WorldWideScience

Sample records for source dwell positions

  1. A phantom for verification of dwell position and time of a high dose rate brachytherapy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madebo, M.; Kron, T.; Pillainayagam, J.; Franich, R.

    2012-01-01

    Accuracy of dwell position and reproducibility of dwell time are critical in high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy. A phantom was designed to verify dwell position and dwell time reproducibility for an Ir-192 HDR stepping source using Computed Radiography (CR). The central part of the phantom, incorporating thin alternating strips of lead and acrylic, was used to measure dwell positions. The outer part of the phantom features recesses containing different absorber materials (lead, aluminium, acrylic and polystyrene foam), and was used for determining reproducibility of dwell times. Dwell position errors of <1 mm were easily detectable using the phantom. The effect of bending a transfer tube was studied with this phantom and no change of clinical significance was observed when varying the curvature of the transfer tube in typical clinical scenarios. Changes of dwell time as low as 0.1 s, the minimum dwell time of the treatment unit, could be detected by choosing dwell times over the four materials that produce identical exposure at the CR detector.

  2. SU-E-T-758: To Determine the Source Dwell Positions of HDR Brachytherapy Using 2D 729 Ion Chamber Array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Syam [Malabar Cancer Centre, Kannur, Kerala (India); Sitha [University of Calicut, Calicut, Kerala (India)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Determination of source dwell positions of HDR brachytherapy using 2D 729 ion chamber array Methods: Nucletron microselectron HDR and PTW 2D array were used for the study. Different dwell positions were assigned in the HDR machine. Rigid interstitial needles and vaginal applicator were positioned on the 2D array. The 2D array was exposed for this programmed dwell positions. The positional accuracy of the source was analyzed after the irradiation of the 2D array. This was repeated for different dwell positions. Different test plans were transferred from the Oncentra planning system and irradiated with the same applicator position on the 2D array. The results were analyzed using the in house developed excel program. Results: Assigned dwell positions versus corresponding detector response were analyzed. The results show very good agreement with the film measurements. No significant variation found between the planned and measured dwell positions. Average dose response with 2D array between the planned and nearby dwell positions was found to be 0.0804 Gy for vaginal cylinder applicator and 0.1234 Gy for interstitial rigid needles. Standard deviation between the doses for all the measured dwell positions for interstitial rigid needle for 1 cm spaced positions were found to be 0.33 and 0.37 for 2cm spaced dwell positions. For intracavitory vaginal applicator this was found to be 0.21 for 1 cm spaced dwell positions and 0.06 for 2cm spaced dwell positions. Intracavitory test plans reproduced on the 2D array with the same applicator positions shows the ideal dose distribution with the TPS planned. Conclusion: 2D array is a good tool for determining the dwell position of HDR brachytherapy. With the in-house developed program in excel it is easy and accurate. The traditional way with film analysis can be replaced by this method, as the films will be more costly.

  3. SU-E-T-758: To Determine the Source Dwell Positions of HDR Brachytherapy Using 2D 729 Ion Chamber Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Syam; Sitha

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Determination of source dwell positions of HDR brachytherapy using 2D 729 ion chamber array Methods: Nucletron microselectron HDR and PTW 2D array were used for the study. Different dwell positions were assigned in the HDR machine. Rigid interstitial needles and vaginal applicator were positioned on the 2D array. The 2D array was exposed for this programmed dwell positions. The positional accuracy of the source was analyzed after the irradiation of the 2D array. This was repeated for different dwell positions. Different test plans were transferred from the Oncentra planning system and irradiated with the same applicator position on the 2D array. The results were analyzed using the in house developed excel program. Results: Assigned dwell positions versus corresponding detector response were analyzed. The results show very good agreement with the film measurements. No significant variation found between the planned and measured dwell positions. Average dose response with 2D array between the planned and nearby dwell positions was found to be 0.0804 Gy for vaginal cylinder applicator and 0.1234 Gy for interstitial rigid needles. Standard deviation between the doses for all the measured dwell positions for interstitial rigid needle for 1 cm spaced positions were found to be 0.33 and 0.37 for 2cm spaced dwell positions. For intracavitory vaginal applicator this was found to be 0.21 for 1 cm spaced dwell positions and 0.06 for 2cm spaced dwell positions. Intracavitory test plans reproduced on the 2D array with the same applicator positions shows the ideal dose distribution with the TPS planned. Conclusion: 2D array is a good tool for determining the dwell position of HDR brachytherapy. With the in-house developed program in excel it is easy and accurate. The traditional way with film analysis can be replaced by this method, as the films will be more costly

  4. Direct reconstruction and associated uncertainties of 192Ir source dwell positions in ring applicators using gafchromic film in the treatment planning of HDR brachytherapy cervix patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awunor, O. A.; Dixon, B.; Walker, C.

    2013-05-01

    This paper details a practical method for the direct reconstruction of high dose rate 192Ir source dwell positions in ring applicators using gafchromic film in the treatment planning of brachytherapy cervix patients. It also details the uncertainties associated with such a process. Eight Nucletron interstitial ring applicators—Ø26 mm (×4), Ø30 mm (×3) and Ø34 mm (×1), and one 60 mm intrauterine tube were used in this study. RTQA2 and XRQA2 gafchromic films were irradiated at pre-programmed dwell positions with three successive 192Ir sources and used to derive the coordinates of the source dwell positions. The source was observed to deviate significantly from its expected position by up to 6.1 mm in all ring sizes. Significant inter applicator differences of up to 2.6 mm were observed between a subset of ring applicators. Also, the measured data were observed to differ significantly from commercially available source path models provided by Nucletron with differences of up to 3.7 mm across all ring applicator sizes. The total expanded uncertainty (k = 2) averaged over all measured dwell positions in the rings was observed to be 1.1 ± 0.1 mm (Ø26 mm and Ø30 mm rings) and 1.0 ± 0.3 mm (Ø34 mm ring) respectively, and when transferred to the treatment planning system, equated to maximum %dose changes of 1.9%, 13.2% and 1.5% at regions representative of the parametrium, lateral fornix and organs at risk respectively.

  5. Positions of human dwellings affect few tropical diseases near ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Some factors that possibly affect tropical disease distribution was investigated in about 500 randomize human dwellings. The studied factors include wild animals, domestic animals, wild plants, cultivated plants, nature of soil, nature of water, positions of human dwellings, nature of building material and position of animal ...

  6. Positions of human dwellings affect few tropical diseases near ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    for the sandflies which is the vector of visceral leishmaniasis. It seems that the effect of microclimate was not on the considerations of villagers to build their dwellings as the very dense of date palms trees, vegetable farms and irrigation canals which are a determinant factors in the prevalence of diseases. Some dwellings ...

  7. Non-uniform dwell times in line source high dose rate brachytherapy: physical and radiobiological considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.; Tan, L.T.; Freestone, G.; Bleasdale, C.; Myint, S.; Littler, J.

    1994-01-01

    The ability to vary source dwell times in high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy allows for the use of non-uniform dwell times along a line source. This may have advantages in the radical treatment of tumours depending on individual tumour geometry. This study investigates the potential improvements in local tumour control relative to adjacent normal tissue isoeffects when intratumour source dwell times are increased along the central portion of a line source (technique A) in radiotherapy schedules which include a relatively small component of HDR brachytherapy. Such a technique is predicted to increase the local control for tumours of diameters ranging between 2 cm and 4 cm by up to 11% compared with a technique in which there are uniform dwell times along the line source (technique B). There is no difference in the local control rates for the two techniques when used to treat smaller tumours. Normal tissue doses are also modified by the technique used. Technique A produces higher normal tissue doses at points perpendicular to the centre of the line source and lower dose at points nearer the ends of the line source if the prescription point is not in the central plane of the line source. Alternatively, if the dose is prescribed at a point in the central plane of the line source, the dose at all the normal tissue points are lower when technique A is used. (author)

  8. Contribution of Head Position, Standing Surface, and Vision to Postural Control in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pociask, Fredrick D; DiZazzo-Miller, Rosanne; Goldberg, Allon; Adamo, Diane E

    2016-01-01

    Postural control requires the integration of sensorimotor information to maintain balance and to properly position and orient the body in response to external stimuli. Age-related declines in peripheral and central sensory and motor function contribute to postural instability and falls. This study investigated the contribution of head position, standing surface, and vision on postural sway in 26 community-dwelling older adults. Participants were asked to maintain a stable posture under conditions that varied standing surface, head position, and the availability of visual information. Significant main and interaction effects were found for all three factors. Findings from this study suggest that postural sway responses require the integration of available sources of sensory information. These results have important implications for fall risks in older adults and suggest that when standing with the head extended and eyes closed, older adults may place themselves at risk for postural disequilibrium and loss of balance. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  9. Classical tandem-source dwelling covering the entire uterus. Essential in modern intracavitary radiotherapy for cervical cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Kiyoshi; Nemoto, Keiko; Ohnishi, Kayoko; Hashimoto, Takayuki; Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi; Hata, Masaharu; Sugahara, Shinji; Tokuuye, Koichi; Akine, Yasuyuki

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether conventional tandem-source dwelling to cover the entire uterus, classically regarded as the target volume, is necessary in modem intracavitary radiotherapy (ICRT) for cervical cancer. The study included 95 cervical squamous cell carcinoma patients treated by high-dose-rate ICRT (point A dose was 6.0 Gy, with three to five insertions per patient) after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), with central pelvic doses of 12-50 Gy. The tandem-source dwell length was adjusted to the target volume specified by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. A tandem applicator was inserted as far as the uterine fundus in accordance with the post-EBRT MR-assessed cavity length. The pre-EBRT MR-specified target volume was used for the dwell-length adjustment. The safety of the dwell-length adjustment was assessed in terms of treatment failure. The dwell-length adjustment was made in 248 of 366 total insertions with a dwell-length reduction of 5-55 mm (median 15 mm) at the corpus. Pelvic failure was identified in 22 patients with a 2-year pelvic disease-free survival rate of 75.6% but without evidence of failure at dwelling-skipped corpuses. Given after pelvic EBRT and ICRT of full-length dwelling in part, which may have eradicated possible subclinical extension, adjustment of the tandem-source dwell length to the MR-specified target volume appeared to be safe. (author)

  10. Antiproton source beam position system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagwell, T.; Holmes, S.; McCarthy, J.; Webber, R.

    1984-05-01

    The TeV I Beam Position Monitor (BPM) system is designed to provide a useful diagnostic tool during the commissioning and operational phases of the antiproton source. Simply stated the design goal is to provide single turn position information for intensities of > 1x10 9 particles, and multi-turn (clocked orbit) information for beam intensities of > 1x10 7 particles, both with sub-millimeter resolution. It is anticipated that the system will be used during commissioning for establishing the first turn through the Debuncher and Accumulator, for aligning injection orbits, for providing information necessary to correct closed orbits, and for measuring various machine parameters (e.g. tunes, dispersion, aperture, chromaticity). During normal antiproton operation the system will be used to monitor the beam position throughout the accumulation process

  11. Indoor air quality in energy-efficient dwellings: Levels and sources of pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbez, M; Wyart, G; Le Ponner, E; Ramalho, O; Ribéron, J; Mandin, C

    2018-03-01

    Worldwide, public policies are promoting energy-efficient buildings and accelerating the thermal renovation of existing buildings. The effects of these changes on the indoor air quality (IAQ) in these buildings remain insufficiently understood. In this context, a field study was conducted in 72 energy-efficient dwellings to describe the pollutants known to be associated with health concerns. Measured parameters included the concentrations of 19 volatile organic compounds and aldehydes, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), radon, temperature, and relative humidity. The air stuffiness index and night-time air exchange rate were calculated from the monitored carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentrations. Indoor and outdoor measurements were performed at each dwelling during 1 week in each of the two following seasons: heating and non-heating. Moreover, questionnaires were completed by the occupants to characterize the building, equipment, household, and occupants' habits. Perspective on our results was provided by previous measurements made in low-energy European dwellings. Statistical comparisons with the French housing stock and a pilot study showed higher concentrations of terpenes, that is, alpha-pinene and limonene, and hexaldehyde in our study than in previous studies. Alpha-pinene and hexaldehyde are emitted by wood or wood-based products used for the construction, insulation, decoration, and furnishings of the dwellings, whereas limonene is more associated with discontinuous sources related to human activities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Asynchronous L1-gain control of uncertain switched positive linear systems with dwell time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Zhang, Hongbin

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, dwell time (DT) stability, L 1 -gain performance analysis and asynchronous L 1 -gain controller design problems of uncertain switched positive linear systems (SPLSs) are investigated. Via a time-scheduled multiple linear co-positive Lyapunov function (TSMLCLF) approach, convex sufficient conditions of DT stability and L 1 -gain performance of SPLSs with interval and polytopic uncertainties are presented. Furthermore, by utilizing the feature that the TSMLCLF keeps decreasing even if the controller is running asynchronously with the system, the asynchronous L 1 -gain controller design problem of SPLSs with interval and polytopic uncertainties is investigated. Convex sufficient conditions of the existence of time-varying asynchronous state-feedback controller which can ensure the closed-loop system's positivity, stability and L 1 -gain performance are established, and the controller gain matrices can be calculated instantaneously online. The obtained L 1 -gain in the paper is standard. All the results are presented in terms of linear programming. A practical example is provided to show the effectiveness of the results. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Effects of a Positive Psychotherapy Program on Positive Affect, Interpersonal Relations, Resilience, and Mental Health Recovery in Community-Dwelling People with Schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhee; Na, Hyunjoo

    2017-10-01

    Recently, the interest in positive psychotherapy is growing, which can help to encourage positive relationships and develop strengths of people. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of a positive psychotherapy program on positive affect, interpersonal relations, resilience, and mental health recovery in community-dwelling people with schizophrenia. The research was conducted using a randomized control group pretest-posttest design. A total of 57 adults with schizophrenia participated in this study. The study participants in experimental group received a positive psychotherapy program (n=28) and the participants in control group received only the usual treatment in community centers (n=29). The positive psychotherapy program was provided for 5 weeks (of 10 sessions, held twice/week, for 60 minutes). The study outcomes included positive affect, interpersonal relations, resilience, and mental health recovery. The collected data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA for examining study hypothesis. Results showed that interpersonal relations (F=11.83, p=.001) and resilience (F=9.62, p=.003) significantly increased in the experimental group compared to the control group. Although experimental group showed a slight increase in positive affect, it was not significant. The study findings confirm that the positive psychotherapy program is effective for improving interpersonal relations and resilience of community-dwelling people with schizophrenia. Based on the findings, we believe that the positive psychotherapy program would be acceptable and helpful to improve recovery of mental health in schizophrenia. © 2017 Korean Society of Nursing Science

  14. A study on the accuracy of source position in HDR brachytherapy according to the curvature of universal application transfer tube and applicator type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hyeon Kyung; Lee, Sang Kyoo; Kim, Joo Ho; Cho, Jeong Hee

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to verify and analyze the source position according to the curvature of the universal applicator and 4 different angle applicators when using RALS(Remote After Loading System). An interval of 1 cm and 15 second dwell times in each source position were applied for plan. To verify the accuracy of source position, we narrowed the distance between MultiSource container and GAFCHROMIC? EBT3 film by 5 cm, 10 cm, 20 cm so that the universal applicator transfer tube had some curvature. Also 4 applicators(Intrauterine tube: 0° , 15°, 30° , Ovoid tube: 65° ) were used in the same condition. The differences between desired and actual source position were measured by using Image J. In case of using 4 different angles of applicator with the straight universal applicator transfer tube, the average error was the lowest for 0°applicator, greatest for 65°applicator. However, All average errors were within ±2 mm recommended in TG-56. When MultiSource container was moved 5 cm, 10 cm, 20 cm towards the EBT3 film, the average errors were beyond ±2 mm. The first dwell position was relatively located in accuracy, while the second and third dwells were displaced by an increasing magnitude with increasing curvature of the transfer tube. Furthermore, with increasing the angle of applicators, the error of all other dwell positioning was increased. The results of this study showed that both the curvature of universal applicator transfer tube and the angle of applicators affect the source dwell position. It is recommended that using straight universal applicator transfer tubes is followed in all cases, in order to avoid deviations in the delivered source dwell position. Also, It is advisable to verify the actual dwell position, using video camera quality control tool prior to all treatments

  15. Hunting, Swimming, and Worshiping: Human Cultural Practices Illuminate the Blood Meal Sources of Cave Dwelling Chagas Vectors (Triatoma dimidiata) in Guatemala and Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Lori; Monroy, M. Carlota; Rodas, Antonieta Guadalupe; Dorn, Patricia L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Triatoma dimidiata, currently the major Central American vector of Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease, inhabits caves throughout the region. This research investigates the possibility that cave dwelling T. dimidiata might transmit the parasite to humans and links the blood meal sources of cave vectors to cultural practices that differ among locations. Methodology/Principal Findings We determined the blood meal sources of twenty-four T. dimidiata collected from two locations in Guatemala and one in Belize where human interactions with the caves differ. Blood meal sources were determined by cloning and sequencing PCR products amplified from DNA extracted from the vector abdomen using primers specific for the vertebrate 12S mitochondrial gene. The blood meal sources were inferred by ≥99% identity with published sequences. We found 70% of cave-collected T. dimidiata positive for human DNA. The vectors had fed on 10 additional vertebrates with a variety of relationships to humans, including companion animal (dog), food animals (pig, sheep/goat), wild animals (duck, two bat, two opossum species) and commensal animals (mouse, rat). Vectors from all locations fed on humans and commensal animals. The blood meal sources differ among locations, as well as the likelihood of feeding on dog and food animals. Vectors from one location were tested for T. cruzi infection, and 30% (3/10) tested positive, including two positive for human blood meals. Conclusions/Significance Cave dwelling Chagas disease vectors feed on humans and commensal animals as well as dog, food animals and wild animals. Blood meal sources were related to human uses of the caves. We caution that just as T. dimidiata in caves may pose an epidemiological risk, there may be other situations where risk is thought to be minimal, but is not. PMID:25211347

  16. Hunting, swimming, and worshiping: human cultural practices illuminate the blood meal sources of cave dwelling Chagas vectors (Triatoma dimidiata in Guatemala and Belize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Stevens

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma dimidiata, currently the major Central American vector of Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease, inhabits caves throughout the region. This research investigates the possibility that cave dwelling T. dimidiata might transmit the parasite to humans and links the blood meal sources of cave vectors to cultural practices that differ among locations.We determined the blood meal sources of twenty-four T. dimidiata collected from two locations in Guatemala and one in Belize where human interactions with the caves differ. Blood meal sources were determined by cloning and sequencing PCR products amplified from DNA extracted from the vector abdomen using primers specific for the vertebrate 12S mitochondrial gene. The blood meal sources were inferred by ≥ 99% identity with published sequences. We found 70% of cave-collected T. dimidiata positive for human DNA. The vectors had fed on 10 additional vertebrates with a variety of relationships to humans, including companion animal (dog, food animals (pig, sheep/goat, wild animals (duck, two bat, two opossum species and commensal animals (mouse, rat. Vectors from all locations fed on humans and commensal animals. The blood meal sources differ among locations, as well as the likelihood of feeding on dog and food animals. Vectors from one location were tested for T. cruzi infection, and 30% (3/10 tested positive, including two positive for human blood meals.Cave dwelling Chagas disease vectors feed on humans and commensal animals as well as dog, food animals and wild animals. Blood meal sources were related to human uses of the caves. We caution that just as T. dimidiata in caves may pose an epidemiological risk, there may be other situations where risk is thought to be minimal, but is not.

  17. Positive and negative associations of individual social capital factors with health among community-dwelling older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabayama, Mai; Watanabe, Chie; Ryuno, Hirochika; Kamide, Kei

    2017-12-01

    Previous literature has found positive correlations between social capital and health in older adults, fewer studies have investigated the subdimension's effects of social capital on health. We aimed to determine the individual social capital subfactors in community-dwelling older adults in Japan, and to analyze the associations of these factors with physical and mental health. We sent a self-administered questionnaire assessing their perception of social group activity as the individual social capital, and mental and physical health (measured by the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36) to 4320 randomly selected older people. There were 1836 valid responses. We clarified that people who participated in any social activity group were in significantly better physical and mental health compared with the people who did not. By the factor analysis of the perception for the social group activity, we identified three components of the individual social capital aspect that we termed harmonious, hierarchic and diversity. Using multiple linear regression, we found the hierarchic aspect was significantly negatively associated with mental health, whereas the harmonious aspect was significantly positively associated with mental and physical health, and diversity was significantly positively associated with mental health. As the previous research literature on social capital has mainly emphasized its positive health consequences, the present findings provide a novel demonstration that some aspects of individual social capital can have negative associations with health outcomes in community-dwelling older people. For the practical application of promoting a healthier society, it is important to consider both the positive and negative sides of social capital. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 2427-2434. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  18. Source position verification and dosimetry in HDR brachytherapy using an EPID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R. L.; Taylor, M. L.; McDermott, L. N.; Franich, R. D.; Haworth, A.; Millar, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate treatment delivery in high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy requires correct source dwell positions and dwell times to be administered relative to each other and to the surrounding anatomy. Treatment delivery inaccuracies predominantly occur for two reasons: (i) anatomical movement or (ii) as a result of human errors that are usually related to incorrect implementation of the planned treatment. Electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) were originally developed for patient position verification in external beam radiotherapy and their application has been extended to provide dosimetric information. The authors have characterized the response of an EPID for use with an 192 Ir brachytherapy source to demonstrate its use as a verification device, providing both source position and dosimetric information.Methods: Characterization of the EPID response using an 192 Ir brachytherapy source included investigations of reproducibility, linearity with dose rate, photon energy dependence, and charge build-up effects associated with exposure time and image acquisition time. Source position resolution in three dimensions was determined. To illustrate treatment verification, a simple treatment plan was delivered to a phantom and the measured EPID dose distribution compared with the planned dose.Results: The mean absolute source position error in the plane parallel to the EPID, for dwells measured at 50, 100, and 150 mm source to detector distances (SDD), was determined to be 0.26 mm. The resolution of the z coordinate (perpendicular distance from detector plane) is SDD dependent with 95% confidence intervals of ±0.1, ±0.5, and ±2.0 mm at SDDs of 50, 100, and 150 mm, respectively. The response of the EPID is highly linear to dose rate. The EPID exhibits an over-response to low energy incident photons and this nonlinearity is incorporated into the dose calibration procedure. A distance (spectral) dependent dose rate calibration procedure has been developed. The

  19. Advanced Light Source beam position monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkson, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a synchrotron radiation facility nearing completion at LBL. As a third-generation machine, the ALS is designed to produce intense light from bend magnets, wigglers, and undulators (insertion devices). The facility will include a 50 MeV electron linear accelerator, a 1.5 GeV booster synchrotron, beam transport lines, a 1--2 GeV storage ring, insertion devices, and photon beam lines. Currently, the beam injection systems are being commissioned, and the storage ring is being installed. Electron beam position monitors (BPM) are installed throughout the accelerator and constitute the major part of accelerator beam diagnostics. The design of the BPM instruments is complete, and 50 units have been constructed for use in the injector systems. We are currently fabricating 100 additional instruments for the storage ring. In this paper I discuss engineering fabrication, testing and performance of the beam pickup electrodes and the BPM electronics

  20. Optimization of systems with the combination of ground-source heat pump and solar collectors in dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsson, Elisabeth; Hellström, Göran; Perers, Bengt

    2010-01-01

    The use of ground-source heat pumps for heating and domestic hot water in dwellings is common in Sweden. The combination with solar collectors has been introduced to reduce the electricity demand in the system. In order to analyze different systems with combinations of solar collectors and ground......-source heat pumps, computer simulations have been carried out with the simulation program TRNSYS. Large differences were found between the system alternatives. The optimal design is when solar heat produces domestic hot water during summertime and recharges the borehole during wintertime. The advantage...... is related to the rate of heat extraction from the borehole as well as the overall design of the system. The demand of electricity may increase with solar recharging, because of the increased operating time of the circulation pumps. Another advantage with solar heat in combination with heat pumps is when...

