitourinary and/or gastrointestinal toxicity was 15%. The most common grade >3 toxicities were urinary frequency, dysuria, and proctitis. There were two grade 4 toxicities, both bladder necrosis, and no grade 5 toxicities. In addition, 42% of patients complained of grade 3 impotence (no erections) at 8 years. The 8-year estimate of biochemical failure was 18% and 21% by the Phoenix and ASTRO consensus definitions, respectively. Conclusion: Biochemical control for this treatment seems durable with 8 years of follow-up and is similar to high-dose external beam radiation alone or brachytherapy alone. Late toxicity in this multi-institutional trial is higher than reports from similar cohorts of patients treated with high-dose external-beam radiation alone or permanent low-doserate brachytherapy alone, perhaps suggesting further attention to strategies that limit doses to

  16. Neutron source

    Cason, J.L. Jr.; Shaw, C.B.

    1975-01-01

    A neutron source which is particularly useful for neutron radiography consists of a vessel containing a moderating media of relatively low moderating ratio, a flux trap including a moderating media of relatively high moderating ratio at the center of the vessel, a shell of depleted uranium dioxide surrounding the moderating media of relatively high moderating ratio, a plurality of guide tubes each containing a movable source of neutrons surrounding the flux trap, a neutron shield surrounding one part of each guide tube, and at least one collimator extending from the flux trap to the exterior of the neutron source. The shell of depleted uranium dioxide has a window provided with depleted uranium dioxide shutters for each collimator. Reflectors are provided above and below the flux trap and on the guide tubes away from the flux trap

  17. Crowd Sourcing.

    Baum, Neil

    2016-01-01

    The Internet has contributed new words and slang to our daily vernacular. A few terms, such as tweeting, texting, sexting, blogging, and googling, have become common in most vocabularies and in many languages, and are now included in the dictionary. A new buzzword making the rounds in industry is crowd sourcing, which involves outsourcing an activity, task, or problem by sending it to people or groups outside a business or a practice. Crowd sourcing allows doctors and practices to tap the wisdom of many instead of relying only on the few members of their close-knit group. This article defines "crowd sourcing," offers examples, and explains how to get started with this approach that can increase your ability to finish a task or solve problems that you don't have the time or expertise to accomplish.

  18. Particle beam source development

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Electron beam research directed toward providing improved in-diode pinched beam sources and establishing the efficiency and feasibility for superposition of many beams progressed in three major areas. Focusing stability has been improved from large effective aspect ratio (radius/gap of emitting surface) diodes. Substantial progress toward establishing the feasibility of combining beams guided along ionized current-carrying channels has been made. Two beams have been transported and overlayed on a target. Theoretical and experimental measurements on channel formation have resulted in specifications for the capacitor bank channel initiation system for a 12-beam combination experiment on Proto II. An additional area of beam research has been the development of a small pulsed X-ray source to yield high quality flash X-radiography of pellets. A source yielding approximately 100-μm resolution of objects has been demonstrated and work continues to improve the convenience and reliability of this source. The effort to extend the capability of higher power conventional pulse power generators to accelerate ions (rather than electrons), and assess the feasibility of this technology variation for target experiments and reactors has progressed. Progress toward development of a multistage accelerator for ions with pulse power technology centered on development of a new laboratory facility and design and procurement of hardware for a five-stage test apparatus for the Pulslac concept

  19. Energy sources

    Vajda, Gy.

    1998-01-01

    A comprehensive review is presented of the available sources of energy in the world is presented. About 80 percent of primary energy utilization is based on fossile fuels, and their dominant role is not expected to change in the foreseeable future. Data are given on petroleum, natural gas and coal based power production. The role and economic aspects of nuclear power are analyzed. A brief summary of renewable energy sources is presented. The future prospects of the world's energy resources are discussed, and the special position of Hungary regarding fossil, nuclear and renewable energy and the country's energy potential is evaluated. (R.P.)

  20. RTNS-II fusion materials irradiation facility

    Heikkinen, D.W.; Tuckerman, D.B.; Davis, J.C.; Massoletti, D.J.; Short, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Rotating Target Neutron Source (RTNS-II) facility provides an intense source of 14-MeV neutrons for the fusion energy programs of Japan and the United States. Each of the two identical accelerator-based neutron sources is capable of providing source strengths in excess of 3 x 10 13 n/s using deuteron beam currents up to 150 mA. The present status of the facility, as well as the various upgrade options, will be described in detail

  1. Multi-Objective Scheduling Optimization Based on a Modified Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II in Voltage Source Converter−Multi-Terminal High Voltage DC Grid-Connected Offshore Wind Farms with Battery Energy Storage Systems

    Ho-Young Kim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Improving the performance of power systems has become a challenging task for system operators in an open access environment. This paper presents an optimization approach for solving the multi-objective scheduling problem using a modified non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm in a hybrid network of meshed alternating current (AC/wind farm grids. This approach considers voltage and power control modes based on multi-terminal voltage source converter high-voltage direct current (MTDC and battery energy storage systems (BESS. To enhance the hybrid network station performance, we implement an optimal process based on the battery energy storage system operational strategy for multi-objective scheduling over a 24 h demand profile. Furthermore, the proposed approach is formulated as a master problem and a set of sub-problems associated with the hybrid network station to improve the overall computational efficiency using Benders’ decomposition. Based on the results of the simulations conducted on modified institute of electrical and electronics engineers (IEEE-14 bus and IEEE-118 bus test systems, we demonstrate and confirm the applicability, effectiveness and validity of the proposed approach.

  2. Development of radiation curable surface coating based on soybean oil. part II: Evaluation of the prepared acrylated resin as surface coatings by using EB or UV sources for radiation curing applications

    Ibrahim, M.S.; Said, H.M.; Moussa, I.M.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing trend in using vegetable oils as raw materials in acylation production that can be cured by UV/EB systems. The acrylated resin formulates by using individually different functional acrylate monomers were prepared and cured by EB or UV sources. The characterization properties of the cured films were investigated in terms of pendulum hardness, bending, impact, gloss, adhesion and chemical tests. Other formulations were prepared by mixing a constant ratio of different functional acrylate monomers and exposed to UV or EB irradiation. The results showed that the hardness of cured films were increased by increasing the functionality of monomers with excellent adhesion for all formulations but at expense of other properties involving bending and impact tests. Therefore, it can be deduce that the hardness of the curing surface coating by using EB was found to be nearly twice the hardness of the curing surface coating by using UV irradiation. Also, the best formulations which have given good chemical and mechanical properties are (mono-di) functional acrylate monomer resin under EB and (mono-tri) functional acrylate monomer resin under UV irradiation

  3. Ion source

    1977-01-01

    The specifications of a set of point-shape electrodes of non-corrodable material that can hold a film of liquid material of equal thickness is described. Contained in a jacket, this set forms an ion source. The electrode is made of tungsten with a glassy carbon layer for insulation and an outer layer of aluminium-oxide ceramic material

  4. (II) COMPLEX COMPOUND

    user

    electrochemical sensors, as well as in various chromatographic ... were carried out using Jenway pH meter Model 3320 and a conductivity ... Figure 1: the proposed molecular structure of the copper (II) Schiff base complex. M = Cu (II) or Mn (II).

  5. and copper(II)

    Unknown

    (II) and copper(II)–zinc(II) complexes. SUBODH KUMAR1, R N PATEL1*, P V KHADIKAR1 and. K B PANDEYA2. 1 Department of Chemistry, APS University, Rewa 486 003, India. 2 CSJM University, Kanpur 208 016, India e-mail: (R N Patel) ...

  6. Orphan sources

    Pust, R.; Urbancik, L.

    2008-01-01

    The presentation describes how the stable detection systems (hereinafter referred to as S DS ) have contributed to reveal the uncontrolled sources of ionizing radiation on the territory of the State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) Brno Regional Centre (RC Brno). It also describes the emergencies which were solved by or in which the workers from the Brno. Regional Centre participated in. The contribution is divided into the following chapters: A. SDS systems installed on the territory of SONS RC Brno; B. Selected unusual emergencies; C. Comments to individual emergencies; D. Aspects of SDS operation in term of their users; E. Aspects of SDS operation and related activities in term of radiation protection; F. Current state of orphan sources. (authors)

  7. Tritium sources

    Glodic, S.; Boreli, F.

    1993-01-01

    Tritium is the only radioactive isotope of hydrogen. It directly follows the metabolism of water and it can be bound into genetic material, so it is very important to control levels of contamination. In order to define the state of contamination it is necessary to establish 'zero level', i.e. actual global inventory. The importance of tritium contamination monitoring increases with the development of fusion power installations. Different sources of tritium are analyzed and summarized in this paper. (author)

  8. Radioactive source

    Drabkina, L.E.; Mazurek, V.; Myascedov, D.N.; Prokhorov, P.; Kachalov, V.A.; Ziv, D.M.

    1976-01-01

    A radioactive layer in a radioactive source is sealed by the application of a sealing layer on the radioactive layer. The sealing layer can consist of a film of oxide of titanium, tin, zirconium, aluminum, or chromium. Preferably, the sealing layer is pure titanium dioxide. The radioactive layer is embedded in a finish enamel which, in turn, is on a priming enamel which surrounds a substrate

  9. Muon sources

    Parsa, Z.

    2001-01-01

    A full high energy muon collider may take considerable time to realize. However, intermediate steps in its direction are possible and could help facilitate the process. Employing an intense muon source to carry out forefront low energy research, such as the search for muon-number non-conservation, represents one interesting possibility. For example, the MECO proposal at BNL aims for 2 x 10 -17 sensitivity in their search for coherent muon-electron conversion in the field of a nucleus. To reach that goal requires the production, capture and stopping of muons at an unprecedented 10 11 μ/sec. If successful, such an effort would significantly advance the state of muon technology. More ambitious ideas for utilizing high intensity muon sources are also being explored. Building a muon storage ring for the purpose of providing intense high energy neutrino beams is particularly exciting.We present an overview of muon sources and example of a muon storage ring based Neutrino Factory at BNL with various detector location possibilities

  10. Complexes of cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), zinc(II), cadmium(II) and dioxouranium(II) with thiophene-2-aldehydethiosemicarbazone

    Singh, Balwan; Misra, Harihar

    1986-01-01

    Metal complexes of thiosemicarbazides have been known for their pharmacological applications. Significant antitubercular, fungicidal and antiviral activities have been reported for thiosemicarbazides and their derivatives. The present study describes the systhesis and characterisation of complexes of Co II , Cu II , Zn II ,Cd II and UO II with thiosemicarbazone obtained by condensing thiophene-2-aldehyde with thiosemicarbazide. 17 refs., 2 tables. (author)

  11. Commissioning of NSLS-II

    Willeke, F.

    2015-05-03

    NSLS-II, the new 3rd generation light source at BNL was designed for a brightness of 1022 photons s-1mm-2mrad-2 (0.1%BW)-1. It was constructed between 2009 and 2014. The storage ring was commissioned in April 2014 which was followed by insertion device and beamline commissioning in the fall of 2014. All ambitious design parameters of the facility have already been achieved except for commissioning the full beam intensity of 500mA which requires more RF installation. This paper reports on the results of commissioning.

  12. Local source impacts on primary and secondary aerosols in the Midwestern United States

    Jayarathne, Thilina; Rathnayake, Chathurika M.; Stone, Elizabeth A.

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) exhibits heterogeneity in composition across urban areas, leading to poor representation of outdoor air pollutants in human exposure assessments. To examine heterogeneity in PM composition and sources across an urban area, fine particulate matter samples (PM2.5) were chemically profiled in Iowa City, IA from 25 August to 10 November 2011 at two monitoring stations. The urban site is the federal reference monitoring (FRM) station in the city center and the peri-urban site is located 8.0 km to the west on the city edge. Measurements of PM2.5 carbonaceous aerosol, inorganic ions, molecular markers for primary sources, and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) tracers were used to assess statistical differences in composition and sources across the two sites. PM2.5 mass ranged from 3 to 26 μg m-3 during this period, averaging 11.2 ± 4.9 μg m-3 (n = 71). Major components of PM2.5 at the urban site included organic carbon (OC; 22%), ammonium (14%), sulfate (13%), nitrate (7%), calcium (2.9%), and elemental carbon (EC; 2.2%). Periods of elevated PM were driven by increases in ammonium, sulfate, and SOA tracers that coincided with hot and dry conditions and southerly winds. Chemical mass balance (CMB) modeling was used to apportion OC to primary sources; biomass burning, vegetative detritus, diesel engines, and gasoline engines accounted for 28% of OC at the urban site and 24% of OC at the peri-urban site. Secondary organic carbon from isoprene and monoterpene SOA accounted for an additional 13% and 6% of OC at the urban and peri-urban sites, respectively. Differences in biogenic SOA across the two sites were associated with enhanced combustion activities in the urban area and higher aerosol acidity at the urban site. Major PM constituents (e.g., OC, ammonium, sulfate) were generally well-represented by a single monitoring station, indicating a regional source influence. Meanwhile, nitrate, biomass burning, food cooking, suspended dust, and

  13. HERMES II experimenters' manual (revised)

    Schuch, R.L.

    1977-04-01

    The HERMES II is a high-intensity laboratory photon source for gamma-ray radiation effects experiments as well as a high-energy pulsed electron beam generator for a variety of potential applications. The purpose of this manual is to serve as a basic source of information for prospective users of HERMES. Included is a brief discussion of the design and operation of the accelerator system as well as a summary of environmental data for x-ray operation and output characteristics for electron beam modes. The manual also contains a description of the HERMES experimental facilities, including geometry of the test cell, instrumentation and data collection capabilities, and services and support available to experimenters

  14. PEP-II prototype klystron

    Fowkes, W.R.; Caryotakis, G.; Lee, T.G.; Pearson, C.; Wright, E.L.

    1993-04-01

    A 540-kW continuous-wave (cw) klystron operating at 476 MHz was developed for use as a power source for testing PEP-II rf accelerating cavities and rf windows. It also serves as a prototype for a 1.2 MW cw klystron presently being developed as a potential rf source for asymmetric colliding ring use. The design incorporates the concepts and many of the parts used in the original 353 MHz PEP klystron developed sixteen years ago. The superior computer simulation codes available today result in improved performance with the cavity frequencies, drift lengths, and output circuit optimized for the higher frequency.The design and operating results of this tube are described with particular emphasis on the factors which affect efficiency and stability

  15. An evolutionary link between Seyfert I and II galaxies

    Penston, M.V.; Perez, E.

    1984-01-01

    First spectra from the newly sited Isaac Newton Telescope show NGC 4151 and 3C 390.3 to have taken on a classification very close to Seyfert II. It is proposed that Seyfert II galaxies are Seyfert Is in which the continuum source is temporarily off. (author)

  16. Quininium tetrachloridozinc(II

    Li-Zhuang Chen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound {systematic name: 2-[hydroxy(6-methoxyquinolin-1-ium-4-ylmethyl]-8-vinylquinuclidin-1-ium tetrachloridozinc(II}, (C20H26N2O2[ZnCl4], consists of a double protonated quininium cation and a tetrachloridozinc(II anion. The ZnII ion is in a slightly distorted tetrahedral coordination environment. The crystal structure is stabilized by intermolecular N—H...Cl and O—H...Cl hydrogen bonds.

  17. The Water Maser in II Zw 96: Scientific Justification

    Wiggins, Brandon Kerry [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-06

    We propose a VLBI search to image and locate the water emission in II Zw 96. We propose 3 sites within II Zw 96 for VLBI followup (see the proposed target listing below). We request 2.5 hours of on-source integration time with the VLBA per source. The array will achieve ~ 65µJy sensitivity in K band in this time which will be sufficient to detect luminous water maser features.

  18. Burkina Faso - BRIGHT II

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Millennium Challenge Corporation hired Mathematica Policy Research to conduct an independent evaluation of the BRIGHT II program. The three main research questions...

  19. National Energy Plan II

    None

    1979-01-01

    This volume contains the Administration's second National Energy Plan, as required by section 801 of the Department of Energy Organization Act (Public Law 95-91). A second volume will contain an assessment of the environmental trends associated with the energy futures reported here. Detailed appendices to the Plan will be published separately. The eight chapters and their subtitles are: Crisis and Uncertainty in the World Energy Future (The Immediate Crisis and the Continuing Problem, The Emergence of the Energy Problem, The Uncertainties of the World Energy Future, World Oil Prices, Consequences for the U.S.); The U.S. Energy Future: The Implications for Policy (The Near-, Mid-, and Long-Term, The Strategy in Perspective); Conservation (Historical Changes in Energy Use, Post-Embargo Changes - In Detail, Conservation Policies and Programs, The Role of Conservation); Oil and Gas (Oil, Natural Gas); Coal and Nuclear (Coal, Nuclear, Policy for Coal and Nuclear Power); Solar and Other Inexhaustible Energy Sources (Solar Energy, Geothermal, Fusion, A Strategy for Inexhaustible Resources); Making Decisions Promptly and Fairly (Managing Future Energy Crises: Emergency Planning, Managing the Current Shortfall: The Iranian Response Plan, Managing the Long-Term Energy Problem: The Institutional Framework, Fairness in Energy Policy, Public Participation in the Development of Energy Policy); and NEP-II and the Future (The Second National Energy Plan and the Nation's Energy Future, The Second National Energy Plan and the Economy, Employment and Energy Policy, The Second National Energy Plan and Individuals, The Second National Energy Plan and Capital Markets, and The Second National Energy Plan and the Environment). (ERA citation 04:041097)

  20. cobalt(II), nickel(II)

    Unknown

    procedures. The supporting electrolyte, NaClO4 used in the voltammetric experiment was purchased from. Sigma. IR spectra were recorded in KBr medium on .... (13⋅6). L = Schiff base ligand form of one broad band envelope. The electronic spectra of Co(II) complex showed two spin-allowed transitions at 17856 and ...

  1. Angra II pipelines and supports data base sources (GPT)

    Abud, Paulo Roberto; Grand Court, Eduardo Souza de

    1995-01-01

    The analysis of the needs related to the management of assembly of pipelines and support system in a nuclear power plant presents a great deal of data. Such situation leaded to the development of a data base named Erection Management System, EMS, which enables not only the assembly of the equipment, but also the management of the project in addition to monitoring all the activities related to assembly. This work discusses the above mentioned issues

  2. Nuclear physics II

    Elze, T.

    1988-01-01

    This script consisting of two parts contains the matter of the courses Nuclear Pyhsics I and II, as they were presented in the winter term 1987/88 and summer term 1988 for students of physics at Frankfurt University. In the present part II the matter of the summer term is summarized. (orig.) [de

  3. Structural properties of MHC class II ligands, implications for the prediction of MHC class II epitopes.

    Kasper Winther Jørgensen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Major Histocompatibility class II (MHC-II molecules sample peptides from the extracellular space allowing the immune system to detect the presence of foreign microbes from this compartment. Prediction of MHC class II ligands is complicated by the open binding cleft of the MHC class II molecule, allowing binding of peptides extending out of the binding groove. Furthermore, only a few HLA-DR alleles have been characterized with a sufficient number of peptides (100-200 peptides per allele to derive accurate description of their binding motif. Little work has been performed characterizing structural properties of MHC class II ligands. Here, we perform one such large-scale analysis. A large set of SYFPEITHI MHC class II ligands covering more than 20 different HLA-DR molecules was analyzed in terms of their secondary structure and surface exposure characteristics in the context of the native structure of the corresponding source protein. We demonstrated that MHC class II ligands are significantly more exposed and have significantly more coil content than other peptides in the same protein with similar predicted binding affinity. We next exploited this observation to derive an improved prediction method for MHC class II ligands by integrating prediction of MHC- peptide binding with prediction of surface exposure and protein secondary structure. This combined prediction method was shown to significantly outperform the state-of-the-art MHC class II peptide binding prediction method when used to identify MHC class II ligands. We also tried to integrate N- and O-glycosylation in our prediction methods but this additional information was found not to improve prediction performance. In summary, these findings strongly suggest that local structural properties influence antigen processing and/or the accessibility of peptides to the MHC class II molecule.

