WorldWideScience

Sample records for source emissions control

  1. 40 CFR 63.2343 - What are my requirements for emission sources not requiring control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What are my requirements for emission sources not requiring control? 63.2343 Section 63.2343 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... (Non-Gasoline) What This Subpart Covers § 63.2343 What are my requirements for emission sources not...

  2. Electron dynamics in RF sources with a laser controlled emission

    CERN Document Server

    Khodak, I V; Metrochenko, V V

    2001-01-01

    Photoemission radiofrequency (RF) electron sources are sources of electron beams with extremely high brightness. Beam bunching processes in such devices are well studied in case when laser pulse duration is much lower of rf oscillation period.At the same time photoemission RF guns have some merits when operating in 'long-pulse' mode. In this case the laser pulse duration is much higher of rf oscillation period but much lower of rise time of oscillations in a gun cavity. Beam parameters at the gun output are compared for photoemission and thermoemission cathode applications. The paper presents results of a beam dynamics simulation in such guns with different resonance structures. Questions connected with defining of the current pulse peak value that can be obtained in such guns are discussed.

  3. Dioxin emissions and sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The papers presented at the seminar discussed dioxin emissions and sources, dioxin pollution of soils, waste water and sewage sludge, stocktaking of emission sources, and exposure and risk analyses for dioxin and other pollutants. (EF) [de

  4. SOURCE CHARACTERIZATION AND CONTROL TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF METHYLENE CHLORIDE EMISSIONS FROM EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY, ROCHESTER, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an assessment of potential control technologies for methylene chloride (also known as dichloromethane or DCM) emission sources at Eastman Kodak Company's Kodak Park facility in Rochester, NY. DCM is a solvent used by Kodak in the manufacture of cellulo...

  5. Highly controlled, reproducible measurements of aerosol emissions from combustion of a common African biofuel source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslett, Sophie L.; Thomas, J. Chris; Morgan, William T.; Hadden, Rory; Liu, Dantong; Allan, James D.; Williams, Paul I.; Keita, Sekou; Liousse, Cathy; Coe, Hugh

    2018-01-01

    Particulate emissions from biomass burning can both alter the atmosphere's radiative balance and cause significant harm to human health. However, due to the large effect on emissions caused by even small alterations to the way in which a fuel burns, it is difficult to study particulate production of biomass combustion mechanistically and in a repeatable manner. In order to address this gap, in this study, small wood samples sourced from Côte D'Ivoire in West Africa were burned in a highly controlled laboratory environment. The shape and mass of samples, available airflow and surrounding thermal environment were carefully regulated. Organic aerosol and refractory black carbon emissions were measured in real time using an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer and a Single Particle Soot Photometer, respectively. This methodology produced remarkably repeatable results, allowing aerosol emissions to be mapped directly onto different phases of combustion. Emissions from pyrolysis were visible as a distinct phase before flaming was established. After flaming combustion was initiated, a black-carbon-dominant flame was observed during which very little organic aerosol was produced, followed by a period that was dominated by organic-carbon-producing smouldering combustion, despite the presence of residual flaming. During pyrolysis and smouldering, the two phases producing organic aerosol, distinct mass spectral signatures that correspond to previously reported variations in biofuel emissions measured in the atmosphere are found. Organic aerosol emission factors averaged over an entire combustion event were found to be representative of the time spent in the pyrolysis and smouldering phases, rather than reflecting a coupling between emissions and the mass loss of the sample. Further exploration of aerosol yields from similarly carefully controlled fires and a careful comparison with data from macroscopic fires and real-world emissions will help to deliver greater constraints on the

  6. Control of emissions from stationary combustion sources: Pollutant detection and behavior in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licht, W.; Engel, A.J.; Slater, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    Stationary combustion resources continue to be significant sources of NOx and SOx pollutants in the ambient atmosphere. This volume considers four problem areas: (1) control of emissions from stationary combustion sources, particularly SOx and NOx (2) pollutant behavior in the atmosphere (3) advances in air pollution analysis and (4) air quality management. Topics of interest include carbon slurries for sulfur dioxide abatement, mass transfer in the Kellogg-Weir air quality control system, oxidation/inhibition of sulfite ion in aqueous solution, some micrometeorological methods of measuring dry deposition rates, Spanish moss as an indicator of airborne metal contamination, and air quality impacts from future electric power generation in Texas

  7. 2011 NATA - Emissions Sources

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset includes all emissions sources that were modeled in the 2011 National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA), inlcluding point, nonpoint, and mobile sources, and...

  8. Biogenic Emission Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biogenic emissions sources come from natural sources and need to accounted for in photochemical grid models. They are computed using a model which utilizes spatial information on vegetation and land use.

  9. Emission sources and quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinen, B.

    1991-01-01

    The paper examines emission sources and quantities for SO 2 and NO x . Natural SO 2 is released from volcanic sources and to a much lower extent from marsh gases. In nature NO x is mainly produced in the course of the chemical and bacterial denitrification processes going on in the soil. Manmade pollutants are produced in combustion processes. The paper concentrates on manmade pollution. Aspects discussed include: mechanism of pollution development; manmade emission sources (e.g. industry, traffic, power plants and domestic sources); and emission quantities and forecasts. 11 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  10. New approach for location of continuously emitting acoustic emission sources by phase-controlled probe arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeller, P.; Klein, M.; Waschkies, E.; Deuster, G.

    1991-01-01

    Usually burst-like acoustic emission (AE) is localized by triangulation. For continuous AE, e.g. from leakages, this method is not feasible. Therefore a new method for localization of continuous AE has been developed. It is based on a phase-controlled probe array which consists of many single sensor elements. The AE signals received by the different sensor elements are delayed according to their time-of-flight differences from the source to the single elements of the receiver array. By choosing special combinations of time differences between the array elements the directivity pattern of the sensitivity of the array can be changed, e.g. rotated in the plane of a large plate. Thus, the source direction can be determined by one array. Some preliminary experiments with an artificial noise source, positioned on a large steel plate, have been performed and have demonstrated the feasibility of this approach. (orig.)

  11. Quantitative evaluation of emission controls on primary and secondary organic aerosol sources during Beijing 2008 Olympics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Guo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To assess the primary and secondary sources of fine organic aerosols after the aggressive implementation of air pollution controls during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, 12 h PM2.5 values were measured at an urban site at Peking University (PKU and an upwind rural site at Yufa during the CAREBEIJING-2008 (Campaigns of Air quality REsearch in BEIJING and surrounding region summer field campaign. The average PM2.5 concentrations were 72.5 ± 43.6 μg m−3 and 64.3 ± 36.2 μg m−3 (average ± standard deviation, below as the same at PKU and Yufa, respectively, showing the lowest concentrations in recent years. Combining the results from a CMB (chemical mass balance model and secondary organic aerosol (SOA tracer-yield model, five primary and four secondary fine organic aerosol sources were compared with the results from previous studies in Beijing. The relative contribution of mobile sources to PM2.5 concentrations was increased in 2008, with diesel engines contributing 16.2 ± 5.9% and 14.5 ± 4.1% and gasoline vehicles contributing 10.3 ± 8.7% and 7.9 ± 6.2% to organic carbon (OC at PKU and Yufa, respectively. Due to the implementation of emission controls, the absolute OC concentrations from primary sources were reduced during the Olympics, and the contributions from secondary formation of OC represented a larger relative source of fine organic aerosols. Compared with the non-controlled period prior to the Olympics, primary vehicle contributions were reduced by 30% at the urban site and 24% at the rural site. The reductions in coal combustion contributions were 57% at PKU and 7% at Yufa. Our results demonstrate that the emission control measures implemented in 2008 significantly alleviated the primary organic particle pollution in and around Beijing. However, additional studies are needed to provide a more comprehensive assessment of the emission control effectiveness on SOA formation.

  12. Deterministic control of the emission from light sources in 1D nanoporous photonic crystals (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galisteo-López, Juan F.

    2017-02-01

    Controlling the emission of a light source demands acting on its local photonic environment via the local density of states (LDOS). Approaches to exert such control on large scale samples, commonly relying on self-assembly methods, usually lack from a precise positioning of the emitter within the material. Alternatively expensive and time consuming techniques can be used to produce samples of small dimensions where a deterministic control on emitter position can be achieved. In this work we present a full solution process approach to fabricate photonic architectures containing nano-emitters which position can be controlled with nanometer precision over squared milimiter regions. By a combination of spin and dip coating we fabricate one-dimensional (1D) nanoporous photonic crystals, which potential in different fields such as photovoltaics or sensing has been previously reported, containing monolayers of luminescent polymeric nanospheres. We demonstrate how, by modifying the position of the emitters within the photonic crystal, their emission properties (photoluminescence intensity and angular distribution) can be deterministically modified. Further, the nano-emitters can be used as a probe to study the LDOS distribution within these systems with a spatial resolution of 25 nm (provided by the probe size) carrying out macroscopic measurements over squared milimiter regions. Routes to enhance light-matter interaction in this kind of systems by combining them with metallic surfaces are finally discussed.

  13. Source apportionment of particulate matter in Chinese megacities: the implication for emission control strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ru-Jin; Elser, Miriam; Wang, Qiyuan Wang; Bozzetti, Carlo; Wolf, Robert; Wang, Yichen; Ni, Haiyan; Wang, Meng; Ho, Kin-Fai; Han, Yongming; Dällenbach, Kaspar; Canonaco, Francesco; Slowik, Jay; El Haddad, Imad; Baltensperger, Urs; Cao, Junji; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2015-04-01

    The rapid industrialization and urbanization in developing countries has led to an increase in air pollution, along a similar trajectory to that previously experienced by the developed nations. In China, particulate pollution is a serious environmental problem that is influencing air quality, regional and global climates, and human health. A quantitative understanding of these effects has proven extremely challenging due to spatial and temporal variability in the sources of aerosols and their precursors, the complexity of particle composition, and uncertainties associated with the atmospheric aging of existing particles (Pöschl 2005; Hallquist et al., 2009; Huang et al., 2014). Nowadays the average PM2.5 concentrations in China are approximately one to two orders of magnitude higher than those observed in urban areas in the US and European countries (Cao 2012). This has forced the Chinese government to announce its first national environmental standard for PM2.5 in 2012 and to make highly ambitious plans for emission control. The Chinese aim to reduce the PM2.5 concentrations by up to 25% of the 2012 levels by 2017, backed by 277 billion investments from the central government. To achieve this ambitious aim, a better understanding of the aerosol composition, sources, and atmospheric processing is required. In this study, we present the results from intensive field measurement campaigns carried out in Chinese megacities in 2013/2014. The sources of PM2.5 and the organic aerosol (OA) were investigated by applying the multi-linear engine (ME-2) receptor model (Canonaco et al., 2013) to a comprehensive dataset. Primary sources including vehicle emissions, biomass burning, coal burning, and dust-related emissions were identified and quantified. The contributions from secondary aerosol formation processes to total PM2.5 mass and OA mass were evaluated. Detailed results will be presented and discussed. References Cao, J. J. (2012) J. Earth Environ., 3, 1030

  14. New directions: Beyond sulphur, vanadium and nickel - About source apportionment of ship emissions in emission control areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech, Hendryk; Schnelle-Kreis, Jürgen; Streibel, Thorsten; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2017-08-01

    During the oil crises of the 70s and the associated increase of the oil price, the usage of marine fuels shifted from middle distillates of the crude oil refinery, such as marine diesel oil (MDO) or marine gas oil (MGO), towards cheaper heavy fuel oils (HFO), or also called residual fuel oil. The latter refers to the vacuum residue of the crude oil refinery blended by lighter refinery products, such as kerosene, to meet a certain maximum viscosity. Those HFOs are rich in sulphur and heavy metals which end up as significant constituents in emitted fine particulate matter (PM2.5) after the combustion. Especially for harbour cities or highly frequented ship traffic routes, HFO-derived PM2.5 has been identified as a globally important perpetrator of increased mortality by cardiopulmonary diseases and lung cancer (e.g. Corbett et al., 2007). However, the emitted hazardous species provide reliable markers to assess the contribution of this emission source to air pollution in source apportionment studies. Such studies are often performed utilising positive matrix factorisation, whose score matrix can be interpreted as temporal contribution of k identified emission sources and factors represent the k corresponding emission profiles. If one of the k factors contains moderate to high amounts of sulphate, vanadium and nickel with a high ratio of the two latter ones, the ship identification was unambiguous (e.g. Viana et al., 2009). Even more sensitive towards emission profiles are receptor models such as chemical mass balance, which require detailed prior knowledge about the assumed emission sources (Jeong et al., 2017).

  15. CAPSULE REPORT: SOURCES AND AIR EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES AT WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chemicals processed during waste management operations can volatilize into the atmosphere and cause carcinogenic or other toxic effects or contribute to ozone formation. Regulations have been developed to control air emissions from these operations. The EPA has promulgated st...

  16. Source Classification Framework for an optimized European wide Emission Control Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten; Donner, Erica; Ledin, Anna

    2011-01-01

    of the PS environmental emission. The SCF also provides a well structured approach for European pollutant source and release classification and management. With further European wide implementation, the SCF has the potential or an optimized ECS in order to obtain good chemical status of European water...

  17. Source apportionment of sulfate and nitrate particulate matter in the Eastern United States and effectiveness of emission control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongliang; Hu, Jianlin; Kleeman, Michael; Ying, Qi

    2014-08-15

    Reducing population exposure to PM2.5 in the eastern US will require control of secondary sulfate and nitrate. A source-oriented Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is used to determine contributions of major emission sources to nitrate and sulfate concentrations in the seven eastern US cities (New York City, Pittsburgh, Baltimore, Chicago, Detroit, St. Paul, and Winston-Salem) in January and August of 2000 and 2006. Identified major nitrate sources include on-road gasoline-powered vehicles, diesel engines, natural gas and coal combustion. From 2000 to 2006, January nitrate concentrations decreased by 25-68% for all the seven cities. On average, ~53% of this change was caused by emissions controls while 47% was caused by meteorology variations. August nitrate concentrations decreased by a maximum of 68% in New York City but Detroit experienced increasing August nitrate concentrations by up to 33%. On average, ~33% of the reduction in nitrate is offset by increases associated with meteorological conditions that favor nitrate formation. Coal combustion and natural gas are the dominant sources for sulfate in both seasons. January sulfate decrease from 2000 to 2006 in all cities by 4-58% except New York City, which increases by 13%. On average, ~93% of the reduction in sulfate was attributed to emission controls with 7% associated with changes in meteorology. August sulfate concentrations decrease by 11-44% in all cities. On average, emission controls alone between 2000 and 2006 would have caused 6% more reduction but the effectiveness of the controls was mitigated by meteorology conditions more favorable to sulfate production in 2006 vs. 2000. The results of this study suggest that regional emissions controls between 2000 and 2006 have been effective at reducing population exposure to PM2.5 in the eastern US, but yearly variations in meteorology must be carefully considered when assessing the exact magnitude of the control benefits. Copyright © 2014

  18. Highly controlled, reproducible measurements of aerosol emissions from combustion of a common African biofuel source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Haslett

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Particulate emissions from biomass burning can both alter the atmosphere's radiative balance and cause significant harm to human health. However, due to the large effect on emissions caused by even small alterations to the way in which a fuel burns, it is difficult to study particulate production of biomass combustion mechanistically and in a repeatable manner. In order to address this gap, in this study, small wood samples sourced from Côte D'Ivoire in West Africa were burned in a highly controlled laboratory environment. The shape and mass of samples, available airflow and surrounding thermal environment were carefully regulated. Organic aerosol and refractory black carbon emissions were measured in real time using an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer and a Single Particle Soot Photometer, respectively. This methodology produced remarkably repeatable results, allowing aerosol emissions to be mapped directly onto different phases of combustion. Emissions from pyrolysis were visible as a distinct phase before flaming was established. After flaming combustion was initiated, a black-carbon-dominant flame was observed during which very little organic aerosol was produced, followed by a period that was dominated by organic-carbon-producing smouldering combustion, despite the presence of residual flaming. During pyrolysis and smouldering, the two phases producing organic aerosol, distinct mass spectral signatures that correspond to previously reported variations in biofuel emissions measured in the atmosphere are found. Organic aerosol emission factors averaged over an entire combustion event were found to be representative of the time spent in the pyrolysis and smouldering phases, rather than reflecting a coupling between emissions and the mass loss of the sample. Further exploration of aerosol yields from similarly carefully controlled fires and a careful comparison with data from macroscopic fires and real-world emissions will help to deliver

  19. Conference on alternatives for pollution control from coal-fired low emission sources, Plzen, Czech Republic. Plzen Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The Conference on Alternatives for Pollution Control from Coal-Fired Emission Sources presented cost-effective approaches for pollution control of low emission sources (LES). It also identified policies and strategies for implementation of pollution control measures at the local level. Plzen, Czech Republic, was chosen as the conference site to show participants first hand the LES problems facing Eastern Europe today. Collectively, these Proceedings contain clear reports on: (a) methods for evaluating the cost effectiveness of alternative approaches to control pollution from small coal-fired boilers and furnaces; (b) cost-effective technologies for controlling pollution from coal-fired boilers and furnaces; (c) case studies of assessment of cost effective pollution control measures for selected cities in eastern Europe; and (d) approaches for actually implementing pollution control measures in cities in Eastern Europe. It is intended that the eastern/central European reader will find in these Proceedings useful measures that can be applied to control emissions and clean the air in his city or region. The conference was sponsored by the United States Agency for International Development (AID), the United States Department of Energy (DOE), and the Czech Ministry of Industry and Trade. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  20. 40 CFR 63.1316 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-emissions control provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... maintain the daily average outlet gas stream temperature from each final condenser in a material recovery... combust the emissions; (B) Combust the emissions in a boiler or process heater with a design heat input...) Combust the emissions in a boiler or process heater with a design heat input capacity of 150 million Btu...

  1. Controlling light emission from single-photon sources using photonic nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels; Chen, Yuntian; Mørk, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    The photonic nanowire has recently emerged as an promising alternative to microcavity-based single-photon source designs. In this simple structure, a geometrical effect ensures a strong coupling between an embedded emitter and the optical mode of interest and a combination of tapers and mirrors a...

  2. Emission Inventory Development and Application Based On an Atmospheric Emission Source Priority Control Classification Technology Method, a Case Study in the Middle Reaches of Yangtze River Urban Agglomerations, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, X.; Cheng, S.

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents the first attempt to investigate the emission source control of the Middle Reaches of Yangtze River Urban Agglomerations (MRYRUA), one of the national urban agglomerations in China. An emission inventory of the MRYRUA was the first time to be developed as inputs to the CAMx model based on county-level activity data obtained by full-coverage investigation and source-based spatial surrogates. The emission inventory was proved to be acceptable owing to the atmospheric modeling verification. A classification technology method for atmospheric pollution source priority control was the first time to be introduced and applied in the MRYRUA for the evaluation of the emission sources control on the region-scale and city-scale. MICAPS (Meteorological Information comprehensive Analysis and Processing System) was applied for the regional meteorological condition and sensitivity analysis. The results demonstrated that the emission sources in the Hefei-center Urban Agglomerations contributed biggest on the mean PM2.5 concentrations of the MRYRUA and should be taken the priority to control. The emission sources in the Ma'anshan city, Xiangtan city, Hefei city and Wuhan city were the bigger contributors on the mean PM2.5 concentrations of the MRYRUA among the cities and should be taken the priority to control. In addition, the cities along the Yangtze River and the tributary should be given the special attention for the regional air quality target attainments. This study provide a valuable preference for policy makers to develop effective air pollution control strategies.

  3. Particulate monitoring, modeling, and management: natural sources, long-range transport, and emission control options: a case study of Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleanthous, Savvas; Savvides, Chrysanthos; Christofides, Ioannis; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Achilleos, Constantia; Akylas, Evangelos; Demetriadou, Chrystalla; Christodoulides, Pavlos; Douros, Ioannis; Moussiopoulos, Nicolas; Panayiotou, Charalambos; Gregoris, Charalambous; Fedra, Kurt; Kubat, Milan; Mihalopoulos, Nicolaos

    2013-08-01

    The LIFE+ Project PM3: Particulate Monitoring, Modeling, Management is coordinated by the Department of Labour Inspection in Cyprus and funded in part by LIFE+ Environment Policy & Governance. The project aims at the analysis of dust emissions, transport, and control options for Cyprus, as well as at the identification of "natural" contributions (Directive 2008/50/EC). The ultimate objective is to provide inputs for the design of a dust management plan to improve compliance to EC Directives and minimise impacts to human health and environment. This paper presents a short analysis of historical monitoring data and their patterns as well as a description of a dynamic dust entrainment model. The pyrogenic PM10 emissions combined with the wind driven emissions, are subject to a two phase non-linear multi-criteria emission control optimization procedure. The resulting emission scenarios with an hourly resolution provide input to the Comprehensive Air quality Model with extensions (CAMx) 3D fate and transport model, implemented for the 4,800 km master domain and embedded subdomains (270 km around the island of Cyprus and embedded smaller city domains of up to 30 km down to street canyon modeling). The models test the feasibility of candidate emission control solutions over a range of weather conditions. Model generated patterns of local emissions and long-range transport are discussed compared with the monitoring data, remote sensing (MODIS derived AOT), and the chemical analysis of dust samples.

  4. ETV TEST REPORT OF MOBILE SOURCE EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVICES: LUBRIZOL ENGINE CONTROL SYSTEMS PURIFILTER SC17L

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the Lubrizol Engine Control Systems Purifilter SC17L manufactured by Lubrizol Engine Control Systems. The technology is a precious and base metal, passively regenerated particulate filter...

  5. Krakow conference on low emissions sources: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, B.L.; Butcher, T.A. [eds.

    1995-12-31

    The Krakow Conference on Low Emission Sources presented the information produced and analytical tools developed in the first phase of the Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program. This phase included: field testing to provide quantitative data on missions and efficiencies as well as on opportunities for building energy conservation; engineering analysis to determine the costs of implementing pollution control; and incentives analysis to identify actions required to create a market for equipment, fuels, and services needed to reduce pollution. Collectively, these Proceedings contain reports that summarize the above phase one information, present the status of energy system management in Krakow, provide information on financing pollution control projects in Krakow and elsewhere, and highlight the capabilities and technologies of Polish and American companies that are working to reduce pollution from low emission sources. It is intended that the US reader will find in these Proceedings useful results and plans for control of pollution from low emission sources that are representative of heating systems in central and Eastern Europe. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  6. VOC emissions control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spessard, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    The air pollution control equipment marketplace offers many competing technologies for controlling emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in air. If any technology was economically and technically superior under all conditions, it would be the only one on the market. In fact, each technology used to control VOCs is superior under some set of conditions. The reasons for choosing one control technology over another are situation-specific. Some general guidelines to VOC control technologies and the situations where each may be appropriate are presented in this article. The control technologies and applications are summarized in a table

  7. Sources of atmospheric emissions in the Athabasca oil sands region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    An inventory of emissions for the Athabasca oil sands airshed that can be used as a basis for air quality assessments was presented. This report was prepared for the Suncor Steepbank Mine Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and for the Syncrude Aurora Mine EIA. Both Syncrude and Suncor have plans to develop new oil sands leases and to increase their crude oil and bitumen production. Suncor has proposed modifications to reduce SO 2 emissions to the atmosphere and Syncrude will develop additional ambient air quality, sulphur deposition and biomonitoring programs to ensure that environmental quality is not compromised because of atmospheric emissions associated with their operations. Major emission sources are controlled and monitored by regulatory statutes, regulations and guidelines. In this report, the following four types of emission sources were identified and quantified: (1) major industrial sources associated with Suncor's and Syncrude's current oil sands operations, (2) fugitive and area emission sources such as volatilization of hydrocarbons from tanks and tailings ponds, (3) other industrial emission sources in the area, including oil sands and non-oil sands related facilities, and (4) highway and residential emission sources. Emissions associated with mining operations include: SO 2 , NO x , CO, and CO 2 . The overall conclusion was that although there are other smaller sources of emissions that can influence air quality, there is no reason to doubt that Suncor and Syncrude oil sands operations are the major sources of emissions to the atmosphere. 13 refs., 12 tabs., 8 figs

  8. TEST REPORT OF MOBILE SOURCE EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVICES DONALDSON COMPANY INC.SERIES 6100 DIESEL OXIDATION CATALYST MUFFLER AND SPIRACLE CLOSED CRANKCASE FILTRATION SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report is on an environmental verification of the emissions characteristics of a Donaldson Corp. catalytic muffler and catalyic crankcase emissions control. It was found the systems reduced emissions.

  9. Characterizing sources of emissions from wildland fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger D. Ottmar; Ana Isabel Miranda; David V. Sandberg

    2009-01-01

    Smoke emissions from wildland fire can be harmful to human health and welfare, impair visibility, and contribute to greenhouse gas emissions. The generation of emissions and heat release need to be characterized to estimate the potential impacts of wildland fire smoke. This requires explicit knowledge of the source, including size of the area burned, burn period,...

  10. California Air Resources board's mobil source emission reduction credit guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunwoody Lentz, C.; Werner, B.

    1993-01-01

    The California Air Resources Board has developed guidance for the generation and use of mobil source emission reduction credits. Mobil source credits can be used to improve air quality, or to mitigate increases in emissions associated with industrial and non-industrial sources. They are created by programs which reduce mobile source emission beyond the reductions required by federal, state, and local laws or air quality attainment plans. Significant amounts of credit can be generated by some types of programs which reduce mobile source emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) and reactive organic gases (ROG). Mobile source credit programs must be carefully structured to ensure that emission reductions are real, accurately quantified, enforceable, and have a defined life. Three potentially feasible programs for the creation of mobile source credits include accelerated retirement of older vehicles, purchase of low-emission buses, and purchase of zero-emission vehicles. These programs are evaluated for their ability to generate credit and to assess their cost effectiveness. Based on the examples presented, two methods of generating mobile source credits, the accelerated retirement of older vehicles and the purchase of low-emission buses, appear to be cost-effective when compared to other emission control measures

  11. A chemometric investigation of aromatic emission profiles from a marine engine in comparison with residential wood combustion and road traffic: Implications for source apportionment inside and outside sulphur emission control areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech, Hendryk; Stengel, Benjamin; Adam, Thomas; Sklorz, Martin; Streibel, Thorsten; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2017-10-01

    Ship emissions are known to cause severe impacts on human health, but are less restricted than land-based emissions. A regulation to improve air quality in coastal regions and frequented waterways is the limitation of fuel sulphur content to 0.1% in sulphur emission control areas (SECAs), which has caused a switch from heavy fuel oil (HFO) towards diesel-like marine gas oil (MGO) or marine diesel oil (MDO). The fraction of aromatic organic vapours in the exhaust from a marine engine, operating on HFO and MGO, was investigated by resonance-enhanced multi-photon ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOFMS). MGO with fuel sulphur content (FSC) below 0.1% and HFO with an average FSC of 2.7% denote representative marine fuels inside and outside SECAs, respectively. The obtained emission spectra were combined with data of previous REMPI-TOFMS studies of combustion engines and wood combustion in statistical analyses to derive marker substances for ship emissions inside and outside SECAs. A diagnostic ratio of C2-naphthalenes to methyl-naphthalenes was found to hold for a good discriminator between ship emissions on the one hand and road traffic and wood combustion on the other hand. Furthermore, random REMPI spectra from all emission sources were mixed with different proportions in a simulation to create a model based on partial least square (PLS) regression for the prediction of ship contribution to aromatic organic vapours. We point out that in particular PAHs with higher degree of alkylation are significant markers for primary ship emissions which may support source apportionment studies inside and outside SECAs to assess the benefits of fuel sulphur content regulation on air quality.

  12. Dynamical structure of hadron emission sources

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao Xi; Zhao Shu Song

    2000-01-01

    NA22 experimental data of the triplet seagull effects show that the Doppler effects of hadron emission sources exist exactly in hadron- hadron collisions. Every source possesses the same average energy (CMS) approximately. The collective seagull effects can be also explained by the (aQ)/sup nu /K/sub nu / (aQ) distributions (generalized functions). The dynamical structure of a hadron emission source is described by the (aQ)/sup nu /K/sub nu / (aQ) distributions. The anomalous dimensions of the pionic quantum fields are gamma /sub B/(g/sub R/)=-0.045+or-0.012, which control the singularities of the production amplitude in quantum field theory. The mathematical parameter epsilon =4-D (the dimension D of space time) in the Feynman integrals can be replaced by the anomalous gamma /sub B/(g/sub R/) of the quantum fields for the regularization. (-2 gamma /sub B/(g/sub R/) to or from epsilon /2=1/ln( Lambda /sup 2//m /sup 2/) Lambda to infinity ). (26 refs).

  13. Dynamical structure of hadron emission sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xi; Huang Bangrong; Zhao Shusong

    2000-01-01

    NA22 experimental data of the triplet seagull effects show that the Doppler effects of the hadron emission sources exist exactly in the hadron-hadron collisions. Every source possesses the same average energy (CMS) approximately. The collective seagull effects can be also explained by the (aQ) ν K ν (aQ) distributions (Generalized functions). The dynamical structure of a hadron emission source is described by the (aQ) ν K ν (aQ) distributions. The anomalous dimensions of the pionic quantum fields are γ B (g R ) = - 0.045 +- 0.012, which control the singularities of the production amplitude in quantum field theory. The mathematical parameter ε = 4-D (the dimension D of space time) in the Feynman integrals can be replaced by the anomalous γ B (g R ) of the quantum fields for the regularization. (-2γ B (g R )↔ε/2 1/ln(Λ 2 /m 2 )Λ→∞)

  14. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo; Pan, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of

  15. Emission sources in scanning electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkusch, W.

    1990-01-01

    Since the beginning of the commercial scanning electron microscopy, there are two kinds of emission sources generally used for generation of the electron beam. The first group covers the cathodes heated directly and indirectly (tungsten hair-needle cathodes and lanthanum hexaboride single crystals, LaB 6 cathode). The other group is the field emission cathodes. The advantages of the thermal sources are their low vacuum requirement and their high beam current which is necessary for the application of microanalysis units. Disadvantages are the short life and the low resolution. Advantages of the field emission cathode unambiguously are the possibilities of the very high resolution, especially in the case of low acceleration voltages. Disadvantages are the necessary ultra-high vacuum and the low beam current. An alternative source is the thermally induced ZrO/W field emission cathode which works stably as compared to the cold field emission and does not need periodic flashing for emitter tip cleaning. (orig.) [de

  16. Mobile Source Emissions Regulatory Compliance Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Mobile Source Emissions Regulatory Compliance Data Inventory data asset contains measured summary compliance information on light-duty, heavy-duty, and non-road...

  17. Source mechanism of Saturn narrowband emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Menietti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Narrowband emission (NB is observed at Saturn centered near 5 kHz and 20 kHz and harmonics. This emission appears similar in many ways to Jovian kilometric narrowband emission observed at higher frequencies, and therefore may have a similar source mechanism. Source regions of NB near 20 kHz are believed to be located near density gradients in the inner magnetosphere and the emission appears to be correlated with the occurrence of large neutral plasma clouds observed in the Saturn magnetotail. In this work we present the results of a growth rate analysis of NB emission (~20 kHz near or within a probable source region. This is made possible by the sampling of in-situ wave and particle data. The results indicate waves are likely to be generated by the mode-conversion of directly generated Z-mode emission to O-mode near a density gradient. When the local hybrid frequency is close n fce (n is an integer and fce is the electron cyclotron frequency with n=4, 5 or 6 in our case, electromagnetic Z-mode and weak ordinary (O-mode emission can be directly generated by the cyclotron maser instability.

  18. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo; Cao, Yan; Pan, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of flue gas contents on the mercury speciation transformation process. Mercury emission control methods, such as existing APCDs (air pollution control devices) at power stations, sorbent injection, additives in coal combustion and photo-catalytic methods are introduced in detail. Lab-scale, pilot-scale and full-scale experimental studies of sorbent injection conducted by the authors are presented systematically, helping researchers and engineers to understand how this approach reduces the mercury emissions in flue gas and to apply the methods in mercury emission control at coal-fired power stations.

  19. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo [Shanghai Univ. of Electric Power (China); Cao, Yan; Pan, Weiping [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of flue gas contents on the mercury speciation transformation process. Mercury emission control methods, such as existing APCDs (air pollution control devices) at power stations, sorbent injection, additives in coal combustion and photo-catalytic methods are introduced in detail. Lab-scale, pilot-scale and full-scale experimental studies of sorbent injection conducted by the authors are presented systematically, helping researchers and engineers to understand how this approach reduces the mercury emissions in flue gas and to apply the methods in mercury emission control at coal-fired power stations.

  20. Controlling fugitive emissions from mechanical seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, W.V.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that enactment of the 1990 Federal Clean Air Amendments will sharply focus efforts in the process industries to reduce fugitive emissions. Moreover, state and local governments may be imposing stricter laws and regulations which will affect allowable fugitive emissions from U.S. refineries and process plants. Plants outside the U.S. have similar concerns. Clearly, mechanical seals for process pumps represent an enormous population and is one category of equipment destined for careful evaluation as a means to control fugitive emissions. Fugitive are unintentional emissions from valves, pumps, flanges, compressors, etc., as opposed to point-source emissions from stacks, vents and flares. Fugitive emissions do not occur as a part of normal plant operations, but result from the effects of: Malfunctions, Age, Lack of proper maintenance, Operator error, Improper equipment specification, Use of inferior technology, and externally caused damage

  1. Carbon emissions control strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, W.U.

    1990-01-01

    This study was undertaken to address a fundamental issue: the cost of slowing climate change. Experts in eight nations were asked to evaluate, using the best economic models available, the prospects for reducing fossil fuel-based carbon emissions in their respective nations. The nations selected as case studies include: the Soviet Union, Poland, the United States, Japan, Hungary, France, the United Kingdom, and Canada. As important contributors to the greenhouse effect, these industrialized nations must find ways to substantially reduce their emissions. This is especially critical given that developing nations' emissions are expected to rise in the coming decades in the search for economic development. Ten papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION--TEST REPORT OF MOBILE SOURCE EMISSION CONTROL DEVICES, CUMMINS EMISSION SOLUTIONS AND CUMMINS FILTRATION DIESEL OXIDATION CATALYST AND CLOSED CRANKCASE VENTILATION SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA has created the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. ETV seeks to provide high-quality, peer-reviewed data on technology performance. The Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) Verification Center, a center under the ETV Program, is operated by Res...

  3. Calendar Year 2016 Stationary Source Emissions Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evelo, Stacie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The City of Albuquerque (COA) Environmental Health Department Air Quality Program has issued stationary source permits and registrations the Department of Energy/Sandia Field Office for operations at the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. This emission inventory report meets the annual reporting compliance requirements for calendar year (CY) 2016 as required by the COA.

  4. Reduction of NOx emission from stationary combustion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, P.F.

    1992-01-01

    The environmental impacts of NO x emission from stationary combustion sources are briefly described. These include the formation of both acid rain and photochemical smog, major environmental problems. The three mechanisms which have been identified for the formation of NO x in combustion (thermal, prompt and fuel) are also briefly outlined. Recently stringent standards have been introduced to control emissions of NO x and the review describes the major primary and secondary measures. 10 refs. 2 tabs., 5 figs

  5. Controlling radiated emissions by design

    CERN Document Server

    Mardiguian, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The 3rd edition of Controlling Radiated Emissions by Design has been updated to reflect the latest changes in the field. New to this edition is material related to technical advances, specifically super-fast data rates on wire pairs, with no increase in RF interference. Throughout the book, details are given to control RF emissions using EMC design techniques. This book retains the step-by-step approach for incorporating EMC into every new design from the ground up. It describes the selection of quieter IC technologies, their implementation into a noise-free printed circuit layout, and the gathering of these into a low emissions package. Also included is how to design an I/O filter, along with connectors and cable considerations. All guidelines are supported throughout with comprehensive calculated examples. Design engineers, EMC specialists, and technicians will benefit from learning about the development of more efficient and economical control of emissions.

  6. Agricultural sources of greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochette, P.

    2003-01-01

    The author described different sources of greenhouse gas emissions resulting from agricultural activities and the process by which carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane are generated on Canadian farms. The author also proposed some practices that would contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. A brief description of the greenhouse effect was also provided with special emphasis on the agricultural sector. In 1996, the Canadian agricultural sector was responsible for approximately 10 per cent of greenhouse gas emissions in the country. Given the increase in farm animals and more intensive agricultural activities, it is estimated that greenhouse gas emissions generated by the agricultural sector will increase by 20 per cent by 2010 if current practices remain in effect. The most optimistic scenarios indicate that the agricultural sector could achieve or even exceed Canada's Kyoto Protocol commitments mainly through organic material sequestration in soils. The possibility for farmers to sell greenhouse gas credits could motivate farmers into adopting various practices that reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. However, the author indicated that the best motivation for farmers is the fact that adopting such practices would also lead to more efficient agricultural production. 5 refs., 4 figs

  7. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.P.Evans; K.E. Redinger; M.J. Holmes

    1998-04-01

    The objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. Ideally, the project aim is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPS), fabric filters (baghouse), and wet flue gas desulfurization. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate and hydrogen chloride. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on the evaluation of mercury and several other air toxics emissions. The AECDP is jointly funded by the United States Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (oCDO), and Babcock& Wilcox-a McDermott company (B&W).

  8. NMHC emissions from Asia: sources and transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, T.; Blake, D. R.; Barletta, B.; Meinardi, S.; Rowland, F. S.; Chan, J. C.; Takegawa, N.; Kondo, Y.; Koike, M.; Kita, K.; Takigawa, M.; Kawakami, S.; Ogawa, T.

    2002-12-01

    Recent rapid industrialization and economic growth in Asia changed the industrial structure, land use, and people's lifestyle resulting in a dramatic change in the amount and composition of the gas emissions from Asia. Because emissions can be transported very rapidly once convected to the free troposphere, Asian emissions can affect both local and regional air quality and climate. To access the impact of changing emission from Asia, an airborne observation campaign PEACE (the Pacific Exploration of Asian Continental Emission) phase-A and B were conducted in January and April - May 2002, respectively, sponsored by NASDA (National Space Development Agency of Japan). The concentrations of NMHCs (nonmethanehydrocarbons) and halocarbons were obtained by whole air sampling and subsequent gas chromatography analyses in the laboratory. Quantified onboard the aircraft were CO, CO2, O3, NO, NO2, NOy, H2O, SO2, aerosols, and condensation nuclei. The experiment was conducted in the vicinity of Japan and PEACE-A and B represent the local winter and spring weather conditions. The trace gas distributions in the lower troposphere were often influenced by local pollution (i.e. from Japan, Korea) while those of the long-range transport (i.e. from Europe) were occasionally seen in the upper troposphere. This is confirmed by the airmass age estimation using the ratios of short-lived gases (i.e. C2H4) vs. more stable compounds (i.e. CO). Emissions from China were distinguished using data obtained from ground-based sampling and measurements. Transport from China was seen both in the lower troposphere and upper troposphere. Some case studies on source identification will be discussed.

  9. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program: Mercury Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, A.P.; Redinger, K.W.; Holmes, M.J.

    1997-07-01

    McDermott Technology, Inc. (a subsidiary of Babcock ampersand Wilcox) is conducting the Advanced Emissions Control Development Project (AECDP) which is aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPS) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for such controls may arise as the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proceeds with implementation of requirements set forth in the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA's) of 1990. Promulgation of air toxics emissions regulations for electric utility plants could dramatically impact utilities burning coal, their industrial and residential customers, and the coal industry. AECDP project work will supply the information needed by utilities to respond to potential HAPs regulations in a timely, cost-effective, enviromnentally-sound manner which supports the continued use of the Nation's abundant reserves of coal, such as those in the State of Ohio. The development work is being carried out using the 10 MW Clean Environment Development Facility wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions. The specific objectives of the project are to (1) measure and understand production and partitioning of air toxics species for a variety of coals, (2) optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems, (3) develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts, (4) develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques, and (5) establish a comprehensive, self-consistent air toxics data library. This project is supported by the Department of Energy, the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development and Babcock ampersand Wilcox. A comprehensive assessment of HAP emissions from coal-fired electric utility boilers sponsored by the Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute concluded that with the exception of

  10. Framework for Assessing Biogenic CO2 Emissions from Stationary Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    This revision of the 2011 report, Accounting Framework for Biogenic CO2 Emissions from Stationary Sources, evaluates biogenic CO2 emissions from stationary sources, including a detailed study of the scientific and technical issues associated with assessing biogenic carbon dioxide...

  11. Noise source emissions, Richton Dome site, Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Noise source data and use factors for modeling the environmental noise environment expected from salt-site repository activity were provided by Battelle Columbus Division. This report has been prepared for the purpose of documenting the development of the data provided to the Repository Project Management (RPM) organization. The data provided encompasses all phases of activity, from site preparation through construction of the exploratory shaft facility (ESF). Noise environments expected from construction and operation of transportation corridors associated with the activity were also modeled. Data for the construction of transportation corridors were provided. The equipment inventory, including sound-power levels for each item is included as Appendix A. Emission source terms provided by Parsons Brinckerhoff/PB-KBB for the ESF were used as a basis for the noise source emission inventory development. Where available, research results containing complete spectra were used. In cases where complete data were not available, a sound-pressure spectrum was synthesized from a characteristic spectrum shape from a similar piece of equipment. For example, a front-shovel excavator might be approximated by data from a front-end loader of similar horsepower range. Sound-power-level spectra were then calculated from the sound-pressure-level data. 14 refs

  12. 75 FR 68296 - Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources and Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources and Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources: Sewage... ``Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources and Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources: Sewage... performance standards for new units and emission guidelines for existing units for specific categories of...

  13. Mobile Source Emissions Regulatory Compliance Data Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Mobile Source Emissions Regulatory Compliance Data Inventory data asset contains measured summary compliance information on light-duty, heavy-duty, and non-road engine manufacturers by model, as well as fee payment data required by Title II of the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act, to certify engines for sale in the U.S. and collect compliance certification fees. Data submitted by manufacturers falls into 12 industries: Heavy Duty Compression Ignition, Marine Spark Ignition, Heavy Duty Spark Ignition, Marine Compression Ignition, Snowmobile, Motorcycle & ATV, Non-Road Compression Ignition, Non-Road Small Spark Ignition, Light-Duty, Evaporative Components, Non-Road Large Spark Ignition, and Locomotive. Title II also requires the collection of fees from manufacturers submitting for compliance certification. Manufacturers submit data on an annual basis, to document engine model changes for certification. Manufacturers also submit compliance information on already certified in-use vehicles randomly selected by the EPA (1) year into their life and (4) years into their life to ensure that emissions systems continue to function appropriately over time.The EPA performs targeted confirmatory tests on approximately 15% of vehicles submitted for certification. Confirmatory data on engines is associated with its corresponding submission data to verify the accuracy of manufacturer submission beyond standard business rules.Section 209 of the 1990 Amendments to the Clea

  14. Controlling nitrous oxide emissions from grassland livestock production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, O.; Gebauer, G.; Rodriguez, M.; Sapek, A.; Jarvis, S.C.; Corré, W.J.; Yamulki, S.

    1998-01-01

    There is growing awareness that grassland livestock production systems are major sources of nitrous oxide (N2O). Controlling these emissions requires a thorough understanding of all sources and controlling factors at the farm level. This paper examines the various controlling factors and proposes

  15. A Cherenkov-emission Microwave Source*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, C. H.; Yoshii, J.; Katsouleas, T.; Hairapetian1, G.; Joshi, C.; Mori, W.

    1996-11-01

    In an unmagnetized plasma, there is no Cherenkov emission because the phase velocity vf of light is greater than c. In a magnetized plasma, the situation is completely changed. There is a rich variety of plasma modes with phase velocities vf 2 c which can couple to a fast particle. In the magnetized plasma, a fast particle, a particle beam, or even a short laser pulse excites a Cherenkov wake that has both electrostatic and electromagnetic components. Preliminary simulations indicate that at the vacuum/plasma boundary, the wake couples to a vacuum microwave with an amplitude equal to the electromagnetic component in the plasma. For a weakly magnetized plasma, the amplitude of the out-coupled radiation is approximately wc/wp times the amplitude of the wake excited in the plasma by the beam, and the frequency is approximately wp. Since plasma wakes as high as a few GeV/m are produced in current experiments, the potential for a high-power (i.e., GWatt) coherent microwave to THz source exists. In this talk, a brief overview of the scaling laws will be presented, followed by 1-D and 2-D PIC simulations. Prospects for a tuneable microwave source experiment based on this mechanism at the UCLA plasma wakefield accelerator facility will be discussed. *Work supported by AFOSR Grant #F4 96200-95-0248 and DOE Grant # DE-FG03-92ER40745. 1Now at Hughes Research Laboratories, Malibu, CA 90265

  16. Multi-source SO2 emission retrievals and consistency of satellite and surface measurements with reported emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fioletov, V.; McLinden, C.A.; Kharol, S.K.; Krotkov, N.A.; Li, C.; Joiner, J.; Moran, M.D.; Vet, R.; Visschedijk, A.J.H.; Denier Van Der Gon, H.A.C.

    2017-01-01

    Reported sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from US and Canadian sources have declined dramatically since the 1990s as a result of emission control measures. Observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on NASA's Aura satellite and ground-based in situ measurements are examined to verify

  17. Air Emissions Sources, Charts and Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Air Emissions provides (1) interactive charts supporting national, state, or county charts, (2) county maps of criteria air pollutant emissions for a state, and (3)...

  18. 76 FR 18407 - Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources and Emissions Guidelines for Existing Sources...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources and Emissions Guidelines for Existing Sources: Hospital... performance standards and emissions guidelines for hospital/medical/infectious waste incinerators by the U.S... amendments to the new source performance standards and emissions guidelines, correcting inadvertent drafting...

  19. Landfill is an important atmospheric mercury emission source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Xinbin; TANG Shunlin; LI Zhonggen; WANG Shaofeng; LIANG Lian

    2004-01-01

    Since municipal wastes contain refuses with high mercury contents, incineration of municipal wastes becomes the major anthropogenic atmospheric mercury emission source. In China, landfills are however the main way to dispose of municipal wastes. Total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations in landfill gas of Gaoyan sanitary landfill located in suburb of Guiyang City were monitored using a high temporal resolved automated mercury analyzer, and mono-methylmercury (MMHg) and dimethylmercury (DMHg) concentrations in landfill gas were also measured using GC coupled with the cold vapor atomic fluorescence (CVAFS) method. Meanwhile, the TGM exchange fluxes between exposed waste and air and the soil surface of the landfill and air, were measured using low Hg blank quartz flux chamber coupled with high temporal resolved automated mercury analyzer technique. TGM concentrations in landfill gas from half year filling area averaged out at 665.52±291.25 ng/m3, which is comparable with TGM concentrations from flue gas of a small coal combustion boiler in Guiyang. The average MMHg and DMHg concentrations averaged out at 2.06±1.82 ng/m3 and 9.50±5.18 ng/m3, respectively. It is proven that mercury emission is the predominant process at the surfaces of both exposed wastes and soil of landfill. Landfills are not only TGM emission source, but also methylmercury emission source to the ambient air. There are two ways to emit mercury to the air from landfills, one is with the landfill gas through landfill gas duct, and the other through soil/air exchange. The Hg emission processes from landfills are controlled by meteorological parameters.

  20. Development of unauthorized airborne emission source identification procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtripling, L. O.; Bazhenov, V. V.; Varakina, N. S.; Kupriyanova, N. P.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents the procedure for searching sources of unauthorized airborne emissions. To make reasonable regulation decisions on airborne pollutant emissions and to ensure the environmental safety of population, the procedure provides for the determination of a pollutant mass emission value from the source being the cause of high pollution level and the search of a previously unrecognized contamination source in a specified area. To determine the true value of mass emission from the source, the minimum of the mean-root-square mismatch criterion between the computed and measured pollutant concentration in the given location is used.

  1. Waveguide source of amplified spontaneous emission ASE 1550 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razik, M.; Budnicki, A.; Abramski, M.

    2003-01-01

    Light source of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) type has been built on the base of double-clad waveguide doped with ytterbium and erbium. The characteristics and applications of the ASE source have been also presented

  2. Status and Needs Research for On-line Monitoring of VOCs Emissions from Stationary Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Gang; Wang, Qiang; Zhong, Qi; Zhao, Jinbao; Yang, Kai

    2018-01-01

    Based on atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) pollution control requirements during the twelfth-five year plan and the current status of monitoring and management at home and abroad, instrumental architecture and technical characteristics of continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMS) for VOCs emission from stationary sources are investigated and researched. Technological development needs of VOCs emission on-line monitoring techniques for stationary sources in china are proposed from the system sampling pretreatment technology and analytical measurement techniques.

  3. Controls of nitrous oxide emission after simulated cattle urine deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baral, Khagendra Raj; Thomsen, Anton Gårde; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2014-01-01

    Urine deposited during grazing is a significant source of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O). The potential for N2O emissions from urine patches is high, and a better understanding of controls is needed. This study investigated soil nitrogen (N) dynamics and N2O emissions from cattle urine...

  4. Biomass Burning Emissions of Black Carbon from African Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, A. C.; Leone, O.; Nitschke, K. L.; Dubey, M. K.; Carrico, C.; Springston, S. R.; Sedlacek, A. J., III; Watson, T. B.; Kuang, C.; Uin, J.; McMeeking, G. R.; DeMott, P. J.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Robinson, A. L.; Yokelson, R. J.; Zuidema, P.

    2016-12-01

    Biomass burning (BB) emissions are a large source of carbon to the atmosphere via particles and gas phase species. Carbonaceous aerosols are emitted along with gas-phase carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) that can be used to determine particulate emission ratios and modified combustion efficiencies. Black carbon (BC) aerosols are potentially underestimated in global models and are considered to be one of the most important global warming factors behind CO2. Half or more BC in the atmosphere is from BB, estimated at 6-9 Tg/yr (IPCC, 5AR) and contributing up to 0.6 W/m2 atmospheric warming (Bond et al., 2013). With a potential rise in drought and extreme events in the future due to climate change, these numbers are expected to increase. For this reason, we focus on BC and organic carbon aerosol species that are emitted from forest fires and compare their emission ratios, physical and optical properties to those from controlled laboratory studies of single-source BB fuels to understand BB carbonaceous aerosols in the atmosphere. We investigate BC in concentrated BB plumes as sampled from the new U.S. DOE ARM Program campaign, Layered Atlantic Smoke Interactions with Clouds (LASIC). The ARM Aerosol Mobile Facility 1 (AMF1) and Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS) are currently located on Ascension Island in the South Atlantic Ocean, located midway between Angola and Brazil. The location was chosen for sampling maximum aerosol outflow from Africa. The far-field aged BC from LASIC is compared to BC from indoor generation from single-source fuels, e.g. African grass, sampled during Fire Lab At Missoula Experiments IV (FLAME-IV). BC is measured with a single-particle soot photometer (SP2) alongside numerous supporting instrumentation, e.g. particle counters, CO and CO2 detectors, aerosol scattering and absorption measurements, etc. FLAME-IV includes both direct emissions and well-mixed aerosol samples that have undergone dilution, cooling, and condensation. BC

  5. Emission Control Technologies for Thermal Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nihalani, S. A.; Mishra, Y.; Juremalani, J.

    2018-03-01

    Coal thermal power plants are one of the primary sources of artificial air emissions, particularly in a country like India. Ministry of Environment and Forests has proposed draft regulation for emission standards in coal-fired power plants. This includes significant reduction in sulphur-dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, particulate matter and mercury emissions. The first step is to evaluate the technologies which represent the best selection for each power plant based on its configuration, fuel properties, performance requirements, and other site-specific factors. This paper will describe various technology options including: Flue Gas Desulfurization System, Spray Dryer Absorber (SDA), Circulating Dry Scrubber (CDS), Limestone-based Wet FGD, Low NOX burners, Selective Non Catalytic Reduction, Electrostatic Precipitator, Bag House Dust Collector, all of which have been evaluated and installed extensively to reduce SO2, NOx, PM and other emissions. Each control technology has its advantages and disadvantages. For each of the technologies considered, major features, potential operating and maintenance cost impacts, as well as key factors that contribute to the selection of one technology over another are discussed here.

  6. 75 FR 63259 - Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources and Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources and Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources: Sewage... performance standards for new units and emission guidelines for existing units for specific categories of... standards and emission guidelines for large municipal waste combustion units, small municipal waste...

  7. Registration for the Hanford Site: Sources of radioactive emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvia, M.J.

    1993-04-01

    This Registration Application serves to renew the registration for all Hanford Site sources of radioactive air emissions routinely reported to the State of Washington Department of Health (DOH). The current registration expires on August 15, 1993. The Application is submitted pursuant to the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246--247, and is consistent with guidance provided by DOH for renewal. The Application subdivides the Hanford Site into six major production, processing or research areas. Those six areas are in the 100 Area, 200 East Area, 200 West Area, 300 Area, 400 Area, and 600 Area. Each major group of point sources within the six areas listed above is represented by a Source Registration for Radioactive Air Emissions form. Annual emissions. for the sources are listed in the ''Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for the Hanford Site,'' published annually. It is a requirement that the following Statement of Compliance be provided: ''The radioactive air emissions from the above sources do meet the emissions standards contained in Chapter 173-480-040 WAC, Ambient Air Quality Standards and Emissions Limits for Radionuclides. As the Statement of Compliance pertains to this submittal, the phrase ''above sources'' is to be understood as meaning the combined air emissions from all sources registered by this submittal

  8. Russia's black carbon emissions: focus on diesel sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kholod

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon (BC is a significant climate forcer with a particularly pronounced forcing effect in polar regions such as the Russian Arctic. Diesel combustion is a major global source of BC emissions, accounting for 25–30 % of all BC emissions. While the demand for diesel is growing in Russia, the country's diesel emissions are poorly understood. This paper presents a detailed inventory of Russian BC emissions from diesel sources. Drawing on a complete Russian vehicle registry with detailed information about vehicle types and emission standards, this paper analyzes BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles. We use the COPERT emission model (COmputer Programme to calculate Emissions from Road Transport with Russia-specific emission factors for all types of on-road vehicles. On-road diesel vehicles emitted 21 Gg of BC in 2014: heavy-duty trucks account for 60 % of the on-road BC emissions, while cars represent only 5 % (light commercial vehicles and buses account for the remainder. Using Russian activity data and fuel-based emission factors, the paper also presents BC emissions from diesel locomotives and ships, off-road engines in industry, construction and agriculture, and generators. The study also factors in the role of superemitters in BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles and off-road sources. The total emissions from diesel sources in Russia are estimated to be 49 Gg of BC and 17 Gg of organic carbon (OC in 2014. Off-road diesel sources emitted 58 % of all diesel BC in Russia.

  9. Mobile Source Emissions Regulatory Compliance Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Engine and Vehicle Compliance Certification and Fuel Economy Inventory contains measured emissions and fuel economy compliance information for all types of...

  10. Premature deaths attributed to source-specific BC emissions in six urban US regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, Matthew D; Henze, Daven K; Capps, Shannon L; Hakami, Amir; Zhao, Shunliu; Resler, Jaroslav; Carmichael, Gregory R; Stanier, Charles O; Baek, Jaemeen; Sandu, Adrian; Russell, Armistead G; Nenes, Athanasios; Pinder, Rob W; Napelenok, Sergey L; Bash, Jesse O; Percell, Peter B; Chai, Tianfeng

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that exposure to particulate black carbon (BC) has significant adverse health effects and may be more detrimental to human health than exposure to PM 2.5 as a whole. Mobile source BC emission controls, mostly on diesel-burning vehicles, have successfully decreased mobile source BC emissions to less than half of what they were 30 years ago. Quantification of the benefits of previous emissions controls conveys the value of these regulatory actions and provides a method by which future control alternatives could be evaluated. In this study we use the adjoint of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to estimate highly-resolved spatial distributions of benefits related to emission reductions for six urban regions within the continental US. Emissions from outside each of the six chosen regions account for between 7% and 27% of the premature deaths attributed to exposure to BC within the region. While we estimate that nonroad mobile and onroad diesel emissions account for the largest number of premature deaths attributable to exposure to BC, onroad gasoline is shown to have more than double the benefit per unit emission relative to that of nonroad mobile and onroad diesel. Within the region encompassing New York City and Philadelphia, reductions in emissions from large industrial combustion sources that are not classified as EGUs (i.e., non-EGU) are estimated to have up to triple the benefits per unit emission relative to reductions to onroad diesel sectors, and provide similar benefits per unit emission to that of onroad gasoline emissions in the region. While onroad mobile emissions have been decreasing in the past 30 years and a majority of vehicle emission controls that regulate PM focus on diesel emissions, our analysis shows the most efficient target for stricter controls is actually onroad gasoline emissions. (letter)

  11. Control of volatile organic compound emissions: the issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodfield, M.; Marlowe, I.

    1989-11-01

    This review paper outlines the problems caused by the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) which are causing increasing concern because of their part in the formation of photochemical oxidation that causes damage to crops and vegetation and because of the toxic and climatic effects. It briefly summarises current knowledge of VOC emissions and their effects and then suggests options for abatement of VOC emissions in the UK and the EEC. A comparison of anthropogenic VOC emission in the UK and the EEC from various sources is given. Further information is needed on current emissions, on the costs and efficiencies of control technologies and on the effects of control on industry before decisions can be made on the suitability, extent and strategy to control VOC emissions in the UK. The report was prepared for the UK Department of Trade and Industry (Headquarters).

  12. 76 FR 15553 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... firms to operate and maintain the emissions control systems. Consistent with the legislative history, we... stores/malls, laundries, apartments, restaurants, and hotels/motels. The institutional boiler source...

  13. Development of an emissions inventory model for mobile sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, A W; Broderick, B M [Trinity College, Dublin (Ireland). Dept. of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering

    2000-07-01

    Traffic represents one of the largest sources of primary air pollutants in urban areas. As a consequence, numerous abatement strategies are being pursued to decrease the ambient concentrations of a wide range of pollutants. A mutual characteristic of most of these strategies is a requirement for accurate data on both the quantity and spatial distribution of emissions to air in the form of an atmospheric emissions inventory database. In the case of traffic pollution, such an inventory must be compiled using activity statistics and emission factors for a wide range of vehicle types. The majority of inventories are compiled using 'passive' data from either surveys or transportation models and by their very nature tend to be out-of-date by the time they are compiled. Current trends are towards integrating urban traffic control systems and assessments of the environmental effects of motor vehicles. In this paper. a methodology for estimating emissions from mobile sources using real-time data is described. This methodology is used to calculate emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO). volatile organic compounds (VOC), particulate matter less than 10 {mu}m aerodynamic diameter (PM{sub 10}), 1,3-butadiene (C{sub 4}H{sub 6}) and benzene (C{sub 6}H{sub 6}) at a test junction in Dublin. Traffic data, which are required on a street-by-street basis, is obtained from induction loops and closed circuit televisions (CCTV) as well as statistical data. The observed traffic data are compared to simulated data from a travel demand model. As a test case, an emissions inventory is compiled for a heavily trafficked signalized junction in an urban environment using the measured data. In order that the model may be validated, the predicted emissions are employed in a dispersion model along with local meteorological conditions and site geometry. The resultant pollutant concentrations are compared to average ambient kerbside conditions

  14. Black carbon emissions from diesel sources in Russia. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kholod, Nazar [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Evans, Meredydd [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-31

    This report presents a detailed inventory of Russian BC emissions from diesel sources. Drawing on a complete Russian vehicle registry with detailed information about vehicle types and emission standards, this report analyzes BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles. On-road diesel vehicles emitted 21 Gg of BC in 2014: heavy-duty trucks account for 60% of the on-road BC emissions, while cars represent only 5% (light commercial vehicles and buses account for the remainder). Using Russian activity data and fuel-based emission factors, the report also presents BC emissions from diesel locomotives and ships, off-road engines in industry, construction and agriculture, and generators. The total emissions from diesel sources in Russia are estimated to be 49 Gg of BC in 2014.