  1. Hollow cathode for positive ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schechter, D.E.; Kim, J.; Tsai, C.C.

    1979-01-01

    Development to incorporate hollow cathodes into high power ion sources for neutral beam injection systems is being pursued. Hollow tube LaB 6 -type cathodes, similar to a UCLA design, have been constructed and tested in several ORNL ion source configurations. Results of testing include arc discharge parameters of >1000 and 500 amps for 0.5 and 10 second pulse lengths, respectively. Details of cathode construction and additional performance results are discussed

  2. Acoustic classification of dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berardi, Umberto; Rasmussen, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    insulation performance, national schemes for sound classification of dwellings have been developed in several European countries. These schemes define acoustic classes according to different levels of sound insulation. Due to the lack of coordination among countries, a significant diversity in terms...... exchanging experiences about constructions fulfilling different classes, reducing trade barriers, and finally increasing the sound insulation of dwellings.......Schemes for the classification of dwellings according to different building performances have been proposed in the last years worldwide. The general idea behind these schemes relates to the positive impact a higher label, and thus a better performance, should have. In particular, focusing on sound...

  3. Sources of Error in Satellite Navigation Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Januszewski

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available An uninterrupted information about the user’s position can be obtained generally from satellite navigation system (SNS. At the time of this writing (January 2017 currently two global SNSs, GPS and GLONASS, are fully operational, two next, also global, Galileo and BeiDou are under construction. In each SNS the accuracy of the user’s position is affected by the three main factors: accuracy of each satellite position, accuracy of pseudorange measurement and satellite geometry. The user’s position error is a function of both the pseudorange error called UERE (User Equivalent Range Error and user/satellite geometry expressed by right Dilution Of Precision (DOP coefficient. This error is decomposed into two types of errors: the signal in space ranging error called URE (User Range Error and the user equipment error UEE. The detailed analyses of URE, UEE, UERE and DOP coefficients, and the changes of DOP coefficients in different days are presented in this paper.

  4. Relationships Between Simple Toe Elevation Angle in the Standing Position and Dynamic Balance and Fall Risk Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatori, Katsuhiko; Matsumoto, Daisuke

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the relationships between toe elevation ability in the standing position and dynamic balance and fall risk among community-dwelling older adults. Cross-sectional survey. General community. Community-dwelling older adults (N = 287). Toe elevation angles in the standing position. Intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of measurements of the toe elevation angle was high (internal coefficient of correlation [ICC] (1,2) = 0.94 for the former and ICC (2,1) = 0.90 for the latter). Significant correlations were found between the toe elevation angle and age (r = -0.20, P fall in the previous 6 months had a significantly lower toe elevation angle compared with subjects who did not experience a fall (t = 2.19, P balance ability and appears to be a simple screening test for fall risk in community-dwelling older adults. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. CONTRIBUTION OF RADON FLOWS AND RADON SOURCES TO THE RADON CONCENTRATION IN A DWELLING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEMEIJER, RJ; STOOP, P; PUT, LW

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a model is presented for analysis of the radon concentrations in a compartment in terms of contributions from transport by flows of air between compartments and from radon sources in the compartment. Measurements were made to study the effect of increased natural ventilation of the

  6. Dutch Dwellings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de B.; Zee, van der A.; Carp, J.C.; Soddu, C.

    2004-01-01

    Applying Generative Design (GD) for dwelling is not very common but it opens up the possibility to study whether GD systems can reproduce existing design typologies. Dutch dwellings as an exemplification of a design typology are analysed using the SAR methodology. Building regulations are used as

  7. Engagement as a source of positive consumer behaviour: a study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Engagement as a source of positive consumer behaviour: a study amongst South African football fans. ... Remember me ... Further, the potential of fan engagement as a predictor of positive consumer behaviours (match attendance and ...

  8. Minor positive effects of health-promoting senior meetings for older community-dwelling persons on loneliness, social network, and social support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustafsson S

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Susanne Gustafsson,1,2 Helene Berglund,1,3 Joel Faronbi,1,4 Emmelie Barenfeld,1,2,5 Isabelle Ottenvall Hammar1,2 1Frail Elderly Research Support Group (FRESH, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University, 2Gothenburg University Centre for Ageing and Health (AgeCap, 3Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden; 4Department of Nursing Science, College of Health Science, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria; 5Department of Occupational Therapy and Physiotherapy, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the 1-year effect of the health-promoting intervention “senior meetings” for older community-dwelling persons regarding loneliness, social network, and social support.Methods: Secondary analysis of data was carried out from two randomized controlled studies: Elderly Persons in the Risk Zone and Promoting Aging Migrants’ Capabilities. Data from 416 participants who attended the senior meetings and the control group at baseline and the 1-year follow-up in the respective studies were included. Data were aggregated and analyzed with chi-square test and odds ratio (OR to determine the intervention effect.Results: The senior meetings had a positive effect on social support regarding someone to turn to when in need of advice and backing (OR 1.72, p=0.01. No positive intervention effect could be identified for loneliness, social network, or other aspects of social support.Conclusion: Health-promoting senior meetings for older community-dwelling persons have a minor positive effect on social support. The senior meetings might benefit from a revision to reinforce content focused on loneliness, social network, and social support. However, the modest effect could also depend on the lack of accessible social resources to meet participants’ identified needs, a possible hindrance for a

  9. Dwelling Designers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, George

    2012-01-01

    Children's inventions go far beyond track housing or Ethan Allen furniture; they foreshadow the most innovative ideas in building forms and interior designs. Children improvise with containers and find places in a home that suggest enticing dwellings. A drawer left open becomes a balcony, soap trays become cots, and the space between twin beds…

  10. Beam position monitor data acquisition for the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenkszus, F.R.; Kahana, E.; Votaw, A.J.; Decker, G.A.; Chung, Y.; Ciarlette, D.J.; Laird, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the Beam Position Monitor (BPM) data acquisition scheme for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring. The storage ring contains 360 beam position monitors distributed around its 1104-meter circumference. The beam position monitor data acquisition system is capable of making turn-by-turn measurements of all BPMs simultaneously. It is VXI-based with each VXI crate containing the electronics for 9 BPMS. The VXI Local Bus is used to provide sustained data transfer rates of up to 13 mega-transfers per second to a scanner module. The system provides single-bunch tracking, bunch-to-bunch measurements, fast digital-averaged positions, beam position history buffering, and synchronized multi-turn measurements. Data is accessible to the control system VME crates via an MXI bus. Dedicated high-speed ports are provided to supply position data to beam orbit feedback systems

  11. The importance of source positions during radio fine structure observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernov, Guennadi P.; Yan Yi-Hua; Fu Qi-Jun

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of positions and sizes of radio sources in the observations of the fine structure of solar radio bursts is a determining factor for the selection of the radio emission mechanism. The identical parameters describing the radio sources for zebra structures (ZSs) and fiber bursts confirm there is a common mechanism for both structures. It is very important to measure the size of the source in the corona to determine if it is distributed along the height or if it is point-like. In both models of ZSs (the double plasma resonance (DPR) and the whistler model) the source must be distributed along the height, but by contrast to the stationary source in the DPR model, in the whistler model the source should be moving. Moreover, the direction of the space drift of the radio source must correlate with the frequency drift of stripes in the dynamic spectrum. Some models of ZSs require a local source, for example, the models based on the Bernstein modes, or on explosive instability. The selection of the radio emission mechanism for fast broadband pulsations with millisecond duration also depends on the parameters of their radio sources. (mini-volume: solar radiophysics — recent results on observations and theories)

  12. Source position error influence on industry CT image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cong Peng; Li Zhipeng; Wu Haifeng

    2004-01-01

    Based on the emulational exercise, the influence of source position error on industry CT (ICT) image quality was studied and the valuable parameters were obtained for the design of ICT. The vivid container CT image was also acquired from the CT testing system. (authors)

  13. Parameters estimation for X-ray sources: positions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avni, Y.

    1977-01-01

    It is shown that the sizes of the positional error boxes for x-ray sources can be determined by using an estimation method which we have previously formulated generally and applied in spectral analyses. It is explained how this method can be used by scanning x-ray telescopes, by rotating modulation collimators, and by HEAO-A (author)

  14. Navigation with ECDIS: Choosing the Proper Secondary Positioning Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Brčic

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The completion of ECDIS mandatory implementation period on-board SOLAS vessels requires certain operational, functional and educational gaping holes to be solved. It especially refers to positioning and its redundancy, which represents fundamental safety factor on-board navigating vessels. The proposed paper deals with primary and secondary positioning used in ECDIS system. Standard positioning methods are described, discussing possibilities of obtained positions’ automatic and manual implementation in ECDIS, beside default methods. With the aim of emphasizing the need and importance of using secondary positioning source in ECDIS, positioning issue from the standpoint of end-users was elaborated, representing a practical feedback of elaborated topic. The survey was conducted in the form of international questionnaire placed among OOWs, ranging from apprentice officers to captains. The result answers and discussion regarding (nonusage of secondary positioning sources in ECDIS were analysed and presented. Answers and statements were elaborated focusing not only in usage of the secondary positioning system in ECDIS, but in navigation in general. The study revealed potential risks arising from the lack of knowledge and even negligence. The paper concludes with summary of findings related to discrepancies between theoretical background, good seamanship practice and real actions taken by OOWs. Further research activities are pointed out, together with planned practical actions in raising awareness regarding navigation with ECDIS.

  15. A positive (negative) surface ionization source concept for RIB generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.; Mills, G.D.

    1995-01-01

    A novel, versatile, new concept, spherical-geometry, positive (negative) surface-ionization source has been designed and fabricated which will have the capability of generating both positive- and negative-ion beams without mechanical changes to the source. The source utilizes a highly permeable, high-work-function Ir ionizer (φ∼ = 5.29 eV) for ionizing highly electropositive atoms/molecules; while for negative-surface ionization, the work function is lowered to φ ∼ = 1.43 eV by continually feeding cesium vapor through the ionizer matrix. The use of Cs to effect low work function surfaces for negative ion beam generation has the potential of overcoming the chronic poisoning effects experienced with LaB 6 while enhancing the probability for negative ion formation of atomic and molecular species with low to intermediate electron affinities. The flexibility of operation in either mode makes it especially attractive for RIB applications and, therefore, the source will be used as a complementary replacement for the high-temperature electron impact ionization sources presently in use at the HRIBF The design features and operational principles of the source will be described in this report

  16. Positive emotion can protect against source memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Graham; Powell, Tim F; Donaldson, David I

    2015-01-01

    Despite widespread belief that memory is enhanced by emotion, evidence also suggests that emotion can impair memory. Here we test predictions inspired by object-based binding theory, which states that memory enhancement or impairment depends on the nature of the information to be retrieved. We investigated emotional memory in the context of source retrieval, using images of scenes that were negative, neutral or positive in valence. At study each scene was paired with a colour and during retrieval participants reported the source colour for recognised scenes. Critically, we isolated effects of valence by equating stimulus arousal across conditions. In Experiment 1 colour borders surrounded scenes at study: memory impairment was found for both negative and positive scenes. Experiment 2 used colours superimposed over scenes at study: valence affected source retrieval, with memory impairment for negative scenes only. These findings challenge current theories of emotional memory by showing that emotion can impair memory for both intrinsic and extrinsic source information, even when arousal is equated between emotional and neutral stimuli, and by dissociating the effects of positive and negative emotion on episodic memory retrieval.

  17. Blind separation of positive sources by globally convergent gradient search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oja, Erkki; Plumbley, Mark

    2004-09-01

    The instantaneous noise-free linear mixing model in independent component analysis is largely a solved problem under the usual assumption of independent nongaussian sources and full column rank mixing matrix. However, with some prior information on the sources, like positivity, new analysis and perhaps simplified solution methods may yet become possible. In this letter, we consider the task of independent component analysis when the independent sources are known to be nonnegative and well grounded, which means that they have a nonzero pdf in the region of zero. It can be shown that in this case, the solution method is basically very simple: an orthogonal rotation of the whitened observation vector into nonnegative outputs will give a positive permutation of the original sources. We propose a cost function whose minimum coincides with nonnegativity and derive the gradient algorithm under the whitening constraint, under which the separating matrix is orthogonal. We further prove that in the Stiefel manifold of orthogonal matrices, the cost function is a Lyapunov function for the matrix gradient flow, implying global convergence. Thus, this algorithm is guaranteed to find the nonnegative well-grounded independent sources. The analysis is complemented by a numerical simulation, which illustrates the algorithm.

  18. Note: Development of ESS Bilbao's proton ion source: Ion Source Hydrogen Positive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miracoli, R.; Feuchtwanger, J.; Arredondo, I.; Belver, D.; Gonzalez, P. J.; Corres, J.; Djekic, S.; Echevarria, P.; Eguiraun, M.; Garmendia, N.; Muguira, L.

    2014-01-01

    The Ion Source Hydrogen positive is a 2.7 GHz off-resonance microwave discharge ion source. It uses four coils to generate an axial magnetic field in the plasma chamber around 0.1 T that exceeds the ECR resonance field. A new magnetic system was designed as a combination of the four coils and soft iron in order to increase the reliability of the source. The description of the simulations of the magnetic field and the comparison with the magnetic measurements are presented. Moreover, results of the initial commissioning of the source for extraction voltage until 50 kV will be reported

  19. Comparative study between a ceramic evaporative cooler (CEC) and an air-source heat pump applied to a dwelling in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Francisco Javier Rey; Gomez, Eloy Velasco; Gonzalez, Ana Tejero [University of Valladolid, Dept. of Energy and Fluidmechanics, School of Engineering, Paseo del Cauce s/n, C. P. 47011, Valladolid (Spain); Murrieta, Fernando Enrique Flores [University of Quintana Roo, Science and Engineering Division, Blvd. Bahia s/n esq. I. Comonfort. Col. Del Bosque. 77019, Chetumal, Quintana Roo (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    The study described in this paper aims to evaluate comparatively the interest of an implementation of a ceramic evaporative cooler (CEC) compared to the use of a conventional device such as an air-source heat pump. This comparison is presented in three closely related ways: energy consumption, environmental impact and economic costs. This analysis is based on the hypothetical cooling of a specific room in a dwelling in six Spanish cities, each characterised by a different climate. The behaviour of the CEC in each climate is determined experimentally, reproducing the typical air conditions by an air-treatment unit. The total cooling demand in each city during the summer months is obtained from the data of the thermal load evolution in the room, provided by thermal load calculation software. (author)

  20. Dwell time modulation restrictions do not necessarily improve treatment plan quality for prostate HDR brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balvert, Marleen; Gorissen, Bram L; Den Hertog, Dick; Hoffmann, Aswin L

    2015-01-01

    Inverse planning algorithms for dwell time optimisation in interstitial high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy may produce solutions with large dwell time variations within catheters, which may result in undesirable selective high-dose subvolumes. Extending the dwell time optimisation model with a dwell time modulation restriction (DTMR) that limits dwell time differences between neighboring dwell positions has been suggested to eliminate this problem. DTMRs may additionally reduce the sensitivity for uncertainties in dwell positions that inevitably result from catheter reconstruction errors and afterloader source positioning inaccuracies. This study quantifies the reduction of high-dose subvolumes and the robustness against these uncertainties by applying a DTMR to template-based prostate HDR brachytherapy implants. Three different DTMRs were consecutively applied to a linear dose-based penalty model (LD) and a dose-volume based model (LDV), both obtained from literature. The models were solved with DTMR levels ranging from no restriction to uniform dwell times within catheters in discrete steps. Uncertainties were simulated on clinical cases using in-house developed software, and dose-volume metrics were calculated in each simulation. For the assessment of high-dose subvolumes, the dose homogeneity index (DHI) and the contiguous dose volume histogram were analysed. Robustness was measured by the improvement of the lowest D 90% of the planning target volume (PTV) observed in the simulations. For (LD), a DTMR yields an increase in DHI of approximately 30% and reduces the size of the largest high-dose volume by 2–5 cc. However, this comes at a cost of a reduction in D 90% of the PTV of 10%, which often implies that it drops below the desired minimum of 100%. For (LDV), none of the DTMRs were able to improve high-dose volume measures. DTMRs were not capable of improving robustness of PTV D 90% against uncertainty in dwell positions for both models. (paper)

  1. Beam position feedback system for the advanced photon source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y.

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) will implement both global and local beam position feedback systems to stabilize the particle and x-ray beams for the storage ring. The systems consist of 20 VME crates distributed around the ring, each running multiple digital signal processors (DSP) running at 4 kHz sampling rate with a proportional, integral, and derivative (PID) control algorithm. The particle and x-ray beam position data is shared by the distributed processors through networked reflective memory. A theory of closed orbit correction using the technique of singular value decomposition (SVD) of the response matrix and simulation of its application to the APS storage ring will be discussed. This technique combines the global and local feedback systems and resolves the conflict among multiple local feedback systems due to local bump closure error. Maximum correction efficiency is achieved by feeding back to the global orbit data to the local feedback systems. The effect of the eddy current induced in the relatively thick (1/2 in.) vacuum chamber by the ac corrector magnet field for local feedback systems is compensated by digital filters. Results of experiments conducted on the x-ray ring of the National Synchrotron Light Source and the SPEAR at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory will also be presented

  2. Beam position feedback system for the advanced photon source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y.

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) will implement both global and local beam position feedback systems to stabilize the particle and X-ray beams for the storage ring. The systems consist of 20 VME crates distributed around the ring, each running multiple digital signal processors (DSP) running at 4 kHz sampling rate with a proportional, integral, and derivative (PID) control algorithm. The particle and X-ray beam position data is shared by the distributed processors through networked reflective memory. A theory of closed orbit correction using the technique of singular value decomposition (SVD) of the response matrix and simulation of its application to the APS storage ring will be discussed. This technique combines the global and local feedback systems and resolves the conflict among multiple local feedback systems due to local bump closure error. Maximum correction efficiency is achieved by feeding back the global orbit data to the local feedback systems. The effect of the vacuum chamber eddy current induced by the AC corrector magnet field for local feedback systems is compensated by digital filters. Results of experiments conducted on the X-ray ring of the National Synchrotron Light Source and the SPEAR at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory will be presented. copyright 1994 American Institute of Physics

  3. Beam position feedback system for the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) will implement both global and local beam position feedback systems to stabilize the particle and X-ray beams for the storage ring. The systems consist of 20 VME crates distributed around the ring, each running multiple digital signal processors (DSP) running at 4kHz sampling rate with a proportional, integral, and derivative (PID) control algorithm. The particle and X-ray beam position data is shared by the distributed processors through networked reflective memory. A theory of closed orbit correction using the technique of singular value decomposition (SVD) of the response matrix and simulation of its application to the APS storage ring will be discussed. This technique combines the global and local feedback systems and resolves the conflict among multiple local feedback systems due to local bump closure error. Maximum correction efficiency is achieved by feeding back the global orbit data to the local feedback systems. The effect of the vacuum chamber eddy current induced by the AC corrector magnet field for local feedback systems is compensated by digital filters. Results of experiments conducted on the X-ray ring of the National Synchrotron Light Source and the SPEAR at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory will be presented

  4. Beam position feedback system for the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) will implement both global and local beam position feedback systems to stabilize the particle and X-ray beams for the storage ring. The systems consist of 20 VME crates distributed around the ring, each running multiple digital signal processors (DSP) running at 4kHz sampling rate with a proportional, integral, and derivative (PID) control algorithm. The particle and X-ray beam position data is shared by the distributed processors through networked reflective memory. A theory of closed orbit correction using the technique of singular value decomposition (SVD) of the response matrix and simulation of its application to the APS storage ring will be discussed. This technique combines the global and local feedback systems and resolves the conflict among multiple local feedback systems due to local bump closure error. Maximum correction efficiency is achieved by feeding back the global orbit data to the local feedback systems. The effect of the eddy current induced in the relatively thick (1/2 inch) vacuum chamber by the AC corrector magnet field for local feedback systems is compensated by digital filters. Results of experiments conducted on the X-ray ring of the National Synchrotron Light Source and the SPEAR at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory will also be presented

  5. Peak Source Power Associated with Positive Narrow Bipolar Lightning Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandara, S. A.; Marshall, T. C.; Karunarathne, S.; Karunarathne, N. D.; Siedlecki, R. D., II; Stolzenburg, M.

    2017-12-01

    During the summer of 2016, we deployed a lightning sensor array in and around Oxford Mississippi, USA. The array system comprised seven lightning sensing stations in a network approximately covering an area of 30 km × 30 km. Each station is equipped with four sensors: Fast antenna (10 ms decay time), Slow antenna (1.0 s decay time)), field derivative sensor (dE/dt) and Log-RF antenna (bandwidth 187-192 MHz). We have observed 319 Positive NBPs and herein we report on comparisons of the NBP properties measured from the Fast antenna data with the Log-RF antenna data. These properties include 10-90% rise time, full width at half maximum, zero cross time, and range-normalized amplitude at 100 km. NBPs were categorized according to the fine structure of the electric field wave shapes into Types A-D, as in Karunarathne et al. [2015]. The source powers of NBPs in each category were determined using single station Log-RF data. Furthermore, we also categorized the NBPs in three other groups: initial event of an IC flash, isolated, and not-isolated (according to their spatiotemporal relationship with other lightning activity). We compared the source powers within each category. Karunarathne, S., T. C. Marshall, M. Stolzenburg, and N. Karunarathna (2015), Observations of positive narrow bipolar pulses, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120, doi:10.1002/2015JD023150.

  6. Community-Dwelling People Screened Positive for Dementia in Primary Care: A Comprehensive, Multivariate Descriptive Analysis Using Data from the DelpHi-Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyrian, Jochen René; Eichler, Tilly; Michalowsky, Bernhard; Wucherer, Diana; Reimann, Melanie; Hertel, Johannes; Richter, Steffen; Dreier, Adina; Hoffmann, Wolfgang

    2016-03-30

    Efficient help and care for people with dementia (PWD) is dependent on knowledge about PWD in primary care. This analysis comprehensively describes community-dwelling PWD in primary care with respect to various dementia care specific variables. The analyses are based on baseline data of the ongoing general practitioner-based, randomized, controlled intervention trial DelpHi-MV (Dementia: life- and person-centered help). 6,838 patients were screened for dementia in 136 GP practices; 17.1% were screened positive, 54.4% of those agreed to participate and data could be assessed in n = 516 subjects. We assessed age, sex, living situation, cognitive status, functional status, level of impairment, comorbidities, formal diagnosis of dementia, depression, neuropsychiatric symptoms, quality of life, utilization of medical support, and pharmacological therapy. Concerning clinical-, dementia-, and health-related variables, the sample under examination was on average mildly cognitively and functionally impaired (MMSE, m = 22.2; BADL, m = 3.7). A level of care was assigned in 38.0%. Depression was identified in 15.4% and other frequent comorbidities were high blood pressure (83.3%), coronary heart diseases (37.1%), cerebrovascular diseases (22.3%), among others. In 48.6%, neuropsychiatric symptoms were present in a clinically relevant severity. Pharmacological treatment with antidementia medication was received by 25.8% and antidepressant medication by 14.0%. Utilization of services was generally low. The comprehensive description of people screened positive for dementia in primary care reveals a complex and unique population of patients. They are considerably underdiagnosed and in their majority mildly to moderately affected. More in-depth analyses are needed to study relations, associations and interactions between different variables.