  4. Biologically active new Fe(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II, Zn(II and Cd(II complexes of N-(2-thienylmethylenemethanamine

    C. SPÎNU

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron(II, cobalt(II, nickel (II, copper (II, zinc(II and cadmium(II complexes of the type ML2Cl2, where M is a metal and L is the Schiff base N-(2-thienylmethylenemethanamine (TNAM formed by the condensation of 2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde and methylamine, were prepared and characterized by elemental analysis as well as magnetic and spectroscopic measurements. The elemental analyses suggest the stoichiometry to be 1:2 (metal:ligand. Magnetic susceptibility data coupled with electronic, ESR and Mössbauer spectra suggest a distorted octahedral structure for the Fe(II, Co(II and Ni(II complexes, a square-planar geometry for the Cu(II compound and a tetrahedral geometry for the Zn(II and Cd(II complexes. The infrared and NMR spectra of the complexes agree with co-ordination to the central metal atom through nitrogen and sulphur atoms. Conductance measurements suggest the non-electrolytic nature of the complexes, except for the Cu(II, Zn(II and Cd(II complexes, which are 1:2 electrolytes. The Schiff base and its metal chelates were screened for their biological activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the metal chelates were found to possess better antibacterial activity than that of the uncomplexed Schiff base.

  5. Evolved H II regions

    Churchwell, E.

    1975-01-01

    A probable evolutionary sequence of H II regions based on six distinct types of observed objects is suggested. Two examples which may deviate from this idealized sequence, are discussed. Even though a size-mean density relation of H II regions can be used as a rough indication of whether a nebula is very young or evolved, it is argued that such a relation is not likely to be useful for the quantitative assignment of ages to H II regions. Evolved H II regions appear to fit into one of four structural types: rings, core-halos, smooth structures, and irregular or filamentary structures. Examples of each type are given with their derived physical parameters. The energy balance in these nebulae is considered. The mass of ionized gas in evolved H II regions is in general too large to trace the nebula back to single compact H II regions. Finally, the morphological type of the Galaxy is considered from its H II region content. 2 tables, 2 figs., 29 refs

  6. Preliminary PBFA II design

    Johnson, D.L.; VanDevender, J.P.; Martin, T.H.

    1980-01-01

    The upgrade of Sandia National Laboratories particle beam fusion accelerator, PBFA I, to PBFA II presents several interesting and challenging pulsed power design problems. PBFA II requires increasing the PBFA I output parameters from 2 MV, 30 TW, 1 MJ to 4 MV, 100 TW, 3.5 MJ with the constraint of using much of the same PBFA I hardware. The increased PBFA II output will be obtained by doubling the number of modules (from 36 to 72), increasing the primary energy storage (from 4 MJ to 15 MJ), lowering the pulse forming line (PFL) output impedance, and adding a voltage doubling network

  7. Probing HeII Reionization at z>3.5 with Resolved HeII Lyman Alpha Forest Spectra

    Worseck, Gabor

    2017-08-01

    The advent of GALEX and COS have revolutionized our view of HeII reionization, the final major phase transition of the intergalactic medium. COS spectra of the HeII Lyman alpha forest have confirmed with high confidence the high HeII transmission that signifies the completion of HeII reionization at z 2.7. However, the handful of z>3.5 quasars observed to date show a set of HeII transmission 'spikes' and larger regions with non-zero transmission that suggest HeII reionization was well underway by z=4. This is in striking conflict with predictions from state-of-the-art radiative transfer simulations of a HeII reionization driven by bright quasars. Explaining these measurements may require either faint quasars or more exotic sources of hard photons at z>4, with concomitant implications for HI reionization. However, many of the observed spikes are unresolved in G140L spectra and are significantly impacted by Poisson noise. Current data cannot reliably probe the ionization state of helium at z>3.5.We request 41 orbits to obtain science-grade G130M spectra of the two UV-brightest HeII-transmitting QSOs at z>3.5 to confirm and resolve their HeII transmission spikes as an unequivocal test of early HeII reionization. These spectra are complemented by recently obtained data from 8m telescopes: (1) Echelle spectra of the coeval HI Lya forest to map the underlying density field that modulates the HeII absorption, and (2) Our dedicated survey for foreground QSOs that may source the HeII transmission. Our recent HST programs revealed the only two viable targets to resolve the z>3.5 HeII Lyman alpha forest, and to conclusively solve this riddle.

  8. Mn(II), Zn(II) and VO(II) Schiff

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 113; Issue 3. Synthesis and characterisation of Cu(II), Ni(II), Mn(II), Zn(II) and VO(II) Schiff base complexes derived from o-phenylenediamine and acetoacetanilide. N Raman Y Pitchaikani Raja A Kulandaisamy. Inorganic Volume 113 Issue 3 June 2001 pp 183-189 ...

  9. The Belle II Experiment

    Kahn, J

    2017-01-01

    Set to begin data taking at the end of 2018, the Belle II experiment is the next-generation B-factory experiment hosted at KEK in Tsukuba, Japan. The experiment represents the cumulative effort from the collaboration of experimental and detector physics, computing, and software development. Taking everything learned from the previous Belle experiment, which ran from 1998 to 2010, Belle II aims to probe deeper than ever before into the field of heavy quark physics. By achieving an integrated luminosity of 50 ab−1 and accumulating 50 times more data than the previous experiment across its lifetime, along with a rewritten analysis framework, the Belle II experiment will push the high precision frontier of high energy physics. This paper will give an overview of the key components and development activities that make the Belle II experiment possible.

  10. Factor II assay

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003674.htm Factor II assay To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  11. Factor II deficiency

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000549.htm Factor II deficiency To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  12. Ni(II

    Preferred Customer

    analytical chemistry, catalysis, electrochemistry, ring-opening metathesis ... Ethanol was dried over anhydrous copper(II) sulfate and distilled over metallic sodium. ... All bacteria were inoculated into Nutrient Broth (Difco) and incubated for 24 h ...

  13. NNDSS - Table II. Vibriosis

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Vibriosis - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year), and selected...

  14. Disruption Rose Tinted II

    Livingstone, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    'Disruption - Rose Tinted II' continues to engage narratives of historical English china as previously explored in the work 'Rose Tinted'. This work engages the sleepy rural idyll which is overlaid with visual contemporary social commentary.

  15. NNDSS - Table II. Vibriosis

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Vibriosis - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year), and selected...

  16. Gamble II Facility

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Gamble II produces a high-voltage (2 MV), high-current (1 MA), short (100 ns) pulse of energy of either positive or negative polarity. This terawatt power...

  17. Leo II PC

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — LEO II is a second-generation software system developed for use on the PC, which is designed to convert location references accurately between legal descriptions and...

  18. Tokapole II device

    Sprott, J.G.

    1978-05-01

    A discussion is given of the design and operation of the Tokapole II device. The following topics are considered: physics considerations, vacuum vessel, poloidal field, ring and support design, toroidal field, vacuum system, initial results, and future plans

  19. copper(II)

    Unknown

    bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptadionato)copper(II) ... Abstract. Equilibrium concentrations of various condensed and gaseous phases have been thermodyna- ... phere, over a wide range of substrate temperatures and total reactor pressures.

  20. Digital optical computer II

    Guilfoyle, Peter S.; Stone, Richard V.

    1991-12-01

    OptiComp is currently completing a 32-bit, fully programmable digital optical computer (DOC II) that is designed to operate in a UNIX environment running RISC microcode. OptiComp's DOC II architecture is focused toward parallel microcode implementation where data is input in a dual rail format. By exploiting the physical principals inherent to optics (speed and low power consumption), an architectural balance of optical interconnects and software code efficiency can be achieved including high fan-in and fan-out. OptiComp's DOC II program is jointly sponsored by the Office of Naval Research (ONR), the Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO), NASA space station group and Rome Laboratory (USAF). This paper not only describes the motivational basis behind DOC II but also provides an optical overview and architectural summary of the device that allows the emulation of any digital instruction set.

  1. Neutral beam source commercialization study. Final report

    King, H.J.

    1980-06-01

    The basic tasks of this Phase II project were to: generate a set of design drawings suitable for quantity production of sources of this design; fabricate a functional neutral beam source incorporating as many of the proposed design changes as proved feasible; and document the procedures and findings developed during the contract. These tasks have been accomplished and represent a demonstrated milestone in the industrialization of this complete device

  2. Test of GERDA Phase II detector assembly

    Bode, Tobias; Gusev, Konstantin [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Schwingenheuer, Bernhard; Wagner, Victoria [Max-Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The GERDA experiment searches for the lepton number violating neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) of {sup 76}Ge. The experiment uses HPGe detectors enriched in {sup 76}Ge as source and detection material. In GERDA Phase I five BEGe detectors were operated successfully. These detectors are distinguished for improved energy resolution and enhanced pulse shape discrimination (PSD) against background events. In Phase II additional 25 BEGe detectors will be installed. New electronics and radio-pure low-mass holders were specially designed for Phase II. Prior to the installation in GERDA all BEGe detectors are tested in their final assembly in the LNGS underground laboratory. This talk presents the mechanics and performance of the GERDA Phase II detector assembly.

  3. SPEAR II performance

    Paterson, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    The single beam and colliding beam performance of the SLAC electron-positron storage ring SPEAR II is described. The sevenfold increase in harmonic number in SPEAR II in comparison to SPEAR I has made significant changes in single beam behavior. Strong synchrobetatron resonances and a new transverse instability are observed, and our first studies of these phenomena are described. Measurements on current dependent bunch lengthening are presented. (auth)

  4. Computing at Belle II

    Kuhr, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Belle II, a next-generation B-factory experiment, will search for new physics effects in a data sample about 50 times larger than the one collected by its predecessor, the Belle experiment. To match the advances in accelerator and detector technology, the computing system and the software have to be upgraded as well. The Belle II computing model is presented and an overview of the distributed computing system and the offline software framework is given.

  5. NSLS-II commissioning and operation

    Wang, G., E-mail: gwang@bnl.gov; Shaftan, T.; Bassi, G.; Bengtsson, J.; Blednykh, A.; Blum, E.; Cheng, W.; Choi, J.; Davidsaver, M.; Doom, L.; Fliller, R.; Ganetis, G.; Guo, W.; Hidaka, Y.; Kramer, S.; Li, Y.; Podobedov, B.; Qian, K.; Rose, J.; Seletskiy, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); and others

    2016-07-27

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II at Brookhaven National Lab is a third-generation synchrotron radiation facility that has been commissioned in 2014. The facility is based on a 3 GeV electron storage ring, which will circulate 500 mA of beam current at 1 nm rad horizontal emittance. The storage ring is 792 meters in circumference and will accommodate more than 60 beamlines in the final built-out. The beamline sources range from insertion-devices located in straight sections, bending magnets or three-pole-wigglers configured in multiple branches. The NSLS-II storage ring commissioning was successfully completed in July 2014 and the facility delivered the first user light on October 23, 2014. Currently the storage ring reached 300 mA beam current and achieved 1 nm rad of horizontal emittance with 3 sets of Damping Wigglers. At this point six NSLS-II project beamlines are routinely taking photons with beam current at 150 mA. This paper reviews the NSLS-II accelerator design and commissioning experience.

  6. RTNS-II 1984 annual report

    1984-01-01

    RTNS-II was built to provide a deuterium-tritium neutron source for the study of fusion neutron effects. In the quest to apply fusion to commercial power production, the specific mission of RTNS-II is threefold: to acquire direct engineering data for near-term confinement experiments and for materials that will see moderate neutron dose in future reactor systems; to measure production rates of transmutants and to develop appropriate radiation-resistant instrumentation for fusion systems; and to study the radiation-induced property changes caused by fusion neutrons. RTNS-II comprises two independent sources of 14-MeV neutrons. This is the third annual report summarizing irradiation experiments at RTNS-II. It covers calendar year 1983, and includes reports of all irradiation results, both fusion and non-fusion related. These comprise both secondary (or ''add-on'') and primary irradiations. Each summary article has been submitted by the investigator and has been altered only to meet the style and format requirements of this report

  7. Saudis trust and confidence in information sources about chemical ...

    AJL

    To communicate information on chemical pollution health risks effectively, policy makers must know .... opinions, and perception of environmental health risks,. (ii) know their .... information on health risks from multiple sources. Similarly when ...

  8. NEWLY IDENTIFIED EXTENDED GREEN OBJECTS (EGOs) FROM THE SPITZER GLIMPSE II SURVEY. II. MOLECULAR CLOUD ENVIRONMENTS

    Chen Xi; Gan Conggui; Shen Zhiqiang [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200030 (China); Ellingsen, Simon P.; Titmarsh, Anita [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania (Australia); He Jinhua, E-mail: chenxi@shao.ac.cn [Key Laboratory for the Structure and Evolution of Celestial Objects, Yunnan Astronomical Observatory/National Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 110, Kunming 650011, Yunnan Province (China)

    2013-06-01

    We have undertaken a survey of molecular lines in the 3 mm band toward 57 young stellar objects using the Australia Telescope National Facility Mopra 22 m radio telescope. The target sources were young stellar objects with active outflows (extended green objects (EGOs)) newly identified from the GLIMPSE II survey. We observe a high detection rate (50%) of broad line wing emission in the HNC and CS thermal lines, which combined with the high detection rate of class I methanol masers toward these sources (reported in Paper I) further demonstrates that the GLIMPSE II EGOs are associated with outflows. The physical and kinematic characteristics derived from the 3 mm molecular lines for these newly identified EGOs are consistent with these sources being massive young stellar objects with ongoing outflow activity and rapid accretion. These findings support our previous investigations of the mid-infrared properties of these sources and their association with other star formation tracers (e.g., infrared dark clouds, methanol masers and millimeter dust sources) presented in Paper I. The high detection rate (64%) of the hot core tracer CH{sub 3}CN reveals that the majority of these new EGOs have evolved to the hot molecular core stage. Comparison of the observed molecular column densities with predictions from hot core chemistry models reveals that the newly identified EGOs from the GLIMPSE II survey are members of the youngest hot core population, with an evolutionary time scale of the order of 10{sup 3} yr.

  9. Low Complexity Bayesian Single Channel Source Separation

    Beierholm, Thomas; Pedersen, Brian Dam; Winther, Ole

    2004-01-01

    can be estimated quite precisely using ML-II, but the estimation is quite sensitive to the accuracy of the priors as opposed to the source separation quality for known mixing coefficients, which is quite insensitive to the accuracy of the priors. Finally, we discuss how to improve our approach while...

  10. LCLS-II Cryomodules Production at Fermilab

    Arkan, Tug [Fermilab; Grimm, Chuck [Fermilab; Kaluzny, Joshua [Fermilab; Orlov, Yuriy [Fermilab; Peterson, Thomas [Fermilab; Premo, Ken [Fermilab

    2017-05-01

    LCLS-II is an upgrade project for the linear coherent light source (LCLS) at SLAC. The LCLS-II linac will consist of thirty-five 1.3 GHz and two 3.9 GHz superconducting RF continuous wave (CW) cryomodules that Fermilab and Jefferson Lab (JLab) will assemble in collaboration with SLAC. The LCLS-II 1.3 GHz cryomodule design is based on the European XFEL pulsed-mode cryomodule design with modifications needed for CW operation. Fermilab and JLab will each assemble and test a prototype 1.3 GHz cryomodule to assess the results of the CW modifications, in advance of 16 and 17 production 1.3 GHz cryomodules, respectively. Fermilab is solely responsible for the 3.9 GHz cryomodules. After the prototype cryomodule tests are complete and lessons learned incorporated, both laboratories will increase their cryomodule production rates to meet the challenging LCLS-II project requirement of approximately one cryomodule per month per laboratory. This paper presents the Fermilab Cryomodule Assembly Facility (CAF) infrastructure for LCLS-II cryomodule production, the Fermilab prototype 1.3 GHz CW cryomodule (pCM) assembly and readiness for production assembly.

  11. The Chandra Source Catalog : Automated Source Correlation

    Hain, Roger; Evans, I. N.; Evans, J. D.; Glotfelty, K. J.; Anderson, C. S.; Bonaventura, N. R.; Chen, J. C.; Davis, J. E.; Doe, S. M.; Fabbiano, G.; Galle, E.; Gibbs, D. G.; Grier, J. D.; Hall, D. M.; Harbo, P. N.; He, X.; Houck, J. C.; Karovska, M.; Lauer, J.; McCollough, M. L.; McDowell, J. C.; Miller, J. B.; Mitschang, A. W.; Morgan, D. L.; Nichols, J. S.; Nowak, M. A.; Plummer, D. A.; Primini, F. A.; Refsdal, B. L.; Rots, A. H.; Siemiginowska, A. L.; Sundheim, B. A.; Tibbetts, M. S.; Van Stone, D. W.; Winkelman, S. L.; Zografou, P.

    2009-01-01

    Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) master source pipeline processing seeks to automatically detect sources and compute their properties. Since Chandra is a pointed mission and not a sky survey, different sky regions are observed for a different number of times at varying orientations, resolutions, and other heterogeneous conditions. While this provides an opportunity to collect data from a potentially large number of observing passes, it also creates challenges in determining the best way to combine different detection results for the most accurate characterization of the detected sources. The CSC master source pipeline correlates data from multiple observations by updating existing cataloged source information with new data from the same sky region as they become available. This process sometimes leads to relatively straightforward conclusions, such as when single sources from two observations are similar in size and position. Other observation results require more logic to combine, such as one observation finding a single, large source and another identifying multiple, smaller sources at the same position. We present examples of different overlapping source detections processed in the current version of the CSC master source pipeline. We explain how they are resolved into entries in the master source database, and examine the challenges of computing source properties for the same source detected multiple times. Future enhancements are also discussed. This work is supported by NASA contract NAS8-03060 (CXC).

  12. II-VI semiconductor compounds

    1993-01-01

    For condensed matter physicists and electronic engineers, this volume deals with aspects of II-VI semiconductor compounds. Areas covered include devices and applications of II-VI compounds; Co-based II-IV semi-magnetic semiconductors; and electronic structure of strained II-VI superlattices.

  13. About APPLE II Operation

    Schmidt, T.; Zimoch, D.

    2007-01-01

    The operation of an APPLE II based undulator beamline with all its polarization states (linear horizontal and vertical, circular and elliptical, and continous variation of the linear vector) requires an effective description allowing an automated calculation of gap and shift parameter as function of energy and operation mode. The extension of the linear polarization range from 0 to 180 deg. requires 4 shiftable magnet arrrays, permitting use of the APU (adjustable phase undulator) concept. Studies for a pure fixed gap APPLE II for the SLS revealed surprising symmetries between circular and linear polarization modes allowing for simplified operation. A semi-analytical model covering all types of APPLE II and its implementation will be presented

  14. VATICANO II CONCILIO DOCTRINAL?

    Horacio Bojorge

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a century since the army of Victor Manuel invaded Rome and put an end to Vatican I. In this article we try to understand Vatican II linking it to the previous circumtances and binding it to its doctrinal and pastoral character. Vatican II omitted many subjects that seemed important, e. g. not giving any dogmatic definitions. Contrasting with the Tridentine and Vatican I, that were mostly doctrinal, Vatican II was pastoral. But it was also doctrinal as were the two previous also pastoral. The Constitution "Dei Verbum" brings forth the intentions that led John XXIII to summon the Council in 5-8-1962. The world looked confused and agitated. What could the Church do?

  15. Open Source Software: critical review of scientific literature and other sources

    Querol del Amo, Marc

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents the results of a survey of Open Source Licensing literature. It aims to assist the reader in choosing the best license for his/her business. For this reason, the content of this thesis can be divided into: (i) an open source licensing overview, (ii) the explication of the main features of the most popular open source licenses, (iii) the consequences of using one or another and (iv) the critical or controversial issues related to Open Source Licensing. Furthermore, at the ...

  16. Datalogger usando nios ii

    Campoverde Rugel, Luis Enrique; Velásquez Vargas, Washington Adrián; Ponguillo, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    El presente proyecto consiste en la implementación de un Datalogger utilizando el microprocesador NIOS II el cual fue embebido en el FPGA CYCLONE II que se encuentra integrada en la tarjeta de desarrollo ALTERA DE2, el cual obtiene datos de distintos sensores y los almacena en una tarjeta SD Card. Para la realización del proyecto se aplican cuatro etapas. La primera etapa está basada en obtener los datos mediante el uso de sensores y la transmisión usando un PIC, la siguiente etapa se basa...