  15. Danish emission inventories for road transport and other mobile sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, M.

    gasoline catalyst cars. For other mobile sources the fuel use, CO2 and NOX emissions have decreased with 15% from 1985 to 2002, and the PM emission decline is in the order of 13%. For SO2 the emission drop is 74% from 1985 to 2002, due to gradually lower fuel sulphur contents. In the same period...... the emissions of NMVOC and CO has increased with 32 and 6%, mainly due to the increased use of small gasoline boats. Uncertainties for the emissions and trends have been estimated...

  16. Emissions control for sensitive areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baud, Trevor

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The Gorgon project needs almost no introduction. Located off the north-west coast of Western Australia, it is one of the world's largest natural gas projects, set on the environmentally sensitive Barrow Island. To protect the island's unique habitats, stringent environmental conditions have been imposed in terms of air, noise and light emissions, making the emission control system critical to the project's viability. Luhr Filter, specialists in dust and fume control solutions, were chosen by KMH Environmental to supply an emission control system for a waste incinerator facility serving the LNG processing plant on Barrow Island. KMH's preference was for a 'one stop' supplier of the entire pollution control system. This included a heat exchanger which had the added benefit of a compact build to fit in the limited real estate. The solution put forward was tailored to the unique environmental requirements of the Gorgon project. It was very much about collaboration and innovation to achieve the requisite results. KMH were also keen to limit the number of sub-contractors they had to deal with, and Luhr offered them a turn-key plant for the gas cleaning, integrating design and supply of all the equipment. Among the environmental requirements was that all putrescible waste created on-site - from the accommodation camps during the construction and, eventually, production phases - had to be incinerated rather than sent to landfill. The flue gas from the incinerators had to be treated in order to meet world-class environmental standards for emission of particulate, acid gases, metals and dioxins. KMH designed an incinerator system with primary and secondary combustion chambers in modular units to minimise labour requirements on site. The dry absorption system integrates Luhr's unique technologies for heat exchangers, absorption reactors, utilisation of the absorbent and the baghouse style filters with reverse pulse bag cleaning

  17. Emissions from laboratory combustion of wildland fuels: Emission factors and source profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.-W. Anthony Chen; Hans Moosmuller; W. Patrick Arnott; Judith C. Chow; John G. Watson; Ronald A. Susott; Ronald E. Babbitt; Cyle E. Wold; Emily N. Lincoln; Wei Min Hao

    2007-01-01

    Combustion of wildland fuels represents a major source of particulate matter (PM) and light-absorbing elemental carbon (EC) on a national and global scale, but the emission factors and source profiles have not been well characterized with respect to different fuels and combustion phases. These uncertainties limit the accuracy of current emission inventories, smoke...

  18. ETV-DRAFT TEST REPORT OF MOBILE SOURCE EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVICES DONALDSON COMPANY,INC. SERIES 6100 DIESEL OXIDATION CATALYST MUFFLER

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report reflects verification testing of a catalytic muffler for diesel trucks. Produced by Donaldson Corp., it was tested on low sulfur and ultra low sulfur fuel, and shown to have reduced emissions.

  19. TEST REPORT OF MOBILE SOURCE EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVICES DONALDSON COMPANY INC.SERIES 6000 DISEL OXIDATION CATALYST MUFFLER AND SPIRACLE CLOSED CRANKCASE FILTRATION SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report is on testing of a Donaldson Corp. catalytic muffler and closed crankcase filtration system for diesel trucks. It verified the emissions for these systems using low sufur and ultra low sulfur fuel.

  20. Volatile organic compounds emission control in industrial pollution source using plasma technology coupled with F-TiO2/γ-Al2O3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tao; Chen, Rui; Xia, Ni; Li, Xiaoyang; He, Xianxian; Zhao, Wenjuan; Carr, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds' (VOCs) effluents, which come from many industries, are triggering serious environmental problems. As an emerging technology, non-thermal plasma (NTP) technology is a potential technology for VOCs emission control. NTP coupled with F-TiO2/γ-Al2O3 is used for toluene removal from a gaseous influent at normal temperature and atmospheric pressure. NTP is generated by dielectric barrier discharge, and F-TiO2/γ-Al2O3 can be prepared by sol-gel method in the laboratory. In the experiment, the different packed materials were packed into the plasma reactor, including γ-Al2O3, TiO2/γ-Al2O3 and F-TiO2/γ-Al2O3. Through a series of characterization methods such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electronic microscopy and Brunner-Emmet-Teller measurements, the results show that the particle size distribution of F-TiO2 is relatively smaller than that of TiO2, and the pore distribution of F-TiO2 is more uniformly distributed than that of TiO2. The relationships among toluene removal efficiency, reactor input energy density, and the equivalent capacitances of air gap and dielectric barrier layer were investigated. The results show that the synergistic technology NTP with F-TiO2/γ-Al2O3 resulted in greater enhancement of toluene removal efficiency and energy efficiency. Especially, when packing with F-TiO2/γ-Al2O3 in NTP reactor, toluene removal efficiency reaches 99% and higher. Based on the data analysis of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, the experimental results showed that NTP reactor packed with F-TiO2/γ-Al2O3 resulted in a better inhibition for by-products formation effectively in the gas exhaust.

  1. Emission control at stationary sources in the Federal Republic of Germany. Vol 1. Sulphur oxide and nitrogen oxide emission control; Massnahmen zur Emissionsminderung bei stationaeren Quellen in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Bd. 1. Minderung der SO{sub 2}- und NO{sub x}-Emissionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rentz, O; Schleef, H J; Dorn, R; Sasse, H; Karl, U

    1997-05-01

    The first volume of the report covers the state of implementation of primary and secondary measures for SO{sub 2}- and NO{sub x} control applied in the most important industrial sectors in Germany. Integrated pollution abatement techniques, called primary measures in this report, such as process integrated measures and low emission processes, have gained increased importance in recent years. The end-of-pipe processes, described here as secondary measures, are generally highly effective. They represent mature technologies, which are capable of achieving significant reductions in SO{sub 2}- and NO{sub x} emissions, and which have been used in particular for retrofitting existing plants. At first, an overview is given regarding the development of SO{sub 2}- and NO{sub x} emissions in selected European countries during the last 20 years and in Europe. Current national and European emission limits and emission guidelines on SO{sub 2}- and NO{sub x} emissions from stationary sources are discussed as well. The state of implementation of measures for the reduction of SO{sub 2}- and NO{sub x} emissions is analysed for each relevant industrial sector and primary emission reduction options are described. Special units designede for direct contact of flame and process materials are dealt with in the different sector descriptions, while external combustion processes providing process heat and power are dealt with in a separate chapter. In the final section an overview of secondary emission reduction measures covering SO{sub 2}- and NO{sub x} control technology is given. For the various sectors, examples of investments and costs for installed emission reduction measures are given, which have to be considered as highly case specific. In addition, the suppliers of the various control technologies have given specific aspects related to specific process layout of their systems as well as references. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der erste Band des Berichts beschreibt den Anwendungsstand von

  2. An emission inventory of sulfur from anthropogenic sources in Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Shirsat

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents first results of a comprehensive emission inventory of chemical species from anthropogenic activities (power generation, vehicles, ships and aircraft in Antarctica, covering the 2004–2005 period.

    The inventory is based on estimated emission rates of fuel consumption provided by some of the Antarctic research stations. Since the emission sources have different modes of operation and use a variety of fuel, the emission flux rate of chemical species is calculated by multiplying the fuel consumption value with the density of fuel and appropriate emission factors. A separate inventory is prepared for each anthropogenic emission source in Antarctica.

    Depending on the type of operation, emission rates of SO2, and BC (Black Carbon, from shipping only have been calculated using the above technique. However, only results of SO2 emissions from each source are presented here. Emission inventory maps of SO2 depicting the track/path taken by each mobile source are shown. The total annual SO2 is 158 Mg from power generation and vehicle operations, 3873 Mg from ships and 56 Mg from aircraft for 2004–2005 and these values undergo strong seasonality following the human activity in Antarctica. Though these figures are small when compared to the emissions at most other regions of the world, they are an indication that human presence in Antarctica leads to at least local pollution. The sources are mainly line and point sources and thus the local pollution potentially is relatively strong.

  3. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Nnnnnn... - HAP Emissions Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false HAP Emissions Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart NNNNNN of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...: Chromium Compounds Pt. 63, Subpt. NNNNNN, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart NNNNNN of Part 63—HAP Emissions...

  4. Alternative control technology document for bakery oven emissions. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, C.W.

    1992-12-01

    The document was produced in response to a request by the baking industry for Federal guidance to assist in providing a more uniform information base for State decision-making with regard to control of bakery oven emissions. The information in the document pertains to bakeries that produce yeast-leavened bread, rolls, buns, and similar products but not crackers, sweet goods, or baked foodstuffs that are not yeast leavened. Information on the baking processes, equipment, operating parameters, potential emissions from baking, and potential emission control options are presented. Catalytic and regenerative oxidation are identified as the most appropriate existing control technologies applicable to VOC emissions from bakery ovens. Cost analyses for catalytic and regenerative oxidation are included. A predictive formula for use in estimating oven emissions has been derived from source tests done in junction with the development of the document. Its use and applicability are described.

  5. Evaporation Controlled Emission in Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topp, Claus; Nielsen, Peter V.; Heiselberg, Per

    -scale ventilated room when the emission is fully or partly evaporation controlled. The objective of the present research work has been to investigate the change of emission rates from small-scale experiments to full-scale ventilated rooms and to investigate the influence of the local air velocity field near......Emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from materials is traditionally determined from tests carried out in small-scale test chambers. However, a difference in scale may lead to a difference in the measured emission rate in a small-scale test chamber and the actual emission rate in a full...

  6. Quantitative analysis of directional spontaneous emission spectra from light sources in photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaev, Ivan S.; Lodahl, Peter; Vos, Willem L.

    2005-01-01

    We have performed angle-resolved measurements of spontaneous-emission spectra from laser dyes and quantum dots in opal and inverse opal photonic crystals. Pronounced directional dependencies of the emission spectra are observed: angular ranges of strongly reduced emission adjoin with angular ranges of enhanced emission. It appears that emission from embedded light sources is affected both by the periodicity and by the structural imperfections of the crystals: the photons are Bragg diffracted by lattice planes and scattered by unavoidable structural disorder. Using a model comprising diffuse light transport and photonic band structure, we quantitatively explain the directional emission spectra. This work provides detailed understanding of the transport of spontaneously emitted light in real photonic crystals, which is essential in the interpretation of quantum optics in photonic-band-gap crystals and for applications wherein directional emission and total emission power are controlled

  7. CHARACTERIZATION OF NITROUS OXIDE EMISSION SOURCES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report presents a global inventory of nitrous oxide (N2O) based on reevaluation of previous estimates and additions of previously uninventoried source categories. (NOTE: N2O is both a greenhouse gas and a precursor of nitric oxide (NO) which destroys stratospheric ozone.) The...

  8. Effect of low emission sources on air quality in Cracow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedoma, J. [EKOPOL Environmental Engineering Studies and Design Office, Co. Ltd., Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    The paper presents calculation of power engineering low emission and results of stimulation of the effect of this emission on air quality in Cracow, Poland. It has been stated that the segment of low emission in central areas of the town makes up ca. 40% of the observed concentration of sulfur dioxide. Furthermore it has been stated that the capital investment must be concentrated in the central part of the town in order to reach noticeable improvement of air quality in Cracow. Neither the output of a separate power source nor the emission level and its individual harmful effect, but the location of the source and especially packing density of the sources must decide the priority of upgrading actions.

  9. Noise source emissions, Davis Canyon site, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    This report has been prepared for the purpose of documenting the development of the data provided to the Repository Project Management (RPM) organization. The data provided encompass all phases of activity, from site preparation through the exploratory shaft facility (ESF) and repository construction and operation, and decommissioning. Noise environments expected from construction and operation of transportation corridors associated with the activity were also modeled. The data for the construction of transportation corridors were provided by Bechtel National, Inc. Use of the quietest equipment available within the proven state of the art was assumed, as was the use of acoustical enclosures to the extent practical. The programmatic assumptions are based on the noise-sensitive nature of the Canyonlands National Park. Another feature of the data is the use of 1/3-octave-band rather than 1/1-octave-band resolution of emission spectra. This was done to permit evaluation of audibility of sounds reaching the park

  10. Synthetic aperture controlled source electromagnetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, Y.; Snieder, R.; Slob, E.; Hunziker, J.W.; Singer, J.; Sheiman, J.; Rosenquist, M.

    2010-01-01

    Controlled?source electromagnetics (CSEM) has been used as a de?risking tool in the hydrocarbon exploration industry. Although there have been successful applications of CSEM, this technique is still not widely used in the industry because the limited types of hydrocarbon reservoirs CSEM can detect.

  11. X-Ray Emission from Compact Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cominsky, L

    2004-03-23

    This paper presents a review of the physical parameters of neutron stars and black holes that have been derived from X-ray observations. I then explain how these physical parameters can be used to learn about the extreme conditions occurring in regions of strong gravity, and present some recent evidence for relativistic effects seen in these systems. A glossary of commonly used terms and a short tutorial on the names of X-ray sources are also included.

  12. Primary sources of selected POPs: regional and global scale emission inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breivik, Knut; Alcock, Ruth; Li Yifan; Bailey, Robert E.; Fiedler, Heidelore; Pacyna, Jozef M

    2004-03-01

    During the last decade, a number of studies have been devoted to the sources and emissions of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) at regional and global scales. While significant improvements in knowledge have been achieved for some pesticides, the quantitative understanding of the emission processes and emission patterns for 'non-pesticide' POPs are still considered limited. The key issues remaining for the non-pesticide POPs are in part determined by their general source classification. For industrial chemicals, such as the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), there is considerable uncertainty with respect to the relative importance of atmospheric emissions from various source categories. For PCBs, temperature is discussed as a potential key factor influencing atmospheric emission levels and patterns. When it comes to the unintentional by-products of combustion and industrial processes (PCDD/Fs), there is still a large uncertainty with respect to the relative contribution of emissions from unregulated sources such as backyard barrel burning that requires further consideration and characterisation. For hexachlorobenzene (HCB), the relative importance of primary and secondary atmospheric emissions in controlling current atmospheric concentrations remains one of the key uncertainties. While these and other issues may remain unresolved, knowledge concerning the emissions of POPs is a prerequisite for any attempt to understand and predict the distribution and fate of these chemicals on a regional and global scale as well as to efficiently minimise future environmental burdens. - Knowledge of primary emissions is a prerequisite for understanding and predicting POPs on a regional/global scale.

  13. Primary sources of selected POPs: regional and global scale emission inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breivik, Knut; Alcock, Ruth; Li Yifan; Bailey, Robert E.; Fiedler, Heidelore; Pacyna, Jozef M.

    2004-01-01

    During the last decade, a number of studies have been devoted to the sources and emissions of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) at regional and global scales. While significant improvements in knowledge have been achieved for some pesticides, the quantitative understanding of the emission processes and emission patterns for 'non-pesticide' POPs are still considered limited. The key issues remaining for the non-pesticide POPs are in part determined by their general source classification. For industrial chemicals, such as the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), there is considerable uncertainty with respect to the relative importance of atmospheric emissions from various source categories. For PCBs, temperature is discussed as a potential key factor influencing atmospheric emission levels and patterns. When it comes to the unintentional by-products of combustion and industrial processes (PCDD/Fs), there is still a large uncertainty with respect to the relative contribution of emissions from unregulated sources such as backyard barrel burning that requires further consideration and characterisation. For hexachlorobenzene (HCB), the relative importance of primary and secondary atmospheric emissions in controlling current atmospheric concentrations remains one of the key uncertainties. While these and other issues may remain unresolved, knowledge concerning the emissions of POPs is a prerequisite for any attempt to understand and predict the distribution and fate of these chemicals on a regional and global scale as well as to efficiently minimise future environmental burdens. - Knowledge of primary emissions is a prerequisite for understanding and predicting POPs on a regional/global scale

  14. Pulsed, atmospheric pressure plasma source for emission spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yixiang; Jin, Zhe; Su, Yongxuan

    2004-05-11

    A low-power, plasma source-based, portable molecular light emission generator/detector employing an atmospheric pressure pulsed-plasma for molecular fragmentation and excitation is described. The average power required for the operation of the plasma is between 0.02 W and 5 W. The features of the optical emission spectra obtained with the pulsed plasma source are significantly different from those obtained with direct current (dc) discharge higher power; for example, strong CH emission at 431.2 nm which is only weakly observed with dc plasma sources was observed, and the intense CN emission observed at 383-388 nm using dc plasma sources was weak in most cases. Strong CN emission was only observed using the present apparatus when compounds containing nitrogen, such as aniline were employed as samples. The present apparatus detects dimethylsulfoxide at 200 ppb using helium as the plasma gas by observing the emission band of the CH radical. When coupled with a gas chromatograph for separating components present in a sample to be analyzed, the present invention provides an apparatus for detecting the arrival of a particular component in the sample at the end of the chromatographic column and the identity thereof.

  15. Classification of nutrient emission sources in the Vistula River system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalkowski, Tomasz

    2009-01-01

    Eutrophication of the Baltic sea still remains one of the biggest problems in the north-eastern area of Europe. Recognizing the sources of nutrient emission, classification of their importance and finding the way towards reduction of pollution are the most important tasks for scientists researching this area. This article presents the chemometric approach to the classification of nutrient emission with respect to the regionalisation of emission sources within the Vistula River basin (Poland). Modelled data for mean yearly emission of nitrogen and phosphorus in 1991-2000 has been used for the classification. Seventeen subcatchements in the Vistula basin have been classified according to cluster and factor analyses. The results of this analysis allowed determination of groups of areas with similar pollution characteristics and indicate the need for spatial differentiation of policies and strategies. Three major factors indicating urban, erosion and agricultural sources have been identified as major discriminants of the groups. - Two classification methods applied to evaluate the results of nutrient emission allow definition of major sources of the emissions and classification of catchments with similar pollution.

  16. Extended emission sources observed via two-proton correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awes, T.C.; Ferguson, R.L.; Obenshain, F.E.

    1988-01-01

    Two-proton correlations were measured as a function of the total energy and relative momentum of the proton. The correlation is analyzed for different orientations of the relative momentum, which allows information on the size and lifetime of the emission source to be extracted. The most energetic particles are emitted from a short- lived source of compound nucleus dimensions while the lower energy protons appear to be emitted from a source considerably larger than the compound nucleus. 9 refs., 3 figs

  17. Advanced Light Source control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magyary, S.; Chin, M.; Cork, C.; Fahmie, M.; Lancaster, H.; Molinari, P.; Ritchie, A.; Robb, A.; Timossi, C.

    1989-03-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a third generation 1--2 GeV synchrotron radiation source designed to provide ports for 60 beamlines. It uses a 50 MeV electron linac and 1.5 GeV, 1 Hz, booster synchrotron for injection into a 1--2 GeV storage ring. Interesting control problems are created because of the need for dynamic closed beam orbit control to eliminate interaction between the ring tuning requirements and to minimize orbit shifts due to ground vibrations. The extremely signal sensitive nature of the experiments requires special attention to the sources of electrical noise. These requirements have led to a control system design which emphasizes connectivity at the accelerator equipment end and a large I/O bandwidth for closed loop system response. Not overlooked are user friendliness, operator response time, modeling, and expert system provisions. Portable consoles are used for local operation of machine equipment. Our solution is a massively parallel system with >120 Mbits/sec I/O bandwidth and >1500 Mips computing power. At the equipment level connections are made using over 600 powerful Intelligent Local Controllers (ILC-s) mounted in 3U size Eurocard slots using fiber-optic cables between rack locations. In the control room, personal computers control and display all machine variables at a 10 Hz rate including the scope signals which are collected though the control system. Commercially available software and industry standards are used extensively. Particular attention is paid to reliability, maintainability and upgradeability. 10 refs., 11 figs

  18. VOC from Vehicular Evaporation Emissions: Status and Control Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Man, Hanyang; Tschantz, Michael; Wu, Ye; He, Kebin; Hao, Jiming

    2015-12-15

    Vehicular evaporative emissions is an important source of volatile organic carbon (VOC), however, accurate estimation of emission amounts and scientific evaluation of control strategy for these emissions have been neglected outside of the United States. This study provides four kinds of basic emission factors: diurnal, hot soak, permeation, and refueling. Evaporative emissions from the Euro 4 vehicles (1.6 kg/year/car) are about four times those of U.S. vehicles (0.4 kg/year/car). Closing this emissions gap would have a larger impact than the progression from Euro 3 to Euro 6 tailpipe HC emission controls. Even in the first 24 h of parking, China's current reliance upon the European 24 h diurnal standard results in 508 g/vehicle/year emissions, higher than 32 g/vehicle/year from Tier 2 vehicles. The U.S. driving cycle matches Beijing real-world conditions much better on both typical trip length and average speed than current European driving cycles. At least two requirements should be added to the Chinese emissions standards: an onboard refueling vapor recovery to force the canister to be sized sufficiently large, and a 48-h evaporation test requirement to ensure that adequate purging occurs over a shorter drive sequence.

  19. Estimation of Methane Emissions from Municipal Solid Waste Landfills in China Based on Point Emission Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Bo-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Citation: Cai, B.-F., Liu, J.-G., Gao, Q.-X., et al., 2014. Estimation of methane emissions from municipal solid waste landfills in China based on point emission sources. Adv. Clim. Change Res. 5(2, doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1248.2014.081.

  20. Waterbury, Conn., Incinerator to Control Mercury Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emission control equipment to limit the discharge of mercury pollution to the atmosphere will be installed at an incinerator owned by the City of Waterbury, Conn., according to a proposed agreement between the city and federal government.

  1. Method to Locate Contaminant Source and Estimate Emission Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu Hongquan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available People greatly concern the issue of air quality in some confined spaces, such as spacecraft, aircraft, and submarine. With the increase of residence time in such confined space, contaminant pollution has become a main factor which endangers life. It is urgent to identify a contaminant source rapidly so that a prompt remedial action can be taken. A procedure of source identification should be able to locate the position and to estimate the emission strength of the contaminant source. In this paper, an identification method was developed to realize these two aims. This method was developed based on a discrete concentration stochastic model. With this model, a sensitivity analysis algorithm was induced to locate the source position, and a Kalman filter was used to further estimate the contaminant emission strength. This method could track and predict the source strength dynamically. Meanwhile, it can predict the distribution of contaminant concentration. Simulation results have shown the virtues of the method.

  2. Development of a novel methodology for indoor emission source identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, K.H.; Zhang, J.S.; Knudsen, H.N.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a methodology to identify individual sources of emissions based on the measurements of mixed air samples and the emission signatures of individual materials previously determined by Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS), an on......-line analytical device. The methodology based on signal processing principles was developed by employing the method of multiple regression least squares (MRLS) and a normalization technique. Samples of nine typical building materials were tested individually and in combination, including carpet, ceiling material...... experiments and investigation are needed for cases where the relative emission rates among different compounds may change over a long-term period....

  3. Process control with optical emission spectroscopy in triode ion plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmenoja, K.; Korhonen, A.S.; Sulonen, M.S.

    1985-01-01

    Physical vapor deposition (PVD) techniques used to prepare, e.g., hard TiN, HfN, or ZrN coatings include a great variety of processes ranging from reactive evaporation to sputtering and ion plating. In ion plating one effective way to enhance ionization is to use a negatively biased hot filament. The use of an electron emitting filament brings an extra variable to be taken into account in developing the process control. In addition, proper control of the evaporation source is critical in ensuring reproducible results. With optical emission spectroscopy (OES) it should be possible to control the coating process more accurately. The stoichiometry and the composition of the growing coating may then be ensured effectively in subsequent runs. In this work the application of optical emission spectroscopy for process control in triode ion plating is discussed. The composition of the growing coating is determined experimentally using the relative intensities of specific emission lines. Changes in the evaporation rate and the gas flow can be seen directly from emission line intensities. Even the so-called poisoning of the evaporation source with reactive gas can be detected. Several experimental runs were carried out and afterwards the concentration profiles of the deposited coatings were checked with the nuclear resonance broadening (NRB) method. The results show the usefulness of emission spectroscopy in discharge control

  4. Emissions inventories and options for control. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swart, R.J.; Van Amstel, A.R.; Van den Born, G.J.; Kroeze, C.

    1995-10-01

    This report is the final summary report of the project `Social causes of the greenhouse effect, emissions inventories and options for control`. The objectives of the project, that started in 1990, were to support the development of a comprehensive Dutch climate policy and to identify gaps in the knowledge about sources of greenhouse gases. The four phases of the project are summarized. In the first phase, a first national inventory of greenhouse gas emissions was made, capturing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and the ozone precursors carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} ) and volatile organic compounds (VOC). In the second phase, the acquired expertise was used to support the development of Guidelines for National Emissions Inventories by the joint OECD/IPCC programme through workshop organization and participation in the international planning group. In the third phase, a detailed analysis was performed of the sources of methane, its current and future emissions and the options for control. Finally, a similar analysis was performed for nitrous oxide. In these studies, it was found that policies not specifically aiming at mitigating climate change, would help to control the emissions of the non-CO{sub 2} greenhouse gases. While for methane, national emissions would even decrease because of measures in the livestock management and waste disposal sectors, for nitrous oxide the reductions in agricultural emissions would be outweighed by increases, especially in the transportation sector. The project shows that the application of more detailed information leads to differences with the Guidelines, both because of the limited number of source categories in the Guidelines and because of different, locally specific emissions factors. 4 figs., 2 tabs., 14 refs.

  5. Aging of plumes from emission sources based on chamber simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Deng, W.; Fang, Z.; Bernard, F.; Zhang, Y.; Yu, J.; Mellouki, A.; George, C.

    2017-12-01

    Study on atmospheric aging of plumes from emission sources is essential to understand their contribution to both secondary and primary pollutants occurring in the ambient air. Here we directly introduced vehicle exhaust, biomass burning plume, industrial solvents and cooking plumes into a smog chamber with 30 m3 fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) Teflon film reactor housed in a temperature-controlled enclosure, for characterizing primarily emitted air pollutants and for investigating secondarily formed products during photo-oxidation. Moreover, we also initiated study on the formation of secondary aerosols when gasoline vehicle exhaust is mixed with typical coal combustion pollutant SO2 or typical agricultural-related pollutant NH3. Formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) from typical solvent toluene was also investigated in ambient air matrix in comparison with purified air matrix. Main findings include: 1) Except for exhaust from idling gasoline vehicles, traditional precursor volatile organic compounds could only explain a very small fraction of SOA formed from vehicle exhaust, biomass burning or cooking plumes, suggesting knowledge gap in SOA precursors; 2) There is the need to re-think vehicle emission standards with a combined primary and/or secondary contribution of vehicle exhaust to PM2.5 or other secondary pollutants such as ozone; 3) When mixed with SO2, the gasoline vehicle exhaust revealed an increase of SOA production factor by 60-200% and meanwhile SO2 oxidation rates increased about a factor of 2.7; when the aged gasoline vehicle exhaust were mixing with NH3, both particle number and mass concentrations were increasing explosively. These phenomenons implied the complex interaction during aging of co-existing source emissions. 4) For typical combination of "tolune+SO2+NOx", when compared to chamber simulation with purified air as matrix, both SOA formation and SO2 oxidation were greatly enhanced under ambient air matrix, and the enhancement

  6. Economic growth and carbon emission control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenyu

    The question about whether environmental improvement is compatible with continued economic growth remains unclear and requires further study in a specific context. This study intends to provide insight on the potential for carbon emissions control in the absence of international agreement, and connect the empirical analysis with theoretical framework. The Chinese electricity generation sector is used as a case study to demonstrate the problem. Both social planner and private problems are examined to derive the conditions that define the optimal level of production and pollution. The private problem will be demonstrated under the emission regulation using an emission tax, an input tax and an abatement subsidy respectively. The social optimal emission flow is imposed into the private problem. To provide tractable analytical results, a Cobb-Douglas type production function is used to describe the joint production process of the desired output and undesired output (i.e., electricity and emissions). A modified Hamiltonian approach is employed to solve the system and the steady state solutions are examined for policy implications. The theoretical analysis suggests that the ratio of emissions to desired output (refer to 'emission factor'), is a function of productive capital and other parameters. The finding of non-constant emission factor shows that reducing emissions without further cutting back the production of desired outputs is feasible under some circumstances. Rather than an ad hoc specification, the optimal conditions derived from our theoretical framework are used to examine the relationship between desired output and emission level. Data comes from the China Statistical Yearbook and China Electric Power Yearbook and provincial information of electricity generation for the year of 1993-2003 are used to estimate the Cobb-Douglas type joint production by the full information maximum likelihood (FIML) method. The empirical analysis shed light on the optimal

  7. Background information on sources of low-level radionuclide emissions to air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbit, C.D.; Herrington, W.N.; Higby, D.P.; Stout, L.A.; Corley, J.P.

    1983-09-01

    This report provides a general description and reported emissions for eight low-level radioactive source categories, including facilties that are licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Agreement States, and non-Department of Energy (DOE) federal facilities. The eight categories of low-level radioactive source facilities covered by this report are: research and test reactors, accelerators, the radiopharmaceutical industry, source manufacturers, medical facilities, laboratories, naval shipyards, and low-level commercial waste disposal sites. Under each category five elements are addressed: a general description, a facility and process description, the emission control systems, a site description, and the radionuclides released to air (from routine operations)

  8. Background information on sources of low-level radionuclide emissions to air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbit, C.D.; Herrington, W.N.; Higby, D.P.; Stout, L.A.; Corley, J.P.

    1983-09-01

    This report provides a general description and reported emissions for eight low-level radioactive source categories, including facilties that are licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Agreement States, and non-Department of Energy (DOE) federal facilities. The eight categories of low-level radioactive source facilities covered by this report are: research and test reactors, accelerators, the radiopharmaceutical industry, source manufacturers, medical facilities, laboratories, naval shipyards, and low-level commercial waste disposal sites. Under each category five elements are addressed: a general description, a facility and process description, the emission control systems, a site description, and the radionuclides released to air (from routine operations).

  9. Ambiguity of source location in acoustic emission technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barat, P.; Mukherjee, P.; Kalyanasundaram, P.; Raj, B.

    1996-01-01

    Location of acoustic emission (AE) source in a plane is detected from the difference of the arrival times of the AE signal to at least three sensors placed on it. The detected location may not be unique in all cases. In this paper, the condition for the unambiguous solution for the location of the source has been deduced mathematically in terms of arrival times of the AE signal, the coordinate of the three sensors and the acoustic velocity. (author)

  10. Source Attribution of Methane Emissions in Northeastern Colorado Using Ammonia to Methane Emission Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilerman, S. J.; Neuman, J. A.; Peischl, J.; Aikin, K. C.; Ryerson, T. B.; Perring, A. E.; Robinson, E. S.; Holloway, M.; Trainer, M.

    2015-12-01

    Due to recent advances in extraction technology, oil and natural gas extraction and processing in the Denver-Julesburg basin has increased substantially in the past decade. Northeastern Colorado is also home to over 250 concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), capable of hosting over 2 million head of ruminant livestock (cattle and sheep). Because of methane's high Global Warming Potential, quantification and attribution of methane emissions from oil and gas development and agricultural activity are important for guiding greenhouse gas emission policy. However, due to the co-location of these different sources, top-down measurements of methane are often unable to attribute emissions to a specific source or sector. In this work, we evaluate the ammonia:methane emission ratio directly downwind of CAFOs using a mobile laboratory. Several CAFOs were chosen for periodic study over a 12-month period to identify diurnal and seasonal variation in the emission ratio as well as differences due to livestock type. Using this knowledge of the agricultural ammonia:methane emission ratio, aircraft measurements of ammonia and methane over oil and gas basins in the western US during the Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus (SONGNEX) field campaign in March and April 2015 can be used for source attribution of methane emissions.

  11. Identification of emission sources of umbral flashes using phase congruency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Song; Yang Yun-Fei; Ji Kai-Fan; Yu Lan

    2014-01-01

    The emission sources of umbral flashes (UFs) are believed to be closely related to running umbral and penumbral waves, and are concluded to be associated with umbral dots in the solar photosphere. Accurate identification of emission sources of UFs is crucial for investigating these physical phenomena and their inherent relationships. A relatively novel model of shape perception, namely phase congruency (PC), uses phase information in the Fourier domain to identify the geometrical shape of the region of interest in different intensity levels, rather than intensity or gradient. Previous studies indicate that the model is suitable for identifying features with low contrast and low luminance. In the present paper, we applied the PC model to identify the emission sources of UFs and to locate their positions. For illustrating the high performance of our proposed method, two time sequences of Ca II H images derived from the Hinode/SOT on 2010 August 10 and 2013 August 20 were used. Furthermore, we also compared these results with the analysis results that are identified by the traditional/classical identification methods, including the gray-scale adjusted technique and the running difference technique. The result of our analysis demonstrates that our proposed method is more accurate and effective than the traditional identification methods when applied to identifying the emission sources of UFs and to locating their positions. (research papers)

  12. Lidar method to estimate emission rates from extended sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currently, point measurements, often combined with models, are the primary means by which atmospheric emission rates are estimated from extended sources. However, these methods often fall short in their spatial and temporal resolution and accuracy. In recent years, lidar has emerged as a suitable to...

  13. Data structure for estimating emissions from non-road sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorenson, S C; Kalivoda, M; Vacarro, R; Trozzi, C; Samaras, Z; Lewis, C A

    1997-03-01

    The work described in the following is a portion of the MEET project (Methodologies for Estimation Air Pollutant Emissions from Transport). The overall goal of the MEET project is to consolidate and present methodologies which can be used to estimate air pollutant emissions from various types of traffic sources. One of the goals of MEET is to provide methodologies to be used in the COMMUTE project also funded by DG VII. COMMUTE is developing computer software which can be used to provide emissions inventories on the European scale. Although COMMUTE is viewed as a prime user of the information generated in MEET, the MEET results are intended to be used in a broader area, and on both smaller and larger spatial scales. The methodologies and data presented will be useful for planners on a more local scale than a national or continental basis. While most attention in previous years has been concentrated on emissions from road transport, it has become increasingly apparent in later years that the so-called off road transportation contributes significantly to the emission of air pollutants. The three most common off-road traffic modes are Air Traffic, Rail Traffic, and Ship or Marine traffic. In the following, the basic structure of the methods for estimating the emissions from these sectors will be given and of the input and output data associated with these calculations. The structures will of necessity be different for the different types of traffic. The data structures in the following reflect these variations and uncertainties. In some instances alternative approaches to emissions estimation will be suggested. The user must evaluate the amount and reliability of available data for the application at hand, and select the method which would be expected to give the highest accuracy. In any event, a large amount of uncertainty is inherent in the estimation of emissions from the non-road traffic sources, particularly those involving rail and maritime transport. (EG)

  14. Control of sealed radioactive sources in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez Quijada, R.

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes the inventory of radioactive sources in Peru and assesses the control. Three groups of source conditions are established: controlled sources, known sources, and lost and orphan sources. The potential risk, described as not significant, for producing accidents is established and the needed measures are discussed. The paper concludes that, while the control on sealed sources is good, there is still room for improvement. (author)

  15. Atmospheric toxic metals emission inventory and spatial characteristics from anthropogenic sources of Guangdong province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cher, S.; Menghua, L.; Xiao, X.; Yuqi, W.; Zhuangmin, Z.; Zhijiong, H.; Cheng, L.; Guanglin, J.; Zibing, Y.; Junyu, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric toxic metals (TMs) are part of particulate matters, and may create adverse effects on the environment and human health depending upon their bioavailability and toxicity. Localized emission inventory is fundamental for parsing of toxic metals to identify key sources in order to formulate efficient toxic metals control strategies. With the use of the latest municipal level environment statistical data, this study developed a bottom-up emission inventory of five toxic metals (Hg, As, Pb, Cd, Cr) from anthropogenic activities in Guangdong province for the year of 2014. Major atmospheric toxic metals sources including combustion sources (coal, oil, biomass, municipal solid waste) and industrial process sources (cement production, nonferrous metal smelting, iron and steel industry, battery and fluorescent lamp production) were investigated. Results showed that: (1) The total emissions of Hg, As, Pb, Cd, Cr in Guangdong province were 18.14, 32.59, 411.34, 13.13, 84.16 t, respectively. (2) Different pollutants have obvious characteristics of emission sources. For total Hg emission, 46% comes from combustion sources, of which 32% from coal combustion and 8% from MSW combustion. Other 54% comes from industrial processes, which dominated by the cement (19%), fluorescent lamp (18%) and battery production (13%). Of the total Hg emission, 69% is released as Hg0 , 29% as Hg2+ , and only 2% as Hgp due to strict particulate matters controls policies. For As emissions, coal combustion, nonferrous metal smelting and iron and steel industry contributed approximate 48%, 25% and 24%, respectively. Pb emissions primarily come from battery production (42%), iron and steel industry (21%) and on-road mobile gasoline combustion (17%). Cd and Cr emissions were dominated by nonferrous metal smelting (71%) and iron and steel industry (82%), respectively. (3) In term of the spatial distribution, emissions of atmospheric toxic metals are mainly concentrated in the central region of

  16. Airborne reduced nitrogen: ammonia emissions from agriculture and other sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Natalie; Strader, Ross; Davidson, Cliff

    2003-06-01

    Ammonia is a basic gas and one of the most abundant nitrogen-containing compounds in the atmosphere. When emitted, ammonia reacts with oxides of nitrogen and sulfur to form particles, typically in the fine particle size range. Roughly half of the PM(2.5) mass in eastern United States is ammonium sulfate, according to the US EPA. Results from recent studies of PM(2.5) show that these fine particles are typically deposited deep in the lungs and may lead to increased morbidity and/or mortality. Also, these particles are in the size range that will degrade visibility. Ammonia emission inventories are usually constructed by multiplying an activity level by an experimentally determined emission factor for each source category. Typical sources of ammonia include livestock, fertilizer, soils, forest fires and slash burning, industry, vehicles, the oceans, humans, pets, wild animals, and waste disposal and recycling activities. Livestock is the largest source category in the United States, with waste from livestock responsible for about 3x10(9) kg of ammonia in 1995. Volatilization of ammonia from livestock waste is dependent on many parameters, and thus emission factors are difficult to predict. Despite a seasonal variation in these values, the emission factors for general livestock categories are usually annually averaged in current inventories. Activity levels for livestock are from the USDA Census of Agriculture, which does not give information about animal raising practices such as housing types and grazing times, waste handling systems, and approximate animal slurry spreading times or methods. Ammonia emissions in the United States in 1995 from sources other than livestock are much lower; for example, annual emissions are roughly 8x10(8) kg from fertilizer, 7x10(7) kg from industry, 5x10(7) kg from vehicles and 1x10(8) kg from humans. There is considerable uncertainty in the emissions from soil and vegetation, although this category may also be significant

  17. ALMA BAND 8 CONTINUUM EMISSION FROM ORION SOURCE I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirota, Tomoya; Matsumoto, Naoko [Mizusawa VLBI Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa 2-21-1, Mitaka-shi, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Machida, Masahiro N.; Matsushita, Yuko [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, Motooka 744, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka-shi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Motogi, Kazuhito; Honma, Mareki [Mizusawa VLBI Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Hoshigaoka2-12, Mizusawa-ku, Oshu-shi, Iwate 023-0861 (Japan); Kim, Mi Kyoung [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Hwaam-dong 61-1, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Burns, Ross A., E-mail: tomoya.hirota@nao.ac.jp [Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe, Postbus 2, 7990 AA, Dwingeloo (Netherlands)

    2016-12-20

    We have measured continuum flux densities of a high-mass protostar candidate, a radio source I in the Orion KL region (Orion Source I) using the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) at band 8 with an angular resolution of 0.″1. The continuum emission at 430, 460, and 490 GHz associated with Source I shows an elongated structure along the northwest–southeast direction perpendicular to the so-called low-velocity bipolar outflow. The deconvolved size of the continuum source, 90 au × 20 au, is consistent with those reported previously at other millimeter/submillimeter wavelengths. The flux density can be well fitted to the optically thick blackbody spectral energy distribution, and the brightness temperature is evaluated to be 700–800 K. It is much lower than that in the case of proton–electron or H{sup −} free–free radiations. Our data are consistent with the latest ALMA results by Plambeck and Wright, in which the continuum emission was proposed to arise from the edge-on circumstellar disk via thermal dust emission, unless the continuum source consists of an unresolved structure with a smaller beam filling factor.

  18. Advanced CIDI Emission Control System Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, Christine

    2006-05-31

    Ford Motor Company, with ExxonMobil and FEV, participated in the Department of Energy's (DOE) Ultra-Clean Transportation Fuels Program with the goal to develop an innovative emission control system for light-duty diesel vehicles. The focus on diesel engine emissions was a direct result of the improved volumetric fuel economy (up to 50%) and lower CO2 emissions (up to 25%) over comparable gasoline engines shown in Europe. Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) with aqueous urea as the NOx reductant and a Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (CDPF) were chosen as the primary emission control system components. The program expected to demonstrate more than 90% durable reduction in particulate matter (PM) and NOx emissions on a light-duty truck application, based on the FTP-75 drive cycle. Very low sulfur diesel fuel (<15 ppm-wt) enabled lower PM emissions, reduced fuel economy penalty due to the emission control system and improved long-term system durability. Significant progress was made toward a durable system to meet Tier 2 Bin 5 emission standards on a 6000 lbs light-duty truck. A 40% reduction in engine-out NOx emissions was achieved with a mid-size prototype diesel engine through engine recalibration and increased exhaust gas recirculation. Use of a rapid warm-up strategy and urea SCR provided over 90% further NOx reduction while the CDPF reduced tailpipe PM to gasoline vehicle levels. Development work was conducted to separately improve urea SCR and CDPF system durability, as well as improved oxidation catalyst function. Exhaust gas NOx and ammonia sensors were also developed further. While the final emission control system did not meet Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx after 120k mi of aging on the dynamometer, it did meet the standards for HC, NMOG, and PM, and an improved SCR catalyst was shown to have potential to meet the NOx standard, assuming the DOC durability could be improved further. Models of DOC and SCR function were developed to guide the study of several key

  19. Environmental management control systems for carbon emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Di Giacomo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This paper aims to focus on a global consulting company and examine how it struggled to establish an effective environmental management control system for carbon emissions for its employees’ air travel. The organisation was motivated to reduce its carbon emissions both to comply with regulation and to enhance or maintain corporate reputation. Design/methodology/approach – The paper takes a case study approach, examining internal and external documents as well as conducting interviews with senior staff. Findings – The case study investigates how Beta’s management implemented a system to reduce carbon emissions. The organisation focused on air travel, but the study finds that employee travel preferences did not radically change. Rather than reduction in carbon emissions, as planned by head office, air travel carbon emissions actually increased during the period, and, as a consequence, the reported reduction targets were significantly adjusted downwards to meet the new realities. Practical implications – The study has implications for both policy and practice for organisations seeking to improve their sustainability performance. Originality/value – The study responds to calls in the literature to undertake research to identify how management practices might reduce negative sustainability impacts, as there is little evidence of what management practices and accounting tools are being adopted, particularly in relation to carbon emissions from air travel. The paper adds to the creation of new accounting, giving visibility to carbon emission management through case study analysis.

  20. Field emission from a new type of electron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousa, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    A new type of field emission electron source has been developed. In this paper, the construction, characteristics and behaviour of tungsten micropoint emitters coated with a sub-micron layer of hydrocarbon using a TEM with poor ( ∼ 1 0 -3 torr) vacuum conditions are described. The hydrocarbon coating has been verified using the X-Ray energy dispersive analysis technique of a SEM. The technical capabilities and potential of the new type of electron source are compared with those of other comparable composite micropoint field emitters and other types of electron sources currently in use. The emission properties presented here include I-V characteristics, emission images and electron energy spectra of this type of composite micropoint emitters. The effect on the behaviour and characteristics of baking the coated emitters at temperatures ranging between 140 0 C and 350 0 C is also studied. The behaviour of the emitter has been interpreted in terms of a field-induced hot-electron emission mechanism associated with metal-insulator-vacuum (M-I-V) regime

  1. Emissions control of volatile organic compounds in petroleum industry; Controle de emissoes de compostos organicos volateis na industria do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierres, Ricardo; Moreira, Andrea Cristina de Castro Araujo [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). P e D de Energia e Desenvolvimento Sustentavel (PDEDS)

    2004-07-01

    Volatile organic compounds are among the most common pollutants emitted by refining processes. The sources of these emissions should be controlled for preserving the ambient air quality. This article outlines the main factors to be considered for defining an effective emissions control strategy and compares the major characteristics of the available control technologies. (author)

  2. Fission-neutrons source with fast neutron-emission timing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusev, G., E-mail: rusev@lanl.gov; Baramsai, B.; Bond, E.M.; Jandel, M.

    2016-05-01

    A neutron source with fast timing has been built to help with detector-response measurements. The source is based on the neutron emission from the spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf. The time is provided by registering the fission fragments in a layer of a thin scintillation film with a signal rise time of 1 ns. The scintillation light output is measured by two silicon photomultipliers with rise time of 0.5 ns. Overall time resolution of the source is 0.3 ns. Design of the source and test measurements using it are described. An example application of the source for determining the neutron/gamma pulse-shape discrimination by a stilbene crystal is given.

  3. Modeled and observed ozone sensitivity to mobile-source emissions in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zavala

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The emission characteristics of mobile sources in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA have changed significantly over the past few decades in response to emission control policies, advancements in vehicle technologies and improvements in fuel quality, among others. Along with these changes, concurrent non-linear changes in photochemical levels and criteria pollutants have been observed, providing a unique opportunity to understand the effects of perturbations of mobile emission levels on the photochemistry in the region using observational and modeling approaches. The observed historical trends of ozone (O3, carbon monoxide (CO and nitrogen oxides (NOx suggest that ozone production in the MCMA has changed from a low to a high VOC-sensitive regime over a period of 20 years. Comparison of the historical emission trends of CO, NOx and hydrocarbons derived from mobile-source emission studies in the MCMA from 1991 to 2006 with the trends of the concentrations of CO, NOx, and the CO/NOx ratio during peak traffic hours also indicates that fuel-based fleet average emission factors have significantly decreased for CO and VOCs during this period whereas NOx emission factors do not show any strong trend, effectively reducing the ambient VOC/NOx ratio.

    This study presents the results of model analyses on the sensitivity of the observed ozone levels to the estimated historical changes in its precursors. The model sensitivity analyses used a well-validated base case simulation of a high pollution episode in the MCMA with the mathematical Decoupled Direct Method (DDM and the standard Brute Force Method (BFM in the 3-D CAMx chemical transport model. The model reproduces adequately the observed historical trends and current photochemical levels. Comparison of the BFM and the DDM sensitivity techniques indicates that the model yields ozone values that increase linearly with

  4. Strategies for decreasing nitrous oxide emissions from agricultural sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oenema, O. [AB-DLO, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    1999-08-01

    Following the Kyoto Conference of 1997, declaring the urgency of implementing strategies for decreasing greenhouse gas emissions, there are several valid arguments to examine the opportunities for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from agriculture. This paper provides a review of the state-of-the-art of emission reduction, discusses two strategies for decreasing emissions and identifies various gaps in current knowledge in this field and the need for relevant scientific research. The two strategies discussed are (1) increasing the nitrogen use efficiency toward the goal of lowering total nitrogen input, and (2) decreasing the release of nitrous oxide per unit of nitrogen from the processes of nitrification and denitrification. Increasing nitrogen use efficiency is thought to be the most effective strategy. To that end, the paper discusses several practical actions and measures based on decisions at tactical and operational management levels. Knowledge gaps identified include (1) incomplete understanding of nitrogen cycling in farming systems, (2) incomplete quantitative understanding of emission controlling factors, (3) information gap between science and policy, and (4) information gap between science and practice. Appropriate research needs are suggested for each of these areas. It is suggested that the highest priority should be given to improving the understanding of emission controlling factors in the field and on the farm. 23 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) source profiles of on-road vehicle emissions in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong-Li, Wang; Sheng-Ao, Jing; Sheng-Rong, Lou; Qing-Yao, Hu; Li, Li; Shi-Kang, Tao; Cheng, Huang; Li-Ping, Qiao; Chang-Hong, Chen

    2017-12-31

    Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) source profiles of on-road vehicles were widely studied as their critical roles in VOCs source apportionment and abatement measures in megacities. Studies of VOCs source profiles from on-road motor vehicles from 2001 to 2016 were summarized in this study, with a focus on the comparisons among different studies and the potential impact of different factors. Generally, non-methane hydrocarbons dominated the source profile of on-road vehicle emissions. Carbonyls, potential important components of vehicle emission, were seldom considered in VOCs emissions of vehicles in the past and should be paid more attention to in further study. VOCs source profiles showed some variations among different studies, and 6 factors were extracted and studied due to their impact to VOCs source profile of on-road vehicles. Vehicle types, being dependent on engine types, and fuel types were two dominant factors impacting VOCs sources profiles of vehicles. In comparison, impacts of ignitions, driving conditions and accumulated mileage were mainly due to their influence on the combustion efficiency. An opening and interactive database of VOCs from vehicle emissions was critically essential in future, and mechanisms of sharing and inputting relative research results should be formed to encourage researchers join the database establishment. Correspondingly, detailed quality assurance and quality control procedures were also very important, which included the information of test vehicles and test methods as detailed as possible. Based on the community above, a better uncertainty analysis could be carried out for the VOCs emissions profiles, which was critically important to understand the VOCs emission characteristics of the vehicle emissions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Airborne radioactive emission control technology. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoski, L.; Berlin, R.; Corby, D.; Clancy, J.; Hoopes, G.

    1980-03-01

    This report reviews the current and future control technology for airborne emissions from a wide variety of industries/facilities, including uranium mining and milling, other nuclear fuel cycle facilities, other NRC-licensed and DOE facilities, fossil fuel facilities, selected metal and non-metal extraction industries, and others. Where specific radioactivity control technology is lacking, a description of any existing control technology is given. Future control technology is assessed in terms of improvements to equipment performance and process alterations. A catalogue of investigated research on advanced control technologies is presented

  7. Airborne radioactive emission control technology. Volume III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoski, L.; Berlin, R.; Corby, D.; Clancy, J.; Hoopes, G.

    1980-03-01

    This report reviews the current and future control technology for airborne emissions from a wide variety of industries/facilities, including uranium mining and milling, other nuclear fuel cycle facilities, other NRC-licensed and DOE facilities, fossil fuel facilities, selected metal and non-metal extraction industries, and others. Where specific radioactivity control technology is lacking, a description of any existing control technology is given. Future control technology is assessed in terms of improvements to equipment performance and process alterations. A catalogue of investigated research on advanced control technologies is presented

  8. Airborne radioactive emission control technology. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoski, L.; Berlin, R.; Corby, D.; Clancy, J.; Hoopes, G.

    1980-03-01

    This report reviews the current and future control technology for airborne emissions from a wide variety of industries/facilities, includimg uranium mining and milling, other nuclear fuel cycle facilities, other NRC-licensed and DOE facilities, fossil fuel facilities, selected metal and non-metal extraction industries, and others. Where specific radioactivity control technology is lacking a description of any existing control technology is given. Future control technology is assessed in terms of improvements to equipment performance and process alterations. A catalogue of investigated research on advanced control technologies is presented

  9. Control mechanisms for Nordic ship emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinsen, K. [DNV, Oslo (Norway); Torvanger, A. [Cicero, Oslo (Norway)

    2013-04-15

    Shipping today operates under a complex set of international and domestic regulations. However, the environmental regulations have lagged behind those of other industries. This situation is now changing quite dramatically. The increased focus on environmental issues, combined with the growing realisation of the actual pollution burden imposed by shipping, has led to an upsurge in both international and national regulations. Some are ready and will enter into force in the near future, while others are still being developed. On behalf of the Nordic Council of Ministers DNV has carried out a study on possible control mechanisms for Nordic ship emission. The aim is to assess the baseline shipping emissions and reduction potential and the possible controlling mechanisms (both incentives and regulations) available for reducing the emissions to air from shipping within the Nordic region. (Author)

  10. Sources of uncertainty in characterizing health risks from flare emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrudey, S.E.

    2000-01-01

    The assessment of health risks associated with gas flaring was the focus of this paper. Health risk assessments for environmental decision-making includes the evaluation of scientific data to identify hazards and to determine dose-response assessments, exposure assessments and risk characterization. Gas flaring has been the cause for public health concerns in recent years, most notably since 1996 after a published report by the Alberta Research Council. Some of the major sources of uncertainty associated with identifying hazardous contaminants in flare emissions were discussed. Methods to predict human exposures to emitted contaminants were examined along with risk characterization of predicted exposures to several identified contaminants. One of the problems is that elemental uncertainties exist regarding flare emissions which places limitations of the degree of reassurance that risk assessment can provide, but risk assessment can nevertheless offer some guidance to those responsible for flare emissions

  11. Global organic carbon emissions from primary sources from 1960 to 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ye; Shen, Huizhong; Chen, Yilin; Zhong, Qirui; Chen, Han; Wang, Rong; Shen, Guofeng; Liu, Junfeng; Li, Bengang; Tao, Shu

    2015-12-01

    In an attempt to reduce uncertainty, global organic carbon (OC) emissions from a total of 70 sources were compiled at 0.1° × 0.1° resolution for 2007 (PKU-OC-2007) and country scale from 1960 to 2009. The compilation took advantage of a new fuel-consumption data product (PKU-Fuel-2007) and a series of newly published emission factors (EFOC) in developing countries. The estimated OC emissions were 32.9 Tg (24.1-50.6 Tg as interquartile range), of which less than one third was anthropogenic in origin. Uncertainty resulted primarily from variations in EFOC. Asia, Africa, and South America had high emissions mainly because of residential biomass fuel burning or wildfires. Per-person OC emission in rural areas was three times that of urban areas because of the relatively high EFOC of residential solid fuels. Temporal trend of anthropogenic OC emissions depended on rural population, and was influenced primarily by residential crop residue and agricultural waste burning. Both the OC/PM2.5 ratio and emission intensity, defined as quantity of OC emissions per unit of fuel consumption for all sources, of anthropogenic OC followed a decreasing trend, indicating continuous improvement in combustion efficiency and control measures.

  12. The infrared emission bands. III. Southern IRAS sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M; Tielens, A G; Bregman, J; Witteborn, F C; Rank, D M; Allamandola, L J; Wooden, D H; de Muizon, M

    1989-06-01

    We present airborne 5-8 micrometers spectra of southern IRAS sources which reveal strong polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission features. The good correlation between the bands, in particular the dominant 6.2 and "7.7" micrometers features, strongly imply a common carrier, reinforcing the PAH hypothesis. However, small but detectable spectral variations exist. Planetaries have a distinctly different ratio of I(6.2)/I(7.7) than other nebulae, accompanied by a redward shift in the actual wavelength of the "7.7" micrometers peak. Further, we have detected a new feature, previously predicted from laboratory spectra of PAH molecules, at 5.2 micrometers in many of these sources. Spectra of two rare [WC 10] planetary nebular nuclei indicate a very prominent plateau of emission, linking the 6.2 and 7.7 micrometers bands. Several of our sources show definite evidence for emission structure between 14 and 23 micrometers in their IRAS Low-Resolution Spectral Atlas spectra: we attribute this structure to PAH bands. too. We have defined the "generic" spectrum of emission bands relating the mean intensities of each band to that of the strongest, near 7.7 micrometers. We have added three more planetary or protoplanetary nebulae to our correlation between 7.7 micrometers band intensity and nebular gas phase C/O ratio, namely NGC 6302, HR 4049, and the highly carbon-rich [WC 10] nucleus, CPD--56 degrees 8032. For the latter we have determined a ratio for C/O of approximately 4.8 from IUE observations. The good correlation between the intensity ratio of the "7.7" micrometers feature relative to the far-infrared dust continuum and nebular C/O also supports a carbonaceous carrier for these emission features.

  13. Nitrous oxide emissions respond differently to mineral and organic nitrogen sources in contrasting soil types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelster, David E; Chantigny, Martin H; Rochette, Philippe; Angers, Denis A; Rieux, Christine; Vanasse, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The use of various animal manures for nitrogen (N) fertilization is often viewed as a viable replacement for mineral N fertilizers. However, the impacts of amendment type on NO production may vary. In this study, NO emissions were measured for 2 yr on two soil types with contrasting texture and carbon (C) content under a cool, humid climate. Treatments consisted of a no-N control, calcium ammonium nitrate, poultry manure, liquid cattle manure, or liquid swine manure. The N sources were surface applied and immediately incorporated at 90 kg N ha before seeding of spring wheat ( L.). Cumulative NO-N emissions from the silty clay ranged from 2.2 to 8.3 kg ha yr and were slightly lower in the control than in the fertilized plots ( = 0.067). The 2-yr mean NO emission factors ranged from 2.0 to 4.4% of added N, with no difference among N sources. Emissions of NO from the sandy loam soil ranged from 0.3 to 2.2 kg NO-N ha yr, with higher emissions with organic than mineral N sources ( = 0.015) and the greatest emissions with poultry manure ( < 0.001). The NO emission factor from plots amended with poultry manure was 1.8%, more than double that of the other treatments (0.3-0.9%), likely because of its high C content. On the silty clay, the yield-based NO emissions (g NO-N kg grain yield N) were similar between treatments, whereas on the sandy loam, they were greatest when amended with poultry manure. Our findings suggest that, compared with mineral N sources, manure application only increases soil NO flux in soils with low C content. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  14. Emission characteristics and stability of laser ion sources

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krása, Josef; Velyhan, Andriy; Krouský, Eduard; Láska, Leoš; Rohlena, Karel; Jungwirth, Karel; Ullschmied, Jiří; Lorusso, A.; Velardi, L.; Nassisi, V.; Czarnecka, A.; Ryc, L.; Parys, P.; Wolowski, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 5 (2010), s. 617-621 ISSN 0042-207X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100715 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523; CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : laser ion sources * ion emission reproducibility * thermal and fast ions * ion temperature * centre-of-mass velocity Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.048, year: 2010

  15. Characterization of carbonaceous aerosol emissions from selected combustion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, J.P.G.; Espino, M.P.M.; Pabroa, P.C.B.; Bautista, A.T. VII

    2015-01-01

    Carbonaceous Particulates are carbon-containing solid or liquid matter which form a significant portion of the fine particulate mass (PM2.5) and these have known profound adverse effects on health, climate and visibility. This study aims to characterize carbonaceous aerosol emissions from different combustion sources to establish fingerprints for these for use in the refinement of improvement of the resolution of sources apportionment studies being done by the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), i.e. to resolve vehicular emission sources. Fine air particulate sample were collected in pre-baked Quartz filters using an improvised collection set-up with a Gent sampler. Concentrations of organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC, respectively) in PM2.5 were measured for the different combustion sources—vehicular emissions, tire pyrolysis, and biomass burning, using a thermal-optical method of analysis following the IMPROVE_A protocol. Measured OC ad EC concentrations are shown as percentages with respect to the total carbon (TC) and are illustrated in a 100% stacked chart. Predominance of the EC2 fraction is exhibited in both the diesel fuelled vehicle and tire pyrolysis emissions with EC2/OC2 ratio distinguishing one from the other, EC2/OC2 is 1.63 and 8.41, respectively. Predominance of either OC2 or OC3 fraction is shown in the unleaded gasoline and LPG Fuelled vehicles and in biomass burning with the OC2/OC3 ratio distinguishing one from the others. OC2/OC3 ratios are 1.33 for unleaded gasoline fuelled vehicle, 1.89 for LPG-fuelled vehicle, 0.55 for biomass burning (leaves) and 0.82 biomass burning (wood). The study has shown probable use of the EC2/OC2 and OC2/OC3 ratios to distinguish fingerprints for combustion sources covered in this study. (author)

  16. UV emissions from low energy artificial light sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Leona; Moseley, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Energy efficient light sources have been introduced across Europe and many other countries world wide. The most common of these is the Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL), which has been shown to emit ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) are an alternative technology that has minimal UV emissions. This brief review summarises the different energy efficient light sources available on the market and compares the UV levels and the subsequent effects on the skin of normal individuals and those who suffer from photodermatoses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Mitigation strategies for methane emissions from agricultural sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duxbury, J.M. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Anthropogenic emissions of CH{sub 4} account for 70% of total global emissions of this greenhouse gas. Current anthropogenic emissions of CH{sub 4} in the US are estimated to be between 24-30 Tg CH{sub 4} or 7-9% of the global anthropogenic total. By comparison the US is responsible for 27% of anthropogenic emissions of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel use. Table 1 shows that the major anthropogenic sources of CH{sub 4} in the US are landfills (37%), domestic livestock and livestock waste (31%) and the coal mining/natural gas/petroleum industries (28%). On a global basis it is estimated that US landfills contribute 30% to the global landfill total, whereas livestock (including waste) and the coal mining/natural gas/petroleum industries each contribute about 8% to their respective global totals. The US is an insignificant contributor (< 1%) to global emissions of CH{sub 4} from rice paddies.