  7. Cooking exhaust systems for low energy dwellings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, P.; Borsboom, W.A.

    2017-01-01

    Especially in airtight low energy dwellings exhaust systems are of utmost importance as cooking can be a major source of PM2.5 exposure. Dwellings should be designed including facilities enabling extraction of at least 83 dm3/s (300 m3/h) directly to outside. Residents should be able to select an

  8. Characteristics of the positive ion source at reduced gas feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, S. K., E-mail: sksharma@ipr.res.in; Bharathi, P.; Prahlad, V.; Patel, P. J.; Choksi, B.; Jana, M. R.; Bansal, L. K.; Qureshi, K.; Sumod, C. B.; Vadher, V.; Thakkar, D.; Gupta, L. N.; Rambabu, S.; Parmar, S.; Contractor, N.; Sahu, A. K.; Pandya, B.; Sridhar, B.; Pandya, S.; Baruah, U. K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar (India)

    2014-11-15

    The neutral beam injector of steady state superconducting tokamak (SST1-NBI) at IPR is designed for injecting upto 1.7 MW of neutral beam (Hº, 30–55 keV) power to the tokamak plasma for heating and current drive. Operations of the positive ion source (PINI or Plug-In-Neutral-Injector) of SST1-NBI were carried out on the NBI test stand. The PINI was operated at reduced gas feed rate of 2–3 Torr l/s, without using the high speed cryo pumps. Experiments were conducted to achieve a stable beam extraction by optimizing operational parameters namely, the arc current (120–300 A), acceleration voltage (16–40 kV), and a suitable control sequence. The beam divergence, power density profiles, and species fractions (H{sup +}:H{sub 2}{sup +}:H{sub 3}{sup +}) were measured by using the diagnostics such as thermal calorimetry, infrared thermography, and Doppler shift spectroscopy. The maximum extracted beam current was about 18 A. A further increase of beam current was found to be limited by the amount of gas feed rate to the ion source.

  9. SU-E-T-459: Impact of Source Position and Traveling Time On HDR Skin Surface Applicator Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, J; Barker, C; Zaider, M; Cohen, G

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Observed dosimetric discrepancy between measured and treatment planning system (TPS) predicted values, during applicator commissioning, were traced to source position uncertainty in the applicator. We quantify the dosimetric impact of this geometric uncertainty, and of the source traveling time inside the applicator, and propose corrections for clinical use. Methods: We measured the dose profiles from the Varian Leipzig-style (horizontal) HDR skin applicator, using EBT3 film, photon diode, and optically stimulated luminescence dosimeter (OSLD) and three different GammaMed HDR afterloders. The dose profiles and depth dose of each aperture were measured at several depths (up to about 10 mm, depending on the dosimeter). The measured dose profiles were compared with Acuros calculated profiles in BrachyVision TPS. For the impact of the source position, EBT3 film measurements were performed with applicator, facing-down and facing-up orientations. The dose with and without source traveling was measured with diode detector using HDR timer and electrometer timer, respectively. Results: Depth doses measured using the three dosimeters were in good agreement, but were consistently higher than the Acuros dose calculations. Measurements with the applicator facing-up were significantly lower than those in the facing-down position with maximum difference of about 18% at the surface, due to source sag inside the applicator. Based on the inverse-square law, the effective source sag was evaluated to be about 0.5 mm from the planned position. The additional dose from the source traveling was about 2.8% for 30 seconds with 10 Ci source, decreasing with increased dwelling time and decreased source activity. Conclusion: Due to the short source-to-surface distance of the applicator, the small source sag inside the applicator has significant dosimetric impact, which should be considered before the clinical use of the applicator. Investigation of the effect for other applicators

  10. Particle transport in urban dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannell, R.J.; Goddard, A.J.H.; ApSimon, H.M.

    1988-01-01

    A quantitative investigation of the potential for contamination of a dwelling by material carried in on the occupants' footwear has been completed. Data are now available on the transport capacity of different footwear for a small range of particle sizes and contamination source strengths. Additional information is also given on the rate of redistribution

  11. Electrode design and performance of the ORNL positive ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whealton, J.H.; Gardner, W.L.; Haselton, H.H.

    1981-08-01

    The neutral beam development group at ORNL has designed, constructed, and shipped four 50-kV, 100-A sources to PPL to be used for neutral beam heating of the confined plasma on the PDX tokamak. These sources have higher current capability than scaled-down sources, and they are required to run for 0.5 s as opposed to the 0.3-s requirement for PLT and ISX-B sources. Due to an innovative electrode design, these higher power sources met these requirements and achieved a higher transmission efficiency - 76% of the total input power on target vs 60% for the original ISX-B and modified PLT sources or 40% for the original PLT sources. Using the same electrode design with a tetrode accelerating structure and a new, indirectly heated cathode, repeatable long pulse, high energy conditions of 70 kV, 7 A, 8 s, and 90 kV, 9 A, 5 s were achieved. Grid deformation calculations and Monte Carlo beam line gas deposition algorithms will be discussed. A direct-magnetic-electron-blocking, direct-recovery device is described, and theoretical considerations of it are discussed

  12. A multicenter study to quantify systematic variations and associated uncertainties in source positioning with commonly used HDR afterloaders and ring applicators for the treatment of cervical carcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awunor, O., E-mail: onuora.awunor@stees.nhs.uk [The Medical Physics Department, The James Cook University Hospital, Marton Road, Middlesbrough TS4 3BW, England (United Kingdom); Berger, D. [Department of Radiotherapy, General Hospital of Vienna, Vienna A-1090 (Austria); Kirisits, C. [Department of Radiotherapy, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna A-1090 (Austria)

    2015-08-15

    Purpose: The reconstruction of radiation source position in the treatment planning system is a key part of the applicator reconstruction process in high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy treatment of cervical carcinomas. The steep dose gradients, of as much as 12%/mm, associated with typical cervix treatments emphasize the importance of accurate and precise determination of source positions. However, a variety of methodologies with a range in associated measurement uncertainties, of up to ±2.5 mm, are currently employed by various centers to do this. In addition, a recent pilot study by Awunor et al. [“Direct reconstruction and associated uncertainties of {sup 192}Ir source dwell positions in ring applicators using gafchromic film in the treatment planning of HDR brachytherapy cervix patients,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 3207–3225 (2013)] reported source positional differences of up to 2.6 mm between ring sets of the same type and geometry. This suggests a need for a comprehensive study to assess and quantify systematic source position variations between commonly used ring applicators and HDR afterloaders across multiple centers. Methods: Eighty-six rings from 20 European brachytherapy centers were audited in the form of a postal audit with each center collecting the data independently. The data were collected by setting up the rings using a bespoke jig and irradiating gafchromic films at predetermined dwell positions using four afterloader types, MicroSelectron, Flexitron, GammaMed, and MultiSource, from three manufacturers, Nucletron, Varian, and Eckert & Ziegler BEBIG. Five different ring types in six sizes (Ø25–Ø35 mm) and two angles (45° and 60°) were used. Coordinates of irradiated positions relative to the ring center were determined and collated, and source position differences quantified by ring type, size, and angle. Results: The mean expanded measurement uncertainty (k = 2) along the direction of source travel was ±1.4 mm. The standard deviation

  13. Sample intake position and loading rates from nonpoint source pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, P. E.; Daniel, T. C.; Stoffel, D.; Andraski, B.

    1980-01-01

    Paired water samples were simultaneously activated from two different vertical positions within the approach section of a flow-control structure to determine the effect of sample intake position on nonpoint runoff parameter concentrations and subsequent event loads. Suspended solids (SS), total phosphorus (TP) and organic plus exchangeable nitrogen [(Or+Ex)-N] were consistently higher throughout each runoff event when sampled from the floor of the approach section as opposed to those samples taken at midstage. Dissolved molybdate reactive phosphorus (DMRP) and ammonium (NH4-N) concentrations did not appear to be significantly affected by the vertical difference in intake position. However, the nitrate plus nitrite nitrogen [(NO3+NO2)-N] concentrations were much higher when sampled from the midstage position. Although the concentration differences between the two methods were not appreciable, when evaluated in terms of event loads, discrepancies were evident for all parameters. Midstage sampling produced event loads for SS, TP, (Or + Ex)-N, DMRP, NH4-N, and (NO3+NO2)-N that were 44,39,35,80,71, and 181%, respectively, of floor sampling loads. Differences in loads between the two methods are attributed to the midstage position, sampling less of the bed load. The correct position will depend on the objective; however, such differences should be recognized during the design phase of the monitoring program.

  14. Actinide Source Term Program, position paper. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, C.F.; Papenguth, H.W.; Crafts, C.C.; Dhooge, N.J.

    1994-01-01

    The Actinide Source Term represents the quantity of actinides that could be mobilized within WIPP brines and could migrate with the brines away from the disposal room vicinity. This document presents the various proposed methods for estimating this source term, with a particular focus on defining these methods and evaluating the defensibility of the models for mobile actinide concentrations. The conclusions reached in this document are: the 92 PA open-quotes expert panelclose quotes model for mobile actinide concentrations is not defensible; and, although it is extremely conservative, the open-quotes inventory limitsclose quotes model is the only existing defensible model for the actinide source term. The model effort in progress, open-quotes chemical modeling of mobile actinide concentrationsclose quotes, supported by a laboratory effort that is also in progress, is designed to provide a reasonable description of the system and be scientifically realistic and supplant the open-quotes Inventory limitsclose quotes model

  15. Broiler chickens, broiler chicken meat, pigs and pork as sources of ExPEC related virulence genes and resistance in Escherichia coli isolates from community-dwelling humans and UTI patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, L; Spangholm, D. J.; Pedersen, Karl

    2010-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections. UTI is primarily caused by extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) from the patients' own fecal flora. The ExPEC often belong to phylogroups B2 and D, the groups which include potent human ExPEC isolates...... causing UTI, bacteremia, and meningitis. The external sources of these ExPEC in the human intestine are unknown. The food supply may transmit ExPEC to humans. However, evidence of this hypothesis is limited. To assess this hypothesis, the objective of our study was to investigate the presence of Ex......PEC related virulence genes in E. coli isolates from UTI patients, community-dwelling humans, meat, and production animals. Accordingly, we included 964 geographically and temporally matched E. coli isolates from UTI patients (n=102), community-dwelling humans (n=109), fresh Danish (n=197) and imported...

  16. COMPARISON OF RECURSIVE ESTIMATION TECHNIQUES FOR POSITION TRACKING RADIOACTIVE SOURCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muske, K.; Howse, J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper compares the performance of recursive state estimation techniques for tracking the physical location of a radioactive source within a room based on radiation measurements obtained from a series of detectors at fixed locations. Specifically, the extended Kalman filter, algebraic observer, and nonlinear least squares techniques are investigated. The results of this study indicate that recursive least squares estimation significantly outperforms the other techniques due to the severe model nonlinearity

  17. Super-resolution for a point source using positive refraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miñano, Juan C.; Benítez, Pablo; González, Juan C.; Grabovičkić, Dejan; Ahmadpanahi, Hamed

    Leonhardt demonstrated (2009) that the 2D Maxwell Fish Eye lens (MFE) can focus perfectly 2D Helmholtz waves of arbitrary frequency, i.e., it can transport perfectly an outward (monopole) 2D Helmholtz wave field, generated by a point source, towards a receptor called "perfect drain" (PD) located at the corresponding MFE image point. The PD has the property of absorbing the complete radiation without radiation or scattering and it has been claimed as necessary to obtain super-resolution (SR) in the MFE. However, a prototype using a "drain" different from the PD has shown λ/5 resolution for microwave frequencies (Ma et al, 2010). Recently, the SR properties of a device equivalent to the MFE, called the Spherical Geodesic Waveguide (SGW) (Miñano et al, 2012) have been analyzed. The reported results show resolution up to λ /3000, for the SGW loaded with the perfect drain, and up to λ /500 for the SGW without perfect drain. The perfect drain was realized as a coaxial probe loaded with properly calculated impedance. The SGW provides SR only in a narrow band of frequencies close to the resonance Schumann frequencies. Here we analyze the SGW loaded with a small "perfect drain region" (González et al, 2011). This drain is designed as a region made of a material with complex permittivity. The comparative results show that there is no significant difference in the SR properties for both perfect drain designs.

  18. Situations of dwelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welling, Helen; Duelund Mortensen, Peder; Wiell Nordberg, Lene

    2006-01-01

    This article explores changeable dwellings that offer the possibility of satisfying spontaneous activities and needs arising from today's changing family patterns. It deals with dwellings that provide people with room for development and flexibility - an open framework, which can be adapted to new...

  19. Tracking brachytherapy sources using emission imaging with one flat panel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Haijun; Bowsher, James; Das, Shiva; Yin Fangfang

    2009-01-01

    This work proposes to use the radiation from brachytherapy sources to track their dwell positions in three-dimensional (3D) space. The prototype device uses a single flat panel detector and a BB tray. The BBs are arranged in a defined pattern. The shadow of the BBs on the flat panel is analyzed to derive the 3D coordinates of the illumination source, i.e., the dwell position of the brachytherapy source. A kilovoltage x-ray source located 3.3 m away was used to align the center BB with the center pixel on the flat panel detector. For a test plan of 11 dwell positions, with an Ir-192 high dose rate unit, one projection was taken for each dwell point, and locations of the BB shadows were manually identified on the projection images. The 3D coordinates for the 11 dwell positions were reconstructed based on two BBs. The distances between dwell points were compared with the expected values. The average difference was 0.07 cm with a standard deviation of 0.15 cm. With automated BB shadow recognition in the future, this technique possesses the potential of tracking the 3D trajectory and the dwell times of a brachytherapy source in real time, enabling real time source position verification.

  20. A trial fabrication of activity standard surface sources and positional standard surface sources for an imaging plate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yasushi; Hino, Yoshio; Yamada, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Mikio

    2003-01-01

    An imaging plate system can detect low level activity, but quantitative analysis is difficult because there are no adequate standard surface sources. A new fabrication method was developed for standard surface sources by printing on a sheet of paper using an ink-jet printer with inks in which a radioactive material was mixed. The fabricated standard surface sources had high uniformity, high positional resolution arbitrary shapes and a broad intensity range. The standard sources were used for measurement of surface activity as an application. (H. Yokoo)

  1. Broiler chickens, broiler chicken meat, pigs and pork as sources of ExPEC related virulence genes and resistance in Escherichia coli isolates from community-dwelling humans and UTI patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Lotte; Spangholm, Daniel J; Pedersen, Karl; Jensen, Lars B; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Agersø, Yvonne; Aarestrup, Frank M; Hammerum, Anette M; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2010-08-15

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections. UTI is primarily caused by extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) from the patients' own fecal flora. The ExPEC often belong to phylogroups B2 and D, the groups which include potent human ExPEC isolates causing UTI, bacteremia, and meningitis. The external sources of these ExPEC in the human intestine are unknown. The food supply may transmit ExPEC to humans. However, evidence of this hypothesis is limited. To assess this hypothesis, the objective of our study was to investigate the presence of ExPEC related virulence genes in E. coli isolates from UTI patients, community-dwelling humans, meat, and production animals. Accordingly, we included 964 geographically and temporally matched E. coli isolates from UTI patients (n=102), community-dwelling humans (n=109), fresh Danish (n=197) and imported broiler chicken meat (n=86), broiler chickens (n=138), fresh Danish (n=177) and imported pork (n=10), and pigs (n=145) in the study. All isolates were investigated for the presence of eight ExPEC related genes (kpsM II, papA, papC, iutA, sfaS, focG, afa, hlyD) using PCR. To investigate any similarities between isolates from the different origins, we performed a cluster analysis including antimicrobial resistance data previously published. We detected seven of the eight ExPEC related genes in isolates from broiler chicken meat, broiler chickens, pork and pigs. Our findings suggest that broiler chicken meat, broiler chickens, pork and pigs could be the source of strains with these ExPEC related virulence genes in community-dwelling humans and UTI patients. Especially detection of ExPEC related virulence genes in isolates belonging to phylogroups B2 and D is very concerning and may have a significant medical impact. The cluster analysis of virulence gene and antimicrobial resistance profiles showed strong similarities between UTI patient, community-dwelling human isolates, meat, and

  2. A study on virtual source position for electron beams from a Mevatron MD linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravindran, B.P.

    1999-01-01

    The virtual source position (VSP) for electron beams of energies 5, 7, 9 10, 12 and 14 MeV and for the applicators (cones) available in the department have been measured for a Mevatron MD class linear accelerator. Different methods of obtaining the virtual source position for electron beams have been investigated in the present study. The results obtained have been compared with those of other workers. It is observed that the VSP is very much machine dependent and needs to be measured for each linear accelerator. The effect of shielding on virtual source position for the type of applicators available in the department has also been investigated. (author)

  3. Technologies to Support Community-Dwelling Persons With Dementia: A Position Paper on Issues Regarding Development, Usability, Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness, Deployment, and Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Anthea; Mountain, Gail; Robinson, Louise; van der Roest, Henriëtte; García-Casal, J Antonio; Gove, Dianne; Thyrian, Jochen René; Evans, Shirley; Dröes, Rose-Marie; Kelly, Fiona; Kurz, Alexander; Casey, Dympna; Szcześniak, Dorota; Dening, Tom; Craven, Michael P; Span, Marijke; Felzmann, Heike; Tsolaki, Magda; Franco-Martin, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Background With the expected increase in the numbers of persons with dementia, providing timely, adequate, and affordable care and support is challenging. Assistive and health technologies may be a valuable contribution in dementia care, but new challenges may emerge. Objective The aim of our study was to review the state of the art of technologies for persons with dementia regarding issues on development, usability, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, deployment, and ethics in 3 fields of application of technologies: (1) support with managing everyday life, (2) support with participating in pleasurable and meaningful activities, and (3) support with dementia health and social care provision. The study also aimed to identify gaps in the evidence and challenges for future research. Methods Reviews of literature and expert opinions were used in our study. Literature searches were conducted on usability, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, and ethics using PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO databases with no time limit. Selection criteria in our selected technology fields were reviews in English for community-dwelling persons with dementia. Regarding deployment issues, searches were done in Health Technology Assessment databases. Results According to our results, persons with dementia want to be included in the development of technologies; there is little research on the usability of assistive technologies; various benefits are reported but are mainly based on low-quality studies; barriers to deployment of technologies in dementia care were identified, and ethical issues were raised by researchers but often not studied. Many challenges remain such as including the target group more often in development, performing more high-quality studies on usability and effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, creating and having access to high-quality datasets on existing technologies to enable adequate deployment of technologies in dementia care, and ensuring that ethical

  4. Direct Position Determination of Multiple Non-Circular Sources with a Moving Coprime Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yankui Zhang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Direct position determination (DPD is currently a hot topic in wireless localization research as it is more accurate than traditional two-step positioning. However, current DPD algorithms are all based on uniform arrays, which have an insufficient degree of freedom and limited estimation accuracy. To improve the DPD accuracy, this paper introduces a coprime array to the position model of multiple non-circular sources with a moving array. To maximize the advantages of this coprime array, we reconstruct the covariance matrix by vectorization, apply a spatial smoothing technique, and converge the subspace data from each measuring position to establish the cost function. Finally, we obtain the position coordinates of the multiple non-circular sources. The complexity of the proposed method is computed and compared with that of other methods, and the Cramer–Rao lower bound of DPD for multiple sources with a moving coprime array, is derived. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is not only applicable to circular sources, but can also improve the positioning accuracy of non-circular sources. Compared with existing two-step positioning algorithms and DPD algorithms based on uniform linear arrays, the proposed technique offers a significant improvement in positioning accuracy with a slight increase in complexity.

  5. Direct Position Determination of Multiple Non-Circular Sources with a Moving Coprime Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yankui; Ba, Bin; Wang, Daming; Geng, Wei; Xu, Haiyun

    2018-05-08

    Direct position determination (DPD) is currently a hot topic in wireless localization research as it is more accurate than traditional two-step positioning. However, current DPD algorithms are all based on uniform arrays, which have an insufficient degree of freedom and limited estimation accuracy. To improve the DPD accuracy, this paper introduces a coprime array to the position model of multiple non-circular sources with a moving array. To maximize the advantages of this coprime array, we reconstruct the covariance matrix by vectorization, apply a spatial smoothing technique, and converge the subspace data from each measuring position to establish the cost function. Finally, we obtain the position coordinates of the multiple non-circular sources. The complexity of the proposed method is computed and compared with that of other methods, and the Cramer⁻Rao lower bound of DPD for multiple sources with a moving coprime array, is derived. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is not only applicable to circular sources, but can also improve the positioning accuracy of non-circular sources. Compared with existing two-step positioning algorithms and DPD algorithms based on uniform linear arrays, the proposed technique offers a significant improvement in positioning accuracy with a slight increase in complexity.

  6. Performance of positive ion based high power ion source of EAST neutral beam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Chundong; Xie, Yahong; Xie, Yuanlai; Liu, Sheng; Xu, Yongjian; Liang, Lizhen; Jiang, Caichao; Li, Jun; Liu, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    The positive ion based source with a hot cathode based arc chamber and a tetrode accelerator was employed for a neutral beam injector on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST). Four ion sources were developed and each ion source has produced 4 MW @ 80 keV hydrogen beam on the test bed. 100 s long pulse operation with modulated beam has also been tested on the test bed. The accelerator was upgraded from circular shaped to diamond shaped in the latest two ion sources. In the latest campaign of EAST experiment, four ion sources injected more than 4 MW deuterium beam with beam energy of 60 keV into EAST

  7. Technologies to Support Community-Dwelling Persons With Dementia: A Position Paper on Issues Regarding Development, Usability, Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness, Deployment, and Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiland, Franka; Innes, Anthea; Mountain, Gail; Robinson, Louise; van der Roest, Henriëtte; García-Casal, J Antonio; Gove, Dianne; Thyrian, Jochen René; Evans, Shirley; Dröes, Rose-Marie; Kelly, Fiona; Kurz, Alexander; Casey, Dympna; Szcześniak, Dorota; Dening, Tom; Craven, Michael P; Span, Marijke; Felzmann, Heike; Tsolaki, Magda; Franco-Martin, Manuel

    2017-01-16

    With the expected increase in the numbers of persons with dementia, providing timely, adequate, and affordable care and support is challenging. Assistive and health technologies may be a valuable contribution in dementia care, but new challenges may emerge. The aim of our study was to review the state of the art of technologies for persons with dementia regarding issues on development, usability, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, deployment, and ethics in 3 fields of application of technologies: (1) support with managing everyday life, (2) support with participating in pleasurable and meaningful activities, and (3) support with dementia health and social care provision. The study also aimed to identify gaps in the evidence and challenges for future research. Reviews of literature and expert opinions were used in our study. Literature searches were conducted on usability, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, and ethics using PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO databases with no time limit. Selection criteria in our selected technology fields were reviews in English for community-dwelling persons with dementia. Regarding deployment issues, searches were done in Health Technology Assessment databases. According to our results, persons with dementia want to be included in the development of technologies; there is little research on the usability of assistive technologies; various benefits are reported but are mainly based on low-quality studies; barriers to deployment of technologies in dementia care were identified, and ethical issues were raised by researchers but often not studied. Many challenges remain such as including the target group more often in development, performing more high-quality studies on usability and effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, creating and having access to high-quality datasets on existing technologies to enable adequate deployment of technologies in dementia care, and ensuring that ethical issues are considered an important topic

  8. On the substitution of energy sources: Prospective of the natural gas market share in the Brazilian urban transportation and dwelling sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamimura, A.; Guerra, S.M.G.; Sauer, I.L.