  17. Results from SAGE II

    Nico, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    The Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment (SAGE) began the second phase of operation (SAGE II) in September of 1992. Monthly measurements of the integral flux of solar neutrinos have been made with 55 tonnes of gallium. The K-peak results of the first nine runs of SAGE II give a capture rate of 66 -13 +18 (stat) -7 +5 (sys) SNU. Combined with the SAGE I result of 73 -16 +18 (stat) -7 5 (sys) SNU, the capture rate is 69 -11 +11 (stat) -7 +5 (sys) SNU. This represents only 52%--56% of the capture rate predicted by different Standard Solar Models

  18. Information on Asse II

    2014-01-01

    The brochure published by BfS describes the actual situation of Asse II with respect to the debate on an interim storage and the status of the realization of a final repository search law. During the visit of the new environment minister Hendricks in the underground facility repository Asse II the issue interim storage site and the retrieval of the corroded casks with radioactive waste were discussed. The challenges for BFS include the acceleration of the retrieval process and the safety of the procedure.

  19. TJ-II project

    Alejaldre, C.; Gozalo, J.J.A.; Perez, J.B.; Magaria, F.C.; Diaz, J.R.C.; Perez, J.G.; Lopez-Fraguas, A.; Garcia, L.; Krivenski, V.I.; Martin, R.; Navarro, A.P.; Perea, A.; Rodriguez-Yunta, A.; Ayza, M.S.; Varias, A.

    1990-01-01

    The TJ-II device is a medium-size helical-axis stellarator to be built in Madrid. Its main characteristics are potential for high-beta operation; flexibility, i.e., its rotational transform can be varied over a wide range and its shear to some extent; and bean-shaped plasma cross section. The latest understanding of TJ-II physics in the fields of electron cyclotron resonance heating, transport, and magneto-hydrodynamics, and the engineering solutions introduced in its final design are discussed

  20. ECLESIOLOGIA DO VATICANO II

    Víctor Codina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Não se pode compreender a eclesiologia do Vaticano II sem conhecer a vida, o estilo pastoral e o carisma de João XXIII, que convocou o Concílio e abriu o caminho em direção a uma nova configuração eclesial que acabava com séculos de uma Igreja de Cristandade. O Vaticano II implica uma transição de uma Igreja clerical a uma Igreja Povo de Deus, povo de batizados. A passagem de uma Igreja juridicista e legalista a uma Igreja Mistério de comunhão em Cristo. Mudar de uma Igreja triunfalista e ligada ao poder mundano a uma Igreja vivificada pela força renovadora do Espírito. A Igreja está a caminho rumo ao Reino de Deus juntamente com todos os cristãos e com toda a humanidade. A recepção do Vaticano II supõe uma conversão pastoral: voltar ao Evangelho e abrir-se aos novos sinais dos tempos seguindo o Espírito que inspirou João XXIII. ABSTRACT: You cannot understand the Ecclesiology of Vatican II without knowing the life, the pastoral style and the charisma of John XXIII, who convened the Council and opened the way toward a new ecclesial setting that ended centuries of a church of Christendom. The Vatican II involves a transition from a clerical Church to a “People (baptized people of God” Church. The Vatican II implies the passage from a juridical and legalistic Church to a Church as the Mystery of the communion in Christ. The Vatican II implies the change from a triumphalistic Church and connected to worldly power to a Church vivified by the renewing force of the Spirit. The Church is on its way toward the Kingdom of God together with all Christians and all mankind. The reception of the Vatican II supposes a pastoral conversion: a return to the Gospel and openness to new signs of the times following the Spirit that inspired John XXIII.

  1. Galaxy S II

    Gralla, Preston

    2011-01-01

    Unlock the potential of Samsung's outstanding smartphone with this jargon-free guide from technology guru Preston Gralla. You'll quickly learn how to shoot high-res photos and HD video, keep your schedule, stay in touch, and enjoy your favorite media. Every page is packed with illustrations and valuable advice to help you get the most from the smartest phone in town. The important stuff you need to know: Get dialed in. Learn your way around the Galaxy S II's calling and texting features.Go online. Browse the Web, manage email, and download apps with Galaxy S II's 3G/4G network (or create you

  2. Calculus II For Dummies

    Zegarelli, Mark

    2012-01-01

    An easy-to-understand primer on advanced calculus topics Calculus II is a prerequisite for many popular college majors, including pre-med, engineering, and physics. Calculus II For Dummies offers expert instruction, advice, and tips to help second semester calculus students get a handle on the subject and ace their exams. It covers intermediate calculus topics in plain English, featuring in-depth coverage of integration, including substitution, integration techniques and when to use them, approximate integration, and improper integrals. This hands-on guide also covers sequences and series, wit

  3. Plasma opening switch development for the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II (PBFA II)

    Stinnett, R.W.; McDaniel, D.H.; Rochau, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    The authors conducted plasma opening switch (POS) experiments on Sandia National Laboratories' new Particle Beam Fusin Accelerator II (PBFA II) (12 MV, 100 TW, 50 ns), on the Supermite accelerator (2 MV, 2 TW, 50 ns) and on the Naval Research Laboratory's Gamble II accelerator (1.8 MV, 1.6 TW, 70 ns). The POS systems on the PBFA II and Supermite accelerators use a newly developed flashboard plasma source to provide the plasma necessary to conduct the large (> 1 MA) currents produced byu these accelerators. In the Supermite experiments, the plasma opening switch conducted currents up to 1 MA before opening in less than 10 ns into an electron beam load. These experiments achieved significant voltage gain relative to the voltage across a matched load. In experiments on Gamble II, power gains of up to 1.7 were achieved using a POS in a strongly coaxial geometry (r/sub outer//r/sub inner/ = 2) with a large magnetic field at the cathode. The POS system on PBFA II is unique because of its size and voltage. This POS system is designed to conduct over 6 MA before opening. In present experiments it has conducted currents of 4-5 MA for over 50 ns

  4. RTNS-II status

    Short, D.W.; Heikkinen, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    This report presents operational information about the Rotating Target Neutron Source (RTNS). Data presented include neutrons produced by year, availability, productivity, and staff radiation doses. 4 figs

  5. Application of positron annihilation spectroscopy for investigation of reactor steels

    Sojak, S.; Slugen, V.; Petriska, M.; Stacho, M.; Veternikova, J.; Sabelova, V.; Egger, W.; Ravelli, L.

    2013-01-01

    Our work is focused on the study of radiation damage simulated by ion implantations and thermal treatment evaluation of RAFM steels in the form of binary Fe-Cr model alloys. In order to study the microstructure recovery after ion irradiation, we applied an approach for restoration of initial physical and mechanical characteristics of structural materials in the form of thermal annealing, with the goal to decrease the size and amount of accumulated defects. The experimental analysis of material damage at microstructural level was performed by the pulsed low energy positron system (PLEPS) [1] at the high intensity positron source NEPOMUC at the Munich research reactor FRM-II. (authors)

  6. IGORR 2: Proceedings of the 2. meeting of the International Group On Research Reactors

    NONE

    1992-07-01

    The International group on Research Reactors was formed to facilitate the sharing of knowledge and experience among those institutions and individuals who are actively working to design, build, and promote new research reactors or to make significant upgrades to existing facilities. Sessions during this second meeting were devoted to research reactor reports (GRENOBLE reactor, FRM-II, HIFAR, PIK, reactors at JAERI, MAPLE, ANS, NIST, MURR, TRIGA, BR-2, SIRIUS 2); other neutron sources; and two workshops were dealing with research and development results and needs and reports on progress in needed of R and D areas identified at IGORR 1.

  7. IGORR 2: Proceedings of the 2. meeting of the International Group On Research Reactors

    1992-01-01

    The International group on Research Reactors was formed to facilitate the sharing of knowledge and experience among those institutions and individuals who are actively working to design, build, and promote new research reactors or to make significant upgrades to existing facilities. Sessions during this second meeting were devoted to research reactor reports (GRENOBLE reactor, FRM-II, HIFAR, PIK, reactors at JAERI, MAPLE, ANS, NIST, MURR, TRIGA, BR-2, SIRIUS 2); other neutron sources; and two workshops were dealing with research and development results and needs and reports on progress in needed of R and D areas identified at IGORR 1

  8. Periodontics II: Course Proposal.

    Dordick, Bruce

    A proposal is presented for Periodontics II, a course offered at the Community College of Philadelphia to give the dental hygiene/assisting student an understanding of the disease states of the periodontium and their treatment. A standardized course proposal cover form is given, followed by a statement of purpose for the course, a list of major…

  9. Workshop 96. Part II

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Part II of the seminar proceedings contains contributions in various areas of science and technology, among them materials science in mechanical engineering, materials science in electrical, chemical and civil engineering, and electronics, measuring and communication engineering. In those areas, 6 contributions have been selected for INIS. (P.A.).

  10. Experiment CATETO II

    Hendriks, J.A.; Freudenreich, W.E.

    1994-03-01

    In the irradiation experiment CATETO II different reduced activation (RA) steels will be irradiated up to 2.5 dpa at a temperature of 300 C. The results of the calculation of the nuclear constants, the reactivity effect, and the activity of the steel samples are presented. (orig.)

  11. Amorphous iron (II) carbonate

    Sel, Ozlem; Radha, A.V.; Dideriksen, Knud

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The synthesis, characterization and crystallization energetics of amorphous iron (II) carbonate (AFC) are reported. AFC may form as a precursor for siderite (FeCO3). The enthalpy of crystallization (DHcrys) of AFC is similar to that of amorphous magnesium carbonate (AMC) and more...

  12. Workshop 96. Part II

    1995-12-01

    Part II of the seminar proceedings contains contributions in various areas of science and technology, among them materials science in mechanical engineering, materials science in electrical, chemical and civil engineering, and electronics, measuring and communication engineering. In those areas, 6 contributions have been selected for INIS. (P.A.)

  13. UNISIST II: Special Report.

    Hattery, Lowell H., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    The major part of this report of the Intergovernmental Conference on Scientific and Technical Information (UNISIST II), held in Paris May 28-June 1, 1979, focuses on three sets of recommendations which were unanimously approved after combining the recommendations proposed by various groups and blocs: (1) recommendations to the United Nations…

  14. Photosystem II and photoinhibition

    Feikema, Willem Onno

    2006-01-01

    Plants harvest light energy and convert it into chemical energy. Light absorption by photosystems I and II (PSI and PSII) results in charge separations in their reaction centers (RCs), initiating a chain of redox reactions with PSI generating the reducing power for CO2 assimilation into sugars, and

  15. Language identification using excitation source features

    Rao, K Sreenivasa

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses the contribution of excitation source information in discriminating language. The authors focus on the excitation source component of speech for enhancement of language identification (LID) performance. Language specific features are extracted using two different modes: (i) Implicit processing of linear prediction (LP) residual and (ii) Explicit parameterization of linear prediction residual. The book discusses how in implicit processing approach, excitation source features are derived from LP residual, Hilbert envelope (magnitude) of LP residual and Phase of LP residual; and in explicit parameterization approach, LP residual signal is processed in spectral domain to extract the relevant language specific features. The authors further extract source features from these modes, which are combined for enhancing the performance of LID systems. The proposed excitation source features are also investigated for LID in background noisy environments. Each chapter of this book provides the motivatio...

  16. NSLS-II Digital RF Controller Logic and Applications

    Holub, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Gao, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kulpin, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Marques, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Oliva, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Rose, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Towne, N. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-03

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) accelerator consists of the Storage Ring, the Booster Ring and Linac along with their associated cavities. Given the number, types and variety of functions of these cavities, we sought to limit the logic development effort by reuse of parameterized code on one hardware platform. Currently there are six controllers installed in the NSLS-II system. There are two in the Storage ring, two in the Booster ring, one in the Linac and one in the Master Oscillator Distribution system.

  17. European Telecommunications Satellite II (EUTELSAT II)

    Laemmel, G.; Brittinger, P.

    1991-01-01

    EUTELSAT II is a regional public telecommunications system for Europe. The services which will be provided are telephone and television. The satellites will be placed at a geostationary orbit within the arcs of 6 degrees east to 19 degrees east or 26 degrees to 36 degrees east. The designed lifetime is 7 years. After separation of the satellites from the launch vehicles, telemetry, telecommand, and ranging will be performed within the S-band frequencies. After positioning of the satellite at its final geostationary orbit, the Ku-band telecommunication equipment will be activated. From this time on, all satellite control operations will be performed in Ku-band. The Deep Space Network (DSN) will support the transfer and drift orbit mission phases. The coverage will consist of the 26-m antennas at Goldstone and Canberra as prime support for the transfer and drift orbits. Maximum support will consist of a 7-day period, plus 14 days of contingency support. Information is given in tabular form for DSN support, frequency assignments, telemetry, command, and tracking support responsibility.

  18. Sources of polarized neutrons

    Walter, L.

    1983-01-01

    Various sources of polarized neutrons are reviewed. Monoenergetic source produced with unpolarized or polarized beams, white sources of polarized neutrons, production by transmissions through polarized hydrogen targets and polarized thermal neutronsare discussed, with appropriate applications included. (U.K.)

  19. Pacemakers lower sources

    Greatbatch, W.

    1984-01-01

    Energy sources for cardiac facing are considered including radioisotope sources, in a broad conceptual and historical framework.The main guidelines for future development of energy sources are assessed

  20. Ni (II) and Cu(II) complexes of

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study is to investigate the antimicrobial activity of novel. Schiff base metal complexes. The resistance of micro-organisms to classical antimicrobial compounds poses a challenge to effective management and treatment of some diseases. In line with this, copper (II), nickel (II) and cobalt (II) ...

  1. Information on Asse II

    2015-01-01

    The information brochure on Asse II describes the situation in the repository for radioactive wastes that was closed by law due to the violations of safety standards. The discussed topics include the necessity of waste retrieval, the problems with public anxiety and public information, the hazard of an uncontrolled water ingress (worst case scenario), the work sites in the cavern, man-machine interactions and the cost of the project.

  2. Information on Asse II

    2014-01-01

    The information on Asse II include the following topics: The image and what is behind - the barrier building Dammjoch built 1914; Fact finding - underground explorations; concept for a site comparison; Learning from experiences - the final repository projects Asse, Gorleben and Morsleben show what should not be done; At first drilling - thereafter building - progress of the recovery duct; The retrieval can only go on in dialogue with the public.

  3. Review on technology II

    Mroziewicz, B.

    1986-01-01

    The most important requirements for the spectral properties of photodetectors are reviewed with particular attention to the fiber optics applications. Data on a number of materials are collected and presented. Pros and cons are pointed out for each type of photodetector-photoconductor, p-i-n photodiode and APD. A review is given of the relevant papers presented in the poster session 'Technology II' of the Symposium

  4. EASI graphics - Version II

    Allensworth, J.A.

    1984-04-01

    EASI (Estimate of Adversary Sequence Interruption) is an analytical technique for measuring the effectiveness of physical protection systems. EASI Graphics is a computer graphics extension of EASI which provides a capability for performing sensitivity and trade-off analyses of the parameters of a physical protection system. This document reports on the implementation of the Version II of EASI Graphics and illustrates its application with some examples. 5 references, 15 figures, 6 tables

  5. Some neutronic calculations for KENS-II

    Kiyanagi, Y.; Arai, M.; Watanabe, N.

    1989-01-01

    Proton energies of the intense spallation neutron sources currently in operation or designed are in the range Ep ≤ 1.1 GeV. Optimization studies of the target station have so far been performed for these proton energies. The KENS-II project has been included in the Japanese Hadron Facility Project where the proton accelerator, a so-called First Ring is shared with Meson Arena for nuclear physics and μSR experiments. The possible highest proton energy for this accelerator is 2 GeV, which is the highest among the world's spallation neutron sources. The authors, therefore, performed some neutronic calculations with 2 GeV protons in order to have a good knowledge of the neutronic characteristics and the optimal parameters of the target station for KENS-II. The fraction of slow neutron intensity versus the proton energy becomes 0.8 for 2 GeV compared to that for 0.8 GeV, and this is higher than 0.67 calculated for source neutrons. The uranium target has a higher neutron productivity, 1.5 times that of the tungsten target, even for 2 GeV protons. The target radius and the moderator axial position have definite optimal values for 2 GeV protons in spite of the broader distribution of the source neutrons in target, and these are essentially similar to the results for 0.8 GeV protons. The broad distribution with a little increase in the maximum luminosity of source neutrons for 2 GeV protons could make it easier to remove the heat load from the target than the case for the same beam-power with lower energy and higher proton current. Therefore, they could conclude that the 2 GeV protons for KENS-II do not have significant difficulties in producing slow neutrons, and that non-fissile material has higher advantages to produce neutrons for higher proton energies. Detailed neutronic calculations are now under way to design a neutron target station for KENS-II. 5 refs., 10 figs

  6. BeII** revisited

    Fischer, C.F.

    1982-01-01

    Doubly excited 1s2snl and 1s2pnl quartet states of BeII** are readily populated in beam-foil experiments and line-rich spectra have been obtained covering 600 to 5500 A wavelength range. In spite of several theoretical calculations a substantial number of observed lines have not been identified. The quartet system in BeII is an intersting one from a theoretical point of view. Three electron systems are simple enough that a fairly high level of accuracy is attainable without the calculations becoming horrendous. The important correlation effects are between the outer two electrons and, to a good approximation, the three-electrons system may be treated as a two-electron system outside a 1s-core. The multi-configuration Hartree-Fock (MCHF) method has been used successfully in a number of studies. Programs are under development that take into account the non-orthogonality of orbitals in the initial and final state, and allow for some non-orthogonal orbitals in a wavefunction expansion. LS dependent relativistic effects are also included. A study of BeII** was undertaken to evaluate the MCHF techniques being developed and to assit in the identification of observed lines. Most of the earlier calculations concentrated on the lower-lying levels. In this work particular attention was given to the more highly-excited states, though calculations for lower-lying states had to be repeated in order to predict life-times

  7. What is LAMPF II

    Thiessen, H.A.

    1982-08-01

    The present conception of LAMPF II is a high-intensity 16-GeV synchrotron injected by the LAMPF 800-MeV H - beam. The proton beam will be used to make secondary beams of neutrinos, muons, pions, kaons, antiprotons, and hyperons more intense than those of any existing or proposed accelerator. For example, by taking maximum advantage of a thick target, modern beam optics, and the LAMPF II proton beam, it will be possible to make a negative muon beam with nearly 100% duty factor and nearly 100 times the flux of the existing Stopped Muon Channel (SMC). Because the unique features of the proposed machine are most applicable to beams of the same momentum as LAMPF (that is, < 2 GeV/c), it may be possible to use most of the experimental areas and some of the auxiliary equipment, including spectrometers, with the new accelerator. The complete facility will provide improved technology for many areas of physics already available at LAMPF and will allow expansion of medium-energy physics to include kaons, antiprotons, and hyperons. When LAMPF II comes on line in 1990 LAMPF will have been operational for 18 years and a major upgrade such as this proposal will be reasonable and prudent

  8. What is LAMPF II

    Thiessen, H.A.

    1982-08-01

    The present conception of LAMPF II is a high-intensity 16-GeV synchrotron injected by the LAMPF 800-MeV H/sup -/ beam. The proton beam will be used to make secondary beams of neutrinos, muons, pions, kaons, antiprotons, and hyperons more intense than those of any existing or proposed accelerator. For example, by taking maximum advantage of a thick target, modern beam optics, and the LAMPF II proton beam, it will be possible to make a negative muon beam with nearly 100% duty factor and nearly 100 times the flux of the existing Stopped Muon Channel (SMC). Because the unique features of the proposed machine are most applicable to beams of the same momentum as LAMPF (that is, < 2 GeV/c), it may be possible to use most of the experimental areas and some of the auxiliary equipment, including spectrometers, with the new accelerator. The complete facility will provide improved technology for many areas of physics already available at LAMPF and will allow expansion of medium-energy physics to include kaons, antiprotons, and hyperons. When LAMPF II comes on line in 1990 LAMPF will have been operational for 18 years and a major upgrade such as this proposal will be reasonable and prudent.