  18. Acidification policy - control of acidifying emissions in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaerer, B.

    1992-01-01

    Since the mid-eighties total annual acidifying emissions have started to decline in West Germany. There was considerable impact on this positive trend in air pollution by the control of SO 2 and NO x emissions from large boilers, which were reduced by more than 80%. Corresponding control programmes have been established for other groups of sources as well as other pollutants and - with unification - for East Germany. The driving force behind this development was and still is first of all the legal principle of anticipatory action or precaution which means in practical terms 'emission minimization'. This cornerstone of German clean air legislation is the most powerful components of Germany's 'acidification policy', as it requires policy-makers to draw up new or review existing regulations for emission reduction based on requirements according to the state of the art and forces operators to apply the most modern ways and means of operation. This paper describes the system used in Germany to deal with air pollution, the emission minimization strategy, and the actions against acidifying emissions based thereon. In addition, an outlook on what might be necessary to cope with the challenges of a sustainable development concerning acidification is given. 1 ref., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  19. Modeling Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation From Emissions of Combustion Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jathar, Shantanu Hemant

    Atmospheric aerosols exert a large influence on the Earth's climate and cause adverse public health effects, reduced visibility and material degradation. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA), defined as the aerosol mass arising from the oxidation products of gas-phase organic species, accounts for a significant fraction of the submicron atmospheric aerosol mass. Yet, there are large uncertainties surrounding the sources, atmospheric evolution and properties of SOA. This thesis combines laboratory experiments, extensive data analysis and global modeling to investigate the contribution of semi-volatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds (SVOC and IVOC) from combustion sources to SOA formation. The goals are to quantify the contribution of these emissions to ambient PM and to evaluate and improve models to simulate its formation. To create a database for model development and evaluation, a series of smog chamber experiments were conducted on evaporated fuel, which served as surrogates for real-world combustion emissions. Diesel formed the most SOA followed by conventional jet fuel / jet fuel derived from natural gas, gasoline and jet fuel derived from coal. The variability in SOA formation from actual combustion emissions can be partially explained by the composition of the fuel. Several models were developed and tested along with existing models using SOA data from smog chamber experiments conducted using evaporated fuel (this work, gasoline, fischertropschs, jet fuel, diesels) and published data on dilute combustion emissions (aircraft, on- and off-road gasoline, on- and off-road diesel, wood burning, biomass burning). For all of the SOA data, existing models under-predicted SOA formation if SVOC/IVOC were not included. For the evaporated fuel experiments, when SVOC/IVOC were included predictions using the existing SOA model were brought to within a factor of two of measurements with minor adjustments to model parameterizations. Further, a volatility

  20. A young source of optical emission from distant radio galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, F; Fèvre, O Le; Angonin, M C

    1993-03-25

    DISTANT radio galaxies provide valuable insights into the properties of the young Universe-they are the only known extended optical sources at high redshift and might represent an early stage in the formation and evolution of galaxies in general. This extended optical emission often has very complex morphologies, but the origin of the light is still unclear. Here we report spectroscopic observations for several distant radio galaxies (0.75≤ z ≤ 1.1) in which the rest-frame spectra exhibit featureless continua between 2,500 Å and 5,000 Å. We see no evidence for the break in the spectrum at 4,000 Å expected for an old stellar population 1-3 , and suggest that young stars or scattered emissions from the active nuclei are responsible for most of the observed light. In either case, this implies that the source of the optical emission is com-parable in age to the associated radio source, namely 10 7 years or less.

  1. Plasma control for efficient extreme ultra-violet source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kensaku; Nakajima, Mitsuo; Kawamura, Tohru; Shiho, Makoto; Hotta, Eiki; Horioka, Kazuhiko

    2008-01-01

    To generate a high efficiency extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) source, effects of plasma shape for controlling radiative plasmas based on xenon capillary discharge are experimentally investigated. The radiation characteristics observed via tapered capillary discharge are compared with those of straight one. From the comparison, the long emission period and different plasma behaviors of tapered capillary discharge are confirmed. This means that control of the plasma geometry is effective for prolonging the EUV emission period. This result also indicates that the plasma shape control seems to have a potential for enhancing the conversion efficiency. (author)

  2. Nitrogen source and placement effects on soil nitrous oxide emissions from no-till corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorson, Ardell D; Del Grosso, Stephen J

    2012-01-01

    A nitrogen (N) source comparison study was conducted to further evaluate the effects of inorganic N source and placement on growing-season and non-crop period soil nitrous oxide (NO). Commercially available controlled-release N fertilizers were evaluated for their potential to reduce NO emissions from a clay loam soil compared with conventionally used granular urea and urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN) fertilizers in an irrigated no-till (NT) corn ( L.) production system. Controlled-release N fertilizers evaluated were: a polymer-coated urea (ESN), stabilized urea (SuperU), and UAN+AgrotainPlus (SuperU and AgrotainPlus contain nitrification and urease inhibitors). Each N source was surface band applied (202 kg N ha) near the corn row at emergence and watered into the soil the next day. Subsurface banded ESN (ESNssb) and check (no N applied) treatments were included. Nitrous oxide fluxes were measured during two growing seasons and after harvest using static, vented chambers. All N sources had significantly lower growing-season NO emissions than granular urea (0.7% of applied N), with UAN+AgrotainPlus (0.2% of applied N) and ESN (0.3% of applied N) having lower emissions than UAN (0.4% of applied N). Similar trends were observed when expressing NO emissions on a grain yield and N uptake basis. Corn grain yields were not different among N sources but were greater than the check. Selection of N fertilizer source can be a mitigation practice for reducing NO emissions in NT, irrigated corn in semiarid areas. In our study, UAN+AgrotainPlus consistently had the lowest level of NO emissions with no yield loss. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  3. Mercury emissions control technologies for mixed waste thermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, A.; Knecht, M.; Soelberg, N.; Eaton, D.

    1997-01-01

    EPA has identified wet scrubbing at low mercury feedrates, as well as carbon adsorption via carbon injection into the offgas or via flow through fixed carbon beds, as control technologies that can be used to meet the proposed Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) rule limit for mercury emissions from hazardous waste incinerators. DOE is currently funding demonstrations of gold amalgamation that may also control mercury to the desired levels. Performance data from a variety of sources was reviewed to determine ranges of achievable mercury control. Preliminary costs were estimated for using these technologies to control mercury emissions from mixed waste incineration. Mercury emissions control for mixed waste incineration may need to be more efficient than for incineration of other hazardous wastes because of higher mercury concentrations in some mixed waste streams. However, mercury control performance data for wet scrubbing and carbon adsorption is highly variable. More information is needed to demonstrate control efficiencies that are achievable under various design and operating conditions for wet scrubbing, carbon adsorption, and gold amalgamation technologies. Given certain assumptions made in this study, capital costs, operating costs, and lifecycle costs for carbon injection, carbon beds, and gold amalgamation generally vary for different assumed mercury feedrates and for different offgas flowrates. Assuming that these technologies can in fact provide the necessary mercury control performance, each of these technologies may be less costly than the others for certain mercury feedrates and the offgas flowrates

  4. The Sources of Air Pollution and Their Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Arlington, VA.

    The problems of air pollution and its control are discussed. Major consideration is given the sources of pollution - motor vehicles, industry, power plants, space heating, and refuse disposal. Annual emission levels of five principle pollutants - carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter - are listed…

  5. A New Global Open Source Marine Hydrocarbon Emission Site Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyia, E., Jr.; Wood, W. T.; Barnard, A.; Dada, T.; Qazzaz, M.; Lee, T. R.; Herrera, E.; Sager, W.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrocarbon emission sites (e.g. seeps) discharge large volumes of fluids and gases into the oceans that are not only important for biogeochemical budgets, but also support abundant chemosynthetic communities. Documenting the locations of modern emissions is a first step towards understanding and monitoring how they affect the global state of the seafloor and oceans. Currently, no global open source (i.e. non-proprietry) detailed maps of emissions sites are available. As a solution, we have created a database that is housed within an Excel spreadsheet and use the latest versions of Earthpoint and Google Earth for position coordinate conversions and data mapping, respectively. To date, approximately 1,000 data points have been collected from referenceable sources across the globe, and we are continualy expanding the dataset. Due to the variety of spatial extents encountered, to identify each site we used two different methods: 1) point (x, y, z) locations for individual sites and; 2) delineation of areas where sites are clustered. Certain well-known areas, such as the Gulf of Mexico and the Mediterranean Sea, have a greater abundance of information; whereas significantly less information is available in other regions due to the absence of emission sites, lack of data, or because the existing data is proprietary. Although the geographical extent of the data is currently restricted to regions where the most data is publicly available, as the database matures, we expect to have more complete coverage of the world's oceans. This database is an information resource that consolidates and organizes the existing literature on hydrocarbons released into the marine environment, thereby providing a comprehensive reference for future work. We expect that the availability of seafloor hydrocarbon emission maps will benefit scientific understanding of hydrocarbon rich areas as well as potentially aiding hydrocarbon exploration and environmental impact assessements.

  6. VOCs emission characteristics and priority control analysis based on VOCs emission inventories and ozone formation potentials in Zhoushan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiaoli; Li, Sujing; Dong, Minli; Li, Wei; Gao, Xiang; Ye, Rongmin; Zhang, Dongxiao

    2018-06-01

    Zhoushan is an island city with booming tourism and service industry, but also has many developed VOCs and/or NOX emission industries. It is necessary to carry out regional VOCs and O3 pollution control in Zhoushan as the only new area owns the provincial economic and social administration rights. Anthropogenic VOCs emission inventories were built based on emission factor method and main emission sources were identified according to the emission inventories. Then, localized VOCs source profiles were built based on in-site sampling and referring to other studies. Furthermore, ozone formation potentials (OFPs) profiles were built through VOCs source profiles and maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) theory. At last, the priority control analysis results showed that industrial processes, especially surface coating, are the key of VOCs and O3 control. Alkanes were the most emitted group, accounting for 58.67%, while aromatics contributed the most to ozone production accounting for 69.97% in total OFPs. n-butane, m/p-xylene, i-pentane, n-decane, toluene, propane, n-undecane, o-xylene, methyl cyclohexane and ethyl benzene were the top 10 VOC species that should be preferentially controlled for VOCs emission control. However, m/p-xylene, o-xylene, ethylene, n-butane, toluene, propene, 1,2,4-trimethyl benzene, 1,3,5-trimethyl benzene, ethyl benzene and 1,2,3-trimethyl benzene were the top 10 VOC species that required preferential control for O3 pollution control.

  7. Electric Arc Furnace as a Source of Emission of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans in Perspective of the Council Directive 96/61 EC Concerning Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofilić, T.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As the accumulation of PCDDs/Fs in the natural environment poses a great threat, and the pollution of the environment with these highly toxic compounds from various emitters needs to be prevented, many countries have conducted an inventory of industrial sources and their emissions in order to obtain better insight into the share of particular sources in the total emission of PCDDs/Fs and to develop strategies to reduce these emissions.Metallurgical processes like sintering of iron ore, production of steel and non-ferrous and light metals from scrap material belong to a group of stationary PCDDs/Fs emitters and their share in the total PCDDs/Fs emission into the environment is very significant. The relative significance of particular metallurgical processes varies from country to country, depending on the nature of a particular process, installed capacities and annual output levels.As the modern approach to observing the environment includes preventive measures, as opposed to corrective post-event measures that were common practice in the past, the owners/operators of metallurgical processes are developing and introducing pollution monitoring and surveillance systems, based on which they take appropriate measures.One of the frequently applied measures is to build and implement the ISO 14001 environmental management system that very efficiently runs production processes along with maintenance of environmental protection on a daily basis. Since the adoption of the ISO 14001 environmental management system is a voluntary decision to be made by each organization, in 1996 the European Union adopted, for the purpose of environmental protection and pollution prevention, the Directive 96/61 EC or IPPC Directive on Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC requiring from industrial installations, depending on their type and output level, to obtain environmental permits to run production processes using best available techniques, thus maintaining

  8. Regulatory Control of Radioactive Sources in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, M.; Martin, J.L., E-mail: mrm@csn.es [Nuclear Safety Council, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    The arrangements for the regulatory control of the safety and security of sealed radioactive sources in Spain are described. Emphasis is given to the situations which are most likely to result in the loss of control of sources and on the procedures introduced to reduce the likelihood of losses in these cases. Finally, the strategy for locating sources which have been lost from control (orphan sources) is described. (author)

  9. Long-term trends in California mobile source emissions and ambient concentrations of black carbon and organic aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Brian C; Goldstein, Allen H; Harley, Robert A

    2015-04-21

    A fuel-based approach is used to assess long-term trends (1970-2010) in mobile source emissions of black carbon (BC) and organic aerosol (OA, including both primary emissions and secondary formation). The main focus of this analysis is the Los Angeles Basin, where a long record of measurements is available to infer trends in ambient concentrations of BC and organic carbon (OC), with OC used here as a proxy for OA. Mobile source emissions and ambient concentrations have decreased similarly, reflecting the importance of on- and off-road engines as sources of BC and OA in urban areas. In 1970, the on-road sector accounted for ∼90% of total mobile source emissions of BC and OA (primary + secondary). Over time, as on-road engine emissions have been controlled, the relative importance of off-road sources has grown. By 2010, off-road engines were estimated to account for 37 ± 20% and 45 ± 16% of total mobile source contributions to BC and OA, respectively, in the Los Angeles area. This study highlights both the success of efforts to control on-road emission sources, and the importance of considering off-road engine and other VOC source contributions when assessing long-term emission and ambient air quality trends.

  10. Visualization of NO2 emission sources using temporal and spatial pattern analysis in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütt, A. M. N.; Kuhlmann, G.; Zhu, Y.; Lipkowitsch, I.; Wenig, M.

    2016-12-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is an indicator for population density and level of development, but the contributions of the different emission sources to the overall concentrations remains mostly unknown. In order to allocate fractions of OMI NO2 to emission types, we investigate several temporal cycles and regional patterns.Our analysis is based on daily maps of tropospheric NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs) from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). The data set is mapped to a high resolution grid by a histopolation algorithm. This algorithm is based on a continuous parabolic spline, producing more realistic smooth distributions while reproducing the measured OMI values when integrating over ground pixel areas.In the resulting sequence of zoom in maps, we analyze weekly and annual cycles for cities, countryside and highways in China, Japan and Korea Republic and look for patterns and trends and compare the derived results to emission sources in Middle Europe and North America. Due to increased heating in winter compared to summer and more traffic during the week than on Sundays, we dissociate traffic, heating and power plants and visualized maps with different sources. We will also look into the influence of emission control measures during big events like the Olympic Games 2008 and the World Expo 2010 as a possibility to confirm our classification of NO2 emission sources.

  11. Application of optical emission spectroscopy to high current proton sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, G; Mazzaglia, M; Nicolosi, D; Mascali, D; Reitano, R; Celona, L; Leonardi, O; Leone, F; Naselli, E; Neri, L; Torrisi, G; Gammino, S; Zaniol, B

    2017-01-01

    Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES) represents a very reliable technique to carry out non-invasive measurements of plasma density and plasma temperature in the range of tens of eV. With respect to other diagnostics, it also can characterize the different populations of neutrals and ionized particles constituting the plasma. At INFN-LNS, OES techniques have been developed and applied to characterize the plasma generated by the Flexible Plasma Trap, an ion source used as 'testbench' of the proton source built for European Spallation Source. This work presents the characterization of the parameters of a hydrogen plasma in different conditions of neutral pressure, microwave power and magnetic field profile, along with perspectives for further upgrades of the OES diagnostics system. (paper)

  12. Diesel Catalytic Converters As Emission Control Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Banna, S.; El Deen, O.N.

    2004-01-01

    Internal combustion engines are devices that generate work from combustion reactions. Combustion products under high pressure produce work by expansion through a turbine or piston. The combustion reactions inside these engines are not necessarily neutralizing or complete and air pollutants are produced. There are three major types of internal combustion engine(l) in use today: I) the spark ignition engine, which is used primarily in automobiles; 2) the diesel engine, which is used in large vehicles and industrial systems where cycle efficiency offers advantages over the more compact and lighter-weight spark ignition engine and; 3) the gas turbine, which is used in aircraft due to its high power/weight ratio and is also used for stationary power generation. Each of these types of engine is an important source of atmospheric pollutants. Automobiles are the one of the major source of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides. Probably more than any other combustion system, the design of automobile engines is now being guided by requirements to reduce emissions of these pollutants. While substantial progress has been made in emission reduction, automobiles remain important sources of air pollutants

  13. Nitrogen source effects on soil nitrous oxide emissions from strip-till corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorson, Ardell D; Del Grosso, Stephen J; Jantalia, Claudia Pozzi

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) application to crops generally results in increased nitrous oxide (NO) emissions. Commercially available, enhanced-efficiency N fertilizers were evaluated for their potential to reduce NO emissions from a clay loam soil compared with conventionally used granular urea and urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN) fertilizers in an irrigated strip-till (ST) corn ( L.) production system. Enhanced-efficiency N fertilizers evaluated were a controlled-release, polymer-coated urea (ESN), stabilized urea, and UAN products containing nitrification and urease inhibitors (SuperU and UAN+AgrotainPlus), and UAN containing a slow-release N source (Nfusion). Each N source was surface-band applied (202 kg N ha) at corn emergence and watered into the soil the next day. A subsurface-band ESN treatment was included. Nitrous oxide fluxes were measured during two growing seasons using static, vented chambers and a gas chromatograph analyzer. All N sources had significantly lower growing season NO emissions than granular urea, with UAN+AgrotainPlus and UAN+Nfusion having lower emissions than UAN. Similar trends were observed when expressing NO emissions on a grain yield and N uptake basis. Loss of NO-N per kilogram of N applied was <0.8% for all N sources. Corn grain yields were not different among N sources but greater than treatments with no N applied. Selection of N fertilizer source can be a mitigation practice for reducing NO emissions in strip-till, irrigated corn in semiarid areas. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  14. 76 FR 4155 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories: Gasoline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... 63 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories: Gasoline Distribution Bulk Terminals, Bulk Plants, and Pipeline Facilities; and Gasoline Dispensing Facilities; Final...] RIN 2060-AP16 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories: Gasoline...

  15. Outer heliospheric radio emissions. II - Foreshock source models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Iver H.; Kurth, William S.; Gurnett, Donald A.

    1992-01-01

    Observations of LF radio emissions in the range 2-3 kHz by the Voyager spacecraft during the intervals 1983-1987 and 1989 to the present while at heliocentric distances greater than 11 AU are reported. New analyses of the wave data are presented, and the characteristics of the radiation are reviewed and discussed. Two classes of events are distinguished: transient events with varying starting frequencies that drift upward in frequency and a relatively continuous component that remains near 2 kHz. Evidence for multiple transient sources and for extension of the 2-kHz component above the 2.4-kHz interference signal is presented. The transient emissions are interpreted in terms of radiation generated at multiples of the plasma frequency when solar wind density enhancements enter one or more regions of a foreshock sunward of the inner heliospheric shock. Solar wind density enhancements by factors of 4-10 are observed. Propagation effects, the number of radiation sources, and the time variability, frequency drift, and varying starting frequencies of the transient events are discussed in terms of foreshock sources.

  16. Noise source emissions, Deaf Smith County site, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Noise source data and use factors for modeling the noise environment expected from salt site repository activity were provided by Battelle Columbus Division. This report has been prepared for the purpose of documenting the development of the data provided to the Repository Project Management (RPM) organization. The data provided encompass all phases of activity from site preparation through construction of the exploratory shaft facility (ESF). Noise environments expected from construction and operation of transportation corridors associated with the activity were also modeled. The equipment inventory, including sound-power levels for each item, is included. Emission source terms provided by Parsons Brinckerhoff/PB-KBB for the ESF were used as a basis for the noise-source emission inventory development. Where available, research results containing complete spectra were used. In cases where complete data were not available, a sound-pressure spectrum was synthesized from a characteristic spectrum shape from a similar piece of equipment. For example, a front-shovel excavator might be approximated by data from a front-end loader of similar horsepower range. Sound-power-level spectra were then calculated from the sound-pressure-level data. 2 refs

  17. Technologies and policies for "hard to scrub" emissions sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, J.

    2016-12-01

    The science of climate change yields harsh math regarding atmospheric accumulations of GHGs. The world is far from target trajectories for 2C or 1.5C, and the global carbon budget is severe. To achieve those targets requires two things. First, we must field technologies that reduce emissions from the "hard to scrub" parts of the US and global economies, such as heavy industry (cement and steel), aviation, ocean shipping, and household cooking and heating. Second, we will likely need negative emissions pathways for those sources that prove extremely difficult to remove or reduce - the climate equivalent of adding revenue to one's budget. Such pathways may well need to convert GHG emissions (especially CO2 and methane) into useful products with minimal infrastructure builds. Dramatic advances in advanced manufacturing, 3D printing, simulation, modeling, and data analytics have made possible solutions which were previously unthinkable or impossible. This include "bespoke reactors", which can simultaneously perform separations and conversions; low-cost modular chemical systems of any scale; biologically inspired or biologically mediated energy services; direct air carbon-capture systems; and electrochemical pathways for emissions reduction and conversion. However, these approaches are unlikely to be fielded without policy actions or reforms that support such systems in competitive global energy markets. Such policy measures do NOT require a carbon price. Rather, they could include individual or combined measures such as emission or performance standards, financial incentives (like tax credits or low-cost access to capital), border adjustable tariffs, creation of CO2 utilities, ands public good surcharges. Innovation in both technical and policy arenas are needed to achieve the goals of the Paris agreement signatories, and these innovations can be simultaneously configured to deliver substantive greenhouse gas mitigation.

  18. NOx and N2O emission control with catalyst's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiltunen, M.

    1994-01-01

    Due to the increasingly stringent emission regulations, new technologies are needed to be developed for improving emission control in circulating fluidized-bed boilers. The objective of this project is to test the concept of using catalysts for NO x and N 2 O emission control. N 2 O emission is in the range of 30 - 100 ppm from fluidized bed combustors burning coal. Since it is a greenhouse gas an effective means of controlling N 2 O emission is needed

  19. REGIONAL DRAINWATER MANAGEMENT: SOURCE CONTROL, AGROFORESTRY, AND EVAPORATION PONDS

    OpenAIRE

    Posnikoff, Judith F.; Knapp, Keith C.

    1996-01-01

    Source control is one way to address salinity and drainage problems in irrigated agriculture, and reuse of drainage flows on salt-tolerant crops or trees in agroforestry production is another. A regional model of agricultural production with drainwater reuse and disposal is developed. Deep percolation flows are controlled through choice of crop areas, irrigation systems, and applied-water quantities. Crop drainwater may by reused in agroforestry production, and residual emissions are disposed...

  20. Procedures for identifying reasonably available control technology for stationary sources of PM-10. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, M.J.; Ellefson, R.

    1992-09-01

    The guidance document sets forth procedures and identifies sources of information that will assist State and local air pollution control agencies in determining Reasonably Available Control Technology (RACT) for PM-10 (particulate matter having a nominal aerometric diameter of 10 microns or less) emission from existing stationary sources on a case-by-case basis. It provides an annotated bibliography of documents to aid in identifying the activities that cause PM-10 emissions as well as applicable air pollution control measures and their effectiveness in reducing emissions. The most stringent state total particulate matter (PM) emission limits are identified for several categories of PM-10 sources and compared to available emission test data. Finally, guidance is provided on procedures for estimating total capital investment and total annual cost of the control measures which are generally used to control PM-10 emissions

  1. Evaluating measurements of carbon dioxide emissions using a precision source--A natural gas burner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Rodney; Bundy, Matthew; Zong, Ruowen

    2015-07-01

    A natural gas burner has been used as a precise and accurate source for generating large quantities of carbon dioxide (CO2) to evaluate emissions measurements at near-industrial scale. Two methods for determining carbon dioxide emissions from stationary sources are considered here: predicting emissions based on fuel consumption measurements-predicted emissions measurements, and direct measurement of emissions quantities in the flue gas-direct emissions measurements. Uncertainty for the predicted emissions measurement was estimated at less than 1%. Uncertainty estimates for the direct emissions measurement of carbon dioxide were on the order of ±4%. The relative difference between the direct emissions measurements and the predicted emissions measurements was within the range of the measurement uncertainty, therefore demonstrating good agreement. The study demonstrates how independent methods are used to validate source emissions measurements, while also demonstrating how a fire research facility can be used as a precision test-bed to evaluate and improve carbon dioxide emissions measurements from stationary sources. Fossil-fuel-consuming stationary sources such as electric power plants and industrial facilities account for more than half of the CO2 emissions in the United States. Therefore, accurate emissions measurements from these sources are critical for evaluating efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This study demonstrates how a surrogate for a stationary source, a fire research facility, can be used to evaluate the accuracy of measurements of CO2 emissions.

  2. Very high energy emission sources beyond the Galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinitsyna V.G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN are considered as potential extragalactic sources of very and ultra high energy cosmic rays. According to theoretical predictions cosmic ray acceleration can take place at the shock created by the expanding cocoons around active galactic nuclei as well as at AGN jets. The measurements of AGN TeV spectra, the variability time scale of TeV emission can provide essential information on the dynamics of AGN jets, the localization of acceleration region and an estimation of its size. SHALON observations yielded data on extragalactic sources of different AGN types in the energy range of 800 GeV–100 TeV. The data from SHALON observations are compared with those from other experiments at high and very high energies.

  3. The effects of emission control strategies on light-absorbing carbon emissions from a modern heavy-duty diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael A; Olson, Michael R; Liu, Z Gerald; Schauer, James J

    2015-06-01

    Control of atmospheric black carbon (BC) and brown carbon (BrC) has been proposed as an important pathway to climate change mitigation, but sources of BC and BrC are still not well understood. In order to better identify the role of modern heavy-duty diesel engines on the production of BC and BrC, emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine operating with different emission control strategies were examined using a source dilution sampling system. The effect of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particulate filter (DPF) on light-absorbing carbon (LAC) was evaluated at three steady-state engine operation modes: idle, 50% speed and load, and 100% speed and load. LAC was measured with four different engine configurations: engine out, DOC out, DPF out, and engine out with an altered combustion calibration. BC and BrC emission rates were measured with the Aethalometer (AE-31). EC and BC emission rates normalized to the mass of CO₂emitted increased with increasing engine speed and load. Emission rates normalized to brake-specific work did not exhibit similar trends with speed and load, but rather the highest emission rate was measured at idle. EC and OC emissions were reduced by 99% when the DOC and DPF architecture was applied. The application of a DPF was equally effective at removing 99% of the BC fraction of PM, proving to be an important control strategy for both LAC and PM. BC emissions were unexpectedly increased across the DOC, seemingly due to a change aerosol optical properties. Removal of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) flow due to simulated EGR cooler failure caused a large increase in OC and BrC emission rates at idle, but had limited influence during high load operation. LAC emissions proved to be sensitive to the same control strategies effective at controlling the total mass of diesel PM. In the context of black carbon emissions, very small emission rates of brown carbon were measured over a range of control technologies and engine operating

  4. Characterization of selenium in ambient aerosols and primary emission sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santiago, Arlette; Longo, Amelia F; Ingall, Ellery D; Diaz, Julia M; King, Laura E; Lai, Barry; Weber, Rodney J; Russell, Armistead G; Oakes, Michelle

    2014-08-19

    Atmospheric selenium (Se) in aerosols was investigated using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscopy. These techniques were used to determine the oxidation state and elemental associations of Se in common primary emission sources and ambient aerosols collected from the greater Atlanta area. In the majority of ambient aerosol and primary emission source samples, the spectroscopic patterns as well as the absence of elemental correlations suggest Se is in an elemental, organic, or oxide form. XRF microscopy revealed numerous Se-rich particles, or hotspots, accounting on average for ∼16% of the total Se in ambient aerosols. Hotspots contained primarily Se(0)/Se(-II). However, larger, bulk spectroscopic characterizations revealed Se(IV) as the dominant oxidation state in ambient aerosol, followed by Se(0)/Se(-II) and Se(VI). Se(IV) was the only observed oxidation state in gasoline, diesel, and coal fly ash, while biomass burning contained a combination of Se(0)/Se(-II) and Se(IV). Although the majority of Se in aerosols was in the most toxic form, the Se concentration is well below the California Environmental Protection Agency chronic exposure limit (∼20000 ng/m(3)).

  5. Spatially Resolved Isotopic Source Signatures of Wetland Methane Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, A. L.; Stell, A. C.; Gedney, N.; Comyn-Platt, E.; Hayman, G.; Rigby, M.; Poulter, B.; Hornibrook, E. R. C.

    2018-04-01

    We present the first spatially resolved wetland δ13C(CH4) source signature map based on data characterizing wetland ecosystems and demonstrate good agreement with wetland signatures derived from atmospheric observations. The source signature map resolves a latitudinal difference of 10‰ between northern high-latitude (mean -67.8‰) and tropical (mean -56.7‰) wetlands and shows significant regional variations on top of the latitudinal gradient. We assess the errors in inverse modeling studies aiming to separate CH4 sources and sinks by comparing atmospheric δ13C(CH4) derived using our spatially resolved map against the common assumption of globally uniform wetland δ13C(CH4) signature. We find a larger interhemispheric gradient, a larger high-latitude seasonal cycle, and smaller trend over the period 2000-2012. The implication is that erroneous CH4 fluxes would be derived to compensate for the biases imposed by not utilizing spatially resolved signatures for the largest source of CH4 emissions. These biases are significant when compared to the size of observed signals.

  6. Mercury emission, control and measurement from coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Wei-Ping [North China Electric Power Univ., Beijing (China). School of Energy and Power Engineering; Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States). Inst. for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology; Cao, Yan [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States). Inst. for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology; Zhang, Kai [North China Electric Power Univ., Beijing (China). School of Energy and Power Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Coal-fired electric power generation accounts for 65% of U.S. emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2), 22% of nitrogen oxides (NOx), and 37% of mercury (Hg). The proposed Clear Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) and Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) will attempt to regulate these emissions using a cap-and-trade program to replace a number of existing regulatory requirements that will impact this industry over the next decade. Mercury emissions remain the largest source that has not yet been efficiently controlled, in part because this is one of the most expensive to control. Mercury is a toxic, persistent pollutant that accumulates in the food chain. During the coal combustion process, when both sampling and accurate measurements are challenging, we know that mercury is present in three species: elemental, oxidized and particulate. There are three basic types of mercury measurement methods: Ontario Hydro Method, mercury continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMS) and sorbent-based monitoring. Particulate mercury is best captured by electrostatic precipitators (ESP). Oxidized mercury is best captured in wet scrubbers. Elemental mercury is the most difficult to capture, but selective catalytic reduction units (SCRs) are able to convert elemental mercury to oxidized mercury allowing it to be captured by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD). This works well for eastern coals with high chlorine contents, but this does not work well on the Wyoming Powder River Basin (PRB) coals. However, no good explanation for its mechanism, correlations of chlorine content in coal with SCR performance, and impacts of higher chlorine content in coal on FGD re-emission are available. The combination of SCR and FGD affords more than an 80% reduction in mercury emissions in the case of high chlorine content coals. The mercury emission results from different coal ranks, boilers, and the air pollution control device (APCD) in power plant will be discussed. Based on this UAEPA new regulation, most power plants

  7. Advanced controls for light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, S. G.; Edelen, A. L.; Milton, S. V.

    2016-09-01

    We present a summary of our team's recent efforts in developing adaptive, artificial intelligence-inspired techniques specifically to address several control challenges that arise in machines/systems including those in particle accelerator systems. These techniques can readily be adapted to other systems such as lasers, beamline optics, etc… We are not at all suggesting that we create an autonomous system, but create a system with an intelligent control system, that can continually use operational data to improve itself and combines both traditional and advanced techniques. We believe that the system performance and reliability can be increased based on our findings. Another related point is that the controls sub-system of an overall system is usually not the heart of the system architecture or design process. More bluntly, often times all of the peripheral systems are considered as secondary to the main system components in the architecture design process because it is assumed that the controls system will be able to "fix" challenges found later with the sub-systems for overall system operation. We will show that this is not always the case and that it took an intelligent control application to overcome a sub-system's challenges. We will provide a recent example of such a "fix" with a standard controller and with an artificial intelligence-inspired controller. A final related point to be covered is that of system adaptation for requirements not original to a system's original design.

  8. Control of Several Emissions during Olive Pomace Thermal Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Miranda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Biomass plays an important role as an energy source, being an interesting alternative to fossil fuels due to its environment-friendly and sustainable characteristics. However, due to the exposure of customers to emissions during biomass heating, evolved pollutants should be taken into account and controlled. Changing raw materials or mixing them with another less pollutant biomass could be a suitable step to reduce pollution. This work studied the thermal behaviour of olive pomace, pyrenean oak and their blends under combustion using thermogravimetric analysis. It was possible to monitor the emissions released during the process by coupling mass spectrometry analysis. The experiments were carried out under non-isothermal conditions at the temperature range 25–750 °C and a heating rate of 20 °C·min−1. The following species were analysed: aromatic compounds (benzene and toluene, sulphur emissions (sulphur dioxide, 1,4-dioxin, hydrochloric acid, carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides. The results indicated that pollutants were mainly evolved in two different stages, which are related to the thermal degradation steps. Thus, depending on the pollutant and raw material composition, different emission profiles were observed. Furthermore, intensity of the emission profiles was related, in some cases, to the composition of the precursor.

  9. Neutron generator tube ion source control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridges, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    A system is claimed for controlling the output of a neutron generator tube of the deuterium-tritium accelerator type and having an ion source to produce sharply defined pulses of neutrons for well logging use. It comprises: means for inputting a relatively low voltage input control pulse having a leading edge and a trailing edge; means, responsive to the input control pulse, for producing a relatively high voltage ion source voltage pulse after receipt of the input pulse; and means, responsive to the input control pulse, for quenching, after receipt of the input pulse, the ion source control pulse, thereby providing a sharply time defined neutron output from the generator tube

  10. Air pollutant emissions from Chinese households: A major and underappreciated ambient pollution source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Qiang; Song, Yu; Peng, Wei; Klimont, Zbigniew; Qiu, Xinghua; Zhang, Shiqiu; Hu, Min; Lin, Weili; Smith, Kirk R.; Zhu, Tong

    2016-01-01

    As part of the 12th Five-Year Plan, the Chinese government has developed air pollution prevention and control plans for key regions with a focus on the power, transport, and industrial sectors. Here, we investigate the contribution of residential emissions to regional air pollution in highly polluted eastern China during the heating season, and find that dramatic improvements in air quality would also result from reduction in residential emissions. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry to evaluate potential residential emission controls in Beijing and in the Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei (BTH) region. In January and February 2010, relative to the base case, eliminating residential emissions in Beijing reduced daily average surface PM2.5 (particulate mater with aerodynamic diameter equal or smaller than 2.5 micrometer) concentrations by 14 ± 7 μg⋅m−3 (22 ± 6% of a baseline concentration of 67 ± 41 μg⋅m−3; mean ± SD). Eliminating residential emissions in the BTH region reduced concentrations by 28 ± 19 μg⋅m−3 (40 ± 9% of 67 ± 41 μg⋅m−3), 44 ± 27 μg⋅m−3 (43 ± 10% of 99 ± 54 μg⋅m−3), and 25 ± 14 μg⋅m−3 (35 ± 8% of 70 ± 35 μg⋅m−3) in Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei provinces, respectively. Annually, elimination of residential sources in the BTH region reduced emissions of primary PM2.5 by 32%, compared with 5%, 6%, and 58% achieved by eliminating emissions from the transportation, power, and industry sectors, respectively. We also find air quality in Beijing would benefit substantially from reductions in residential emissions from regional controls in Tianjin and Hebei, indicating the value of policies at the regional level. PMID:27354524

  11. Identifying and characterizing major emission point sources as a basis for geospatial distribution of mercury emissions inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhuisen, Frits; Wilson, Simon J.

    2015-07-01

    Mercury is a global pollutant that poses threats to ecosystem and human health. Due to its global transport, mercury contamination is found in regions of the Earth that are remote from major emissions areas, including the Polar regions. Global anthropogenic emission inventories identify important sectors and industries responsible for emissions at a national level; however, to be useful for air transport modelling, more precise information on the locations of emission is required. This paper describes the methodology applied, and the results of work that was conducted to assign anthropogenic mercury emissions to point sources as part of geospatial mapping of the 2010 global anthropogenic mercury emissions inventory prepared by AMAP/UNEP. Major point-source emission sectors addressed in this work account for about 850 tonnes of the emissions included in the 2010 inventory. This work allocated more than 90% of these emissions to some 4600 identified point source locations, including significantly more point source locations in Africa, Asia, Australia and South America than had been identified during previous work to geospatially-distribute the 2005 global inventory. The results demonstrate the utility and the limitations of using existing, mainly public domain resources to accomplish this work. Assumptions necessary to make use of selected online resources are discussed, as are artefacts that can arise when these assumptions are applied to assign (national-sector) emissions estimates to point sources in various countries and regions. Notwithstanding the limitations of the available information, the value of this procedure over alternative methods commonly used to geo-spatially distribute emissions, such as use of 'proxy' datasets to represent emissions patterns, is illustrated. Improvements in information that would facilitate greater use of these methods in future work to assign emissions to point-sources are discussed. These include improvements to both national

  12. Anthropogenic Methane Emissions in California's San Joaquin Valley: Characterizing Large Point Source Emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, F. M.; Duren, R. M.; Miller, C. E.; Aubrey, A. D.; Falk, M.; Holland, L.; Hook, S. J.; Hulley, G. C.; Johnson, W. R.; Kuai, L.; Kuwayama, T.; Lin, J. C.; Thorpe, A. K.; Worden, J. R.; Lauvaux, T.; Jeong, S.; Fischer, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    Methane is an important atmospheric pollutant that contributes to global warming and tropospheric ozone production. Methane mitigation could reduce near term climate change and improve air quality, but is hindered by a lack of knowledge of anthropogenic methane sources. Recent work has shown that methane emissions are not evenly distributed in space, or across emission sources, suggesting that a large fraction of anthropogenic methane comes from a few "super-emitters." We studied the distribution of super-emitters in California's southern San Joaquin Valley, where elevated levels of atmospheric CH4 have also been observed from space. Here, we define super-emitters as methane plumes that could be reliably detected (i.e., plume observed more than once in the same location) under varying wind conditions by airborne thermal infrared remote sensing. The detection limit for this technique was determined to be 4.5 kg CH4 h-1 by a controlled release experiment, corresponding to column methane enhancement at the point of emissions greater than 20% above local background levels. We surveyed a major oil production field, and an area with a high concentration of large dairies using a variety of airborne and ground-based measurements. Repeated airborne surveys (n=4) with the Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer revealed 28 persistent methane plumes emanating from oil field infrastructure, including tanks, wells, and processing facilities. The likelihood that a given source type was a super-emitter varied from roughly 1/3 for processing facilities to 1/3000 for oil wells. 11 persistent plumes were detected in the dairy area, and all were associated with wet manure management. The majority (11/14) of manure lagoons in the study area were super-emitters. Comparing to a California methane emissions inventory for the surveyed areas, we estimate that super-emitters comprise a minimum of 9% of inventoried dairy emissions, and 13% of inventoried oil emissions in this region.

  13. Savannah River Plant airborne emissions and controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukes, E.K.; Benjamin, R.W.

    1982-12-01

    The Savannah River Plant (SRP) was established to produce special nuclear materials, principally plutonium and tritium, for national defense needs. Major operating facilities include three nuclear reactors, two chemical separations plants, a fuel and target fabrication plant, and a heavy-water rework plant. An extensive environmental surveillance program has been maintained continuously since 1951 (before SRP startup) to determine the concentrations of radionuclides in a 1200-square-mile area centered on the plant, and the radiation exposure of the population resulting from SRP operations. This report provides data on SRP emissions, controls systems, and airborne radioactive releases. The report includes descriptions of current measurement technology. 10 references, 14 figures, 9 tables

  14. Are biogenic emissions a significant source of summertime atmospheric toluene in the rural Northeastern United States?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. White

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Summertime atmospheric toluene enhancements at Thompson Farm in the rural northeastern United States were unexpected and resulted in a toluene/benzene seasonal pattern that was distinctly different from that of other anthropogenic volatile organic compounds. Consequently, three hydrocarbon sources were investigated for potential contributions to the enhancements during 2004–2006. These included: (1 increased warm season fuel evaporation coupled with changes in reformulated gasoline (RFG content to meet US EPA summertime volatility standards, (2 local industrial emissions and (3 local vegetative emissions. The contribution of fuel evaporation emission to summer toluene mixing ratios was estimated to range from 16 to 30 pptv d−1, and did not fully account for the observed enhancements (20–50 pptv in 2004–2006. Static chamber measurements of alfalfa, a crop at Thompson Farm, and dynamic branch enclosure measurements of loblolly pine trees in North Carolina suggested vegetative emissions of 5 and 12 pptv d−1 for crops and coniferous trees, respectively. Toluene emission rates from alfalfa are potentially much larger as these plants were only sampled at the end of the growing season. Measured biogenic fluxes were on the same order of magnitude as the influence from gasoline evaporation and industrial sources (regional industrial emissions estimated at 7 pptv d−1 and indicated that local vegetative emissions make a significant contribution to summertime toluene enhancements. Additional studies are needed to characterize the variability and factors controlling toluene emissions from alfalfa and other vegetation types throughout the growing season.

  15. Measuring and controlling greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrier, Herve; LAFONT, Bruno; Fischer, Severin; Leonard, Damien; Tutenuit, Claire

    2011-05-01

    As providing a reporting of their greenhouse gas emissions has become mandatory for a large number of French companies, this publication proposes a methodology to perform an assessment or measurement, and a control of such emissions. In its first part, it explains why measurements are required: indication of concerned gases, international consensus to limit temperature rise, definition and chronology of the main steps adopted at the international level and which must be considered in the approach adopted by enterprises in this respect. It outlines the benefits of such a measurement for the enterprise in terms of competitiveness, personnel commitment, new markets and products, image, compliance with the law, operational and financial aspects, and so on. It identifies the various stakeholders to be informed: civil society, financial community, public authorities, clients and consumers, personnel, suppliers. It outlines the diversity and evolution of legal frameworks at the international level as well as at national levels. While evoking many examples of French companies (SNCF, EDF, Seche Environnement, RTE, Michelin, Arcelormittal, AREVA, Air France, EADS-Airbus, AXA, Veolia, and so on), the next part addresses how to measure emissions. It outlines the complexity of the methodological landscape with its various criteria, evokes the various existing standards, outlines the distinction between organisation-based, product-based and project-based approaches, and the distinction between direct and indirect emissions in relationship with the notion of scope. It comments the existence of sector-based methodologies and guidelines, and discusses some difficulties and methodological decisions. The third part proposes some lessons learned from the experience which could lead to a harmonisation of methodologies, proposes a synthesis of reporting approaches, outlines risks and opportunities related to communication

  16. Analysis of the emission characteristics of ion sources for high-value optical counting processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beermann, Nils

    2009-01-01

    The production of complex high-quality thin film systems requires a detailed understanding of all partial processes. One of the most relevant partial processes is the condensation of the coating material on the substrate surface. The optical and mechanical material properties can be adjusted by the well-defined impingement of energetic ions during deposition. Thus, in the past, a variety of different ion sources were developed. With respect to the present and future challenges in the production of precisely fabricated high performance optical coatings, the ion emission of the sources has commonly not been characterized sufficiently so far. This question is addressed in the frame of this work which itself is thematically integrated in the field of process-development and -control of ion assisted deposition processes. In a first step, a Faraday cup measurement system was developed which allows the spatially resolved determination of the ion energy distribution as well as the ion current distribution. Subsequently, the ion emission profiles of six ion sources were determined depending on the relevant operating parameters. Consequently, a data pool for process planning and supplementary process analysis is made available. On the basis of the acquired results, the basic correlations between the operating parameters and the ion emission are demonstrated. The specific properties of the individual sources as well as the respective control strategies are pointed out with regard to the thin film properties and production yield. Finally, a synthesis of the results and perspectives for future activities are given. (orig.)

  17. Cooperative spontaneous emission from volume sources in layered media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichelatti, E.

    2009-01-01

    The classical theory of radiation from a dipole located inside a microcavity is extended to the case of a volume source placed inside a layered medium. Cooperation phenomena that can take place in the spontaneous emission process are taken into account with an approach based on the theory of spatial coherence. Three cases are considered: noncooperation, long-range cooperation, and short-range cooperation. In all these cases, the expressions found for the out coupled power are analytical. As an application of the theory, an Alq 3 -based organic light emitting diode is analyzed. The optical properties of the device are evaluated and compared for two different types of cathode, one consisting of an Al layer, the other one consisting of an Al/LiF bi-layer. The results found show that the ultra-thin LiF layer significantly improves extraction efficiency [it

  18. PAH diagnostic ratios for the identification of pollution emission sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobiszewski, Marek; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) diagnostic ratios have recently come into common use as a tool for identifying and assessing pollution emission sources. Some diagnostic ratios are based on parent PAHs, others on the proportions of alkyl-substituted to non-substituted molecules. The ratios are applicable to PAHs determined in different environmental media: air (gas + particle phase), water, sediment, soil, as well as biomonitor organisms such as leaves or coniferous needles, and mussels. These ratios distinguish PAH pollution originating from petroleum products, petroleum combustion and biomass or coal burning. The compounds involved in each ratio have the same molar mass, so it is assumed they have similar physicochemical properties. Numerous studies show that diagnostic ratios change in value to different extents during phase transfers and environmental degradation. The paper reviews applications of diagnostic ratios, comments on their use and specifies their limitations. - Highlights: ► PAH diagnostic ratios may identify pollution coming from petroleum spills, fuel combustion and coal or biomass burning. ► They are sensitive to changes during PAHs environmental fate processes. ► Some diagnostic ratios are of limited value due to fast photodegradation of one of the compounds. - The paper reviews PAH diagnostic ratios that are applied to identify pollution emission originating from petroleum products, fuel combustion or coal and biomass burning.

  19. Frozen cropland soil in northeast China as source of N2O and CO2 emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Shujie; Qiao, Yunfa; Han, Xiaozeng; Brancher Franco, Roberta; Burger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural soils are important sources of atmospheric N2O and CO2. However, in boreal agro-ecosystems the contribution of the winter season to annual emissions of these gases has rarely been determined. In this study, soil N2O and CO2 fluxes were measured for 6 years in a corn-soybean-wheat rotation in northeast China to quantify the contribution of wintertime N2O and CO2 fluxes to annual emissions. The treatments were chemical fertilizer (NPK), chemical fertilizer plus composted pig manure (NPKOM), and control (Cont.). Mean soil N2O fluxes among all three treatments in the winter (November-March), when soil temperatures are below -7°C for extended periods, were 0.89-3.01 µg N m(-2) h(-1), and in between the growing season and winter (October and April), when freeze-thaw events occur, 1.73-5.48 µg N m(-2) h(-1). The cumulative N2O emissions were on average 0.27-1.39, 0.03-0.08 and 0.03-0.11 kg N2O_N ha(-1) during the growing season, October and April, and winter, respectively. The average contributions of winter N2O efflux to annual emissions were 6.3-12.1%. In all three seasons, the highest N2O emissions occurred in NPKOM, while NPK and Cont. emissions were similar. Cumulative CO2 emissions were 2.73-4.94, 0.13-0.20 and 0.07-0.11 Mg CO2-C ha(-1) during growing season, October and April, and winter, respectively. The contribution of winter CO2 to total annual emissions was 2.0-2.4%. Our results indicate that in boreal agricultural systems in northeast China, CO2 and N2O emissions continue throughout the winter.

  20. N2O and NO2 Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks with Advanced Emission Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preble, C.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2014-12-01

    Diesel engines are the largest source of nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions nationally, and also a major contributor to the black carbon (BC) fraction of fine particulate matter (PM). Recently, diesel particle filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems that target exhaust PM and NOx have become standard equipment on new heavy-duty diesel trucks. However, the deliberate catalytic oxidation of engine-out nitric oxide (NO) to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in continuously regenerating DPFs leads to increased tailpipe emission of NO2. This is of potential concern due to the toxicity of NO2 and the resulting increases in atmospheric formation of other air pollutants such as ozone, nitric acid, and fine PM. While use of SCR reduces emissions of both NO and NO2, it may lead to increased emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas. Here we report results from on-road measurements of heavy-duty diesel truck emissions conducted at the Port of Oakland and the Caldecott Tunnel in the San Francisco Bay Area. Emission factors (g pollutant per kg of diesel) were linked via recorded license plates to individual truck attributes, including engine model year and installed emission control equipment. Between 2009 and 2013, the fraction of DPF-equipped trucks at the Port of Oakland increased from 2 to 99%, and median engine age decreased from 11 to 6 years. Over the same period, fleet-average emission factors for black carbon and NOx decreased by 76 ± 22% and 53 ± 8%, respectively. However, direct emissions of NO2 increased, and consequently the NO2/NOx emission ratio increased from 0.03 ± 0.02 to 0.18 ± 0.03. Older trucks retrofitted with DPFs emitted approximately 3.5 times more NO2 than newer trucks equipped with both DPF and SCR. Preliminary data from summer 2014 measurements at the Caldecott Tunnel suggest that some older trucks have negative emission factors for N2O, and that for newer trucks, N2O emission factors have changed sign and

  1. Danish emission inventories for road transport and other mobile sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Morten

    have increased by 36 %, and CH4 emissions have decreased by 51 %. A N2O emission increase of 29 % is related to the relatively high emissions from older gasoline catalyst cars. The 1985-2006 emission decreases for PM (exhaust only), CO, NOX and NMVOC are 30, 69, 28 and 71 % respectively, due...

  2. Danish emission inventories for road transport and other mobile sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Morten

    for road transport increased by 30 %, and CH4 emissions have decreased by 74 %. A N2O emission increase of 29 % is related to the relatively high emissions from older gasoline catalyst cars. The 1985-2010 emission decrease for NOX, NMVOC, CO and particulates (exhaust only: Size is below PM2.5) -52, -84...

  3. Control of radiation sources in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, S.

    2001-01-01

    The report refers to the regulations for radioactive material in force in Japan, and to the organizations with responsibilities for regulating radiation sources. An outline of the law regulating the use of radiation sources and radioactive materials is provided, including its scope, types of radiation sources under control, exemptions and the system of notification, authorization and inspection. The experience of Japan with orphan sources is presented in three different cases, and the measures carried out to store the orphan sources in safe conditions. (author)

  4. Automatic control of a negative ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saadatmand, K.; Sredniawski, J.; Solensten, L.

    1989-01-01

    A CAMAC based control architecture is devised for a Berkeley-type H - volume ion source. The architecture employs three 80386 PCs. One PC is dedicated to control and monitoring of source operation. The other PC functions with digitizers to provide data acquisition of waveforms. The third PC is used for off-line analysis. Initially, operation of the source was put under remote computer control (supervisory). This was followed by development of an automated startup procedure. Finally, a study of the physics of operation is now underway to establish a data base from which automatic beam optimization can be derived. (orig.)

  5. Automatic control of a negative ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadatmand, K.; Sredniawski, J.; Solensten, L.

    1989-04-01

    A CAMAC based control architecture is devised for a Berkeley-type H - volume ion source [1]. The architecture employs three 80386 TM PCs. One PC is dedicated to control and monitoring of source operation. The other PC functions with digitizers to provide data acquisition of waveforms. The third PC is used for off-line analysis. Initially, operation of the source was put under remote computer control (supervisory). This was followed by development of an automated startup procedure. Finally, a study of the physics of operation is now underway to establish a data base from which automatic beam optimization can be derived.

  6. Automatic control of a negative ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saadatmand, K.; Sredniawski, J.; Solensten, L. (Grumman Corp., Long Island, NY (USA))

    1989-04-01

    A CAMAC based control architecture is devised for a Berkeley-type H/sup -/ volume ion source. The architecture employs three 80386 PCs. One PC is dedicated to control and monitoring of source operation. The other PC functions with digitizers to provide data acquisition of waveforms. The third PC is used for off-line analysis. Initially, operation of the source was put under remote computer control (supervisory). This was followed by development of an automated startup procedure. Finally, a study of the physics of operation is now underway to establish a data base from which automatic beam optimization can be derived. (orig.).

  7. Source location of chorus emissions observed by Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Parrot

    Full Text Available One of the objectives of the Cluster mission is to study sources of various electromagnetic waves using the four satellites. This paper describes the methods we have applied to data recorded from the STAFF spectrum analyser. This instrument provides the cross spectral matrix of three magnetic and two electric field components. This spectral matrix is analysed to determine, for each satellite, the direction of the wave normal relative to the Earth’s magnetic field as a function of frequency and of time. Due to the Cluster orbit, chorus emissions are often observed close to perigee, and the data analysis determines the direction of these waves. Three events observed during different levels of magnetic activity are reported. It is shown that the component of the Poynting vector parallel to the magnetic field changes its sense when the satellites cross the magnetic equator, which indicates that the chorus waves propagate away from the equator. Detailed analysis indicates that the source is located in close vicinity of the plane of the geomagnetic equator.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (plasma waves and instabilities; storms and substorms; Space plasma physics (waves and instabilities

  8. Simple, sensitive nitrogen analyzer based on pulsed miniplasma source emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Zhe; Duan Yixiang

    2003-01-01

    The development of pulsed miniplasma source emission spectrometry for trace nitrogen determination in inert gases is described in this article. The instrument consists of a pulsed miniplasma source generated by an in-house fabricated portable high-voltage supply, an optical beam collection system, an integrated small spectrometer with a charge-coupled-device detector, an interface card, and a notebook computer for controlling spectrometer parameters and signal processing. Trace nitrogen in the inert gases, such as helium and argon, was determined by monitoring the emission intensities from nitrogen molecules at 357 and 337 nm. The analytical performance was examined under various experimental conditions. The system has a detection limit of about 15 ppb (v/v) for nitrogen in helium with a relative standard deviation of 1.5%. The newly developed instrument offers a simple, low-cost, and sensitive method for continuously monitoring trace nitrogen in high-purity inert gases

  9. Mercury emissions to the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources in the Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirrone, N.; Costa, P.; Pacyna, J. M.; Ferrara, R.

    This report discusses past, current and projected mercury emissions to the atmosphere from major industrial sources, and presents a first assessment of the contribution to the regional mercury budget from selected natural sources. Emissions (1995 estimates) from fossil fuels combustion (29.8 t yr -1) , cement production (28.8 t yr -1) and incineration of solid wastes (27.6 t yr -1) , all together account for about 82% of the regional anthropogenic total (105.7 t yr -1) . Other industrial sources in the region are smelters (4.8 t yr -1) , iron-steel plants (4.8 t yr -1) and other minor sources (chlor-alkali plants, crematoria, chemicals production) that have been considered together in the miscellaneous category (9.6 t yr -1) . Regional emissions from anthropogenic sources increased at a rate of 3% yr-1 from 1983 to 1995 and are projected to increase at a rate of 1.9% yr-1 in the next 25 years, if no improvement in emission control policy occurs. On a country-by-country basis, France is the leading emitter country with 22.6 t yr -1 followed by Turkey (16.1 t yr -1) , Italy (11.4 t yr -1) , Spain (9.1 t yr -1) , the former Yugoslavia 7.9 ( t yr -1) , Morocco (6.9 t yr -1) , Bulgaria (6.8 t yr -1) , Egypt (6.1 t yr -1) , Syria (3.6 t yr -1) , Libya (2.9 t yr -1) , Tunisia (2.8 t yr -1) and Greece (2.7 t yr -1) , whereas the remaining countries account for less than 7% of the regional total. The annual emission from natural sources is 110 t yr -1, although this figure only includes the volatilisation of elemental mercury from surface waters and emissions from volcanoes, whereas the contribution due to the degassing of mercury from top soil and vegetation has not been included in this first assessment. Therefore, natural and anthropogenic sources in the Mediterranean region release annually about 215 t of mercury, which represents a significant contribution to the total mercury budget released in Europe and to the global atmosphere.

  10. Emissions from Combustion of Open Area Sources: Prescribed Forest and Agricultural Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions from wildfires and prescribed forest and agricultural burns generate a variety of emissions that can cause adverse health effects for humans, contribute to climate change, and decrease visibility. Only limited pollutant data are available for these sources, particularly...

  11. Control system for Siam photon source

    CERN Document Server

    Apiwatwaja, R; Isoyama, G; Ishii, T; Pairsuwan, W

    2003-01-01

    A new computer control system has been developed for Siam photon source, which is the first synchrotron light source in Thailand, personal computers and PLC's have been employed which are connected together through Ethernet. Man Machine Interface Stations (MMIS) at the front end act as a graphical user interface within Windows environment. The monitoring and controlling of individual devices is handled through several pairs of digital control station and the device interface located in each part of the synchrotron complex. The installation of the control system has been completed. The commissioning test of the control system is underway and the reliability of the system is on the positive side. Details of commissioning tests as well as characteristics of this newly built control system for the Siam photon source are described in this report.

  12. Chemical mechanisms in mercury emission control technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, E.S.; Laumb, J.D.; Benson, S.A.; Dunham, G.E.; Sharma, R.K.; Mibeck, B.A.; Miller, S.J.; Holmes, M.J.; Pavlish, J.H. [University of North Dakota, Energy and Environmental Research Center, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    2003-05-01

    The emission of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-burning power plants is a major environmental concern. Control technologies utilizing activated carbon show promise and are currently under intense review. Oxidation and capture of elemental mercury on activated carbon was extensively investigated in a variety of flue gas atmospheres. Extensive parametric testing with individual and a variety of combinations and concentrations of reactive flue gas components and spectroscopic examination of the sulfur and chlorine forms present before and after breakthrough have led to an improved model to explain the kinetic and capacity results. The improved model delineates the independent Lewis acid oxidation site as well as a zig-zag carbene site on the carbon edge that performs as a Lewis base in reacting with both the oxidized mercury formed at the oxidation site and with the acidic flue gas components in competing reactions to form organochlorine, sulfinate, and sulfate ester moieties on the carbon edge.