    2006-01-01

    The substitution process resultant of the competition between two opponents fighting for the same resource or market is pointed out through a dynamic model derived from biomathematics. A brief description of the origin of the method based on coupled non-linear differential equations (NLDE) is presented. Numerical adherence of the proposed model to explain several substitution phenomena which have occurred in the past is examined. The proposed method is particularly suitable for prospective analysis and scenarios assessment. In this sense, two applications of the model to prospect the dynamic substitution process in the Brazilian case are done: firstly, the development of the urban gas pipeline system in substituting for the bottled LPG in the dwelling sector and, secondly, the substitution of the urban Diesel transportation fleet by compressed natural gas (CNG) buses

  9. Gamma radiation in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mjoenes, L.

    1981-08-01

    A nationwide investigation has been made into the gamma radiation in Swedish dwellings. The measurements were made with small detectors containing thermoluminescent dosimeters. The detectors were sent to the selected participants by mail. 1300 dwellings were included in the investigation. In each dwelling three measurements were made: one detector was placed in the kitchen, one in the living-room and one in the bedroom. The mean annual absorbed tissue dose in dwellings in Sweden was found to be 0.65 mGy (corresponding to an exposition rate of 12 μR/h) when the contribution from cosmic radiation had been subtracted. That represents an annual collective dose of about 4000 mansieverts to the population of Sweden. From a previous investigation we have calculate the mean value for the gamma radiation in Swedish dwellings for 1950 to be 0.4 mGy/a (8μR/h). The reason for the relatively large increase in the mean value is an increased use of building materials on stone, particularly of lightweight concrete based on alum shale, from 1940 to middle 1960s. The production of this type of lightweight concrete was discontinued in 1975 and the use of other stone-based building materials has decreased. The mean value of gamma radiation in Swedish dwellings is therefore expected to decrease slowly in the future if this tendency holds. Sweden has some 3.5 million dwellings. About 10 % of them have mean values of 1 mGy/a (19 μR/h) or more, 0.2 % have 3 mGy/a (57 μR/h) or more and a couple of hundred 5 mGy/a (95 μR/h or more. The mean value for detached houses was found to be 0.43 mGy/a (8 μR/h) and for dwellings in multi-family houses 0.80 mGy/a (15 μR/h). The investigation dwellings have also been classified according to the building materials, the year of construction and the degree of urbanization of the area. (author)

  10. Radon in Norwegian dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, T.; Green, B.M.R.; Lomas, P.R.

    1992-01-01

    The results of a large-scale survey of radon concentrations in Norwegian dwellings are reported. Measurements of radon have been made in a total of 7500 dwellings. The dwellings were randomly selected and the number in each municipality is proportional to its population. The measurements were performed using etched track detectors from the National Radiological Protection Board in the UK. One detector was placed in the main bedroom in each dwelling for 6 months. The annual average of radon concentration in Norwegian bedrooms is calculated to be 51 Bq.m -3 . The frequency distribution is approximately log-normal with a geometric mean of 26 Bq.m -3 and about 4% of the bedrooms have concentrations above 200 Bq.m -3 . The radon concentrations are found to be about 40% higher for bedrooms in single-family houses than in blocks of flats and other multifamily houses. In a large proportion of single-family houses the living room and the kitchen are located on the ground floor and the bedrooms on the first floor. An additional factor is that the winters of 1987-1988 and 1988-1989 were much warmer than normal. Taking these factors into account, the average radon concentration in Norwegian dwellings is estimated to be between 55 and 65 Bq.m -3 . (author)

  11. A new concept positive (negative) surface ionization source for RIB applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.; Welton, R.F.; Cui, B.

    1996-01-01

    A versatile, new concept, spherical-geometry, positive (negative) surface-ionization source has been designed. fabricated, and tests completed which can operate in either positive- or negative-ion beam generation modes without mechanical changes to the source. The highly permeable, composite Ir/C has an intrinsic work function of 0 = 5.29 eV and can be used directly for the generation of positive-ion beams of highly electropositive elements. For negative-surface ionization, the work function is lowered by dynamic flow of a highly electropositive adsorbate such as Cs through the ionizer matrix. The results of initial testing indicate that the source is reliable, stable and easy to operate, with efficiencies for Cs + estimated to exceed 60% and as high as ∼50% for F - generation. The design features, operational principles, and initial performance of the source for generating Cs + and F - , when operated with Cs, are discussed in this article

  12. Measurements of radon concentrations in dwelling houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkholz, W.; Klink, T.

    1993-01-01

    Radon and its daughter products gain in importance in health protection and radiation safety. Especially in the southern region of Saxony radon concentrations in dwellings may be high by former silver and uranium mines. We found radon contents of about 20.000 Bq/m 3 in dwellings. To redevelop such houses it is necessary to know intrude path of radon. In present work we studied different measuring systems, active and passive detectors, short and long term integrating devices. By means of investigation of radon sources several redeveloping methods are rates as well from radiological as from civil engineering point of view. (author)

  13. Sound Insulation between Dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory sound insulation requirements for dwellings exist in more than 30 countries in Europe. In some countries, requirements have existed since the 1950s. Findings from comparative studies show that sound insulation descriptors and requirements represent a high degree of diversity...... and initiate – where needed – improvement of sound insulation of new and existing dwellings in Europe to the benefit of the inhabitants and the society. A European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs...... 2009-2013. The main objectives of TU0901 are to prepare proposals for harmonized sound insulation descriptors and for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality classes for dwellings. Findings from the studies provide input for the discussions in COST TU0901. Data collected from 24...

  14. SU-F-T-71: A Practical Method for Evaluation of Electron Virtual Source Position

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Z; Jiang, W; Stuart, B; Leu, S; Feng, Y [East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina (United States); Liu, T [Houston Methodist Hospital, Sugar Land, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Since electrons are easily scattered, the virtual source position for electrons is expected to locate below the x-ray target of Medical Linacs. However, the effective SSD method yields the electron virtual position above the x-ray target for some applicators for some energy in Siemens Linacs. In this study, we propose to use IC Profiler (Sun Nuclear) for evaluating the electron virtual source position for the standard electron applicators for various electron energies. Methods: The profile measurements for various nominal source-to-detector distances (SDDs) of 100–115 cm were carried out for electron beam energies of 6–18 MeV. Two methods were used: one was to use a 0.125 cc ion chamber (PTW, Type 31010) with buildup mounted in a PTW water tank without water filled; and the other was to use IC Profiler with a buildup to achieve charge particle equilibrium. The full width at half-maximum (FWHM) method was used to determine the field sizes for the measured profiles. Backprojecting (by a straight line) the distance between the 50% points on the beam profiles for the various SDDs, yielded the virtual source position for each applicator. Results: The profiles were obtained and the field sizes were determined by FWHM. The virtual source positions were determined through backprojection of profiles for applicators (5, 10, 15, 20, 25). For instance, they were 96.415 cm (IC Profiler) vs 95.844 cm (scanning ion chamber) for 9 MeV electrons with 10×10 cm applicator and 97.160 cm vs 97.161 cm for 12 MeV electrons with 10×10 cm applicator. The differences in the virtual source positions between IC profiler and scanning ion chamber were within 1.5%. Conclusion: IC Profiler provides a practical method for determining the electron virtual source position and its results are consistent with those obtained by profiles of scanning ion chamber with buildup.

  15. SU-F-T-71: A Practical Method for Evaluation of Electron Virtual Source Position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z; Jiang, W; Stuart, B; Leu, S; Feng, Y; Liu, T

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Since electrons are easily scattered, the virtual source position for electrons is expected to locate below the x-ray target of Medical Linacs. However, the effective SSD method yields the electron virtual position above the x-ray target for some applicators for some energy in Siemens Linacs. In this study, we propose to use IC Profiler (Sun Nuclear) for evaluating the electron virtual source position for the standard electron applicators for various electron energies. Methods: The profile measurements for various nominal source-to-detector distances (SDDs) of 100–115 cm were carried out for electron beam energies of 6–18 MeV. Two methods were used: one was to use a 0.125 cc ion chamber (PTW, Type 31010) with buildup mounted in a PTW water tank without water filled; and the other was to use IC Profiler with a buildup to achieve charge particle equilibrium. The full width at half-maximum (FWHM) method was used to determine the field sizes for the measured profiles. Backprojecting (by a straight line) the distance between the 50% points on the beam profiles for the various SDDs, yielded the virtual source position for each applicator. Results: The profiles were obtained and the field sizes were determined by FWHM. The virtual source positions were determined through backprojection of profiles for applicators (5, 10, 15, 20, 25). For instance, they were 96.415 cm (IC Profiler) vs 95.844 cm (scanning ion chamber) for 9 MeV electrons with 10×10 cm applicator and 97.160 cm vs 97.161 cm for 12 MeV electrons with 10×10 cm applicator. The differences in the virtual source positions between IC profiler and scanning ion chamber were within 1.5%. Conclusion: IC Profiler provides a practical method for determining the electron virtual source position and its results are consistent with those obtained by profiles of scanning ion chamber with buildup.

  16. High dose-rate brachytherapy source localization: positional resolution using a diamond detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, T; Suchowerska, N; Bilek, M M; McKenzie, D R; Ng, N; Kron, T

    2003-01-01

    A potential real-time source position verification process for high dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy treatment is described. This process is intended to provide immediate confirmation that a treatment is proceeding according to plan, so that corrective action can be taken if necessary. We show that three dosimeters are in principle sufficient and demonstrate the feasibility of the process using a diamond detector and an Ir-192 source. An error analysis including all identified sources of error shows that this detector is capable of locating the distance to the source to within 2 mm for distances up to 12 cm. This positional accuracy is less than the diameter of typical HDR catheters indicating that a diamond detector can be used to accurately determine the distance to the source. The uncertainty in the distance is found to increase with distance

  17. High-intensity positive beams extracted from a compact double-chamber ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huck, H.; Somacal, H.; Di Gregorio, D.E.; Fernandez Niello, J.O.; Igarzabal, M.; Di Paolo, H.; Reinoso, M.

    2005-01-01

    This work presents the design and development of a simple ion source, the associated ion extraction optics, and the beam transport of a low-energy and high-current proton accelerator. In its actual version, the ion source can deliver positive proton currents up to 100 mA. This rather high beam current is achieved by adding a small ionization chamber between the discharge chamber containing the filament and the extraction electrode of the ion source. Different parameters of the ion source and the injection beam line are evaluated by means of computer simulations to optimize the beam production and transmission

  18. Tube-dwelling invertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hölker, Franz; Vanni, Michael J.; Kuiper, Jan J.; Meile, Christof; Grossart, Hans Peter; Stief, Peter; Adrian, Rita; Lorke, Andreas; Dellwig, Olaf; Brand, Andreas; Hupfer, Michael; Mooij, Wolf M.; Nützmann, Gunnar; Lewandowski, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    There is ample evidence that tube-dwelling invertebrates such as chironomids significantly alter multiple important ecosystem functions, particularly in shallow lakes. Chironomids pump large water volumes, and associated suspended and dissolved substances, through the sediment and thereby compete

  19. Radon in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report gives a review of the present situation in Sweden concerning the knowledge and research on radon in dwellings.The responsibilities and need for actions in this field are examined. Costs and possibilities for financial help to install radonreducing equipment are also treated. (L.E.)

  20. Estimating uncertainty in subsurface glider position using transmissions from fixed acoustic tomography sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Uffelen, Lora J; Nosal, Eva-Marie; Howe, Bruce M; Carter, Glenn S; Worcester, Peter F; Dzieciuch, Matthew A; Heaney, Kevin D; Campbell, Richard L; Cross, Patrick S

    2013-10-01

    Four acoustic Seagliders were deployed in the Philippine Sea November 2010 to April 2011 in the vicinity of an acoustic tomography array. The gliders recorded over 2000 broadband transmissions at ranges up to 700 km from moored acoustic sources as they transited between mooring sites. The precision of glider positioning at the time of acoustic reception is important to resolve the fundamental ambiguity between position and sound speed. The Seagliders utilized GPS at the surface and a kinematic model below for positioning. The gliders were typically underwater for about 6.4 h, diving to depths of 1000 m and traveling on average 3.6 km during a dive. Measured acoustic arrival peaks were unambiguously associated with predicted ray arrivals. Statistics of travel-time offsets between received arrivals and acoustic predictions were used to estimate range uncertainty. Range (travel time) uncertainty between the source and the glider position from the kinematic model is estimated to be 639 m (426 ms) rms. Least-squares solutions for glider position estimated from acoustically derived ranges from 5 sources differed by 914 m rms from modeled positions, with estimated uncertainty of 106 m rms in horizontal position. Error analysis included 70 ms rms of uncertainty due to oceanic sound-speed variability.

  1. Positive long-term effects of Pilates exercise on the aged-related decline in balance and strength in older, community-dwelling men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Marie-Louise; Fell, James

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of Pilates exercise on physical fall risk factors 12 months after an initial 5-week Pilates intervention. The authors hypothesized that ongoing Pilates participation would have a positive effect on physical fall risk factors in those who continued with Pilates exercise compared with those who ceased. Thirty older ambulatory adults (M = 69 years, SD = 7) participated in Pilates classes for 5 weeks with testing preintevention (Time 1 [T1]) and postintervention (Time 2 [T2]) and 12 months later (Time 3 [T3]). Balance and leg strength were compared using a 2-way analysis of variance with repeated measures. Postural sway, dynamic balance, and function improvements evident after the initial Pilates training (T1-T2) were maintained at T3 (p Pilates (n = 14) and those who had ceased. Balance improvements after a short Pilates intervention were maintained 1 year later in all participants, with increased benefits from ongoing participation.

  2. Monte Carlo dosimetry of a tandem positioned beta-emitting intravascular brachytherapy source train

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, Steven A.; Schumer, Wendy; Horrigan, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Prevention of restenosis following interventional coronary procedures with catheter based beta-emitting sources is currently under clinical trial investigations. Systems utilizing fixed length source trains limit the clinician's ability to increase the radiation source length as required. A technique known as 'pull back' is used when the segment of artery requiring radiation is longer than the available fixed length source train. In this instance, tandem positioning of the fixed length source is used to treat the longer length of artery. The aim of this study was to examine the dosimetry of the junction region associated with pull back treatments using a commercially available 90 Sr/Y catheter based intravascular brachytherapy source train. Dose profiles were calculated, using the Monte Carlo code MCNP4B, at radial distances of 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 mm for pull back techniques using 2.5 mm overlapping, abutting, and 2.5 mm spaced source trains. Results at the protocol prescription radius of 2 mm showed a junction dose elevated 61% above prescription for 2.5 mm overlapping source trains. For 2.5 mm spaced trains, this figure falls to 64% below prescription dose. In contrast, abutted source trains exhibited only a 1% depression below prescription dose in the junction region. The reference point dose rate per unit activity of this source was found to be consistent with previous studies

  3. UNIDROITED POSITION AS A SOURCE OF CONTRACT LAW IN THE FUTURE OF INDONESIAN CONTRACT LAW AMANDEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    N. Ike Kusmiati

    2018-01-01

    [Unidroited Position As A Source Of Contract Law In The Future Of Indonesian Contract Law Amandement] Business transaction often faced the issue of ensuring that the rights and obligation are fulfilled as the agreement as agreed, especially when facing the difficulties of the rights and obligation of the parties due to different legal system between countries. Thereore, to answer the problems  the parties will seek legal sources, namely book III of the Civil Code in addition to studying and u...

  4. Radon in Norwegian dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, T.; Green, B.M.R; Lomas, P.R.; Mangnus, K.; Stranden, E.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of radon in indoor air have been made in a total of about 7500 randomly selected dwellings in Norway from all parts of the country. The number of selected dwellings in each municipality is about proportional to its population, except for the two largest municipalities, Oslo and Bergen, where somewhat smaller samples were taken due to the higher population density. The measurements were performed by nuclear track detectors from the National Radiological Protection Boards in United Kingdom, and the integration time for the measurements was 6 months. The detectors were spread evenly over all seasons of the year to eliminate influence from seasonal variation in the radon level. One single measurement was performed in each dwelling: in the main bedroom. The results shows that the distribution of radon concentrations in Norwegian bedrooms is log-normal. The aritmetic mean of the measurements, including all categories of dwellings, is calculated to be 51 Bq/m 3 and the corresponding geometric mean to be 26 Bq/m 3 . In a large proportion of single-family houses the living room and the kitchen are located on the ground floor while the bedrooms are located one floor higher. The results of the study shows that the radon level is somewhat higher at the ground floor than on the first floor, and higher in the basement than on the first floor. Taking this into account, and assuming that measurements in bedrooms on the first floor is a representative average for living room and kitchen, the average radon concentration for Norwegian dwellings is estimated to be between 55-65 Bq/m 3 . In this estimate, possible influences of the fact that the winters 87/88 and 88/89 were much warmer than normal and may therefor have lowered the results, has been taken into account. 15 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs

  5. Funding source, conflict of interest and positive conclusions in neuro-oncology clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Fabio Y; Mendez, Lucas C; Taunk, Neil K; Raman, Srinivas; Suh, John H; Souhami, Luis; Slotman, Ben; Weltman, Eduardo; Spratt, Daniel E; Berlin, Alejandro; Marta, Gustavo N

    2018-02-01

    We aimed to test any association between authors' conclusions and self-reported COI or funding sources in central nervous system (CNS) studies. A review was performed for CNS malignancy clinical trials published in the last 5 years. Two investigators independently classified study conclusions according to authors' endorsement of the experimental therapy. Statistical models were used to test for associations between positive conclusions and trials characteristics. From February 2010 to February 2015, 1256 articles were retrieved; 319 were considered eligible trials. Positive conclusions were reported in 56.8% of trials with industry-only, 55.6% with academia-only, 44.1% with academia and industry, 77.8% with none, and 76.4% with not described funding source (p = 0.011). Positive conclusions were reported in 60.4% of trials with unrelated COI, 60% with related COI, and 60% with no COI reported (p = 0.997). Factors that were significantly associated with the presence of positive conclusion included trials design (phase 1) [OR 11.64 (95 CI 4.66-29.09), p source [OR 2.45 (95 CI 1.22-5.22), p = 0.011]. In a multivariable regression model, all these factors remained significantly associated with trial's positive conclusion. Funding source and self-reported COI did not appear to influence the CNS trials conclusion. Funding source information and COI disclosure were under-reported in 14.1 and 17.2% of the CNS trials. Continued efforts are needed to increase rates of both COI and funding source reporting.

  6. Use of ultrasonic array method for positioning multiple partial discharge sources in transformer oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qing; Tao, Junhan; Wang, Yongqiang; Geng, Jianghai; Cheng, Shuyi; Lü, Fangcheng

    2014-08-01

    Fast and accurate positioning of partial discharge (PD) sources in transformer oil is very important for the safe, stable operation of power systems because it allows timely elimination of insulation faults. There is usually more than one PD source once an insulation fault occurs in the transformer oil. This study, which has both theoretical and practical significance, proposes a method of identifying multiple PD sources in the transformer oil. The method combines the two-sided correlation transformation algorithm in the broadband signal focusing and the modified Gerschgorin disk estimator. The method of classification of multiple signals is used to determine the directions of arrival of signals from multiple PD sources. The ultrasonic array positioning method is based on the multi-platform direction finding and the global optimization searching. Both the 4 × 4 square planar ultrasonic sensor array and the ultrasonic array detection platform are built to test the method of identifying and positioning multiple PD sources. The obtained results verify the validity and the engineering practicability of this method.

  7. Source apportionment and location by selective wind sampling and Positive Matrix Factorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, Elisa; Vassura, Ivano; Raffo, Simona; Ferroni, Laura; Bernardi, Elena; Passarini, Fabrizio

    2014-10-01

    In order to determine the pollution sources in a suburban area and identify the main direction of their origin, PM2.5 was collected with samplers coupled with a wind select sensor and then subjected to Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis. In each sample, soluble ions, organic carbon, elemental carbon, levoglucosan, metals, and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined. PMF results identified six main sources affecting the area: natural gas home appliances, motor vehicles, regional transport, biomass combustion, manufacturing activities, and secondary aerosol. The connection of factor temporal trends with other parameters (i.e., temperature, PM2.5 concentration, and photochemical processes) confirms factor attributions. PMF analysis indicated that the main source of PM2.5 in the area is secondary aerosol. This should be mainly due to regional contributions, owing to both the secondary nature of the source itself and the higher concentration registered in inland air masses. The motor vehicle emission source contribution is also important. This source likely has a prevalent local origin. The most toxic determined components, i.e., PAHs, Cd, Pb, and Ni, are mainly due to vehicular traffic. Even if this is not the main source in the study area, it is the one of greatest concern. The application of PMF analysis to PM2.5 collected with this new sampling technique made it possible to obtain more detailed results on the sources affecting the area compared to a classical PMF analysis.

  8. Application of positive matrix factorization to identify potential sources of PAHs in soil of Dalian, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Degao; Tian Fulin; Yang Meng; Liu Chenlin; Li Yifan

    2009-01-01

    Soil derived sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the region of Dalian, China were investigated using positive matrix factorization (PMF). Three factors were separated based on PMF for the statistical investigation of the datasets both in summer and winter. These factors were dominated by the pattern of single sources or groups of similar sources, showing seasonal and regional variations. The main sources of PAHs in Dalian soil in summer were the emissions from coal combustion average (46%), diesel engine (30%), and gasoline engine (24%). In winter, the main sources were the emissions from coal-fired boiler (72%), traffic average (20%), and gasoline engine (8%). These factors with strong seasonality indicated that coal combustion in winter and traffic exhaust in summer dominated the sources of PAHs in soil. These results suggested that PMF model was a proper approach to identify the sources of PAHs in soil. - PMF model is a proper approach to identify potential sources of PAHs in soil based on the PAH profiles measured in the field and those published in the literature.

  9. The determination of a neutron source position in an unknown homogeneous medium: The planar case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinski, S.; Talmor, A.; Presler, O.; Tshuva, A.; Yaar, I.; Orion, I.; Alfassi, Z.B.

    2005-01-01

    The possibility of localization of an unknown neutron source in various bulky homogeneous media (box) was studied. For the planar case, two 3 He detectors on the opposite faces of the box were used. A constant polypropylene shield around the box and detectors was used to eliminate the varying contribution from the environment to increase count rates of the detectors and to protect the experimentalist. It is shown that the location of a single small neutron emitting source in a large box can be found to a better than 7% by using two neutron detectors positioned on parallel faces of the box, coplanar with the source. The localization requires measurement of the count rate of both the unknown source and an extra source positioned on one of the faces of the box. The localization is based on the finding that the ratio of the count rates of the two detectors is an exponential function of the distance of the source from one of the detectors

  10. A high-efficiency positive (negative) surface ionization source for radioactive ion beam (abstract)a

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.; Mills, G.D.

    1996-01-01

    A versatile, new concept, spherical-geometry, positive (negative) surface-ionization source has been designed and fabricated which will have the capability of generating both positive- and negative-ion beams without mechanical changes to the source. The source utilizes a highly permeable, high-work-function Ir ionizer (φ≡5.29 eV) for ionizing highly electropositive atoms/molecules; while for negative-surface ionization, the work function is lowered to φ≡1.43 eV by continually feeding cesium vapor through the ionizer matrix. The use of this technique for negative ion beam generation has the potential of overcoming the chronic poisoning effects experienced with LaB 6 while enhancing considerably the efficiency for negative surface ionization of atoms and molecules with intermediate electron affinities. The flexibility of operation in either mode makes it especially attractive for radioactive ion beam applications and, therefore, the source will be used as a complementary replacement for the high-temperature electron impact ionization sources presently in use at the Holifield radioactive beam facility. The design features and operational principles of the source will be described in this report. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  11. A positive (negative) surface ionization source concept for radioactive ion beam generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.; Mills, G.D.