  9. Sources management; La gestion des sources

    Mansoux, H.; Gourmelon; Scanff, P.; Fournet, F. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Murith, Ch. [Office Federal de la SantePublique (Switzerland); Saint-Paul, N. [NOVAR, 75 - Paris (France); Colson, P. [Electricite de France (EDF/DPN), 93 - Saint-Denis (France); Jouve, A.; Feron, F. [Direction Generale de al Surete Nucleaire et de la Radioprotection, 75 - Paris (France); Haranger, D. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Mathieu, P. [Institut Pasteur, 75 - Paris (France); Paycha, F. [CHU Louis Mourier, Unitede Medecine Nucleaire Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, 92 - Colombes (France); Israel, S. [CEGELEC NDT et la gestion des sources radioactives (France); Auboiroux, B. [APAVE (France); Chartier, P. [DRIRE de Basse-Normandie, Div. Surete Nucleaire et Radioprotection, 14 - Caen (France)

    2005-07-01

    Organized by the section of technical protection of the French society of radiation protection ( S.F.R.P.), these two days had for objective to review the evolution of the rule relative to the sources of ionising radiations 'sealed and unsealed radioactive sources, electric generators'. They addressed all the actors concerned by the implementation of the new regulatory system in the different sectors of activities ( research, medicine and industry): Authorities, manufacturers, and suppliers of sources, holders and users, bodies involved in the approval of sources, carriers. (N.C.)

  10. LCLS-II high power RF system overview and progress

    Yeremian, Anahid Dian

    2015-10-07

    A second X-ray free electron laser facility, LCLS-II, will be constructed at SLAC. LCLS-II is based on a 1.3 GHz, 4 GeV, continuous-wave (CW) superconducting linear accelerator, to be installed in the first kilometer of the SLAC tunnel. Multiple types of high power RF (HPRF) sources will be used to power different systems on LCLS-II. The main 1.3 GHz linac will be powered by 280 1.3 GHz, 3.8 kW solid state amplifier (SSA) sources. The normal conducting buncher in the injector will use four more SSAs identical to the linac SSAs but run at 2 kW. Two 185.7 MHz, 60 kW sources will power the photocathode dual-feed RF gun. A third harmonic linac section, included for linearizing the bunch energy spread before the first bunch compressor, will require sixteen 3.9 GHz sources at about 1 kW CW. A description and an update on all the HPRF sources of LCLS-II and their implementation is the subject of this paper.

  11. RTNS-II irradiations and operations

    Logan, C.M.; Heikkinen, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    The objectives of this work are operation of RTNS-II (a 14-MeV neutron source facility), machine development, and support of the experimental program that utilizes this facility. Experimenter services include dosimetry handling, scheduling, coordination, and reporting. RTNS-II is dedicated to materials research for the fusion power program. Its primary use is to aid in the development of models of high-energy neutron effects. Such models are needed in interpreting and projecting to the fusion environment engineering data obtained in other neutron spectra. Irradiations were performed for a total of twenty-nine different experimenters during this quarter. A JOEL 200 CX TEM and other post-irradiation test equipment have been installed

  12. Resveratrol: A novel type of topoisomerase II inhibitor.

    Lee, Joyce H; Wendorff, Timothy J; Berger, James M

    2017-12-22

    Resveratrol, a polyphenol found in various plant sources, has gained attention as a possible agent responsible for the purported health benefits of certain foods, such as red wine. Despite annual multi-million dollar market sales as a nutriceutical, there is little consensus about the physiological roles of resveratrol. One suggested molecular target of resveratrol is eukaryotic topoisomerase II (topo II), an enzyme essential for chromosome segregation and DNA supercoiling homeostasis. Interestingly, resveratrol is chemically similar to ICRF-187, a clinically approved chemotherapeutic that stabilizes an ATP-dependent dimerization interface in topo II to block enzyme activity. Based on this similarity, we hypothesized that resveratrol may antagonize topo II by a similar mechanism. Using a variety of biochemical assays, we find that resveratrol indeed acts through the ICRF-187 binding locus, but that it inhibits topo II by preventing ATPase domain dimerization rather than stabilizing it. This work presents the first comprehensive analysis of the biochemical effects of both ICRF-187 and resveratrol on the human isoforms of topo II, and reveals a new mode for the allosteric regulation of topo II through modulation of ATPase status. Natural polyphenols related to resveratrol that have been shown to impact topo II function may operate in a similar manner. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. IRAS IDENTIFICATION OF PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS IN THE CHAMELEON-II ASSOCIATION

    PRUSTI, T; WHITTET, DCB; ASSENDORP, R; WESSELIUS, PR

    We report the results of a search for new pre-main sequence candidates in the Chamaeleon II dark cloud based on three IRAS catalogues (the Point Source Catalog, the Serendipitous Survey Catalog and the Faint Source Survey). A total of 30 sources were selected. Twelve of these display IRAS colours

  14. Manufacturing of neutral beam sources at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory

    Baird, E.D.; Duffy, T.J.; Harter, G.A.; Holland, E.D.; Kloos, W.A.; Pastrone, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    Over 50 neutral beam sources (NBS) of the joint Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL)/Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) design have been manufactured, since 1973, in the LLL Neutral Beam Source Facility. These sources have been used to provide start-up and sustaining neutral beams for LLL mirror fusion experiments, including 2XIIB, TMX, and Beta II. Experimental prototype 20-kV and 80-kV NBS have also been designed, built, and tested for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF)

  15. Average [O II] nebular emission associated with Mg II absorbers: dependence on Fe II absorption

    Joshi, Ravi; Srianand, Raghunathan; Petitjean, Patrick; Noterdaeme, Pasquier

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the effect of Fe II equivalent width (W2600) and fibre size on the average luminosity of [O II] λλ3727, 3729 nebular emission associated with Mg II absorbers (at 0.55 ≤ z ≤ 1.3) in the composite spectra of quasars obtained with 3 and 2 arcsec fibres in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We confirm the presence of strong correlations between [O II] luminosity (L_{[O II]}) and equivalent width (W2796) and redshift of Mg II absorbers. However, we show L_{[O II]} and average luminosity surface density suffer from fibre size effects. More importantly, for a given fibre size, the average L_{[O II]} strongly depends on the equivalent width of Fe II absorption lines and found to be higher for Mg II absorbers with R ≡W2600/W2796 ≥ 0.5. In fact, we show the observed strong correlations of L_{[O II]} with W2796 and z of Mg II absorbers are mainly driven by such systems. Direct [O II] detections also confirm the link between L_{[O II]} and R. Therefore, one has to pay attention to the fibre losses and dependence of redshift evolution of Mg II absorbers on W2600 before using them as a luminosity unbiased probe of global star formation rate density. We show that the [O II] nebular emission detected in the stacked spectrum is not dominated by few direct detections (i.e. detections ≥3σ significant level). On an average, the systems with R ≥ 0.5 and W2796 ≥ 2 Å are more reddened, showing colour excess E(B - V) ˜ 0.02, with respect to the systems with R < 0.5 and most likely trace the high H I column density systems.

  16. Algebra II workbook for dummies

    Sterling, Mary Jane

    2014-01-01

    To succeed in Algebra II, start practicing now Algebra II builds on your Algebra I skills to prepare you for trigonometry, calculus, and a of myriad STEM topics. Working through practice problems helps students better ingest and retain lesson content, creating a solid foundation to build on for future success. Algebra II Workbook For Dummies, 2nd Edition helps you learn Algebra II by doing Algebra II. Author and math professor Mary Jane Sterling walks you through the entire course, showing you how to approach and solve the problems you encounter in class. You'll begin by refreshing your Algebr

  17. Synthesis and spectroscopic studies of biologically active tetraazamacrocyclic complexes of Mn(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Pd(II and Pt(II

    Monika Tyagi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Complexes of Mn(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Pd(II and Pt(II were synthesized with the macrocyclic ligand, i.e., 2,3,9,10-tetraketo-1,4,8,11-tetraazacycoletradecane. The ligand was prepared by the [2 + 2] condensation of diethyloxalate and 1,3-diamino propane and characterized by elemental analysis, mass, IR and 1H NMR spectral studies. All the complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility measurements, IR, electronic and electron paramagnetic resonance spectral studies. The molar conductance measurements of Mn(II, Co(II and Ni(II complexes in DMF correspond to non electrolyte nature, whereas Pd(II and Pt(II complexes are 1:2 electrolyte. On the basis of spectral studies an octahedral geometry has been assigned for Mn(II, Co(II and Ni(II complexes, whereas square planar geometry assigned for Pd(II and Pt(II. In vitro the ligand and its metal complexes were evaluated against plant pathogenic fungi (Fusarium odum, Aspergillus niger and Rhizoctonia bataticola and some compounds found to be more active as commercially available fungicide like Chlorothalonil.

  18. Removal of Ni (II), Co (II) and Pb (II) ions from aqueous media using ...

    Removal of Ni (II), Co (II) and Pb (II) ions from aqueous media using Starch ... The results showed that 0.025 % loaded SSMNPs gave the optimal sorption ... constants (Lagergren and Pseudo-2nd-order) for Ni2+ and Co2+ adsorption were ... Langmuir correlation coefficients showed a better fit for the adsorption isotherms.

  19. Characteristics of AKR sources: A statistical description

    Hilgers, A.; Roux, A.; Lundin, R.

    1991-01-01

    A description of plasma properties within the sources of the Auroral Kilometric Radiation (AKR) is given. It is based on data collected during ∼ 50 AKR source crossings in the altitude range between 4,000 and 9,000 km by the Swedish spacecraft Viking. The following results are obtained; (i) the frequency of the lowest frequency peak of the AKR f peak is found to be very close to f ce , the electron gyrofrequency ((f peak -f ce )/f ce ≤ 0.08), on the average, (ii) the lower cutoff frequency f LC is on the average at f ce ((f LC -f ce )/f ce ≅ 0), (iii) in the sources the density is typically less than 1.5 cm -3 , which is of the order of the density of hot electrons and (iv) the source is located within an acceleration region, as evidenced by electrons accelerated above and ions accelerated below

  20. Engineering mathematics-II

    Ganesh, A

    2009-01-01

    About the Book: This book Engineering Mathematics-II is designed as a self-contained, comprehensive classroom text for the second semester B.E. Classes of Visveswaraiah Technological University as per the Revised new Syllabus. The topics included are Differential Calculus, Integral Calculus and Vector Integration, Differential Equations and Laplace Transforms. The book is written in a simple way and is accompanied with explanatory figures. All this make the students enjoy the subject while they learn. Inclusion of selected exercises and problems make the book educational in nature. It shou

  1. Physics II for dummies

    Holzner, Steven

    2010-01-01

    A plain-English guide to advanced physics. Does just thinking about the laws of motion make your head spin? Does studying electricity short your circuits? Physics II For Dummies walks you through the essentials and gives you easy-to-understand and digestible guidance on this often intimidating course. Thanks to this book, you don?t have to be Einstein to understand physics. As you learn about mechanical waves and sound, forces and fields, electric potential and electric energy, and much more, you?ll appreciate the For Dummies law: The easier we make it, the faster you'll understand it!

  2. Graphics gems II

    Arvo, James

    1991-01-01

    Graphics Gems II is a collection of articles shared by a diverse group of people that reflect ideas and approaches in graphics programming which can benefit other computer graphics programmers.This volume presents techniques for doing well-known graphics operations faster or easier. The book contains chapters devoted to topics on two-dimensional and three-dimensional geometry and algorithms, image processing, frame buffer techniques, and ray tracing techniques. The radiosity approach, matrix techniques, and numerical and programming techniques are likewise discussed.Graphics artists and comput

  3. Thin film processes II

    Kern, Werner

    1991-01-01

    This sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes, gives a clear, practical exposition of important thin film deposition and etching processes that have not yet been adequately reviewed. It discusses selected processes in tutorial overviews with implementation guide lines and an introduction to the literature. Though edited to stand alone, when taken together, Thin Film Processes II and its predecessor present a thorough grounding in modern thin film techniques.Key Features* Provides an all-new sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes* Introduces new topics, and sever

  4. Electroforming copper targets for RTNS-II

    Kelley, W.K.; Dini, J.W.; Logan, C.M.

    1981-01-01

    Copper targets used in RTNS II, which is the world's most intense 14-MeV neutron source, contain water cooling channels for temperature control. There are two methods for fabricating these targets: (1) diffusion bonding a copper panel containing photoetched channels to another copper panel, and (2) an electroforming technique which involves filling the photoetched channels with wax, plating thick copper to seal over the channels and then removing the wax. Development of this latter process and results obtained with it are described

  5. Renewable energy sources. European Commission papers

    1997-05-01

    The ''Directive on the Promotion of Electricity from Renewable Sources of Energy in the Internal Electricity Market'' was adopted in September 2001. Its purpose is to promote an increase in the contribution of renewable energy sources to electricity production in the internal market for electricity and to create a basis for a future Community framework. Energie-Cites provides in this document a summary of its opinion on the Green Paper and on Alterner II and gives a proposal for an Action Plan concerning the White Paper. (A.L.B.)

  6. Synthesis and spectral studies of manganese(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), zinc(II), cadmium(II) and mercury(II) complexes of 4-oxo-4H-1-benzopyran-3-carboxaldehyde hydrazone derivatives

    Nawar, N.; Khattab, M.A.; Bekheit, M.M.; El-Kaddah, A.H.

    1996-01-01

    A few complexes of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) with 4-oxo-4H-1-benzopyran-3-(carboxaldehyde-4-chlorobenzylhydrazone) (BCBH) and 4-oxo-4H-1-benzopyran-3-(carboxaldehyde-4-methylbenzylhydrazone) (BMBH) have been synthesised and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductivities, magnetic measurements and infrared (IR) and visible spectral studies. The IR spectra show that BCBH and BMBH behave as bidentate ligands either in the keto or enol form. (author). 24 refs., 2 tabs

  7. Magic gamma rays, extra-atmospheric source

    Bolufer, P.

    2010-01-01

    Without the atmospheric layer, the cosmos radiation would kill every living, our planet would be like the moon. The cosmic gamma ray to collide with gases in land cover, as it is disintegrated. They are harmless, they form a cone of light that points to the cosmic source comes from. On April 25, 2009 was born on the island of Palma Magic II and Magic I the best observer of atmospheric gamma rays of low intensity. (Author)

  8. Pioneering SESAME light source officially opened

    Caraban Gonzalez, Noemi

    2017-01-01

    Allan, Jordan, 16 May 2017. The SESAME light source was today officially opened by His Majesty King Abdullah II. An intergovernmental organization, SESAME is the first regional laboratory for the Middle East and neighbouring regions The laboratory’s official opening ushers in a new era of research covering fields ranging from medicine and biology, through materials science, physics and chemistry to healthcare, the environment, agriculture and archaeology.

  9. The Chandra Source Catalog: Source Variability

    Nowak, Michael; Rots, A. H.; McCollough, M. L.; Primini, F. A.; Glotfelty, K. J.; Bonaventura, N. R.; Chen, J. C.; Davis, J. E.; Doe, S. M.; Evans, J. D.; Evans, I.; Fabbiano, G.; Galle, E. C.; Gibbs, D. G., II; Grier, J. D.; Hain, R.; Hall, D. M.; Harbo, P. N.; He, X.; Houck, J. C.; Karovska, M.; Lauer, J.; McDowell, J. C.; Miller, J. B.; Mitschang, A. W.; Morgan, D. L.; Nichols, J. S.; Plummer, D. A.; Refsdal, B. L.; Siemiginowska, A. L.; Sundheim, B. A.; Tibbetts, M. S.; van Stone, D. W.; Winkelman, S. L.; Zografou, P.

    2009-09-01

    The Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) contains fields of view that have been studied with individual, uninterrupted observations that span integration times ranging from 1 ksec to 160 ksec, and a large number of which have received (multiple) repeat observations days to years later. The CSC thus offers an unprecedented look at the variability of the X-ray sky over a broad range of time scales, and across a wide diversity of variable X-ray sources: stars in the local galactic neighborhood, galactic and extragalactic X-ray binaries, Active Galactic Nuclei, etc. Here we describe the methods used to identify and quantify source variability within a single observation, and the methods used to assess the variability of a source when detected in multiple, individual observations. Three tests are used to detect source variability within a single observation: the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and its variant, the Kuiper test, and a Bayesian approach originally suggested by Gregory and Loredo. The latter test not only provides an indicator of variability, but is also used to create a best estimate of the variable lightcurve shape. We assess the performance of these tests via simulation of statistically stationary, variable processes with arbitrary input power spectral densities (here we concentrate on results of red noise simulations) at variety of mean count rates and fractional root mean square variabilities relevant to CSC sources. We also assess the false positive rate via simulations of constant sources whose sole source of fluctuation is Poisson noise. We compare these simulations to an assessment of the variability found in real CSC sources, and estimate the variability sensitivities of the CSC.

  10. ON COMPUTING UPPER LIMITS TO SOURCE INTENSITIES

    Kashyap, Vinay L.; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Van Dyk, David A.; Xu Jin; Connors, Alanna; Freeman, Peter E.; Zezas, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    A common problem in astrophysics is determining how bright a source could be and still not be detected in an observation. Despite the simplicity with which the problem can be stated, the solution involves complicated statistical issues that require careful analysis. In contrast to the more familiar confidence bound, this concept has never been formally analyzed, leading to a great variety of often ad hoc solutions. Here we formulate and describe the problem in a self-consistent manner. Detection significance is usually defined by the acceptable proportion of false positives (background fluctuations that are claimed as detections, or Type I error), and we invoke the complementary concept of false negatives (real sources that go undetected, or Type II error), based on the statistical power of a test, to compute an upper limit to the detectable source intensity. To determine the minimum intensity that a source must have for it to be detected, we first define a detection threshold and then compute the probabilities of detecting sources of various intensities at the given threshold. The intensity that corresponds to the specified Type II error probability defines that minimum intensity and is identified as the upper limit. Thus, an upper limit is a characteristic of the detection procedure rather than the strength of any particular source. It should not be confused with confidence intervals or other estimates of source intensity. This is particularly important given the large number of catalogs that are being generated from increasingly sensitive surveys. We discuss, with examples, the differences between these upper limits and confidence bounds. Both measures are useful quantities that should be reported in order to extract the most science from catalogs, though they answer different statistical questions: an upper bound describes an inference range on the source intensity, while an upper limit calibrates the detection process. We provide a recipe for computing upper

  11. THE CHANDRA SOURCE CATALOG

    Evans, Ian N.; Primini, Francis A.; Glotfelty, Kenny J.; Anderson, Craig S.; Bonaventura, Nina R.; Chen, Judy C.; Doe, Stephen M.; Evans, Janet D.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Galle, Elizabeth C.; Gibbs, Danny G.; Grier, John D.; Hain, Roger M.; Harbo, Peter N.; He Xiangqun; Karovska, Margarita; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Davis, John E.; Houck, John C.; Hall, Diane M.

    2010-01-01

    The Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is a general purpose virtual X-ray astrophysics facility that provides access to a carefully selected set of generally useful quantities for individual X-ray sources, and is designed to satisfy the needs of a broad-based group of scientists, including those who may be less familiar with astronomical data analysis in the X-ray regime. The first release of the CSC includes information about 94,676 distinct X-ray sources detected in a subset of public Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer imaging observations from roughly the first eight years of the Chandra mission. This release of the catalog includes point and compact sources with observed spatial extents ∼<30''. The catalog (1) provides access to the best estimates of the X-ray source properties for detected sources, with good scientific fidelity, and directly supports scientific analysis using the individual source data; (2) facilitates analysis of a wide range of statistical properties for classes of X-ray sources; and (3) provides efficient access to calibrated observational data and ancillary data products for individual X-ray sources, so that users can perform detailed further analysis using existing tools. The catalog includes real X-ray sources detected with flux estimates that are at least 3 times their estimated 1σ uncertainties in at least one energy band, while maintaining the number of spurious sources at a level of ∼<1 false source per field for a 100 ks observation. For each detected source, the CSC provides commonly tabulated quantities, including source position, extent, multi-band fluxes, hardness ratios, and variability statistics, derived from the observations in which the source is detected. In addition to these traditional catalog elements, for each X-ray source the CSC includes an extensive set of file-based data products that can be manipulated interactively, including source images, event lists, light curves, and spectra from each observation in which a

  12. The Chandra Source Catalog

    Evans, Ian N.; Primini, Francis A.; Glotfelty, Kenny J.; Anderson, Craig S.; Bonaventura, Nina R.; Chen, Judy C.; Davis, John E.; Doe, Stephen M.; Evans, Janet D.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Galle, Elizabeth C.; Gibbs, Danny G., II; Grier, John D.; Hain, Roger M.; Hall, Diane M.; Harbo, Peter N.; He, Xiangqun Helen; Houck, John C.; Karovska, Margarita; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Lauer, Jennifer; McCollough, Michael L.; McDowell, Jonathan C.; Miller, Joseph B.; Mitschang, Arik W.; Morgan, Douglas L.; Mossman, Amy E.; Nichols, Joy S.; Nowak, Michael A.; Plummer, David A.; Refsdal, Brian L.; Rots, Arnold H.; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Sundheim, Beth A.; Tibbetts, Michael S.; Van Stone, David W.; Winkelman, Sherry L.; Zografou, Panagoula

    2010-07-01

    The Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is a general purpose virtual X-ray astrophysics facility that provides access to a carefully selected set of generally useful quantities for individual X-ray sources, and is designed to satisfy the needs of a broad-based group of scientists, including those who may be less familiar with astronomical data analysis in the X-ray regime. The first release of the CSC includes information about 94,676 distinct X-ray sources detected in a subset of public Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer imaging observations from roughly the first eight years of the Chandra mission. This release of the catalog includes point and compact sources with observed spatial extents lsim30''. The catalog (1) provides access to the best estimates of the X-ray source properties for detected sources, with good scientific fidelity, and directly supports scientific analysis using the individual source data; (2) facilitates analysis of a wide range of statistical properties for classes of X-ray sources; and (3) provides efficient access to calibrated observational data and ancillary data products for individual X-ray sources, so that users can perform detailed further analysis using existing tools. The catalog includes real X-ray sources detected with flux estimates that are at least 3 times their estimated 1σ uncertainties in at least one energy band, while maintaining the number of spurious sources at a level of lsim1 false source per field for a 100 ks observation. For each detected source, the CSC provides commonly tabulated quantities, including source position, extent, multi-band fluxes, hardness ratios, and variability statistics, derived from the observations in which the source is detected. In addition to these traditional catalog elements, for each X-ray source the CSC includes an extensive set of file-based data products that can be manipulated interactively, including source images, event lists, light curves, and spectra from each observation in which a

  13. Personalisatie in academische bibliotheeksystemen. - II: MyLibrary voorbij

    Hunsucker, R.L.