  13. Controlling nanowire emission profile using conical taper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels; Nielsen, Torben Roland; Mørk, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    The influence of a conical taper on nanowire light emission is studied. For nanowires with divergent output beams, the introduction of tapers improves the emission profile and increase the collection efficiency of the detection optics....

  14. Polychlorinated Biphenyl Sources, Emissions, and Environmental Levels in school Buildings (PCB Workshop presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measure PCB emission rates from primary sources in laboratory chambersMeasure transport and sorption by materials and dust in laboratory chambersCharacterize PCBs in school building materialsEstimate PCB emission rates from sources in schoolsExamine congener patterns in sources a...

  15. HVAC SYSTEMS AS EMISSION SOURCES AFFECTING INDOOR AIR QUALITY: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses results of an evaluation of literature on heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems as contaminant emission sources that affect indoor air quality (IAQ). The various literature sources and methods for characterizing HVAC emission sources are re...

  16. A model to relate wind tunnel measurements to open field odorant emissions from liquid area sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucernoni, F.; Capelli, L.; Busini, V.; Sironi, S.

    2017-05-01

    Waste Water Treatment Plants are known to have significant emissions of several pollutants and odorants causing nuisance to the near-living population. One of the purposes of the present work is to study a suitable model to evaluate odour emissions from liquid passive area sources. First, the models describing volatilization under a forced convection regime inside a wind tunnel device, which is the sampling device that typically used for sampling on liquid area sources, were investigated. In order to relate the fluid dynamic conditions inside the hood to the open field and inside the hood a thorough study of the models capable of describing the volatilization phenomena of the odorous compounds from liquid pools was performed and several different models were evaluated for the open field emission. By means of experimental tests involving pure liquid acetone and pure liquid butanone, it was verified that the model more suitable to describe precisely the volatilization inside the sampling hood is the model for the emission from a single flat plate in forced convection and laminar regime, with a fluid dynamic boundary layer fully developed and a mass transfer boundary layer not fully developed. The proportionality coefficient for the model was re-evaluated in order to account for the specific characteristics of the adopted wind tunnel device, and then the model was related with the selected model for the open field thereby computing the wind speed at 10 m that would cause the same emission that is estimated from the wind tunnel measurement furthermore, the field of application of the proposed model was clearly defined for the considered models during the project, discussing the two different kinds of compounds commonly found in emissive liquid pools or liquid spills, i.e. gas phase controlled and liquid phase controlled compounds. Lastly, a discussion is presented comparing the presented approach for emission rates recalculation in the field, with other approaches

  17. A global catalogue of large SO2 sources and emissions derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Fioletov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur dioxide (SO2 measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI satellite sensor processed with the new principal component analysis (PCA algorithm were used to detect large point emission sources or clusters of sources. The total of 491 continuously emitting point sources releasing from about 30 kt yr−1 to more than 4000 kt yr−1 of SO2 per year have been identified and grouped by country and by primary source origin: volcanoes (76 sources; power plants (297; smelters (53; and sources related to the oil and gas industry (65. The sources were identified using different methods, including through OMI measurements themselves applied to a new emission detection algorithm, and their evolution during the 2005–2014 period was traced by estimating annual emissions from each source. For volcanic sources, the study focused on continuous degassing, and emissions from explosive eruptions were excluded. Emissions from degassing volcanic sources were measured, many for the first time, and collectively they account for about 30 % of total SO2 emissions estimated from OMI measurements, but that fraction has increased in recent years given that cumulative global emissions from power plants and smelters are declining while emissions from oil and gas industry remained nearly constant. Anthropogenic emissions from the USA declined by 80 % over the 2005–2014 period as did emissions from western and central Europe, whereas emissions from India nearly doubled, and emissions from other large SO2-emitting regions (South Africa, Russia, Mexico, and the Middle East remained fairly constant. In total, OMI-based estimates account for about a half of total reported anthropogenic SO2 emissions; the remaining half is likely related to sources emitting less than 30 kt yr−1 and not detected by OMI.

  18. A Global Catalogue of Large SO2 Sources and Emissions Derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioletov, Vitali E.; McLinden, Chris A.; Krotkov, Nickolay; Li, Can; Joiner, Joanna; Theys, Nicolas; Carn, Simon; Moran, Mike D.

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite sensor processed with the new principal component analysis (PCA) algorithm were used to detect large point emission sources or clusters of sources. The total of 491 continuously emitting point sources releasing from about 30 kt yr(exp -1) to more than 4000 kt yr(exp -1) of SO2 per year have been identified and grouped by country and by primary source origin: volcanoes (76 sources); power plants (297); smelters (53); and sources related to the oil and gas industry (65). The sources were identified using different methods, including through OMI measurements themselves applied to a new emission detection algorithm, and their evolution during the 2005- 2014 period was traced by estimating annual emissions from each source. For volcanic sources, the study focused on continuous degassing, and emissions from explosive eruptions were excluded. Emissions from degassing volcanic sources were measured, many for the first time, and collectively they account for about 30% of total SO2 emissions estimated from OMI measurements, but that fraction has increased in recent years given that cumulative global emissions from power plants and smelters are declining while emissions from oil and gas industry remained nearly constant. Anthropogenic emissions from the USA declined by 80% over the 2005-2014 period as did emissions from western and central Europe, whereas emissions from India nearly doubled, and emissions from other large SO2-emitting regions (South Africa, Russia, Mexico, and the Middle East) remained fairly constant. In total, OMI-based estimates account for about a half of total reported anthropogenic SO2 emissions; the remaining half is likely related to sources emitting less than 30 kt yr(exp -1) and not detected by OMI.

  19. The IAEA and Control of Radioactive Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, B.

    2004-01-01

    The presentation discusses the authoritative functions and the departments of the IAEA, especially the Department of Nuclear Safety and Security and its Safety and Security of Radiation Sources Unit. IAEA safety series and IAEA safety standards series inform about international standards, provide underlying principles, specify obligations and responsibilities and give recommendations to support requirements. Other IAEA relevant publications comprise safety reports, technical documents (TECDOCs), conferences and symposium papers series and accident reports. Impacts of loss of source control is discussed, definitions of orphan sources and vulnerable sources is given. Accidents with orphan sources, radiological accidents statistic (1944-2000) and its consequences are discussed. These incidents lead to development of the IAEA guidance. The IAEA's action plan for the safety of radiation sources and the security of radioactive material was approved by the IAEA Board of Governors and the General Conference in September 1999. This led to the 'Categorization of Radiation Sources' and the 'Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources'. After 0911 the IAEA developed a nuclear security plan of activities including physical protection of nuclear material and nuclear facilities, detection of malicious activities involving nuclear and other radioactive materials, state systems for nuclear material accountancy and control, security of radioactive material other than nuclear material, assessment of safety and security related vulnerability of nuclear facilities, response to malicious acts, or threats thereof, adherence to and implementation of international agreements, guidelines and recommendations and nuclear security co-ordination and information management. The remediation of past problems comprised collection and disposal of known disused sources, securing vulnerable sources and especially high-risk sources (Tripartite initiative), searching for

  20. Consideration of the Change of Material Emission Signatures due to Longterm Emissions for Enhancing VOC Source Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, K. H.; Zhang, J. S.; Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize the changes of VOC material emission profiles over time and develop a method to account for such changes in order to enhance a source identification technique that is based on the measurements of mixed air samples and the emission signatures of in...

  1. Regulatory control of radiation sources in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auxtova, L.

    2001-01-01

    In Slovakia, there are two regulatory authorities. Regulatory control of the utilization of nuclear energy, based on the Slovak National Council's law No. 130/1998 on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, is exercised by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic. The second regulatory authority - the Ministry of Health - is empowered by law No. 72/1994 on the protection of human health to license radiation sources and is responsible for radiation protection supervision (there are nearly 3000 establishments with sealed sources, radiation generators and unsealed sources in Slovakia). Pursuant to a new radiation protection regulation based on international standards, radiation sources are to be categorized in six classes according to the associated exposure and contamination hazards. A national strategy for improving the safety of radiation sources over their life-cycle and for the management of disused and orphan sources is being prepared for governmental approval. (author)

  2. Diffusion and Evaporation-Controlled Emission in Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topp, Claus

    and sources. This work provides an investigation based on fundamental fluid dynamics and mass transfer theory to obtain a general understanding of the mechanisms involved in the emission from building materials in ventilated rooms. In addition, a generally applicable model for prediction of surface emission...... is proposed. The interest has been focused on the emission of vapours and gases as no particulate emissions have been considered. The methods used are numerical calculations by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and full-scale laboratory experiments. It was found that the emission is a strong function of air......In emission studies reported in literature little effort has been made to investigate the emission from building materials in ventilated enclosures from a fluid dynamics point of view. Furthermore, most of the existing emission models are empirical relations that are based on specific pollutants...

  3. NOX EMISSION CONTROL OPTIONS FOR COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper reviews NOx control options for coal-fired electric utility boilers. (NOTE: Acid Rain NOx regulations, the Ozone Transport Commission's NOx Budget Program, revision of the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for NOx emissions from utility sources, and Ozone Transpor...

  4. An evaluation of the use of mobile source emissions trading: Locomotive case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, W.R.; Brazell, M.M.

    1993-01-01

    There are many proposals for generating mobil source credits for use by stationary and other sources. This paper examines the benefits and practicality of including locomotive rail emissions in proposed emissions trading programs in california. In particular, this paper examines (1) if trading of locomotive rail emissions will result in lower compliance costs for railroads than traditional open-quotes command and controlclose quotes approaches, and (2) if emissions trading programs provide large enough incentives to entice railroads to seek to meet or exceed expected emissions reduction open-quotes command and controlclose quotes targets. The paper also examines under what circumstances stationary sources would be willing to purchase mobile source credits from railroads, in order to offset some of the stationary source's emissions reductions requirements. Stated simply, this analysis examines whether proposed trading programs offer enough benefits to both trading partners to warrant their use

  5. Air Pollutant Emissions Projections for the Cement and Steel Industry in China and the Impact of Emissions Control Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Khanna, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-03-01

    China’s cement and steel industry accounts for approximately half of the world’s total cement and steel production. These two industries are two of the most energy-intensive and highest carbon dioxide (CO2)-emitting industries and two of the key industrial contributors to air pollution in China. For example, the cement industry is the largest source of particulate matter (PM) emissions in China, accounting for 40 percent of its industrial PM emissions and 27 percent of its total national PM emissions. The Chinese steel industry contributed to approximately 20 percent of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions and 27 percent of PM emissions for all key manufacturing industries in China in 2013. In this study, we analyzed and projected the total PM and SO2 emissions from the Chinese cement and steel industry from 2010–2050 under three different scenarios: a Base Case scenario, an Advanced scenario, and an Advanced EOP (end-of-pipe) scenario. We used bottom-up emissions control technologies data and assumptions to project the emissions. In addition, we conducted an economic analysis to estimate the cost for PM emissions reductions in the Chinese cement industry using EOP control technologies, energy efficiency measures, and product change measures. The results of the emissions projection showed that there is not a substantial difference in PM emissions between the Base Case and Advanced scenarios, for both the cement and steel industries. This is mainly because PM emissions in the cement industry caused mainly by production process and not the fuel use. Since our forecast for the cement production in the Base Case and Advanced scenarios are not too different from each other, this results in only a slight difference in PM emissions forecast for these two scenarios. Also, we assumed a similar share and penetration rate of control technologies from 2010 up to 2050 for these two scenarios for the cement and steel industry. However, the Advanced EOP

  6. Particulate Matter from the Road Surface Abrasion as a Problem of Non-Exhaust Emission Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Penkała

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with house heating and industry, emissions from road traffic (exhaust and tire, brake, car body or road surface abrasions are one of the primary sources of particulate matter (PM in the atmosphere in urban areas. Though numerous regulations and vehicle-control mechanisms have led to a significant decline of PM emissions from vehicle exhaust gases, other sources of PM remain related to road and car abrasion are responsible for non-exhaust emissions. Quantifying these emissions is a hard problem in both laboratory and field conditions. First, we must recognize the physicochemical properties of the PM that is emitted by various non-exhaust sources. In this paper, we underline the problem of information accessibility with regards to the properties and qualities of PM from non-exhaust sources. We also indicate why scarce information is available in order to find the possible solution to this ongoing issue.

  7. Control for nuclear thermionic power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, J.C.; Sawyer, C.D.

    1978-01-01

    A control for a power source is described which includes nuclear fuel interspersed with thermionic converters, including a power regulator that maintains a substantially constant output voltage to a variable load, and a control circuit that drives a neutron flux regulator in accordance with the current supplied to the power regulator and the neutron flux density in the region of the converters. The control circuit generates a control signal which is the difference between the neutron flux density and a linear fucntion of the current, and which drives the neutron regulator in a direction to decrease or increase the neutron flux according to the polarity of the control signal

  8. Application of microwave energy in the control of DPM, oxides of nitrogen and VOC emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallavkar, Sameer M.

    The emissions of DPM (diesel particulate matter), NOx (oxides of nitrogen), and toxic VOCs (volatile organic compounds) from diesel engine exhaust gases and other sources such as chemical process industry and manufacturing industry have been a great environmental and health concern. Most control technologies for these emissions require elevated temperatures. The use of microwave energy as a source of heat energy, however, has not been fully explored. In this study, the microwave energy was used as the energy source in three separate emission control processes, namely, the regeneration of diesel particulate filter (DPF) for DPM control, the NOx reduction using a platinum catalyst, and the VOC destruction involving a ceramic based material. The study has demonstrated that microwave heating is an effective method in providing heat for the studied processes. The control efficiencies associated with the microwave-assisted processes have been observed to be high and acceptable. Further research, however, is required for the commercial use of these technologies.

  9. Effective regulatory control of radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meserve, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the situation in the USA regarding government control over use of radiation sources, the challenges it faces and the potential paths to their resolution. In the light of the large number of radiation sources in use worldwide, the safety record on balance is remarkably good. But there is still considerable room for improvement. The IAEA has an important role to play, and it is playing it effectively

  10. Regulated control of practices and radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Excepting the radiation caused by the natural background radiation, the Executive Secretariat for Nuclear Affairs (SEAN) does not authorize any source no practice within the national territory that may imply exposure of a person to ionizing radiation unless this use is ruled. This document establishes the basic criteria to set up such system as well as to exclude or exempt practices and sources from this regulated control

  11. Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units (CISWI): New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Emission Guidelines (EG) for Existing Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for commercial and industrial solid waste incineration (CISWI) units including emission guidelines and compliance times for the rule. Read the rule history and summary, and find supporting documents

  12. Emissions inventories and options for control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swart, R.J.; Van Amstel, A.R.; Van den Born, G.J.; Kroeze, C. [National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    1995-11-01

    In 1990, little was known about the emissions of greenhouse gases in the Netherlands, notably those of the non-CO{sub 2} greenhouse gases. Uncertainties included the causes, the emissions factors and the regional distribution of emissions. The main objectives of the project at that time were formulated as follows: (a) provide information for prioritizing greenhouse gas emissions research in the Netherlands; (b) provide input data for global models (later shifted to the EDGAR-project); and (c) support national and international policy development. The emphasis of the project was on non-CO{sub 2} greenhouse gases, notably methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O). While state-of-the-art information from international research would be used and analyzed, the focus of the project was on the Dutch emissions and their causes. Information was drawn from literature research, discussions with national and international experts, and experimental information from several projects. 2 figs., 12 refs.

  13. Emission and source characterization of monoaromatic hydrocarbons from coke production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Q.S.; Wang, X.M.; Sheng, G.Y.; Fu, J.M. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China). State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry

    2005-09-15

    Monoaromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs) from indigenous and industrial coking processes are studied in Shanxi province. They are sampled on the top of coke ovens and in the chimneys using stainless steel canister and determined by GC/MSD after preconcentration with liquid nitrogen. Benzene, toluene and xylene are the main components among MAHs emitted from coking processes. Benzene and the total MAHs concentrations were as high as 3421.0 microg/m3 and 4 865.9 microg/m3 in the air from indigenous coking, 548.7 microg/m3 and 1 054.8 microg/m3 in the oventop air from industrial coking, and 1 376.4 microg/m3 and 1 819.4 microg/m3 in stack gas from industrial coking, respectively. The MAHs concentrations vary greatly during the indigenous coking process, which in the prophase (from firing to 10 days) is obviously higher than in the anaphase (10 days to quenching the coke). In industrial coking the MAHs in the oventop air are highest when charging the coal and next when transferring the hot coke, but in stack gas they are highest when charging coal and lowest when transferring the coke. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) in industrial coking samples show good linearity, indicating that MAHs in industrial coking might come predominantly from coal pyrolysis; but BTEX distribute dispersedly in indigenous coking samples, indicating that its emission might be affected by many factors. In all samples BTEX ratios especially high B/E ratio, is unique among MAHs sources, and might be helpful to characterize pollution from coking.

  14. [Emission and source characterization of monoaromatic hydrocarbons from coke production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiu-Sheng; Wang, Xin-Ming; Sheng, Guo-Ying; Fu, Jia-Mo

    2005-09-01

    Monoaromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs) from indigenous and industrial coking processes are studied in Shanxi province. They are sampled on the top of coke ovens and in the chimneys using stainless steel canister and determined by GC/MSD after preconcentration with liquid nitrogen. Benzene, toluene and xylene are the main components among MAHs emitted from coking processes. Benzene and the total MAHs concentrations were as high as 3421.0 microg/m3 and 4 865.9 microg/m3 in the air from indigenous coking, 548.7 microg/m3 and 1 054.8 microg/m3 in the oventop air from industrial coking, and 1 376.4 microg/m3 and 1 819.4 microg/m3 in stack gas from industrial coking, respectively. The MAHs concentrations vary greatly during the indigenous coking process, which in the prophase (from firing to 10 days) is obviously higher than in the anaphase (10 days to quenching the coke). In industrial coking the MAHs in the oventop air are highest when charging the coal and next when transferring the hot coke, but in stack gas they are highest when charging coal and lowest when transferring the coke. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) in industrial coking samples show good linearity, indicating that MAHs in industrial coking might come predominantly from coal pyrolysis; but BTEX distribute dispersedly in indigenous coking samples, indicating that its emission might be affected by many factors. In all samples BTEX ratios especially high B/E ratio, is unique among MAHs sources, and might be helpful to characterize pollution from coking.

  15. Factors influencing mobile source particulate matter emissions-to-exposure relationships in the Boston urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Susan L; Wilson, Andrew M; Hanna, Steven R; Levy, Jonathan I

    2007-11-15

    Benefit-cost and regulatory impact analyses often use atmospheric dispersion models with coarse resolution to estimate the benefits of proposed mobile source emission control regulations. This approach may bias health estimates or miss important intra-urban variability for primary air pollutants. In this study, we estimate primary fine particulate matter (PM2.5) intake fractions (iF; the fraction of a pollutant emitted from a source that is inhaled by the population) for each of 23 398 road segments in the Boston Metro Core area to evaluate the potential for intra-urban variability in the emissions-to-exposure relationship. We estimate iFs using the CAL3QHCR line source model combined with residential populations within 5000 m of each road segment. The annual average values for the road segments range from 0.8 to 53 per million, with a mean of 12 per million. On average, 46% of the total exposure is realized within 200 m of the road segment, though this varies from 0 to 93% largely due to variable population patterns. Our findings indicate the likelihood of substantial intra-urban variability in mobile source primary PM2.5 iF that accounting for population movement with time, localized meteorological conditions, and street-canyon configurations would likely increase.

  16. Impacts of Aging Emission Control Systems on In-Use Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Emission Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preble, C.; Cados, T.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2017-12-01

    Heavy-duty diesel trucks are a major source of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and black carbon (BC) in urban environments, contributing to persistent ozone and particulate matter air quality problems. Recently, diesel particle filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems have become standard equipment on new trucks. Particle filters can also be installed as a retrofit on older engines. Prior work has shown that exhaust filters and SCR systems effectively reduce BC and NOx emission rates by up to 90 and 80%, respectively (Preble et al., ES&T 2015). There is concern, however, that DPFs may promote the formation of ultrafine particles (UFP) and increase tailpipe emissions of nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Additionally, urea-based SCR systems for NOx control may form nitrous oxide (N2O), an important contributor to stratospheric ozone depletion. The effectiveness of these emission controls has been thoroughly evaluated in the laboratory, but the long-term durability of in-use systems and their impacts on co-emitted species have not been well characterized. To evaluate the in-use performance of DPF and SCR systems, pollutant emissions from thousands of diesel trucks were measured over several years at the Port of Oakland and the Caldecott Tunnel in the San Francisco Bay Area. Pollutants present in the exhaust plumes of individual trucks were measured at high time resolution (≥1 Hz) as trucks passed under a mobile lab stationed on an overpass. Fuel-based emission factors (g pollutant emitted per kg fuel burned) were calculated for individual trucks and linked via recorded license plates to vehicle attributes, including engine model year and installed emission control systems. Use of DPFs reduced the BC emission rate by up to 95% at both locations. SCR systems were more effective at reducing NOx emissions under the uphill, highway driving conditions at the Caldecott Tunnel. The emission rates of co-emitted species NO2, UFP, and N2O depended on driving

  17. Biomass fueled fluidized bed combustion: atmospheric emissions, emission control devices and environmental regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grass, S.W.; Jenkins, B.M.

    1994-01-01

    Fluidized bed combustors have become the technological choice for power generation from biomass fuels in California. Atmospheric emission data obtained during compliance tests are compared for five operating 18 to 32 MW fluidized bed combustion power plants. The discussion focuses on the impact of fuel properties and boiler design criteria on the emission of pollutants, the efficiency of pollution control devices, and regulations affecting atmospheric emissions. Stack NO x emission factors are shown not to vary substantially among the five plants which burn fuels with nitrogen concentrations between 0.3 and 1.1% dry weight. All facilities use at least one particular control device, but not all use limestone injection or other control techniques for sulfur and chlorine. The lack of control for chlorine suggests the potential for emission of toxic species due to favorable temperature conditions existing in the particulate control devices, particularly when burning fuels containing high concentrations of chlorine. (Author)

  18. [Research advances in control of N2O emission from municipal solid waste landfill sites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chuan-Yu; Li, Bo; Lü, Hao-Hao; Wu, Wei-Xiang

    2012-05-01

    Landfill is one of the main approaches for municipal solid waste treatment, and landfill site is a main emission source of greenhouse gases nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4). As a high-efficient trace greenhouse gas, N2O has a very high warming potential, with a warming capacity 296 times of CO2, and has a long-term stability in atmosphere, giving greater damage to the ozone layer. Aiming at the researches in the control of N2O emission from municipal solid waste landfill sites, this paper summarized the characteristics and related affecting factors of the N2O emission from the landfill sites, and put forward a series of the measures adaptable to the N2O emission control of present municipal solid waste landfill sites in China. Some further research focuses on the control of N2O emission from the landfill sites were also presented.

  19. A 2009 Mobile Source Carbon Dioxide Emissions Inventory for the University of Central Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Johanna M; Cooper, C David

    2012-09-01

    A mobile source carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions inventory for the University of Central Florida (UCF) has been completed. Fora large urban university, more than 50% of the CO2 emissions can come from mobile sources, and the vast majority of mobile source emissions come from on-road sources: personal vehicles and campus shuttles carrying students, faculty, staff and administrators to and from the university as well as on university business trips. In addition to emissions from on-road vehicles, emissions from airplane-based business travel are significant, along with emissions from nonroad equipment such as lawnmowers, leaf blowers, and small maintenance vehicles utilized on campus. UCF has recently become one of the largest universities in the nation (with over 58,000 students enrolled in the fall 2011 semester) and emits a substantial amount of CO2 in the Central Florida area. For this inventory, students, faculty, staff and administrators were first surveyed to determine their commuting distances and frequencies. Information was also gathered on vehicle type and age distribution of the personal vehicles of students, faculty, administrators, and staff as well as their bus, car-pool, and alternate transportation usage. The latest US. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-approved mobile source emissions model, Motor Vehicle Emissions Simulator (MOVES2010a), was used to calculate the emissions from on-road vehicles, and UCF fleet gasoline consumption records were used to calculate the emissions from nonroad equipment and from on-campus UCF fleet vehicles. The results of this UCF mobile source emissions inventory were compared with those for another large U.S. university. With the growing awareness of global climate change, a number of colleges/universities and other organizations are completing greenhouse gas emission inventories. Assumptions often are made in order to calculate mobile source emissions, but without field data or valid reasoning, the accuracy of those

  20. Reduction of PM emissions from specific sources reflected on key components concentrations of ambient PM10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguillon, M. C.; Querol, X.; Monfort, E.; Alastuey, A.; Escrig, A.; Celades, I.; Miro, J. V.

    2009-04-01

    The relationship between specific particulate emission control and ambient levels of some PM10 components (Zn, As, Pb, Cs, Tl) was evaluated. To this end, the industrial area of Castellón (Eastern Spain) was selected, where around 40% of the EU glazed ceramic tiles and a high proportion of EU ceramic frits (middle product for the manufacture of ceramic glaze) are produced. The PM10 emissions from the ceramic processes were calculated over the period 2000 to 2007 taking into account the degree of implementation of corrective measures throughout the study period. Abatement systems (mainly bag filters) were implemented in the majority of the fusion kilns for frit manufacture in the area as a result of the application of the Directive 1996/61/CE, leading to a marked decrease in PM10 emissions. On the other hand, ambient PM10 sampling was carried out from April 2002 to July 2008 at three urban sites and one suburban site of the area and a complete chemical analysis was made for about 35 % of the collected samples, by means of different techniques (ICP-AES, ICP-MS, Ion Chromatography, selective electrode and elemental analyser). The series of chemical composition of PM10 allowed us to apply a source contribution model (Principal Component Analysis), followed by a multilinear regression analysis, so that PM10 sources were identified and their contribution to bulk ambient PM10 was quantified on a daily basis, as well as the contribution to bulk ambient concentrations of the identified key components (Zn, As, Pb, Cs, Tl). The contribution of the sources identified as the manufacture and use of ceramic glaze components, including the manufacture of ceramic frits, accounted for more than 65, 75, 58, 53, and 53% of ambient Zn, As, Pb, Cs and Tl levels, respectively (with the exception of Tl contribution at one of the sites). The important emission reductions of these sources during the study period had an impact on ambient key components levels, such that there was a high

  1. Strategies for controlling pollution from vehicular emissions in Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qidong; He, Kebin; Li, Tiejun; Fu, Lixin

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes the severe situation of vehicular emission in Beijing and discusses the following mitigation strategies: Improving fuel quality, controlling the exhaust from new vehicles, controlling the emissions from vehicles in use through e.g. Inspection Maintenance (I/M), renovating in-use vehicles and scrapping of old vehicles and road infrastructure and traffic policies. (Author)

  2. Spontaneous emission control in a tunable hybrid photonic system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frimmer, M.; Koenderink, A.F.

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate control of the rate of spontaneous emission in a tunable hybrid photonic system that consists of two canonical building blocks for spontaneous emission control, an optical antenna and a mirror, each providing a modification of the local density of optical states (LDOS).

  3. Strategies for controlling pollution from vehicular emissions in Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qidong; He, Kebin; Li, Tiejun; Fu, Lixin

    2002-07-01

    The paper describes the severe situation of vehicular emission in Beijing and discusses the following mitigation strategies: Improving fuel quality, controlling the exhaust from new vehicles, controlling the emissions from vehicles in use through e.g. Inspection Maintenance (I/M), renovating in-use vehicles and scrapping of old vehicles and road infrastructure and traffic policies. (Author)

  4. PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF DIMETHYLAMINE VAPORS EMISSION: HERBICIDE PRODUCTION PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorana Arsenijević

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The widely used herbicide, dimethylamine salt of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D-DMA, is usually prepared by mixing a dimethylamine (DMA aqueous solution with a solid 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D. The vapors of the both, reactants and products, are potentially hazardous for the environment. The contribution of DMA vapors in overall pollution from this process is most significant, concerning vapor pressures data of these pollutants. Therefore, the control of the air pollution in the manufacture and handling of methylamines is very important. Within this paper, the optimal air pollution control system in preparation of 2,4-D-DMA was developed for the pesticides manufacturing industry. This study employed the simple pollution prevention concept to reduce the emission of DMA vapors at the source. The investigations were performed on the pilot plant scale. To reduce the emission of DMA vapors, the effluent gases from the herbicide preparation zone were passed through the packed bed scrubber (water - scrubbing medium, and the catalytic reactor in sequence. The end result is a substantially improved air quality in the working area, as well as in the urbanized areas located near the chemical plant.

  5. Temperature Dependence of Factors Controlling Isoprene Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Bryan N.; Yoshida, Yasuko; Damon, Megan R.; Douglass, Anne R.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the relationship of variability in the formaldehyde (HCHO) columns measured by the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) to isoprene emissions in the southeastern United States for 2005-2007. The data show that the inferred, regional-average isoprene emissions varied by about 22% during summer and are well correlated with temperature, which is known to influence emissions. Part of the correlation with temperature is likely associated with other causal factors that are temperature-dependent. We show that the variations in HCHO are convolved with the temperature dependence of surface ozone, which influences isoprene emissions, and the dependence of the HCHO column to mixed layer height as OMI's sensitivity to HCHO increases with altitude. Furthermore, we show that while there is an association of drought with the variation in HCHO, drought in the southeastern U.S. is convolved with temperature.

  6. Emissions control techniques applied to industrial vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, B.

    2004-12-15

    As emission standards for industrial vehicles become increasingly stringent, many research projects are seeking to develop after-treatment systems. These systems will have to combine efficiency, durability and low operating cost.

  7. Investigation of black and brown carbon multiple-wavelength-dependent light absorption from biomass and fossil fuel combustion source emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael R. Olson; Mercedes Victoria Garcia; Michael A. Robinson; Paul Van Rooy; Mark A. Dietenberger; Michael Bergin; James Jay Schauer

    2015-01-01

    Quantification of the black carbon (BC) and brown carbon (BrC) components of source emissions is critical to understanding the impact combustion aerosols have on atmospheric light absorption. Multiple-wavelength absorption was measured from fuels including wood, agricultural biomass, coals, plant matter, and petroleum distillates in controlled combustion settings....

  8. Neutron generator tube ion source control apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridges, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    A pulsed neutron well logging system includes a neutron generator tube of the deuterium-tritium accelerator type and an ion source control apparatus providing extremely sharply time-defined neutron pulses. A low voltage control pulse supplied to an input by timing circuits turns a power FET on via a buffer-driver whereby a 2000 volt pulse is produced in the secondary of a pulse transformer and applied to the ion source of the tube. A rapid fall in this ion source control pulse is ensured by a quenching circuit wherein a one-shot responds to the falling edge of the control pulse and produces a 3 microsecond delay to compensate for the propagation delay. A second one-shot is triggered by the falling edge of the output of the first one-shot and gives an 8 microsecond pulse to turn on the power FET which, via an isolation transformer turns on a series-connected transistor to ground the secondary of the pulse transformer and the ion source. (author)

  9. Comparison of CO2 Emissions Data for 30 Cities from Different Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Y.; Koide, D.; Ito, A.; Saito, M.; Hirata, R.

    2017-12-01

    Many sources suggest that cities account for a large proportion of global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, in search for the best ways to reduce total anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, a focus on the city emission is crucial. In this study, we collected CO2 emissions data in 30 cities during 1990-2015 and evaluated the degree of variance between data sources. The CO2 emissions data were obtained from academic papers, municipal reports, and high-resolution emissions maps (CIDIACv2016, EDGARv4.2, ODIACv2016, and FFDASv2.0). To extract urban CO2 emissions from the high-resolution emissions maps, urban fraction ranging from 0 to 1 was calculated for each 1×1 degree grid cell using the global land cover data (SYNMAP). Total CO2 emissions from the grid cells in which urban fraction occupies greater than or equal to 0.9 were regarded as urban CO2 emissions. The estimated CO2 emissions varied greatly depending on the information sources, even in the same year. There was a large difference between CO2 emissions collected from academic papers, municipal reports, and those extracted from high-resolution emissions maps. One reason is that they use different city boundaries. That is, the city proper (i.e. the political city boundary) is often defined as the city boundary in academic papers and municipal reports, whereas the urban area is used in the high-resolution emissions maps. Furthermore, there was a large variation in CO2 emissions collected from academic papers and municipal reports. These differences may be due to the difference in the assumptions such as allocation ratio of CO2 emissions to producers and consumers. In general, the consumption-based assignment of emissions gives higher estimates of urban CO2 emission in comparison with production-based assignment. Furthermore, there was also a large variation in CO2 emissions extracted from high-resolution emissions maps. This difference would be attributable to differences in information used

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions from tropical forest degradation: an underestimated source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy R. H. Pearson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The degradation of forests in developing countries, particularly those within tropical and subtropical latitudes, is perceived to be an important contributor to global greenhouse gas emissions. However, the impacts of forest degradation are understudied and poorly understood, largely because international emission reduction programs have focused on deforestation, which is easier to detect and thus more readily monitored. To better understand and seize opportunities for addressing climate change it will be essential to improve knowledge of greenhouse gas emissions from forest degradation. Results Here we provide a consistent estimation of forest degradation emissions between 2005 and 2010 across 74 developing countries covering 2.2 billion hectares of forests. We estimated annual emissions of 2.1 billion tons of carbon dioxide, of which 53% were derived from timber harvest, 30% from woodfuel harvest and 17% from forest fire. These percentages differed by region: timber harvest was as high as 69% in South and Central America and just 31% in Africa; woodfuel harvest was 35% in Asia, and just 10% in South and Central America; and fire ranged from 33% in Africa to only 5% in Asia. Of the total emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, forest degradation accounted for 25%. In 28 of the 74 countries, emissions from forest degradation exceeded those from deforestation. Conclusions The results of this study clearly demonstrate the importance of accounting greenhouse gases from forest degradation by human activities. The scale of emissions presented indicates that the exclusion of forest degradation from national and international GHG accounting is distorting. This work helps identify where emissions are likely significant, but policy developments are needed to guide when and how accounting should be undertaken. Furthermore, ongoing research is needed to create and enhance cost-effective accounting approaches.

  11. WHAT IS THE SOURCE OF QUIET SUN TRANSITION REGION EMISSION?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmit, D. J.; De Pontieu, Bart [Lockheed-Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States)

    2016-11-10

    Dating back to the first observations of the on-disk corona, there has been a qualitative link between the photosphere’s magnetic network and enhanced transition-temperature plasma emission. These observations led to the development of a general model that describes emission structures through the partitioning of the atmospheric volume with different magnetic loop geometries that exhibit different energetic equilibria. Does the internetwork produce transition-temperature emission? What fraction of network flux connects to the corona? How does quiet Sun emission compare with low-activity Sun-like stars? In this work, we revisit the canonical model of the quiet Sun, with high-resolution observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph ( IRIS ) and HMI in hand, to address those questions. We use over 900 deep exposures of Si iv 1393 Å from IRIS along with nearly simultaneous HMI magnetograms to quantify the correlation between transition-temperature emission structures and magnetic field concentrations through a number of novel statistics. Our observational results are coupled with analysis of the Bifrost MHD model and a large-scale potential field model. Our results paint a complex portrait of the quiet Sun. We measure an emission signature in the distant internetwork that cannot be attributed to network contribution. We find that the dimmest regions of emission are not linked to the local vertical magnetic field. Using the MHD simulation, we categorize the emission contribution from cool mid-altitude loops and high-altitude coronal loops and discuss the potential emission contribution of spicules. Our results provide new constraints on the coupled solar atmosphere so that we can build on our understanding of how dynamic thermal and magnetic structures generate the observed phenomena in the transition region.

  12. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from gas-fired combustion sources: emissions and the effects of design and fuel type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    England, G.C.; McGrath, T.P. [GE-Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Irvine, CA (United States); Gilmer, L. [Equilon Enterprises, Bellaire, TX (United States); Seebold, J.G. [Chevron Research and Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States); Lev-On, M. [ARCO, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Hunt, T. [American Petroleum Institute, Washington, DC (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Air emissions from gas-fired combustion devices such as boilers, process heaters, gas turbines and stationary reciprocating engines contain hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) subjected to consideration under the federal clean air act (CAA). This work presents a recently completed major research project to develop an understanding of HAP emissions from gas-fired boilers and process heaters and new HAP emission factors based on field emission tests of gas-fired external combustion devices used in the petroleum industry. The effect of combustion system design and operating parameters on HAP emissions determined by both field and research tests are discussed. Data from field tests of gas-fired petroleum industry boilers and heaters generally show very low emission levels of organic HAPs. A comparison of the emission data for boilers and process heaters, including units with and without various forms of NO{sub x} emission controls, showed no significant difference in organic HAP emission characteristics due to process or burner design. This conclusion is also supported by the results of research tests with different burner designs. Based on field tests of units fired with natural gas and various petroleum industry process gases and research tests in which gas composition was intentionally varied, organic HAP emissions were not determined to be significantly affected by the gas composition. Research data indicate that elevated organic HAP emission levels are found only under extreme operating conditions (starved air or high excess air combustion) associated with poor combustion. (author)

  13. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from gas-fired combustion sources: emissions and the effects of design and fuel type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England, G.C.; McGrath, T.P.; Gilmer, L.; Seebold, J.G.; Lev-On, M.; Hunt, T.

    2001-01-01

    Air emissions from gas-fired combustion devices such as boilers, process heaters, gas turbines and stationary reciprocating engines contain hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) subjected to consideration under the federal clean air act (CAA). This work presents a recently completed major research project to develop an understanding of HAP emissions from gas-fired boilers and process heaters and new HAP emission factors based on field emission tests of gas-fired external combustion devices used in the petroleum industry. The effect of combustion system design and operating parameters on HAP emissions determined by both field and research tests are discussed. Data from field tests of gas-fired petroleum industry boilers and heaters generally show very low emission levels of organic HAPs. A comparison of the emission data for boilers and process heaters, including units with and without various forms of NO x emission controls, showed no significant difference in organic HAP emission characteristics due to process or burner design. This conclusion is also supported by the results of research tests with different burner designs. Based on field tests of units fired with natural gas and various petroleum industry process gases and research tests in which gas composition was intentionally varied, organic HAP emissions were not determined to be significantly affected by the gas composition. Research data indicate that elevated organic HAP emission levels are found only under extreme operating conditions (starved air or high excess air combustion) associated with poor combustion. (author)

  14. Control of combustion generated emissions from spark ignition engines: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansha, M.; Shahid, E.M.; Qureshi, A.H.

    2012-01-01

    For the past several decades automobiles have been a major source of ground level emissions of various pollutants like CO, HC, NO/sub x/, SO/sub x/ CO/sub 2/, etc. Due to their dangerous effects on human health, vegetation and on climate, various pre combustion, in-cylinder and post. combustion techniques have been tried for their abatement. This paper reviews all of the workable measures taken so far to controlling the combustion generated emissions from 4-stroke Spark Ignition Vehicular Engines ever since the promulgation of emission control legislation/standards and their subsequent enforcement in the late 1960s. (author)

  15. Impacts of temporary traffic control measures on vehicular emissions during the Asian games in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhiliang; Zhang, Yingzhi; Shen, Xianbao; Wang, Xintong; Wu, Ye; He, Kebin

    2013-01-01

    To guarantee good traffic and air quality during the 16th Asian Games in Guangzhou, China, the government carried out two traffic control Drills before the Games and adopted traffic control measures during the Games. Vehicle activities before and during the first and second Drills, and during the Games, were surveyed. Based on the data under investigation, the impacts of control measures on traffic volumes and driving characteristics were analyzed during the first and second Drills, and the Games. The emission reduction of traffic control measures was also evaluated during the three stages using the MOBILE-China model. The results show that there were significant effects of implementing temporary traffic control measures on transportation activity and vehicular emissions. During the first and second Drills, and the Games, the average traffic volumes in monitored roads decreased, and the average speed of vehicles increased significantly The co-effects of traffic flow reduction, traffic congestion improvement, and the banning of high-emitting vehicles helped to greatly reduce the estimated emissions from motor vehicles in Guangzhou during the first and second Drills, and the Games. Estimated vehicular emissions were reduced by 38-52% during the first Drill and 28-36% for the second Drill. During the Asian Games, vehicular emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NO), and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter vehicular emissions of CO, HC, NOx, and PM10. Motor vehicles have become the most prevalent source of emissions and subsequently air pollution within Chinese cities. Understanding the impacts that different control measures have on vehicular emissions is very important in order to be able to control vehicle emissions. The results of this study will be very helpful for the further control of vehicle emissions in Guangzhou in the future. In addition, the effects of temporary transportation control measures will provide

  16. Applications of Ground-based Mobile Atmospheric Monitoring: Real-time Characterization of Source Emissions and Ambient Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, J. Douglas

    Gas and particle phase atmospheric pollution are known to impact human and environmental health as well as contribute to climate forcing. While many atmospheric pollutants are regulated or controlled in the developed world uncertainty still remains regarding the impacts from under characterized emission sources, the interaction of anthropogenic and naturally occurring pollution, and the chemical and physical evolution of emissions in the atmosphere, among many other uncertainties. Because of the complexity of atmospheric pollution many types of monitoring have been implemented in the past, but none are capable of perfectly characterizing the atmosphere and each monitoring type has known benefits and disadvantages. Ground-based mobile monitoring with fast-response in-situ instrumentation has been used in the past for a number of applications that fill data gaps not possible with other types of atmospheric monitoring. In this work, ground-based mobile monitoring was implemented to quantify emissions from under characterized emission sources using both moving and portable applications, and used in a novel way for the characterization of ambient concentrations. In the Marcellus Shale region of Pennsylvania two mobile platforms were used to estimate emission rates from infrastructure associated with the production and transmission of natural gas using two unique methods. One campaign investigated emissions of aerosols, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), methane, carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and carbon dioxide (CO 2) from natural gas wells, well development practices, and compressor stations using tracer release ratio methods and a developed fenceline tracer release correction factor. Another campaign investigated emissions of methane from Marcellus Shale gas wells and infrastructure associated with two large national transmission pipelines using the "Point Source Gaussian" method described in the EPA OTM-33a. During both campaigns ambient concentrations

  17. 40 CFR 63.843 - Emission limits for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... paste for plants with batch mixers. The POM emission rate shall be determined by sampling using Method 315 in appendix A to this part. (c) Anode bake furnaces. The owner or operator shall not discharge or...

  18. EPICS application source/release control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zieman, B.; Anderson, J.; Kraimer, M.

    1995-01-01

    This manual describes a set of Application Source/Release Control tools (appSR) that can be used to develop software for EPICS based control systems. The Application Source/Release Control System (appSR) has been unbundled from base EPICS and is now available as an EPICS extension. Due to this unbundling, two new directories must be added to a user's path (see section ''Environment'' on page 3 for more information) and a new command getapp must be issued after the getrel command to get a specific version of appSR (see section ''Creating The Initial Application System Area'' on page 7 for more information). It is now required that GNU make version 3.71 or later be used for makes instead of SUN make. Users should now type gmake instead of make

  19. Application of microturbines to control emissions from associated gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Darren D.

    2013-04-16

    A system for controlling the emission of associated gas produced from a reservoir. In an embodiment, the system comprises a gas compressor including a gas inlet in fluid communication with an associated gas source and a gas outlet. The gas compressor adjusts the pressure of the associated gas to produce a pressure-regulated associated gas. In addition, the system comprises a gas cleaner including a gas inlet in fluid communication with the outlet of the gas compressor, a fuel gas outlet, and a waste product outlet. The gas cleaner separates at least a portion of the sulfur and the water from the associated gas to produce a fuel gas. Further, the system comprises a gas turbine including a fuel gas inlet in fluid communication with the fuel gas outlet of the gas cleaner and an air inlet. Still further, the system comprises a choke in fluid communication with the air inlet.

  20. Inadequate control of world's radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The radioactive materials needed to build a 'dirty bomb' can be found in almost any country in the world, and more than 100 countries may have inadequate control and monitoring programs necessary to prevent or even detect the theft of these materials. The IAEA points out that while radioactive sources number in the millions, only a small percentage have enough strength to cause serious radiological harm. It is these powerful sources that need to be focused on as a priority. In a significant recent development, the IAEA, working in collaboration with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Russian Federation's Ministry for Atomic Energy (MINATOM), have established a tripartite working group on 'Securing and Managing Radioactive Sources'. Through its program to help countries improve their national infrastructures for radiation safety and security, the IAEA has found that more than 100 countries may have no minimum infrastructure in place to properly control radiation sources. However, many IAEA Member States - in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and Europe - are making progress through an IAEA project to strengthen their capabilities to control and regulate radioactive sources. The IAEA is also concerned about the over 50 countries that are not IAEA Member States (there are 134), as they do not benefit from IAEA assistance and are likely to have no regulatory infrastructure. The IAEA has been active in lending its expertise to search out and secure orphaned sources in several countries. More than 70 States have joined with the IAEA to collect and share information on trafficking incidents and other unauthorized movements of radioactive sources and other radioactive materials. The IAEA and its Member States are working hard to raise levels of radiation safety and security, especially focusing on countries known to have urgent needs. The IAEA has taken the leading role in the United Nations system in establishing standards of safety, the most significant of

  1. Megacity and country emissions from combustion sources-Buenos Aires-Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawidowski, L.; Gomez, D.; Matranga, M.; D'Angiola, A.; Oreggioni, G.

    2010-12-01

    Historic time series (1970-2006) emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants arising from stationary and mobile combustion sources were estimated at national level for Argentina and at regional level for the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires (MABA). All emissions were estimated using a bottom-up approach following the IPCC good practice guidance. For mobile sources, national emissions include all transport categories. Regional emissions account thus far only for on-road. For national emissions, methodologies and guidance by the IPCC were employed, applying the highest possible tier and using: i)country-specific emission factors for carbon and sulphur and technology-based information for other species, ii)activity data from energy balance series (1970-2007), and iii)complementary information concerning the non-energy use of fuels. Regional emissions in 2006 were estimated in-depth using a technology-based approach for the city of Buenos Aires (CBA) and the 24 neighboring districts composing the MABA. A regional emissions factors database was developed to better characterize Latin American fleets and driving conditions employing COPERT III-IV algorithms and emission factors measured in dynamometers and circulating vehicles in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Colombia. Past emissions were back estimated from 2005 to 1970 using the best available information, which differs greatly among categories, spatial disaggregation and time periods. The time series of stationary and mobile combustion sources at the national and regional level allowed the identification of distinct patterns. National greenhouse gas emissions in 2006 amounted to ~ 150 million ton CO2-equivalent, 70% of which were contributed by stationary sources. On-road transport was the major contributor within mobile sources (28.1 %). The increasing emissions trends are dominated by on-road transport, agriculture and residential categories while the variability is largely associated with energy industries

  2. Screening the Emission Sources of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in China Based on Multi-effect Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, H., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere have adverse impacts via three main pathways: photochemical ozone formation, secondary organic aerosol production, and direct toxicity to humans. Few studies have integrated these effects to prioritize control measures for VOCs sources. In this study, we developed a multi-effect evaluation methodology based on updated emission inventories and source profiles, which was combined with ozone formation potential (OFP), secondary organic aerosol potential (SOAP), and VOC toxicity data to identify important emission sources and key species. We derived species-specific emission inventories for 152 sources. The OFPs, SOAPs, and toxicity of each source were determined, and the contribution and share of each source to each of these adverse effects was calculated. Weightings were given to the three adverse effects by expert scoring, and the integrated impact was determined. Using 2012 as the base year, solvent usage and industrial process were found to be the most important anthropogenic sources, accounting for 24.2 and 23.1% of the integrated environmental effect, respectively. This was followed by biomass burning, transportation, and fossil fuel combustion, all of which had a similar contribution ranging from 16.7 to 18.6%. The top five industrial sources, including plastic products, rubber products, chemical fiber products, the chemical industry, and oil refining, accounted for nearly 70.0% of industrial emissions. In China, emissions reductions are required for styrene, toluene, ethylene, benzene, and m/p-xylene. The 10 most abundant chemical species contributed 76.5% of the integrated impact. Beijing, Chongqing, Shanghai, Jiangsu, and Guangdong were the five leading provinces when considering the integrated effects. Besides, the chemical mass balance model (CMB) was used to verify the VOCs inventories of 47 cities in China, so as to optimize our evaluation results. We suggest that multi-effect evaluation is necessary to

  3. Emission Control Cost-Effectiveness of Alternative-Fuel Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Quanlu; Sperling, Daniel; Olmstead, Janis

    1993-01-01

    Although various legislation and regulations have been adopted to promote the use of alternative-fuel vehicles for curbing urban air pollution problems, there is a lack of systematic comparisons of emission control cost-effectiveness among various alternative-fuel vehicle types. In this paper, life-cycle emission reductions and life-cycle costs were estimated for passenger cars fueled with methanol, ethanol, liquified petroleum gas, compressed natural gas, and electricity. Vehicle emission es...

  4. Control strategies for nitrous oxide emissions reduction on wastewater treatment plants operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santín, I; Barbu, M; Pedret, C; Vilanova, R

    2017-11-15

    The present paper focused on reducing greenhouse gases emissions in wastewater treatment plants operation by application of suitable control strategies. Specifically, the objective is to reduce nitrous oxide emissions during the nitrification process. Incomplete nitrification in the aerobic tanks can lead to an accumulation of nitrite that triggers the nitrous oxide emissions. In order to avoid the peaks of nitrous oxide emissions, this paper proposes a cascade control configuration by manipulating the dissolved oxygen set-points in the aerobic tanks. This control strategy is combined with ammonia cascade control already applied in the literature. This is performed with the objective to take also into account effluent pollutants and operational costs. In addition, other greenhouse gases emissions sources are also evaluated. Results have been obtained by simulation, using a modified version of Benchmark Simulation Model no. 2, which takes into account greenhouse gases emissions. This is called Benchmark Simulation Model no. 2 Gas. The results show that the proposed control strategies are able to reduce by 29.86% of nitrous oxide emissions compared to the default control strategy, while maintaining a satisfactory trade-off between water quality and costs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Control of radiation sources in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Silvia Maria Velasques de; Menezes, Sergio Ferreira; Alves Filho, Aristeu Dacio; Xavier, Ana Maria

    1997-01-01

    The radiological accident occurred in Goiania, in 1987, brought to light several deficiencies in the conduction of the licensing processes of medical, industrial and research facilities that handle radioisotopes as well as int he control of radioactive sources in Brazil. The objective of this article is to describe some of the technical and administrative measures taken to ensure the adoption of appropriate radiological safety standards throughout the country, thus reducing the incidence of radiological accidents. (author)

  6. The control of radioactive sources in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, S.M.V.; Menezes, C.F.; Alves Filho, A.D.; Xavier, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The radiological accident of Goiania in 1987 brought to light several deficiencies in the licensing of medical, industrial and research facilities, which handle radioisotopes, as well as in the control of radioactive sources in Brazil. The article describes some of the technical and administrative measures taken to ensure the adoption of appropriate radiological safety standards throughout the country and thereby reduce the incidence of radiological accidents. (author)

  7. A quality control program for radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, C.E. de; Sibata, C.H.; Cecatti, E.R.; Kawakami, N.S.; Alexandre, A.C.; Chiavegatti Junior, M.

    1982-01-01

    An extensive quality control program was established covering the following areas: physical parameters of the therapeutical machines, dosimetric standards, preventive maintenance of radiation sources and measuring instruments. A critical evaluation of this program was done after two years (1977-1979) of routine application and the results will be presented. The fluctuation on physical parameters strongly supports the efforts and cost of a quality control program. This program has certainly improved the accuracy required on the delivery of the prescribed dose for radiotherapy treatment. (Author) [pt

  8. Infrastructure of Taiwan photon source control network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.T.; Kuo, C.H.; Cheng, Y.S.; Jenny Chen; Hsu, S.Y.; Wu, C.Y.; Hu, K.H.; Hsu, K.T.

    2012-01-01

    A reliable, flexible and secure network is essential for the Taiwan Photon Source (TPS) control system which is based upon the EPICS tool-kit framework. Subsystem sub-nets will connect to control system via EPICS based CA gateways for forwarding data and reducing network traffic. Combining cyber security technologies such as fire-wall, NAT and VLAN, control network is isolated to protect IOCs and accelerator components. Network management tools are used to improve network performance. Remote access mechanism will be constructed for maintenance and troubleshooting. The Ethernet is also used as field-bus for instruments such as power supplies. This paper will describe the system architecture for the TPS control network. Cabling topology, redundancy and maintainability are also discussed. (authors)

  9. Online Traffic Signal Control for Reducing Vehicle Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Toshihiko; Otokita, Tohru; Niikura, Satoshi

    In Japan, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions caused by vehicles have been increasing year by year and it is well known that CO2 causes a serious global warming problem. For urban traffic control systems, there is a great demand for realization of signal control measures as soon as possible due to the urgency of the recent environmental situation. This paper describes a new traffic signal control for reducing vehicle CO2 emissions on an arterial road. First, we develop a model for estimating the emissions using the traffic delay and the number of stops a driver makes. Second, to find the optimal control parameters, we introduce a random search method with rapid convergence suitable for an online traffic control. We conduct experiments in Kawasaki to verify the effectiveness of our method. The experiments show that our approach decreases not only the emissions but also congestion and travel time significantly, compared to the method implemented in the real system.

  10. Optimal control for integrated emission management in diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkers, M.C.F.; van Schijndel, J.; Heemels, W.P.M.H.; Willems, F.

    2017-01-01

    Integrated Emission Management (IEM) is a supervisory control strategy that minimises operational costs (consisting of fuel and AdBlue) for diesel engines with an aftertreatment system, while satisfying emission constraints imposed by legislation. In most work on IEM, a suboptimal heuristic

  11. Optimal control for integrated emission management in diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkers, M.C.F.; Schijndel, J. van; Heemels, W.P.M.H.; Willems, F.P.T.

    2016-01-01

    Integrated Emission Management (IEM) is a supervisory control strategy that minimises operational costs (consisting of fuel and AdBlue) for diesel engines with an aftertreatment system, while satisfying emission constraints imposed by legislation. In most work on IEM, a suboptimal heuristic

  12. Advanced Combustion and Emission Control Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    The Advanced Combustion and Emission Control (ACEC) Technical Team is focused on removing technical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high-efficiency, emission-compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light-duty vehicle powertrains (i.e., passenger car, minivan, SUV, and pickup trucks).

  13. Road dust emission sources and assessment of street washing effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karanasiou, A.; Amato, F.; Moreno, T.; Lumbreras, J.; Borge, R.; Linares, C.; Boldo, E.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.

    2014-01-01

    Although previous studies report on the effect of street washing on ambient particulate matter levels, there is a lack of studies investigating the results of street washing on the emission strength of road dust. A sampling campaign was conducted in Madrid urban area during July 2009 where road dust

  14. Sources and trends of environmental mercury emissions in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Coby S.C.; Duzgoren-Aydin, Nurdan S.; Aydin, Adnan; Wong, Ming H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on environmental mercury emissions in Asia and elaborates its probable trend in the future and associated implications given the anticipated socioeconomic outlook and other macro-environmental factors. Among the various regions, Asia has become the largest contributor of anthropogenic atmospheric Hg, responsible for over half of the global emission. In the next few decades, a significant increase in anthropogenic Hg emissions in Asia is likely owing to rapid economic and industrial development, unless drastic measures are taken. In particular, the dominance of Asia in some Hg-emitting industries, such as coal combustion, steel production and gold mining, provokes a serious environmental concern over their potential contributions of incidental Hg in the region. Moreover, the increasing prevalence of electrical and electronic manufacturing industry as a user and a contributor of Hg in Asia is also worrying. Specifically, disposal of obsolete electrical and electronic wastes represents a phenomenon increasingly encountered in Asia. In addition to escalating anthropogenic Hg emissions in Asia, associated environmental and health implications may also exacerbate in the region for the probable effects of a unique combination of climatic (e.g. subtropical climate), environmental (e.g. acid rain) and socioeconomic factors (e.g. high population density). Hence, much effort is still needed to understand the role of Asia in global Hg cycle and associated environmental and health effects in the region

  15. Sources and trends of environmental mercury emissions in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Coby S C; Duzgoren-Aydin, Nurdan S; Aydin, Adnan; Wong, Ming H

    2006-09-15

    This paper focuses on environmental mercury emissions in Asia and elaborates its probable trend in the future and associated implications given the anticipated socioeconomic outlook and other macro-environmental factors. Among the various regions, Asia has become the largest contributor of anthropogenic atmospheric Hg, responsible for over half of the global emission. In the next few decades, a significant increase in anthropogenic Hg emissions in Asia is likely owing to rapid economic and industrial development, unless drastic measures are taken. In particular, the dominance of Asia in some Hg-emitting industries, such as coal combustion, steel production and gold mining, provokes a serious environmental concern over their potential contributions of incidental Hg in the region. Moreover, the increasing prevalence of electrical and electronic manufacturing industry as a user and a contributor of Hg in Asia is also worrying. Specifically, disposal of obsolete electrical and electronic wastes represents a phenomenon increasingly encountered in Asia. In addition to escalating anthropogenic Hg emissions in Asia, associated environmental and health implications may also exacerbate in the region for the probable effects of a unique combination of climatic (e.g. subtropical climate), environmental (e.g. acid rain) and socioeconomic factors (e.g. high population density). Hence, much effort is still needed to understand the role of Asia in global Hg cycle and associated environmental and health effects in the region.

  16. Diverse origins of Arctic and Subarctic methane point source emissions identified with multiply-substituted isotopologues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, P. M. J.; Stolper, D. A.; Smith, D. A.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Paull, C. K.; Dallimore, S.; Wik, M.; Crill, P. M.; Winterdahl, M.; Eiler, J. M.; Sessions, A. L.

    2016-09-01

    Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, and there are concerns that its natural emissions from the Arctic could act as a substantial positive feedback to anthropogenic global warming. Determining the sources of methane emissions and the biogeochemical processes controlling them is important for understanding present and future Arctic contributions to atmospheric methane budgets. Here we apply measurements of multiply-substituted isotopologues, or clumped isotopes, of methane as a new tool to identify the origins of ebullitive fluxes in Alaska, Sweden and the Arctic Ocean. When methane forms in isotopic equilibrium, clumped isotope measurements indicate the formation temperature. In some microbial methane, however, non-equilibrium isotope effects, probably related to the kinetics of methanogenesis, lead to low clumped isotope values. We identify four categories of emissions in the studied samples: thermogenic methane, deep subsurface or marine microbial methane formed in isotopic equilibrium, freshwater microbial methane with non-equilibrium clumped isotope values, and mixtures of deep and shallow methane (i.e., combinations of the first three end members). Mixing between deep and shallow methane sources produces a non-linear variation in clumped isotope values with mixing proportion that provides new constraints for the formation environment of the mixing end-members. Analyses of microbial methane emitted from lakes, as well as a methanol-consuming methanogen pure culture, support the hypothesis that non-equilibrium clumped isotope values are controlled, in part, by kinetic isotope effects induced during enzymatic reactions involved in methanogenesis. Our results indicate that these kinetic isotope effects vary widely in microbial methane produced in Arctic lake sediments, with non-equilibrium Δ18 values spanning a range of more than 5‰.