    1996-01-01

    A novel, versatile, new concept, spherical-geometry, positive (negative) surface-ionization source has been designed and fabricated which will have the capability of generating both positive- and negative-ion beams without mechanical changes to the source. The source utilizes a highly permeable, high-work-function Ir ionizer (φ ≅ 5.29 eV) for ionizing highly electropositive atoms/molecules; while for negative-surface ionization, the work function is lowered by continually feeding a highly electropositive vapor through the ionizer matrix. The use of this technique to effect low work function surfaces for negative ion beam generation has the potential of overcoming the chronic poisoning effects experienced with LaB 6 while enhancing the probability for negative ion formation of atomic and molecular species with low to intermediate electron affinities. The flexibility of operation in either mode makes it especially attractive for radioactive ion beam (RIB) applications and, therefore, the source will be used as a complementary replacement for the high-temperature electron impact ionization sources presently in the use at the Holifield radioactive ion beam facility (HRIBF). The design features and operational principles of the source are described in this report. (orig.)

  12. Optimization of Ion Source Head Position in the Central Region of DECY-13 Cyclotron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Silakhuddin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of the ion source head position of the DECY-13 Cyclotron in the central region has been carried out based on simulation process using a particle tracking program written in Scilab 5.2.1. The simulated particle was the H- ion that was accelerated in DECY-13 Cyclotron. The input for the program were the magnetic field and the electric field in the central region that were calculated by Opera-3D software package and TOSCA module. The optimized position of ion source head position is in a radius of 2 cm relative to the zero point of the magnet and at a distance of 4 mm relative to the puller. This result can be useful for determining the configuration of the parts in the central region when it is tested for generating the first ion beam in the future.

  13. Strategic positioning. Part 1: The sources of value under managed care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauer, R T; Berkowitz, E

    1997-01-01

    Part 1 of this series organizes and discusses the sources of value against a background of an evolving managed care market. Part 2 will present, in more detail, the marketing and financial challenges to organizational positioning and performance across the four stages of managed care. What are the basic principles or tenets of value and how do they apply to the health care industry? Why is strategic positioning so important to health care organizations struggling in a managed care environment and what are the sources of value? Service motivated employees and the systems that educate them represent a stronger competitive advantage than having assets and technology that are available to anyone. As the health care marketplace evolves, organizations must develop a strategic position that will provide such value and for which the customer will be willing to pay.

  14. An attempt to determine positions of aerosol source by the PIXE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyama, S.; Tokai, Y.; Ishii, K.

    1999-01-01

    Aerosols were continuously collected for 2 or 3 hours during the periods of 4-27 August 1997 and of 23 March-2 April 1998 at a suburb of Sendai City (east 10 km from Sendai), and meteorological data such as wind directions, wind velocities, etc were measured at the same time. The collected aerosol samples were analyzed by the particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method. Fourteen elements (S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Hg and Pb) were contained in these samples. The elemental concentrations increased in the daytime and decreased at night. It coincided with the time variation of people movement. The concentrations of Mn, Fe, Zn and Pb elements depended strongly on the direction of wind and their distributions for wind directions reflected to the position of aerosol sources. This result suggests that the position of aerosol source can be determined by measuring aerosols and wind directions at the many positions. (author)

  15. Sound classification of dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    National schemes for sound classification of dwellings exist in more than ten countries in Europe, typically published as national standards. The schemes define quality classes reflecting different levels of acoustical comfort. Main criteria concern airborne and impact sound insulation between...... dwellings, facade sound insulation and installation noise. The schemes have been developed, implemented and revised gradually since the early 1990s. However, due to lack of coordination between countries, there are significant discrepancies, and new standards and revisions continue to increase the diversity...... is needed, and a European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs 2009-2013, one of the main objectives being to prepare a proposal for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality...

  16. Dwelling with design

    OpenAIRE

    Paavilainen, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Dwelling with Design offers a throughout look at the domestic meanings of design. The research is based on studying households in and around Helsinki, in order to find out what role, if any, design plays in the domestication of a product. The picture emerging from the research is quite different from design’s public and professional image represented for example in the interior decoration magazines, where designed qualities such as usability, reliability, interesting branding and aesthetic co...

  17. Head position in the MEG helmet affects the sensitivity to anterior sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinkovic, K; Cox, B; Reid, K; Halgren, E

    2004-11-30

    Current MEG instruments derive the whole-head coverage by utilizing a helmet-shaped opening at the bottom of the dewar. These helmets, however, are quite a bit larger than most people's heads so subjects commonly lean against the back wall of the helmet in order to maintain a steady position. In such cases the anterior brain sources may be too distant to be picked up by the sensors reliably. Potential "invisibility" of the frontal and anterior temporal sources may be particularly troublesome for the studies of cognition and language, as they are subserved significantly by these areas. We examined the sensitivity of the distributed anatomically-constrained MEG (aMEG) approach to the head position ("front" vs. "back") secured within a helmet with custom-tailored bite-bars during a lexical decision task. The anterior head position indeed resulted in much greater sensitivity to language-related activity in frontal and anterior temporal locations. These results emphasize the need to adjust the head position in the helmet in order to maximize the "visibility" of the sources in the anterior brain regions in cognitive and language tasks.

  18. Wind turbine sound pressure level calculations at dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Stephen E; Feder, Katya; Voicescu, Sonia A; Soukhovtsev, Victor; Denning, Allison; Tsang, Jason; Broner, Norm; Leroux, Tony; Richarz, Werner; van den Berg, Frits

    2016-03-01

    This paper provides calculations of outdoor sound pressure levels (SPLs) at dwellings for 10 wind turbine models, to support Health Canada's Community Noise and Health Study. Manufacturer supplied and measured wind turbine sound power levels were used to calculate outdoor SPL at 1238 dwellings using ISO [(1996). ISO 9613-2-Acoustics] and a Swedish noise propagation method. Both methods yielded statistically equivalent results. The A- and C-weighted results were highly correlated over the 1238 dwellings (Pearson's linear correlation coefficient r > 0.8). Calculated wind turbine SPLs were compared to ambient SPLs from other sources, estimated using guidance documents from the United States and Alberta, Canada.

  19. Investigation of source position uncertainties & balloon deformation in MammoSite brachytherapy on treatment effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensaleh, S.

    2010-01-01

    The MammoSite ® breast high dose rate brachytherapy is used in treatment of early-stage breast cancer. The tumour bed volume is irradiated with high dose per fraction in a relatively small number of fractions. Uncertainties in the source positioning and MammoSite balloon deformation will alter the prescribed dose within the treated volume. They may also expose the normal tissues in balloon proximity to excessive dose. The purpose of this work is to explore the impact of these two uncertainties on the MammoSite dose distribution in the breast using dose volume histograms and Monte Carlo simulations. The Lyman–Kutcher and relative seriality models were employed to estimate the normal tissues complications associated with the MammoSite dose distributions. The tumour control probability was calculated using the Poisson model. This study gives low probabilities for developing heart and lung complications. The probability of complications of the skin and normal breast tissues depends on the location of the source inside the balloon and the volume receiving high dose. Incorrect source position and balloon deformation had significant effect on the prescribed dose within the treated volume. A 4 mm balloon deformation resulted in reduction of the tumour control probability by 24%. Monte Carlo calculations using EGSnrc showed that a deviation of the source by 1 mm caused approximately 7% dose reduction in the treated target volume at 1 cm from the balloon surface. In conclusion, accurate positioning of the 192 Ir source at the balloon centre and minimal balloon deformation are critical for proper dose delivery with the MammoSite brachytherapy applicator. On the basis of this study, we suggest that the MammoSite treatment protocols should allow for a balloon deformation of ≤2 mm and a maximum source deviation of ≤1 mm.

  20. INFLUENCE OF THE GALACTIC GRAVITATIONAL FIELD ON THE POSITIONAL ACCURACY OF EXTRAGALACTIC SOURCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larchenkova, Tatiana I.; Lutovinov, Alexander A.; Lyskova, Natalya S.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the influence of random variations of the Galactic gravitational field on the apparent celestial positions of extragalactic sources. The basic statistical characteristics of a stochastic process (first-order moments, an autocorrelation function and a power spectral density) are used to describe a light ray deflection in a gravitational field of randomly moving point masses as a function of the source coordinates. We map a 2D distribution of the standard deviation of the angular shifts in positions of distant sources (including reference sources of the International Celestial Reference Frame) with respect to their true positions. For different Galactic matter distributions the standard deviation of the offset angle can reach several tens of μ as (microarcsecond) toward the Galactic center, decreasing down to 4–6 μ as at high galactic latitudes. The conditional standard deviation (“jitter”) of 2.5 μ as is reached within 10 years at high galactic latitudes and within a few months toward the inner part of the Galaxy. The photometric microlensing events are not expected to be disturbed by astrometric random variations anywhere except the inner part of the Galaxy as the Einstein–Chvolson times are typically much shorter than the jittering timescale. While a jitter of a single reference source can be up to dozens of μ as over some reasonable observational time, using a sample of reference sources would reduce the error in relative astrometry. The obtained results can be used for estimating the physical upper limits on the time-dependent accuracy of astrometric measurements.

  1. INFLUENCE OF THE GALACTIC GRAVITATIONAL FIELD ON THE POSITIONAL ACCURACY OF EXTRAGALACTIC SOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larchenkova, Tatiana I. [ASC of P.N.Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninskiy prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Lutovinov, Alexander A.; Lyskova, Natalya S. [Space Research Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Profsoyuznaya 84/32, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-20

    We investigate the influence of random variations of the Galactic gravitational field on the apparent celestial positions of extragalactic sources. The basic statistical characteristics of a stochastic process (first-order moments, an autocorrelation function and a power spectral density) are used to describe a light ray deflection in a gravitational field of randomly moving point masses as a function of the source coordinates. We map a 2D distribution of the standard deviation of the angular shifts in positions of distant sources (including reference sources of the International Celestial Reference Frame) with respect to their true positions. For different Galactic matter distributions the standard deviation of the offset angle can reach several tens of μ as (microarcsecond) toward the Galactic center, decreasing down to 4–6 μ as at high galactic latitudes. The conditional standard deviation (“jitter”) of 2.5 μ as is reached within 10 years at high galactic latitudes and within a few months toward the inner part of the Galaxy. The photometric microlensing events are not expected to be disturbed by astrometric random variations anywhere except the inner part of the Galaxy as the Einstein–Chvolson times are typically much shorter than the jittering timescale. While a jitter of a single reference source can be up to dozens of μ as over some reasonable observational time, using a sample of reference sources would reduce the error in relative astrometry. The obtained results can be used for estimating the physical upper limits on the time-dependent accuracy of astrometric measurements.

  2. An experimental evaluation of monochromatic x-ray beam position monitors at diamond light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomer, Chris, E-mail: chris.bloomer@diamond.ac.uk; Rehm, Guenther; Dolbnya, Igor P. [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-27

    Maintaining the stability of the X-ray beam relative to the sample point is of paramount importance for beamlines and users wanting to perform cutting-edge experiments. The ability to detect, and subsequently compensate for, variations in X-ray beam position with effective diagnostics has multiple benefits: a reduction in commissioning and start-up time, less ‘down-time’, and an improvement in the quality of acquired data. At Diamond Light Source a methodical evaluation of a selection of monochromatic X-ray Beam Position Monitors (XBPMs), using a range of position detection techniques, and from a range of suppliers, was carried out. The results of these experiments are presented, showing the measured RMS noise on the position measurement of each device for a given flux, energy, beam size, and bandwidth. A discussion of the benefits and drawbacks of each of the various devices and techniques is also included.

  3. An experimental evaluation of monochromatic x-ray beam position monitors at diamond light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloomer, Chris; Rehm, Guenther; Dolbnya, Igor P.

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining the stability of the X-ray beam relative to the sample point is of paramount importance for beamlines and users wanting to perform cutting-edge experiments. The ability to detect, and subsequently compensate for, variations in X-ray beam position with effective diagnostics has multiple benefits: a reduction in commissioning and start-up time, less ‘down-time’, and an improvement in the quality of acquired data. At Diamond Light Source a methodical evaluation of a selection of monochromatic X-ray Beam Position Monitors (XBPMs), using a range of position detection techniques, and from a range of suppliers, was carried out. The results of these experiments are presented, showing the measured RMS noise on the position measurement of each device for a given flux, energy, beam size, and bandwidth. A discussion of the benefits and drawbacks of each of the various devices and techniques is also included.

  4. Performance of a plasma opening switch in positive polarity on Gamble I using flashboard plasma sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renk, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    The successful development of the Plasma Opening Switch (POS) for inductive storage applications has been largely confined to negative polarity operation. Some models of POS behavior suggest that this is because in a positive polarity coaxial configuration, the weaker magnetic field at the cathode position retards the switch opening process. This article describes experiments in which both conductor radii in the POS region were significantly reduced. Anode- and cathode-side current monitors indicate that voltages greater than open-circuit are generated at the POS position, but there is a significant amount of electron flow out of the POS, depending upon load impedance. Flow impedance analysis indicates that a relatively small gap appears in the POS plasma after switch opening. Switch performance is also compared between flashboard and carbon gun plasma sources, with the latter operated both in positive and negative polarity

  5. Dwelling on Everyday Car Journeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tølbøll, Lene; Jensen, Hanne Louise

    different traffic conditions as well as the emotional states related to the drivers’ thoughts about work and family issues, the materiality of the car and the recreational activities inside the car. Analyses are based on a web-based questionnaire, sent to 373 participating drivers in the Big Data research...... project Intelligent Transportation System Platform North Denmark (Lahrmann 2012). In that project data on e.g. position and speed was collected via an On Board Unit from more than 400 cars in 2012-2014 (Tøfting et. al. 2014). The full dataset includes a driven distance of approximately 14 million km...... experiences related to commuting. The findings will be discussed using theoretical inspiration from Sheller (2004), Bull (2003) and Thrift (2004) and we will suggest that the various emotional experiences of the commuters are of great importance for their ability to use of the car as a dwelling place....

  6. Radon in your dwellings - problems and mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    The problem of radon in dwellings gained importance in 1984 after the Stanely Watra's house incidence in Pennsylvania USA. Since then several radon measuring techniques have been identified and instrumentations developed. National survey programs were started for monitoring radon levels in dwellings by Government authorities in all developed and developing countries including India. Successively, the measurement of thoron levels was also found desirable especially in high radiation background areas. A lot of work has been done since then by scientists and university researches and thousands of publications have been made in this field. Several developed countries have given guide lines for initiating action to reduce radon levels in dwellings if it is beyond 200-400 Bq/m 2 . The recommended 'action level' is found to depend upon the authorities making the recommendations. This talk is aimed to produce public awareness about the health hazard posed by concentration of naturally occurring radon gas in our dwellings, the sources of its production and mitigation of radon problem. The matter will be discussed in a general way using ppt presentation. (author)

  7. Influence of the radioactive source position inside the well-type ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuahara, L.T.; Correa, E.L.; Potiens, M.P.A.

    2015-01-01

    The activimeter, instrument used in radionuclide activity measurement, consists primarily of a well type ionization chamber coupled to a special electronic device. Its response, after calibration, is shown in activity units (Becquerel or Curie). The goal of this study is to verify radioactive source position influence over activity measured by this instrument. Radioactive sources measurements were made at different depths inside the ionization chamber well. Results showed maximum variation of -23 %, -28 % and -15 % for 57 Co, 133 Ba and 137 Cs, respectively. (author)

  8. UNIDROITED POSITION AS A SOURCE OF CONTRACT LAW IN THE FUTURE OF INDONESIAN CONTRACT LAW AMANDEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ike Kusmiati

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available [Unidroited Position As A Source Of Contract Law In The Future Of Indonesian Contract Law Amandement] Business transaction often faced the issue of ensuring that the rights and obligation are fulfilled as the agreement as agreed, especially when facing the difficulties of the rights and obligation of the parties due to different legal system between countries. Thereore, to answer the problems  the parties will seek legal sources, namely book III of the Civil Code in addition to studying and understanding the principles of internasional commercial contract law, namely UNIDROIT which contains principles that can be adopted as one of the works that seek Standarization of contract law to encourage the harmonization of commercial law international efforts to bring together different business actors between countries, so that the same legal basis is required in the coming renewal of Indonesia contract law. Keyword : Position, UNIDROIT, Law, Contract, Indonesia.

  9. Accelerator mass spectrometry of 41Ca with a positive-ion source and the UNILAC accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhof, A.; Henning, W.; Mueller, M.; Roeckl, E.; Schuell, D.; Korschinek, G.; Nolte, E.; Paul, M.

    1987-06-01

    We have made first tests investigating the performance characteristics of the UNILAC accelerator system at GSI, in order to explore the sensitivity achievable in accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) of 41 Ca with high-current positive-ion sources. Positively charged Ca 3+ ions of up to about 100 micro-amperes electrical current were injected from a penning-sputter source and, after further stripping to Ca 9+ , accelerated to 14.3 MeV/nucleon. The combination of velocity-focussing accelerator and magnetic ion-beam transport system completely eliminated background from the other calcium isotopes. Full-stripping and detection of 41 Ca 20+ ions with a magnetic spectrograph provides separation from isobaric 41 K and, at present, a level of sensitivity of 41 Ca/Ca ≅ 2x10 -15 . Future improvements and implications for dating of Pleistoscene samples will be discussed. (orig.)

  10. 25 CFR 700.53 - Dwelling, replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dwelling, replacement. 700.53 Section 700.53 Indians THE... Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.53 Dwelling, replacement. The term replacement dwelling means a dwelling selected by the head of a household as a replacement dwelling that meets the criteria of this...

  11. Relationship between the pitch of modulation collimators and the determination accuracy of source positions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Masami; Nishimura, Jun

    1989-01-01

    The celestial positions of X-ray bursters and gamma-ray burst sources can be accurately determined with rotating modulation collimators which possess wide fields of view and also high angular resolutions. Since the determination accuracy is dependent on the signal to noise ratio of incident photons, the distribution of signal power is analysed and the optimum pitch of the modulation collimator for a burst of a given size is discussed. (author)

  12. Identifying sources of atmospheric fine particles in Havana City using Positive Matrix Factorization technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinnera, I.; Perez, G.; Ramos, M.; Guibert, R.; Aldape, F.; Flores M, J.; Martinez, M.; Molina, E.; Fernandez, A.

    2011-01-01

    In previous study a set of samples of fine and coarse airborne particulate matter collected in a urban area of Havana City were analyzed by Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. The concentrations of 14 elements (S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb) were consistently determined in both particle sizes. The analytical database provided by PIXE was statistically analyzed in order to determine the local pollution sources. The Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) technique was applied to fine particle data in order to identify possible pollution sources. These sources were further verified by enrichment factor (EF) calculation. A general discussion about these results is presented in this work. (Author)

  13. Source contributions to PM10 and arsenic concentrations in Central Chile using positive matrix factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedberg, Emma; Gidhagen, Lars; Johansson, Christer

    Sampling of particles (PM10) was conducted during a one-year period at two rural sites in Central Chile, Quillota and Linares. The samples were analyzed for elemental composition. The data sets have undergone source-receptor analyses in order to estimate the sources and their abundance's in the PM10 size fraction, by using the factor analytical method positive matrix factorization (PMF). The analysis showed that PM10 was dominated by soil resuspension at both sites during the summer months, while during winter traffic dominated the particle mass at Quillota and local wood burning dominated the particle mass at Linares. Two copper smelters impacted the Quillota station, and contributed to 10% and 16% of PM10 as an average during summer and winter, respectively. One smelter impacted Linares by 8% and 19% of PM10 in the summer and winter, respectively. For arsenic the two smelters accounted for 87% of the monitored arsenic levels at Quillota and at Linares one smelter contributed with 72% of the measured mass. In comparison with PMF, the use of a dispersion model tended to overestimate the smelter contribution to arsenic levels at both sites. The robustness of the PMF model was tested by using randomly reduced data sets, where 85%, 70%, 50% and 33% of the samples were included. In this way the ability of the model to reconstruct the sources initially found by the original data set could be tested. On average for all sources the relative standard deviation increased from 7% to 25% for the variables identifying the sources, when decreasing the data set from 85% to 33% of the samples, indicating that the solution initially found was very stable to begin with. But it was also noted that sources due to industrial or combustion processes were more sensitive for the size of the data set, compared to the natural sources as local soil and sea spray sources.

  14. 222Rn Measurements in Dwellings of Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnoni, G.; Canoba, A.; Czerniczyniec, M.

    2011-01-01

    Radon gas ( 222 Rn) is responsible of about fifty per cent of the world population dose due to natural sources, being the most important pathway the inhalation of radon progeny, specially indoors. Radon concentration has been measured in dwellings at different locations in Argentina. The places selected to be evaluated are representative of the different geologic zones of the country. Near 3000 dwellings have been analyzed since 1983 up today. The measuring methods used in this case were track etched detectors, electrets and detectors based on activated charcoal adsorption. Two different methods with track etched detectors were used: a simple one, which determines only the average radon concentration, and a second one that measures both radon concentration and the equilibrium factor (F) between radon and its daughters. The last one is a method that uses two Makrofol passive track detectors in the same device. The average radon concentration value obtained from all the dwellings evaluated was 44.2 Bq.m-3. The annual effective dose calculated from this average concentration, using a dosimetric factor of 25 μSv.a- 1. (Bq.m -3 ) -1 , which assumes an equilibrium factor of 0.4, was 1.11 mSv. The average value obtained from the 222 dwellings evaluated by the second method was 49.3 Bq.m -3 and 0,37 the equilibrium factor, resulting the annual effective dose estimated 1,44 mSv. The measured equilibrium factor of 0,37 allows us to verify the assumed equilibrium factor of 0,4. Finally, radon levels in dwellings of Argentina are within the acceptable values for population, not being necessary to implement remedial actions, except in isolate cases that are still under study. (authors)

  15. Exposure to Radon in Dwellings in the Area of Zagreb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokobauer, N.; Franic, Z.; Petroci, Lj.; Sokolovic, E.; Lokner, V.

    1998-01-01

    Until the 1970s radon and its progeny were regarded as radiation health hazards encountered only in the mining and processing of uranium ore. This notion has dramatically changed as a result of increasing efforts made by many countries to measure radon in dwellings. Since it has been assessed that radon constitutes on average about 53% of the human exposure to natural radiation (UNSCEAR 1993), attention to the problem of exposure to radon and associated health risk has been growing in both developed and developing countries. This paper deals with the investigations of indoor radon activity concentrations at selected dwellings in the area of Zagreb. The fact that concentration of indoor radon depends strongly on radium sources in the soil pointed to the possibility that increased radon levels could be measured in the ground floor dwellings. The measurements of indoor radon performed by Honeywell professional radon monitor in the 30 ground floor dwellings, and at same location in 10 dwellings on higher floors. In order to obtain average daily values, radon activity concentrations were measured throughout 24 hours at each dwelling, over the seasons spring-summer and autumn-winter. In the season spring-summer radon activity concentrations in the ground floor dwellings ranged from 22±5 to 133±12 Bqm -3 (mean value 56±31 Bqm -3 ) and in the season autumn-winter ranged from 22±5 to 311±18 Bqm -3 (mean value 94±64 Bqm -3 ). In the dwellings on higher floors radon activity concentrations in the season spring-summer ranged from 11±3 to 78±9 Bqm -3 (mean value 32±21 Bqm -3 ), and in the season autumn-winter ranged from 30±5 to 137±12 Bqm -3 (mean value 60±32 Bqm -3 ). Average annual radon activity concentration for the 30 investigated ground floor dwellings were 75±45 Bqm -3 , and 46±26 Bqm -3 for the 10 dwellings on higher floors. Investigations performed in the dwellings in the area of Zagreb revealed significant differences in radon levels between the ground

  16. Solar low energy dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hestnes, Anne Grete

    2000-01-01

    By now, a lot has been learnt about how to reduce energy use in dwellings using solar and low energy technologies, and many good examples can be found throughout Europe. Still, they are not quite the common feature we would expect them to be, i.e. they have not really penetrated the market. The reason for this is in part a result of the fact that the designers and developers of these buildings have not looked at what the market wants and needs, but rather at how to use a set of given technologies. The buildings are the result of a technology push rather than a market pull and have therefore, often, been detached or semidetached dwellings with different solar technologies added on in less than optimal ways. In order to increase market penetration, it is time to look at the market trends and relate to these. Fortunately, quite a few European architects have realized this and have started designing somewhat different residential buildings. The paper focuses on examples of the new trends in solar residential architecture and by that, hopefully, it shows that we are on the right track. (au)

  17. Study of a new source for positive and negative ions. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, A.; Davidovits, P.