    2005-01-01

    Personalisation in academic library systems - II: Beyond MyLibrary The academic libraries' attempt to 'personalise' tracking down and accessing relevant literature and information sources developed into an undeniably meagre performance. So wrote R.L. Hunsucker in the first part of his contribution

  14. Shape analysis of pulsed second sound in He II

    Worthington, T.; Yan, J.; Trefny, J.U.

    1976-01-01

    Second sound in He II has been observed using a heat pulse method. At temperatures where well-developed second sound is observed, the entire pulse shape can be understood if heat sources and geometrical effects are properly taken into account. 4 figures

  15. 139 the impact of the national fadama ii development project

    OLUWOLE AKINNAGBE

    Key words: Impact, National Fadama II Facility, Poverty Alleviation, Agricultural ... production but enhance the income of the ... of employment has the higher incidence of ... This widening gap between ... each group (i.e. those earning ... Source: Field Survey data, 2007 .... increased as evidence has shown that the level.

  16. Peripheral Codes in ASTRA for the TJ-II

    Lopez-Bruna, D.; Reynolds, J. M.; Cappa, A.; Martinell, J.; Garcia, J.; Gutierrez-Tapia, C.

    2010-01-01

    The study of data from the TJ-II device is often done with transport calculations based on the ASTRA transport system. However, complicated independent codes are used to obtain fundamental ingredients in these calculations, such as the particle and/or energy sources. These codes are accessible from ASTRA through the procedures explained in this report. (Author) 37 refs.

  17. China's Propaganda in the United States during World War II.

    Tsang, Kuo-jen

    Drawing data from a variety of sources, a study was undertaken to place China's propaganda activities in the United States during World War II into a historical perspective. Results showed that China's propaganda efforts consisted of official and unofficial activities and activities directed toward overseas Chinese. The official activities were…

  18. SEISRISK II; a computer program for seismic hazard estimation

    Bender, Bernice; Perkins, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    The computer program SEISRISK II calculates probabilistic ground motion values for use in seismic hazard mapping. SEISRISK II employs a model that allows earthquakes to occur as points within source zones and as finite-length ruptures along faults. It assumes that earthquake occurrences have a Poisson distribution, that occurrence rates remain constant during the time period considered, that ground motion resulting from an earthquake is a known function of magnitude and distance, that seismically homogeneous source zones are defined, that fault locations are known, that fault rupture lengths depend on magnitude, and that earthquake rates as a function of magnitude are specified for each source. SEISRISK II calculates for each site on a grid of sites the level of ground motion that has a specified probability of being exceeded during a given time period. The program was designed to process a large (essentially unlimited) number of sites and sources efficiently and has been used to produce regional and national maps of seismic hazard.}t is a substantial revision of an earlier program SEISRISK I, which has never been documented. SEISRISK II runs considerably [aster and gives more accurate results than the earlier program and in addition includes rupture length and acceleration variability which were not contained in the original version. We describe the model and how it is implemented in the computer program and provide a flowchart and listing of the code.

  19. The influence of Fe(II) competition on the sorption and migration of Ni(II) in MX-80 bentonite

    Pfingsten, Wilfried; Bradbury, Mike; Baeyens, Bart

    2011-01-01

    two competing sorbates and their respective concentrations. At background Fe(II) concentrations of 5.3 x 10 -5 M, and a Ni(II) EQBM level of 10 -7 M, the Ni(II) breakthrough time was ∼15 times earlier than in the absence of competition. At such Fe(II) concentrations the Ni(II) breakthrough curves at all source concentrations less than 3.5 x 10 -5 M (fixed by the NiCO 3,S solubility limit) are the same i.e. Ni(II) exhibits linear (low) sorption. Competitive sorption effects can have significant influences on the transport of radionuclides through compacted bentonite i.e. reduce the migration rates. Since, for the case considered here, the Fe(II) concentration in the near field of a high-level radioactive waste repository may change in time and space, the transport of bivalent transition metal radionuclides can only be properly modelled using a multi-species reactive transport code which includes a sorption model.

  20. Pressurized helium II-cooled magnet test facility

    Warren, R.P.; Lambertson, G.R.; Gilbert, W.S.; Meuser, R.B.; Caspi, S.; Schafer, R.V.

    1980-06-01

    A facility for testing superconducting magnets in a pressurized bath of helium II has been constructed and operated. The cryostat accepts magnets up to 0.32 m diameter and 1.32 m length with current to 3000 A. In initial tests, the volume of helium II surrounding the superconducting magnet was 90 liters. Minimum temperature reached was 1.7 K at which point the pumping system was throttled to maintain steady temperature. Helium II reservoir temperatures were easily controlled as long as the temperature upstream of the JT valve remained above T lambda; at lower temperatures control became difficult. Positive control of the temperature difference between the liquid and cold sink by means of an internal heat source appears necessary to avoid this problem. The epoxy-sealed vessel closures, with which we have had considerable experience with normal helium vacuum, also worked well in the helium II/vacuum environment

  1. Performance Characterization of LCLS-II Superconducting Radiofrequency Cryomodules

    Gregory, RuthAnn [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2017-11-10

    This paper will describe the LCLS (Linac Coherent Light Source)-II, Fermilab’s role in the development of LCLS-II, and my contributions as a Lee Teng intern. LCLS-II is a second generation x-ray free electron laser being constructed at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. Fermilab is responsible for the design, construction, and testing of several 1.3 GHz cryomodules to be used in LCLS-II. These cryomodules are currently being tested at Fermilab. Some software was written to analyze the data from the cryomodule tests. This software assesses the performance of the cryomodules by looking at data on the cavity voltage, cavity gradient, dark current, and radiation.

  2. Evaluation of the computerized procedures Manual II (COPMA II)

    Converse, S.A.

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a computerized procedure system, the Computerized Procedure Manual II (COPMA-II), on the performance and mental workload of licensed reactor operators. To evaluate COPMA-II, eight teams of two operators were trained to operate a scaled pressurized water reactor facility (SPWRF) with traditional paper procedures and with COPMA-II. Following training, each team operated the SPWRF under normal operating conditions with both paper procedures and COPMA-II. The teams then performed one of two accident scenarios with paper procedures, but performed the remaining accident scenario with COPMA-II. Performance measures and subjective estimates of mental workload were recorded for each performance trial. The most important finding of the study was that the operators committed only half as many errors during the accident scenarios with COPMA-II as they committed with paper procedures. However, time to initiate a procedure was fastest for paper procedures for accident scenario trials. For performance under normal operating conditions, there was no difference in time to initiate or to complete a procedure, or in the number of errors committed with paper procedures and with COPMA-II. There were no consistent differences in the mental workload ratings operators recorded for trials with paper procedures and COPMA-II

  3. 10.-14. II on Puhta Rõõmu alaliiduna tuntud...

    2004-01-01

    Lõkerdus- ja tegevuskunstikollektiiv Naeruorgesster ehk Laffing ahkestra - dirigent Erki Kannus, lõkerdajad Ivika Kivi, Piret Räni, Merle Kannus, Maris Mändel, Marge Monko, Aino Sepp, Annika Kaljurand, Anya Ronacher - esines 11. II Stockholmis Moderna Museeti taasavamispidustuste raames, 12. II osaleti tegevuskunstiprogrammis "Source Live 2004". Aprillis oodatakse kollektiivi Varssavisse Zacheta galerii näitusele "Poisid ja tüdrukud" (16. II-4. IV), kus esitatakse Piret Räni ja Anu Vahtra videot "Punk.Fem.Collection"

  4. Peripheral Codes in ASTRA for the TJ-II; Programas Perifericos de ASTRA para el TJ-II

    Lopez-Bruna, D.; Reynolds, J. M.; Cappa, A.; Martinell, J.; Garcia, J.; Gutierrez-Tapia, C.

    2010-05-01

    The study of data from the TJ-II device is often done with transport calculations based on the ASTRA transport system. However, complicated independent codes are used to obtain fundamental ingredients in these calculations, such as the particle and/or energy sources. These codes are accessible from ASTRA through the procedures explained in this report. (Author) 37 refs.

  5. The History of MIS-Y: U.S. Strategic Interrogation During World War II

    Kleinman, Steven M

    2002-01-01

    As World War II unfolded, the strategic interrogation programs established by the British, German, and American forces evolved into robust collection entities that proved to be a unique source of critical intelligence...

  6. Fiber Coupled Pulse Shaper for Sub-Nanosecond Pulse Lidar, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase II effort will develop an all-diode laser and fiber optic based, single frequency, sub-nanosecond pulsed laser source...

  7. 2011 NATA - Emissions Sources

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset includes all emissions sources that were modeled in the 2011 National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA), inlcluding point, nonpoint, and mobile sources, and...

  8. Biogenic Emission Sources

    Biogenic emissions sources come from natural sources and need to accounted for in photochemical grid models. They are computed using a model which utilizes spatial information on vegetation and land use.

  9. Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The SNS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is a next-generation spallation neutron source for neutron scattering that is currently the most powerful neutron source in...

  10. EPA's Radioactive Source Program

    Kopsick, D.

    2004-01-01

    The US EPA is the lead Federal agency for emergency responses to unknown radiological materials, not licensed, owned or operated by a Federal agency or an Agreement state (Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan, 1996). The purpose of EPA's clean materials programme is to keep unwanted and unregulated radioactive material out of the public domain. This is achieved by finding and securing lost sources, maintaining control of existing sources and preventing future losses. The focus is on both, domestic and international fronts. The domestic program concentrates on securing lost sources, preventing future losses, alternative technologies like tagging of radioactive sources in commerce, pilot radioactive source roundup, training programs, scrap metal and metal processing facilities, the demolition industry, product stewardship and alternatives to radioactive devices (fewer radioactive source devices means fewer orphan sources). The international program consists of securing lost sources, preventing future losses, radiation monitoring of scrap metal at ports and the international scrap metal monitoring protocol

  11. Dioxin emissions and sources

    1994-01-01

    The papers presented at the seminar discussed dioxin emissions and sources, dioxin pollution of soils, waste water and sewage sludge, stocktaking of emission sources, and exposure and risk analyses for dioxin and other pollutants. (EF) [de

  12. The rotation measures of radio sources and their interpretation

    Vallee, J.P.; Kronberg, P.P.

    1975-01-01

    Rotation measures of 251 discrete radio sources have been determined after incorporating new polarization data at short wavelenghts. These have been applied to a 'slab' model-fitting technique to determine the most likely spiral arm magnetic field structure. The best agreement is obtained for a longitudinal spiral arm magnetic field, directed toward (lII approximately 90 0 , bII approximately 0 0 ), but perturbed by an anomaly towards the North Galactic Spur. (orig.) [de

  13. Sealed radioactive source management

    2005-01-01

    Sealed radioactive sources have been used in a wide range of application in medicine, agriculture, geology, industry and other fields. Since its utilization many sources have become out of use and became waste but no proper management. This has lead to many accidents causing deaths and serious radiation injuries worldwide. Spent sources application is expanding but their management has seen little improvements. Sealed radioactive sources have become a security risk calling for prompt action. Source management helps to maintain sources in a good physical status and provide means of source tracking and control. It also provides a well documented process of the sources making any future management options safe, secure and cost effective. Last but not least good source management substantially reduces the risk of accidents and eliminates the risk of malicious use. The International Atomic Energy Agency assists Member States to build the infrastructure to properly manage sealed radioactive sources. The assistance includes training of national experts to handle, condition and properly store the sources. For Member States that do not have proper facilities, we provide the technical assistance to design a proper facility to properly manage the radioactive sources and provide for their proper storage. For Member States that need to condition their sources properly but don't have the required infrastructure we provide direct assistance to physically help them with source recovery and provide an international expert team to properly condition their sources and render them safe and secure. We offer software (Radioactive Waste Management Registry) to properly keep a complete record on the sources and provide for efficient tracking. This also helps with proper planning and decision making for long term management

  14. Digital intelligence sources transporter

    Zhang Zhen; Wang Renbo

    2011-01-01

    It presents from the collection of particle-ray counting, infrared data communication, real-time monitoring and alarming, GPRS and other issues start to realize the digital management of radioactive sources, complete the real-time monitoring of all aspects, include the storing of radioactive sources, transporting and using, framing intelligent radioactive sources transporter, as a result, achieving reliable security supervision of radioactive sources. (authors)

  15. Next-generation mid-infrared sources

    Jung, D.; Bank, S.; Lee, M. L.; Wasserman, D.

    2017-12-01

    The mid-infrared (mid-IR) is a wavelength range with a variety of technologically vital applications in molecular sensing, security and defense, energy conservation, and potentially in free-space communication. The recent development and rapid commercialization of new coherent mid-infrared sources have spurred significant interest in the development of mid-infrared optical systems for the above applications. However, optical systems designers still do not have the extensive optical infrastructure available to them that exists at shorter wavelengths (for instance, in the visible and near-IR/telecom wavelengths). Even in the field of optoelectronic sources, which has largely driven the growing interest in the mid-infrared, the inherent limitations of state-of-the-art sources and the gaps in spectral coverage offer opportunities for the development of new classes of lasers, light emitting diodes and emitters for a range of potential applications. In this topical review, we will first present an overview of the current state-of-the-art mid-IR sources, in particular thermal emitters, which have long been utilized, and the relatively new quantum- and interband-cascade lasers, as well as the applications served by these sources. Subsequently, we will discuss potential mid-infrared applications and wavelength ranges which are poorly served by the current stable of mid-IR sources, with an emphasis on understanding the fundamental limitations of the current source technology. The bulk of the manuscript will then explore both past and recent developments in mid-infrared source technology, including narrow bandgap quantum well lasers, type-I and type-II quantum dot materials, type-II superlattices, highly mismatched alloys, lead-salts and transition-metal-doped II-VI materials. We will discuss both the advantages and limitations of each of the above material systems, as well as the potential new applications which they might serve. All in all, this topical review does not aim

  16. NSLS-II booster timing system

    Cheblakov, P.; Karnaev, S.; De Long, J.

    2012-01-01

    NSLS-II light source includes the main storage ring with beam lines and injection part consisting of 200 MeV linac, a full-energy 3 GeV booster synchrotron and two transport lines. The booster timing system is a part of NSLS-II timing system which uses hardware from MicroResearch Finland: Event Generator (EVG) and Event Receivers (EVRs). The booster timing is based on the events coming from NSLS-II EVG: 'Pre-Injection', 'Injection', 'Pre-Extraction', 'Extraction'. These events are referenced to the selected RF bucket of the storage ring and correspond to the first RF bucket of the booster. EVRs provide triggers both for the injection and the extraction pulse devices. EVRs also provide the timing of booster cycle operation and generation of events for cycle-to-cycle updates of pulsed and ramping parameters, and synchronization of the booster beam instrumentation devices. This paper describes the final design of the booster timing system. The timing system functional diagrams and block diagram are presented. (authors)

  17. LCLS-II CRYOMODULE TRANSPORT SYSTEM TESTING

    Huque, Naeem [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Daly, Edward F. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); McGee, Michael W. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2018-04-01

    The Cryomodules (CM) for the Linear Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) will be shipped to SLAC (Menlo Park, California) from JLab (Newport News, Virginia) and FNAL (Batavia, Illinois). A transportation system has been designed and built to safely transport the CMs over the road. It uses an array of helical isolator springs to attenuate shocks on the CM to below 1.5g in all directions. The system rides on trailers equipped with Air-Ride suspension, which attenuates vibration loads. The prototype LCLS-II CM (pCM) was driven 750 miles to test the transport system; shock loggers recorded the shock attenuation on the pCM and vacuum gauges were used to detect any compromises in beamline vacuum. Alignment measurements were taken before and after the trip to check whether cavity positions had shifted beyond the ± 0.2mm spec. Passband frequencies and cavity gradients were measured at 2K at the Cryomodule Test Facility (CMTF) at JLab to identify any degradation of CM performance after transportation. The transport system was found to have safely carried the CM and is cleared to begin shipments from JLab and FNAL to SLAC.

  18. The TRUPACT-II Matrix Depleton Program

    Connolly, M.J.; Djordjevic, S.M.; Loehr, C.A.; Smith, M.C.; Banjac, V.; Lyon, W.F.

    1995-01-01

    Contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) wastes will be shipped and disposed at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository in the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) shipping package. A primary transportation requirement for the TRUPACT-II is that the concentration of potentially flammable gases (i.e., hydrogen and methane) must not exceed 5 percent by volume in the package or the payload during a 60-day shipping period. Decomposition of waste materials by radiation, or radiolysis, is the predominant mechanism of gas generation during transport. The gas generation potential of a target waste material is characterized by a G-value, which is the number of molecules of gas generated per 100 eV of ionizing radiation absorbed by the target material. To demonstrate compliance with the flammable gas concentration requirement, theoretical worst-case calculations were performed to establish allowable wattage (decay heat) limits for waste containers. The calculations were based on the G-value for the waste material with the highest potential for flammable gas generation. The calculations also made no allowances for decreases of the G-value over time due to matrix depletion phenomena that have been observed by many experimenters. Matrix depletion occurs over time when an alpha-generating source particle alters the target material (by evaporation, reaction, or decomposition) into a material of lower gas generating potential. The net effect of these alterations is represented by the ''effective G-value.''

  19. Status of the LCLS-II undulators

    Wallén, E., E-mail: ejwallen@lbl.gov; Arbelaez, D.; Brown, A.; Dougherty, J.; Corlett, J.; DeMello, A.; Hanzel, K.; Jung, J.-Y.; Leitner, M.; Madur, A.; McCombs, K.; Marks, S.; Munson, D.; Plate, D.; Pucci, J.; Ray, K.; Schlueter, R.; Mateo, E. San [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); D’Ewart, M.; Rowen, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2016-07-27

    The new free electron laser facility Linear Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) under construction at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory will use planar variable gap undulators of hybrid type for the production of free electron laser (FEL) radiation. The LCLS-II will include two FELs with two separate rows of undulators to generate soft and hard x-rays. The soft x-rays will be produced by undulators with 39 mm period length (SXR) and the hard x-rays will be produced by undulators with 26 mm period length (HXR). Both the SXR and the HXR undulators are 3.4 m long and they use a common support structure and frame. In total 21 SXR and 32 HXR undulators will be produced by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in collaboration with SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. A full-scale prototype with 32 mm period length, called HXU, has been assembled at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The present status of the design, prototyping, and pre-series production of the SXR and HXR undulators are presented in this paper together with the first results from measurements on the full scale HXU prototype.

  20. The Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey

    Sako, Masao; Bassett, Bruce; C. Becker, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey conducted between 2005 and 2007. Light curves, spectra, classifications, and ancillary data are presented for 10,258 variable and transient sources discovered through repeat ugriz imaging of SDSS S...