  17. 77 FR 73968 - Reconsideration of Certain New Source and Startup/Shutdown Issues: National Emission Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ...; FRL-9762-1] RIN 2060-AR62 Reconsideration of Certain New Source and Startup/Shutdown Issues: National... Source and Startup/Shutdown Issues: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants from Coal... November 30, 2012, proposed ``Reconsideration of Certain New Source and Startup/Shutdown Issues: National...

  18. Source apportionment of secondary organic aerosol in China using a regional source-oriented chemical transport model and two emission inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Ying, Qi; Zhang, Hongliang; Hu, Jianlin; Lin, Yingchao; Mao, Hongjun

    2018-06-01

    A Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model with source-oriented lumped SAPRC-11 (S11L) photochemical mechanism and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) module was applied to determine the contributions of anthropogenic and biogenic sources to SOA concentrations in China. A one-year simulation of 2013 using the Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China (MEIC) shows that summer SOA are generally higher (10-15 μg m -3 ) due to large contributions of biogenic (country average 60%) and industrial sources (17%). In winter, SOA formation was mostly due to anthropogenic emissions from industries (40%) and residential sources (38%). Emissions from other countries in southeast China account for approximately 14% of the SOA in both summer and winter, and 46% in spring due to elevated open biomass burning in southeast Asia. The Regional Emission inventory in ASia v2.1 (REAS2) was applied in this study for January and August 2013. Two sets of simulations with the REAS2 inventory were conducted using two different methods to speciate total non-methane carbon into model species. One approach uses total non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions and representative speciation profiles from the SPECIATE database. The other approach retains the REAS2 speciated species that can be directly mapped to S11L model species and uses source specific splitting factors to map other REAS2 lumped NMHC species. Biogenic emissions are still the most significant contributor in summer based on these two sets of simulations. However, contributions from the transportation sector to SOA in January are predicted to be much more important based on the two REAS2 emission inventories (∼30-40% vs. ∼5% by MEIC), and contributions from residential sources according to REAS2 was much lower (∼21-24% vs. ∼42%). These discrepancies in source contributions to SOA need to be further investigated as the country seeks for optimal emission control strategies to fight severe air pollution. Copyright

  19. Effectiveness evaluation of temporary emission control action in 2016 in winter in Shijiazhuang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Liu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the environmental effectiveness of the control measures for atmospheric pollution in Shijiazhuang, China, a large-scale controlling experiment for emission sources of atmospheric pollutants (i.e. a temporary emission control action, TECA was designed and implemented during 1 November 2016 to 9 January 2017. Compared to the no-control action and heating period (NCAHP, under unfavourable meteorological conditions, the mean concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, and chemical species (Si, Al, Ca2+, Mg2+ in PM2.5 during the control action and heating period (CAHP still decreased by 8, 8, 5, 19, 30.3, 4.5, 47.0, and 45.2 %, respectively, indicating that the control measures for atmospheric pollution were effective. The effects of control measures in suburbs were better than those in urban area, especially for the control effects of particulate matter sources. The control effects for emission sources of carbon monoxide (CO were not apparent during the TECA period, especially in suburbs, likely due to the increasing usage of domestic coal in suburbs along with the temperature decreasing.The results of positive matrix factorization (PMF analysis showed that crustal dust, secondary sources, vehicle emissions, coal combustion and industrial emissions were main PM2.5 sources. Compared to the whole year (WY and the no-control action and no-heating period (NCANHP, the contribution concentrations and proportions of coal combustion to PM2.5 increased significantly during other stages of the TECA period. The contribution concentrations and proportions of crustal dust and vehicle emissions to PM2.5 decreased noticeably during the CAHP compared to other stages of the TECA period. The contribution concentrations and proportions of industrial emissions to PM2.5 during the CAHP decreased noticeably compared to the NCAHP. The pollutants' emission sources during the CAHP were in effective control, especially for crustal dust and vehicles. However

  20. Effectiveness evaluation of temporary emission control action in 2016 in winter in Shijiazhuang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baoshuang; Cheng, Yuan; Zhou, Ming; Liang, Danni; Dai, Qili; Wang, Lu; Jin, Wei; Zhang, Lingzhi; Ren, Yibin; Zhou, Jingbo; Dai, Chunling; Xu, Jiao; Wang, Jiao; Feng, Yinchang; Zhang, Yufen

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate the environmental effectiveness of the control measures for atmospheric pollution in Shijiazhuang, China, a large-scale controlling experiment for emission sources of atmospheric pollutants (i.e. a temporary emission control action, TECA) was designed and implemented during 1 November 2016 to 9 January 2017. Compared to the no-control action and heating period (NCAHP), under unfavourable meteorological conditions, the mean concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, and chemical species (Si, Al, Ca2+, Mg2+) in PM2.5 during the control action and heating period (CAHP) still decreased by 8, 8, 5, 19, 30.3, 4.5, 47.0, and 45.2 %, respectively, indicating that the control measures for atmospheric pollution were effective. The effects of control measures in suburbs were better than those in urban area, especially for the control effects of particulate matter sources. The control effects for emission sources of carbon monoxide (CO) were not apparent during the TECA period, especially in suburbs, likely due to the increasing usage of domestic coal in suburbs along with the temperature decreasing.The results of positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis showed that crustal dust, secondary sources, vehicle emissions, coal combustion and industrial emissions were main PM2.5 sources. Compared to the whole year (WY) and the no-control action and no-heating period (NCANHP), the contribution concentrations and proportions of coal combustion to PM2.5 increased significantly during other stages of the TECA period. The contribution concentrations and proportions of crustal dust and vehicle emissions to PM2.5 decreased noticeably during the CAHP compared to other stages of the TECA period. The contribution concentrations and proportions of industrial emissions to PM2.5 during the CAHP decreased noticeably compared to the NCAHP. The pollutants' emission sources during the CAHP were in effective control, especially for crustal dust and vehicles. However, the necessary coal

  1. Danish emission inventories for road transport and other mobile sources. Inventories until year 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winther, M.

    2007-01-01

    This report explains the parts of the Danish inventories related to road transport and other mobile sources. Emission results for CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 O, SO 2 , NO X , NMVOC, CO, particulate matter (PM), heavy metals, dioxins and PAH are shown from 1985 to 2004. In this period the fuel use and CO 2 emissions for road transport have increased by 48%. The emission decreases for PM (exhaust only), CO, NO X and NMVOC are 35, 58, 34 and 66% respectively, due to the introduction of vehicles complying with gradually stricter emission standards. A N 2 O emission increase of 301% is related to the high emissions from gasoline catalyst cars. For other mobile sources the fuel use and CO 2 emissions have decreased by 15% from 1985 to 2004. The PM, NO x and NMVOC emission declines are 46, 14 and 10%, respectively. For SO 2 the emission drop is 74% from 1985 to 2004, due to gradually lower fuel sulphur contents. For CO the 1985 and 2004 emissions are the same. Uncertainties for the emissions and trends have been estimated. (au)

  2. Danish emission inventories for road transport and other mobile sources. Inventories until year 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winther, M. [DMU, Dept. of Policy Analysis (Denmark)

    2007-01-15

    This report explains the parts of the Danish inventories related to road transport and other mobile sources. Emission results for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub X}, NMVOC, CO, particulate matter (PM), heavy metals, dioxins and PAH are shown from 1985 to 2004. In this period the fuel use and CO{sub 2} emissions for road transport have increased by 48%. The emission decreases for PM (exhaust only), CO, NO{sub X} and NMVOC are 35, 58, 34 and 66% respectively, due to the introduction of vehicles complying with gradually stricter emission standards. A N{sub 2}O emission increase of 301% is related to the high emissions from gasoline catalyst cars. For other mobile sources the fuel use and CO{sub 2} emissions have decreased by 15% from 1985 to 2004. The PM, NO{sub x} and NMVOC emission declines are 46, 14 and 10%, respectively. For SO{sub 2} the emission drop is 74% from 1985 to 2004, due to gradually lower fuel sulphur contents. For CO the 1985 and 2004 emissions are the same. Uncertainties for the emissions and trends have been estimated. (au)

  3. An atmospheric emission inventory of anthropogenic and biogenic sources for Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waked, Antoine; Afif, Charbel; Seigneur, Christian

    2012-04-01

    A temporally-resolved and spatially-distributed emission inventory was developed for Lebanon to provide quantitative information for air pollution studies as well as for use as input to air quality models. This inventory covers major anthropogenic and biogenic sources in the region with 5 km spatial resolution for Lebanon and 1 km spatial resolution for its capital city Beirut and its suburbs. The results obtained for CO, NOx, SO2, NMVOC, NH3, PM10 and PM2.5 for the year 2010 were 563, 75, 62, 115, 4, 12, and 9 Gg, respectively. About 93% of CO emissions, 67% of NMVOC emissions and 52% of NOx emissions are calculated to originate from the on-road transport sector while 73% of SO2 emissions, 62% of PM10 emissions and 59% of PM2.5 emissions are calculated to originate from power plants and industrial sources. The spatial allocation of emissions shows that the city of Beirut and its suburbs encounter a large fraction of the emissions from the on-road transport sector while urban areas such as Zouk Mikael, Jieh, Chekka and Selaata are mostly affected by emissions originating from the industrial and energy production sectors. Temporal profiles were developed for several emission sectors.

  4. Advanced Catalytic Converter in Gasoline Enginer Emission Control: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Leman A.M.; Jajuli Afiqah; Feriyanto Dafit; Rahman Fakhrurrazi; Zakaria Supaat

    2017-01-01

    Exhaust emission from automobile source has become a major contributor to the air pollution and environmental problem. Catalytic converter is found to be one of the most effective tools to reduce the overwhelming exhaust pollutants in our environment. The development of sustainable catalytic converter still remains a critical issue due to the stringent exhaust emission regulations. Another issue such as price and availability of the precious metal were also forced the automotive industry to i...

  5. Strategies to control vehicular emissions: Indian scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virupaksha, T. [Central Institute of Road Transport, Pune (India)

    2002-07-01

    The paper presents a common urban transport policy framework to protect the local and global environment and a state-of-the-art review of recommendations and measures suggested by the local administration in Indian cities from time to time. The measures to combat pollution in urban areas is identified by different cities but there is no cohesive strategy for implementing them. The pursuit of some of these measures are that the haphazard and piecemeal measures have not helped to gain optimum benefit possible or to make a discernible impact on mobility demand and vehicular emissions. A more practical strategy is required to reduce both emission and congestion, using a mixed set of instruments. The instruments are taxes on fuels, vehicles, and parking, incentives and regulations affecting vehicle ownership, usage and movement, traffic management more importantly encouraging non-motorized transport like bicycles by providing suitable lanes. Some of the policy measures seriously needed to be implemented to reduce ongoing pollution menace are enforcing higher maintenance standards, introducing vehicles designed to meet stricter emission standards, retrofitting vehicles to use other kinds of clean fuel, reducing urban congestion through transport management measures, scrapping highly polluting and high usage vehicles, and strengthening institutional links and regulatory issues. 5 refs., 1 tab.

  6. Influence of fertilizer nitrogen source and management practice of N2O emissions from two black chernozemic soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, D.L.

    2008-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) is a major anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emitted by Canadian agricultural systems. Emissions of N 2 O are sporadic, which complicates their accurate quantification as well as the development of adequate management practices. This study was conducted to determine the relative N 2 O production potentials of various nitrogen (N) fertilizer sources and application methods used in cereal production practices in Manitoba. Wheat crops were used to examine variations in N 2 O emissions associated with N formulations applied at the same rate. Treatments included urea surface broadcast in the spring; urea subsurface bands in spring; urea subsurface bands in the fall; anhydrous ammonia subsurface bands in spring and fall; and a control plot where no N was applied. Treatments of polymer-coated urea were also applied. The treatments were established in the fall of 1999. N 2 O fluxes were measured using vented static chambers. Samples were analyzed using gas chromatography. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed in order to obtain cumulative annual N 2 O emissions. Results of the study showed that N 2 O emissions associated with the use of anhydrous ammonia were no greater than emissions associated with urea. Higher N 2 O emissions were observed in fall applications of N fertilizer. The dominant factors controlling differences in N 2 O emissions between sites and years included precipitation, soil water content, and soil texture. 26 refs., 6 tabs

  7. A Comparison of the Health Effects of Ambient Particulate Matter Air Pollution from Five Emission Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil J. Hime

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This article briefly reviews evidence of health effects associated with exposure to particulate matter (PM air pollution from five common outdoor emission sources: traffic, coal-fired power stations, diesel exhaust, domestic wood combustion heaters, and crustal dust. The principal purpose of this review is to compare the evidence of health effects associated with these different sources with a view to answering the question: Is exposure to PM from some emission sources associated with worse health outcomes than exposure to PM from other sources? Answering this question will help inform development of air pollution regulations and environmental policy that maximises health benefits. Understanding the health effects of exposure to components of PM and source-specific PM are active fields of investigation. However, the different methods that have been used in epidemiological studies, along with the differences in populations, emission sources, and ambient air pollution mixtures between studies, make the comparison of results between studies problematic. While there is some evidence that PM from traffic and coal-fired power station emissions may elicit greater health effects compared to PM from other sources, overall the evidence to date does not indicate a clear ‘hierarchy’ of harmfulness for PM from different emission sources. Further investigations of the health effects of source-specific PM with more advanced approaches to exposure modeling, measurement, and statistics, are required before changing the current public health protection approach of minimising exposure to total PM mass.

  8. Experimental Development of Low-emittance Field-emission Electron Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lueangaranwong, A. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States). Northern Illinois Center for Accelerator & Detector Development; Buzzard, C. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States); Divan, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Center for Nanoscale Materials; Korampally, V. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States); Piot, P. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States). Northern Illinois Center for Accelerator & Detector Development; Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2016-10-10

    Field emission electron sources are capable of extreme brightness when excited by static or time-dependent electro- magnetic fields. We are currently developing a cathode test stand operating in DC mode with possibility to trigger the emission using ultra-short (~ 100-fs) laser pulses. This contribution describes the status of an experiment to investigate field-emission using cathodes under development at NIU in collaboration with the Argonne’s Center for Nanoscale Materials.

  9. The advanced light source control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magyary, S.; Chin, M.; Cork, C.; Fahmie, M.; Lancaster, H.; Molinari, P.; Ritchie, A.; Robb, A.; Timossi, C.; Young, J.

    1990-01-01

    The criteria for the design of a modern control system are discussed in the context of the special requirements for the control of the Advanced Light Source (ALS). This is followed by the description of the system being built, which has a number of special features. The emphasis has been placed on providing an extremely wide I/O and CPU bandwidth (greater than 120 Mbits/s and 1200 Mips, respectively) and on using commercially available hardware and software. The only major custom design item is the Intelligent Local Controller (ILC), of which about 600 will be used to interface to the hardware. The use of personal computers for the operator stations allows the use of a wealth of industrial standards for windows, languages and tools. (orig.)

  10. Self-organized global control of carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenyuan; Fenn, Daniel J.; Hui, Pak Ming; Johnson, Neil F.

    2010-09-01

    There is much disagreement concerning how best to control global carbon emissions. We explore quantitatively how different control schemes affect the collective emission dynamics of a population of emitting entities. We uncover a complex trade-off which arises between average emissions (affecting the global climate), peak pollution levels (affecting citizens’ everyday health), industrial efficiency (affecting the nation’s economy), frequency of institutional intervention (affecting governmental costs), common information (affecting trading behavior) and market volatility (affecting financial stability). Our findings predict that a self-organized free-market approach at the level of a sector, state, country or continent can provide better control than a top-down regulated scheme in terms of market volatility and monthly pollution peaks. The control of volatility also has important implications for any future derivative carbon emissions market.

  11. Sources of spontaneous emission based on indium arsenide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zotova, N. V.; Il'inskaya, N. D.; Karandashev, S. A.; Matveev, B. A.; Remennyi, M. A.; Stus', N. M.

    2008-01-01

    The results obtained for light-emitting diodes based on heterostructures that contain InAs in the active region and are grown by the methods of liquid-phase, molecular-beam, and vapor-phase epitaxy from organometallic compounds are reviewed. The emission intensity, the near-field patterns, and the light-current and current-voltage characteristics of light-emitting diodes that have flip-chip structure or feature a point contact are analyzed.

  12. Sources of spontaneous emission based on indium arsenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zotova, N V; Il' inskaya, N D; Karandashev, S A; Matveev, B. A., E-mail: bmat@iropt3.ioffe.rssi.ru; Remennyi, M A; Stus' , N M [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2008-06-15

    The results obtained for light-emitting diodes based on heterostructures that contain InAs in the active region and are grown by the methods of liquid-phase, molecular-beam, and vapor-phase epitaxy from organometallic compounds are reviewed. The emission intensity, the near-field patterns, and the light-current and current-voltage characteristics of light-emitting diodes that have flip-chip structure or feature a point contact are analyzed.

  13. Mobile source pollution control in the United States and China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menz, Fredric C

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews policies for the control of mobile source pollution and their potential application in China. The first section of the paper reviews the U.S. experience with mobile source pollution control since regulations were first established in the Clean Air Act of 1970. Highlights in the policy and trends in vehicle emissions over the 1970 to 2000 time period are discussed. The second section of the paper discusses the range of policy instruments that could be used to control vehicle pollution, ranging from traditional direct regulations to market-based instruments. Experiences with the use of economic incentives in the United States and elsewhere are also discussed. The third section of the paper discusses possible implications of the U.S. experience for controlling vehicle pollution in China. While market-based instruments might be particularly appropriate for use in several aspects of China's pollution control policies, important differences between the institutional structures in China and the United States suggest that they should be phased in gradually. The paper closes with concluding remarks. (author)

  14. Mobile source pollution control in the United States and China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menz, Fredric C

    2002-07-01

    This paper reviews policies for the control of mobile source pollution and their potential application in China. The first section of the paper reviews the U.S. experience with mobile source pollution control since regulations were first established in the Clean Air Act of 1970. Highlights in the policy and trends in vehicle emissions over the 1970 to 2000 time period are discussed. The second section of the paper discusses the range of policy instruments that could be used to control vehicle pollution, ranging from traditional direct regulations to market-based instruments. Experiences with the use of economic incentives in the United States and elsewhere are also discussed. The third section of the paper discusses possible implications of the U.S. experience for controlling vehicle pollution in China. While market-based instruments might be particularly appropriate for use in several aspects of China's pollution control policies, important differences between the institutional structures in China and the United States suggest that they should be phased in gradually. The paper closes with concluding remarks. (author)

  15. On - road mobile source pollutant emissions : identifying hotspots and ranking roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    A considerable amount of pollution to the air in the forms of hydrocarbons, carbon : monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM) and air toxics comes : from the on-road mobile sources. Estimation of the emissions of these pollutants...

  16. Directional sound beam emission from a configurable compact multi-source system

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Jiajun; Jadhali, Rasha Al; Zhang, Likun; Wu, Ying

    2018-01-01

    We propose to achieve efficient emission of highly directional sound beams from multiple monopole sources embedded in a subwavelength enclosure. Without the enclosure, the emitted sound fields have an indistinguishable or omnidirectional radiation

  17. Municipal Solid Waste Landfill New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Emission Guidelines (EG) -- Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This November 1998 document of questions and answers are provided as a guide for those subject to the new source performance standards (NSPS) or emission guidelines (EG), as well as those implementing the NSPS or EG.

  18. Determination of the power of multielement aerosol composition emission from distant industrial sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popova, S.A.; Kutsenogij, K.P.; Chankina, O.V.

    2008-01-01

    The results from the monitoring of the temporal variability of the multielement composition of atmospheric aerosols are presented. They are used to determine the emission power of a series of elements from distant sources.

  19. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION.... 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Emission Limits for Tire Production...

  20. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Emission Limits for Puncture Sealant Application Affected Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Emission Limits for Puncture Sealant Application Affected Sources 3 Table 3 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Emission Limits for Puncture...

  1. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources 2 Table 2 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Emission Limits for Tire Cord...

  2. Revisiting factors controlling methane emissions from high-Arctic tundra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mastepanov, M.; Sigsgaard, C.; Tagesson, T.

    2013-01-01

    controlling methane emission, i.e. temperature and water table position. Late in the growing season CH4 emissions were found to be very similar between the study years (except the extremely dry 2010) despite large differences in climatic factors (temperature and water table). Late-season bursts of CH4...... short-term control factors (temperature and water table). Our findings suggest the importance of multiyear studies with a continued focus on shoulder seasons in Arctic ecosystems....

  3. Emission Facilities - Erosion & Sediment Control Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — An Erosion and Sediment Control Facility is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Pollution Control program. The following sub-facility types related to...

  4. Circadian control of isoprene emissions from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Michael J; Owen, Susan M; Possell, Malcolm; Hartwell, James; Gould, Peter; Hall, Anthony; Vickers, Claudia; Nicholas Hewitt, C

    2006-09-01

    The emission of isoprene from the biosphere to the atmosphere has a profound effect on the Earth's atmospheric system. Until now, it has been assumed that the primary short-term controls on isoprene emission are photosynthetically active radiation and temperature. Here we show that isoprene emissions from a tropical tree (oil palm, Elaeis guineensis) are under strong circadian control, and that the circadian clock is potentially able to gate light-induced isoprene emissions. These rhythms are robustly temperature compensated with isoprene emissions still under circadian control at 38 degrees C. This is well beyond the acknowledged temperature range of all previously described circadian phenomena in plants. Furthermore, rhythmic expression of LHY/CCA1, a genetic component of the central clock in Arabidopsis thaliana, is still maintained at these elevated temperatures in oil palm. Maintenance of the CCA1/LHY-TOC1 molecular oscillator at these temperatures in oil palm allows for the possibility that this system is involved in the control of isoprene emission rhythms. This study contradicts the accepted theory that isoprene emissions are primarily light-induced.

  5. Test Method for High β Particle Emission Rate of 63Ni Source Plate

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG Li-feng

    2015-01-01

    For the problem of measurement difficulties of β particle emission rate of Ni-63 source plate used for Ni-63 betavoltaic battery, a relative test method of scintillation current method was erected according to the measurement principle of scintillation detector.β particle emission rate of homemade Ni-63 source plate was tested by the method, and the test results were analysed and evaluated, it was initially thought that scintillation current method was a feasible way of testing β particle emi...

  6. 40 CFR 63.5985 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5985 Section 63.5985 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5985 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources? You must use...

  7. Quantification and Controls of Wetland Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNicol, Gavin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-05-10

    Wetlands cover only a small fraction of the Earth’s land surface, but have a disproportionately large influence on global climate. Low oxygen conditions in wetland soils slows down decomposition, leading to net carbon dioxide sequestration over long timescales, while also favoring the production of redox sensitive gases such as nitrous oxide and methane. Freshwater marshes in particular sustain large exchanges of greenhouse gases under temperate or tropical climates and favorable nutrient regimes, yet have rarely been studied, leading to poor constraints on the magnitude of marsh gas sources, and the biogeochemical drivers of flux variability. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in California was once a great expanse of tidal and freshwater marshes but underwent drainage for agriculture during the last two centuries. The resulting landscape is unsustainable with extreme rates of land subsidence and oxidation of peat soils lowering the surface elevation of much of the Delta below sea level. Wetland restoration has been proposed as a means to slow further subsidence and rebuild peat however the balance of greenhouse gas exchange in these novel ecosystems is still poorly described. In this dissertation I first explore oxygen availability as a control on the composition and magnitude of greenhouse gas emissions from drained wetland soils. In two separate experiments I quantify both the temporal dynamics of greenhouse gas emission and the kinetic sensitivity of gas production to a wide range of oxygen concentrations. This work demonstrated the very high sensitivity of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide production to oxygen availability, in carbon rich wetland soils. I also found the temporal dynamics of gas production to follow a sequence predicted by thermodynamics and observed spatially in other soil or sediment systems. In the latter part of my dissertation I conduct two field studies to quantify greenhouse gas exchange and understand the carbon sources for

  8. Danish emission inventories for road transport and other mobile sources. Inventories until the year 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winther, M.

    2012-08-15

    This report explains the parts of the Danish emission inventories related to road transport and other mobile sources. Emission results are shown for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub X}, NMVOC, CO, particulate matter (PM), heavy metals, dioxins and PAH. From 1990-2010 the fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions for road transport increased by 30 %, and CH{sub 4} emissions have decreased by 74 %. A N{sub 2}O emission increase of 29 % is related to the relatively high emissions from older gasoline catalyst cars. The 1985-2010 emission decrease for NO{sub X}, NMVOC, CO and particulates (exhaust only: Size is below PM{sub 2.5}) -52, -84, -81, and -65 %, respectively, due to the introduction of vehicles complying with gradually stricter emission standards. For SO{sub 2} the emission drop 99 % (due to reduced sulphur content in the diesel fuel), whereas the NH{sub 3} emissions increased by 2232 % (due to the introduction of catalyst cars). For other mobile sources the calculated emission changes for CO{sub 2} (and fuel use), CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O were -2, 5 and -1 %, from 1990 to 2010. The emissions of SO{sub 2}, particulates (all size fractions), NO{sub X}, NMVOC and CO decreased by 88, 65, 17, 28 and 2 % from 1985 to 2010. For NH{sub 3} the emissions increased by 17 % in the same time period. Uncertainties for the emissions and trends were estimated. (Author)

  9. Legal and planning framework for the control of noise emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinick, M.

    1992-01-01

    An examination is offered of the statutory basis for the control of noise emissions. Principal pieces of legislation and some advisory notes have been produced within appendices. The paper briefly examines the controls in other EC countries before discussing the way in which planning controls relate to the jurisdiction of the court. (author)

  10. PM, NOx and butane emissions from on-road vehicle fleets in Hong Kong and their implications on emission control policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Zhi; Wubulihairen, Maimaitireyimu; Yang, Fenhuan

    2012-12-01

    Vehicular emissions are the major sources of air pollution in urban areas. For metropolitan cities with large population working and living in environments with direct traffic impact, emission control is of great significance to protect public health. Implementation of more stringent emission standards, retrofitting fleet with emission control devices and switching to clearer fuel has been commonly practiced in different cities including Hong Kong. The present study employed a new plume chasing method for effective and quick evaluation of on-road fleet emission factors of particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and butane from heavy duty diesel trucks, diesel buses and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) vehicles. The results showed distinct profiles of the emissions from different fleets with excessive butane emissions from LPG fleet and contrasting PM and NOx emissions from diesel trucks and buses fleets. A cross comparison was also made with emission data from other cities and from historic local studies. The implications of the observed difference on the effectiveness of emission control measures and policy are discussed with recommendations of direction for future research and policy making.

  11. Emission control by cyclone combustor technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syred, N; Styles, A C; Sahatimehr, A

    1983-09-01

    Recent work carried out on a multi-inlet gas-fired cyclone combustor has shown that NO formation is reduced to negligible proportions when operated at mixture ratios 1.5 < PHI < 2.2 with combustion occurring under fully premixed fuel conditions. Elimination of hot spots, common to partial premixed systems, has been achieved with mean temperatures below 1300 C, thereby reducing NO emissions (1.5 ppm) by preventing the onset of Zeldovich and prompt mechanisms. The low NO levels are therefore dependent on a combination of low flame front temperature (about 1100 C) and premixed combustion conditions. Owing to the operating mode of combustion, heat transfer at the walls plays an important role in flame stability. Insulation of the cyclone chamber by refractory has been found to extend the operating range to higher mixture ratios. Conversely, it is expected that heat removal from the walls would enable the combustor to operate at mixture ratios nearer to stoichiometric, whilst still giving rise to low levels of NO emission. 17 references.

  12. The potential near-source ozone impacts of upstream oil and gas industry emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaguer, Eduardo P

    2012-08-01

    Increased drilling in urban areas overlying shale formations and its potential impact on human health through decreased air quality make it important to estimate the contribution of oil and gas activities to photochemical smog. Flares and compressor engines used in natural gas operations, for example, are large sources not only of NOx but also offormaldehyde, a hazardous air pollutant and powerful ozone precursor We used a neighborhood scale (200 m horizontal resolution) three-dimensional (3D) air dispersion model with an appropriate chemical mechanism to simulate ozone formation in the vicinity ofa hypothetical natural gas processing facility, based on accepted estimates of both regular and nonroutine emissions. The model predicts that, under average midday conditions in June, regular emissions mostly associated with compressor engines may increase ambient ozone in the Barnett Shale by more than 3 ppb beginning at about 2 km downwind of the facility, assuming there are no other major sources of ozone precursors. Flare volumes of 100,000 cubic meters per hour ofnatural gas over a period of 2 hr can also add over 3 ppb to peak 1-hr ozone somewhatfurther (>8 km) downwind, once dilution overcomes ozone titration and inhibition by large flare emissions of NOx. The additional peak ozone from the hypothetical flare can briefly exceed 10 ppb about 16 km downwind. The enhancements of ambient ozone predicted by the model are significant, given that ozone control strategy widths are of the order of a few parts per billion. Degrading the horizontal resolution of the model to 1 km spuriously enhances the simulated ozone increases by reducing the effectiveness of ozone inhibition and titration due to artificial plume dilution.

  13. Field determination of multipollutant, open area combustion source emission factors with a hexacopter unmanned aerial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurell, J.; Mitchell, W.; Chirayath, V.; Jonsson, J.; Tabor, D.; Gullett, B.

    2017-10-01

    An emission sensor/sampler system was coupled to a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) hexacopter unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to characterize gases and particles in the plumes emitted from open burning of military ordnance. The UAV/sampler was tested at two field sites with test and sampling flights spanning over 16 h of flight time. The battery-operated UAV was remotely maneuvered into the plumes at distances from the pilot of over 600 m and at altitudes of up to 122 m above ground level. While the flight duration could be affected by sampler payload (3.2-4.6 kg) and meteorological conditions, the 57 sampling flights, ranging from 4 to 12 min, were typically terminated when the plume concentrations of CO2 were diluted to near ambient levels. Two sensor/sampler systems, termed ;Kolibri,; were variously configured to measure particulate matter, metals, chloride, perchlorate, volatile organic compounds, chlorinated dioxins/furans, and nitrogen-based organics for determination of emission factors. Gas sensors were selected based on their applicable concentration range, light weight, freedom from interferents, and response/recovery times. Samplers were designed, constructed, and operated based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methods and quality control criteria. Results show agreement with published emission factors and good reproducibility (e.g., 26% relative standard deviation for PM2.5). The UAV/Kolibri represents a significant advance in multipollutant emission characterization capabilities for open area sources, safely and effectively making measurements heretofore deemed too hazardous for personnel or beyond the reach of land-based samplers.

  14. Optical emission spectroscopy of carbon laser plasma ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balki, Oguzhan; Rahman, Md. Mahmudur; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.

    2018-04-01

    Carbon laser plasma generated by an Nd:YAG laser (wavelength 1064 nm, pulse width 7 ns, fluence 4-52 J cm-2) is studied by optical emission spectroscopy and ion time-of-flight. Up to C4+ ions are detected with the ion flux strongly dependent on the laser fluence. The increase in ion charge with the laser fluence is accompanied by observation of multicharged ion lines in the optical spectra. The time-integrated electron temperature Te is calculated from the Boltzmann plot using the C II lines at 392.0, 426.7, and 588.9 nm. Te is found to increase from ∼0.83 eV for a laser fluence of 22 J cm-2 to ∼0.90 eV for 40 J cm-2. The electron density ne is obtained from the Stark broadened profiles of the C II line at 392 nm and is found to increase from ∼ 2 . 1 × 1017cm-3 for 4 J cm-2 to ∼ 3 . 5 × 1017cm-3 for 40 J cm-2. Applying an external electric field parallel to the expanding plume shows no effect on the line emission intensities. Deconvolution of ion time-of-flight signal with a shifted Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution for each charge state results in an ion temperature Ti ∼4.7 and ∼6.0 eV for 20 and 36 J cm-2, respectively.

  15. Danish emission inventories for road transport and other mobile sources. Inventories until year 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winther, M.

    2008-09-15

    This report explains the parts of the Danish inventories related to road transport and other mobile sources. Emission results are shown for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub X}, NMVOC, CO, particulate matter (PM), heavy metals, dioxins and PAH. From 1990-2006 the fuel use and CO{sub 2} emissions for road transport have increased by 36 %, and CH{sub 4} emissions have decreased by 51 %. A N{sub 2}O emission increase of 29 % is related to the relatively high emissions from older gasoline catalyst cars. The 1985-2006 emission decreases for PM (exhaust only), CO, NO{sub X} and NMVOC are 30, 69, 28 and 71 % respectively, due to the introduction of vehicles complying with gradually stricter emission standards. For SO{sub 2} the emission drop is 99% (due to reduced sulphur content in the diesel fuel), whereas the NH{sub 3} emissions increase by 3065% (due to the introduction of catalyst cars). For other mobile sources the calculated emission changes for CO{sub 2} (and fuel use), CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O are -10, 5 and -11%, from 1990 to 2006. The emissions of SO{sub 2}, particulates (all size fractions), NO{sub X}, NMVOC and CO have decreased by 88, 56, 14, 12 and 9% from 1985 to 2006. For NH{sub 3} the emissions have increased by 8% in the same time period. Uncertainties for the emissions and trends have been estimated. (au)

  16. Biosolid stockpiles are a significant point source for greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Ramaprasad; Livesley, Stephen J; Gregory, David; Arndt, Stefan K

    2014-10-01

    The wastewater treatment process generates large amounts of sewage sludge that are dried and then often stored in biosolid stockpiles in treatment plants. Because the biosolids are rich in decomposable organic matter they could be a significant source for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, yet there are no direct measurements of GHG from stockpiles. We therefore measured the direct emissions of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) on a monthly basis from three different age classes of biosolid stockpiles at the Western Treatment Plant (WTP), Melbourne, Australia, from December 2009 to November 2011 using manual static chambers. All biosolid stockpiles were a significant point source for CH4 and N2O emissions. The youngest biosolids (nitrate and ammonium concentration. We also modeled CH4 emissions based on a first order decay model and the model based estimated annual CH4 emissions were higher as compared to the direct field based estimated annual CH4 emissions. Our results indicate that labile organic material in stockpiles is decomposed over time and that nitrogen decomposition processes lead to significant N2O emissions. Carbon decomposition favors CO2 over CH4 production probably because of aerobic stockpile conditions or CH4 oxidation in the outer stockpile layers. Although the GHG emission rate decreased with biosolid age, managers of biosolid stockpiles should assess alternate storage or uses for biosolids to avoid nutrient losses and GHG emissions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Inventory and environmental impact of VOCs emission from the typical anthropogenic sources in Sichuan province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Li; Wang, Xing-Rui; He, Min; Guo, Wei-Guang

    2013-12-01

    Based on Sichuan province environmental statistical survey data and other relevant activity data, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions from typical anthropogenic sources in Sichuan province were calculated for the year of 2011 by applying the emission factor method. Besides, ozone and secondary organic aerosol formation potentials of these typical anthropogenic sources were discussed. The total VOC emission from these sources was about 482 kt in Sichuan province, biomass burning, solvent utilization, industrial processes, storage and distribution of fuel, and fossil fuel combustion contributed 174 kt, 153 kt, 121 kt, 21 kt and 13 kt, respectively; architecture wall painting, furniture coating, wood decoration painting and artificial board were the major emission sectors of the solvent utilization; while for the industrial processes, 19.4% of VOCs emission was from the wine industry. Chengdu was the largest contributor compared to the other cities in Sichuan, whose VOCs emission from these typical anthropogenic sources in 2011 was 112 kt. OFP of these sources was 1,930 kt altogether. Solvent utilization contributed 50.5% of the total SOA formation potentials, biomass burning and industrial processes both contributed about 23% , with storage and distribution of fuel and fossil fuel combustion accounting for 1% and 1.4%, respectively.

  18. Control strategies for vehicular NOx emissions in Guangzhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Min; Zhang Yuanhang; Raufer, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Guangzhou is a city in southern China that has experienced very rapid economic development in recent years. The city's air has very high concentrations of various pollutants, including sulphur dioxide (SO 2 , oxides of nitrogen (NOx), ozone (O 3 ) and particulate. This paper reviews the changes in air quality in the city over the past 15 years, and notes that a serious vehicular-related emissions problem has been superimposed on the traditional coal-burning problem evident in most Chinese cities. As NOx concentrations have increased, oxidants and photochemical smog now interact with the traditional SO 2 and particulate pollutants, leading to increased health risks and other environmental concerns. Any responsible NOx control strategy for the city must include vehicle emission control measures. This paper reviews control strategies designed to abate vehicle emissions to fulfill the city's air quality improvement target in 2010. A cost-effectiveness analysis suggests that, while NOx emission control is expensive, vehicular emission standards could achieve a relatively sizable emissions reduction at reasonable cost. To achieve the 2010 air quality target of NOx, advanced implementation of EURO3 standards is recommended, substituting for the EURO2 currently envisioned in the national regulations Related technical options, including fuel quality improvements and inspection/maintenance (I/M) upgrades (ASM or IM240) are assessed as well. (author)

  19. Modeling of Control Costs, Emissions, and Control Retrofits for Cost Effectiveness and Feasibility Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about EPA’s use of the Integrated Planning Model (IPM) to develop estimates of SO2 and NOx emission control costs, projections of futureemissions, and projections of capacity of future control retrofits, assuming controls on EGUs.

  20. MILAGRO OBSERVATIONS OF MULTI-TeV EMISSION FROM GALACTIC SOURCES IN THE FERMI BRIGHT SOURCE LIST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Linnemann, J. T.; Allen, B. T.; Chen, C.; Aune, T.; Berley, D.; Goodman, J. A.; Christopher, G. E.; Kolterman, B. E.; Mincer, A. I.; Nemethy, P.; DeYoung, T.; Dingus, B. L.; Hoffman, C. M.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Gonzalez, M. M.; Hays, E.; McEnery, J. E.; Huentemeyer, P. H.; Morgan, T.

    2009-01-01

    We present the result of a search of the Milagro sky map for spatial correlations with sources from a subset of the recent Fermi Bright Source List (BSL). The BSL consists of the 205 most significant sources detected above 100 MeV by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. We select sources based on their categorization in the BSL, taking all confirmed or possible Galactic sources in the field of view of Milagro. Of the 34 Fermi sources selected, 14 are observed by Milagro at a significance of 3 standard deviations or more. We conduct this search with a new analysis which employs newly optimized gamma-hadron separation and utilizes the full eight-year Milagro data set. Milagro is sensitive to gamma rays with energy from 1 to 100 TeV with a peak sensitivity from 10 to 50 TeV depending on the source spectrum and declination. These results extend the observation of these sources far above the Fermi energy band. With the new analysis and additional data, multi-TeV emission is definitively observed associated with the Fermi pulsar, J2229.0+6114, in the Boomerang pulsar wind nebula (PWN). Furthermore, an extended region of multi-TeV emission is associated with the Fermi pulsar, J0634.0+1745, the Geminga pulsar.

  1. Broadband transmission grating spectrometer for measuring the emission spectrum of EUV sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayraktar, Muharrem; Bastiaens, Hubertus M.J.; Bruineman, Caspar; Vratzov, Boris; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light sources and their optimization for emission within a narrow wavelength band are essential in applications such as photolithography. Most light sources however also emit radiation outside this wavelength band and have a spectrum extending up to deep ultraviolet (DUV)

  2. 76 FR 35806 - Amendments to National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Plating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ...., Washington, DC. The Public Reading Room is open from 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Eastern Standard Time (EST... parties interested in commenting must do so at this time. For further information, please see the... chromium anodizing sources, as those sources are subject to 40 CFR part 63, subpart N, ``Chromium Emissions...

  3. 78 FR 7487 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... small coal-fired units (i.e., with a design heat input capacity of less than 10 MMBtu/hr) are subject to... existing area source coal-fired boilers with heat input capacity of 10 MMBtu/hr or greater may need to... most emissions from area source boilers, two pollutants emitted by coal-fired boilers, POM as 7-PAH and...

  4. Two Model-Based Methods for Policy Analyses of Fine Particulate Matter Control in China: Source Apportionment and Source Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zheng, B.; Zhang, Q.; He, K.

    2013-12-01

    Anthropogenic emissions have been controlled in recent years in China to mitigate fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution. Recent studies show that sulfate dioxide (SO2)-only control cannot reduce total PM2.5 levels efficiently. Other species such as nitrogen oxide, ammonia, black carbon, and organic carbon may be equally important during particular seasons. Furthermore, each species is emitted from several anthropogenic sectors (e.g., industry, power plant, transportation, residential and agriculture). On the other hand, contribution of one emission sector to PM2.5 represents contributions of all species in this sector. In this work, two model-based methods are used to identify the most influential emission sectors and areas to PM2.5. The first method is the source apportionment (SA) based on the Particulate Source Apportionment Technology (PSAT) available in the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx) driven by meteorological predictions of the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model. The second method is the source sensitivity (SS) based on an adjoint integration technique (AIT) available in the GEOS-Chem model. The SA method attributes simulated PM2.5 concentrations to each emission group, while the SS method calculates their sensitivity to each emission group, accounting for the non-linear relationship between PM2.5 and its precursors. Despite their differences, the complementary nature of the two methods enables a complete analysis of source-receptor relationships to support emission control policies. Our objectives are to quantify the contributions of each emission group/area to PM2.5 in the receptor areas and to intercompare results from the two methods to gain a comprehensive understanding of the role of emission sources in PM2.5 formation. The results will be compared in terms of the magnitudes and rankings of SS or SA of emitted species and emission groups/areas. GEOS-Chem with AIT is applied over East Asia at a horizontal grid

  5. A plasma process controlled emissions off-gas demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battleson, D.; Kujawa, S.T.; Leatherman, G.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal technologies are currently identified as playing an important role in the treatment of many DOE waste streams, and emissions from these processes will be scrutinized by the public, regulators, and stakeholders. For some time, there has been a hesitancy by the public to accept thermal treatment of radioactive contaminated waste because of the emissions from these processes. While the technology for treatment of emissions from these processes is well established, it is not possible to provide the public complete assurance that the system will be in compliance with air quality regulations 100% of the operating time in relation to allowing noncompliant emissions to exit the system. Because of the possibility of noncompliant emissions and the public's concern over thermal treatment systems, it has been decided that the concept of a completely controlled emissions off-gas system should be developed and implemented on Department of Energy (DOE) thermal treatment systems. While the law of conservation of mass precludes a completely closed cycle system, it is possible to apply the complete control concept to emissions

  6. Attributing Methane and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Anthropogenic and Natural Sources Using AVIRIS-NG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, A. K.; Frankenberg, C.; Thompson, D. R.; Duren, R. M.; Aubrey, A. D.; Bue, B. D.; Green, R. O.; Gerilowski, K.; Krings, T.; Borchardt, J.; Kort, E. A.; Sweeney, C.; Conley, S. A.; Roberts, D. A.; Dennison, P. E.; Ayasse, A.

    2016-12-01

    Imaging spectrometers like the next generation Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-NG) can map large regions with the high spatial resolution necessary to resolve methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. This capability is aided by real time detection and geolocation of gas plumes, permitting unambiguous identification of individual emission source locations and communication to ground teams for rapid follow up. We present results from AVIRIS-NG flight campaigns in the Four Corners region (Colorado and New Mexico) and the San Joaquin Valley (California). Over three hundred plumes were observed, reflecting emissions from anthropogenic and natural sources. Examples of plumes will be shown for a number of sources, including CH4 from well completions, gas processing plants, tanks, pipeline leaks, natural seeps, and CO2 from power plants. Despite these promising results, an imaging spectrometer built exclusively for quantitative mapping of gas plumes would have improved sensitivity compared to AVIRIS-NG. For example, an instrument providing a 1 nm spectral sampling (2,000-2,400 micron) would permit mapping CH4, CO2, H2O, CO, and N2O from more diffuse sources using both airborne and orbital platforms. The ability to identify emission sources offers the potential to constrain regional greenhouse gas budgets and improve partitioning between anthropogenic and natural emission sources. Because the CH4 lifetime is only about 9 years and CH4 has a Global Warming Potential 86 times that of CO2 for a 20 year time interval, mitigating these emissions is a particularly cost-effective approach to reduce overall atmospheric radiative forcing. Fig. 1. True color image subset with superimposed gas plumes showing concentrations in ppmm. Left: AVIRIS-NG observed CH4 plumes from natural gas processing plant extending over 500 m downwind of multiple emissions sources. Right: Multiple CO2 plumes observed from coal-fired power plant.

  7. Controlling the emission current from a plasma cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagaev, S.P.; Gushenets, V.I.; Schanin, P.M.

    1993-01-01

    The processes determining the time and amplitude characteristics of the grid-controlled electron emission from the plasma of an arc discharge have been analyzed. It has been shown that by applying to the grid confining the plasma emission boundary of a modulated voltage it is possible to form current pulse of up to 1 kA with nanosecond risetimes and falltimes and a pulse repetitive rate of 100 kHz

  8. Environmental emissions control programs at Lambton TGS [Thermal Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalvins, A.K.

    1992-01-01

    Ontario Hydro's air emissions control programs at Lambton thermal generating station, both committed and planned, are reviewed, and their potential impacts on emissions, effluents and wastes are discussed. Control technologies examined include flue gas conditioning, wet limestone scrubbing, combustion process modifications, urea injection, and selective catalytic reduction. The implementation of these technologies has the potential to create new solid and liquid waste disposal problems, the full extent of which is often not realized at the process selection stage. For example, selective noncatalytic reduction using urea injection can lead to increased CO emissions, escape of unreacted ammonia from the stack at levels of 5-50 ppM, increase in N 2 O emissions, contamination of fly ash, gypsum and waste water with ammonia, and an increase in CO 2 emissions of less than 0.4% due to increased power consumption. Optimum performance of the air emissions control systems, with minimum negative impact on the environment, requires consideration of the impact of these systems on all waste streams. 11 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  9. Source-receptor relationships between East Asian sulfur dioxide emissions and Northern Hemisphere sulfate concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liu

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the effect of varying East Asian (EA sulfur emissions on sulfate concentrations in the Northern Hemisphere, using a global coupled oxidant-aerosol model (MOZART-2. We conduct a base and five sensitivity simulations, in which sulfur emissions from each continent are tagged, to establish the source-receptor (S-R relationship between EA sulfur emissions and sulfate concentrations over source and downwind regions. We find that from west to east across the North Pacific, EA sulfate contributes approximately 80%–20% of sulfate at the surface, but at least 50% at 500 hPa. Surface sulfate concentrations are dominated by local anthropogenic sources. Of the sulfate produced from sources other than local anthropogenic emissions (defined here as "background" sulfate, EA sources account for approximately 30%–50% (over the Western US and 10%–20% (over the Eastern US. The surface concentrations of sulfate from EA sources over the Western US are highest in MAM (up to 0.15 μg/m3, and lowest in DJF (less than 0.06 μg/m3. Reducing EA SO2 emissions will significantly decrease the spatial extent of the EA sulfate influence (represented by the areas where at least 0.1 μg m−3 of sulfate originates from EA over the North Pacific both at the surface and at 500 hPa in all seasons, but the extent of influence is insensitive to emission increases, particularly in DJF and JJA. We find that EA sulfate concentrations over most downwind regions respond nearly linearly to changes in EA SO2 emissions, but sulfate concentrations over the EA source region increase more slowly than SO2 emissions, particularly at the surface and in winter, due to limited availability of oxidants (in particular of H2O2, which oxidizes SO2 to sulfate in the aqueous phase. We find that similar estimates of the S-R relationship for trans-Pacific transport of EA sulfate would be

  10. An inventory of potential PCDD and PCDF emission sources in the mainland of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Jun; Xiaoyan, Tang [Peking Univ., Beijing (China); Peng, Hao [Central Univ. for Nationalities, Beijing (China)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) are widespread environmental pollutants. A number of countries have developed national inventories of PCDD/F emission, such as USA, EU Nations and Japan. However, due to the lack of PCDD/F data measured in China and the uncertain nature of the documentation available on emission factors, the report on inventories of dioxin emission is absent. With the municipal population growth, economic development and living-standard improvement, China faces many severe environment issues including potential problems related to PCDD/F. The country is aware of potential dioxin sources such as: incineration, iron and steel industry, chemical industry, fires, coal power plant, foundries, PCB in capacitors and transformers, sintering, traffic emission. In 2001, China signed the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants in Stockholm. Therefore, there is a need for information regarding dioxin emission from these sources for taking actions to reduce and/or eliminate the release of dioxins in China, and reduce human exposure. In this study, we identify those potential PCDD/F emission sources and work out the first inventory on PCDD/F emission into the environment in China.

  11. BLACK Carbon Emissions from Diesel Sources in the Largest Arctic City: Case Study of Murmansk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M.; Kholod, N.; Malyshev, V.; Tretyakova, S.; Gusev, E.; Yu, S.; Barinov, A.

    2014-12-01

    Russia has very little data on its black carbon (BC) emissions. Because Russia makes up such a large share of the Arctic, understanding Russian emissions will improve our understanding of overall BC levels, BC in the Arctic and the link between BC and climate change. This paper provides a detailed, bottom-up inventory of BC emissions from diesel sources in Murmansk, Russia, along with uncertainty estimates associated with these emissions. The research team developed a detailed data collection methodology. The methodology involves assessing the vehicle fleet and activity in Murmansk using traffic, parking lot and driver surveys combined with an existing database from a vehicle inspection station and statistical data. The team also assessed the most appropriate emission factors, drawing from both Russian and international inventory methodologies. The researchers also compared fuel consumption using statistical data and bottom-up fuel calculations. They then calculated emissions for on-road transportation, off-road transportation (including mines), diesel generators, fishing and other sources. The article also provides a preliminary assessment of Russia-wide emissions of black carbon from diesel sources.

  12. Characterization of emissions sources in the California-Mexico Border Region during Cal-Mex 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, M. A.; Lei, W.; Li, G.; Bei, N.; Barrera, H.; Tejeda, D.; Molina, L. T.; Cal-Mex 2010 Emissions Team

    2010-12-01

    The California-Mexico border region provides an opportunity to evaluate the characteristics of the emission processes in rapidly expanding urban areas where intensive international trade and commerce activities occur. Intense anthropogenic activities, biomass burning, as well as biological and geological sources significantly contribute to high concentration levels of particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), air toxics, and ozone observed in the California-US Baja California-Mexico border region. The continued efforts by Mexico and US for improving and updating the emissions inventories in the sister cities of San Diego-Tijuana and Calexico-Mexicali has helped to understand the emission processes in the border region. In addition, the recent Cal-Mex 2010 field campaign included a series of measurements aimed at characterizing the emissions from major sources in the California-Mexico border region. In this work we will present our analyzes of the data obtained during Cal-Mex 2010 for the characterization of the emission sources and their use for the evaluation of the recent emissions inventories for the Mexican cities of Tijuana and Mexicali. The developed emissions inventories will be implemented in concurrent air quality modeling efforts for understanding the physical and chemical transformations of air pollutants in the California-Mexico border region and their impacts.

  13. Consideration of Fugitive Emissions in Major Source Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  14. Glow discharge lamp: a light source for optical emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishwanathan, K.S.; Srinivasan, V.; Nalini, S.; Mahalingam, T.R.

    1990-01-01

    A glow discharge lamp based on a modified version of the Grimm design has been fabricated. Its utility as a radiation source for optical emmission spectrography by standardising a method for the analysis of low alloy steels using a set of certified standards from DMRL, Hyderabad, has been demonstrated. A model has been proposed where the sputtering rates of different metals have been correlated with their heats of sublimation, metallic radii and densities. Sputtering rates of ten different metals obtained from literature have been used to test this model, and the correlation appears to be excellent. (author). 19 re fs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Towards an Integrated Assessment Model for Tropospheric Ozone-Emission Inventories, Scenarios and Emission-control Options

    OpenAIRE

    Olsthoorn, X.

    1994-01-01

    IIASA intends to extend its RAINS model for addressing the issue of transboundary ozone air pollution. This requires the development of a VOC-emissions module, VOCs being precursors in ozone formation. The module should contain a Europe-wide emission inventory, a submodule for developing emission scenarios and a database of measures for VOC-emission control, including data about control effectiveness and control costs. It is recommended to use the forthcoming CORINAIR90 inventory for construc...

  16. Source apportionment of traffic emissions of particulate matter using tunnel measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Samantha; Sokhi, Ranjeet; Ravindra, Khaiwal; Mao, Hongjun; Prain, Hunter Douglas; Bull, Ian D.

    2013-10-01

    This study aims to quantify exhaust/non-exhaust emissions and the uncertainties associated with them by combining innovative motorway tunnel sampling and source apportionment modelling. Analytical techniques ICP-AES and GC-MS were used to identify the metallic and organic composition of PM10, respectively. Good correlation was observed between Fe, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Sb and change in traffic volume. The concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other organics varies significantly at the entrance and exit site of the tunnel, with fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene and benzothiazole having the highest incremented concentrations. The application of Principal Component Analysis and Multiple Linear Regression Analysis helped to identify the emission sources for 82% of the total PM10 mass inside the tunnel. Identified sources include resuspension (27%), diesel exhaust emissions (21%), petrol exhaust emissions (12%), brake wear emissions (11%) and road surface wear (11%). This study shows that major health related chemical species of PM10 originate from non-exhaust sources, further signifying the need for legislation to reduce these emissions.

  17. Atmospheric mercury emissions in Australia from anthropogenic, natural and recycled sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Peter F.; Morrison, Anthony L.; Malfroy, Hugh J.; Cope, Martin; Lee, Sunhee; Hibberd, Mark L.; Meyer, C. P. (Mick); McGregor, John

    2012-12-01

    The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) has begun a process of developing a legally binding instrument to manage emissions of mercury from anthropogenic sources. The UNEP Governing Council has concluded that there is sufficient evidence of significant global adverse impacts from mercury to warrant further international action; and that national, regional and global actions should be initiated as soon as possible to identify populations at risk and to reduce human generated releases. This paper describes the development of, and presents results from, a comprehensive, spatially and temporally resolved inventory of atmospheric mercury emissions from the Australian landmass. Results indicate that the best estimate of total anthropogenic emissions of mercury to the atmosphere in 2006 was 15 ± 5 tonnes. Three industrial sectors contribute substantially to Australian anthropogenic emissions: gold smelting (˜50%, essentially from a single site/operation), coal combustion in power plants (˜15%) and alumina production from bauxite (˜12%). A diverse range of other sectors contribute smaller proportions of the emitted mercury, but industrial emissions account for around 90% of total anthropogenic mercury emissions. The other sectors include other industrial sources (mining, smelting, and cement production) and the use of products containing mercury. It is difficult to determine historical trends in mercury emissions given the large uncertainties in the data. Estimates for natural and re-emitted emissions from soil, water, vegetation and fires are made using meteorological models, satellite observations of land cover and soil and vegetation type, fuel loading, fire scars and emission factors which account for the effects of temperature, insolation and other environmental variables. These natural and re-emitted sources comfortably exceed the anthropogenic emissions, and comprise 4-12 tonnes per year from vegetation, 70-210 tonnes per year from soils, and 21-63 tonnes

  18. Soil acidification in China: is controlling SO2 emissions enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Duan, Lei; Xing, Jia; Larssen, Thorjorn; Nielsen, Chris P; Hao, Jiming

    2009-11-01

    Facing challenges of increased energy consumption and related regional air pollution, China has been aggressively implementing flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and phasing out small inefficient units in the power sector in order to achieve the national goal of 10% reduction in sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) emissions from 2005 to 2010. In this paper, the effect of these measures on soil acidification is explored. An integrated methodology is used, combining emission inventory data, emission forecasts, air quality modeling, and ecological sensitivities indicated by critical load. National emissions of SO(2), oxides of nitrogen (NO(X)), particulate matter (PM), and ammonia (NH(3)) in 2005 were estimated to be 30.7, 19.6, 31.3, and 16.6 Mt, respectively. Implementation of existing policy will lead to reductions in SO(2) and PM emissions, while those of NO(X) and NH(3) will continue to rise, even under tentatively proposed control measures. In 2005, the critical load for soil acidification caused by sulfur (S) deposition was exceeded in 28% of the country's territory, mainly in eastern and south-central China. The area in exceedance will decrease to 26% and 20% in 2010 and 2020, respectively, given implementation of current plans for emission reductions. However, the exceedance of the critical load for nitrogen (N, combining effects of eutrophication and acidification) will double from 2005 to 2020 due to increased NO(X) and NH(3) emissions. Combining the acidification effects of S and N, the benefits of SO(2) reductions during 2005-2010 will almost be negated by increased N emissions. Therefore abatement of N emissions (NO(X) and NH(3)) and deposition will be a major challenge to China, requiring policy development and technology investments. To mitigate acidification in the future, China needs a multipollutant control strategy that integrates measures to reduce S, N, and PM.

  19. Particle and VOC emission factor measurements for anthropogenic sources in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Keita

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of campaigns have been carried out to establish the emission factors of pollutants from fuel combustion in West Africa, as part of work package 2 (Air Pollution and Health of the DACCIWA (Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions in West Africa FP7 program. Emission sources considered here include wood (hevea and iroko and charcoal burning, charcoal making, open trash burning, and vehicle emissions, including trucks, cars, buses and two-wheeled vehicles. Emission factors of total particulate matter (TPM, elemental carbon (EC, primary organic carbon (OC and volatile organic compounds (VOCs have been established. In addition, emission factor measurements were performed in combustion chambers in order to reproduce field burning conditions for a tropical hardwood (hevea, and obtain particulate emission factors by size (PM0.25, PM1, PM2.5 and PM10. Particle samples were collected on quartz fiber filters and analyzed using gravimetric method for TPM and thermal methods for EC and OC. The emission factors of 58 VOC species were determined using offline sampling on a sorbent tube. Emission factor results for two species of tropical hardwood burning of EC, OC and TPM are 0.98 ± 0.46 g kg−1 of fuel burned (g kg−1, 11.05 ± 4.55 and 41.12 ± 24.62 g kg−1, respectively. For traffic sources, the highest emission factors among particulate species are found for the two-wheeled vehicles with two-stroke engines (2.74 g kg−1 fuel for EC, 65.11 g kg−1 fuel for OC and 496 g kg−1 fuel for TPM. The largest VOC emissions are observed for two-stroke two-wheeled vehicles, which are up to 3 times higher than emissions from light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles. Isoprene and monoterpenes, which are usually associated with biogenic emissions, are present in almost all anthropogenic sources investigated during this work and could be as significant as aromatic emissions in wood burning (1 g kg−1 fuel. EC is

  20. Air pollution emission under control?; Luchtverontreinigende emissies onder controle?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbeek, R.; Smokers, R. [TNO Mobility / Sustainable Transport and Logistics, Delft (Netherlands)

    2011-10-15

    The air-polluting emissions of lorries and inland shipping needs to adhere to increasingly strict requirements. As a result, the emissions of new vehicles and vessels in 2020 will only be a fraction of the emissions of for example 1990. How does it work out in practice? Is it useful to switch to alternative fuels in the coming years, such as for example natural gas and biofuels? Or will all air-polluting emission problems have been solved in the near future, allowing for full focus on energy use and CO2 reduction?. [Dutch] De luchtverontreinigende emissies van vrachtauto's en binnenvaartschepen moeten aan steeds strengere eisen voldoen. Daardoor zullen de emissies van nieuwe voer- en vaartuigen in 2020 nog maar een fractie zijn in vergelijking tot bijvoorbeeld 1990. Werkt het allemaal goed in de praktijk? En heeft het de komende jaren nog zin om over te stappen naar alternatieve brandstoffen zoals aardgas en biobrandstoffen? Of zijn alle problemen rond de luchtverontreinigende emissies straks van de baan en kunnen we de focus geheel richten op energieverbruik en CO2-reductie?.