    1985-05-01

    This study has focused on the feasibility of a novel ion source based on the technique of photodissociation, which could provide both positive and negative ions at considerably higher intensities (potentially 10 15 cm -3 ) than are currently available. Ions are produced by irradiating a sample of a gaseous thallium halide salt with an argon fluoride excimer laser operating at 193 nm. At this wavelength, both thallium bromide and iodide will produce atomic ion pairs in a single photon process and molecular positive ions and an electron in a two-photon induced process. The potential traits of such an excimer-laser pumped thallium salt ion source include the following: high intensity and pulse rate, good spatial and temporal resolution, low temperature, good focusing properties, and production of heavy ions. This report describes a Phase I effort investigating the efficacy of this approach. A review of the relevant photophysics pertaining to laser excitation of thallium halide salts is presented, followed by a description of both experimental and theoretical efforts involving thallium bromide in particular. The last section will summarize the basic conclusions derived from these studies, as well as discuss potential advantages of an ion source derived from photolyzing thallium halide salts

  18. Modelling of Attentional Dwell Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Bundesen, Claus

    2009-01-01

    . This confinement of attentional resources leads to the impairment in identifying the second target. With the model, we are able to produce close fits to data from the traditional two target dwell time paradigm. A dwell-time experiment with three targets has also been carried out for individual subjects...... and the model has been extended to fit these data....

  19. Source apportionment of atmospheric bulk deposition in the Belgrade urban area using Positive Matrix factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasić, M.; Mijić, Z.; Rajšić, S.; Stojić, A.; Radenković, M.; Joksić, J.

    2009-04-01

    The primary objective of the present study was to assess anthropogenic impacts of heavy metals to the environment by determination of total atmospheric deposition of heavy metals. Atmospheric depositions (wet + dry) were collected monthly, from June 2002 to December 2006, at three urban locations in Belgrade, using bulk deposition samplers. Concentrations of Fe, Al, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Mn, Cr, V, As and Cd were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry. Based upon these results, the study attempted to examine elemental associations in atmospheric deposition and to elucidate the potential sources of heavy metal contaminants in the region by the use of multivariate receptor model Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF).

  20. Source apportionment of atmospheric bulk deposition in the Belgrade urban area using Positive Matrix factorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasic, M; Mijic, Z; Rajsic, S; Stojic, A; Radenkovic, M; Joksic, J

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of the present study was to assess anthropogenic impacts of heavy metals to the environment by determination of total atmospheric deposition of heavy metals. Atmospheric depositions (wet + dry) were collected monthly, from June 2002 to December 2006, at three urban locations in Belgrade, using bulk deposition samplers. Concentrations of Fe, Al, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Mn, Cr, V, As and Cd were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry. Based upon these results, the study attempted to examine elemental associations in atmospheric deposition and to elucidate the potential sources of heavy metal contaminants in the region by the use of multivariate receptor model Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF).

  1. High dose-rate brachytherapy source position quality assurance using radiochromic film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, M.D.C.; Devic, S.; Podgorsak, E.B.

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally, radiographic film has been used to verify high-dose-rate brachytherapy source position accuracy by co-registering autoradiographic and diagnostic images of the associated applicator. Filmless PACS-based clinics that do not have access to radiographic film and wet developers may have trouble performing this quality assurance test in a simple and practical manner. We describe an alternative method for quality assurance using radiochromic-type film. In addition to being easy and practical to use, radiochromic film has some advantages in comparison with traditional radiographic film when used for HDR brachytherapy quality assurance

  2. What is the best care for community-dwelling dependent adults? Sources of care and perception of unmet needs in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogero-García, Jesús

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study in the Spanish context are: (1 to identify what source of care (informal, private or public care achieves the lowest perception of unmet needs amongst dependent adults and (2 to identify which factors are associated with a greater perception of unmet needs within each source of care. This research is based on a sample of 4,766 dependent adults who completed the 2008 Survey on Disability, Personal Autonomy and Dependency Situations (EDAD. Dependent adults who received only paid care were less likely to perceive unmet needs compared to those who received other types of care. Dependents who received public care were more likely to perceive unmet needs. Perception of unmet needs is related to the characteristics of the dependent adults, the primary carers and the caregiving context. The results suggest that policy design must not assume that dependent people prefer family care to other types of care and demonstrate that public care is perceived as unsatisfactory.Los objetivos de este trabajo son: (1 identificar el proveedor de cuidado (informal, privado o público que consigue una menor percepción de necesidades no cubiertas entre los adultos dependientes en España, (2 identificar qué factores se relacionan con una mayor percepción de necesidades no cubiertas en cada situación, atendiendo al proveedor de cuidado. Se analizó una muestra de 4.766 adultos dependientes de la Encuesta sobre Discapacidades, Autonomía personal y situaciones de Dependencia (EDAD 2008. Los adultos dependientes que recibieron únicamente cuidado privado tuvieron menos probabilidades de percibir sus necesidades no cubiertas, en comparación con quienes recibieron cualquier otro tipo de cuidado. Quienes recibieron cuidado solo de servicios sociales tuvieron más probabilidades de percibir sus necesidades como no cubiertas. La percepción de necesidades no cubiertas está relacionada con las características de la persona dependiente, del

  3. Performance of the Lancelot Beam Position Monitor at the Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagani, H.; Garcia-Nathan, T. B.; Jiang, C.; Kachatkou, A.; Marchal, J.; Omar, D.; Tartoni, N.; van Silfhout, R. G.; Williams, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Lancelot beam position and profile monitor records the scattered radiation off a thin, low-density foil, which passes through a pinhole perpendicular to the path of the beam and is detected by a Medipix3RX sensor. This arrangement does not expose the detector to the direct beam at synchrotrons and results in a negligible drop in flux downstream of the module. It allows for magnified images of the beam to be acquired in real time with high signal-to-noise ratios, enabling measurements of tiny displacements in the position of the centroid of approximately 1 μm. It also provides a means for independently measuring the photon energy of the incident monoenergetic photon beam. A constant frame rate of up to 245 Hz is achieved. The results of measurements with two Lancelot detectors installed in different environments at the Diamond Light Source are presented and their performance is discussed.

  4. Identification of the sources of PM10 in a subway tunnel using positive matrix factorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Duckshin; Lee, Taejeong; Hwang, Doyeon; Jung, Wonseok; Lee, Yongil; Cho, KiChul; Kim, Dongsool; Lees, Kiyoung

    2014-12-01

    The level of particulate matter of less than 10 μm diameter (PM10) at subway platforms can be significantly reduced by installing a platform screen-door system. However, both workers and passengers might be exposed to higher PM10 levels while the cars are within the tunnel because it is a more confined environment. This study determined the PM10 levels in a subway tunnel, and identified the sources of PM10 using elemental analysis and receptor modeling. Forty-four PM10 samples were collected in the tunnel between the Gireum and Mia stations on Line 4 in metropolitan Seoul and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and ion chromatography. The major PM10 sources were identified using positive matrix factorization (PMF). The average PM10 concentration in the tunnels was 200.8 ± 22.0 μg/m3. Elemental analysis indicated that the PM10 consisted of 40.4% inorganic species, 9.1% anions, 4.9% cations, and 45.6% other materials. Iron was the most abundant element, with an average concentration of 72.5 ± 10.4 μg/m3. The PM10 sources characterized by PMF included rail, wheel, and brake wear (59.6%), soil combustion (17.0%), secondary aerosols (10.0%), electric cable wear (8.1%), and soil and road dust (5.4%). Internal sources comprising rail, wheel, brake, and electric cable wear made the greatest contribution to the PM10 (67.7%) in tunnel air. Implications: With installation of a platform screen door, PM10 levels in subway tunnels were higher than those on platforms. Tunnel PM10 levels exceeded 150 µg/m3 of the Korean standard for subway platform. Elemental analysis of PM10 in a tunnel showed that Fe was the most abundant element. Five PM10 sources in tunnel were identified by positive matrix factorization. Railroad-related sources contributed 68% of PM10 in the subway tunnel.

  5. Spatiotemporal variations of ambient PM10 source contributions in Beijing in 2004 using positive matrix factorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Chen

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Source contributions to ambient PM10 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm or less in Beijing, China were determined with positive matrix factorization (PMF based on ambient PM10 composition data including concentrations of organic carbon (OC, elemental carbon (EC, ions and metal elements, which were simultaneously obtained at six sites through January, April, July and October in 2004. Results from PMF indicated that seven major sources of ambient PM10 were urban fugitive dust, crustal soil, coal combustion, secondary sulfate, secondary nitrate, biomass burning with municipal incineration, and vehicle emission, respectively. In paticular, urban fugitive dust and crustal soil as two types of dust sources with similar chemical characteristics were differentiated by PMF. Urban fugitive dust contributed the most, accounting for 34.4% of total PM10 mass on an annual basis, with relatively high contributions in all four months, and even covered 50% in April. It also showed higher contributions in southwestern and southeastern areas than in central urban areas. Coal combustion was found to be the primary contributor in January, showing higher contributions in urban areas than in suburban areas with seasonal variation peaking in winter, which accounted for 15.5% of the annual average PM10 concentration. Secondary sulfate and secondary nitrate combined as the largest contributor to PM10 in July and October, with strong seasonal variation peaking in summer, accounting for 38.8% and 31.5% of the total PM10 mass in July and October, respectively. Biomass burning with municipal incineration contributions were found in all four months and accounted for 9.8% of the annual average PM10 mass concentration, with obviously higher contribution in October than in other months. Incineration sources were probably located in southwestern Beijing. Contribution from vehicle emission accounted for 5.0% and exhibited no significant seasonal variation. In sum

  6. Smart x-ray beam position monitor system for the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, D.; Kuzay, T.

    1996-01-01

    In third-generation synchrotron radiation sources, such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS), the sensitivity and reliability requirements for the x-ray beam position monitors (XBPMs) are much higher than for earlier systems. Noise and contamination signals caused by radiation emitted from the bending magnet become a major problem. The regular XBPM calibration process can only provide signal correction for one set of conditions for the insertion devices (ID). During normal operation, parameters affecting the ID-emitted beam, such as the gap of the ID magnets and the beam current, are the variables. A new smart x-ray beam position monitor system (SBPM) has been conceived and designed for the APS. It has a built in self-learning structure with EEPROM memory that is large enough to open-quote open-quote remember close-quote close-quote a complete set of calibration data covering all the possible operating conditions. During the self-learning mode, the monitor system initializes a series of automatic scan motions with information for different ID setups and records them into the database array. During normal operation, the SBPM corrects the normalized output according to the ID setup information and the calibration database. So that, with this novel system, the SBPM is always calibrating itself with the changing ID set up conditions. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  7. A new source difference artificial neural network for enhanced positioning accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatt, Deepak; Aggarwal, Priyanka; Devabhaktuni, Vijay; Bhattacharya, Prabir

    2012-01-01

    Integrated inertial navigation system (INS) and global positioning system (GPS) units provide reliable navigation solution compared to standalone INS or GPS. Traditional Kalman filter-based INS/GPS integration schemes have several inadequacies related to sensor error model and immunity to noise. Alternatively, multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural networks with three layers have been implemented to improve the position accuracy of the integrated system. However, MLP neural networks show poor accuracy for low-cost INS because of the large inherent sensor errors. For the first time the paper demonstrates the use of knowledge-based source difference artificial neural network (SDANN) to improve navigation performance of low-cost sensor, with or without external aiding sources. Unlike the conventional MLP or artificial neural networks (ANN), the structure of SDANN consists of two MLP neural networks called the coarse model and the difference model. The coarse model learns the input–output data relationship whereas the difference model adds knowledge to the system and fine-tunes the coarse model output by learning the associated training or estimation error. Our proposed SDANN model illustrated a significant improvement in navigation accuracy of up to 81% over conventional MLP. The results demonstrate that the proposed SDANN method is effective for GPS/INS integration schemes using low-cost inertial sensors, with and without GPS

  8. Radon studies in Indian dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.J.

    2000-01-01

    The indoor radon ( 222 Rn) concentration has been measured by Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs) in large number of Indian dwellings. Radon concentrations were measured in different parts of the country. In the first study, radon concentrations were measured in 143 dwellings of Udaipur, Bikaner and Banswara towns of Rajasthan province. The distributions of the time-averaged indoor radon concentration in these three towns of the Rajasthan fit an approximately log normal distribution. The geometric mean (GM) values of radon concentrations in these three places were found to be 74 Bq m -3 , 46 Bq m -3 and 66 Bq m -3 with a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 2.2, 2.2 and 2.5 respectively. In another study, radon concentrations were measured in about 150 dwellings of hilly regions of the country. The measurements were carried out in Kohima (Nagaland), Baijnath and Palampur (Himachal Pradesh). The distribution of radon concentration in Kohima dwellings was found to be approximately log normal, however, the radon distribution in Baijnath and Palampur dwellings seems to be bimodal. The GM values of the radon concentrations for 65 dwellings in Kohima and 43 dwellings in Baijnath and Palampur were 88 Bq m -3 and 134 Bq m -3 with GSD of 1.7 and 2.5 respectively. The results are discussed in detail. (author)

  9. Source Apportionment of PM10 by Positive Matrix Factorization in Urban Area of Mumbai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrani Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Particulate Matter (PM10 has been one of the main air pollutants exceeding the ambient standards in most of the major cities in India. During last few years, receptor models such as Chemical Mass Balance, Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF, PCA–APCS and UNMIX have been used to provide solutions to the source identification and contributions which are accepted for developing effective and efficient air quality management plans. Each site poses different complexities while resolving PM10 contributions. This paper reports the variability of four sites within Mumbai city using PMF. Industrial area of Mahul showed sources such as residual oil combustion and paved road dust (27%, traffic (20%, coal fired boiler (17%, nitrate (15%. Residential area of Khar showed sources such as residual oil combustion and construction (25%, motor vehicles (23%, marine aerosol and nitrate (19%, paved road dust (18% compared to construction and natural dust (27%, motor vehicles and smelting work (25%, nitrate (16% and biomass burning and paved road dust (15% in Dharavi, a low income slum residential area. The major contributors of PM10 at Colaba were marine aerosol, wood burning and ammonium sulphate (24%, motor vehicles and smelting work (22%, Natural soil (19%, nitrate and oil burning (18%.

  10. In-situ X-ray diffraction system using sources and detectors at fixed angular positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, David M [Voorheesville, NY; Gibson, Walter M [Voorheesville, NY; Huang, Huapeng [Latham, NY

    2007-06-26

    An x-ray diffraction technique for measuring a known characteristic of a sample of a material in an in-situ state. The technique includes using an x-ray source for emitting substantially divergent x-ray radiation--with a collimating optic disposed with respect to the fixed source for producing a substantially parallel beam of x-ray radiation by receiving and redirecting the divergent paths of the divergent x-ray radiation. A first x-ray detector collects radiation diffracted from the sample; wherein the source and detector are fixed, during operation thereof, in position relative to each other and in at least one dimension relative to the sample according to a-priori knowledge about the known characteristic of the sample. A second x-ray detector may be fixed relative to the first x-ray detector according to the a-priori knowledge about the known characteristic of the sample, especially in a phase monitoring embodiment of the present invention.

  11. Proteins interacting with cloning scars: a source of false positive protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Charles A S; Boanca, Gina; Lee, Zachary T; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P

    2015-02-23

    A common approach for exploring the interactome, the network of protein-protein interactions in cells, uses a commercially available ORF library to express affinity tagged bait proteins; these can be expressed in cells and endogenous cellular proteins that copurify with the bait can be identified as putative interacting proteins using mass spectrometry. Control experiments can be used to limit false-positive results, but in many cases, there are still a surprising number of prey proteins that appear to copurify specifically with the bait. Here, we have identified one source of false-positive interactions in such studies. We have found that a combination of: 1) the variable sequence of the C-terminus of the bait with 2) a C-terminal valine "cloning scar" present in a commercially available ORF library, can in some cases create a peptide motif that results in the aberrant co-purification of endogenous cellular proteins. Control experiments may not identify false positives resulting from such artificial motifs, as aberrant binding depends on sequences that vary from one bait to another. It is possible that such cryptic protein binding might occur in other systems using affinity tagged proteins; this study highlights the importance of conducting careful follow-up studies where novel protein-protein interactions are suspected.

  12. StimTrack: An open-source software for manual transcranial magnetic stimulation coil positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosini, Emilia; Ferrante, Simona; van de Ruit, Mark; Biguzzi, Stefano; Colombo, Vera; Monticone, Marco; Ferriero, Giorgio; Pedrocchi, Alessandra; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Grey, Michael J

    2018-01-01

    During Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) experiments researchers often use a neuronavigation system to precisely and accurately maintain coil position and orientation. This study aimed to develop and validate an open-source software for TMS coil navigation. StimTrack uses an optical tracker and an intuitive user interface to facilitate the maintenance of position and orientation of any type of coil within and between sessions. Additionally, online access to navigation data is provided, hereby adding e.g. the ability to start or stop the magnetic stimulator depending on the distance to target or the variation of the orientation angles. StimTrack allows repeatable repositioning of the coil within 0.7mm for translation and 0.9) was obtained on all parameters computed on SR curves acquired using StimTrack. StimTrack showed a target accuracy similar to that of a commercial neuronavigation system (BrainSight, Rogue Research Inc.). Indeed, small differences both in position (∼0.2mm) and orientation (TMS. StimTrack allows researchers to tailor its functionality to their specific needs, providing added value that benefits experimental procedures and improves data quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A radio/optical reference frame. 5: Additional source positions in the mid-latitude southern hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, J. L.; Reynolds, J. E.; Jauncey, D. L.; de Vegt, C.; Zacharias, N.; Ma, C.; Fey, A. L.; Johnston, K. J.; Hindsley, R.; Hughes, J. A.; Malin, D. F.; White, G. L.; Kawaguchi, N.; Takahashi, Y.

    1994-01-01

    We report new accurate radio position measurements for 30 sources, preliminary positions for two sources, improved radio postions for nine additional sources which had limited previous observations, and optical positions and optical-radio differences for six of the radio sources. The Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations are part of the continuing effort to establish a global radio reference frame of about 400 compact, flat spectrum sources, which are evenly distributed across the sky. The observations were made using Mark III data format in four separate sessions in 1988-89 with radio telescopes at Tidbinbilla, Australia, Kauai, USA, and Kashima, Japan. We observed a total of 54 sources, including ten calibrators and three which were undetected. The 32 new source positions bring the total number in the radio reference frame catalog to 319 (172 northern and 147 southern) and fill in the zone -25 deg greater than delta greater than -45 deg which, prior to this list, had the lowest source density. The VLBI positions have an average formal precision of less than 1 mas, although unknown radio structure effects of about 1-2 mas may be present. The six new optical postion measurements are part of the program to obtain positions of the optical counterparts of the radio reference frame source and to map accurately the optical on to the radio reference frames. The optical measurements were obtained from United States Naval Observatory (USNO) Black Birch astrograph plates and source plates from the AAT, and Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) 4 m, and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Schmidt. The optical positions have an average precision of 0.07 sec, mostly due to the zero point error when adjusted to the FK5 optical frame using the IRS catalog. To date we have measured optical positions for 46 sources.

  14. 12 CFR 541.10 - Dwelling unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dwelling unit. 541.10 Section 541.10 Banks and... FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.10 Dwelling unit. The term dwelling unit means the unified combination of rooms designed for residential use by one family, other than a single-family dwelling. ...

  15. 7 CFR 3550.106 - Dwelling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dwelling requirements. 3550.106 Section 3550.106... Waste Disposal Grants § 3550.106 Dwelling requirements. (a) Modest dwelling. The property must be one... § 3550.63. (b) Post-repair condition. Dwellings repaired with section 504 funds need not be brought to...

  16. Resolution and drift measurements on the Advanced Photon Source beam position monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y.; Kahana, E.

    1994-01-01

    The resolution and long-term drift of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) beam position monitor (BPM) electronics were measured using the charged particle beams in the ESRF storage ring with various beam current and configurations (single bunch, 8 and 16 equally spaced bunches, and 1/3-fill). The energy of the stored electrons was 6 GeV. The integrated BPM electronics system as used for this work is capable of measuring the beam position on a turn-by-turn basis, which can be accumulated for N turns (N = 2 n , n = 1, 2, ... , 11). Estimation of the BPM resolution apart from the low-frequency beam motion was made by measuring the standard deviation in the measured beam position with different Ns. The analysis of the results indicates a BPM resolution of 18/√ N [μm] for the APS storage ring, which is equivalent to 0.07 μm/√Hz. For the miniature insertion device BPM with 2.8 times higher sensitivity, the resolution will be 0.02 μm/√Hz. The long-term drift of the BPM electronics independent of the actual beam motion was measured at 2 μm/hr, which settled after approximately 1.5 hours. This drift can be attributed mainly to the temperature effect. Comparison of the results with the laboratory measurements shows good agreement. Implication of the BPM resolution limit on the proposed global and local beam position feedback systems for the APS storage ring will also be discussed

  17. Resolution and drift measurements on the advanced photon source beam position monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y.; Kahana, E.