  1. Spallation neutron sources

    Fraser, J.S.; Bartholomew, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    The principles and theory of spallation neutron sources are outlined and a comparison is given with other types of neutron source. A summary of the available accelerator types for spallation neutron sources and their advantages and disadvantages is presented. Suitable target materials are discussed for specific applications, and typical target assemblies shown. (U.K.)

  2. Global Sourcing of Services

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Petersen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    The global sourcing of services offers high returns but is also associated with high risks. The extent to which firms engage in ‘transformational’ global sourcing (i.e., global sourcing implying considerable changes in the home organization) chiefly depends on management's comfort zone which...

  3. Sources of pulsed radiation

    Sauer, M.C. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Characteristics of various sources of pulsed radiation are examined from the viewpoint of their importance to the radiation chemist, and some examples of uses of such sources are mentioned. A summary is given of the application of methods of physical dosimetry to pulsed sources, and the calibration of convenient chemical dosimeters by physical dosimetry is outlined. 7 figures, 1 table

  4. Investigating Primary Source Literacy

    Archer, Joanne; Hanlon, Ann M.; Levine, Jennie A.

    2009-01-01

    Primary source research requires students to acquire specialized research skills. This paper presents results from a user study testing the effectiveness of a Web guide designed to convey the concepts behind "primary source literacy". The study also evaluated students' strengths and weaknesses when conducting primary source research. (Contains 3…

  5. Open Source Business Solutions

    Ion IVAN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This analyses the Open source movement. Open source development process and management is seen different from the classical point of view. This focuses on characteristics and software market tendencies for the main Open source initiatives. It also points out the labor market future evolution for the software developers.

  6. Argonne inverted sputter source

    Yntema, J.L.; Billquist, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    The emittance of the inverted sputter source with immersion lenses was measured to be about 5π mm mrad MeV/sup 1/2/ at the 75% level over a wide range of beam intensities. The use of the source in experiments with radioactive sputter targets and hydrogen loaded targets is described. Self contamination of the source is discussed

  7. RTNS-II utilization

    Doran, D.G.; Panayotou, N.F.; Powell, R.W.

    1979-12-01

    The objective of the several RTNS-II irradation programs is to maximize information gained from the small test volume available in this unique irradiation facility for application in the fusion materials program. While this facility provides the highest 14 MeV neutron flux available, the flux is generally too low and the irradiation volume too small for testing of engineering materials. Emphasis, therefore, is on identifying damage mechanisms of high energy neutrons and correlating them quantitatively with effects produced by fission neutrons. The information gained will be used to evaluate and calibrate damage and correlation models under development. The scope of the program includes in-situ experiments, postirradiation experiments, irradiation temperatures ranging from 4 0 K to 1,000 0 K, and fluences ranging from 3 x 10 16 to about 3 x 10 19 n/cm 2

  8. Belle II Software

    Kuhr, T; Ritter, M

    2016-01-01

    Belle II is a next generation B factory experiment that will collect 50 times more data than its predecessor, Belle. The higher luminosity at the SuperKEKB accelerator leads to higher background levels and requires a major upgrade of the detector. As a consequence, the simulation, reconstruction, and analysis software must also be upgraded substantially. Most of the software has been redesigned from scratch, taking into account the experience from Belle and other experiments and utilizing new technologies. The large amount of experimental and simulated data requires a high level of reliability and reproducibility, even in parallel environments. Several technologies, tools, and organizational measures are employed to evaluate and monitor the performance of the software during development. (paper)

  9. Inside ISIS II

    1981-01-01

    ISIS stands for Identification of Secondaries by Ionization Sampling. It was a drift chamber with an active volume of about 40 m3 built by Oxford University as a particle identifier for the European Hybrid Spectrometer (EHS). The photo shows the electrostatic grading structure and the central anode-wire plane, with Roger Giles standing just under it (Annual Report 1981 p. 57, Fig. 4). ISIS-II differed from the prototype ISIS-I only in the depth of the track (4 m instead of 1 m) thus extending the momentum range for particle identification to 50 GeV/c. See Nucl. Instr. and Meth. 224 (1984) 396, and Nucl. Instr. and Meth. 258 (1987) 26.

  10. Water radiological surveillance (II)

    Pablo San Martin de, M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes the characteristics of the Environmental Surveillance Radiological Networks (ESRN) currently operating in CEDEX. In the first part, the Spanish Continental Waters ESRN has been presented. This second one describes Spanish Costal Waters ESRN and the High Sensitivity Networks in Continental and Marine Waters. It also presents the Radiological Surveillance of Drinking Waters that CEDEX carries out in waters of public consumption management by the Canal de Isabel II (CYII) and by the Mancomunity of Canals Taibilla (M.C.T.). The legislation applicable in each case is reviewed as well. Due to its extension the article has been divided into two parts. As Spanish Continental Waters ESRN has been reviewed in the first part, the others ESRN are discussed in this second one. (Author) 10 refs

  11. PEP-II Alignment

    Gaydosh, M

    2003-01-01

    The PEP-II Asymmetric B-factory consists of two independent storage rings, one located atop the other in the 2200m-circumference PEP tunnel. The high-energy ring, which stores a 9-GeV electron beam, is an upgrade of the existing PEP collider. It re-utilizes all of the PEP magnets and incorporates a state-of-the-art copper vacuum chamber and a new RF system capable of supporting a one-amp stored beam. The low-energy ring, which stores 3.1-GeV positrons, is new construction. Injection is achieved by extracting electrons and positrons at collision energies from the SLC and transporting them each in a dedicated bypass line. The low-emittance SLC beams will be used for the injection process.

  12. Stage II Seminoma

    Sagerman, R.H.; Kotlove, D.J.; Regine, W.; Chung, C.T.; King, G.A.; Dalai, P.S.

    1988-01-01

    Between 1966 and 1985, 32 patients with stage II (21 A,11 B) testicular seminoma were treated with postorchiectomy irradiation to the retroperitoneal and ipsilateral iliac nodes; 28 received elective mediastinal-supraclavicular irradiation. The median follow-up was 8 1/2 years; 29 patients were followed up for over 3 years and 24 for over 5 years. Twenty-eight patients remain alive and well and four have die, two of a second primary cancer. Two patients developed recurrent seminoma in the mediastinum; these patients showed a variant lymphangiographic pattern. Both remain well after further irradiation or irradiation plus chemotherapy. A third patient developed nonseminomatous ''recurrence'' in the radiation field and is well after chemotherapy

  13. Phase II Final Report

    Schuknecht, Nate [Project Manager; White, David [Principle Investigator; Hoste, Graeme [Research Engineer

    2014-09-11

    The SkyTrough DSP will advance the state-of-the-art in parabolic troughs for utility applications, with a larger aperture, higher operating temperature, and lower cost. The goal of this project was to develop a parabolic trough collector that enables solar electricity generation in the 2020 marketplace for a 216MWe nameplate baseload power plant. This plant requires an LCOE of 9¢/kWhe, given a capacity factor of 75%, a fossil fuel limit of 15%, a fossil fuel cost of $6.75/MMBtu, $25.00/kWht thermal storage cost, and a domestic installation corresponding to Daggett, CA. The result of our optimization was a trough design of larger aperture and operating temperature than has been fielded in large, utility scale parabolic trough applications: 7.6m width x 150m SCA length (1,118m2 aperture), with four 90mm diameter × 4.7m receivers per mirror module and an operating temperature of 500°C. The results from physical modeling in the System Advisory Model indicate that, for a capacity factor of 75%: The LCOE will be 8.87¢/kWhe. SkyFuel examined the design of almost every parabolic trough component from a perspective of load and performance at aperture areas from 500 to 2,900m2. Aperture-dependent design was combined with fixed quotations for similar parts from the commercialized SkyTrough product, and established an installed cost of $130/m2 in 2020. This project was conducted in two phases. Phase I was a preliminary design, culminating in an optimum trough size and further improvement of an advanced polymeric reflective material. This phase was completed in October of 2011. Phase II has been the detailed engineering design and component testing, which culminated in the fabrication and testing of a single mirror module. Phase II is complete, and this document presents a summary of the comprehensive work.

  14. Airport Landside. Volume II. The Airport Landside Simulation Model (ALSIM) Description and Users Guide.

    1982-06-01

    of this pegs ) 21. No f eos 22. Price Tnclassified Unclassified 102 Frm~ DOT F 1700.7 (8-72) Reprodction of completed peg . autheri sod PREFACE This...IBM 3350 disk storage are required to accommodate this data set. When the program is executed, the members AUX or MAIN are referenced by GPSS for...used as the operand in the LOAD block. Approximately 10 tracks of IBM 3350 disk space are required to store this data set. 3-9/3-10 4. PROGRAM EXECUTION

  15. Effect of Cu(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) on Pb(II) biosorption by algae Gelidium-derived materials.

    Vilar, Vítor J P; Botelho, Cidália M S; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2008-06-15

    Biosorption of Pb(II), Cu(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) from binary metal solutions onto the algae Gelidium sesquipedale, an algal industrial waste and a waste-based composite material was investigated at pH 5.3, in a batch system. Binary Pb(II)/Cu(II), Pb(II)/Cd(II) and Pb(II)/Zn(II) solutions have been tested. For the same equilibrium concentrations of both metal ions (1 mmol l(-1)), approximately 66, 85 and 86% of the total uptake capacity of the biosorbents is taken by lead ions in the systems Pb(II)/Cu(II), Pb(II)/Cd(II) and Pb(II)/Zn(II), respectively. Two-metal results were fitted to a discrete and a continuous model, showing the inhibition of the primary metal biosorption by the co-cation. The model parameters suggest that Cd(II) and Zn(II) have the same decreasing effect on the Pb(II) uptake capacity. The uptake of Pb(II) was highly sensitive to the presence of Cu(II). From the discrete model it was possible to obtain the Langmuir affinity constant for Pb(II) biosorption. The presence of the co-cations decreases the apparent affinity of Pb(II). The experimental results were successfully fitted by the continuous model, at different pH values, for each biosorbent. The following sequence for the equilibrium affinity constants was found: Pb>Cu>Cd approximately Zn.

  16. Aerospace Systems Monitor, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Proposal Title: Aerospace Systems Monitor PHASE 1 Technical Abstract: This Phase II STTR project will continue development and commercialization of the Aerospace...

  17. Source splitting via the point source method

    Potthast, Roland; Fazi, Filippo M; Nelson, Philip A

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a new algorithm for source identification and field splitting based on the point source method (Potthast 1998 A point-source method for inverse acoustic and electromagnetic obstacle scattering problems IMA J. Appl. Math. 61 119–40, Potthast R 1996 A fast new method to solve inverse scattering problems Inverse Problems 12 731–42). The task is to separate the sound fields u j , j = 1, ..., n of n element of N sound sources supported in different bounded domains G 1 , ..., G n in R 3 from measurements of the field on some microphone array—mathematically speaking from the knowledge of the sum of the fields u = u 1 + ... + u n on some open subset Λ of a plane. The main idea of the scheme is to calculate filter functions g 1 ,…, g n , n element of N, to construct u l for l = 1, ..., n from u| Λ in the form u l (x) = ∫ Λ g l,x (y)u(y)ds(y), l=1,... n. (1) We will provide the complete mathematical theory for the field splitting via the point source method. In particular, we describe uniqueness, solvability of the problem and convergence and stability of the algorithm. In the second part we describe the practical realization of the splitting for real data measurements carried out at the Institute for Sound and Vibration Research at Southampton, UK. A practical demonstration of the original recording and the splitting results for real data is available online

  18. Radiative parameters for some transitions in Cu(II) and Ag(II) spectrum

    Biemont, E.; Blagoev, K.; Campos, J.; Mayo, R.; Malcheva, G.; Ortiz, M.; Quinet, P.

    2005-01-01

    Radiative parameters for transitions depopulating the levels belonging to the 3d 8 4s 2 configuration of Cu(II) and 4d 9 6s and 4d 9 5d configurations of Ag(II) have been obtained both theoretically and experimentally. On the experimental side, a laser-produced plasma was used as a source of Cu(II) and Ag(II) spectra. The light emitted by the plasma was focused on the input slit of a grating monochromator coupled with a time-resolved optical multichannel analyzer system. Spectral response calibration of the experimental system was made using a deuterium lamp in the wavelength range extending from 200 to 400-bar nm, and a standard tungsten lamp in the range from 350 to 600-bar nm. The transition probabilities were obtained using measured branching fractions and available radiative lifetimes of the corresponding states. On the theoretical side, a relativistic Hartree-Fock (HFR) approach, including core-polarization effects, has been used for the calculations. A reasonable agreement theory-experiment has been observed

  19. Thermal neutron source study

    Holden, T.M.

    1983-05-01

    The value of intense neutron beams for condensed matter research is discussed with emphasis on the complementary nature of steady state and pulsed neutron sources. A large body of information on neutron sources, both existing and planned, is then summarized under four major headings: fission reactors, electron accelerators with heavy metal targets, pulsed spallation sources and 'steady state' spallation sources. Although the cost of a spallation source is expected to exceed that of a fission reactor of the same flux by a factor of two, there are significant advantages for a spallation device such as the proposed Electronuclear Materials Test Facility (EMTF)

  20. Spallation neutrons pulsed sources

    Carpenter, J.

    1996-01-01

    This article describes the range of scientific applications which can use these pulsed neutrons sources: Studies on super fluids, measures to verify the crawling model for the polymers diffusion; these sources are also useful to study the neutron disintegration, the ultra cold neutrons. In certain applications which were not accessible by neutrons diffusion, for example, radiations damages, radionuclides production and activation analysis, the spallation sources find their use and their improvement will bring new possibilities. Among others contributions, one must notice the place at disposal of pulsed muons sources and neutrinos sources. (N.C.). 3 figs

  1. Compact microwave ion source

    Leung, K.N.; Walther, S.; Owren, H.W.

    1985-05-01

    A small microwave ion source has been fabricated from a quartz tube with one end enclosed by a two grid accelerator. The source is also enclosed by a cavity operated at a frequency of 2.45 GHz. Microwave power as high as 500 W can be coupled to the source plasma. The source has been operated with and without multicusp fields for different gases. In the case of hydrogen, ion current density of 200 mA/cm -2 with atomic ion species concentration as high as 80% has been extracted from the source

  2. Sources for charged particles

    Arianer, J.

    1997-01-01

    This document is a basic course on charged particle sources for post-graduate students and thematic schools on large facilities and accelerator physics. A simple but precise description of the creation and the emission of charged particles is presented. This course relies on every year upgraded reference documents. Following relevant topics are considered: electronic emission processes, technological and practical considerations on electron guns, positron sources, production of neutral atoms, ionization, plasma and discharge, different types of positive and negative ion sources, polarized particle sources, materials for the construction of ion sources, low energy beam production and transport. (N.T.)

  3. Lead (II) and nickel (II) adsorption kinetics from aqueous metal ...

    This paper discusses the kinetics of lead (II) and Nickel (II) ions adsorption from aqueous solutions using chemically modified and unmodified agricultural adsorbents at 28°C, pH 6.2 and 0.01M NaCl ionic strength. The removal of the two metals were found to increase with increase in chemical modification, the sequence ...

  4. Safety analysis of a pool Genesis II irradiator

    Rodrigues Junior, Ary de A.

    2011-01-01

    The Genesis II Irradiator manufactured by GRAT * STAR Inc. (USA) is a category III gamma irradiator in which the sealed source is contained in a water filled storage pool and is shielded permanently, i.e. the material has to move down to the source. Even though the pool is 5.6 m deep, what would happen if the water level lowered? There are a series of safety devices that will avoid this situation and calculations show that the water level has to be very low in order to deliver a significant dose; moreover, only in case a person remains at the border of the pool for a long time this would be risky. In conclusion, it is practically impossible for someone to be exposed to radiation from a Genesis II Irradiator source. (author)

  5. AMINO AND MERCAPTO-SILICA HYBRID FOR Cd(II ADSORPTION IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION

    Buhani Buhani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Modification of silica gel with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane and 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane through sol-gel technique producing amino-silica hybrid (HAS and mercapto-silica hybrid (HMS, respectively, has been carried out using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS as silica source. The adsorbents were characterized using infrared spectroscopy (IR, and X-ray energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDX. Adsorption of Cd(II individually as well as its binary mixture with Ni(II, Cu(II, and Zn(II in solution was performed in a batch system. Adsorption capacities of Cd(II ion on adsorbent of silica gel (SG, HAS, and HMS are 86.7, 256.4 and 319.5 μmol/g with the adsorption energies are 24.60, 22.61 and 23.15 kJ/mol, respectively. Selectivity coefficient (α of Cd(II ion toward combination of Cd(II/Ni(II, Cd(II/Cu(II, and Cd(II/Zn(II ions on HAS adsorbent is relatively smaller than those on HMS adsorbent which has α > 1.   Keywords: adsorption, amino-silica hybrid, mercapto-silica

  6. Polarized source upgrading

    Clegg, T.B.; Rummel, R.L.; Carter, E.P.; Westerfeldt, C.R.; Lovette, A.W.; Edwards, S.E.

    1985-01-01

    The decision was made this past year to move the Lamb-shift polarized ion source which was first installed in the laboratory in 1970. The motivation was the need to improve the flexibility of spin-axis orientation by installing the ion source with a new Wien-filter spin precessor which is capable of rotating physically about the beam axis. The move of the polarized source was accomplished in approximately two months, with the accelerator being turned off for experiments during approximately four weeks of this time. The occasion of the move provided the opportunity to rewire completely the entire polarized ion source frame and to rebuild approximately half of the electronic chassis on the source. The result is an ion source which is now logically wired and carefully documented. Beams obtained from the source are much more stable than those previously available

  7. Polarized electron sources

    Clendenin, J.E.

    1995-05-01

    Polarized electron sources for high energy accelerators took a significant step forward with the introduction of a new laser-driven photocathode source for the SLC in 1992. With an electron beam polarization of >80% and with ∼99% uptime during continuous operation, this source is a key factor in the success of the current SLC high-energy physics program. The SLC source performance is used to illustrate both the capabilities and the limitations of solid-state sources. The beam requirements for future colliders are similar to that of the SLC with the addition in most cases of multiple-bunch operation. A design for the next generation accelerator source that can improve the operational characteristics and at least minimize some of the inherent limitations of present sources is presented. Finally, the possibilities for producing highly polarized electron beams for high-duty-factor accelerators are discussed

  8. Wavelength sweepable laser source

    2014-01-01

    Wavelength sweepable laser source is disclosed, wherein the laser source is a semiconductor laser source adapted for generating laser light at a lasing wavelength. The laser source comprises a substrate, a first reflector, and a second reflector. The first and second reflector together defines...... and having a rest position, the second reflector and suspension together defining a microelectromechanical MEMS oscillator. The MEMS oscillator has a resonance frequency and is adapted for oscillating the second reflector on either side of the rest position.; The laser source further comprises electrical...... connections adapted for applying an electric field to the MEMS oscillator. Furthermore, a laser source system and a method of use of the laser source are disclosed....

  9. A Green Bank Telescope Survey of Large Galactic H II Regions

    Anderson, L. D.; Armentrout, W. P.; Luisi, Matteo; Bania, T. M.; Balser, Dana S.; Wenger, Trey V.

    2018-02-01

    As part of our ongoing H II Region Discovery Survey (HRDS), we report the Green Bank Telescope detection of 148 new angularly large Galactic H II regions in radio recombination line (RRL) emission. Our targets are located at a declination of δ > -45^\\circ , which corresponds to 266^\\circ > {\\ell }> -20^\\circ at b=0^\\circ . All sources were selected from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer Catalog of Galactic H II Regions, and have infrared angular diameters ≥slant 260\\prime\\prime . The Galactic distribution of these “large” H II regions is similar to that of the previously known sample of Galactic H II regions. The large H II region RRL line width and peak line intensity distributions are skewed toward lower values, compared with that of previous HRDS surveys. We discover seven sources with extremely narrow RRLs 100 {pc}, making them some of the physically largest known H II regions in the Galaxy. This survey completes the HRDS H II region census in the Northern sky, where we have discovered 887 H II regions and more than doubled the size of the previously known census of Galactic H II regions.

  10. The Thermal Neutron Beam Option for NECTAR at MLZ

    Mühlbauer, M. J.; Bücherl, T.; Genreith, C.; Knapp, M.; Schulz, M.; Söllradl, S.; Wagner, F. M.; Ehrenberg, H.