  1. Emission and thermal performance upgrade through advanced control backfit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, A.K. [Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation, Boston, MA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Reducing emission and improving thermal performance of currently operating power plants is a high priority. A majority of these power plants are over 20 years old with old control systems. Upgrading the existing control systems with the latest technology has many benefits, the most cost beneficial are the reduction of emission and improving thermal performance. The payback period is usually less than two years. Virginia Power is installing Stone & Webster`s NO{sub x} Emissions Advisor and Advanced Steam Temperature Control systems on Possum Point Units 3 and 4 to achieve near term NO{sub x} reductions while maintaining high thermal performance. Testing has demonstrated NO{sub x} reductions of greater than 20 percent through the application of NO{sub x} Emissions Advisor on these units. The Advanced Steam Temperature Control system which has been operational at Virginia Power`s Mt. Storm Unit 1 has demonstrated a signification improvement in unit thermal performance and controllability. These control systems are being combined at Units 3 and 4 to reduce NO{sub x} emissions and achieve improved unit thermal performance and control response with the existing combustion hardware. Installation has been initiated and is expected to be completed by the spring of 1995. Possum Point Power Station Units 3 and 4 are pulverized coal, tangentially fired boilers producing 107 and 232 MW and have a distributed control system and a PC based performance monitoring system. The installation of the advanced control and automation system will utilize existing control equipment requiring the addition of several PCs and PLC.

  2. Using mobile source emission reductions to offset stationary surce rule requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazemi, M.A.; Beruldsen, K.J.

    1993-01-01

    A number of mobile source strategies have been evaluated that could potentially be used as an alternative means of compliance with existing stationary source regulations, at a lower cost. The evaluation was spurred by both public and private sector interest in identifying the lowest cost air pollution reduction strategies, and the realization that mobile sources are the predominate contributor to the air pollution problem in the South Coast Air Quality Basin. Strategies evaluated included removing older vehicles from the in-use population, use of alternative fuels, inspection and maintenance measures, application of remote sensing technology, exceeding AVR requirements, as well as a number of other strategies. Key implementation issues have been identified, so that the viability of each mobile source strategies could be assessed. These issues include: (1) quantification of emissions benefits, (2) determining whether the mobile source strategy would generate emission reductions surplus to existing and planned mobile source regulations, and (3) assessing the potential for enforceability. The results of evaluation indicate that there are a number of promising mobile source emission strategies that could provide quantifiable, surplus, and enforceable emission reductions

  3. Assessing comparative terrestrial ecotoxicity of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn: The influence of aging and emission source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owsianiak, Mikołaj; Holm, Peter E.; Fantke, Peter; Christiansen, Karen S.; Borggaard, Ole K.; Hauschild, Michael Z.

    2015-01-01

    Metal exposure to terrestrial organisms is influenced by the reactivity of the solid-phase metal pool. This reactivity is thought to depend on the type of emission source, on aging mechanisms that are active in the soil, and on ambient conditions. Our work shows, that when controlling for soil pH or soil organic carbon, emission source occasionally has an effect on reactivity of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn emitted from various anthropogenic sources followed by aging in the soil from a few years to two centuries. The uncertainties in estimating the age prevent definitive conclusions about the influence of aging time on the reactivity of metals from anthropogenic sources in soils. Thus, for calculating comparative toxicity potentials of man-made metal contaminations in soils, we recommend using time-horizon independent accessibility factors derived from source-specific reactive fractions. - Highlights: • We found an effect of source on reactivity of anthropogenic metals in soils. • The influence of aging on reactivity of anthropogenic metals was not consistent. • We recommend including source and disregarding aging in calculation of CTPs values. - Improving current life cycle inventory (LCI) and life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) practice in terrestrial ecotoxicity assessment of metals.

  4. Probe beam deflection technique as acoustic emission directionality sensor with photoacoustic emission source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Ronald A; Maswadi, Saher; Glickman, Randolph; Shadaram, Mehdi

    2014-01-20

    The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the unique capability of measuring the vector or angular information of propagating acoustic waves using an optical sensor. Acoustic waves were generated using photoacoustic interaction and detected by the probe beam deflection technique. Experiments and simulations were performed to study the interaction of acoustic emissions with an optical sensor in a coupling medium. The simulated results predict the probe beam and wavefront interaction and produced simulated signals that are verified by experiment.

  5. Legal and financial methods for reducing low emission sources: Options for incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samitowski, W. [Office of Economic and Legal Advisors POLINVEST Ltd., Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    There are two types of the so-called low emission sources in Cracow: over 1,000 local boiler houses and several thousand solid fuel-fired stoves. The accomplishment of each of 5 sub-projects offered under the American-Polish program entails solving the technical, financial, legal and public relations-related problems. The elimination of the low emission source requires, therefore, a joint effort of the following pairs: (a) local authorities, (b) investors, (c) owners and users of low emission sources, and (d) inhabitants involved in particular projects. The results of the studies developed by POLINVEST indicate that the accomplishment of the projects for the elimination of low emission sources will require financial incentives. Bearing in mind the today`s resources available from the community budget, this process may last as long as a dozen or so years. The task of the authorities of Cracow City is making a long-range operational strategy enabling reduction of low emission sources in Cracow.

  6. Controlling spontaneous emission of light by photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodahl, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Photonic bandgap crystals were proposed almost two decades ago as a unique tool for controlling propagation and emission of light. Since then the research field of photonic crystals has exploded and many beautiful demonstrations of the use of photonic crystals and fibers for molding light...... propagation have appeared that hold great promises for integrated optics. These major achievements solidly demonstrate the ability to control propagation of light. In contrast, an experimental demonstration of the use of photonic crystals for timing the emission of light has so far lacked. In a recent...... publication in Nature, we have demonstrated experimentally that both the direction and time of spontaneous emission can be controlled, thereby confirming the original proposal by Eli Yablonovich that founded the field of photonic crystals. We believe that this work opens new opportunities for solid...

  7. Regulatory Control of Radiation Sources. Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This Safety Guide is intended to assist States in implementing the requirements established in Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-1, Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety, for a national regulatory infrastructure to regulate any practice involving radiation sources in medicine, industry, research, agriculture and education. The Safety Guide provides advice on the legislative basis for establishing regulatory bodies, including the effective independence of the regulatory body. It also provides guidance on implementing the functions and activities of regulatory bodies: the development of regulations and guides on radiation safety; implementation of a system for notification and authorization; carrying out regulatory inspections; taking necessary enforcement actions; and investigating accidents and circumstances potentially giving rise to accidents. The various aspects relating to the regulatory control of consumer products are explained, including justification, optimization of exposure, safety assessment and authorization. Guidance is also provided on the organization and staffing of regulatory bodies. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Legal framework for a regulatory infrastructure; 3. Principal functions and activities of the regulatory body; 4. Regulatory control of the supply of consumer products; 5. Functions of the regulatory body shared with other governmental agencies; 6. Organization and staffing of the regulatory body; 7. Documentation of the functions and activities of the regulatory body; 8. Support services; 9. Quality management for the regulatory system.

  8. Volatile chemical products emerging as largest petrochemical source of urban organic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Brian C.; de Gouw, Joost A.; Gilman, Jessica B.; Jathar, Shantanu H.; Akherati, Ali; Cappa, Christopher D.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Lee-Taylor, Julia; Hayes, Patrick L.; McKeen, Stuart A.; Cui, Yu Yan; Kim, Si-Wan; Gentner, Drew R.; Isaacman-VanWertz, Gabriel; Goldstein, Allen H.; Harley, Robert A.; Frost, Gregory J.; Roberts, James M.; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Trainer, Michael

    2018-02-01

    A gap in emission inventories of urban volatile organic compound (VOC) sources, which contribute to regional ozone and aerosol burdens, has increased as transportation emissions in the United States and Europe have declined rapidly. A detailed mass balance demonstrates that the use of volatile chemical products (VCPs)—including pesticides, coatings, printing inks, adhesives, cleaning agents, and personal care products—now constitutes half of fossil fuel VOC emissions in industrialized cities. The high fraction of VCP emissions is consistent with observed urban outdoor and indoor air measurements. We show that human exposure to carbonaceous aerosols of fossil origin is transitioning away from transportation-related sources and toward VCPs. Existing U.S. regulations on VCPs emphasize mitigating ozone and air toxics, but they currently exempt many chemicals that lead to secondary organic aerosols.

  9. Emission of greenhouse gases from controlled incineration of cattle manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshita, Kazuyuki; Sun, Xiucui; Taniguchi, Miki; Takaoka, Masaki; Matsukawa, Kazutsugu; Fujiwara, Taku

    2012-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emission is a potential limiting factor in livestock farming development. While incineration is one approach to minimize livestock manure, there are concerns about significant levels of nitrogen and organic compounds in manure as potential sources of greenhouse gas emissions (N2O and CH4). In this study, the effects of various incineration conditions, such as the furnace temperature and air ratio on N2O and CH4 formation behaviour, of cattle manure (as a representative livestock manure) were investigated in a pilot rotary kiln furnace. The results revealed that N2O emissions decreased with increasing temperature and decreasing air ratio. In addition, CH4 emissions tended to be high above 800 degrees C at a low air ratio. The emission factors for N2O and CH4 under the general conditions (combustion temperature of 800-850 degrees C and air ratio of 1.4) were determined to be 1.9-6.0% g-N2O-N/g-N and 0.0046-0.26% g-CH4/g-burning object, respectively. The emission factor for CH4 differed slightly from the published values between 0.16 and 0.38% g-CH4/g-burning object. However, the emission factor for N2O was much higher than the currently accepted value of 0.7% g-N2O-N/g-N and, therefore, it is necessary to revise the N2O emission factor for the incineration of livestock manure.

  10. Strengthening control over radioactive sources in authorized use and regaining control over orphan sources. National strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-02-01

    The objective of this report is to provide practical guidance to States on the development of a national strategy for improving control over radioactive sources, particularly dangerous sources (Categories 1-3). Part of this process involves the determination of the magnitude of the potential problem with orphan and vulnerable sources and indeed, whether or not a national strategy is needed. The ultimate objective is that States will use this report to develop and then implement a plan of action that will result in all significant sources being managed in a safe and secure manner. This report attempts to provide both the background knowledge and the methodology necessary for an individual or small team of responsible persons to develop a national strategy for improving control over all radioactive sources, but especially orphan and vulnerable sources. The background knowledge given in Chapter 3 is an update of the information on practices that was given in IAEA-TECDOC-804, which focused on spent radioactive sources. After some introductory material, this report provides both the factual information and the general steps needed to develop and implement a national strategy. Part I contains background information for those who are not already familiar with the subject including the need for national strategies, the generic causes of loss of control of sources, with specific examples and the common applications of radioactive sources. Part II details the actual process for the development and implementation of a national strategy, which includes assessing the problem by first gathering specific and national information, determining the nature and magnitude of the problem, developing the national strategy by evaluating, and prioritizing possible solutions, implementing the strategy subsequent to a high level decision; and evaluating the effectiveness of the plan and making changes as a result until the desired objective is achieved. Searches for sources will be part of

  11. Field-scale operation of methane biofiltration systems to mitigate point source methane emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hettiarachchi, Vijayamala C.; Hettiaratchi, Patrick J.; Mehrotra, Anil K.; Kumar, Sunil

    2011-01-01

    Methane biofiltration (MBF) is a novel low-cost technique for reducing low volume point source emissions of methane (CH 4 ). MBF uses a granular medium, such as soil or compost, to support the growth of methanotrophic bacteria responsible for converting CH 4 to carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and water (H 2 O). A field research program was undertaken to evaluate the potential to treat low volume point source engineered CH 4 emissions using an MBF at a natural gas monitoring station. A new comprehensive three-dimensional numerical model was developed incorporating advection-diffusive flow of gas, biological reactions and heat and moisture flow. The one-dimensional version of this model was used as a guiding tool for designing and operating the MBF. The long-term monitoring results of the field MBF are also presented. The field MBF operated with no control of precipitation, evaporation, and temperature, provided more than 80% of CH 4 oxidation throughout spring, summer, and fall seasons. The numerical model was able to predict the CH 4 oxidation behavior of the field MBF with high accuracy. The numerical model simulations are presented for estimating CH 4 oxidation efficiencies under various operating conditions, including different filter bed depths and CH 4 flux rates. The field observations as well as numerical model simulations indicated that the long-term performance of MBFs is strongly dependent on environmental factors, such as ambient temperature and precipitation. - Highlights: → One-dimensional version of the model was used as a guiding tool for designing and operating the MBF. → Mathematical model predicted CH 4 oxidation behaviors of the field MBF with high accuracy i.e. (> 80 %). → Performance of MBF is dependent on ambient temperature and precipitation. - The developed numerical model simulations and field observations for estimating CH 4 oxidation efficiencies under various operating conditions indicate that the long-term performance of MBFs is strongly

  12. Emission quantification using the tracer gas dispersion method: The influence of instrument, tracer gas species and source simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delre, Antonio; Mønster, Jacob; Samuelsson, Jerker

    2018-01-01

    The tracer gas dispersion method (TDM) is a remote sensing method used for quantifying fugitive emissions by relying on the controlled release of a tracer gas at the source, combined with concentration measurements of the tracer and target gas plumes. The TDM was tested at a wastewater treatment...... plant for plant-integrated methane emission quantification, using four analytical instruments simultaneously and four different tracer gases. Measurements performed using a combination of an analytical instrument and a tracer gas, with a high ratio between the tracer gas release rate and instrument...... precision (a high release-precision ratio), resulted in well-defined plumes with a high signal-to-noise ratio and a high methane-to-tracer gas correlation factor. Measured methane emission rates differed by up to 18% from the mean value when measurements were performed using seven different instrument...

  13. EFFECT OF THE TYPE OF HEAT SOURCES ON CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Rabczak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A lot of attention is nowadays devoted to the problem of generally defined ecology. It is absolutely essential in case of systems and sources generating heat due to their direct influence on the environment through emitting post-process products to the atmosphere which are, most frequently a result of combustion. Therefore, constant searchers are made to optimize the operation of heat sources and to acquire energy from sources for which the general balance of carbon dioxide emission is zero or close to zero. This work compares the emissions of equivalent CO2 from selected systems with the following heat sources: coal, gas furnace, heat pump, and refers results of the analysis to aspects connected with regulations concerning environmental protection. The systems generating thermal energy in the gas furnaces, coal, biomass, as well as the compression heat pumps with the lower heat source as ambient air or ground were taken under consideration, as well as centralized systems for the production of heat based on the combustion of coal, gas, oil, and biomass. the Emission of carbon dioxide for the installation of cogeneration and absorption heat pump were also calculated. Similarly obtained amount of extra emission necessary for the proper operation maintenance of heating devices via the supplied electricity from external source, the mostly fuel-fired power plants for fuels as previously mentioned. The results of the calculations were presented in tables and graphs.

  14. Source characterization of major emission sources in the Imperial and Mexicali Valleys along the US/Mexico border

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, J.G.; Chow, J.C. [Desert Research Institute, 2215 Raggio Pkwy., 89512 Reno, NV (United States)

    2001-08-10

    Chemical profiles for particle emissions are needed for source apportionment studies using the chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model. Source measurements of geological sources, motor vehicle exhaust, vegetative burning (e.g. asparagus, field burning, charbroil cooking), and industrial sources (e.g. oil-fueled glass plant, manure-fueled power plants) were acquired as part of the Imperial/Mexicali Valley Cross Border PM{sub 10} Transport Study in 1992. Six different source sampling techniques (i.e. hot- and diluted-exhaust sampling, ground-based source sampling, particle sweeping/grab sampling, vacuum sampling, and laboratory resuspension sampling) were applied to acquire filter samples of PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters <2.5 and 10 {mu}m, respectively). Filter samples were analyzed for mass by gravimetry, elements (Na to U) by X-ray fluorescence, anions (Cl{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup =}) by ion chromatography, ammonium (NH{sub 4}{sup +}) by automated colorimetry, soluble sodium (Na{sup +}) and potassium (K{sup +}) by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and organic and elemental carbon (OC, EC) by thermal/optical reflectance. Concentration data were acquired for a total of 50 chemical species. Elevated abundances of crustal components (Al, Si, K, Ca, Fe) from geological material, carbon (OC, EC) and trace elements (Br, Pb) from vehicle exhausts, carbon (OC, EC) and ions (K{sup +}, Cl{sup -}) from vegetative burning, ions (SO{sub 4}{sup =}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Cl{sup -}) and elements (Cl, Se) from a manure-fueled power plants, and sulfur and trace elements (Na{sup +}, Pb, Se, Ni, V) from an oil-fueled glass plant were found in the resulting source profiles. Abundances of crustal species (e.g. Al, Si, Ca) in the Imperial/Mexicali Valley geological profiles are more than twice those found in central and southern California. Abundances of lead in motor vehicle exhausts indicate different

  15. Reactive trace gas emissions from stressed plants: a poorly characterized major source of atmospheric volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinemets, Ülo

    2017-04-01

    Vegetation constitutes the greatest source of reactive volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere. The current emission estimates primarily rely on constitutive emissions that are present only in some plant species. However, all plant species can be induced to emit reactive volatiles by different abiotic and biotic stresses, but the stress-dependent emissions have been largely neglected in emission measurements and models. This presentation provides an overview of systematic screening of stress-dependent volatile emissions from a broad range of structurally and physiologically divergent plant species from temperate to tropical ecosystems. Ozone, heat, drought and wounding stress were the abiotic stresses considered in the screening, while biotic stress included herbivory, chemical elicitors simulating herbivory and fungal infections. The data suggest that any moderate to severe stress leads to significant emissions of a rich blend of volatiles, including methanol, green leaf volatiles (the lipoxygenase pathway volatiles, dominated by C6 aldehydes, alcohols and derivatives), different mono- and sesquiterpenes and benzenoids. The release of volatiles occurs in stress severity-dependent manner, although the emission responses are often non-linear with more severe stresses resulting in disproportionately greater emissions. Stress volatile release is induced in both non-constitutive and constitutive volatile emitters, whereas the rate of constitutive volatile emissions in constitutive emitters is often reduced under environmental and biotic stresses. Given that plants in natural conditions often experience stress, this analysis suggests that global volatile emissions have been significantly underestimated. Furthermore, in globally changing hotter climates, the frequency and severity of both abiotic and biotic stresses is expected to increase. Thus, the stress-induced volatile emissions are predicted to play a dominant role in plant-atmosphere interactions in near

  16. Emission estimates for some acidifying and greenhouse gases and options for their control in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pipatti, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1998-11-01

    This thesis presents estimates and options for control of anthropogenic ammonia (NH{sub 3}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and some halocarbon emissions in Finland. Ammonia is an air pollutant which contributes to both acidification and nitrogen eutrophication of ecosystems. Its emissions are mainly caused by livestock manure. In Finland the anthropogenic emissions of NH{sub 3} have been estimated to be approximately 44 Gg in 1985 and 43 Gg in 1990. In the 1990`s the emissions have declined due to the reduced number of cattle and voluntary implementation of emission reducing measures. The impact of NH{sub 3} emissions on acidification is serious but in Finland it is less than the impact of the other acidifying gases sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}). All three gases and their transformation products are transported by the atmosphere up to distances of hundreds or even more than a thousand kilometres. NH{sub 3} emissions can be reduced with relatively cost-effective measures and the measures can partly replace the implementation of more costly abatement measures on SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions needed to lower the acidifying deposition in Finland. The other gases studied in this thesis are greenhouse gases. Some of the gases also deplete stratospheric ozone. Finnish anthropogenic CH{sub 4} emissions have been estimated to be around 250 Gg per year during the 1990`s. The emissions come mainly from landfills and agricultural sources (enteric fermentation and manure). The significance of other CH{sub 4} sources in Finland is minor. The potential to reduce the Finnish CH{sub 4} emissions is estimated to be good. Landfill gas recovery offers an option to reduce the emissions significantly at negligible cost if the energy produced can be utilised in electricity and/or heat production. Measures directed at reducing the emissions from livestock manure management are more costly, and the achievable reduction in the emissions

  17. Model predictive control for Z-source power converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mo, W.; Loh, P.C.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents Model Predictive Control (MPC) of impedance-source (commonly known as Z-source) power converter. Output voltage control and current control for Z-source inverter are analyzed and simulated. With MPC's ability of multi- system variables regulation, load current and voltage...

  18. Inventory of emissions to the air from Danish sources 1972-1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenhann, J.; Kilde, N.A.

    1994-07-01

    The report covers the emissions to the air from Danish sources in the period 1972-1992. The pollutant covered are SO 2 , NO x , CH 4 , N 2 O, NMVOC, CO, ultimate CO 2 and at source CO 2 . Both energy and non-energy sources are covered. For each energy sector, like power plants, district heating plants, process, residential and transport time series for the various fuels consumed and resulting emissions are shown. The full table of emission factors used are presented. The result are additionally shown in the IPCC format. The report was a background report to the report 'climate protection in Denmark' the National report of the Danish Government in accordance with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate on Climate Change. (au) 38 refs

  19. The extinction to the H2 line emission in the DR 21 outflow source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeau, D.; Riopel, M.; Geballe, T.R.

    1991-01-01

    The v = 1-0 S(1) and Q(3) lines of H2 have been measured in four regions of the DR 21 H2 line-emission source, in order to determine whether the observed morphology of the emission represents the distribution of the excited H2 or is modified by nonuniform extinction across the source. The measured lines originate from the same upper level, and their ratio is a direct measure of the reddening. The line ratios show that the extinction is quite uniform across the source and that there is no correlation between the intensity and the extinction. This result implies that the gap between the two lobes of emission is not due to increased extinction but rather is a region where there is little excited H2 gas. 13 refs

  20. Field-emission liquid-metal ion source and triode ion gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komuro, M.; Kawakatsu, H.

    1981-01-01

    A pointed-filament-type field-emission liquid-metal ion source is designed and employed as a gold ion source. By adding a crossbar across a hairpin bend, the amount of the gold adhering on the filament is increased. The lifetime is estimated to be over 200 h at 10-mA emission current. The emission current increases with increasing extraction voltage up to a saturation value which is ascribed to a limitation of the supply of liquid gold to the needle apex. The value of current density per unit solid angle is 30 mA/sr at a total current of 30 mA, which is of the same order as that obtained from a gallium ion source previously reported. Emission current fluctuations of a few tens of percent of the dc component are observed. In order to regulate the emission current and suppress current fluctuations, a bias electrode in addition to a counterelectrode is placed close to the needle apex. With such a triode structure, the emission current is regulated by a bias voltage of several hundred volts and stabilized to within 1% by means of feedback to the bias voltage of a current monitor output

  1. Assessment of possible strategies to reduce mobile sources emissions in Costa Rica, 2010-2015 projection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Herrera-Murillo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of the possible strategies to reduce the emissions from mobile sources in Costa Rica were evaluated for the 2010-2015 period. The total emissions were estimated using emission factors obtained from Mobile 6 model and activity data like fuel and vehicle type distribution. This study found that 50% substitution of public transport vehicles was the most effective measure to lower the anual rate increase for NOx and Total Organic Gases (TOG. Both around 14,3% and 11,7% anually, respectively.

  2. CO2 emission factors for waste incineration: Influence from source separation of recyclable materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Warberg; Astrup, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    variations between emission factors for different incinerators, but the background for these variations has not been thoroughly examined. One important reason may be variations in collection of recyclable materials as source separation alters the composition of the residual waste incinerated. The objective...... routed to incineration. Emission factors ranged from 27 to 40kg CO2/GJ. The results appeared most sensitive towards variations in waste composition and water content. Recycling rates and lower heating values could not be used as simple indicators of the resulting emission factors for residual household...... different studies and when using the values for environmental assessment purposes....

  3. Quantifying emissions of NH3 and NOx from Agricultural Sources and Biomass Burning using SOF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kille, N.; Volkamer, R. M.; Dix, B. K.

    2017-12-01

    Column measurements of trace gas absorption along the direct solar beam present a powerful yet underused approach to quantify emission fluxes from area sources. The University of Colorado Solar Occultation Flux (CU SOF) instrument (Kille et al., 2017, AMT, doi:10.5194/amt-10-373-2017) features a solar tracker that is self-positioning for use from mobile platforms that are in motion (Baidar et al., 2016, AMT, doi: 10.5194/amt-9-963-2016). This enables the use from research aircraft, as well as the deployment under broken cloud conditions, while making efficient use of aircraft time. First airborne SOF measurements have been demonstrated recently, and we discuss applications to study emissions from biomass burning using aircraft, and to study primary emissions of ammonia and nitrogen oxides (= NO + NO2) from area sources such as concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO). SOF detects gases in the open atmosphere (no inlets), does not require access to the source, and provides results in units that can be directly compared with emission inventories. The method of emission quantification is relatively straightforward. During FRAPPE (Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment) in Colorado in 2014, we measured emission fluxes of NH3, and NOx from CAFO, quantifying the emissions from 61400 of the 535766 cattle in Weld County, CO (11.4% of the cattle population). We find that NH3 emissions from dairy and cattle farms are similar after normalization by the number of cattle, i.e., we find emission factors, EF, of 11.8 ± 2.0 gNH3/h/head for the studied CAFOs; these EFs are at the upper end of reported values. Results are compared to daytime NEI emissions for case study days. Furthermore, biologically active soils are found to be a strong source of NOx. The NOx sources account for 1.2% of the N-flux (i.e., NH3), and can be competitive with other NOx sources in Weld, CO. The added NOx is particularly relevant in remote regions, where O3 formation and oxidative

  4. Guaranteed Unresolved Point Source Emission and the Gamma-ray Background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlidou, Vasiliki; Siegal-Gaskins, Jennifer M.; Brown, Carolyn; Fields, Brian D.; Olinto, Angela V.

    2007-01-01

    The large majority of EGRET point sources remain without an identified low-energy counterpart, and a large fraction of these sources are most likely extragalactic. Whatever the nature of the extragalactic EGRET unidentified sources, faint unresolved objects of the same class must have a contribution to the diffuse extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGRB). Understanding this component of the EGRB, along with other guaranteed contributions from known sources (blazars and normal galaxies), is essential if we are to use this emission to constrain exotic high-energy physics. Here, we follow an empirical approach to estimate whether the contribution of unresolved unidentified sources to the EGRB is likely to be important. Additionally, we discuss how upcoming GLAST observations of EGRET unidentified sources, their fainter counterparts, and the Galactic and extragalactic diffuse backgrounds, will shed light on the nature of the EGRET unidentified sources even without any positional association of such sources with low-energy counterparts

  5. Goods in the Anthroposphere as a Metal Emission Source A Case Study of Stockholm, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerme, L.; Bergbaeck, B.; Lohm, U.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the diffuse emissions during use of metal containing goods in the capital of Sweden,Stockholm. The following metals were studied: Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb), Mercury (Hg), Nickel (Ni) and Zinc (Zn).A major part of the metals are found in a protected environment where degrading processes like corrosion are most limited. However, during the lifetime of some goods the metal release to the environment is significant. The quantitatively most dominant emissions were found for Cu and Zn. The tap water system and roofs/fronts (Cu) represent goods with large exposed areas but with relatively small release rates per unit. In contrast, brake linings, aerial lines and electrical grounding (Cu) and tyres, brake linings and chemicals (Zn) are all goods with high release rates but mostly limited exposed stocks.High yearly emissions are also found for Pb, ammunition and sinkers dominate the calculated emissions totally. For Cr and Ni, stainless steel represent the major part of the stocks, but corrosion was estimated to give only a minor contribution to the emissions. Potential emission sources, i.e. stabilisers,pigments and plated goods dominate the exposed Cd stock. These emissions were not quantified due to lack of data. Hg is currently phased out, but one major source of emission, i.e. the use of amalgam, will be continuously significant for several decades. The importance of the traffic sector is obvious. The emissions from brake linings (Cu, Zn and Pb), tyres (Zn, Pb, Cr and Ni)and asphalt wear (Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni and Pb) are all of large importance for the total emission from respectively metal

  6. Industrial point source CO2 emission strength estimation with aircraft measurements and dispersion modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenuto, Federico; Gualtieri, Giovanni; Miglietta, Franco; Riccio, Angelo; Toscano, Piero; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Gioli, Beniamino

    2018-02-22

    CO 2 remains the greenhouse gas that contributes most to anthropogenic global warming, and the evaluation of its emissions is of major interest to both research and regulatory purposes. Emission inventories generally provide quite reliable estimates of CO 2 emissions. However, because of intrinsic uncertainties associated with these estimates, it is of great importance to validate emission inventories against independent estimates. This paper describes an integrated approach combining aircraft measurements and a puff dispersion modelling framework by considering a CO 2 industrial point source, located in Biganos, France. CO 2 density measurements were obtained by applying the mass balance method, while CO 2 emission estimates were derived by implementing the CALMET/CALPUFF model chain. For the latter, three meteorological initializations were used: (i) WRF-modelled outputs initialized by ECMWF reanalyses; (ii) WRF-modelled outputs initialized by CFSR reanalyses and (iii) local in situ observations. Governmental inventorial data were used as reference for all applications. The strengths and weaknesses of the different approaches and how they affect emission estimation uncertainty were investigated. The mass balance based on aircraft measurements was quite succesful in capturing the point source emission strength (at worst with a 16% bias), while the accuracy of the dispersion modelling, markedly when using ECMWF initialization through the WRF model, was only slightly lower (estimation with an 18% bias). The analysis will help in highlighting some methodological best practices that can be used as guidelines for future experiments.

  7. Emission of nitrous acid from soil and biological soil crusts as a major source of atmospheric HONO on Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meusel, Hannah; Tamm, Alexandra; Wu, Dianming; Kuhn, Uwe; Leifke, Anna-Lena; Weber, Bettina; Su, Hang; Lelieveld, Jos; Hoffmann, Thorsten; Pöschl, Ulrich; Cheng, Yafang

    2017-04-01

    Elucidation of the sources and atmospheric chemistry of nitrous acid (HONO) is highly relevant, as HONO is an important precursor of OH radicals. Up to 30% of the OH budget are formed by photolysis of HONO, whereas major fractions of HONO measured in the field derive from yet unidentified sources. Heterogeneous conversion of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) to HONO on a variety of surfaces (soot, humic acid aerosol) is assumed to be a major HONO source (Stemmler et al., 2007, Ammann et al., 1998). In rural regions, however, NO2 concentrations were found to be too low to explain observed HONO concentrations, as e.g., in the case of a recent field study on the Mediterranean island of Cyprus (Meusel et al., 2016). In this study a good correlation between missing sources of HONO and nitrogen oxide (NO) was found indicating a common origin of both reactive nitrogen compounds. Simultaneous emission of HONO and NO from soil was reported earlier (Oswald et al., 2013), and enhanced emission rates were found when soil was covered by biological soil crusts in arid and semi-arid ecosystems (Weber et al., 2015). In the present study we measured HONO and NO emissions of 43 soil and soil crust samples from Cyprus during full wetting and drying cycles under controlled laboratory conditions by means of a dynamic chamber system. The observed range of HONO and NO emissions was in agreement with earlier studies, but unlike the study of Weber et al. (2015), we found highest emission from bare soil, followed by soil covered by light and dark cyanobacteria-dominated biological soil crusts. Emission rates correlated well with the nitrite and nitrate contents of soil and biological soil crust samples, and higher nutrient contents of bare soil samples, as compared to the previous biological soil crust study, explain the higher bare soil emissions. Integrating the emission rates of bare soil and the different types of biological soil crusts, based on their local relative abundance, the calculated

  8. Liming induces carbon dioxide (CO2) emission in PSB inoculated alkaline soil supplemented with different phosphorus sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Muhammad; Shah, Zahir; Sharif, Muhammad; Rahman, Hidayatur

    2018-04-01

    Agricultural land is a major sink of global organic carbon (C). Its suitable management is crucial for improving C sequestration and reducing soil CO 2 emission. Incubation experiments were performed to assess the impact of phosphate solubilizing bacterial (PSB) inoculation (inoculated and uninoculated) and soil calcification (4.78, 10, 15, and 20% crushed CaCO 3 ) with phosphorus (P) sources [single superphosphate (SSP), rock phosphate (RP), farm yard manure (FYM), and poultry manure (PM)] in experiment 1 and with various rates of PM (4, 8, and 12 kg ha -1 ) in experiment 2 on cumulative soil respiration. These experiments were arranged in three factorial, complete randomize design (CRD) with three replications. Interactively, lime with P sources (at day 1 and 3) and lime with PSB (at day 1) significantly expedited soil respiration. Mainly, PSB inoculation, liming, PM fertilization, and its various rates significantly enhanced soil respiration with time over control/minimum in alkaline soil at all incubation periods. Higher CO 2 emission was detected in soil supplemented with organic P sources (PM and FYM) than mineral sources (SSP and RP). CO 2 emission was noted to increase with increasing PM content. Since liming intensified CO 2 discharge from soil, therefore addition of lime to an alkaline soil should be avoided; instead, integrated approaches must be adopted for P management in alkaline calcareous soils for climate-smart agriculture.

  9. Fugitive emission source characterization using a gradient-based optimization scheme and scalar transport adjoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brereton, Carol A.; Joynes, Ian M.; Campbell, Lucy J.; Johnson, Matthew R.

    2018-05-01

    Fugitive emissions are important sources of greenhouse gases and lost product in the energy sector that can be difficult to detect, but are often easily mitigated once they are known, located, and quantified. In this paper, a scalar transport adjoint-based optimization method is presented to locate and quantify unknown emission sources from downstream measurements. This emission characterization approach correctly predicted locations to within 5 m and magnitudes to within 13% of experimental release data from Project Prairie Grass. The method was further demonstrated on simulated simultaneous releases in a complex 3-D geometry based on an Alberta gas plant. Reconstructions were performed using both the complex 3-D transient wind field used to generate the simulated release data and using a sequential series of steady-state RANS wind simulations (SSWS) representing 30 s intervals of physical time. Both the detailed transient and the simplified wind field series could be used to correctly locate major sources and predict their emission rates within 10%, while predicting total emission rates from all sources within 24%. This SSWS case would be much easier to implement in a real-world application, and gives rise to the possibility of developing pre-computed databases of both wind and scalar transport adjoints to reduce computational time.

  10. Source apportionment vs. emission inventories of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC in an urban area of the Middle East: local and global perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Salameh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We applied the positive matrix factorization model to two large data sets collected during two intensive measurement campaigns (summer 2011 and winter 2012 at a sub-urban site in Beirut, Lebanon, in order to identify NMHC (non-methane hydrocarbons sources and quantify their contribution to ambient levels. Six factors were identified in winter and five factors in summer. PMF-resolved source profiles were consistent with source profiles established by near-field measurements. The major sources were traffic-related emissions (combustion and gasoline evaporation in winter and in summer accounting for 51 and 74 wt %, respectively, in agreement with the national emission inventory. The gasoline evaporation related to traffic source had a significant contribution regardless of the season (22 wt % in winter and 30 wt % in summer. The NMHC emissions from road transport are estimated from observations and PMF results, and compared to local and global emission inventories. The PMF analysis finds reasonable differences on emission rates, of 20–39 % higher than the national road transport inventory. However, global inventories (ACCMIP, EDGAR, MACCity underestimate the emissions up to a factor of 10 for the transportation sector. When combining emission inventory to our results, there is strong evidence that control measures in Lebanon should be targeted on mitigating the NMHC emissions from the traffic-related sources. From a global perspective, an assessment of VOC (volatile organic compounds anthropogenic emission inventories for the Middle East region as a whole seems necessary as these emissions could be much higher than expected at least from the road transport sector.

  11. 75 FR 27249 - Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources and Emissions Guidelines for Existing Sources...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... distributions typically have a skewness of zero, we concluded that those datasets with a skewness less than 0.5 were normally distributed, while those with a skewness of 0.5 or greater were lognormally distributed... sources (used to determine the MACT floor for existing sources) and had a higher standard deviation...

  12. Legislation, standards and methods for mercury emissions control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-04-15

    Mercury is an element of growing global concern. The United Nations Environment Programme plans to finalise and ratify a new global legally-binding convention on mercury by 2013. Canada already has legislation on mercury emissions from coal-fired utilities and the USA has recently released the new Mercury and Air Toxics Standard. Although other countries may not have mercury-specific legislation as such, many have legislation which results in significant co-benefit mercury reduction due to the installation of effective flue-gas cleaning technologies. This report reviews the current situation and trends in mercury emission legislation and, where possible, discusses the actions that will be taken under proposed or impending standards globally and regionally. The report also reviews the methods currently applied for mercury control and for mercury emission measurement with emphasis on the methodologies most appropriate for compliance. Examples of the methods of mercury control currently deployed in the USA, Canada and elsewhere are included.

  13. Past and future cadmium emissions from municipal solid-waste incinerators in Japan for the assessment of cadmium control policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Kyoko

    2013-11-15

    Cadmium (Cd) is a harmful pollutant emitted from municipal solid-waste incinerators (MSWIs). Cd stack emissions from MSWIs have been estimated between 1970 and 2030 in Japan. The aims of this study are to quantify emitted Cd by category and to analyze Cd control policies to reduce emissions. Emissions were estimated using a dynamic substance flow analysis (SFA) that took into account representative waste treatment flows and historical changes in emission factors. This work revealed that the emissions peaked in 1973 (11.1t) and were ten times those in 2010 (1.2 t). Emission from MSWIs was two-thirds of that from non-ferrous smelting in 2010. The main Cd emission source was pigment use in the 1970s, but after 2000 it had shifted to nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) batteries. Future emissions were estimated for 2030. Compared to the business-as-usual scenario, an intensive collection of used Ni-Cd batteries and a ban on any future use of Ni-Cd batteries will reduce emissions by 0.09 and 0.3 1t, respectively, in 2030. This approach enables us to identify the major Cd emission source from MSWIs, and to prioritize the possible Cd control policies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Air pollutant emission rates for sources at the Davis Canyon Repository site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    This document summarizes the air-quality source terms used for the Davis Canyon, Utah environmental assessment report and explains their derivation. The engineering data supporting these source terms appear as appendixes to the report and include summary equipment lists for the repository (December, 1984) and detailed equipment lists for the exploratory shaft (June and July, 1985). Although substantial work has been performed in establishing the current repository design, a greater effort will be required for the final design. Consequently, the repository emission rates presented here should be considered as preliminary estimates. Another set of air pollutant emission rates will be calculated after design data are more firmly established. 19 refs., 18 tabs

  15. Search for continuous and single day emission from ultra-high-energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Mei-Li.

    1993-01-01

    Data from the CYGNUS experiment has been used to search the northern sky for point sources of continuous ultra-high-energy gamma radiation and to examine 51 candidate sources on a daily basis to search for episodic emission. In this paper, we make use of our most recent data to update our previously published results from these searches. The data sample is approximately twice as large as the published data set for continuous emission, and contains an additional year for the daily search. The latest results, up to the time of the conference, will be presented at the meeting

  16. Air pollutant emission rates for sources at the Deaf Smith County repository site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    This document summarizes the air-quality source terms used for the Deaf Smith County, Texas environmental assessment report and explains their derivation. The engineering data supporting these source terms appear as appendixes to this report and include summary equipment lists for the repository and detailed equipment lists for the exploratory shaft. Although substantial work has been performed in establishing the current repository design, a greater effort will be required for the final design. Consequently, the repository emission rates presented here should be considered as preliminary estimates. Another set of air pollution emission rates will be calculated after design data are more firmly established. 18 refs., 15 tabs

  17. Controlling spontaneous emission dynamics in semiconductor micro cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayral, B.

    Spontaneous emission of light can be controlled, cavity quantum electrodynamics tells us, and many experiments in atomic physics demonstrated this fact. In particular, coupling an emitter to a resonant photon mode of a cavity can enhance its spontaneous emission rate: this is the so-called Purcell effect. Though appealing it might seem to implement these concepts for the benefit of light-emitting semiconductor devices, great care has to be taken as to which emitter/cavity system should be used. Semiconductor quantum boxes prove to be good candidates for witnessing the Purcell effect. Also, low volume cavities having a high optical quality in other words a long photon storage time are required. State-of-the-art fabrication techniques of such cavities are presented and discussed.We demonstrate spontaneous emission rate enhancement for InAs/GaAs quantum boxes in time-resolved and continuous-wave photoluminescence experiments. This is done for two kinds of cavities, namely GaAs/AlAs micropillars (global enhancement by a factor of 5), and GaAs microdisks (global enhancement by a factor of 20). Prospects for lasers, light-emitting diodes and single photon sources based on the Purcell effect are discussed. L'émission spontanée de lumière peut être contrôlée, ainsi que nous l'enseigne l'électrodynamique quantique en cavité, ce fait a été démontré expérimentalement en physique atomique. En particulier, coupler un émetteur à un mode photonique résonnant d'une cavité peut exalter son taux d'émission spontanée : c'est l'effet Purcell. Bien qu'il semble très prometteur de mettre en pratique ces concepts pour améliorer les dispositifs semi-conducteurs émetteurs de lumière, le choix du système émetteur/cavité est crucial. Nous montrons que les boîtes quantiques semi-conductrices sont des bons candidats pour observer l'effet Purcell. Il faut par ailleurs des cavités de faible volume ayant une grande qualité optique en d'autres mots un long temps de

  18. Advanced Catalytic Converter in Gasoline Enginer Emission Control: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leman A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exhaust emission from automobile source has become a major contributor to the air pollution and environmental problem. Catalytic converter is found to be one of the most effective tools to reduce the overwhelming exhaust pollutants in our environment. The development of sustainable catalytic converter still remains a critical issue due to the stringent exhaust emission regulations. Another issue such as price and availability of the precious metal were also forced the automotive industry to investigate the alternatives for producing a better replacement for the material used in catalytic converter. This paper aims at reviewing the present development and improvement on the catalytic converter used on the reduction of exhaust emission in order to meet the regulations and market demand. The use of new catalyst such as to replace the noble metal material of Platinum (Pt, Palladium (Pd and Rhodium (Rh has been reviewed. Material such as zeolite, nickel oxide and metal oxide has been found to effectively reduce the emission than the commercial converter. The preparation method of the catalyst has also evolved through the years as it is to ensure a good characteristic of a good monolith catalyst. Ultrasonic treatment with combination of electroplating technique, citrate method and Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO has been found as the latest novel preparation method on producing an effective catalyst in reducing the exhaust emission.

  19. Mosquito larval source management for controlling malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tusting, Lucy S; Thwing, Julie; Sinclair, David; Fillinger, Ulrike; Gimnig, John; Bonner, Kimberly E; Bottomley, Christian; Lindsay, Steven W

    2015-01-01

    Background Malaria is an important cause of illness and death in people living in many parts of the world, especially sub-Saharan Africa. Long-lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) reduce malaria transmission by targeting the adult mosquito vector and are key components of malaria control programmes. However, mosquito numbers may also be reduced by larval source management (LSM), which targets mosquito larvae as they mature in aquatic habitats. This is conducted by permanently or temporarily reducing the availability of larval habitats (habitat modification and habitat manipulation), or by adding substances to standing water that either kill or inhibit the development of larvae (larviciding). Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of mosquito LSM for preventing malaria. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EMBASE; CABS Abstracts; and LILACS up to 24 October 2012. We handsearched the Tropical Diseases Bulletin from 1900 to 2010, the archives of the World Health Organization (up to 11 February 2011), and the literature database of the Armed Forces Pest Management Board (up to 2 March 2011). We also contacted colleagues in the field for relevant articles. Selection criteria We included cluster randomized controlled trials (cluster-RCTs), controlled before-and-after trials with at least one year of baseline data, and randomized cross-over trials that compared LSM with no LSM for malaria control. We excluded trials that evaluated biological control of anopheline mosquitoes with larvivorous fish. Data collection and analysis At least two authors assessed each trial for eligibility. We extracted data and at least two authors independently determined the risk of bias in the included studies. We resolved all disagreements through discussion with a third author. We analyzed the data using Review Manager 5 software

  20. TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF REALISTIC EMISSIONS OF SOURCE AEROSOLS (TERESA): APPLICATION TO POWER PLANT-DERIVED PM2.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette Rohr

    2006-03-01

    TERESA (Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions of Source Aerosols) involves exposing laboratory rats to realistic coal-fired power plant and mobile source emissions to help determine the relative toxicity of these PM sources. There are three coal-fired power plants in the TERESA program; this report describes the results of fieldwork conducted at the first plant, located in the Upper Midwest. The project was technically challenging by virtue of its novel design and requirement for the development of new techniques. By examining aged, atmospherically transformed aerosol derived from power plant stack emissions, we were able to evaluate the toxicity of PM derived from coal combustion in a manner that more accurately reflects the exposure of concern than existing methodologies. TERESA also involves assessment of actual plant emissions in a field setting--an important strength since it reduces the question of representativeness of emissions. A sampling system was developed and assembled to draw emissions from the stack; stack sampling conducted according to standard EPA protocol suggested that the sampled emissions are representative of those exiting the stack into the atmosphere. Two mobile laboratories were then outfitted for the study: (1) a chemical laboratory in which the atmospheric aging was conducted and which housed the bulk of the analytical equipment; and (2) a toxicological laboratory, which contained animal caging and the exposure apparatus. Animal exposures were carried out from May-November 2004 to a number of simulated atmospheric scenarios. Toxicological endpoints included (1) pulmonary function and breathing pattern; (2) bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytological and biochemical analyses; (3) blood cytological analyses; (4) in vivo oxidative stress in heart and lung tissue; and (5) heart and lung histopathology. Results indicated no differences between exposed and control animals in any of the endpoints examined. Exposure concentrations for the

  1. Monitoring of PM10 and PM2.5 around primary particulate anthropogenic emission sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Rodriguez, Sergio; Plana, Felicià; Mantilla, Enrique; Ruiz, Carmen R.

    Investigations on the monitoring of ambient air levels of atmospheric particulates were developed around a large source of primary anthropogenic particulate emissions: the industrial ceramic area in the province of Castelló (Eastern Spain). Although these primary particulate emissions have a coarse grain-size distribution, the atmospheric transport dominated by the breeze circulation accounts for a grain-size segregation, which results in ambient air particles occurring mainly in the 2.5-10 μm range. The chemical composition of the ceramic particulate emissions is very similar to the crustal end-member but the use of high Al, Ti and Fe as tracer elements as well as a peculiar grain-size distribution in the insoluble major phases allow us to identify the ceramic input in the bulk particulate matter. PM2.5 instead of PM10 monitoring may avoid the interference of crustal particles without a major reduction in the secondary anthropogenic load, with the exception of nitrate. However, a methodology based in PM2.5 measurement alone is not adequate for monitoring the impact of primary particulate emissions (such as ceramic emissions) on air quality, since the major ambient air particles derived from these emissions are mainly in the range of 2.5-10 μm. Consequently, in areas characterised by major secondary particulate emissions, PM2.5 monitoring should detect anthropogenic particulate pollutants without crustal particulate interference, whereas PM10 measurements should be used in areas with major primary anthropogenic particulate emissions.

  2. Towards controlling dioxins emissions from power boilers fuelled with salt-laden wood waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luthe, C.; Karidio, I.; Uloth, V.

    1997-01-01

    An evaluation of the dioxins emissions from a power boiler fuelled with salt-laden wood waste has provided insights on potential control technologies. Whereas a reduction in stack particulate levels does not preclude a corresponding reduction in dioxins emissions, good combustion conditions, in combination with an efficient secondary collection device for particulate removal, were found to offer effective control (stack emissions of 0.064 to 0.086 ng TEQ/m 3 ). Regarding minimization of dioxins formation at source, a preliminary assessment of the possible beneficial effect of an attenuated chlorine:sulphur ratio was encouraging. A more accurate assessment requires additional trials, preferably longer in duration, to eliminate any possible memory effects. (author)

  3. Probe-Hole Field Emission Microscope System Controlled by Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yunming; Zeng, Haishan

    1991-09-01

    A probe-hole field emission microscope system, controlled by an Apple II computer, has been developed and operated successfully for measuring the work function of a single crystal plane. The work functions on the clean W(100) and W(111) planes are measured to be 4.67 eV and 4.45 eV, respectively.

  4. Emissions inventories and options for control SUMMARY REPORT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart RJ; Amstel AR van; Born GJ van den; Kroeze C; MTV; LAE

    1994-01-01

    This report is the final summary report of the project "Social causes of the greenhouse effect ; emissions inventories and options for control", funded by the National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NRP) and the Environment Directorate of the Ministry of Housing,

  5. Controls on boreal peat combustion and resulting emissions of carbon and mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlenberg, Andrew J.; Turetsky, Merritt R.; Thompson, Dan K.; Branfireun, Brian A.; Mitchell, Carl P. J.

    2018-03-01

    Warming in the boreal forest region has already led to changes in the fire regime. This may result in increasing fire frequency or severity in peatlands, which could cause these ecosystems to shift from a net sink of carbon (C) to a net source of C to the atmosphere. Similar to C cycling, peatlands serve as a net sink for mercury (Hg), which binds strongly to organic matter and accumulates in peat over time. This stored Hg is also susceptible to re-release to the atmosphere during peat fires. Here we investigate the physical properties that influence depth of burn in experimental peat columns and the resulting emissions of CO, CO2, CH4, and gaseous and particulate Hg. As expected, bulk density and soil moisture content were important controls on depth of burn, CO2 emissions, and CO emissions. However, our results show that CH4 and Hg emissions are insensitive to combustion temperature or fuel moisture content. Emissions during the burning of peat, across a wide range of moisture conditions, were associated with low particulate Hg and high gaseous Hg release. Due to strong correlations between total Hg and CO emissions and because high Hg emissions occurred despite incomplete combustion of total C, our results suggest that Hg release during peat burning is governed by the thermodynamics of Hg reduction more so than by the release of Hg associated with peat combustion. Our measured emissions ratios, particularly for CH4:CO2, are higher than values typically used in the upscaling of boreal forest or peatland fire emissions. These emission ratios have important implications not only for our understanding of smouldering chemistry, but also for potential influences of peat fires on the Earth’s climate system.

  6. Directional sound beam emission from a configurable compact multi-source system

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Jiajun

    2018-01-12

    We propose to achieve efficient emission of highly directional sound beams from multiple monopole sources embedded in a subwavelength enclosure. Without the enclosure, the emitted sound fields have an indistinguishable or omnidirectional radiation directivity in far fields. The strong directivity formed in the presence of the enclosure is attributed to interference of sources under degenerate Mie resonances in the enclosure of anisotropic property. Our numerical simulations of sound emission from the sources demonstrate the radiation of a highly directed sound beam of unidirectional or bidirectional patterns, depending on how the sources are configured inside the enclosure. Our scheme, if achieved, can solve the challenging problem of poor directivity of a subwavelength sound system, and can guide beam forming and collimation by miniaturized devices.

  7. Satellite constraint for emissions of nitrogen oxides from anthropogenic, lightning and soil sources over East China on a high-resolution grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-T. Lin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Vertical column densities (VCDs of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2 retrieved from space provide valuable information to estimate emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx inversely. Accurate emission attribution to individual sources, important both for understanding the global biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and for emission control, remains difficult. This study presents a regression-based multi-step inversion approach to estimate emissions of NOx from anthropogenic, lightning and soil sources individually for 2006 over East China on a 0.25° long × 0.25° lat grid, employing the DOMINO product version 2 retrieved from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument. The inversion is done gridbox by gridbox to derive the respective emissions, taking advantage of differences in seasonality between anthropogenic and natural sources. Lightning and soil emissions are combined together for any given gridbox due to their similar seasonality; and their different spatial distributions are used implicitly for source separation to some extent. The nested GEOS-Chem model for East Asia is used to simulate the seasonal variations of different emission sources and impacts on VCDs of NO2 for the inversion purpose. Sensitivity tests are conducted to evaluate key assumptions embedded in the inversion process. The inverse estimate suggests annual budgets of about 7.1 TgN (±39%, 0.21 TgN (±61%, and 0.38 TgN (±65% for the a posteriori anthropogenic, lightning and soil emissions, respectively, about 18–23% higher than the respective a priori values. The enhancements in anthropogenic emissions are largest in cities and areas with extensive use of coal, particularly in the north in winter, as evident on the high-resolution grid. Derived soil emissions are consistent with recent bottom-up estimates. They are less than 6% of anthropogenic emissions annually, increasing to about 13% for July. Derived lightning emissions are about 3% of

  8. Portuguese agriculture and the evolution of greenhouse gas emissions-can vegetables control livestock emissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourao, Paulo Reis; Domingues Martinho, Vítor

    2017-07-01

    One of the most serious externalities of agricultural activity relates to greenhouse gas emissions. This work tests this relationship for the Portuguese case by examining data compiled since 1961. Employing cointegration techniques and vector error correction models (VECMs), we conclude that the evolution of the most representative vegetables and fruits in Portuguese production are associated with higher controls on the evolution of greenhouse gas emissions. Reversely, the evolution of the output levels of livestock and the most representative animal production have significantly increased the level of CO 2 (carbon dioxide) reported in Portugal. We also analyze the cycle length of the long-term relationship between agricultural activity and greenhouse gas emissions. In particular, we highlight the case of synthetic fertilizers, whose values of CO 2 have quickly risen due to changes in Portuguese vegetables, fruit, and animal production levels.

  9. Near-source mobile methane emission estimates using EPA Method33a and a novel probabilistic approach as a basis for leak quantification in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Methane emissions from underground pipeline leaks remain an ongoing issue in the development of accurate methane emission inventories for the natural gas supply chain. Application of mobile methods during routine street surveys would help address this issue, but there are large uncertainties in current approaches. In this paper, we describe results from a series of near-source (< 30 m) controlled methane releases where an instrumented van was used to measure methane concentrations during both fixed location sampling and during mobile traverses immediately downwind of the source. The measurements were used to evaluate the application of EPA Method 33A for estimating methane emissions downwind of a source and also to test the application of a new probabilistic approach for estimating emission rates from mobile traverse data.

  10. Coherent control of atto-second emission from aligned molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutu, W; Haessler, S; Merdji, H; Breger, P; Monchicourt, P; Carre, B; Salieres, P [CEA Saclay, DSM, Serv Photons Atomes Mol, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France); Waters, G [Univ Reading, JJ Thomson Phys Lab, Reading RG6 6AF, Berks, (United Kingdom); Stankiewicz, M [Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Phys, PL-30059 Krakow, (Poland); Frasinski, L J [Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol and Med, Blackett Lab, London SW7 2BW, (United Kingdom); Taieb, R; Caillat, J; Maquet, A [Univ Paris 06, UMR 7614, Lab Chim Phys Matiere Rayonnement, F-75231 Paris 05, (France); Taieb, R; Caillat, J; Maquet, A [LCPMR, UMR 7614, CNRS, F-75005 Paris, (France)

    2008-07-01

    Controlling atto-second electron wave packets and soft X-ray pulses represents a formidable challenge of general implication to many areas of science. A strong laser field interacting with atoms or molecules drives ultrafast intra-atomic/molecular electron wave packets on a sub femtosecond timescale, resulting in the emission of atto-second bursts of extreme-ultraviolet light. Controlling the intra-atomic/molecular electron dynamics enables steering of the atto-second emission. Here, we carry out a coherent control in linear molecules, where the interaction of the laser-driven electron wave packet with the core leads to quantum interferences. We demonstrate that these interferences can be finely controlled by turning the molecular axis relative to the laser polarization, that is, changing the electron re-collision angle. The wave-packet coulombic distortion modifies the spectral phase jump measured in the extreme-ultraviolet emission. Our atto-second control of the interference results in atto-second pulse shaping, useful for future applications in ultrafast coherent control of atomic and molecular processes. (authors)

  11. Urban sources and emissions of nitrous oxide and methane in southern California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend-Small, A.; Pataki, D.; Tyler, S. C.; Czimczik, C. I.; Xu, X.; Christensen, L. E.

    2012-12-01

    Anthropogenic activities have resulted in increasing levels of greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. While global and regional emissions sources of carbon dioxide are relatively well understood, methane and nitrous oxide are less constrained, particularly at regional scales. Here we present the results of an investigation of sources and emissions of methane and nitrous oxide in Los Angeles, California, USA, one of Earth's largest urban areas. The original goal of the project was to determine whether isotopes are useful tracers of agricultural versus urban nitrous oxide and methane sources. For methane, we found that stable isotopes (carbon-13 and deuterium) and radiocarbon are good tracers of biogenic versus fossil fuel sources. High altitude observations of methane concentration, measured continuously using tunable laser spectroscopy, and isotope ratios, measured on discrete flask samples using mass spectrometry, indicate that the predominant methane source in Los Angeles is from fossil fuels, likely from "fugitive" emissions from geologic formations, natural gas pipelines, oil refining, or power plants. We also measured nitrous oxide emissions and isotope ratios from urban (landscaping and wastewater treatment) and agricultural sources (corn and vegetable fields). There was no difference in nitrous oxide isotope ratios between the different types of sources, although stable isotopes did differ between nitrous oxide produced in oxic and anoxic wastewater treatment tanks. Our nitrous oxide flux data indicate that landscaped turfgrass emits nitrous oxide at rates equivalent to agricultural systems, indicating that ornamental soils should not be disregarded in regional nitrous oxide budgets. However, we also showed that wastewater treatment is a much greater source of nitrous oxide than soils regionally. This work shows that global nitrous oxide and methane budgets are not easily downscaled to regional, urban settings, which has

  12. Emission characteristics of laser ablation-hollow cathode glow discharge spectral source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karatodorov Stefan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The emission characteristics of a scheme combining laser ablation as sample introduction source and hollow cathode discharge as excitation source are presented. The spatial separation of the sample material introduction by laser ablation and hollow cathode excitation is achieved by optimizing the gas pressure and the sample-cathode gap length. At these conditions the discharge current is maximized to enhance the analytical lines intensity.

  13. NOx emissions from large point sources: variability in ozone production, resulting health damages and economic costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauzerall, D.L.; Namsoug Kim

    2005-01-01

    We present a proof-of-concept analysis of the measurement of the health damage of ozone (O 3 ) produced from nitrogen oxides (NO x =NO+NO 2 ) emitted by individual large point sources in the eastern United States. We use a regional atmospheric model of the eastern United States, the Comprehensive Air quality Model with Extensions (CAMx), to quantify the variable impact that a fixed quantity of NO x emitted from individual sources can have on the downwind concentration of surface O 3 , depending on temperature and local biogenic hydrocarbon emissions. We also examine the dependence of resulting O 3 -related health damages on the size of the exposed population. The investigation is relevant to the increasingly widely used 'cap and trade' approach to NO x regulation, which presumes that shifts of emission over time and space, holding the total fixed over the course of the summer O 3 season, will have minimal effect on the environmental outcome. By contrast, we show that a shift of a unit of NO x emissions from one place or time to another could result in large changes in resulting health effects due to O 3 formation and exposure. We indicate how the type of modeling carried out here might be used to attach externality-correcting prices to emissions. Charging emitters fees that are commensurate with the damage caused by their NO x emissions would create an incentive for emitters to reduce emissions at times and in locations where they cause the largest damage. (author)

  14. Evidence for denitrification as main source of N2O emission from residue-amended soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiaoxi; Sørensen, Peter; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind

    2016-01-01

    -leguminous species (ryegrass). Plant material was placed in a discrete layer surrounded by soil in which the nitrate View the MathML source pool was enriched with 15N to distinguish N2O derived from denitrification and nitrification. Net N mineralisation from leguminous catch crops was significant (30–48 mg N kg−1....... Emission of N2O occurred at all moisture levels, but was higher at 50 and 60% WFPS than at 40% in soil with leguminous residues. The 15N enrichment of N2O indicated that denitrification was the dominant source independent of moisture level and residue type. We conclude that catch crop residues...... will stimulate N2O emissions via denitrification over a wide range of soil moisture conditions, but that emission levels may depend significantly on residue quality and soil moisture....