    1995-01-01

    The resolution and long-term drift of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) beam position monitor (BPM) electronics were measured using the charged particle beams in the ESRF storage ring with various beam current and configurations (single bunch, 8 and 16 equally spaced bunches, and 1/3-fill). The energy of the stored electrons was 6 GeV. The integrated BPM electronics system as used for this work is capable of measuring the beam position on a turn-by-turn basis, which can be accumulated for N turns (N=2 n , n=1,2,...,11) . Estimation of the BPM resolution apart from the low-frequency beam motion was made by measuring the standard deviation in the measured beam position with different Ns. The analysis of the results indicates a BPM resolution of 18/√N [μm] for the APS storage ring, which is equivalent to 0.07 μm/√Hz. For the miniature insertion device BPM with 2.8 times higher sensitivity, the resolution will be 0.02 μm/√Hz. The long-term drift of the BPM electronics independent of the actual beam motion was measured at 2 μm/hr, which settled after approximately 1.5 hours. This drift can be attributed mainly to the temperature effect. Comparison of the results with the laboratory measurements shows good agreement. Implication of the BPM resolution limit on the proposed global and local beam position feedback systems for the APS storage ring will also be discussed. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  18. HDR 192Ir source speed measurements using a high speed video camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, Gabriel P.; Viana, Rodrigo S. S.; Yoriyaz, Hélio; Podesta, Mark; Rubo, Rodrigo A.; Sales, Camila P. de; Reniers, Brigitte; Verhaegen, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The dose delivered with a HDR 192 Ir afterloader can be separated into a dwell component, and a transit component resulting from the source movement. The transit component is directly dependent on the source speed profile and it is the goal of this study to measure accurate source speed profiles. Methods: A high speed video camera was used to record the movement of a 192 Ir source (Nucletron, an Elekta company, Stockholm, Sweden) for interdwell distances of 0.25–5 cm with dwell times of 0.1, 1, and 2 s. Transit dose distributions were calculated using a Monte Carlo code simulating the source movement. Results: The source stops at each dwell position oscillating around the desired position for a duration up to (0.026 ± 0.005) s. The source speed profile shows variations between 0 and 81 cm/s with average speed of ∼33 cm/s for most of the interdwell distances. The source stops for up to (0.005 ± 0.001) s at nonprogrammed positions in between two programmed dwell positions. The dwell time correction applied by the manufacturer compensates the transit dose between the dwell positions leading to a maximum overdose of 41 mGy for the considered cases and assuming an air-kerma strength of 48 000 U. The transit dose component is not uniformly distributed leading to over and underdoses, which is within 1.4% for commonly prescribed doses (3–10 Gy). Conclusions: The source maintains its speed even for the short interdwell distances. Dose variations due to the transit dose component are much lower than the prescribed treatment doses for brachytherapy, although transit dose component should be evaluated individually for clinical cases

  19. Prograph Based Analysis of Single Source Shortest Path Problem with Few Distinct Positive Lengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bhowmik

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose an experimental study model S3P2 of a fast fully dynamic programming algorithm design technique in finite directed graphs with few distinct nonnegative real edge weights. The Bellman-Ford’s approach for shortest path problems has come out in various implementations. In this paper the approach once again is re-investigated with adjacency matrix selection in associate least running time. The model tests proposed algorithm against arbitrarily but positive valued weighted digraphs introducing notion of Prograph that speeds up finding the shortest path over previous implementations. Our experiments have established abstract results with the intention that the proposed algorithm can consistently dominate other existing algorithms for Single Source Shortest Path Problems. A comparison study is also shown among Dijkstra’s algorithm, Bellman-Ford algorithm, and our algorithm.

  20. Numerical analysis of the beam position monitor pickup for the Iranian light source facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafiee, M., E-mail: mehdish@ipm.ir [Radiation Applications Department, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Feghhi, S.A.H. [Radiation Applications Department, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahighi, J. [Iranian Light Source Facility (ILSF), Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we describe the design of a button type Beam Position Monitor (BPM) for the low emittance storage ring of the Iranian Light Source Facility (ILSF). First, we calculate sensitivities, induced power and intrinsic resolution based on solving Laplace equation numerically by finite element method (FEM), in order to find the potential at each point of BPM's electrode surface. After the optimization of the designed BPM, trapped high order modes (HOM), wakefield and thermal loss effects are calculated. Finally, after fabrication of BPM, it is experimentally tested by using a test-stand. The results depict that the designed BPM has a linear response in the area of 2×4 mm{sup 2} inside the beam pipe and the sensitivity of 0.080 and 0.087 mm{sup −1} in horizontal and vertical directions. Experimental results also depict that they are in a good agreement with numerical analysis.

  1. Radial Photonic Crystal for detection of frequency and position of radiation sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, J; Díaz-Rubio, A; Torrent, D; Cervera, F; Kirleis, M A; Piqué, A; Sánchez-Dehesa, J

    2012-01-01

    Based on the concepts of artificially microstructured materials, i.e. metamaterials, we present here the first practical realization of a radial wave crystal. This type of device was introduced as a theoretical proposal in the field of acoustics, and can be briefly defined as a structured medium with radial symmetry, where the constitutive parameters are invariant under radial geometrical translations. Our practical demonstration is realized in the electromagnetic microwave spectrum, because of the equivalence between the wave problems in both fields. A device has been designed, fabricated and experimentally characterized. It is able to perform beam shaping of punctual wave sources, and also to sense position and frequency of external radiators. Owing to the flexibility offered by the design concept, other possible applications are discussed.

  2. Practicing the Attentional Dwell Away?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Bundesen, Claus

    2007-01-01

    Studies of the time course of visual attention have identified a temporary functional blindness to the second of two spatially separated targets: attending to one visual stimulus may lead to impairments in identifying a second stimulus presented about 200-500 ms later than the first. The phenomenon...... is known as the attentional dwell time (e.g. Duncan, Ward, Shapiro, 1994). Previous studies of attentional dwell time have all used naive subjects running few (.... The results suggest that the majority of subjects may learn to optimize their performance reducing the attentional dwell time effect substantially. Further, the reduction in the attentional dwell time effect seems to be closely linked to the ability of the subject to inhibit eye movements while performing...

  3. Radon in dwellings in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedjemark, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    Studies on specific activities in building materials, gamma-radiation levels in dwellings, the concentrations of radon and daughters in the air indoors and the concentration of radon in tap water are in progress in Sweden. On the basis of these investigations and of the investigation of Hultqvist from the beginning of the 1950's, an attempt has been made to show how the radiation doses in dwellings have changed or may be changed by human activities and what these changes imply in terms of collective dose. The annual collective absorbed dose in the basal cells of the critical bronchial region have increased from 11 x 10 3 man-Gy for the occupants of dwellings existing in 1950 to 25 x 10 3 man-Gy for dwellings existing in 1975

  4. Sensitivity and offset calibration for the beam position monitors at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y.; Barr, D.; Decker, G.; Evans, K. Jr.; Kahana, E.

    1995-01-01

    The beam position monitors (BPMs) play a critically important role in commissioning and operation of accelerators. Accurate determination of the offsets relative to the magnetic axis and sensitivities of individual BPMs is thus needed. We will describe in this paper the schemes for calibrating all of the 360 BPMs for sensitivity and offset in the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring and the results. For the sensitivity calibration, a 2-dimensional map of the BPM response in the aluminum vacuum chamber is obtained theoretically, which is combined with the measured nonlinear response of the BPM electronics. A set of 2-dimensional polynomial coefficients is then obtained to approximate the result analytically. The offset calibration of the BPMs is done relative to the magnetic axis of the quadrupoles using the beam. This avoids the problem arising from various mechanical sources as well as the offset in the processing electronics. The measurement results for the resolution and long-term drift of the BPM electronics shows 0.06-μm/√Hz resolution and 2-μm/hr drift over a period of 1.5 hrs

  5. Survey of off-grid dwellings : January and February 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report presents statistics from the results of a survey on off-grid dwellings in the Yukon. Two hundred and fifty-eight surveys were completed, and all questions asked in the survey were represented in this document. Dwellings were defined as any buildings in which people slept or ate, including cabins, cottages, lodges and camps, year-round or otherwise. Information was provided on whether or not the dwellings were main residences or recreational properties and the lengths of time in which the dwellings were used. Comments were presented on the difficulties of getting mortgages or other financing for off-grid dwellings. Detailed and specific questions were asked, requiring information about distances from electric poles and intentions to connect to the grid; whether or not the property was a subsistence and/or commercial residence; energy sources currently used; heating systems; light sources; water pumping; power generators; telephones; wind and solar power generators; and, costs involved in purchase and maintenance of energy systems. A series of questions revolved around the use, cost and maintenance of generators. Maintenance and installation costs of photovoltaic systems and wind power generators were presented. Micro-hydro system generators were discussed. Future involvement in energy programs was suggested with specific reference to off-grid energy programs. The survey concluded with comments and questions about off-grid energy in general. tabs.

  6. Diagnostics of and measures against radon concentrations in a dwelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, H.

    1994-02-01

    Results are presented of measurements in a test-dwelling in the period april 1993 - november 1993. The purpose of the measurements was to investigate the possibilities of using a blower door (a fan in a wall of the dwelling) for specifying sources of radon in the dwelling, employing the diagnostic method developed at the KVI (Nuclear Physics Accelerator Institute in Groningen, Netherlands). Special attention is paid to the measurement of two input variables for the diagnostic method: transparency of the walls of the dwelling and the strength of static sources. Also measures aimed at reducing radon concentrations in the dwelling are discussed. The main conclusions are that (a) the pressure-variation method is a valid procedure to measure the transparency of walls and floors; (b) the blower door is a suitable technique for arriving at a correct diagnosis; and (c) over-pressurizing the crawl-space is the most effective measure in reducing the radon concentration of the crawl-space. More research on air flows in the soil is recommended. 21 figs., 28 tabs., 7 refs

  7. Locating and limiting radon in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildingson, O.; Gustafsson, J.; Nilsson, I.

    1984-01-01

    More than 3,300 Swedish dwellings have an indoor radon daughter concentration above 400 Bq.m -3 (or 0.108 WL). It is considered to be unsafe to live in any of these dwellings and the radon daughter concentration has to be reduced. Before deciding what measures to take, it is important to determine the radon sources. Possible sources are exhalation from building materials and/or radon transport from the ground into the building through cracks and joints in the slab. Different methods of locating the sources have been developed. To locate cracks and joints in slabs the ventilation rate and the air pressure difference relative to the ground are changed while monitoring radon/radon daughter concentration. The effect of five different measures to reduce the indoor radon daughter concentration have also been evaluated: increased ventilation rate by mechanical ventilation, ventilation of the small spaces between the floor and the slab, sealing the surface of radon exhaling walls, sealing joints and cracks in the slab, and ventilation of the drainage under the slab. (author)

  8. Knowledge-sourcing of R&D workers in different job positions: contextualising external personal knowledge networks

    OpenAIRE

    Huber, Franz

    2013-01-01

    This paper systematically examines the role of external personal knowledge networks vis-à-vis alternative sources of work-related knowledge. Specific hypotheses on whether the importance of external personal networks vary for job positions, knowledge functions and sources of competitiveness are examined. The study is based on a survey and interviews with 105 R&D workers in 46 Information Technology (IT) firms in the Greater Cambridge Region (UK).The results show that alternative sources o...

  9. Subjective Response to Foot-Fall Noise, Including Localization of the Source Position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunskog, Jonas; Hwang, Ha Dong; Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2011-01-01

    annoyance, using simulated binaural room impulse responses, with sources being a moving point source or a nonmoving surface source, and rooms being a room with a reverberation time of 0.5 s or an anechoic room. The paper concludes that no strong effect of the source localization on the annoyance can...

  10. Radon in Estonian dwellings - Results from a National Radon Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahapill, Lia; Rulkov, Anne; Rajamaee, Raivo [Estonian Radiation Protection Centre (Kiirguskeskus), Tallinn (Spain); Aakerblom, Gustav [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-10-01

    A countrywide survey of radon concentrations in Estonian dwellings was carried out during the period 1998-2001. The survey formed a part of the cooperation program on radiation protection between the Estonian Radiation Protection (Kiirguskeskus) Centre and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI). The survey included measurements in a number of dwellings representative for Estonia in detached houses and multifamily buildings (only dwellings on the bottom floor were included in the survey). Altogether, radon concentrations were measured in 515 dwellings, a number large enough to be statistically significant. All measurements were made with alphatrack film detectors of the same type that SSI uses in Sweden. The measurements were made during a 2-3 month period during the winter half-year. Two detectors were used in each dwelling. In Estonia there are 0.17 million dwellings in detached houses and 0.45 million in multi apartment buildings. Of the 1.26 million inhabitants in Estonia. 0.36 million live in detached houses and 0.90 million in multi apartment buildings. Most of the latter were built during the Soviet occupation. Of the dwellings in multifamily buildings 30 % are assumed to be situated on the first floor. The mean radon concentration in dwellings in detached hoses, according to the survey results, is 103 Bq/m{sup 3}, in dwellings on the bottom floor in multi apartment buildings it is 78 Bq/m{sup 3}. In 1% of the dwellings the radon concentration exceeded 400 Bq/m{sup 3}. The highest radon concentration found in the study was 1040 Bq/m{sup 3}. Based on the assumption that the average radon concentration in the dwellings in multi-apartment buildings that are not situated on the bottom floor is 30 Bq/m{sup 3}, and that these dwellings constitute 70% of all dwellings in multi apartment buildings, the mean radon concentration in dwellings in multi apartment buildings is calculated to be 44 Bq/m{sup 3}. The mean value for all Estonia dwellings is calculated

  11. Radon in Estonian dwellings - Results from a National Radon Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahapill, Lia; Rulkov, Anne; Rajamaee, Raivo; Aakerblom, Gustav

    2003-10-01

    A countrywide survey of radon concentrations in Estonian dwellings was carried out during the period 1998-2001. The survey formed a part of the cooperation program on radiation protection between the Estonian Radiation Protection (Kiirguskeskus) Centre and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI). The survey included measurements in a number of dwellings representative for Estonia in detached houses and multifamily buildings (only dwellings on the bottom floor were included in the survey). Altogether, radon concentrations were measured in 515 dwellings, a number large enough to be statistically significant. All measurements were made with alphatrack film detectors of the same type that SSI uses in Sweden. The measurements were made during a 2-3 month period during the winter half-year. Two detectors were used in each dwelling. In Estonia there are 0.17 million dwellings in detached houses and 0.45 million in multi apartment buildings. Of the 1.26 million inhabitants in Estonia. 0.36 million live in detached houses and 0.90 million in multi apartment buildings. Most of the latter were built during the Soviet occupation. Of the dwellings in multifamily buildings 30 % are assumed to be situated on the first floor. The mean radon concentration in dwellings in detached hoses, according to the survey results, is 103 Bq/m 3 , in dwellings on the bottom floor in multi apartment buildings it is 78 Bq/m 3 . In 1% of the dwellings the radon concentration exceeded 400 Bq/m 3 . The highest radon concentration found in the study was 1040 Bq/m 3 . Based on the assumption that the average radon concentration in the dwellings in multi-apartment buildings that are not situated on the bottom floor is 30 Bq/m 3 , and that these dwellings constitute 70% of all dwellings in multi apartment buildings, the mean radon concentration in dwellings in multi apartment buildings is calculated to be 44 Bq/m 3 . The mean value for all Estonia dwellings is calculated to be 60 Bq/m 3 . Using

  12. Source apportionment of ambient particle number concentrations in central Los Angeles using positive matrix factorization (PMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Sowlat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the positive matrix factorization (PMF receptor model (version 5.0 was used to identify and quantify major sources contributing to particulate matter (PM number concentrations, using PM number size distributions in the range of 13 nm to 10 µm combined with several auxiliary variables, including black carbon (BC, elemental and organic carbon (EC/OC, PM mass concentrations, gaseous pollutants, meteorological, and traffic counts data, collected for about 9 months between August 2014 and 2015 in central Los Angeles, CA. Several parameters, including particle number and volume size distribution profiles, profiles of auxiliary variables, contributions of different factors in different seasons to the total number concentrations, diurnal variations of each of the resolved factors in the cold and warm phases, weekday/weekend analysis for each of the resolved factors, and correlation between auxiliary variables and the relative contribution of each of the resolved factors, were used to identify PM sources. A six-factor solution was identified as the optimum for the aforementioned input data. The resolved factors comprised nucleation, traffic 1, traffic 2 (with a larger mode diameter than traffic 1 factor, urban background aerosol, secondary aerosol, and soil/road dust. Traffic sources (1 and 2 were the major contributor to PM number concentrations, collectively making up to above 60 % (60.8–68.4 % of the total number concentrations during the study period. Their contribution was also significantly higher in the cold phase compared to the warm phase. Nucleation was another major factor significantly contributing to the total number concentrations (an overall contribution of 17 %, ranging from 11.7 to 24 %, with a larger contribution during the warm phase than in the cold phase. The other identified factors were urban background aerosol, secondary aerosol, and soil/road dust, with relative contributions of approximately 12

  13. Radon in dwellings in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedjemark, G.A.

    1978-04-01

    Studies on the specific activities in building materials, the γ-radiation levels in dwellings, the concentrations of radon and daughters in the air indoors and the concentration of radon in tap water are in progress in Sweden. On basis of these investigations and of the investigation of Hultqvist from the beginning of the 1950s, an attempt has been made to show how the radiation doses in dwellings have changed or may be changed by human activities and what these changes imply in terms of collective dose. The annual collective absorbed dose in the basal cells of the critical bronchial region have increased from 11 . 10 3 manGy for the occupants of dwellings existing in 1950 to 25 . 10 3 manGy for dwellings existing in 1975. If the building of houses continues as at present it can be estimated that the annual collective dose will be between 25 and 31 . 10 3 manGy for the dwellings of 1985. (author)

  14. PM2.5 in Dutch dwellings due to cooking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, P.; Borsboom, W.A.; Kemp, R.E.J.

    2016-01-01

    Cooking emissions have long been seen as an odour problem. However recent studies showed that Particulate Matter (PM) is the main health risk of indoor air and cooking can be a major source. A small field study within 9 Dutch dwellings indicates that depending on the conditions cooking can have a

  15. Relationships between the forest dwelling people of South-West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A brief study was carried out in South-West Mau region of the Mau Forest Complex in March 1993. The primary aim was to assess the importance of the tree hyrax, Dendrohyrax arboreus (A. Smith, 1827), to the local forest-dwelling people as a source of food and medicine and in their spiritual traditions, while investigating ...

  16. Estimation of radon concentration in dwellings in and around ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Besides, it is also known that out of the total radiation dose received from natural and man-made sources, 60% of the dose is due to radon and its progeny. Taking this into account, an attempt has been made to estimate radon concentration in dwellings in and around Guwahati using aluminium dosimeter cups with CR-39 ...

  17. Maximum likelihood estimation of the position of a radiating source in a waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinich, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    An array of sensors is receiving radiation from a source of interest. The source and the array are in a one- or two-dimensional waveguide. The maximum-likelihood estimators of the coordinates of the source are analyzed under the assumptions that the noise field is Gaussian. The Cramer-Rao lower bound is of the order of the number of modes which define the source excitation function. The results show that the accuracy of the maximum likelihood estimator of source depth using a vertical array in a infinite horizontal waveguide (such as the ocean) is limited by the number of modes detected by the array regardless of the array size

  18. A study of radon variation in dwelling during 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, A.N.; Ramachandran, T.V.; Muraleedharan, T.S.; Subbaramu, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    Natural radioactivity due to radon and its progeny levels indoors contributes significantly to the total radiation to man. The main source of radon and its progeny in a dwelling is the emanation of radon gas from soil. The temperature and ventilation vary in a dwelling during the year. These parameters influence the indoor radon levels. The seasonal variation of radon was studied in a dwelling as well as in the outside air. The filter paper method and alpha counting, and the solid state track detector technique and track counting were used to study the radon levels. The geometric mean of radon daughters concentrations were 0.5 mWL and 0.8 mWL measured by filter-paper method and SSNTD method respectively. The geometric mean of radon concentrations were 6.2 Bqm -3 and 10.0 Bqm -3 by filter-paper method and SSNTD method respectively. (author). 3 figs., 3 tabs., 13 refs

  19. 7 CFR 3550.57 - Dwelling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dwelling requirements. 3550.57 Section 3550.57... AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.57 Dwelling requirements. (a) Modest dwelling. The property must be one that is considered modest for the area, must not be...

  20. Raising the energy performance of historical dwellings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Krugten, L.T.F.; Hermans, L.M.C.; Havinga, L.C.; Pereira Roders, A.R.; Schellen, H.L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Earlier studies assume that historical dwellings and post-war dwellings in particular, are less sustainable than modern dwellings, justifying its demolition. Over time, historical buildings have been transformed and their energy performance improved. However, there is little known on the

  1. SU-F-T-24: Impact of Source Position and Dose Distribution Due to Curvature of HDR Transfer Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, A; Yue, N [Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Brachytherapy is a highly targeted from of radiotherapy. While this may lead to ideal dose distributions on the treatment planning system, a small error in source location can lead to change in the dose distribution. The purpose of this study is to quantify the impact on source position error due to curvature of the transfer tubes and the impact this may have on the dose distribution. Methods: Since the source travels along the midline of the tube, an estimate of the positioning error for various angles of curvature was determined using geometric properties of the tube. Based on the range of values a specific shift was chosen to alter the treatment plans for a number of cervical cancer patients who had undergone HDR brachytherapy boost using tandem and ovoids. Impact of dose to target and organs at risk were determined and checked against guidelines outlined by radiation oncologist. Results: The estimate of the positioning error was 2mm short of the expected position (the curved tube can only cause the source to not reach as far as with a flat tube). Quantitative impact on the dose distribution is still in the process of being analyzed. Conclusion: The accepted positioning tolerance for the source position of a HDR brachytherapy unit is plus or minus 1mm. If there is an additional 2mm discrepancy due to tube curvature, this can result in a source being 1mm to 3mm short of the expected location. While we do always attempt to keep the tubes straight, in some cases such as with tandem and ovoids, the tandem connector does not extend as far out from the patient so the ovoid tubes always contain some degree of curvature. The dose impact of this may be significant.

  2. Dwelling towers of Czech castles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Durdík, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 63, - (2009), s. 139-150 ISSN 1875-2896. [Meeting of Europa Nostra Scientific Council /44./. Kilkenny, 27.09.2008-02.10.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : castle * castellology * dwelling tower * donjon * keep * medieval archaeology * architecture * Bohemia * Middle Ages Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  3. Positive Affect as a Source of Resilience for Women in Chronic Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Zautra, Alez J.; Johnson, Lisa M.; Davis, Mary C.

    2005-01-01

    A sample of 124 women with osteoarthritis (OA) and/or fibromyalgia (FMS) completed initial assessments for demographic data, health status, and personality traits and 10 to 12 weekly interviews regarding pain, stress, negative affect, and positive affect. Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that weekly elevations of pain and stress predicted increases in negative affect. Both higher weekly positive affect as well as greater positive affect on average resulted in lower negative affect both ...

  4. Calibration of an advanced photon source linac beam position monitor used for positron position measurement of a beam containing both positrons and electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sereno, Nicholas S.

    1998-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) linac beam position monitors can be used to monitor the position of a beam containing both positrons and electrons. To accomplish this task, both the signal at the bunching frequency of 2856 MHz and the signal at 2x2856 MHz are acquired and processed for each stripline. The positron beam position is obtained by forming a linear combination of both 2856 and 5712 MHz signals for each stripline and then performing the standard difference over sum computation. The required linear combination of the 2856 and 5712 MHz signals depends on the electrical calibration of each stripline/cable combination. In this paper, the calibration constants for both 2856 MHz and 5712 MHz signals for each stripline are determined using a pure beam of electrons. The calibration constants are obtained by measuring the 2856 and 5712 MHz stripline signals at various electron beam currents and positions. Finally, the calibration constants measured using electrons are used to determine positron beam position for the mixed beam case

  5. Environmental radon dosimetry in Indian dwellings and workplaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kant, K. [K.L.Mehta Dayanand College for Women, Dept. of Physics, Haryana (India); Upadhyay, S.B. [B.S.A. College, Dept. of Physics, Mathura, (India)

    2006-07-01

    Measurements of radon and its progeny in the dwellings and environment of workplaces are important because the radiation dose to human population due to inhalation of radon and its progeny contribute more than 50% of the total dose from natural sources and is the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. Recent experimental and epidemiological studies suggest that inhalation of radon progeny, which are the most important source of irradiation of the human respiratory track in workplace and domestic environment could be a cause of lung cancer. The quantification of iidual radon exposure over a long time period is one of the main issues. In the present study, we will report the results of radon monitoring carried out in the environment of workplaces of an oil refinery, LPG bottling plant, thermal power plant and gas power plant, besides the typical and modern Indian dwellings using alpha sensitive L.R.-115 type II solid-state nuclear track detectors in order to quantify the dose to the workers and the inhabitants. For comparison, the radon and its progeny levels were also measured in dwellings far away from the plants. Radon and its progeny levels were found higher in the environment of workplaces and dwellings in the vicinity of the plants. The details of the results obtained will be reported in the full paper. (authors)

  6. Environmental radon dosimetry in Indian dwellings and workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kant, K.; Upadhyay, S.B.