    The beam port SR10 at the neutron source FRM II of Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ) is equipped with a moveable assembly of two uranium plates, which can be placed in front of the entrance window of the beam tube via remote control. With these plates placed in their operating position the thermal neutron spectrum produced by the neutron source FRM II is converted to fission neutrons with 1.9 MeV of mean energy. This fission neutron spectrum is routinely used for medical applications at the irradiation facility MEDAPP, for neutron radiography and tomography experiments at the facility NECTAR and for materials testing. If, however, the uranium plates are in their stand-by position far off the tip of the beam tube and the so-called permanent filter for thermal neutrons is removed, thermal neutrons originating from the moderator tank enter the beam tube and a thermal spectrum becomes available for irradiation or activation of samples. By installing a temporary flight tube the beam may be used for thermal neutron radiography and tomography experiments at NECTAR. The thermal neutron beam option not only adds a pure thermal neutron spectrum to the energy ranges available for neutron imaging at MLZ instruments but it also is an unique possibility to combine two quite different neutron energy ranges at a single instrument including their respective advantages. The thermal neutron beam option for NECTAR is funded by BMBF in frame of research project 05K16VK3.

  11. The high-resolution time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF

    Unruh, Tobias [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz FRM II and Physik Department E13, Lichtenbergstr. 1, 85747 Garching (Germany)], E-mail: Tobias.Unruh@frm2.tum.de; Neuhaus, Juergen; Petry, Winfried [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz FRM II and Physik Department E13, Lichtenbergstr. 1, 85747 Garching (Germany)

    2007-10-11

    The TOFTOF spectrometer is a multi-disc chopper time-of-flight spectrometer for cold neutrons at the research neutron source Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II). After five reactor cycles of routine operation the characteristics of the instrument are reported in this article. The spectrometer features an excellent signal to background ratio due to its remote position in the neutron guide hall, an elaborated shielding concept and an s-shaped curved primary neutron guide which acts i.a. as a neutron velocity filter. The spectrometer is fed with neutrons from the undermoderated cold neutron source of the FRM II leading to a total neutron flux of {approx}10{sup 10}n/cm{sup 2}/s in the continuous white beam at the sample position distributed over a continuous and particularly broad wavelength spectrum. A high energy resolution is achieved by the use of high speed chopper discs made of carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic. In the combination of intensity, resolution and signal to background ratio the spectrometer offers new scientific prospects in the fields of inelastic and quasielastic neutron scattering.

  12. The high-resolution time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF

    Unruh, Tobias; Neuhaus, Jürgen; Petry, Winfried

    2007-10-01

    The TOFTOF spectrometer is a multi-disc chopper time-of-flight spectrometer for cold neutrons at the research neutron source Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II). After five reactor cycles of routine operation the characteristics of the instrument are reported in this article. The spectrometer features an excellent signal to background ratio due to its remote position in the neutron guide hall, an elaborated shielding concept and an s-shaped curved primary neutron guide which acts i.a. as a neutron velocity filter. The spectrometer is fed with neutrons from the undermoderated cold neutron source of the FRM II leading to a total neutron flux of ˜1010n/cm2/s in the continuous white beam at the sample position distributed over a continuous and particularly broad wavelength spectrum. A high energy resolution is achieved by the use of high speed chopper discs made of carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic. In the combination of intensity, resolution and signal to background ratio the spectrometer offers new scientific prospects in the fields of inelastic and quasielastic neutron scattering.

  13. RAiSE II: resolved spectral evolution in radio AGN

    Turner, Ross J.; Rogers, Jonathan G.; Shabala, Stanislav S.; Krause, Martin G. H.

    2018-01-01

    The active galactic nuclei (AGN) lobe radio luminosities modelled in hydrodynamical simulations and most analytical models do not address the redistribution of the electron energies due to adiabatic expansion, synchrotron radiation and inverse-Compton scattering of cosmic microwave background photons. We present a synchrotron emissivity model for resolved sources that includes a full treatment of the loss mechanisms spatially across the lobe, and apply it to a dynamical radio source model with known pressure and volume expansion rates. The bulk flow and dispersion of discrete electron packets is represented by tracer fields in hydrodynamical simulations; we show that the mixing of different aged electrons strongly affects the spectrum at each point of the radio map in high-powered Fanaroff & Riley type II (FR-II) sources. The inclusion of this mixing leads to a factor of a few discrepancy between the spectral age measured using impulsive injection models (e.g. JP model) and the dynamical age. The observable properties of radio sources are predicted to be strongly frequency dependent: FR-II lobes are expected to appear more elongated at higher frequencies, while jetted FR-I sources appear less extended. The emerging FR0 class of radio sources, comprising gigahertz peaked and compact steep spectrum sources, can potentially be explained by a population of low-powered FR-Is. The extended emission from such sources is shown to be undetectable for objects within a few orders of magnitude of the survey detection limit and to not contribute to the curvature of the radio spectral energy distribution.

  14. Study of X-ray and gamma ray sources observed by the SIGNE (Prognoz 6 Satellite) experiment in the regions of the galactic center and anticenter

    Violes, F.

    1981-12-01

    Characteristics of the SIGNE II MP 6 experiment are reported and procedures to obtain the fluxes detected from all the sources are described. We next present deconvolution method used to isolate the galactic center sources. In the last chapter we present and discuss the photon spectra of the sources observed by the SIGNE II MP 6 experiment [fr

  15. Small Galactic H II regions. II. The molecular clouds and star formation

    Hunter, D.A.; Thronson, H.A. Jr.; Wilton, C.

    1990-01-01

    CO maps of molecular clouds associated with 11 small Galactic H II regions are presented and compared with IR images obtained by IRAS. The molecular masses of the clouds are computed and compared with the masses of the stellar content. The mapped clouds have masses of 1000-60,000 solar and are typical of the more numerous, smaller Galactic molecular clouds. All of the clouds have recently made massive OB stars, and many have complex spatial and kinematic structures. The coincidence of IRAS sources and CO peaks suggests that many of the clouds have sites of star formation other than the optically visible H II region. Star-formation efficiencies are uncertain, with values for the clouds ranging from 0.02 to 0.6 with an average value of 0.2. There is no trend of the upper stellar mass limit with Galactic radius and with molecular cloud mass. 53 refs

  16. Orphan sources in Slovenia

    Janzekovic, H.; Cesarek, J.

    2005-01-01

    For decades the international standards and requirements postulate severe control over all lifecycle phases of radioactive sources in order to prevent risks associated with exposure of people and the environment. Despite this fact the orphan sources became a serious problem as a consequence of enlargement of economic transactions in many countries in Europe as well as in the world. The countries as well as international organisations, aware of this emerging problem, are trying to gain control over orphan sources using different approaches. These approaches include control over sources before they could become orphan sources. In addition, countries are also developing action plans in case that an orphan source could be found. The problems related to orphan sources in Slovenia is discussed based on the case studies from the last years. While in the nineties of the last century just a few cases of orphan sources were identified their number has increased substantially since 2003. The paper discusses the general reasons for the phenomena of orphan sources as well as the experience related to regaining control over orphan sources. (author)

  17. Solar Type II Radio Bursts and IP Type II Events

    Cane, H. V.; Erickson, W. C.

    2005-01-01

    We have examined radio data from the WAVES experiment on the Wind spacecraft in conjunction with ground-based data in order to investigate the relationship between the shocks responsible for metric type II radio bursts and the shocks in front of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The bow shocks of fast, large CMEs are strong interplanetary (IP) shocks, and the associated radio emissions often consist of single broad bands starting below approx. 4 MHz; such emissions were previously called IP type II events. In contrast, metric type II bursts are usually narrowbanded and display two harmonically related bands. In addition to displaying complete dynamic spectra for a number of events, we also analyze the 135 WAVES 1 - 14 MHz slow-drift time periods in 2001-2003. We find that most of the periods contain multiple phenomena, which we divide into three groups: metric type II extensions, IP type II events, and blobs and bands. About half of the WAVES listings include probable extensions of metric type II radio bursts, but in more than half of these events, there were also other slow-drift features. In the 3 yr study period, there were 31 IP type II events; these were associated with the very fastest CMEs. The most common form of activity in the WAVES events, blobs and bands in the frequency range between 1 and 8 MHz, fall below an envelope consistent with the early signatures of an IP type II event. However, most of this activity lasts only a few tens of minutes, whereas IP type II events last for many hours. In this study we find many examples in the radio data of two shock-like phenomena with different characteristics that occur simultaneously in the metric and decametric/hectometric bands, and no clear example of a metric type II burst that extends continuously down in frequency to become an IP type II event. The simplest interpretation is that metric type II bursts, unlike IP type II events, are not caused by shocks driven in front of CMEs.

  18. Recent results from AMANDA II

    Hanson, K.; Ahrens, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S.W.; Becka, T.; Becker, K.-H.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Binon, F.; Biron, A.; Boeser, S.; Botner, O.; Bouhali, O.; Burgess, T.; Carius, S.; Castermans, T.; Chen, A.; Chirkin, D.; Conrad, J.; Cooley, J.; Cowen, D.F.; Davour, A.; De Clercq, C.; De Young, T.; Desiati, P.; Dewulf, J.-P.; Doksus, P.; Ekstroem, P.; Feser, T.; Gaisser, T.K.; Gaug, M.; Gerhardt, L.; Goldschmidt, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Hardtke, R.; Hauschildt, T.; Hellwig, M.; Herque, P.; Hill, G.C.; Hulth, P.O.; Hundertmark, S.; Jacobsen, J.; Karle, A.; Koci, B.; Koepke, L.; Kuehn, K.; Kowalski, M.; Lamoureux, J.I.; Leich, H.; Leuthold, M.; Lindahl, P.; Liubarsky, I.; Madsen, J.; Marciniewski, P.; Matis, H.S.; McParland, C.P.; Minaeva, Y.; Miocinovic, P.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Neunhoeffer, T.; Niessen, P.; Nygren, D.R.; Ogelman, H.; Olbrechts, Ph.; Perez de los Heros, C.; Pohl, A.C.; Price, P.B.; Przybylski, G.T.; Rawlins, K.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Richter, S.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Ross, D.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, D.; Schwarz, R.; Silvestri, A.; Solarz, M.; Spiczak, G.M.; Spiering, C.; Steele, D.; Steffen, P.; Stokstad, R.G.; Sudhoff, P.; Sulanke, K.-H.; Taboada, I.; Thollander, L.; Tilav, S.; Walck, C.; Weinheimer, C.; Wiebusch, C.H.; Wiedemann, C.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Woschnagg, K.; Yodh, G.; Young, S.

    2003-01-01

    We present new data taken with the AMANDA-II neutrino telescope array. The AMANDA-II upgrade was completed at the beginning of 2000. It significantly extends the sensitivity of the 10-string AMANDA-B10 detector to high- and ultrahigh-energy neutrino fluxes into regions of interest for probing current astrophysical models which remain unexplored by other experiments

  19. Synthesis, characterization and thermal studies of nickel (II), copper (II), zinc (II) and cadmium (II) complexes with some mixed ligands

    Mitra, Samiran; Kundu, Parimal; Singh, Rajkumar Bhubon

    1998-01-01

    Dichloro-(DCA) and trichloroacetate(TCA) -cyclic ligand morpholine (Morph)/thiomorpholine (Tmorph)/methylmorpholine (Mmorph)/dimethyl-piperazine (DMP) complexes of nickel (II), copper (II), zinc (II) and cadmium (II) with the compositions [Ni(tmorph) 2 (DCA) 2 ], [Ni(tmorph) 2 (TCA) 2 ].2H 2 O, [Cu(DMP) 2 (TCA) 2 ],[ML 2 X 2 ].nH 2 O where M=Zn II or Cd II , L=Morph, DMP or tmorph and X=DCA or TCA and n=O except in case of [Cd (Morph) 2 (TCA) 2 ] where n=1 have been synthesised. Some intermediate complexes have been isolated by temperature arrest technique (pyrolysis) and characterised. Configurational and conformational changes have been studied by elemental analyses, IR and electronic spectra, magnetic moment data (in the case of Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes) and thermal analysis. E a * , ΔH, and ΔS for the decomposition reaction of these complexes are evaluated and the stability of the complexes with respect to activation energy has also been compared. The linear correlation has been found between E a * and ΔS for the decomposition of the complexes. (author)

  20. Dark matter detection - II

    Zacek, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    The quest for the mysterious missing mass of the universe has become one of the big challenges of today's particle physics and cosmology. Astronomical observations show that only 1% of the matter of the universe is luminous. Moreover there is now convincing evidence that 85% of all gravitationally observable matter in the universe is of a new exotic kind, different from the 'ordinary' matter surrounding us. In a series of three lectures we discuss past, recent and future efforts made world-wide to detect and/or decipher the nature of Dark Matter. In Lecture I we review our present knowledge of the Dark Matter content of the Universe and how experimenters search for it's candidates; In Lecture II we discuss so-called 'direct detection' techniques which allow to search for scattering of galactic dark matter particles with detectors in deep-underground laboratories; we discuss the interpretation of experimental results and the challenges posed by different backgrounds; In Lecture III we take a look at the 'indirect detection' of the annihilation of dark matter candidates in astrophysical objects, such as our sun or the center of the Milky Way; In addition we will have a look at efforts to produce Dark Matter particles directly at accelerators and we shall close with a look at alternative nonparticle searches and future prospects. (author)

  1. Textos sobre Sostenibilidad II

    Ciudades para un futuro más sostenible http://habitat.aq.upm.es

    2004-12-01

    This issue assembles a selection of articles publicly available on the website Ciudades para un Futuro más Sostenible (CF+S: http://habitat.aq.upm.es. This selection was originally used as a printed companion guide to the public lecture series on ‘‘Sustainability in the Architecture and Urban Project’’, held on March 2004 and organized by the Madrid School of Architecture within the Initiative for a more Sustainable Architecture and Urbanism (IAU+S. The compilation an overall vision on sustainability presents to average audience. The basic criterion to select these articles was therefore a pedagogical one, including those simpler and clearer papers dealing with all main topics in CF+S. However, due to space limitations, many excellent articles available on the website are unfortunately not included within this selection. CF+S was created in 1996 as a partnership between the Spanish Ministry of Works and Madrid School of Architecture. The objective was to translate into Spanish and publish the experiences selected at the International Award for Best Practices in Improving the Living Environment, organized by United Nations after the Istanbul Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II. CF+S aims to gather documents concerning any kind of actions and experiences both on the territory and the city actually improving people’s living conditions according to the sustainability concept in its strongest sense. It also offers papers, reports and theoretical reflections on the state of and the possible alternatives to urban development nowadays.

  2. THE EXTENDED He IIλ4686-EMITTING REGION IN IZw 18 UNVEILED: CLUES FOR PECULIAR IONIZING SOURCES

    Kehrig, C.; Vílchez, J. M.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Bayo, F. M. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Brinchmann, J. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Kunth, D.; Durret, F. [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095, CNRS and UPMC, 98 bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2015-03-10

    New integral field spectroscopy has been obtained for IZw 18, the nearby lowest-metallicity galaxy considered to be our best local analog of systems forming at high redshift (z). Here we report the spatially resolved spectral map of the nebular He ii λ4686 emission in IZw 18, from which we derived for the first time its total He ii-ionizing flux. Nebular He ii emission implies the existence of a hard radiation field. He ii-emitters are observed to be more frequent among high-z galaxies than for local objects. Therefore, investigating the He ii-ionizing source(s) in IZw 18 may reveal the ionization processes at high z. He ii emission in star-forming galaxies has been suggested to be mainly associated with Wolf–Rayet stars (WRs), but WRs cannot satisfactorily explain the He ii-ionization at all times, particularly at the lowest metallicities. Shocks from supernova remnants, or X-ray binaries, have been proposed as additional potential sources of He ii-ionizing photons. Our data indicate that conventional He ii-ionizing sources (WRs, shocks, X-ray binaries) are not sufficient to explain the observed nebular He iiλ4686 emission in IZw 18. We find that the He ii-ionizing radiation expected from models for either low-metallicity super-massive O stars or rotating metal-free stars could account for the He ii-ionization budget measured, while only the latter models could explain the highest values of He iiλ4686/Hβ observed. The presence of such peculiar stars in IZw 18 is suggestive and further investigation in this regard is needed. This letter highlights that some of the clues of the early universe can be found here in our cosmic backyard.

  3. Characterization of radioactive orphan sources by gamma spectrometry

    Cruz W, H.

    2013-01-01

    The sealed radioactive sources are widely applicable in industry. They must have a permanent control and must be registered with the Technical Office of the National Authority (OTAN). However, at times it has identified the presence of abandoned sealed sources unknown to the owner. These sources are called 'orphan sources'. Of course these sources represent a high potential risk because accidents can trigger dire consequences depending on your activity and chemical form in which it presents the radioisotope. This paper describes the process and the actions taken to characterize two orphan radioactive sources from the smelter a Aceros Arequipa. For characterization we used a gamma spectrometry system using a detector NaI(Tl) 3″ x 3″ with a multichannel analyzer Nucleus PCA-II. The radioisotope identified was cesium - 137 ( 137 Cs) in both cases. Fortunately, the sources maintained their integrity would otherwise have generated significant pollution considering the chemical form of the radioisotope and easy dispersion. (author)

  4. Crystal Structure of Rat Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase II (CPT-II)

    Hsiao,Y.; Jogl, G.; Esser, V.; Tong, L.

    2006-01-01

    Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT-II) has a crucial role in the {beta}-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids in mitochondria. We report here the crystal structure of rat CPT-II at 1.9 Angstroms resolution. The overall structure shares strong similarity to those of short- and medium-chain carnitine acyltransferases, although detailed structural differences in the active site region have a significant impact on the substrate selectivity of CPT-II. Three aliphatic chains, possibly from a detergent that is used for the crystallization, were found in the structure. Two of them are located in the carnitine and CoA binding sites, respectively. The third aliphatic chain may mimic the long-chain acyl group in the substrate of CPT-II. The binding site for this aliphatic chain does not exist in the short- and medium-chain carnitine acyltransferases, due to conformational differences among the enzymes. A unique insert in CPT-II is positioned on the surface of the enzyme, with a highly hydrophobic surface. It is likely that this surface patch mediates the association of CPT-II with the inner membrane of the mitochondria.

  5. Kierkgaard II: The Sequel

    Paul Magee

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In what follows, I want to discuss three audience responses to ‘Kierkegaard: The Movie’, a paper I delivered at the Cultural Studies Association of Australia’s annual conference in December 2001, and to show where those responses led me. The reason I am doing so is that I am more and more convinced that our theories of ideology suffer a fundamental flaw. They fail to incorporate the richest source of data that we, as humanities academics, have at our disposal: the fact that we are all teachers. What richer source could we have for studying the transmission of ideas and beliefs than our own social practices? I am referring not only to the classroom, but also to our conferences, and even to our collegial visits to the pub. Wherever it is that university people garner new ideas and directions, that is where we will be most likely to learn about the mechanisms of cultural and indeed political transmission.

  6. Observations of the Galaxy NGC 3077 in the Narrow-Band [S II] and Hα Filters

    Andjelić M.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We present observations of the H I tidal arm near a dwarf galaxy NGC 3077 (member of the M81 galaxy group in the narrow-band [S II] and Hα filters. Observations were carried out in 2011 March with the 2 m RCC telescope at the NAO Rozhen, Bulgaria. Our search for possible supernova remnant candidates (identified as sources with enhanced [S II] emission relative to their Hα emission in this region yielded no sources of this kind. Nevertheless, we found a number of objects with significant Hα emission that probably represent uncatalogued, low brightness H II regions.

  7. Point Pollution Sources Dimensioning

    Georgeta CUCULEANU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a method for determining the main physical characteristics of the point pollution sources is presented. It can be used to find the main physical characteristics of them. The main physical characteristics of these sources are top inside source diameter and physical height. The top inside source diameter is calculated from gas flow-rate. For reckoning the physical height of the source one takes into account the relation given by the proportionality factor, defined as ratio between the plume rise and physical height of the source. The plume rise depends on the gas exit velocity and gas temperature. That relation is necessary for diminishing the environmental pollution when the production capacity of the plant varies, in comparison with the nominal one.