  15. Tasks tolerating application of analogue methods for determining acoustic emission source co-ordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artyukhov, V.I.; Vakar, K.B.; Makarov, V.I.; Ovchinnikov, N.I.; Perevezentsev, V.N.; Rzhevkin, V.R.; Shemyakin, V.V.; Yakovlev, G.V.

    1980-01-01

    Described are cases of coordinate detection of the acoustic emission (AE) sources during AE-testing of power reactors using analog systems. Five testing variants of design linear elements are considered and fields of their practical application to welded joint testing are pointed out. Described is the method of coordinate detection based on ''multibeam'' effect

  16. Iron solubility related to particle sulfur content in source emission and ambient fine particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, M; Ingall, E D; Lai, B; Shafer, M M; Hays, M D; Liu, Z G; Russell, A G; Weber, R J

    2012-06-19

    The chemical factors influencing iron solubility (soluble iron/total iron) were investigated in source emission (e.g., biomass burning, coal fly ash, mineral dust, and mobile exhaust) and ambient (Atlanta, GA) fine particles (PM2.5). Chemical properties (speciation and mixing state) of iron-containing particles were characterized using X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and micro-X-ray fluorescence measurements. Bulk iron solubility (soluble iron/total iron) of the samples was quantified by leaching experiments. Major differences were observed in iron solubility in source emission samples, ranging from low solubility (iron solubility did not correspond to silicon content or Fe(II) content. However, source emission and ambient samples with high iron solubility corresponded to the sulfur content observed in single particles. A similar correspondence between bulk iron solubility and bulk sulfate content in a series of Atlanta PM2.5 fine particle samples (N = 358) further supported this trend. In addition, results of linear combination fitting experiments show the presence of iron sulfates in several high iron solubility source emission and ambient PM2.5 samples. These results suggest that the sulfate content (related to the presence of iron sulfates and/or acid-processing mechanisms by H(2)SO(4)) of iron-containing particles is an important proxy for iron solubility.

  17. 77 FR 72294 - Reconsideration of Certain New Source and Startup/Shutdown Issues: National Emission Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 60 and 63 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2009-0234; EPA-HQ-OAR-2011-0044; FRL-9733-2] RIN 2060-AR62 Reconsideration of Certain New Source and Startup/Shutdown Issues: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Coal- and Oil-Fired Electric Utility Steam Generating...

  18. Bioelectrochemical approach for control of methane emission from wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shentan; Feng, Xiaojuan; Li, Xianning

    2017-10-01

    To harvest electricity and mitigate methane emissions from wetlands, a novel microbial fuel cell coupled constructed wetland (MFC-CW) was assembled with an anode placing in the rhizosphere and a cathode on the water surface. Plant-mediated methane accounted for 71-82% of the total methane fluxes. The bioanode served as an inexhaustible source of electron acceptors and resulted in reduced substantial methane emissions owing to electricigens outcompeting methanogens for carbon and electrons when substrate was deficient. However, when supplying sufficient organic carbon, both electricity and methane increased, indicating that electrogenesis and methanogenesis could co-exist in harmony. Direct methane emission (diffusion/ebullition) and plant-mediated methane emission were affected by operating conditions. Methanogenesis was significantly suppressed (∼98%) at HRT of 96h and with external resistance of 200Ω, accompanied with improved coulombic efficiency of 14.9% and current density of 187mA/m 2 . Contrarily, change of electrode polarity in the rhizosphere led to more methane efflux. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Radiographic Control of 137-Cs Brachytherapy Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bistrovic, M.; Viculin, T.; Jurkovic, S.

    2003-01-01

    1 37C s brachytherapy sources are practical for the intracavitary application due to their relatively long lifetime (T 1/2 = 30 y). On the other hand, due to the relatively low energy (0.66 MeV) of the emitted photons, they are suitable for an efficient radiation protection. The dose distribution around the sources is usually calculated by a specific program. However this program requires the knowledge of the position of sources within the applicator as well as the distribution of activity along them. The only way to learn these data is to make an X-ray picture of applicators and sources superimposed to the autoradiography of every source. It is difficult to achieve satisfactory radiographs with high dose rate sources with standard X-ray film material because autoradiography covers the structure of the radiographic shadow. The problem can be overcome either by applying a high intensity X-ray or gamma beam (originating from a radiotherapeutic machine), or by using photographic material of very low sensitivity, for example photographic paper. Combining both possibilities one can obtain satisfactory images. (author)

  20. Quantifying the isotopic composition of NOx emission sources: An analysis of collection methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibiger, D.; Hastings, M.

    2012-04-01

    We analyze various collection methods for nitrogen oxides, NOx (NO2 and NO), used to evaluate the nitrogen isotopic composition (δ15N). Atmospheric NOx is a major contributor to acid rain deposition upon its conversion to nitric acid; it also plays a significant role in determining air quality through the production of tropospheric ozone. NOx is released by both anthropogenic (fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning, aircraft emissions) and natural (lightning, biogenic production in soils) sources. Global concentrations of NOx are rising because of increased anthropogenic emissions, while natural source emissions also contribute significantly to the global NOx burden. The contributions of both natural and anthropogenic sources and their considerable variability in space and time make it difficult to attribute local NOx concentrations (and, thus, nitric acid) to a particular source. Several recent studies suggest that variability in the isotopic composition of nitric acid deposition is related to variability in the isotopic signatures of NOx emission sources. Nevertheless, the isotopic composition of most NOx sources has not been thoroughly constrained. Ultimately, the direct capture and quantification of the nitrogen isotopic signatures of NOx sources will allow for the tracing of NOx emissions sources and their impact on environmental quality. Moreover, this will provide a new means by which to verify emissions estimates and atmospheric models. We present laboratory results of methods used for capturing NOx from air into solution. A variety of methods have been used in field studies, but no independent laboratory verification of the efficiencies of these methods has been performed. When analyzing isotopic composition, it is important that NOx be collected quantitatively or the possibility of fractionation must be constrained. We have found that collection efficiency can vary widely under different conditions in the laboratory and fractionation does not vary

  1. Aviation and climate change : aircraft emissions expected to grow, but technological and operational improvements and government policies can help control emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    A number of policy options to address aircraft emissions are available to governments and can be part of broader policies to address emissions from many sources including aircraft. Market-based measures can establish a price for emissions and provide...

  2. Control of mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.

    1992-09-01

    This project at Argonne is designed to investigate new concepts leading to advanced control technologies for fossil-energy systems. The objective of this new task on air toxics control is to develop new or improved, cost-effective control technology for the abatement of emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from fossil-fuel combustion plants and to evaluate the possible effects of any captured species on waste disposal. The HAPs to be investigated initially in this task include mercury and arsenic compounds.

  3. Control of mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    This project at Argonne is designed to investigate new concepts leading to advanced control technologies for fossil-energy systems. The objective of this new task on air toxics control is to develop new or improved, cost-effective control technology for the abatement of emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from fossil-fuel combustion plants and to evaluate the possible effects of any captured species on waste disposal. The HAPs to be investigated initially in this task include mercury and arsenic compounds.

  4. Methods of analysis for complex organic aerosol mixtures from urban emission sources of particulate carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurek, M.A.; Hildemann, L.M.; Simoneit, B.R.T.

    1990-10-01

    Organic aerosols comprise approximately 30% by mass of the total fine particulate matter present in urban atmospheres. The chemical composition of such aerosols is complex and reflects input from multiple sources of primary emissions to the atmosphere, as well as from secondary production of carbonaceous aerosol species via photochemical reactions. To identify discrete sources of fine carbonaceous particles in urban atmospheres, analytical methods must reconcile both bulk chemical and molecular properties of the total carbonaceous aerosol fraction. This paper presents an overview of the analytical protocol developed and used in a study of the major sources of fine carbon particles emitted to an urban atmosphere. 23 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  5. Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound (BVOC) emissions from agricultural crop species: is guttation a possible source for methanol emissions following light/dark transition ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffar, Ahsan; Amelynck, Crist; Bachy, Aurélie; Digrado, Anthony; Delaplace, Pierre; du Jardin, Patrick; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; Schoon, Niels; Aubinet, Marc; Heinesch, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of the CROSTVOC (CROp STress VOC) project, the exchange of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) between two important agricultural crop species, maize and winter wheat, and the atmosphere has recently been measured during an entire growing season by using the eddy covariance technique. Because of the co-variation of BVOC emission drivers in field conditions, laboratory studies were initiated in an environmental chamber in order to disentangle the responses of the emissions to variations of the individual environmental parameters (such as PPFD and temperature) and to diverse abiotic stress factors. Young plants were enclosed in transparent all-Teflon dynamic enclosures (cuvettes) through which BVOC-free and RH-controlled air was sent. BVOC enriched air was subsequently sampled from the plant cuvettes and an empty cuvette (background) and analyzed for BVOCs in a high sensitivity Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (hs-PTR-MS) and for CO2 in a LI-7000 non-dispersive IR gas analyzer. Emissions were monitored at constant temperature (25 °C) and at a stepwise varying PPFD pattern (0-650 µmol m-2 s-1). For maize plants, sudden light/dark transitions at the end of the photoperiod were accompanied by prompt and considerable increases in methanol (m/z 33) and water vapor (m/z 39) emissions. Moreover, guttation droplets appeared on the sides and the tips of the leaves within a few minutes after light/dark transition. Therefore the assumption has been raised that methanol is also coming out with guttation fluid from the leaves. Consequently, guttation fluid was collected from young maize and wheat plants, injected in an empty enclosure and sampled by PTR-MS. Methanol and a large number of other compounds were observed from guttation fluid. Recent studies have shown that guttation from agricultural crops frequently occurs in field conditions. Further research is required to find out the source strength of methanol emissions by this guttation

  6. Measurements of Parameters Controlling the Emissions of Organophosphate Flame Retardants in Indoor Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yirui; Liu, Xiaoyu; Allen, Matthew R

    2018-05-15

    Emission of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) from source materials usually occurs very slowly in indoor environments due to their low volatility. When the SVOC emission process is controlled by external mass transfer, the gas-phase concentration in equilibrium with the material ( y 0 ) is used as a key parameter to simplify the source models that are based on solid-phase diffusion. A material-air-material (M-A-M) configured microchamber method was developed to rapidly measure y 0 for a polyisocyanurate rigid foam material containing organophosphate flame retardants (OPRFs). The emission test was conducted in 44 mL microchambers for target OPFRs, including tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (CASRN: 115-96-8), tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (CASRN: 13674-84-5), and tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (CASRN: 13674-87-8). In addition to the microchamber emission test, two other types of tests were conducted to determine y 0 for the same foam material: OPFR diffusive tube sampling tests from the OPFR source foam using stainless-steel thermal desorption tubes and sorption tests of OPFR on an OPFR-free foam in a 53 L small chamber. Comparison of parameters obtained from the three methods suggests that the discrepancy could be caused by a combination of theoretical, experimental, and computational differences. Based on the y 0 measurements, a linear relationship between the ratio of y 0 to saturated vapor pressure concentration and material-phase mass fractions has been found for phthalates and OPFRs.

  7. Control of sources of ionizing radiation in Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastauskas, Albinas; Ziliukas, Julius; Morkunas, Gendrutis [Radiation Protection Centre, Vilnius (Lithuania)

    1997-12-31

    Aspects connected with regulatory control of radioactive sources in Lithuania, such as keeping of the computer-based registry, investigation of arrested illegal radioactive material, decision making, control of users of radioactive sources are discussed. Most of the sources of ionizing radiation are smoke detectors and x-ray equipment. Potentially most dangerous sources (both sealed and unsealed) of therapy and industry are also presented 2 refs., 2 tabs.; e-mail: rsc at post.omnitel.net

  8. Control of sources of ionizing radiation in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastauskas, Albinas; Ziliukas, Julius; Morkunas, Gendrutis

    1997-01-01

    Aspects connected with regulatory control of radioactive sources in Lithuania, such as keeping of the computer-based registry, investigation of arrested illegal radioactive material, decision making, control of users of radioactive sources are discussed. Most of the sources of ionizing radiation are smoke detectors and x-ray equipment. Potentially most dangerous sources (both sealed and unsealed) of therapy and industry are also presented

  9. LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Don Augenstein

    1999-01-11

    ''Conventional'' waste landfills emit methane, a potent greenhouse gas, in quantities such that landfill methane is a major factor in global climate change. Controlled landfilling is a novel approach to manage landfills for rapid completion of total gas generation, maximizing gas capture and minimizing emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated and brought to much earlier completion by improving conditions for biological processes (principally moisture levels) in the landfill. Gas recovery efficiency approaches 100% through use of surface membrane cover over porous gas recovery layers operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project's results at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California are, to date, highly encouraging. Two major controlled landfilling benefits would be the reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions.

  10. A technique for the deconvolution of the pulse shape of acoustic emission signals back to the generating defect source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houghton, J.R.; Packman, P.F.; Townsend, M.A.

    1976-01-01

    Acoustic emission signals recorded after passage through the instrumentation system can be deconvoluted to produce signal traces indicative of those at the generating source, and these traces can be used to identify characteristics of the source

  11. Contaminant dispersion prediction and source estimation with integrated Gaussian-machine learning network model for point source emission in atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Denglong [Fuli School of Food Equipment Engineering and Science, Xi’an Jiaotong University, No.28 Xianning West Road, Xi’an 710049 (China); Zhang, Zaoxiao, E-mail: zhangzx@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, No.28 Xianning West Road, Xi’an 710049 (China); School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, No.28 Xianning West Road, Xi’an 710049 (China)

    2016-07-05

    Highlights: • The intelligent network models were built to predict contaminant gas concentrations. • The improved network models coupled with Gaussian dispersion model were presented. • New model has high efficiency and accuracy for concentration prediction. • New model were applied to indentify the leakage source with satisfied results. - Abstract: Gas dispersion model is important for predicting the gas concentrations when contaminant gas leakage occurs. Intelligent network models such as radial basis function (RBF), back propagation (BP) neural network and support vector machine (SVM) model can be used for gas dispersion prediction. However, the prediction results from these network models with too many inputs based on original monitoring parameters are not in good agreement with the experimental data. Then, a new series of machine learning algorithms (MLA) models combined classic Gaussian model with MLA algorithm has been presented. The prediction results from new models are improved greatly. Among these models, Gaussian-SVM model performs best and its computation time is close to that of classic Gaussian dispersion model. Finally, Gaussian-MLA models were applied to identifying the emission source parameters with the particle swarm optimization (PSO) method. The estimation performance of PSO with Gaussian-MLA is better than that with Gaussian, Lagrangian stochastic (LS) dispersion model and network models based on original monitoring parameters. Hence, the new prediction model based on Gaussian-MLA is potentially a good method to predict contaminant gas dispersion as well as a good forward model in emission source parameters identification problem.

  12. Contaminant dispersion prediction and source estimation with integrated Gaussian-machine learning network model for point source emission in atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Denglong; Zhang, Zaoxiao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The intelligent network models were built to predict contaminant gas concentrations. • The improved network models coupled with Gaussian dispersion model were presented. • New model has high efficiency and accuracy for concentration prediction. • New model were applied to indentify the leakage source with satisfied results. - Abstract: Gas dispersion model is important for predicting the gas concentrations when contaminant gas leakage occurs. Intelligent network models such as radial basis function (RBF), back propagation (BP) neural network and support vector machine (SVM) model can be used for gas dispersion prediction. However, the prediction results from these network models with too many inputs based on original monitoring parameters are not in good agreement with the experimental data. Then, a new series of machine learning algorithms (MLA) models combined classic Gaussian model with MLA algorithm has been presented. The prediction results from new models are improved greatly. Among these models, Gaussian-SVM model performs best and its computation time is close to that of classic Gaussian dispersion model. Finally, Gaussian-MLA models were applied to identifying the emission source parameters with the particle swarm optimization (PSO) method. The estimation performance of PSO with Gaussian-MLA is better than that with Gaussian, Lagrangian stochastic (LS) dispersion model and network models based on original monitoring parameters. Hence, the new prediction model based on Gaussian-MLA is potentially a good method to predict contaminant gas dispersion as well as a good forward model in emission source parameters identification problem.

  13. Source profiles of particulate matter emissions from a pilot-scale boiler burning North American coal blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S W

    2001-11-01

    Recent awareness of suspected adverse health effects from ambient particulate matter (PM) emission has prompted publication of new standards for fine PM with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5). However, scientific data on fine PM emissions from various point sources and their characteristics are very limited. Source apportionment methods are applied to identify contributions of individual regional sources to tropospheric particulate concentrations. The existing industrial database developed using traditional source measurement techniques provides total emission rates only, with no details on chemical nature or size characteristics of particulates. This database is inadequate, in current form, to address source-receptor relationships. A source dilution system was developed for sampling and characterization of total PM, PM2.5, and PM10 (i.e., PM with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 pm) from residual oil and coal combustion. This new system has automatic control capabilities for key parameters, such as relative humidity (RH), temperature, and sample dilution. During optimization of the prototype equipment, three North American coal blends were burned using a 0.7-megawatt thermal (MWt) pulverized coal-fired, pilot-scale boiler. Characteristic emission profiles, including PM2.5 and total PM soluble acids, and elemental and carbon concentrations for three coal blends are presented. Preliminary results indicate that volatile trace elements such as Pb, Zn, Ti, and Se are preferentially enriched in PM2.5. PM2.5 is also more concentrated in soluble sulfates relative to total PM. Coal fly ash collected at the outlet of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) contains about 85-90% PM10 and 30-50% PM2.5. Particles contain the highest elemental concentrations of Si and Al while Ca, Fe, Na, Ba, and K also exist as major elements. Approximately 4-12% of the materials exists as soluble sulfates in fly ash generated by coal blends containing 0.2-0.8% sulfur by mass

  14. Characterization of emission factors related to source activity for trichloroethylene degreasing and chrome plating processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadden, R A; Hawkins, J L; Scheff, P A; Franke, J E

    1991-09-01

    A study at an automotive parts fabrication plant evaluated four metal surface treatment processes during production conditions. The evaluation provides examples of how to estimate process emission factors from activity and air concentration data. The processes were open tank and enclosed tank degreasing with trichloroethylene (TCE), chromium conversion coating, and chromium electroplating. Area concentrations of TCE and chromium (Cr) were monitored for 1-hr periods at three distances from each process. Source activities at each process were recorded during each sampling interval. Emission rates were determined by applying appropriate mass balance models to the concentration patterns around each source. The emission factors obtained from regression analysis of the emission rate and activity data were 16.9 g TCE/basket of parts for the open-top degreaser; 1.0 g TCE/1000 parts for the enclosed degreaser; 1.48-1.64 mg Cr/1000 parts processed in the hot CrO3/HNO3 tank for the chrome conversion coating; and 5.35-9.17 mg Cr/rack of parts for chrome electroplating. The factors were also used to determine the efficiency of collection for the local exhaust systems serving each process. Although the number of observations were limited, these factors may be useful for providing initial estimates of emissions from similar processes in other settings.

  15. Establishing control over nuclear materials and radiation sources in Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basilia, G.

    2010-01-01

    Regulatory control over radiation sources in Georgia was lost after disintegration of the Soviet Union. A number of radiation accidents and illegal events occurred in Georgia. From 1999 Nuclear and Radiation Safety Service of the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources is responsible for regulatory control over radiation sources in Georgia. US NRC Regulatory Assistance Program in Georgia Assist the Service in establishing long term regulatory control over sources. Main focuses of US NRC program are country-wide inventory, create National Registry of sources, safe storage of disused sources, upgrade legislation and regulation, implementation licensing and inspection activities

  16. Controlling hazardous energy sources (lockout/tagout)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Manuel B.

    1991-10-01

    The minimum requirements as established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standard 29 CFR 1910.147 are discussed for preventing the unexpected operation of equipment or release of energy which could cause injury to personnel, damage to equipment, harm to the environment, or loss or compromise of test data. Safety requirements both for government and contractor personnel are explained for potentially hazardous energy sources during work operations at LeRC (Cleveland and Plum Brook Stations). Basic rules are presented to ensure protection against harmful exposures, and baseline implementation requirements are discussed from which detailed lockout/tagout procedures can be developed for individual equipment items. Examples of energy sources covered by this document include electrical, pneumatic, mechanical, chemical, cryogenic, thermal, spring tension/compression suspended or moving loads, and other potentially hazardous sources. Activities covered by this standard include, but are not limited to, construction, maintenance, installation, calibration, inspection, cleaning, or repair.

  17. [Size distribution of particle and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in particle emissions from simulated emission sources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hai-Huan; Tian, Na; Shang, Hui-Bin; Zhang, Bin; Ye, Su-Fen; Chen, Xiao-Qiu; Wu, Shui-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Particles from cooking lampblack, biomass and plastics burning smoke, gasoline vehicular exhausts and gasoline generator exhausts were prepared in a resuspension test chamber and collected using a cascade MOUDI impactor. A total of 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with particles were analyzed by GC-MS. The results showed that there were two peaks in the range of 0.44-1.0 microm and 2.5-10 microm for cooking lampblack, and only one peak in the range of 0.44-1.0 microm for straw and wood burning smoke. But there were no clear peak for plastics burning smoke. The peak for gasoline vehicular exhausts was found in the range of 2.5-10 microm due to the influence of water vapor associated with particles, while the particles from gasoline generator exhausts were mainly in the range of lampblack and gasoline vehicular exhausts. The peak in the range of 0.44-1.0 microm became more and more apparent with the increase of PAHs molecular weight. The fraction of PAH on particles less than 1.0 microm to that on the total particles increased along with PAH's molecular weight. Phenanthrene was the dominant compound for cooking lampblack and combustion smoke, while gasoline vehicular exhausts and generator exhausts were characterized with significantly high levels of naphthalene and benzo[g, h, i] perylene, respectively. The distribution of source characteristic ratios indicated that PAHs from cooking lampblack and biomass burning were close and they were different from those of vehicular exhausts and generator exhausts.

  18. Nitrogen source effects on nitrous oxide emissions from irrigated no-till corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorson, Ardell D; Del Grosso, Stephen J; Francesco, Alluvione

    2010-01-01

    Nitrogen fertilization is essential for optimizing crop yields; however, it may potentially increase nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. The study objective was to assess the ability of commercially available enhanced-efficiency N fertilizers to reduce N2O emissions following their application in comparison with conventional dry granular urea and liquid urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN) fertilizers in an irrigated no-till (NT) corn (Zea mays L.) production system. Four enhanced-efficiency fertilizers were evaluated: two polymer-coated urea products (ESN and Duration III) and two fertilizers containing nitrification and urease inhibitors (SuperU and UAN+AgrotainPlus). Nitrous oxide fluxes were measured during two growing seasons using static, vented chambers and a gas chromatograph analyzer. Enhanced-efficiency fertilizers significantly reduced growing-season N2O-N emissions in comparison with urea, including UAN. SuperU and UAN+AgrotainPlus had significantly lower N2O-N emissions than UAN. Compared with urea, SuperU reduced N2O-N emissions 48%, ESN 34%, Duration III 31%, UAN 27%, and UAN+AgrotainPlus 53% averaged over 2 yr. Compared with UAN, UAN+AgrotainPlus reduced N2O emissions 35% and SuperU 29% averaged over 2 yr. The N2O-N loss as a percentage of N applied was 0.3% for urea, with all other N sources having significantly lower losses. Grain production was not reduced by the use of alternative N sources. This work shows that enhanced-efficiency N fertilizers can potentially reduce N2O-N emissions without affecting yields from irrigated NT corn systems in the semiarid central Great Plains.

  19. The environmental convergence hypothesis: Carbon dioxide emissions according to the source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrerias, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the environmental convergence hypothesis in carbon dioxide emissions for a large group of developed and developing countries from 1980 to 2009. The novel aspect of this work is that we distinguish among carbon dioxide emissions according to the source of energy (coal, natural gas and petroleum) instead of considering the aggregate measure of per capita carbon dioxide emissions, where notable interest is given to the regional dimension due to the application of new club convergence tests. This allows us to determine the convergence behaviour of emissions in a more precise way and to detect it according to the source of energy used, thereby helping to address the environmental targets. More specifically, the convergence hypothesis is examined with a pair-wise test and another one is used to test for the existence of club convergence. Our results from using the pair-wise test indicate that carbon dioxide emissions for each type of energy diverge. However, club convergence is found for a large group of countries, although some still display divergence. These findings point to the need to apply specific environmental policies to each club detected, since specific countries converge to different clubs. - Highlights: • The environmental convergence hypothesis is investigated across countries. • We perform a pair-wise test and a club convergence test. • Results from the first of these two tests suggest that carbon dioxide emissions are diverging. • However, we find that carbon dioxide emissions are converging within groups of countries. • Active environmental policies are required

  20. Measurement of electron emission due to energetic ion bombardment in plasma source ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, M. M.; Scheuer, J. T.; Fetherston, R. P.; Conrad, J. R.

    1991-11-01

    An experimental procedure has been developed to measure electron emission due to energetic ion bombardment during plasma source ion implantation. Spherical targets of copper, stainless steel, graphite, titanium alloy, and aluminum alloy were biased negatively to 20, 30, and 40 kV in argon and nitrogen plasmas. A Langmuir probe was used to detect the propagating sheath edge and a Rogowski transformer was used to measure the current to the target. The measurements of electron emission coefficients compare well with those measured under similar conditions.

  1. ENERGY SOURCES AND CARBON EMISSIONS IN THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY SECTOR IN SOUTH ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapan Sarker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines CO2 emissions from electricity and fuel consumption of different energy sources consumed in the Iron and Steel Industry sector (non-ferrous included, also known as basic metal in five South Asian countries including Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Pakistan. The study finds that about 30% of the total energy in the manufacturing industry is used in this sector, which is about 11% of total industrial input, contributing approximately 13% to the Manufacturing Value Added (MVA. Electricity, on the other hand, shares almost 60% of total energy consumption in the five countries in South Asia, followed by natural gas, coal, kerosene and diesel. The study also finds that CO2 emissions vary across sectors in countries in which the study was conducted. For instance, while in Bangladesh CO2 emissions are primarily caused by electricity generation, in India the majority of CO2 emissions are originated from coal. On the contrary, CO2 emissions in Nepal are mostly generated through other fuels such as Charcoal, Diesel and Kerosene. This study provides some policy recommendations, which could help reduce CO2 emissions in the Iron and Steel Industry sector in the South Asian region.

  2. Control of mercury emissions: policies, technologies, and future trends

    OpenAIRE

    Rhee, Seung-Whee

    2015-01-01

    Seung-Whee Rhee Department of Environmental Engineering, Kyonggi University, Suwon, Republic of Korea Abstract: Owing to the Minamata Convention on Mercury and the Global Mercury Partnership, policies and regulations on mercury management in advanced countries were intensified by a mercury phaseout program in the mercury control strategy. In developing countries, the legislative or regulatory frameworks on mercury emissions are not established specifically, but mercury management is designed...

  3. Assessment of control strategies for reducing volatile organic compound emissions from the polyvinyl chloride wallpaper production industry in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chang-Tang; Chiou, Chyow-Shan

    2006-05-01

    This study attempts to assess the effectiveness of control strategies for reducing volatile organic compound (VOC) emission from the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) wallpaper production industry. In Taiwan, methyl ethyl ketone, TOL, and cyclohexanone have comprised the major content of solvents, accounting for approximately 113,000 t/yr to avoid excessive viscosity of plasticizer dioctyl phthalate (DOP) and to increase facility in working. Emissions of these VOCs from solvents have caused serious odor and worse air quality problems. In this study, 80 stacks in five factories were tested to evaluate emission characteristics at each VOC source. After examining the VOC concentrations in the flue gases and contents, the VOC emission rate before treatment and from fugitive sources was 93,000 and 800 t/yr, respectively. In this study, the semiwet electrostatic precipitator is recommended for use as cost-effective control equipment.

  4. Emissions Trading Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about emissions trading programs, also known as cap and trade programs, which are market-based policy tools for protecting human health and the environment by controlling emissions from a group of sources.

  5. What Is Emissions Trading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn the basics about how emissions trading uses a market-based policy tool used to control large amounts of pollution emissions from a group of sources in order to protect human health and the environment.

  6. Hearing aid controlled by binaural source localizer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    An adaptive directional hearing aid system comprising a left hearing aid and a right hearing aid, wherein a binaural acoustic source localizer is located in the left hearing aid or in the right hearing aid or in a separate body- worn device connected wirelessly to the left hearing aid and the right

  7. Rate Control in Dual Source Evaporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielinga, T.; Gruisinga, W.; Leeuwis, H.; Lodder, J.C.; van Weers, J.F.; Wilmans, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    Two-component thin films are deposited in a high-vacuum system from two close sources, heated by an electron beam which is deflected between them. By using quartz-crystal monitors the evaporation rates are measured seperately, which is usually considered to be problematical. One rate signal is used

  8. Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants unregistered stack (power exhaust) source assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, W.E.

    1994-01-01

    On February 3, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Division of the US Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10. The Compliance Order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford Site to determine which are subject to continuous emission measurement requirements in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61, Subpart H, and to continuously measure radionuclide emissions in accordance with 40 CFR 61.93. This evaluation provides an assessment of the 39 unregistered stacks, under Westinghouse Hanford Company's management, and their potential radionuclide emissions, i.e., emissions with no control devices in place. The evaluation also determined if the effective dose equivalent from any of these stack emissions exceeded 0.1 mrem/yr, which will require the stack to have continuous monitoring. The result of this assessment identified three stacks, 107-N, 296-P-26 and 296-P-28, as having potential emissions that would cause an effective dose equivalent greater than 0.1 mrem/yr. These stacks, as noted by 40 CFR 61.93, would require continuous monitoring

  9. Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants unregistered stack (power exhaust) source assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, W.E.

    1994-08-04

    On February 3, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Division of the US Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10. The Compliance Order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford Site to determine which are subject to continuous emission measurement requirements in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61, Subpart H, and to continuously measure radionuclide emissions in accordance with 40 CFR 61.93. This evaluation provides an assessment of the 39 unregistered stacks, under Westinghouse Hanford Company`s management, and their potential radionuclide emissions, i.e., emissions with no control devices in place. The evaluation also determined if the effective dose equivalent from any of these stack emissions exceeded 0.1 mrem/yr, which will require the stack to have continuous monitoring. The result of this assessment identified three stacks, 107-N, 296-P-26 and 296-P-28, as having potential emissions that would cause an effective dose equivalent greater than 0.1 mrem/yr. These stacks, as noted by 40 CFR 61.93, would require continuous monitoring.

  10. Deciphering acoustic emission signals in drought stressed branches: the missing link between source and sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidewei L Vergeynst

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available When drought occurs in plants, acoustic emission signals can be detected, but the actual causes of these signals are still unknown. By analyzing the waveforms of the measured signals, it should however be possible to trace the characteristics of the acoustic emission source and get information about the underlying physiological processes. A problem encountered during this analysis is that the waveform changes significantly from source to sensor and lack of knowledge on wave propagation impedes research progress made in this field. We used finite element modeling and the well-known pencil lead break source to investigate wave propagation in a branch. A cylindrical rod of polyvinyl chloride was first used to identify the theoretical propagation modes. Two wave propagation modes could be distinguished and we used the finite element model to interpret their behavior in terms of source position for both the PVC rod and a wooden rod. Both wave propagation modes were also identified in drying-induced signals from woody branches, and we used the obtained insights to provide recommendations for further acoustic emission research in plant science.

  11. Controlling Combustion-Source Emissions at Air Force Sites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nelson, S

    1997-01-01

    .... The research work involved gas-cleaning approaches and centered on exhaust gases from radiant tube heaters for paint drying, mobile diesel generators, stationary diesel generators, diesel buses...

  12. Laser method of acoustical emission control from vibrating surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motyka, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    For limitation of the noise in environment, the necessity occurs of determining and location of sources of sounds emitted from surfaces of many machines and devices, assuring in effect the possibility of suitable constructional changes implementation, targeted at decreasing of their nuisance. In the paper, the results of tests and calculations are presented for plane surface sources emitting acoustic waves. The tests were realized with the use of scanning laser vibrometer which enabled remote registration and the spectral analysis of the surfaces vibrations. The known hybrid digital method developed for determination of sound wave emission from such surfaces divided into small finite elements was slightly modified by distinguishing the phase correlations between such vibrating elements. The final method being developed may find use in wide range of applications for different forms of vibrations of plane surfaces.

  13. A comparison of PCA and PMF models for source identification of fugitive methane emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assan, Sabina; Baudic, Alexia; Bsaibes, Sandy; Gros, Valerie; Ciais, Philippe; Staufer, Johannes; Robinson, Rod; Vogel, Felix

    2017-04-01

    Methane (CH_4) is a greenhouse gas with a global warming potential 28-32 times that of carbon dioxide (CO_2) on a 100 year period, and even greater on shorter timescales [Etminan, et al., 2016, Allen, 2014]. Thus, despite its relatively short life time and smaller emission quantities compared to CO_2, CH4 emissions contribute to approximately 20{%} of today's anthropogenic greenhouse gas warming [Kirschke et al., 2013]. Major anthropogenic sources include livestock (enteric fermentation), oil and gas production and distribution, landfills, and wastewater emissions [EPA, 2011]. Especially in densely populated areas multiple CH4 sources can be found in close vicinity. Thus, when measuring CH4 emissions at local scales it is necessary to distinguish between different CH4 source categories to effectively quantify the contribution of each sector and aid the implementation of greenhouse gas reduction strategies. To this end, source apportionment models can be used to aid the interpretation of spatial and temporal patterns in order to identify and characterise emission sources. The focus of this study is to evaluate two common linear receptor models, namely Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and Positive Matrix Factorisation (PMF) for CH4 source apportionment. The statistical models I will present combine continuous in-situ CH4 , C_2H_6, δ^1^3CH4 measured using a Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) instrument [Assan et al. 2016] with volatile organic compound (VOC) observations performed using Gas Chromatography (GC) in order to explain the underlying variance of the data. The strengths and weaknesses of both models are identified for data collected in multi-source environments in the vicinity of four different types of sites; an agricultural farm with cattle, a natural gas compressor station, a wastewater treatment plant, and a pari-urban location in the Ile de France region impacted by various sources. To conclude, receptor model results to separate statistically the

  14. Post combustion methods for control of NOx emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, H S; Curran, L M; Slack, A V; Ando, J; Oxley, J H

    1980-01-01

    Review of stack gas treatment methods for the control of NOx emissions. Particular emphasis is placed on status of development and factors affecting the performance of the processes. Catalytic, noncatalytic, and scrubbing processes are compared on a uniform engineering basis. Most of the active process development work is taking place in Japan. The three leading stack gas treatment techniques for NOx control are catalytic reduction with ammonia, noncatalytic reduction with ammonia, and direct scrubbing of NO with simultaneous absorption of SO2. The wet processes are much less developed than the dry processes.

  15. Regulatory control of radiation sources. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The basic requirements for the protection of persons against exposure to ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources were established in the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (the Basic Safety Standards), jointly sponsored by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the International Labour Organization (ILO), the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/ NEA), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) (the Sponsoring Organizations). The application of the Basic Safety Standards is based on the presumption that national infrastructures are in place to enable governments to discharge their responsibilities for radiation protection and safety. Requirements relating to the legal and governmental infrastructure for the safety of nuclear facilities and sources of ionizing radiation, radiation protection, the safe management of radioactive waste and the safe transport of radioactive material are established in the Safety Requirements on Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety, Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-1. This Safety Guide, which is jointly sponsored by the FAO, the IAEA, the International Labour Office, the PAHO and the WHO, gives detailed guidance on the key elements for the organization and operation of a national regulatory infrastructure for radiation safety, with particular reference to the functions of the national regulatory body that are necessary to ensure the implementation of the Basic Safety Standards. The Safety Guide is based technically on material first published in IAEA-TECDOC-10671, which was jointly sponsored by the FAO, the IAEA, the OECD/NEA, the PAHO and the WHO. The requirements established in GS-R-1 have been taken into account. The Safety Guide is oriented towards national

  16. Excitation light source dependence of emission in Sn2+-Ce3+ codoped ZnO-P2O5 glasses

    OpenAIRE

    Masai, Hirokazu; Hino, Yusuke; Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Fukuda, Kentaro; Yoko, Toshinobu

    2013-01-01

    Correlation between excitation light source and the emission property of Sn^{2+}-Ce^{3+} co-doped zinc phosphate glasses is examined. Although photoluminescence (PL) peaks of both Sn^{2+}and Ce^{3+} shifted with increasing amount of Ce^{3+}, there was little energy resonance between Sn^{2+} and Ce^{3+} emission centers. On the other hand, radioluminescence (RL) spectra excited by X-ray was independent of the Ce concentration, indicating that emission was mainly observed from Sn^{2+} emission ...

  17. City-specific vehicle emission control strategies to achieve stringent emission reduction targets in China's Yangtze River Delta region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Zhao, Bin; Wu, Xiaomeng; Shu, Jiawei; Hao, Jiming

    2017-01-01

    The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region is one of the most prosperous and densely populated regions in China and is facing tremendous pressure to mitigate vehicle emissions and improve air quality. Our assessment has revealed that mitigating vehicle emissions of NOx would be more difficult than reducing the emissions of other major vehicular pollutants (e.g., CO, HC and PM 2.5 ) in the YRD region. Even in Shanghai, where the emission control implemented are more stringent than in Jiangsu and Zhejiang, we observed little to no reduction in NOx emissions from 2000 to 2010. Emission-reduction targets for HC, NOx and PM 2.5 are determined using a response surface modeling tool for better air quality. We design city-specific emission control strategies for three vehicle-populated cities in the YRD region: Shanghai and Nanjing and Wuxi in Jiangsu. Our results indicate that even if stringent emission control consisting of the Euro 6/VI standards, the limitation of vehicle population and usage, and the scrappage of older vehicles is applied, Nanjing and Wuxi will not be able to meet the NOx emissions target by 2020. Therefore, additional control measures are proposed for Nanjing and Wuxi to further mitigate NOx emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Catalysts for cleaner combustion of coal, wood and briquettes sulfur dioxide reduction options for low emission sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.V. [Global Environmental Solutions, Inc., Morton Grove, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Coal fired, low emission sources are a major factor in the air quality problems facing eastern European cities. These sources include: stoker-fired boilers which feed district heating systems and also meet local industrial steam demand, hand-fired boilers which provide heat for one building or a small group of buildings, and masonary tile stoves which heat individual rooms. Global Environmental Systems is marketing through Global Environmental Systems of Polane, Inc. catalysts to improve the combustion of coal, wood or fuel oils in these combustion systems. PCCL-II Combustion Catalysts promotes more complete combustion, reduces or eliminates slag formations, soot, corrosion and some air pollution emissions and is especially effective on high sulfur-high vanadium residual oils. Glo-Klen is a semi-dry powder continuous acting catalyst that is injected directly into the furnace of boilers by operating personnel. It is a multi-purpose catalyst that is a furnace combustion catalyst that saves fuel by increasing combustion efficiency, a cleaner of heat transfer surfaces that saves additional fuel by increasing the absorption of heat, a corrosion-inhibiting catalyst that reduces costly corrosion damage and an air pollution reducing catalyst that reduces air pollution type stack emissions. The reduction of sulfur dioxides from coal or oil-fired boilers of the hand fired stoker design and larger, can be controlled by the induction of the Glo-Klen combustion catalyst and either hydrated lime or pulverized limestone.

  19. Effects of carbon sources and COD/N ratio on N2O emissions in subsurface flow constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Wanlin; Huang, Lei; Xiao, Guangquan; Chen, Yucheng

    2017-12-01

    A set of constructed wetlands under two different carbon sources, namely, glucose (CW) and sodium acetate (YW), was established at a laboratory scale with influent COD/N ratios of 20:1, 10:1, 7:1, 4:1, and 0 to analyze the influence of carbon supply on nitrous oxide emissions. Results showed that the glucose systems generated higher N 2 O emissions than those of the sodium acetate systems. The higher amount of N 2 O-releasing fluxes in the CWs than in the YWs was consistent with the higher NO 2 - -N accumulation in the former than in the latter. Moreover, electron competition was tighter in the CWs and contributed to the incomplete denitrification with poor N 2 O production performance. Illumina MiSeq sequencing demonstrated that some denitrifying bacteria, such as Denitratisoma, Bacillus, and Zoogloea, were higher in the YWs than in the CWs. This result indicated that the carbon source is important in controlling N 2 O emissions in microbial communities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. An FBG acoustic emission source locating system based on PHAT and GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jing-shi; Zeng, Xiao-dong; Li, Wei; Jiang, Ming-shun

    2017-09-01

    Using the acoustic emission locating technology to monitor the health of the structure is important for ensuring the continuous and healthy operation of the complex engineering structures and large mechanical equipment. In this paper, four fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors are used to establish the sensor array to locate the acoustic emission source. Firstly, the nonlinear locating equations are established based on the principle of acoustic emission, and the solution of these equations is transformed into an optimization problem. Secondly, time difference extraction algorithm based on the phase transform (PHAT) weighted generalized cross correlation provides the necessary conditions for the accurate localization. Finally, the genetic algorithm (GA) is used to solve the optimization model. In this paper, twenty points are tested in the marble plate surface, and the results show that the absolute locating error is within the range of 10 mm, which proves the accuracy of this locating method.

  1. A process-based emission model of volatile organic compounds from silage sources on farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonifacio, H. F.; Rotz, C. A.; Hafner, S. D.

    2017-01-01

    Silage on dairy farms can emit large amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), a precursor in the formation of tropospheric ozone. Because of the challenges associated with direct measurements, process-based modeling is another approach for estimating emissions of air pollutants from sources...... was evaluated using ethanol and methanol emissions measured from conventional silage piles (CSP), silage bags (SB), total mixed rations (TMR), and loose corn silage (LCS) at a commercial dairy farm in central California. With transport coefficients for ethanol refined using experimental data from our previous......% if feeds were delivered as four feedings per day rather than as one. Reducing the exposed face of storage can also be useful. Simulated use of silage bags resulted in 90% and 18% reductions in emissions from the storage face and whole farm, respectively....

  2. Open Source Tools for Numerical Simulation of Urban Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottrott, A.; Tan, S. M.; He, Y.

    2016-12-01

    There is a global movement toward urbanization. Approximately 7% of the global population lives in just 28 megacities, occupying less than 0.1% of the total land area used by human activity worldwide. These cities contribute a significant fraction of the global budget of anthropogenic primary pollutants and greenhouse gasses. The 27 largest cities consume 9.9%, 9.3%, 6.7% and 3.0% of global gasoline, electricity, energy and water use, respectively. This impact motivates novel approaches to quantify and mitigate the growing contribution of megacity emissions to global climate change. Cities are characterized by complex topography, inhomogeneous turbulence, and variable pollutant source distributions. These features create a scale separation between local sources and urban scale emissions estimates known as the Grey-Zone. Modern computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques provide a quasi-deterministic, physically based toolset to bridge the scale separation gap between source level dynamics, local measurements, and urban scale emissions inventories. CFD has the capability to represent complex building topography and capture detailed 3D turbulence fields in the urban boundary layer. This presentation discusses the application of OpenFOAM to urban CFD simulations of natural gas leaks in cities. OpenFOAM is an open source software for advanced numerical simulation of engineering and environmental fluid flows. When combined with free or low cost computer aided drawing and GIS, OpenFOAM generates a detailed, 3D representation of urban wind fields. OpenFOAM was applied to model methane (CH4) emissions from various components of the natural gas distribution system, to investigate the impact of urban meteorology on mobile CH4 measurements. The numerical experiments demonstrate that CH4 concentration profiles are highly sensitive to the relative location of emission sources and buildings. Sources separated by distances of 5-10 meters showed significant differences in

  3. Investigating Ammonia Emission Sources in a Coastal Urban Air Shed Using Stable Isotope Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, A.; Felix, J. D. D.

    2017-12-01

    For nearly 100 years, mankind has met the food demands of a growing population by commercially producing and consuming reactive nitrogen fertilizers. So much so, that now 40-60% of the population relies on them. This increase has drastically altered the global nitrogen (N) cycle. Specifically, ammonia (NH3) emissions to the atmosphere have increased, resulting in wet and dry NHx (NH3 + NH4+) deposition products that can be substantial sources of N to sensitive ecosystems. Excess N can wreak havoc on these environments, causing soil acidification, water body eutrophication, and decreases in biodiversity. Despite these effects, NH3 remains generally unregulated in the U.S. Should policymakers elect to regulate NH3, quantification of NH3 emission sources and transport is essential. This has proven to be particularly difficult in urban regions, where ambient NH3 may result from local urban sources and/or NH3 transport from rural agricultural sources. The presented work investigates potential NH3 emission sources within a South Texas coastal urban air shed, Corpus Christi, TX, U.S.A. Previous work has shown an increasing fine particulate matter (PM2.5) trend within the region, which may be attributable to NH3 emissions from a variety of local sources, including vehicle traffic, shipping traffic, the petrochemical industry, and/or surrounding agricultural cropland and livestock. NH3 was collected monthly at a set of 8 sites within the Corpus Christi air shed, analyzed for NH3 concentration and N isotopic composition (d15N-NH3), and compared to known isotopic compositions of NH3 sources. Low and seasonally variable d15N-NH3 values are associated with varying agricultural sources (fertilizer, livestock waste, etc.), while higher and more seasonally constant d15N-NH3 values are associated with non-agricultural sources (vehicles, industry, etc.). Several other physical and chemical atmospheric components (e.g. SO2, NO2, O3, PM2.5, temperature, relative humidity) were also

  4. Time-lapse controlled-source electromagnetics using interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunziker, J.W.; Slob, E.C.; Wapenaar, C.P.A.

    In time-lapse controlled-source electromagnetics, it is crucial that the source and the receivers are positioned at exactly the same location at all times of measurement. We use interferometry by multidimensional deconvolution (MDD) to overcome problems in repeatability of the source location.

  5. Nine years of global hydrocarbon emissions based on source inversion of OMI formaldehyde observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bauwens

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available As formaldehyde (HCHO is a high-yield product in the oxidation of most volatile organic compounds (VOCs emitted by fires, vegetation, and anthropogenic activities, satellite observations of HCHO are well-suited to inform us on the spatial and temporal variability of the underlying VOC sources. The long record of space-based HCHO column observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI is used to infer emission flux estimates from pyrogenic and biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs on the global scale over 2005–2013. This is realized through the method of source inverse modeling, which consists in the optimization of emissions in a chemistry-transport model (CTM in order to minimize the discrepancy between the observed and modeled HCHO columns. The top–down fluxes are derived in the global CTM IMAGESv2 by an iterative minimization algorithm based on the full adjoint of IMAGESv2, starting from a priori emission estimates provided by the newly released GFED4s (Global Fire Emission Database, version 4s inventory for fires, and by the MEGAN-MOHYCAN inventory for isoprene emissions. The top–down fluxes are compared to two independent inventories for fire (GFAS and FINNv1.5 and isoprene emissions (MEGAN-MACC and GUESS-ES. The inversion indicates a moderate decrease (ca. 20 % in the average annual global fire and isoprene emissions, from 2028 Tg C in the a priori to 1653 Tg C for burned biomass, and from 343 to 272 Tg for isoprene fluxes. Those estimates are acknowledged to depend on the accuracy of formaldehyde data, as well as on the assumed fire emission factors and the oxidation mechanisms leading to HCHO production. Strongly decreased top–down fire fluxes (30–50 % are inferred in the peak fire season in Africa and during years with strong a priori fluxes associated with forest fires in Amazonia (in 2005, 2007, and 2010, bushfires in Australia (in 2006 and 2011, and peat burning in Indonesia (in 2006 and 2009, whereas

  6. Water management in cities of the future using emission control strategies for priority hazardous substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, E; Revitt, D M; Ledin, A; Lundy, L; Holten Lützhøft, H C; Wickman, T; Mikkelsen, P S

    2011-01-01

    Cities of the future face challenges with respect to the quantity and quality of water resources, and multiple managerial options need to be considered in order to safeguard urban surface water quality. In a recently completed project on 'Source control options for reducing emissions of Priority Pollutants' (ScorePP), seven emission control strategies (ECSs) were developed and tested within a semi-hypothetical case city (SHCC) to evaluate their potential to reduce the emission of selected European priority hazardous substances (PHSs) to surface waters. The ECSs included (1) business-as-usual, (2) full implementation of relevant European (EU) directives, (3) ECS2 in combination with voluntary options for household, municipalities and industry, (4) ECS2 combined with industrial treatment and best available technologies (BAT), (5) ECS2 in combination with stormwater and combined sewer overflow treatment, (6) ECS2 in combination with advanced wastewater treatment, and (7) combinations of ECS3-6. The SHCC approach was chosen to facilitate transparency, to allow compensating for data gaps and to decrease the level of uncertainty in the results. The selected PHSs: cadmium (Cd), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), nonylphenol (NP) and pentabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE) differ in their uses and environmental fate and therefore accumulate in surface waters to differing extents in response to the application of alternative ECS. To achieve the required reduction in PHS levels in urban waters the full implementation of existing EU regulation is prioritised and feasible combinations of managerial and technological options (source control and treatment) can be highly relevant for mitigating releases.

  7. A new oxidation flow reactor for measuring secondary aerosol formation of rapidly changing emission sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonen, Pauli; Saukko, Erkka; Karjalainen, Panu; Timonen, Hilkka; Bloss, Matthew; Aakko-Saksa, Päivi; Rönkkö, Topi; Keskinen, Jorma; Dal Maso, Miikka

    2017-04-01

    Oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) or environmental chambers can be used to estimate secondary aerosol formation potential of different emission sources. Emissions from anthropogenic sources, such as vehicles, often vary on short timescales. For example, to identify the vehicle driving conditions that lead to high potential secondary aerosol emissions, rapid oxidation of exhaust is needed. However, the residence times in environmental chambers and in most oxidation flow reactors are too long to study these transient effects ( ˜ 100 s in flow reactors and several hours in environmental chambers). Here, we present a new oxidation flow reactor, TSAR (TUT Secondary Aerosol Reactor), which has a short residence time ( ˜ 40 s) and near-laminar flow conditions. These improvements are achieved by reducing the reactor radius and volume. This allows studying, for example, the effect of vehicle driving conditions on the secondary aerosol formation potential of the exhaust. We show that the flow pattern in TSAR is nearly laminar and particle losses are negligible. The secondary organic aerosol (SOA) produced in TSAR has a similar mass spectrum to the SOA produced in the state-of-the-art reactor, PAM (potential aerosol mass). Both reactors produce the same amount of mass, but TSAR has a higher time resolution. We also show that TSAR is capable of measuring the secondary aerosol formation potential of a vehicle during a transient driving cycle and that the fast response of TSAR reveals how different driving conditions affect the amount of formed secondary aerosol. Thus, TSAR can be used to study rapidly changing emission sources, especially the vehicular emissions during transient driving.

  8. 77 FR 49489 - Oil and Natural Gas Sector: New Source Performance Standards and National Emission Standards for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ..., centrifugal compressors, reciprocating compressors, pneumatic controllers and storage vessels. This action... organic compound (VOC) emissions from gas wells, centrifugal compressors, reciprocating compressors... emissions from wet seal centrifugal compressors located between the wellhead and the point at which the gas...

  9. Crystal Phase Quantum Well Emission with Digital Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assali, S; Lähnemann, J; Vu, T T T; Jöns, K D; Gagliano, L; Verheijen, M A; Akopian, N; Bakkers, E P A M; Haverkort, J E M

    2017-10-11

    One of the major challenges in the growth of quantum well and quantum dot heterostructures is the realization of atomically sharp interfaces. Nanowires provide a new opportunity to engineer the band structure as they facilitate the controlled switching of the crystal structure between the zinc-blende (ZB) and wurtzite (WZ) phases. Such a crystal phase switching results in the formation of crystal phase quantum wells (CPQWs) and quantum dots (CPQDs). For GaP CPQWs, the inherent electric fields due to the discontinuity of the spontaneous polarization at the WZ/ZB junctions lead to the confinement of both types of charge carriers at the opposite interfaces of the WZ/ZB/WZ structure. This confinement leads to a novel type of transition across a ZB flat plate barrier. Here, we show digital tuning of the visible emission of WZ/ZB/WZ CPQWs in a GaP nanowire by changing the thickness of the ZB barrier. The energy spacing between the sharp emission lines is uniform and is defined by the addition of single ZB monolayers. The controlled growth of identical quantum wells with atomically flat interfaces at predefined positions featuring digitally tunable discrete emission energies may provide a new route to further advance entangled photons in solid state quantum systems.

  10. The regulatory control of ionizing radiation sources in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastauskas, A.; Ziliukas, J.; Morkunas, G.

    1998-01-01

    The Radiation Protection Centre of the Ministry of Health is the regulatory authority responsible for radiation protection of the public and of workers using sources of ionizing radiation in Lithuania. One of its responsibilities is the control of radioactive sources, which includes keeping the registry, investigating persons arrested while illegally carrying or in possession of radioactive material, decision making and control of users of radioactive sources. The computer based registry contains a directory of more than 24,000 sources and some 800 users in research, medicine and industry. Most of these sources are found in smoke detectors and X ray equipment. The potentially most dangerous sources for therapy and industry (sealed and unsealed) are also listed in this registry. Problems connected with the regulatory control of radioactive sources in Lithuania are presented and their solution is discussed. (author)

  11. Renewable energy, coal as a baseload power source, and greenhouse gas emissions: Evidence from U.S. state-level data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squalli, Jay

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between renewable energy production and greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) using U.S. state-level data for 2010. After controlling for other sources of emissions, U.S. states that produce a larger share of renewable energy are found to have lower GHG emissions. It is estimated that a 10% increase in the share of renewable energy could decrease CH_4 emissions by about 0.26%. Since the use of renewable energy sources does not release GHG emissions, this effect can be interpreted as stabilizing if renewable energy is added to coal use or as corrective if it replaces coal. After accounting for the role of coal as a baseload power source, an increase in the share of renewable energy is estimated to mitigate N_2O emissions at the U.S. state level only if states individually decrease their share of coal use to levels below 41.47%. These findings have significant policy implications for the provision of guidance to policymakers in identifying optimal energy mixes and in pursuing realistic goals to enhance renewable energy penetration and to contribute to the current efforts of tackling climate change. - Highlights: • The paper examines the link between renewable energy, coal, and GHG emissions. • The analysis accounts for the role of coal as a baseload power source. • A 10% increase in renewable energy share decreases CH_4 emissions by about 0.26%. • Renewable energy can mitigate emissions if the share of coal drops below 41.47%.

  12. Acoustic emission non-destructive testing of structures using source location techniques.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, Alan G.

    2013-09-01

    The technology of acoustic emission (AE) testing has been advanced and used at Sandia for the past 40 years. AE has been used on structures including pressure vessels, fire bottles, wind turbines, gas wells, nuclear weapons, and solar collectors. This monograph begins with background topics in acoustics and instrumentation and then focuses on current acoustic emission technology. It covers the overall design and system setups for a test, with a wind turbine blade as the object. Test analysis is discussed with an emphasis on source location. Three test examples are presented, two on experimental wind turbine blades and one on aircraft fire extinguisher bottles. Finally, the code for a FORTRAN source location program is given as an example of a working analysis program. Throughout the document, the stress is on actual testing of real structures, not on laboratory experiments.

  13. X-ray emission as a diagnostic from pseudospark-sourced electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowes, D., E-mail: david.bowes@strath.ac.uk [Department of Physics, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Yin, H.; He, W.; Zhang, L.; Cross, A.W.; Ronald, K.; Phelps, A.D.R. [Department of Physics, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Chen, D.; Zhang, P. [Computed Tomography Lab, School of Mathematical Sciences, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048 (China); Chen, X.; Li, D. [Department of Electronic Engineering, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-15

    X-ray emission has been achieved using an electron beam generated by a pseudospark low-pressure discharge and utilised as a diagnostic for beam detection. A 300 A, 34 kV PS-sourced electron beam pulse of 3 mm diameter impacting on a 0.1 mm-thick molybdenum target generated X-rays which were detected via the use of a small, portable X-ray detector. Clear X-ray images of a micro-sized object were captured using an X-ray photodetector. This demonstrates the inducement of proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) not only as an indicator of beam presence but also as a future X-ray source for small-spot X-ray imaging of materials.

  14. Magnetic characteristics of industrial dust from different sources of emission: A case study of Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szuszkiewicz, Marcin; Magiera, Tadeusz; Kapička, Aleš; Petrovský, Eduard; Grison, Hanna; Gołuchowska, Beata

    2015-05-01

    Dust emission and deposition in topsoil have negative effect on individual components of the ecosystem. In addition to routine geochemical analyses, magnetic measurements may provide useful complementary information related to the type, concentration and grain-size distribution of the technogenic magnetic particles (TMPs) and thus the degree of contamination of the environment. The aim of this contribution is to use magnetic parameters in distinguishing dust from a wide range of sources of air pollution (power industry, cement, coke, ceramic industries and biomass combustion). We measured magnetic susceptibility, hysteresis parameters and thermomagnetic curves. Our results suggest that predominant component in tested samples is magnetite, only dust from coking plant and the combustion of lignite contained also maghemite and/or hematite. Mixture of sizes, ranging from fine single-domain to coarse multi-domain grains, was detected. Our results indicate that industrial dusts from various sources of emissions have different specific magnetic properties and magnetic measurements may provide very helpful information.

  15. Modeling of EUV emission from xenon and tin plasma sources for nanolithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. [Service Photons, Atomes, et Molecules, CEA Saclay, bat. 522, F91191 Gif/Yvette Cedex (France)]. E-mail: michel.poirier@cea.fr; Blenski, T. [Service Photons, Atomes, et Molecules, CEA Saclay, bat. 522, F91191 Gif/Yvette Cedex (France); Gaufridy de Dortan, F. de [Service Photons, Atomes, et Molecules, CEA Saclay, bat. 522, F91191 Gif/Yvette Cedex (France); Gilleron, F. [CEA-DAM, F91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France)

    2006-05-15

    Over the last decade there has been a major effort devoted to the development of efficient extreme UV sources designed for nanolithography, operating in the 13.5-nm range. Possible sources include laser-produced plasmas and discharge-produced plasmas. This paper, devoted to the modeling of such emission, emphasizes the atomic physics effects and particularly the effects of configuration interaction. Two types of theoretical approaches are presented, one involving the detailed computation with the parametric potential code HULLAC, the other based on the superconfiguration code SCO. Computations of emission spectra in xenon and tin are presented. The possible influence of non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effects is investigated using populations given by the simple collisional-radiative formulas from Colombant and Tonon. Convergence to LTE is analyzed in the tin case.