  8. Specification of brachytherapy sources

    1984-10-01

    BCRU recommends that the following specification of gamma-ray brachytherapy sources be adopted. Unless otherwise stated, the output of a cylindrical source should be specified in air kerma rate at a point in free space at a distance of 1 m from the source on the radial plane of symmetry, i.e. the plane bisecting the active length and perpendicular to the cylindrical axis of the source. For a wire source the output should be specified for a 1 cm length. For any other construction of source, the point at which the output is specified should be stated. It is also recommended that the units in which the air kerma rate is expressed should be micrograys per hour (..mu..Gy/h).

  9. Global Sourcing Flexibility

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Petersen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    the higher costs (but decreased risk for value chain disruption) embedded in a more flexible global sourcing model that allows the firm to replicate and/or relocate activities across multiple locations. We develop a model and propositions on facilitating and constraining conditions of global sourcing...... sourcing flexibility. Here we draw on prior research in the fields of organizational flexibility, international business and global sourcing as well as case examples and secondary studies. In the second part of the paper, we discuss the implications of global sourcing flexibility for firm strategy...... and operations against the backdrop of the theory-based definition of the construct. We discuss in particular the importance of global sourcing flexibility for operational performance stability, and the trade-off between specialization benefits, emerging from location and service provider specialization, versus...

  10. Rf power sources

    Allen, M.A.

    1988-05-01

    This paper covers RF power sources for accelerator applications. The approach has been with particular customers in mind. These customers are high energy physicists who use accelerators as experimental tools in the study of the nucleus of the atom, and synchrotron light sources derived from electron or positron storage rings. This paper is confined to electron-positron linear accelerators since the RF sources have always defined what is possible to achieve with these accelerators. 11 refs., 13 figs

  11. Pulsed spallation Neutron Sources

    Carpenter, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews the early history of pulsed spallation neutron source development at Argonne and provides an overview of existing sources world wide. A number of proposals for machines more powerful than currently exist are under development, which are briefly described. The author reviews the status of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source, its instrumentation, and its user program, and provides a few examples of applications in fundamental condensed matter physics, materials science and technology

  12. Pulsed spallation neutron sources

    Carpenter, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews the early history of pulsed spallation neutron source development ar Argonne and provides an overview of existing sources world wide. A number of proposals for machines more powerful than currently exist are under development, which are briefly described. The author reviews the status of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source, its instrumentation, and its user program, and provide a few examples of applications in fundamental condensed matter physics, materials science and technology

  13. Reference Sources in Chemistry

    Sthapit, Dilip Man

    1995-01-01

    Information plays an important role in the development of every field. Therefore a brief knowledge regarding information sources is necessary to function in any field. There are many information sources about scientific and technical subjects. In this context there are many reference sources in Chemistry too. Chemistry is one important part of the science which deals with the study of the composition of substances and the chemical changes that they undergo. The purpose of this report is...

  14. Open-Source Colorimeter

    Anzalone, Gerald C.; Glover, Alexandra G.; Pearce, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    The high cost of what have historically been sophisticated research-related sensors and tools has limited their adoption to a relatively small group of well-funded researchers. This paper provides a methodology for applying an open-source approach to design and development of a colorimeter. A 3-D printable, open-source colorimeter utilizing only open-source hardware and software solutions and readily available discrete components is discussed and its performance compared to a commercial porta...

  15. Source and replica calculations

    Whalen, P.P.

    1994-01-01

    The starting point of the Hiroshima-Nagasaki Dose Reevaluation Program is the energy and directional distributions of the prompt neutron and gamma-ray radiation emitted from the exploding bombs. A brief introduction to the neutron source calculations is presented. The development of our current understanding of the source problem is outlined. It is recommended that adjoint calculations be used to modify source spectra to resolve the neutron discrepancy problem

  16. Properties of neutron sources

    1987-03-01

    The Conference presentations were divided into sessions devoted to the following topics: white neutron sources, primarily pulsed (6 papers); fast neutron fields (5 papers); Californium-252 prompt fission neutron spectra (14 papers); monoenergetic sources and filtered beams (11 papers); 14 MeV neutron sources (10 papers); selected special application (one paper); and a general interest session (4 papers). Individual abstracts were prepared separately for the papers

  17. Emission sources and quantities

    Heinen, B.

    1991-01-01

    The paper examines emission sources and quantities for SO 2 and NO x . Natural SO 2 is released from volcanic sources and to a much lower extent from marsh gases. In nature NO x is mainly produced in the course of the chemical and bacterial denitrification processes going on in the soil. Manmade pollutants are produced in combustion processes. The paper concentrates on manmade pollution. Aspects discussed include: mechanism of pollution development; manmade emission sources (e.g. industry, traffic, power plants and domestic sources); and emission quantities and forecasts. 11 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  18. Advanced Photon Source (APS)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Photon Source (APS) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratoryprovides this nation's (in fact, this hemisphere's) brightest storage...

  19. Source SDK development essentials

    Bernier, Brett

    2014-01-01

    The Source Authoring Tools are the pieces of software used to create custom content for games made with Valve's Source engine. Creating mods and maps for your games without any programming knowledge can be time consuming. These tools allow you to create your own maps and levels without the need for any coding knowledge. All the tools that you need to start creating your own levels are built-in and ready to go! This book will teach you how to use the Authoring Tools provided with Source games and will guide you in creating your first maps and mods (modifications) using Source. You will learn ho

  20. Source Reference File

    Social Security Administration — This file contains a national set of names and contact information for doctors, hospitals, clinics, and other facilities (known collectively as sources) from which...

  1. RF H-minus ion source development in China spallation neutron source

    Chen, W.; Ouyang, H.; Xiao, Y.; Liu, S.; Lü, Y.; Cao, X.; Huang, T.; Xue, K.

    2017-08-01

    China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) phase-I project currently uses a Penning surface plasma H- ion source, which has a life time of several weeks with occasional sparks between high voltage electrodes. To extend the life time of the ion source and prepare for the CSNS phase-II, we are trying to develop a RF negative hydrogen ion source with external antenna. The configuration of the source is similar to the DESY external antenna ion source and SNS ion source. However several changes are made to improve the stability and the life time. Firstly, Si3N4 ceramic with high thermal shock resistance, and high thermal conductivity is used for plasma chamber, which can endure an average power of 2000W. Secondly, the water-cooled antenna is brazed on the chamber to improve the energy efficiency. Thirdly, cesium is injected directly to the plasma chamber if necessary, to simplify the design of the converter and the extraction. Area of stainless steel exposed to plasma is minimized to reduce the sputtering and degassing. Instead Mo, Ta, and Pt coated materials are used to face the plasma, which makes the self-cleaning of the source possible.

  2. Some observational aspects of compact galactic X-ray sources

    Heise, J.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis contains the following observations of compact galactic X-ray sources: i) the X-ray experiments onboard the Astronomical Netherlands Satellite ANS, ii) a rocket-borne ultra soft X-ray experiment and iii) the Objective Grating Spectrometer onboard the EINSTEIN observatory. In Chapter I the various types of compact galactic X-ray sources are reviewed and put into the perspective of earlier and following observations. In Chapter II the author presents some of the observations of high luminosity X-ray sources, made with ANS, including the detection of soft X-rays from the compact X-ray binary Hercules X-1 and the ''return to the high state'' of the black hole candidate Cygnus X-1. Chapter III deals with transient X-ray phenomena. Results on low luminosity galactic X-ray sources are collected in Chapter IV. (Auth.)

  3. Options Study - Phase II

    R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

    2010-09-01

    The Options Study has been conducted for the purpose of evaluating the potential of alternative integrated nuclear fuel cycle options to favorably address the issues associated with a continuing or expanding use of nuclear power in the United States. The study produced information that can be used to inform decisions identifying potential directions for research and development on such fuel cycle options. An integrated nuclear fuel cycle option is defined in this study as including all aspects of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, from obtaining natural resources for fuel to the ultimate disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) or radioactive wastes. Issues such as nuclear waste management, especially the increasing inventory of used nuclear fuel, the current uncertainty about used fuel disposal, and the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation have contributed to the reluctance to expand the use of nuclear power, even though it is recognized that nuclear power is a safe and reliable method of producing electricity. In this Options Study, current, evolutionary, and revolutionary nuclear energy options were all considered, including the use of uranium and thorium, and both once-through and recycle approaches. Available information has been collected and reviewed in order to evaluate the ability of an option to clearly address the challenges associated with the current implementation and potential expansion of commercial nuclear power in the United States. This Options Study is a comprehensive consideration and review of fuel cycle and technology options, including those for disposal, and is not constrained by any limitations that may be imposed by economics, technical maturity, past policy, or speculated future conditions. This Phase II report is intended to be used in conjunction with the Phase I report, and much information in that report is not repeated here, although some information has been updated to reflect recent developments. The focus in this Options Study was to

  4. Stiffnites. Part II

    Maria Teresa Pareschi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The dynamics of a stiffnite are here inferred. A stiffnite is a sheet-shaped, gravity-driven submarine sediment flow, with a fabric made up of marine ooze. To infer stiffnite dynamics, order of magnitude estimations are used. Field deposits and experiments on materials taken from the literature are also used. Stiffnites can be tens or hundreds of kilometers wide, and a few centimeters/ meters thick. They move on the sea slopes over hundreds of kilometers, reaching submarine velocities as high as 100 m/s. Hard grain friction favors grain fragmentation and formation of triboelectrically electrified particles and triboplasma (i.e., ions + electrons. Marine lipids favor isolation of electrical charges. At first, two basic assumptions are introduced, and checked a posteriori: (a in a flowing stiffnite, magnetic dipole moments develop, with the magnetization proportional to the shear rate. I have named those dipoles as Ambigua. (b Ambigua are ‘vertically frozen’ along stiffnite streamlines. From (a and (b, it follows that: (i Ambigua create a magnetic field (at peak, >1 T. (ii Lorentz forces sort stiffnite particles into two superimposed sheets. The lower sheet, L+, has a sandy granulometry and a net positive electrical charge density. The upper sheet, L–, has a silty muddy granulometry and a net negative electrical charge density; the grains of sheet L– become finer upwards. (iii Faraday forces push ferromagnetic grains towards the base of a stiffnite, so that a peak of magnetic susceptibility characterizes a stiffnite deposit. (iv Stiffnites harden considerably during their motion, due to magnetic confinement. Stiffnite deposits and inferred stiffnite characteristics are compatible with a stable flow behavior against bending, pinch, or other macro instabilities. In the present report, a consistent hypothesis about the nature of Ambigua is provided.

  5. Water vapor emission from H II regions and infrared stars

    Cato, B.T.; Ronnang, B.O.; Rydbeck, O.E.H.; Lewin, P.T.; Yngvesson, K.S.; Cardiasmenos, A.G.; Shanley, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    The spatial structure of water vapor microwave line emission has been investigated with moderate angular resolution in several well-known H II regions. New H 2 O sources have been with infrared (1R) sources. One of these sources, IRC: 20411, has been investigated at optical wavelengths. It is found to be of spectral class M3-M5 and by indirect evidence the luminosity class is preliminarily determined to Ib. The distance is estimated to be approx.2 kpc, and the star must be in front of the dust complex which obscures W28 A2. In NGC 7538 new high-velocity features have been discovered. Two new weak water vapor masers, G30.1: 0.7 and G32.8: 0.3, have been detected in a search among eight class II OH/IR sources. H 2 O emission coinciding with the low-velocity OH features of VY Canis Majoris has also been detected. A search for local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) water-vapor line emission in molecular clouds associated with H II regions is also reported. No line was detected with the utilized sensitivity. The physical implications of this are discussed and an upper limit of the H 2 O column density has been estimated. Gaussian analysis of the strong, narrow feature in the spectrum of ON 1 indicates a possible presence of two hyperfine components, viz., F→F'=7→6 and 6→5

  6. High current ion sources

    Brown, I.G.

    1989-06-01

    The concept of high current ion source is both relative and evolutionary. Within the domain of one particular kind of ion source technology a current of microamperers might be 'high', while in another area a current of 10 Amperes could 'low'. Even within the domain of a single ion source type, what is considered high current performance today is routinely eclipsed by better performance and higher current output within a short period of time. Within their fields of application, there is a large number of kinds of ion sources that can justifiably be called high current. Thus, as a very limited example only, PIGs, Freemen sources, ECR sources, duoplasmatrons, field emission sources, and a great many more all have their high current variants. High current ion beams of gaseous and metallic species can be generated in a number of different ways. Ion sources of the kind developed at various laboratories around the world for the production of intense neutral beams for controlled fusion experiments are used to form large area proton deuteron beams of may tens of Amperes, and this technology can be used for other applications also. There has been significant progress in recent years in the use of microwave ion sources for high current ion beam generation, and this method is likely to find wide application in various different field application. Finally, high current beams of metal ions can be produced using metal vapor vacuum arc ion source technology. After a brief consideration of high current ion source design concepts, these three particular methods are reviewed in this paper

  7. Kursk Operation Simulation and Validation Exercise - Phase II (KOSAVE II)

    Bauman, Walter

    1998-01-01

    ... (KOSAVE) Study (KOSAVE II) documents, in this report a statistical record of the Kursk battle, as represented in the KDB, for use as both a standalone descriptive record for historians, and as a baseline for a subsequent Phase...

  8. Chemical speciation of Pb(II, Cd(II, Hg(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II and Zn(II binary complexes of l-methionine in 1,2-propanediol-water mixtures

    M. Padma Latha

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical speciation of Pb(II, Cd(II, Hg(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II and Zn(II complexes of L-methionine in 0.0-60 % v/v 1,2-propanediol-water mixtures maintaining an ionic strength of 0.16 M at 303 K has been studied pH metrically. The active forms of ligand are LH2+, LH and L-. The predominant species detected are ML, MLH, ML2, ML2H, ML2H2 and MLOH. Models containing different numbers of species were refined by using the computer program MINIQUAD 75. The best-fit chemical models were arrived at based on statistical parameters. The trend in variation of complex stability constants with change in the dielectric constant of the medium is explained on the basis of electrostatic and non-electrostatic forces.

  9. Emergency planning of the city of Munich with reference to nuclear facilities, especially the nuclear power stations Isar I and II, resp. the reactor in Garching

    1990-01-01

    During the hearing of Munich's city council of 13.7.1990 thirteen experts were heard on the following subjects: Hazard potential of Isar reactors and FRM reactor and appropriate radioactive waste transports; responsibilities in emergency planning. Some of the experts cannot visualize a major accident and propose not to cater for it. Shelters and evacuation are not planned for Munich, both solutions not being realizable for all inhabitants. Nuclear phaseout is seen by some as a measure of prevention. (HSCH) [de

  10. Studying the highly bent spectra of FR II-type radio galaxies with the KDA EXT model

    Kuligowska, Elżbieta

    2018-04-01

    Context. The Kaiser, Dennett-Thorpe & Alexander (KDA, 1997, MNRAS, 292, 723) EXT model, that is, the extension of the KDA model of Fanaroff & Riley (FR) II-type source evolution, is applied and confronted with the observational data for selected FR II-type radio sources with significantly aged radio spectra. Aim. A sample of FR II-type radio galaxies with radio spectra strongly bent at their highest frequencies is used for testing the usefulness of the KDA EXT model. Methods: The dynamical evolution of FR II-type sources predicted with the KDA EXT model is briefly presented and discussed. The results are then compared to the ones obtained with the classical KDA approach, assuming the source's continuous injection and self-similarity. Results: The results and corresponding diagrams obtained for the eight sample sources indicate that the KDA EXT model predicts the observed radio spectra significantly better than the best spectral fit provided by the original KDA model.

  11. New instruments at IPNS: POSY II and SAD II

    Crawford, R.K.; Felcher, G.P.; Kleb, R.; Epperson, J.E.; Thiyagarajan, P.

    1988-01-01

    Three new instruments are currently in varying degrees of development/construction at IPNS. One of these, the Glass, Liquid, and Amorphous Materials Diffractometer (GLAD) is the subject of a separate paper in these Proceedings, and so will not be discussed further here. The other two, a second neutron reflectometer (POSY II) and a second small-angle diffractometer (SAD II) are described briefly below. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  12. AGENDA 21 - the basic conceptual document - Agenda of the 21 century which was accepted on the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. Part II. Source conservation and budget with their for the development

    1996-01-01

    This part of the AGENDA 21 contains 14 chapters: Air protection; The integrate approach to planning and budget with sources of the country; The fight against deforestation; The ministration about instable ecosystems: the fight with desertification and with drought; The ministration about instable ecosystems: sustainable development in mountain-ranges; The support of the sustainable development of the agriculture and the country; Preservation of the biodiversity; Environmentally suitable use of the bio-technologies; The ocean preservation, all types of seas, including closed and partially closed, and coastal areas and preservation, rationally use and development of the live sources from their; Preservation of quality and stocks of the fresh-water sources: applying of integral access at the development, budget and use of the water sources; Environmentally sustainable treatment with toxic chemical substances including block off non-legal international transport of the toxic and dangerous products; Environmentally sustainable treatment with toxic chemical substances including block off non-legal international transport of the toxic and dangerous wastes; Environmentally sustainable treatment with solid wastes and sludges; (22) Safe and environmentally sustainable treatment with radioactive wastes

  13. Open source community organization

    Molefe, Onkgopotse M

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Open Source communities (OSCs), sometimes referred to as virtual or online communities play a significant role in terms of the contribution they continue to make in producing user-friendly Open Source Software (OSS) solutions. Many projects have...

  14. Radiation Source Replacement Workshop

    Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Moran, Traci L.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2010-12-01

    This report summarizes a Radiation Source Replacement Workshop in Houston Texas on October 27-28, 2010, which provided a forum for industry and researchers to exchange information and to discuss the issues relating to replacement of AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources used in well logging.

  15. Sources of Financial Sociability

    Thompson, Grahame

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the sources of sociability in modern financial systems as a prelude to assessing the prospects for financial regulation. Three sources are identified: sociality dependent upon contract, upon relational interdependency, and upon the operation of will and passion. Each of ...

  16. Nontraditional renewable energy sources

    Shpil'rajn, Eh.Eh.

    1997-01-01

    The paper considers the application possibilities of nontraditional renewable energy sources to generate electricity, estimates the potential of nontraditional sources using energy of Sun, wind, biomass, as well as, geothermal energy and presents the results of economical analysis of cost of electricity generated by solar electrical power plants, geothermal and electrical plants and facilities for power reprocessing of biomass. 1 tab

  17. Sources of atmospheric acidity

    Clarke, A.G.

    1992-01-01

    The emissions of acid gases from anthropogenic sources and their impact on the environment are the main concern of this book. However, that impact can only be assessed if all the naturally occurring sources of these gases are also known and can be quantified. Given the widely dispersed nature of the natural sources and the problems of measurement of trace species at low concentrations, often in remote regions, the quantification is a very difficult task. Nevertheless, considerable progress has been made over the last decade. In this chapter both man-made and natural sources of atmospheric acidity will be reviewed, but the emphasis will be placed not so much on the global balances as on the scale of the natural sources in relation to the man-made sources. This requires that the very uneven geographical distribution of emissions and the lifetime of individual chemical species be taken into account. The emissions considered are sulphur compounds, nitrogen compounds, chlorine compounds and organic acids. The anthropogenic sources discussed are the combustion of fossil fuels and certain industrial processes. Emissions data for anthropogenic sources are given for the United Kingdom, Europe, USA and globally. A list of 95 references is given. (Author)

  18. Radioisotopic heat source

    Jones, G.J.; Selle, J.E.; Teaney, P.E.

    1975-09-30

    Disclosed is a radioisotopic heat source and method for a long life electrical generator. The source includes plutonium dioxide shards and yttrium or hafnium in a container of tantalum-tungsten-hafnium alloy, all being in a nickel alloy outer container, and subjected to heat treatment of from about 1570$sup 0$F to about 1720$sup 0$F for about one h. (auth)

  19. Ion sources for accelerators

    Alton, G.D.

    1974-01-01

    A limited review of low charge sate positive and negative ion sources suitable for accelerator use is given. A brief discussion is also given of the concepts underlying the formation and extraction of ion beams. Particular emphasis is placed on the technology of ion sources which use solid elemental or molecular compounds to produce vapor for the ionization process

  20. Using Primary Source Documents.

    Mintz, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Explores the use of primary sources when teaching about U.S. slavery. Includes primary sources from the Gilder Lehrman Documents Collection (New York Historical Society) to teach about the role of slaves in the Revolutionary War, such as a proclamation from Lord Dunmore offering freedom to slaves who joined his army. (CMK)