  16. TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF REALISTIC EMISSIONS OF SOURCE AEROSOLS (TERESA): APPLICATION TO POWER PLANT-DERIVED PM2.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette Rohr

    2004-12-02

    This report documents progress made on the subject project during the period of March 1, 2004 through August 31, 2004. The TERESA Study is designed to investigate the role played by specific emissions sources and components in the induction of adverse health effects by examining the relative toxicity of coal combustion and mobile source (gasoline and/or diesel engine) emissions and their oxidative products. The study involves on-site sampling, dilution, and aging of coal combustion emissions at three coal-fired power plants, as well as mobile source emissions, followed by animal exposures incorporating a number of toxicological endpoints. The DOE-EPRI Cooperative Agreement (henceforth referred to as ''the Agreement'') for which this technical progress report has been prepared covers the analysis and interpretation of the field data collected at the first power plant (henceforth referred to as Plant 0, and located in the Upper Midwest), followed by the performance and analysis of similar field experiments at two additional coal-fired power plants (Plants 1 and 2) utilizing different coal types and with different plant configurations. Significant progress was made on the Project during this reporting period, with field work being initiated at Plant 0. Initial testing of the stack sampling system and reaction apparatus revealed that primary particle concentrations were lower than expected in the emissions entering the mobile chemical laboratory. Initial animal exposures to primary emissions were carried out (Scenario 1) to ensure successful implementation of all study methodologies and toxicological assessments. Results indicated no significant toxicological effects in response to primary emissions exposures. Exposures were then carried out to diluted, oxidized, neutralized emissions with the addition of secondary organic aerosol (Scenario 5), both during the day and also at night when primary particle concentrations in the sampled stack emissions

  17. TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF REALISTIC EMISSIONS OF SOURCE AEROSOLS (TERESA): APPLICATION TO POWER PLANT-DERIVED PM2.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette Rohr

    2005-09-30

    This report documents progress made on the subject project during the period of March 1, 2005 through August 31, 2005. The TERESA Study is designed to investigate the role played by specific emissions sources and components in the induction of adverse health effects by examining the relative toxicity of coal combustion and mobile source (gasoline and/or diesel engine) emissions and their oxidative products. The study involves on-site sampling, dilution, and aging of coal combustion emissions at three coal-fired power plants, as well as mobile source emissions, followed by animal exposures incorporating a number of toxicological endpoints. The DOE-EPRI Cooperative Agreement (henceforth referred to as ''the Agreement'') for which this technical progress report has been prepared covers the performance and analysis of field experiments at the first TERESA plant, located in the Upper Midwest and henceforth referred to as Plant 0, and at two additional coal-fired power plants (Plants 1 and 2) utilizing different coal types and with different plant configurations. During this reporting period, fieldwork was completed at Plant 1, located in the Southeast. Stage I toxicological assessments were carried out in normal Sprague-Dawley rats, and Stage II assessments were carried out in a compromised model (myocardial infarction-MI-model). Normal rats were exposed to the following atmospheric scenarios: (1) primary particles; (2) oxidized emissions; (3) oxidized emissions + secondary organic aerosol (SOA)--this scenario was repeated; and (4) oxidized emissions + ammonia + SOA. Compromised animals were exposed to oxidized emissions + SOA (this scenario was also conducted in replicate). Stage I assessment endpoints included breathing pattern/pulmonary function; in vivo chemiluminescence (an indicator of oxidative stress); blood cytology; bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid analysis; and histopathology. Stage II assessments included continuous ECG monitoring via

  18. Source limitation of carbon gas emissions in high-elevation mountain streams and lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, John T.; Dornblaser, Mark M.; Stanley, Emily H.; Clow, David W.; Striegl, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Inland waters are an important component of the global carbon cycle through transport, storage, and direct emissions of CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere. Despite predictions of high physical gas exchange rates due to turbulent flows and ubiquitous supersaturation of CO2—and perhaps also CH4—patterns of gas emissions are essentially undocumented for high mountain ecosystems. Much like other headwater networks around the globe, we found that high-elevation streams in Rocky Mountain National Park, USA, were supersaturated with CO2 during the growing season and were net sources to the atmosphere. CO2concentrations in lakes, on the other hand, tended to be less than atmospheric equilibrium during the open water season. CO2 and CH4 emissions from the aquatic conduit were relatively small compared to many parts of the globe. Irrespective of the physical template for high gas exchange (high k), we found evidence of CO2 source limitation to mountain streams during the growing season, which limits overall CO2emissions. Our results suggest a reduced importance of aquatic ecosystems for carbon cycling in high-elevation landscapes having limited soil development and high CO2 consumption via mineral weathering.

  19. Airborne remote sensing and in situ measurements of atmospheric CO2 to quantify point source emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krings, Thomas; Neininger, Bruno; Gerilowski, Konstantin; Krautwurst, Sven; Buchwitz, Michael; Burrows, John P.; Lindemann, Carsten; Ruhtz, Thomas; Schüttemeyer, Dirk; Bovensmann, Heinrich

    2018-02-01

    Reliable techniques to infer greenhouse gas emission rates from localised sources require accurate measurement and inversion approaches. In this study airborne remote sensing observations of CO2 by the MAMAP instrument and airborne in situ measurements are used to infer emission estimates of carbon dioxide released from a cluster of coal-fired power plants. The study area is complex due to sources being located in close proximity and overlapping associated carbon dioxide plumes. For the analysis of in situ data, a mass balance approach is described and applied, whereas for the remote sensing observations an inverse Gaussian plume model is used in addition to a mass balance technique. A comparison between methods shows that results for all methods agree within 10 % or better with uncertainties of 10 to 30 % for cases in which in situ measurements were made for the complete vertical plume extent. The computed emissions for individual power plants are in agreement with results derived from emission factors and energy production data for the time of the overflight.

  20. Effluent release limits, sources and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindell, G.E.

    1977-01-01

    Objectives of radiation protection in relation to releases. Environmental transfer models for radionuclides. Relationship between releases, environmental levels and doses to persons. Establishment of release limits: Limits based on critical population group concept critical pathway analysis and identification of critical group. Limits based on optimization of radiation protection individual dose limits, collective doses and dose commitments 1) differential cost benefit analysis 2) authorized and operational limits taking account of future exposures. Monitoring of releases to the environment: Objectives of effluent monitoring. Typical sources and composition of effluents; design and operation of monitoring programmes; recording and reporting of monitoring results; complementary environmental monitoring. (orig.) [de

  1. Application of secondary ion emission to impurity control in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauss, A.R.; Gruen, D.M.

    1979-01-01

    The extent to which high Z impurities enter the plasma of a magnetic confinement fusion device depends on the kinetic energy, angle of emission, and very importantly, the charge state of the ejected material. We have been studying both the fundamental process of secondary ion emission and possible techniques for producing surfaces which give rise to high ion fractions during sputtering, with a view to assessing the potential of this approach to impurity control in tokamaks. By carefully choosing materials exposed to fusion plasmas and by properly modifying the surface it may be possible to insure that nearly all the impurities are ejected as ions. As long as certain gas blanket configurations are avoided and especially if a divertor is used, it should then be possible to remove the impurities before they reach the plasma. The relative merits of a variety of materials are considered with regard to this application

  2. 10 CFR 36.31 - Control of source movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control of source movement. 36.31 Section 36.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR IRRADIATORS Design and Performance Requirements for Irradiators § 36.31 Control of source movement. (a) The mechanism that moves the...

  3. Evaluation of the Inductive Coupling between Equivalent Emission Sources of Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Ferber

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The electromagnetic interference between electronic systems or between their components influences the overall performance. It is important thus to model these interferences in order to optimize the position of the components of an electronic system. In this paper, a methodology to construct the equivalent model of magnetic field sources is proposed. It is based on the multipole expansion, and it represents the radiated emission of generic structures in a spherical reference frame. Experimental results for different kinds of sources are presented illustrating our method.

  4. X-ray spectral models of Galactic bulge sources - the emission-line factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrtilek, S.D.; Swank, J.H.; Kallman, T.R.

    1988-01-01

    Current difficulties in finding unique and physically meaningful models for the X-ray spectra of Galactic bulge sources are exacerbated by the presence of strong, variable emission and absorption features that are not resolved by the instruments observing them. Nine Einstein solid state spectrometer (SSS) observations of five Galactic bulge sources are presented for which relatively high resolution objective grating spectrometer (OGS) data have been published. It is found that in every case the goodness of fit of simple models to SSS data is greatly improved by adding line features identified in the OGS that cannot be resolved by the SSS but nevertheless strongly influence the spectra observed by SSS. 32 references

  5. An efficient closed-form solution for acoustic emission source location in three-dimensional structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xibing Li

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient closed-form solution (ECS for acoustic emission(AE source location in three-dimensional structures using time difference of arrival (TDOA measurements from N receivers, N ≥ 6. The nonlinear location equations of TDOA are simplified to linear equations. The unique analytical solution of AE sources for unknown velocity system is obtained by solving the linear equations. The proposed ECS method successfully solved the problems of location errors resulting from measured deviations of velocity as well as the existence and multiplicity of solutions induced by calculations of square roots in existed close-form methods.

  6. Impact source location on composite CNG storage tank using acoustic emission energy based signal mapping method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Byeong Hee; Yoon, Dong Jin; Park, Chun Soo [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Center for Safety Measurement, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Shin [Dept. of Mechanical Design Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Acoustic emission (AE) is one of the most powerful techniques for detecting damages and identify damage location during operations. However, in case of the source location technique, there is some limitation in conventional AE technology, because it strongly depends on wave speed in the corresponding structures having heterogeneous composite materials. A compressed natural gas(CNG) pressure vessel is usually made of carbon fiber composite outside of vessel for the purpose of strengthening. In this type of composite material, locating impact damage sources exactly using conventional time arrival method is difficult. To overcome this limitation, this study applied the previously developed Contour D/B map technique to four types of CNG storage tanks to identify the source location of damages caused by external shock. The results of the identification of the source location for different types were compared.

  7. The potentional of renewable energy sources for greenhouse gases emissions reduction in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedinec Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As European Union (EU candidate country, Macedonia is in the process of adoption of the EU strategic energy policies, harmonization of the national legislation with the EU legislation and defining the respective national goals. In this regard, the government has recently adopted a National Strategy for Utilization of Renewable Energy Sources (RES, prepared by ICEIM-MANU. The main goal of this paper is to assess the potential for greenhouse gases (GHG emissions reduction by implementation of 21%-RES-scenarios from the Strategy. The corresponding emissions reduction is calculated against the baseline (reference scenario developed within the Second National Communication on Climate Change. Furthermore, all potential RES technologies are analyzed from economic aspect and combined in a form of emissions reduction cost curve, displaying the total marginal cost of the GHG emissions reduction by RES. Finally, on the bases of the environmental and economic effectiveness of the considered RES technologies, as well as taking into account the country specific barriers, the priority actions for GHG emissions reduction are identified.

  8. Electron transfer in silicon-bridged adjacent chromophores: the source for blue-green emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayda, Malgorzata; Angulo, Gonzalo; Hug, Gordon L; Ludwiczak, Monika; Karolczak, Jerzy; Koput, Jacek; Dobkowski, Jacek; Marciniak, Bronislaw

    2017-05-10

    Si-Bridged chromophores have been proposed as sources for blue-green emission in several technological applications. The origin of this dual emission is to be found in an internal charge transfer reaction. The current work is an attempt to describe the details of these processes in these kinds of substances, and to design a molecular architecture to improve their performance. Nuclear motions essential for intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) can involve processes from twisted internal moieties to dielectric relaxation of the solvent. To address these issues, we studied ICT between adjacent chromophores in a molecular compound containing N-isopropylcarbazole (CBL) and 1,4-divinylbenzene (DVB) linked by a dimethylsilylene bridge. In nonpolar solvents emission arises from the local excited state (LE) of carbazole whereas in solvents of higher polarity dual emission was detected (LE + ICT). The CT character of the additional emission band was concluded from the linear dependence of the fluorescence maxima on solvent polarity. Electron transfer from CBL to DVB resulted in a large excited-state dipole moment (37.3 D) as determined from a solvatochromic plot and DFT calculations. Steady-state and picosecond time-resolved fluorescence experiments in butyronitrile (293-173 K) showed that the ICT excited state arises from the LE state of carbazole. These results were analyzed and found to be in accordance with an adiabatic version of Marcus theory including solvent relaxation.

  9. Full energy chain analysis of greenhouse gas emissions from different energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vate, J.F. van de

    1996-01-01

    The field of work of the Advisory Group Meeting/Workshop, i.e. full-energy chain emissions of greenhouse gases, is defined, and its environment, i.e. the Earth Summit -the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio-, is discussed. It is inferred that countries that ratified the Earth Summit's Convention on Climate Change have committed themselves to lower the greenhouse gas emissions from their energy use, and that this can be done most effectively by accounting in energy planning for the full-energy chain emissions of all greenhouse gases. The scatter in literature values of greenhouse gas emission factors of the full energy chain of individual energy sources is discussed. The scatter among others is due to different analytical methods, data bases and system boundaries, and due to neglect of the non-CO 2 greenhouse gases and professional biases. Generic values for greenhouse gas emission factors of energy and materials use are proposed. (author). 10 refs, 2 tabs

  10. An Investigation on the Effects of Ship Sourced Emissions in Izmir Port, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Saraçoğlu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Maritime transportation is a major source of climate change and air pollution. Shipping emissions cause severe impacts on health and environment. These effects of emissions are emerged especially in territorial waters, inland seas, canals, straits, bays, and port regions. In this paper, exhaust gas emissions from ships in Izmir Port, which is one of the main ports in Turkey, are calculated by the ship activity-based methodology. Total emissions from ships in the port is estimated as 1923 ton y−1 for , 1405 ton y−1 for SO2, 82753 ton y−1 for CO2, ton y−1 for HC, and 165 ton y−1 for PM in the year 2007. These emissions are classified regarding operation modes and types of ships. The results are compared with the other studies including amounts of exhaust pollutants generated by ships. According to the findings, it is clear that the ships calling the Izmir Port are important air polluting causes of the Izmir city and its surroundings.

  11. An Investigation on the Effects of Ship Sourced Emissions in Izmir Port, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraçoğlu, Halil; Kılıç, Alper

    2013-01-01

    Maritime transportation is a major source of climate change and air pollution. Shipping emissions cause severe impacts on health and environment. These effects of emissions are emerged especially in territorial waters, inland seas, canals, straits, bays, and port regions. In this paper, exhaust gas emissions from ships in Izmir Port, which is one of the main ports in Turkey, are calculated by the ship activity-based methodology. Total emissions from ships in the port is estimated as 1923 ton y−1 for NOx, 1405 ton y−1 for SO2, 82753 ton y−1 for CO2, ton y−1 for HC, and 165 ton y−1 for PM in the year 2007. These emissions are classified regarding operation modes and types of ships. The results are compared with the other studies including amounts of exhaust pollutants generated by ships. According to the findings, it is clear that the ships calling the Izmir Port are important air polluting causes of the Izmir city and its surroundings. PMID:24198720

  12. Computer aided control of the Bonn Penning polarized ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, N.W.; VonRossen, P.; Eversheim, P.D.; Busch, R.

    1984-01-01

    A CBM computer system is described which has been set up to control the Bonn Polarized Ion Source. The controlling program, besides setting and logging parameters, performs an optimization of the ion source output. A free definable figure of merit, being composed of the current of the ionizer and its variance, has proven to be an effective means in directing the source optimization. The performance that has been reached during the first successful tests is reported

  13. Normal and anomalous diffusion in fluctuations of dust concentration nearby emission source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczurek, Andrzej; Maciejewska, Monika; Wyłomańska, Agnieszka; Sikora, Grzegorz; Balcerek, Michał; Teuerle, Marek

    2018-02-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is an important component of air. Nowadays, major attention is payed to fine dust. It has considerable environmental impact, including adverse effect on human health. One of important issues regarding PM is the temporal variation of its concentration. The variation contains information about factors influencing this quantity in time. The work focuses on the character of PM concentration dynamics indoors, in the vicinity of emission source. The objective was to recognize between the homogeneous or heterogeneous dynamics. The goal was achieved by detecting normal and anomalous diffusion in fluctuations of PM concentration. For this purpose we used anomalous diffusion exponent, β which was derived from Mean Square Displacement (MSD) analysis. The information about PM concentration dynamics may be used to design sampling strategy, which serves to attain representative information about PM behavior in time. The data analyzed in this work was collected from single-point PM concentration monitoring in the vicinity of seven emission sources in industrial environment. In majority of cases we observed heterogeneous character of PM concentration dynamics. It confirms the complexity of interactions between the emission sources and indoor environment. This result also votes against simplistic approach to PM concentration measurement indoors, namely their occasional character, short measurement periods and long term averaging.

  14. Radiological control in fires involving radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, J.O.A.; Coelho, C.P.

    1984-01-01

    The copies used during the chatter by techniques from CDTN in the I Mineiro Symposium of Fire Engineering, are presented. The chatter was based on emergency radiation control course, given by CDTN. Basic concepts, such as nuclear physics fundaments, radiation nature and detection, radiation protection and practical aspects of radiological fire emergency, were enphasized. (M.C.K.) [pt

  15. Identification of major sources controlling groundwater chemistry ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The study area Mettur forms an important industrial town situated NW of Salem district. The geology of the area is mainly composed of Archean crystalline metamorphic complexes. To iden- tify the major process activated for controlling the groundwater chemistry an attempt has been made by collecting a total of 46 ...

  16. The Development and Application of Spatiotemporal Metrics for the Characterization of Point Source FFCO2 Emissions and Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roten, D.; Hogue, S.; Spell, P.; Marland, E.; Marland, G.

    2017-12-01

    There is an increasing role for high resolution, CO2 emissions inventories across multiple arenas. The breadth of the applicability of high-resolution data is apparent from their use in atmospheric CO2 modeling, their potential for validation of space-based atmospheric CO2 remote-sensing, and the development of climate change policy. This work focuses on increasing our understanding of the uncertainty in these inventories and the implications on their downstream use. The industrial point sources of emissions (power generating stations, cement manufacturing plants, paper mills, etc.) used in the creation of these inventories often have robust emissions characteristics, beyond just their geographic location. Physical parameters of the emission sources such as number of exhaust stacks, stack heights, stack diameters, exhaust temperatures, and exhaust velocities, as well as temporal variability and climatic influences can be important in characterizing emissions. Emissions from large point sources can behave much differently than emissions from areal sources such as automobiles. For many applications geographic location is not an adequate characterization of emissions. This work demonstrates the sensitivities of atmospheric models to the physical parameters of large point sources and provides a methodology for quantifying parameter impacts at multiple locations across the United States. The sensitivities highlight the importance of location and timing and help to highlight potential aspects that can guide efforts to reduce uncertainty in emissions inventories and increase the utility of the models.

  17. Soil emissions of gaseous reactive nitrogen from North American arid lands: an overlooked source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, J. P.; McCalley, C. K.; Strahm, B. D.

    2008-12-01

    The biosphere-atmosphere exchange and transformation of nitrogen has important ramifications for both terrestrial biogeochemistry and atmospheric chemistry. Several important mechanisms within this process (e.g., photochemistry, nitrogen deposition, aerosol formation) are strongly influenced by the emission of reactive nitrogen compounds from the Earth's surface. Therefore, a quantification of emission sources is a high priority for future conceptual understanding. One source largely overlooked in most global treatments are the soil emissions from arid and semi-arid landscapes worldwide. Approximately 35-40% of global terrestrial land cover is aridland and emission of reactive nitrogen from soils in these regions has the potential to strongly influence both regional and global biogeochemistry. Here we present estimates of soil emission of oxidized (NO, total NOy including NO2 and HONO) and reduced (NH3) forms of reactive nitrogen from two North American arid regions: the Mojave Desert and the Colorado Plateau. Soil fluxes in these regions are highly dependent on soil moisture conditions. Soil moisture is largely driven by pulsed rain events with fluxes increasing 20-40 fold after a rain event. Using field measurements made across seasons under an array of moisture conditions, precipitation records, and spatially explicit cover type information we have estimated annual estimates for the Mojave Desert (1.5 ± 0.7 g N ha-1 yr-1), the shale derived (1.4 ± 0.9 g N ha-1 yr-1), and sandy soil derived (2.8 ± 1.2 g N ha-1 yr-1) regions of the Colorado Plateau. The chemical composition of soil emissions varies significantly both with season and soil moisture content. Emissions from dry soils tend to be dominated by ammonia and forms of NOy other than NO. In contrast, NO becomes a dominant portion of the flux post rain events (~30% of the total flux). This variability in chemical form has significant implications for the tropospheric fate of the emitted N. NO and other

  18. Acid deposition: sources, effects and controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhurst, J.W.S. (ed.)

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this collection of 19 papers is to review our understanding of the cause and effect of acid deposition, to present new data that assist in the provision of a fuller understanding of cause, process and implication and thus to assist in defining the research agenda of the future. The materials presented are European in perspective, drawn from the Federal Republic of Germany, Hungary, Norway, Sweden and the United Kingdom. The current position as regards deposition monitoring, ecological effects and control technologies is presented in five sections: acid deposition monitoring, freshwater acidification, soils and forest systems, structural materials and control technologies. Each section is introduced by an overview paper outlining the contemporary understanding and identifying areas requiring future work. Specialist papers presenting new data or re-interpretations of existing information comprise the remainder of each section. Four of the papers have been abstracted separately.

  19. Other Solid Waste Incineration (OSWI) Units Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources and Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains a November 2005, and and November 2006 fact sheet with information regarding the final and proposed NSPS and Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources for OSWI. This document provides a summary of the information for this regulation

  20. Sewage Sludge Incinerators: Final Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources and Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources Final Rule Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains a February 2011 fact sheet with information regarding the final NSPS and Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources for Sewage Sludge Incinerators (SSI). This document provides a summary of the information for these regulations.

  1. Software architecture considerations for ion source control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, J.W.

    1997-09-01

    General characteristics of distributed control system software tools are examined from the perspective of ion source control system requirements. Emphasis is placed on strategies for building extensible, distributed systems in which the ion source element is one component of a larger system. Vsystem, a commercial software tool kit from Vista Control Systems was utilized extensively in the control system upgrade of the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility. Part of the control system is described and the characteristics of Vsystem are examined and compared with those of EPICS, the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System

  2. 40 CFR 1060.102 - What permeation emission control requirements apply for fuel lines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What permeation emission control... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EVAPORATIVE EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD AND STATIONARY EQUIPMENT Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1060.102 What permeation...

  3. 40 CFR 1060.103 - What permeation emission control requirements apply for fuel tanks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What permeation emission control... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EVAPORATIVE EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD AND STATIONARY EQUIPMENT Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1060.103 What permeation...

  4. 40 CFR 270.315 - What air emissions control information must I keep at my facility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What air emissions control information... Facility § 270.315 What air emissions control information must I keep at my facility? If you have air emission control equipment subject to 40 CFR part 264, subpart CC, you must keep the following information...

  5. Globular clusters as a source of X-ray emission from the neighbourhood of M87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabian, A.C.; Pringle, J.E.; Rees, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that the X-ray emission from globular clusters may be attributable to accretion on to compact objects, the accreting material being supplied from binary companions, or gas trapped in the potential well of the cluster. Counts of objects in the vicinity of the M87 have revealed that it has an extensive halo of globular clusters, the number of which may exceed 10,000 within a radius of 23 arc min. Most of these clusters may be explicable as a population effect, and the similarity of their optical properties to those of cluster in our own Galaxy suggests that they may also contain X-ray sources. The brighter globular clusters in M87 may, however, be substantially more X-ray luminous, and there may be proportionally more gas available in globular clusters in M87 compared with our Galaxy. The average X-ray luminosity of individual globular clusters may be of the order of 10 38 erg/sec., which raises the possibility that the integrated globular cluster emission may account for a substantial fraction of the X-ray emission observed from the region of M87. In support of this it is noted that the extended X-ray emission from the Virgo cluster is centered on M87, which lies approximately 45 arc min from the cluster centroid, and it is expected that the general X-ray emission from the globular cluster will appear to be smoothly and symmetrically distributed about M87 at moderate spatial resolution. A similar situation may apply to the elliptical galaxy NGC 3311 in Abell 1060 which, as a cluster, has been suggested as the identification for the X-ray source 3 U 1044-40, and it seems possible that that galaxy is surrounded by a similar globular cluster population to that of M87. (U.K.)

  6. Volcanoes as emission sources of atmospheric mercury in the Mediterranean basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara; Mazzolai; Lanzillotta; Nucaro; Pirrone

    2000-10-02

    Emissions from volcanoes, fumaroles and solfataras as well as contributions from widespread geological anomalies could represent an important source of mercury released to the atmosphere in the Mediterranean basin. Volcanoes located in this area (Etna, Stromboli and Vulcano) are the most active in Europe; therefore, it is extremely important to know their mercury contributions to the regional atmospheric budget. Two main methods are used for the evaluation of volcanic mercury flux: a direct determination of the flux (by measuring in the plume) and an indirect one derived from the determination of the Hg/SO2 (or Hg/S) ratio value, as SO2 emissions are constantly monitored by volcanologists. An attempt to estimate mercury flux from the Vulcano volcano and to establish the Hg/S ratio value has been made along three field campaigns carried out in October 1998, in February and May 1999 sampling several fumaroles. Traditional sampling methods were used to collect both total Hg and S. The average Hg/S ratio value resulted to be 1.2 x 10(-7). From the Hg/S value we derived the Hg/SO2 value, and by assuming that all the volcanoes located in this area have the same Hg/SO2 ratio, mercury emissions from Vulcano and Stromboli were estimated to be in the range 1.3-5.5 kg/year and 7.3-76.6 kg/year respectively, while for Etna mercury flux ranged from 61.8 to 536.5 kg/year. Data reported in literature appear to be overestimated (Fitzgerald WF. Mercury emission from volcanos. In: 4th International conference on mercury as a global pollutant, August 4-8 1996, Hamburg, Germany), volcanic mercury emission does not constitute the main natural source of the metal.

  7. Control of inhomogeneous materials strength by method of acoustic emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. В. Носов

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The ambiguous connection between the results of acoustic emission control and the strength of materials makes acoustic-emission diagnosis ineffective and actualizes the problem of strength and metrological heterogeneity. Inhomogeneity is some deviation from a certain norm. The real object is always heterogeneous, homogeneity is an assumption that simplifies the image of the object and the solution of the tasks associated with it. The need to consider heterogeneity is due to the need to clarify a particular task and is a transition to a more complex level of research. Accounting for heterogeneity requires the definition of its type, criterion and method of evaluation. The type of heterogeneity depends on the problem being solved and should be related to the property that determines the function of the real object, the criterion should be informative, and the way of its evaluation is non-destructive. The complexity of predicting the behavior of heterogeneous materials necessitates the modeling of the destructive process that determines the operability, the formulation of the inhomogeneity criterion, the interpretation of the Kaiser effect, as showing inhomogeneity of the phenomenon of non-reproduction of acoustic emission (AE activity upon repeated loading of the examined object.The article gives an example of modeling strength and metrological heterogeneity, analyzes and estimates the informative effect of the Kaiser effect on the danger degree of state of diagnosed object from the positions of the micromechanical model of time dependencies of AE parameters recorded during loading of structural materials and technical objects.

  8. Coherent control of spontaneous emission near a photonic band edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woldeyohannes, Mesfin; John, Sajeev

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate the coherent control of spontaneous emission for a three-level atom located within a photonic band gap (PBG) material, with one resonant frequency near the edge of the PBG. Spontaneous emission from the three-level atom can be totally suppressed or strongly enhanced depending on the relative phase between the steady-state control laser coupling the two upper levels and the pump laser pulse used to create an excited state of the atom in the form of a coherent superposition of the two upper levels. Unlike the free-space case, the steady-state inversion of the atomic system is strongly dependent on the externally prescribed initial conditions. This non-zero steady-state population is achieved by virtue of the localization of light in the vicinity of the emitting atom. It is robust to decoherence effects provided that the Rabi frequency of the control laser field exceeds the rate of dephasing interactions. As a result, such a system may be relevant for a single-atom, phase-sensitive optical memory device on the atomic scale. The protected electric dipole within the PBG provides a basis for a qubit to encode information for quantum computations. A detailed literature survey on the nature, fabrication and applications of PBG materials is presented to provide context for this research. (phd tutorial)

  9. Controlling fugitive dust emissions in material handling operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tooker, G E

    1992-05-01

    The primary mechanism of fugitive dust generation in bulk material handling transfer operations is by dispersion of dust in turbulent air induced to flow with falling or projected material streams. This paper returns to basic theories of particle dynamics and fluid mechanics to quantify the dust generating mechanism by rational analysis. Calculations involving fluid mechanisms are made easier by the availability of the personal computer and the many math manipulating programs. Rational analysis is much more cost effective when estimating collection air volumes to control fugitive emissions; especially in enclosed material handling transfers transporting large volumes of dusty material. Example calculations, using a typical enclosed conveyor-to-conveyor transfer operation are presented to illustrate and highlight the key parameters that determine the magnitude of induced air flow that must be controlled. The methods presented in this paper for estimating collection air volumes apply only enclosed material handling transfers, exhausted to a dust collector. Since some assistance to the control of dust emissions must be given by the material handling transfer chute design, a discussion of good transfer chute design practice is presented. 4 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Regulatory control of radiation sources in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coy, K.

    1998-01-01

    The regulatory programme governing the safe use of radioisotopes in Germany is based on the federal legislation enacted as Atomic Energy Control Act (Atomgesetz) and Radiation Protection Ordinance (Strahlen-schutzverordnung) and its implementation by the competent authorities of the individual states. Despite this highly decentralized infrastructure of enforcement the basic principles of regulations described in this paper such as authorization criteria, conditions imposed as well as depth and intensity of inspection balanced according to the individual radiation hazard involved are harmonized to the greatest possible extent by regular coordination among the competent authorities as well as a series of technical regulations such as standards and guidelines. (author)

  11. The UK market for gaseous emissions control equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    The report analyses the changes in demand for gaseous emissions control equipment in the United Kingdom over the next 5 years. It discusses the factors affecting demand such as legislation reporting of environmental performance, and economic factors. It looks at environmental expenditure by UK industry. Markets are examined, for VOC abatement systems; thermal incinerators; adsorption equipment; catalytic oxidisers; absorption equipment; biological treatments; cryogenic equipment; SO{sub x} abatement equipment; wet FGD; wet dry FGD, dry scrubbers; NOx abatement systems; selective catalytic reduction; and selective non-catalytic reduction. Profiles are given of 16 leading suppliers.

  12. Method of electron emission control in RF guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodak, I.V.; Kushnir, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    The electron emission control method for a RF gun is considered.According to the main idea of the method,the additional resonance system is created in a cathode region where the RF field strength could be varied using the external pulse equipment. The additional resonance system is composed of a coaxial cavity coupled with a RF gun cylindrical cavity via an axial hole. Computed results of radiofrequency and electrodynamic performances of such a two-cavity system and results of the RF gun model pilot study are presented in. Results of particle dynamics simulation are described

  13. Method of electron emission control in RF guns

    CERN Document Server

    Khodak, I V

    2001-01-01

    The electron emission control method for a RF gun is considered.According to the main idea of the method,the additional resonance system is created in a cathode region where the RF field strength could be varied using the external pulse equipment. The additional resonance system is composed of a coaxial cavity coupled with a RF gun cylindrical cavity via an axial hole. Computed results of radiofrequency and electrodynamic performances of such a two-cavity system and results of the RF gun model pilot study are presented in. Results of particle dynamics simulation are described.

  14. The challenges of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution through energy sources: evidence from a panel of developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmat, Ghulam; Zaman, Khalid; Shukui, Tan; Sajjad, Faiza; Khan, Muhammad Azhar; Khan, Muhammad Zahir

    2014-06-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate the long-run relationship between climatic factors (i.e., greenhouse gas emissions, agricultural methane emissions, and industrial nitrous oxide emission), air pollution (i.e., carbon dioxide emissions), and energy sources (i.e., nuclear energy; oil, gas, and coal energy; and fossil fuel energy) in the panel of 35 developed countries (including EU-15, new EU member states, G-7, and other countries) over a period of 1975-2012. In order to achieve this objective, the present study uses sophisticated panel econometric techniques including panel cointegration, panel fully modified OLS (FMOLS), and dynamic OLS (DOLS). The results show that there is a long-run relationship between the variables. Nuclear energy reduces greenhouse gases and carbon emissions; however, the other emissions, i.e., agricultural methane emissions and industrial nitrous oxide, are still to increase during the study period. Electricity production from oil, gas, and coal sources increases the greenhouse gases and carbon emissions; however, the intensity to increase emissions is far less than the intensity to increase emissions through fossil fuel. Policies that reduce emissions of greenhouse gases can simultaneously alter emissions of conventional pollutants that have deleterious effects on human health and the environment.

  15. Production and characterization of 228Th calibration sources with low neutron emission for GERDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudis, L.; Benato, G.; Carconi, P.; Cattadori, C.; De Felice, P.; Eberhardt, K.; Eichler, R.; Petrucci, A.; Tarka, M.; Walter, M.

    2015-12-01

    The GERDA experiment at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) searches for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge. In view of the GERDA Phase II data collection, four new 228Th radioactive sources for the calibration of the germanium detectors enriched in 76Ge have been produced with a new technique, leading to a reduced neutron emission rate from (α, n) reactions. The gamma activities of the sources were determined with a total uncertainty of ~4% using an ultra-low background HPGe detector operated underground at LNGS. The neutron emission rate was determined using a low background LiI(Eu) detector and a 3He counter at LNGS. In both cases, the measured neutron activity is ~10-6 n/(sṡBq), with a reduction of about one order of magnitude with respect to commercially available 228Th sources. Additionally, a specific leak test with a sensitivity to leaks down to ~10 mBq was developed to investigate the tightness of the stainless steel capsules housing the sources after their use in cryogenic environment.

  16. Contribution of electric energy to the process of elimination of low emission sources in Cracow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lach, J.; Mejer, T.; Wybranski, A. [Power Distribution Plant, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    At present energy supply belongs to the most important global problems. A significant part of energy is consumed for residential heating purposes. Depending on climatic conditions, fuel distribution and the level of technological development, the contribution of these purposes ranges between ca. 50% (Poland) and ca. 12% (Spain). The power engineering structure in Poland is based almost exclusively upon solid fuels, i.e. hard and brown coal. Chemical compounds (carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) produced in combustion process influence negatively the natural environment. The contribution of residential heating in this negative effect is rather significant. Because of the fact, that the resources of fossil fuels (the most important source of energy at present) are limited and their influence on natural environment is negative, efforts are made to find out more effective ways of energy consumption and to reduce the pollutant emission from heating sources. This problem is a topical issue in Cracow, especially during the heating season because the coal-fired stoves situated in the central part of the town remain the most important source of pollutant emission. These sources cause serious menace to the health of inhabitants; furthermore the pollutants destroy Cracow monuments entered in the UNESCO world list of human heritage.

  17. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde exposure mitigation in US residences: In-home measurements of ventilation control and source control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hult, Erin L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Willem, Henry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Phillip N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hotchi, Toshifumi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Russell, Marion L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Measurements were taken in new US residences to assess the extent to which ventilation and source control can mitigate formaldehyde exposure. Increasing ventilation consistently lowered indoor formaldehyde concentrations. However, at a reference air exchange rate of 0.35 h-1, increasing ventilation was up to 60% less effective than would be predicted if the emission rate were constant. This is consistent with formaldehyde emission rates decreasing as air concentrations increase, as observed in chamber studies. In contrast, measurements suggest acetaldehyde emission was independent of ventilation rate. To evaluate the effectiveness of source control, formaldehyde concentrations were measured in Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certified/Indoor airPLUS homes constructed with materials certified to have low emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOC). At a reference air exchange rate of 0.35 h-1, and adjusting for home age, temperature and relative humidity, formaldehyde concentrations in homes built with low-VOC materials were 42% lower on average than in reference new homes with conventional building materials. Without adjustment, concentrations were 27% lower in the low-VOC homes. The mean and standard deviation of formaldehyde concentration were 33 μg m-3 and 22 μg m-3 for low-VOC homes and 45 μg m-3 and 30 μg m-3 for conventional.

  18. 75 FR 31317 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Area Source Standards for Paints and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... & Coating Manufacturing.. 325510 Area source facilities engaged in mixing pigments, solvents, and binders... repellant coatings for concrete and masonry. Adhesive Manufacturing......... 325520 Area source facilities... various areas of air pollution control. IV. Why are we amending the rule? Our intention in this area...

  19. Evaluation of non-enteric sources of non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC) emissions from dairies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Myeong Y.; Beene, Matt; Ashkan, Shawn; Krauter, Charles; Hasson, Alam S.

    2010-02-01

    Dairies are believed to be a major source of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in Central California, but few studies have characterized VOC emissions from these facilities. In this work, samples were collected from six sources of VOCs (Silage, Total Mixed Rations, Lagoons, Flushing Lanes, Open Lots and Bedding) at six dairies in Central California during 2006-2007 using emission isolation flux chambers and polished stainless steel canisters. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/flame ionization detection. Forty-eight VOCs were identified and quantified in the samples, including alcohols, carbonyls, alkanes and aromatics. Silage and Total Mixed Rations are the dominant sources of VOCs tested, with ethanol as the major VOC present. Emissions from the remaining sources are two to three orders of magnitude smaller, with carbonyls and aromatics as the main components. The data suggest that animal feed rather than animal waste are the main source of non-enteric VOC emissions from dairies.

  20. Statistical atmospheric inversion of local gas emissions by coupling the tracer release technique and local-scale transport modelling: a test case with controlled methane emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ars

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a new concept for estimating the pollutant emission rates of a site and its main facilities using a series of atmospheric measurements across the pollutant plumes. This concept combines the tracer release method, local-scale atmospheric transport modelling and a statistical atmospheric inversion approach. The conversion between the controlled emission and the measured atmospheric concentrations of the released tracer across the plume places valuable constraints on the atmospheric transport. This is used to optimise the configuration of the transport model parameters and the model uncertainty statistics in the inversion system. The emission rates of all sources are then inverted to optimise the match between the concentrations simulated with the transport model and the pollutants' measured atmospheric concentrations, accounting for the transport model uncertainty. In principle, by using atmospheric transport modelling, this concept does not strongly rely on the good colocation between the tracer and pollutant sources and can be used to monitor multiple sources within a single site, unlike the classical tracer release technique. The statistical inversion framework and the use of the tracer data for the configuration of the transport and inversion modelling systems should ensure that the transport modelling errors are correctly handled in the source estimation. The potential of this new concept is evaluated with a relatively simple practical implementation based on a Gaussian plume model and a series of inversions of controlled methane point sources using acetylene as a tracer gas. The experimental conditions are chosen so that they are suitable for the use of a Gaussian plume model to simulate the atmospheric transport. In these experiments, different configurations of methane and acetylene point source locations are tested to assess the efficiency of the method in comparison to the classic tracer release technique in coping

  1. Statistical atmospheric inversion of local gas emissions by coupling the tracer release technique and local-scale transport modelling: a test case with controlled methane emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ars, Sébastien; Broquet, Grégoire; Yver Kwok, Camille; Roustan, Yelva; Wu, Lin; Arzoumanian, Emmanuel; Bousquet, Philippe

    2017-12-01

    This study presents a new concept for estimating the pollutant emission rates of a site and its main facilities using a series of atmospheric measurements across the pollutant plumes. This concept combines the tracer release method, local-scale atmospheric transport modelling and a statistical atmospheric inversion approach. The conversion between the controlled emission and the measured atmospheric concentrations of the released tracer across the plume places valuable constraints on the atmospheric transport. This is used to optimise the configuration of the transport model parameters and the model uncertainty statistics in the inversion system. The emission rates of all sources are then inverted to optimise the match between the concentrations simulated with the transport model and the pollutants' measured atmospheric concentrations, accounting for the transport model uncertainty. In principle, by using atmospheric transport modelling, this concept does not strongly rely on the good colocation between the tracer and pollutant sources and can be used to monitor multiple sources within a single site, unlike the classical tracer release technique. The statistical inversion framework and the use of the tracer data for the configuration of the transport and inversion modelling systems should ensure that the transport modelling errors are correctly handled in the source estimation. The potential of this new concept is evaluated with a relatively simple practical implementation based on a Gaussian plume model and a series of inversions of controlled methane point sources using acetylene as a tracer gas. The experimental conditions are chosen so that they are suitable for the use of a Gaussian plume model to simulate the atmospheric transport. In these experiments, different configurations of methane and acetylene point source locations are tested to assess the efficiency of the method in comparison to the classic tracer release technique in coping with the distances

  2. Rate Proposal for Remuneration of Air Pollutants Emissions From Stationary Sources Located in Bogota D.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Herrera Torres

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this project is to develop a methodological proposal for the establishment of the retributive rate for the direct use of the atmosphere as the receptor of pollutant emissions that come from stationary resources on Bogotá D.C. By means of the emissions from stationary sources inventory and the air quality analysis, the pollutant that are emitted by the industries and the ones that are regulated by the network observations of the were identified selecting the particulated matter (PM10, sulfur oxides (SOx, and nitrogen oxides (NOx as the atmospheric pollutants that should be the object of payment in the retributive rate. Besides the selection of the pollutants that should be in the payment, the analysis of the retributive rate structure was made witch was based on the description or four key elements the generated fact, the tax base, the passive subject, and the fee of the rate. taking into account the social costs which are related to the investment being made by the district for the treatment of patients that present acute respiratory diseases ERA´s, associated and the costs of program control and monitoring of the air quality in Bogotá, the tariffs of the payment of the retributive rate were redefined in 281 $/Kg for the PM10, 2816 $/kg for the SOX and 2866 $/kg for NOX. Finally a new model of the payment was established, which is the result of the multiplication of the respective tariff for each of the pollutants that were selected as object of payment, expressed in ($/kg times, the charge of the pollutants emitted by the source expressed in (kg/ day.times the total number of days of the operation of the source emissions in a year.

  3. Analysis of the outlook for using narrow-band spontaneous emission sources for atmospheric air purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyarchuk, K A; Karelin, A V; Shirokov, R V

    2003-01-01

    The outlook for using narrow-band spontaneous emission sources for purification of smoke gases from sulphur and nitrogen oxides is demonstrated by calculations based on a nonstationary kinetic model of the N 2 - O 2 - H 2 O - CO 2 - SO 2 mixture. The dependences of the mixture purification efficiency on the UV source power at different wavelengths, the exposure time, and the mixture temperature are calculated. It is shown that the radiation sources proposed in the paper will provide better purification of waste gases in the atmosphere. The most promising is a KrCl* lamp emitting an average power of no less than 100 W at 222 nm. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  4. A Practical Method of Acoustic Emission Source Location in Anisotropic Composite Laminates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Kon; Kang, Yong Kyu; Kwon, Oh Yang [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-15

    Since the velocity is dependent on the fiber orientation in anisotropic composites, the application of traditional acoustic emission (AE) source location techniques based on the constant velocity to composite structures has been practically impossible. The anisotropy makes the source location procedure complicated and deteriorates the accuracy of the location. In this study, we have divided the region of interest(ROI) into a set of finite elements, taken each element as a virtual source, and calculated the arrival time differences between sensors by using the velocities at every degree from 0 to 90. The calculated and the experimentally measured values of the arrival time difference aye then compared to minimize the location error. The results from two different materials, namely AA6061-T6 and CFRP(uni-directional; UD, [0]{sub 32}4 ) laminate confirmed the practical usefulness of the proposed method

  5. A probabilistic framework for acoustic emission source localization in plate-like structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehghan Niri, E; Salamone, S

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a probabilistic approach for acoustic emission (AE) source localization in isotropic plate-like structures based on an extended Kalman filter (EKF). The proposed approach consists of two main stages. During the first stage, time-of-flight (TOF) measurements of Lamb waves are carried out by a continuous wavelet transform (CWT), accounting for systematic errors due to the Heisenberg uncertainty; the second stage uses an EKF to iteratively estimate the AE source location and the wave velocity. The advantages of the proposed algorithm over the traditional methods include the capability of: (1) taking into account uncertainties in TOF measurements and wave velocity and (2) efficiently fusing multi-sensor data to perform AE source localization. The performance of the proposed approach is validated through pencil-lead breaks performed on an aluminum plate at systematic grid locations. The plate was instrumented with an array of four piezoelectric transducers in two different configurations. (paper)

  6. Sources of variation in δ13C of fossil fuel emissions in Salt Lake City, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, S.E.; Pataki, D.E.; Ehleringer, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    The isotopic composition of fossil fuels is an important component of many studies of C sources and sinks based on atmospheric measurements of CO 2 . In C budget studies, the isotopic composition of crude petroleum and CH 4 are often used as a proxy for the isotopic composition of CO 2 emissions from combustion. In this study, the C isotope composition (δ 13 C) of exhaust from the major fossil fuel emission sources in Salt Lake City, USA, was characterized with 159 measurements of vehicle exhaust of various types and eight measurements of residential furnace exhaust. These two sources were found to be isotopically distinct, and differed from global-scale estimates based on average values for crude petroleum and CH 4 . Vehicle-specific factors such as engine load and operation time had no effect on δ 13 C of vehicle exhaust. A small difference was found between the mean δ 13 C of vehicle exhaust collected randomly from different vehicles and the mean δ 13 C of gasoline collected from multiple fueling stations representing major gasoline distributors in Salt Lake City and the surrounding area. However, a paired comparison of δ 13 C of exhaust and gasoline for six different vehicles did not show any consistent C isotope fractionation during vehicle combustion. The mean δ 13 C of crude petroleum processed for local distribution differed slightly from refined gasoline collected at multiple fueling stations, but time lags between processing and transportation cannot be ruled out as an uncontrollable contributing factor. Measured isotope ratios were then combined with fuel consumption statistics to predict the annual cycle of δ 13 C of fossil fuel emissions for the Salt Lake City metropolitan area. The results showed that the isotopic composition of CO 2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion varied by almost 3 per mille over the course of the 2002 calendar year. This study illustrates that on a regional scale, the isotopic composition of fossil fuel emissions shows

  7. Household Solar Photovoltaics: Supplier of Marginal Abatement, or Primary Source of Low-Emission Power?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Palmer

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available With declining system costs and assuming a short energy payback period, photovoltaics (PV should, at face value, be able to make a meaningful contribution to reducing the emission intensity of Australia’s electricity system. However, solar is an intermittent power source and households remain completely dependent on a “less than green” electricity grid for reliable electricity. Further, much of the energy impact of PV occurs outside of the conventional boundaries of PV life-cycle analyses (LCA. This paper examines these competing observations and explores the broader impacts of a high penetration of household PV using Melbourne, Victoria as a reference. It concludes that in a grid dominated by unsequestered coal and gas, PV provides a legitimate source of emission abatement at high, but declining costs, with the potential for network and peak demand support. It may be technically possible to integrate a high penetration of PV, but the economic and energy cost of accommodating high-penetration PV erodes much of the benefits. Future developments in PV, storage, and integration technologies may allow PV to take on a greater long term role, but in the time horizon usually discussed in climate policy, a large-scale expansion of household PV may hinder rather than assist deep cuts to the emission intensity of Australia’s electricity system.

  8. Quaternary deposits and weathered bedrock material as a source of dangerous radon emissions in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petersell Valter

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The risk of dangerous radon emissions in Estonia is high, being among the highest in Europe. In almost 33 per cent of Estonian land area, the content of radon in soil-contained air exceeds the safe limit for unrestricted construction (50 kBq/m3. In such high radon-risk areas the concentration of radon in soil-contained air ranges from 50 to 400 kBq/m3, in a few cases reaching up to 2,100 kBq/m3 exceeding the permitted level for residential areas. The situation is particularly serious in the northernmost part of the country, where uranium-rich graptolite argillite (Dictyonema shale and the Obolus phosphorite are close to ground surface and their particles are constituent parts of Quaternary deposits. Radon emissions from bedrock have been investigated in detail, but to date Quaternary strata as a source of radon emissions are poorly studied. According to our measurements the highest concentrations of radon are related to tills containing clasts and fines of graptolite argillite and phosphorite. Glacial deposits include also granitoidal material, containing U, Th and K, which have been transported by glaciers from the outcrop areas of crystalline basement rocks in Finland and the Gulf of Finland. Due to weathering, outwash and repeated redeposition other genetic types are poorer in radioactive elements and they are weaker sources of radon.

  9. National inventory of anhyd ric carbonic emissions providing of fuels consumption as energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Convention of the United Nations about Climatic Change, carried out in 1992, and whose ratification this being considerate d at level Parliament in the Republica Oriental del Uruguay, it has as objective to achieve the stabilization of the concentrations of gases of effect hot house in the atmosphere at a level that impedes interferences dangerous antropogenias. The National Direction of environment has carried out and Inventory of the Emissions of gas carbonic anhydride in the execution of the arisen commitments of the mentioned Convention. It being this the first step for the realization of a national inventory, which will not include the rest of the gases of effect hothouse controlled by the Protocols of Montreal. The inventory of the emissions carried out by the Division of Global and Regional Matters, it has been carried out for each one of the years understood in the period from 1987 to 1992 being studied the contribution of each sector of the national activity in the Emissions of carbonic anhydride.The results show that the total emissions estimated for Uruguay reach only the 6655 gigagrames of annual for the year 1992, being a light increase of the emission values among the years 1989 at 1992

  10. The emission function of ground-based light sources: State of the art and research challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano Lamphar, Héctor Antonio

    2018-05-01

    To understand the night sky radiance generated by the light emissions of urbanised areas, different researchers are currently proposing various theoretical approaches. The distribution of the radiant intensity as a function of the zenith angle is one of the most unknown properties on modelling skyglow. This is due to the collective effects of the artificial radiation emitted from the ground-based light sources. The emission function is a key property in characterising the sky brightness under arbitrary conditions, therefore it is required by modellers, environmental engineers, urban planners, light pollution researchers, and experimentalists who study the diffuse light of the night sky. As a matter of course, the emission function considers the public lighting system, which is in fact the main generator of the skyglow. Still, another class of light-emitting devices are gaining importance since their overuse and the urban sprawl of recent years. This paper will address the importance of the emission function in modelling skyglow and the factors involved in its characterization. On this subject, the author's intention is to organise, integrate, and evaluate previously published research in order to state the progress of current research toward clarifying this topic.

  11. Control of sealed sources and equipments used in gammagraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahyun, A.; Sordi, G.-M.A.A.; Biazzini Filho, F.L.

    1988-01-01

    The Radiation Protection Department of the IPEN-CNEN/SP, in 1987, formed a section incharged to control all radioactive material: a) received by the IPEN-CNEN/SP; b) produced by the IPEN-CNEN/SP; c) delivered from the IPEN-CNEN/SP. The aim of this section is to maintain a permanent control of all radioactive sources movement got at the IPEN-CNEN/SP. This control is performed with a microcomputer, trademark MICRODIGITAL, model TK3000 //e, 256 KBytes of memory, utilizing the TOTALWORKS program. This program permits to have the origin, characteristics and address of the radioactive sources, its sites in the IPEN, its uses, etc. Already we have put in the microcomputer, the control of the sealed sources produced used in nondestructive test, the inspection control of the gamagraphy irradiator and the control of the depleted sources. The next step is to introduce in the computer the inspection of the remote control of the irradiator. The aim of this paper is to describe the control program that was already put on. This radioactive material control was started with the sealed sources used in gamagraphy because we believe that is the field with the most likelihood of accident in the population, and therefore it's that need the most hard control about the site and the performance of the irradiation facility. (author) [pt

  12. Using air quality modeling to study source-receptor relationships between nitrogen oxides emissions and ozone exposures over the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Daniel Q; Muller, Nicholas Z; Kan, Haidong; Mendelsohn, Robert O

    2009-11-01

    Human exposure to ambient ozone (O(3)) has been linked to a variety of adverse health effects. The ozone level at a location is contributed by local production, regional transport, and background ozone. This study combines detailed emission inventory, air quality modeling, and census data to investigate the source-receptor relationships between nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) emissions and population exposure to ambient O(3) in 48 states over the continental United States. By removing NO(x) emissions from each state one at a time, we calculate the change in O(3) exposures by examining the difference between the base and the sensitivity simulations. Based on the 49 simulations, we construct state-level and census region-level source-receptor matrices describing the relationships among these states/regions. We find that, for 43 receptor states, cumulative NO(x) emissions from upwind states contribute more to O(3) exposures than the state's own emissions. In-state emissions are responsible for less than 15% of O(3) exposures in 90% of U.S. states. A state's NO(x) emissions can influence 2 to 40 downwind states by at least a 0.1 ppbv change in population-averaged O(3) exposure. The results suggest that the U.S. generally needs a regional strategy to effectively reduce O(3) exposures. But the current regional emission control program in the U.S. is a cap-and-trade program that assumes the marginal damage of every ton of NO(x) is equal. In this study, the average O(3) exposures caused by one ton of NO(x) emissions ranges from -2.0 to 2.3 ppm-people-hours depending on the state. The actual damage caused by one ton of NO(x) emissions varies considerably over space.

  13. Nitrous oxide (N2O). Emission inventory and options for control in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze C; LAE

    1994-01-01

    This study was initiated to overview current knowledge on nitrous oxide (N2O). The report reviews atmospheric behaviour of N2O, global sources and sinks, Dutch emissions in 1990, options to reduce emissions, and past and future emissions. Despite the uncertainties involved, it is likely that without

  14. Land Surface Microwave Emissivities Derived from AMSR-E and MODIS Measurements with Advanced Quality Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncet, Jean-Luc; Liang, Pan; Galantowicz, John F.; Lipton, Alan E.; Uymin, Gennady; Prigent, Catherine; Grassotti, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    A microwave emissivity database has been developed with data from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E) and with ancillary land surface temperature (LST) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the same Aqua spacecraft. The primary intended application of the database is to provide surface emissivity constraints in atmospheric and surface property retrieval or assimilation. An additional application is to serve as a dynamic indicator of land surface properties relevant to climate change monitoring. The precision of the emissivity data is estimated to be significantly better than in prior databases from other sensors due to the precise collocation with high-quality MODIS LST data and due to the quality control features of our data analysis system. The accuracy of the emissivities in deserts and semi-arid regions is enhanced by applying, in those regions, a version of the emissivity retrieval algorithm that accounts for the penetration of microwave radiation through dry soil with diurnally varying vertical temperature gradients. These results suggest that this penetration effect is more widespread and more significant to interpretation of passive microwave measurements than had been previously established. Emissivity coverage in areas where persistent cloudiness interferes with the availability of MODIS LST data is achieved using a classification-based method to spread emissivity data from less-cloudy areas that have similar microwave surface properties. Evaluations and analyses of the emissivity products over homogeneous snow-free areas are presented, including application to retrieval of soil temperature profiles. Spatial inhomogeneities are the largest in the vicinity of large water bodies due to the large water/land emissivity contrast and give rise to large apparent temporal variability in the retrieved emissivities when satellite footprint locations vary over time. This issue will be dealt with in the future by

  15. 238Pu sources for cardiac pacemakers. II. Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pottier, R.; Merigot, S.

    1976-01-01

    The method and the apparatus used for thermal (power) and radioactive control of radioisotopic sources for pacemakers are briefly described. The cybernetic system is also presented, which assumes almost automatically the monitoring of control, mechanical and electronic works, data processing, the measurements and computations, and the works related to quality control [fr

  16. Speciated OVOC and VOC emission inventories and their implications for reactivity-based ozone control strategy in the Pearl River Delta region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Jiamin; Zheng, Junyu; Li, Rongrong; Huang, Xiaobo; Zhong, Zhuangmin; Zhong, Liuju; Lin, Hui

    2015-10-15

    The increasing ground-ozone (O3) levels, accompanied by decreasing SO2, NO2, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations benefited from air pollution control measures implemented in recent years, initiated a serious challenge to control Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, China. Speciated VOC emission inventory is fundamental for estimating Ozone Formation Potentials (OFPs) to identify key reactive VOC species and sources in order to formulate efficient O3 control strategies. With the use of the latest bulk VOC emission inventory and local source profiles, this study developed the PRD regional speciated Oxygenated Volatile Organic Compound (OVOC) and VOC emission inventories to identify the key emission-based and OFP-based VOC sources and species. Results showed that: (1) Methyl alcohol, acetone and ethyl acetate were the major constituents in the OVOC emissions from industrial solvents, household solvents, architectural paints and biogenic sources; (2) from the emission-based perspective, aromatics, alkanes, OVOCs and alkenes made up 39.2%, 28.2%, 15.9% and 10.9% of anthropogenic VOCs; (3) from the OFP-based perspective, aromatics and alkenes become predominant with contributions of 59.4% and 25.8% respectively; (4) ethene, m/p-xylene, toluene, 1,2,4-trimethyl benzene and other 24 high OFP-contributing species were the key reactive species that contributed to 52% of anthropogenic emissions and up to 80% of OFPs; and (5) industrial solvents, industrial process, gasoline vehicles and motorcycles were major emission sources of these key reactive species. Policy implications for O3 control strategy were discussed. The OFP cap was proposed to regulate VOC control policies in the PRD region due to its flexibility in reducing the overall OFP of VOC emission sources in practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Direct emission of chirality controllable femtosecond LG01 vortex beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Zhang, S.; Yang, H.; Xie, J.; Jiang, S.; Feng, G.; Zhou, S.

    2018-05-01

    Direct emission of a chirality controllable ultrafast LG01 mode vortex optical beam from a conventional z-type cavity design SESAM (SEmiconductor Saturable Absorber Mirror) mode locked LD pumped Yb:Phosphate laser has been demonstrated. A clean 360 fs vortex beam of ˜45.7 mW output power has been achieved. A radial shear interferometer has been built to determine the phase singularity and the wavefront helicity of the ultrafast output laser. Theoretically, it is found that the LG01 vortex beam is obtained via the combination effect of diagonal HG10 mode generation by off-axis pumping and the controllable Gouy phase difference between HG10 and HG01 modes in the sagittal and tangential planes. The chirality of the LG01 mode can be manipulated by the pump position to the original point of the laser cavity optical axis.

  18. Gamma-ray emission spectra from spheres with 14 MeV neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Junji; Kanaoka, Takeshi; Murata, Isao; Takahashi, Akito; Sumita, Kenji

    1989-01-01

    Energy spectra of neutron-induced gamma-rays emitted from spherical samples were measured using a 14 MeV neutron source. The samples in use were LiF, Teflon:(CF 2 ) n , Si, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Nb, Mo, W and Pb. A diameter of the sphere was either 40 or 60 cm. The gamma-ray energy in the emission spectra covered the range from 500 keV to 10 MeV. Measured spectra were compared with transport calculations using the nuclear data files of JENDL-3T and ENDF/B-IV. The agreements between the measurements and the JENDL-3T calculations were good in the emission spectra for the low energy gamma-rays from inelastic scattering. (author)

  19. Impact of renewable energy sources on greenhouse gas emissions in comparison to conventional energies - Simplified examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieminen, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    The paper discusses definition problem of the full energy chain greenhouse gas (FENCH-GHG) emission analysis. The importance of good definition of the problem is essential: for what purpose this analysis is done, what shall be included and what can be excluded from the analysis. This is done by giving simplified examples of FENCH-GHG emission analysis. The example is use of small solar heating systems in an oil heated single family house in Finland and another renewable energy source: liquid biofuel combustion. The paper gives rough data for those options. Paper concludes with this example, to recommendations how definition of FENCH-GHG analysis should be done for intermittent renewable energies. (author)

  20. A Fuel-Based Assessment of On-Road and Off-Road Mobile Source Emission Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallmann, T. R.; Harley, R. A.

    2009-12-01

    Mobile sources contribute significantly to emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the United States. These emissions lead to a variety of environmental concerns including adverse human health effects and climate change. In the electric power sector, sulfur dioxide (SO2) and NOx emissions from power plants are measured directly using continuous emission monitoring systems. In contrast for mobile sources, statistical models are used to estimate average emissions from a very large and diverse population of engines. Despite much effort aimed at improving them, mobile