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of radon and its progeny in the dwellings and environment of workplaces are important because the radiation dose to human population due to inhalation of radon and its progeny contribute more than 50% of the total dose from natural sources and is the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. Recent experimental and epidemiological studies suggest that inhalation of radon progeny, which are the most important source of irradiation of the human respiratory track in workplace and domestic environment could be a cause of lung cancer. The quantification of individual radon exposure over a long time period is one of the main issues. In the present study, we will report the results of radon monitoring carried out in the environment of workplaces of an oil refinery, LPG bottling plant, thermal power plant and gas power plant, besides the typical and modern Indian dwellings using alpha sensitive L.R.-115 type II solid-state nuclear track detectors in order to quantify the dose to the workers and the inhabitants. For comparison, the radon and its progeny levels were also measured in dwellings far away from the plants. Radon and its progeny levels were found higher in the environment of workplaces and dwellings in the vicinity of the plants. The details of the results obtained will be reported in the full paper. (authors)

  7. Propagation characteristics of audible noise generated by single corona source under positive DC voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuebao Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The directivity and lateral profile of corona-generated audible noise (AN from a single corona source are measured through experiments carried out in the semi-anechoic laboratory. The experimental results show that the waveform of corona-generated AN consists of a series of random sound pressure pulses whose pulse amplitudes decrease with the increase of measurement distance. A single corona source can be regarded as a non-directional AN source, and the A-weighted SPL (sound pressure level decreases 6 dB(A as doubling the measurement distance. Then, qualitative explanations for the rationality of treating the single corona source as a point source are given on the basis of the Ingard’s theory for sound generation in corona discharge. Furthermore, we take into consideration of the ground reflection and the air attenuation to reconstruct the propagation features of AN from the single corona source. The calculated results agree with the measurement well, which validates the propagation model. Finally, the influence of the ground reflection on the SPL is presented in the paper.

  8. The survey of dwellings with increased radon levels in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicanova, M.

    1998-01-01

    This national survey of indoor radon measurements in a sample of dwellings in Slovakia was organised by the Institute of Preventive and Clinical Medicine in Bratislava. The aim was to find districts and type of dwellings with the highest indoor radon concentrations and to estimate the radiation load of the Slovak population owing the indoor radon exposure. Passive solid state nuclear track detectors were used to measure indoor radon concentrations. The detectors were polyallyldiglycolcarbonate CR-39 which were placed in about 6,000 selected houses (minimum two detectors for every residence). After six months exposed detectors and questionnaires were returned to for analysis. Electrochemical etching combined with a chemical pre-etching process was used for evaluating detectors. Present results are from 3,657 residents (0.2% of total dwellings in Slovakia). It was found that the arithmetic mean of equilibrium equivalent concentration (EEC) was 86 ± 119 Bq m -3 , the geometric mean was about 41 ± 2.22 Bq m -3 and 11% of dwellings (N = 409) have a greater EEC of radon than the action level (200 Bq m -3 ). The national survey results suggest that Slovakia may be among the countries with high radon risk in Central Europe. The population-weighted arithmetic mean is 48 Bq m -3 , the maximum value found was 1500 Bq m -3 and the average annual effective dose from indoor radon exposure is 2.1 mSv. The district with the highest indoor radon concentrations correlate with known presence of uranium in the soil, therefore the soil is probably the main source of radon in Slovak dwellings. This survey of dwellings with increased radon levels supported this conclusion, because the highest radon levels were found in older family houses without cellars. (author)

  9. Simultaneous estimation of strength and position of a heat source in a participating medium using DE algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parwani, Ajit K.; Talukdar, Prabal; Subbarao, P.M.V.

    2013-01-01

    An inverse heat transfer problem is discussed to estimate simultaneously the unknown position and timewise varying strength of a heat source by utilizing differential evolution approach. A two dimensional enclosure with isothermal and black boundaries containing non-scattering, absorbing and emitting gray medium is considered. Both radiation and conduction heat transfer are included. No prior information is used for the functional form of timewise varying strength of heat source. The finite volume method is used to solve the radiative transfer equation and the energy equation. In this work, instead of measured data, some temperature data required in the solution of the inverse problem are taken from the solution of the direct problem. The effect of measurement errors on the accuracy of estimation is examined by introducing errors in the temperature data of the direct problem. The prediction of source strength and its position by the differential evolution (DE) algorithm is found to be quite reasonable. -- Highlights: •Simultaneous estimation of strength and position of a heat source. •A conducting and radiatively participating medium is considered. •Implementation of differential evolution algorithm for such kind of problems. •Profiles with discontinuities can be estimated accurately. •No limitation in the determination of source strength at the final time

  10. Development of an asymmetric multiple-position neutron source (AMPNS) method to monitor the criticality of a degraded reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.S.; Levine, S.H.

    1985-01-01

    An analytical/experimental method has been developed to monitor the subcritical reactivity and unfold the k/sub infinity/ distribution of a degraded reactor core. The method uses several fixed neutron detectors and a Cf-252 neutron source placed sequentially in multiple positions in the core. Therefore, it is called the Asymmetric Multiple Position Neutron Source (AMPNS) method. The AMPNS method employs nucleonic codes to analyze the neutron multiplication of a Cf-252 neutron source. An optimization program, GPM, is utilized to unfold the k/sub infinity/ distribution of the degraded core, in which the desired performance measure minimizes the error between the calculated and the measured count rates of the degraded reactor core. The analytical/experimental approach is validated by performing experiments using the Penn State Breazeale TRIGA Reactor (PSBR). A significant result of this study is that it provides a method to monitor the criticality of a damaged core during the recovery period

  11. Increase of the positive ion source power in JT-60 NBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Mikito; Akino, Noboru; Ebisawa, Noboru

    1998-09-01

    Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) heating experiment in JT-60 started in 1986, and the rated injection power of 20MW at 75keV with hydrogen was achieved after several month operation. In 1991, the ion sources and power supply had been upgraded for a higher beam energy up to 120keV with deuterium, following which the ion source operation re-started aiming for an injection power of 40MW at 110keV. In the operation, the beam acceleration voltage was tried to increase by modifying the ion source structure against the break-down which occurred frequently in the ion source. The beam acceleration was, however, unstable in a beam energy range of more than 105keV because of voltage-holding deterioration in the accelerator. Therefore we changed the strategy to increase the injection power: i.e. we tried to increase the beam current with keeping the beam energy. The structure of the source has been modified to be operated in a high current regime. As a result, the deuterium neutral beam injection of 40MW at 91-96keV was achieved in July 1996. (author)

  12. Advanced design of positive-ion sources for neutral-beam applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marguerat, E.F.; Haselton, H.H.; Menon, M.M.; Schechter, D.E.; Stirling, W.L.; Tsai, C.C.

    1982-01-01

    The APIS ion source is being developed to meet a goal of producing ion beams of less than or equal to 200 keV, 100 A, with 10-30-s pulse lengths. In a continuing effort to advance the state of the art and to produce long pulse ion beams, APIS ion sources with grid dimensions of 10 x 25 cm, 13 x 43 cm, and 16 x 48 cm are being developed. In the past year, the 10- x 25-cm ion source has been operated to produce ion beams in excess of 100 keV for many seconds pulse length. An advanced design concept is being pursued with the primary objectives to improve radiation protection, reduce fabrication costs, and simplify maintenance. The source magnetic sheild will be designed as a vacuum enclosure to house all source components. The electrical insulation requirements of energy recovery are also considered. Because of the frequent maintenance requirements, the electron emitter assembly will be designed with a remote handling capability. A new accelerator design which incorporates the necessary neutron shielding and associated steering gimbal system is also described

  13. Active beam position stabilization of pulsed lasers for long-distance ion profile diagnostics at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Robert A; Liu, Yun; Long, Cary; Aleksandrov, Alexander; Blokland, Willem

    2011-02-14

    A high peak-power Q-switched laser has been used to monitor the ion beam profiles in the superconducting linac at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). The laser beam suffers from position drift due to movement, vibration, or thermal effects on the optical components in the 250-meter long laser beam transport line. We have designed, bench-tested, and implemented a beam position stabilization system by using an Ethernet CMOS camera, computer image processing and analysis, and a piezo-driven mirror platform. The system can respond at frequencies up to 30 Hz with a high position detection accuracy. With the beam stabilization system, we have achieved a laser beam pointing stability within a range of 2 μrad (horizontal) to 4 μrad (vertical), corresponding to beam drifts of only 0.5 mm × 1 mm at the furthest measurement station located 250 meters away from the light source.

  14. Approach Motivation as Incentive Salience: Perceptual Sources of Evidence in Relation to Positive Word Primes

    OpenAIRE

    Ode, Scott; Winters, Patricia L.; Robinson, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments (total N = 391) examined predictions derived from a biologically-based incentive salience theory of approach motivation. In all experiments, judgments indicative of enhanced perceptual salience were exaggerated in the context of positive, relative to neutral or negative, stimuli. In Experiments 1 and 2, positive words were judged to be of a larger size (Experiment 1) and led individuals to judge subsequently presented neutral objects as larger in size (Experiment 2). In Exper...

  15. Radon measurements in hispaniola dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, J.; Colgan, P.A.; Cancio, D.

    1996-01-01

    The results of a national radon survey and a number of regional surveys of radon in spanish dwelling are reviewed. The best estimate of the geometric mean of indoor radon concentrations is 41.1. Bq/m -3 and single-family dwellings have been shown to be more at risk than apartments. Results need to be interpreted with some caution due to differences in survey methodologies and measurement procedures. The risks from radon exposure are put in perspective by comparison with other voluntary risks. Finally, although a number of 'high risk' areas have already been identified, it is concluded that implementation of a national programme to reduce radon exposure may await a better definition of the problem extent. (authors). 20 refs., 1 tab

  16. Regulatory control of radiation sources and radioactive materials: The UK position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englefield, C.; Holyoak, B.; Ledgerwood, K.; Littlewood, K.

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents the organizations involved in the regulation of the safety of radiation sources and the security of radioactive materials across the UK. The safety of radiation sources is within the regulatory remit of the Health and Safety Executive, under the Health and safety of Work Act 1974 and associated regulations. Any employer using radiation sources has a statutory duty to comply with this legislation, thereby protecting workers and the public from undue risk. From a radioactive waste management perspective, the storage and use of radioactive materials and the accumulation and disposal of radioactive waste are regulated by the environment agencies of England and Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland, under the Radioactive Substances Act 1993. Special regulatory arrangements apply to nuclear sites, such as power stations and fuel cycle plants, and some additional bodies are involved in the regulation of the security of fissile materials. An explanation is given in the paper as to how these organizations to work together to provide a comprehensive and effective regulatory regime. An overview of how these regulators have recently started to work more closely with other enforcement bodies, such as the Police and Customs and Excise is also given, to illustrate the approach that is being applied in the UK to deal with orphan sources and illicit trafficking. (author)

  17. Cave dwellings in the Mediterranean basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viedma Urdiales Eugenia María

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction and use of subterranean caves for different functions has been relatively commonplace throughout history in different regions around the world, especially in the Mediterranean basin. Some of them are still standing at the beginning of the 21st century, and are a good example of adaptation to the geographic environment, and a part of the historical heritage. Following a short overview of the different Mediterranean countries, this work pays special attention to the present use of caves as dwelling spaces in Italy, and particularly in Spain where the caves are currently in an interesting process of renovation to meet the needs of the present population. This process is helping to boost the local economy, and it is funded by both private and public sources in several towns in Andalusia (Spain.

  18. Approach Motivation as Incentive Salience: Perceptual Sources of Evidence in Relation to Positive Word Primes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ode, Scott; Winters, Patricia L.; Robinson, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Four experiments (total N = 391) examined predictions derived from a biologically-based incentive salience theory of approach motivation. In all experiments, judgments indicative of enhanced perceptual salience were exaggerated in the context of positive, relative to neutral or negative, stimuli. In Experiments 1 and 2, positive words were judged to be of a larger size (Experiment 1) and led individuals to judge subsequently presented neutral objects as larger in size (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, similar effects were observed in a mock subliminal presentation paradigm. In Experiment 4, positive word primes were perceived to have been presented for a longer duration of time, again relative to both neutral and negative word primes. Results are discussed in relation to theories of approach motivation, affective priming, and the motivation-perception interface. PMID:21875189

  19. Approach motivation as incentive salience: perceptual sources of evidence in relation to positive word primes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ode, Scott; Winters, Patricia L; Robinson, Michael D

    2012-02-01

    Four experiments (total N = 391) examined predictions derived from a biologically based incentive salience theory of approach motivation. In all experiments, judgments indicative of enhanced perceptual salience were exaggerated in the context of positive, relative to neutral or negative, stimuli. In Experiments 1 and 2, positive words were judged to be of a larger size (Experiment 1) and led individuals to judge subsequently presented neutral objects as larger in size (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, similar effects were observed in a mock subliminal presentation paradigm. In Experiment 4, positive word primes were perceived to have been presented for a longer duration of time, again relative to both neutral and negative word primes. Results are discussed in relation to theories of approach motivation, affective priming, and the motivation-perception interface. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  20. Prototype photon position monitors for undulator beams at the advanced light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warwick, T.; Shu, D.; Rodricks, B.; Johnson, E.D.

    1992-01-01

    Design criteria are described, and test results are presented, for prototype ALS undulator beam position monitors. The design is based on monitors presently in use at NSLS, with modifications to account for the widely varying and large K values of the undulators to be installed at the ALS. In particular, we have modified the design to simplify the thermal engineering and we have explored techniques to suppress the response of the monitors to soft photons, so that the beam position can be determined by measuring the higher energy photons which are better collimated

  1. Operation of a general purpose stepping motor-encoder positioning subsystem at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubblefield, F.W.

    1985-11-01

    Four copies of a general purpose subsystem for mechanical positioning of detectors, samples, and beam line optical elements which constitute experiments at the National Synchrotron Light Source facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory have been constructed and placed into operation. Construction of a fifth subsystem unit is nearing completion. The subsystems affect mechanical positioning by controlling a set of stepping motor-encoder pairs. The units are general purpose in the sense that they receive commands over a 9600 baud asynchronous serial line compatible with the RS-232-C electrical signal standard, generate TTL-compatible streams of stepping pulses which can be used with a wide variety of stepping motors, and read back position values from a number of different types and models of position encoder. The basic structure of the motor controller subsystem is briefly reviewed. Additions to the subsystem made in response to problems indicated by actual operation of the four installed units are described in more detail

  2. Lung doses from radon in dwellings and influencing factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stranden, E.

    1980-01-01

    The radon concentration in Norwegian dwellings and the lung doses received by the Norwegian population are reported. The biological effects of these doses are discussed. The mean value of radon-daughters in Norwegian dwellings was found to be about 7x10 -3 WL (working levels). This corresponds to an annual exposure of about 0.3 WLM (working level months). From studies of the lung cancer statistics of Norway, this exposure may account for about 10% of the annual lung cancer cases in Norway. The variations in the radon concentration inside dwellings are discussed, and the influence of exhalation, ventilation and meteorological parameters upon the respiratory dosage is studied. From the risk estimates performed, the consequences of an increased indoor radon concentration due to reduced ventilation or introduction of building materials with high radium concentrations are discussed. From comparison of the population doses from different sources of radiation, it is evident that a possible future increase in the radon concentration in dwellings is one of the most serious radiation protection problems of our time. (author)

  3. Establishing the level of exposure to radon gas in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karupa, Jackson Uakaningirua

    2016-04-01

    The main source of natural internal irradiation of man is radon and its decay products. In this study, the radon concentration levels in selected dwellings in Erongo region, Swakopmund, Namibia will be estimated using passive or active radon detector. The primary objective of the study is to measure and establish radon levels in selected dwellings in Erongo region, Swakopmund of Namibia. Measurements will be carried out for the period of twelve months and after three months period the detectors will be exchanged for laboratory analysis. The results obtained from the study will reveal the concentration of radon in most of the selected dwellings in Erongo region, Swakopmund, Namibia. Once Radon level is measured or identified, the results with data from work done in other environments in Africa and elsewhere will be compared. In case of high radon concentrations in dwelling, the occupants will be advised to ensure good ventilation practices as cost effective means of mitigation of indoor radon gas level in the area. (au)

  4. Antimicrobial Activity of Carbon Nanoparticles Isolated from Natural Sources against Pathogenic Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varghese, S.; Jose, S.; Varghese, S.; Kuriakose, S.; Jose, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the isolation of carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) from kitchen soot, characterization of the CNPs by UV/visible spectroscopy, SEM and XRD, and their antimicrobial action. The antibacterial activity of the isolated carbon nanoparticles was tested against various pathogenic bacterial strains such as Gram-negative Proteus refrigere and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus haemolyticus. The inhibition zones were measured, and it was found that the carbon nanoparticles isolated from natural sources are active against these Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial strains

  5. Performance of the advanced photon source (APS) linac beam position monitors (BPMs) with logarithmic amplifier electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuja, R.E.; White, M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the performance of the logarithmic amplifier electronics system used with stripline BPMs to measure electron and positron beam positions at the APS linac. The 2856-MHz, S-band linac accelerates 30-nsec pulses of 1.7 A of electrons to 200 MeV, and focuses them onto a positron conversion target. The resulting 8 mA of positrons are further accelerated to 450 MeV by the positron linac. Beam position resolutions of 50 μm are easily obtainable in both the electron and positron linacs. The resolution of the 12-bit A/D converters limits the ultimate beam positron resolution to between 20 and 30 μm at this time

  6. Search Strategy of Detector Position For Neutron Source Multiplication Method by Using Detected-Neutron Multiplication Factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Tomohiro

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, an alternative definition of a neutron multiplication factor, detected-neutron multiplication factor kdet, is produced for the neutron source multiplication method..(NSM). By using kdet, a search strategy of appropriate detector position for NSM is also proposed. The NSM is one of the practical subcritical measurement techniques, i.e., the NSM does not require any special equipment other than a stationary external neutron source and an ordinary neutron detector. Additionally, the NSM method is based on steady-state analysis, so that this technique is very suitable for quasi real-time measurement. It is noted that the correction factors play important roles in order to accurately estimate subcriticality from the measured neutron count rates. The present paper aims to clarify how to correct the subcriticality measured by the NSM method, the physical meaning of the correction factors, and how to reduce the impact of correction factors by setting a neutron detector at an appropriate detector position

  7. Genetic & virulence profiling of ESBL-positive E. coli from nosocomial & veterinary sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, J M; Wootton, M; Toleman, M A; Howe, R A; Woodward, M; Walsh, T R

    2016-04-15

    CTX-M genes are the most prevalent ESBL globally, infiltrating nosocomial, community and environmental settings. Wild and domesticated animals may act as effective vectors for the dissemination of CTX-producing Enterobacteriaceae. This study aimed to contextualise blaCTX-M-14-positive, cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae human infections and compared resistance and pathogenicity markers with veterinary isolates. Epidemiologically related human (n=18) and veterinary (n=4) blaCTX-M-14-positive E. coli were fully characterised. All were typed by XbaI pulsed field gel electrophoresis and ST. Chromosomal/plasmidic locations of blaCTX-M-14 were deduced by S1-nuclease digestion, and association with ISEcp1 was investigated by sequencing. Conjugation experiments assessed transmissibility of plasmids carrying blaCTX-M-14. Presence of virulence determinants was screened by PCR assay and pathogenicity potential was determined by in vitro Galleria mellonella infection models. 84% of clinical E. coli originated from community patients. blaCTX-M-14 was found ubiquitously downstream of ISEcp1 upon conjugative plasmids (25-150 kb). blaCTX-M-14 was also found upon the chromosome of eight E. coli isolates. CTX-M-14-producing E. coli were found at multiple hospital sites. Clonal commonality between patient, hospitals and livestock microbial populations was found. In vivo model survival rates from clinical isolates (30%) and veterinary isolates (0%) were significantly different (pE. coli involving community patients and farm livestock. blaCTX-M-14 positive human clinical isolates carry a lower intrinsic pathogenic potential than veterinary E. coli highlighting the need for greater veterinary practices in preventing dissemination of MDR E. coli among livestock. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Size-resolved source apportionment of ambient particles by positive matrix factorization at Gosan background site in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Han

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Size- and time-resolved aerosol samples were collected using an eight-stage Davis rotating unit for monitoring (DRUM sampler from 29 March to 29 May in 2002 at Gosan, Jeju Island, Korea, which is one of the representative background sites in East Asia. These samples were analyzed using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence for 3-h average concentrations of 19 elements consisting of S, Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Cl, Cu, Zn, Ti, K, Mn, Pb, Ni, V, Se, As, Rb, Cr, Br. The size-resolved data sets were then analyzed using the positive matrix factorization (PMF technique in order to identify possible sources and estimate their contribution to particulate matter mass. PMF analysis uses the uncertainty of the measured data to provide an optimal weighting. Fifteen sources were resolved in eight size ranges (0.07~12 μm and included continental soil, local soil, sea salt, biomass/biofuel burning, coal combustion, oil heating furnace, residual oil fired boiler, municipal incineration, nonferrous metal source, ferrous metal source, gasoline vehicle, diesel vehicle, copper smelter and volcanic emission. PMF analysis of size-resolved source contributions showed that natural sources represented by local soil, sea salt and continental soil contributed about 79% to the predicted primary particulate matter (PM mass in the coarse size range (1.15~12 μm. On the other hand, anthropogenic sources such as coal combustion and biomass/biofuel burning contributed about 60% in the fine size range (0.56~2.5 μm. The diesel vehicle source contributed the most in the ultra-fine size range (0.07~0.56 μm and was responsible for about 52% of the primary PM mass.

  9. Analytical calculation of the solid angle subtended by an arbitrarily positioned ellipsoid to a point source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heitz, Eric

    2017-01-01

    We present a geometric method for computing an ellipse that subtends the same solid-angle domain as an arbitrarily positioned ellipsoid. With this method we can extend existing analytical solid-angle calculations of ellipses to ellipsoids. Our idea consists of applying a linear transformation on the ellipsoid such that it is transformed into a sphere from which a disk that covers the same solid-angle domain can be computed. We demonstrate that by applying the inverse linear transformation on this disk we obtain an ellipse that subtends the same solid-angle domain as the ellipsoid. We provide a MATLAB implementation of our algorithm and we validate it numerically.

  10. Analytical calculation of the solid angle subtended by an arbitrarily positioned ellipsoid to a point source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heitz, Eric, E-mail: eheitz.research@gmail.com

    2017-04-21

    We present a geometric method for computing an ellipse that subtends the same solid-angle domain as an arbitrarily positioned ellipsoid. With this method we can extend existing analytical solid-angle calculations of ellipses to ellipsoids. Our idea consists of applying a linear transformation on the ellipsoid such that it is transformed into a sphere from which a disk that covers the same solid-angle domain can be computed. We demonstrate that by applying the inverse linear transformation on this disk we obtain an ellipse that subtends the same solid-angle domain as the ellipsoid. We provide a MATLAB implementation of our algorithm and we validate it numerically.

  11. Seasonal variation of radon concentration in different rooms of dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayasheelan, A.; Manjunatha, S.; Chandrashekaraiah, G.; Shankar, P.; Umeshareddy, K.; Ningappa, C.

    2016-01-01

    Indoor air is a dominant exposure for humans, where more than half of the body's intake during a lifetime. The main natural sources of indoor radon are soil, building materials like sand, rocks, cement, marble, bricks, ceramics, natural gas and the underground-derived water supply. In the present research, dwellings with similar building style (similar floorings and dimensions) from Tumkur city were studied for indoor radon, thoron and their progeny measurements for various seasons

  12. Robust Correlation Analyses: False Positive and Power Validation Using a New Open Source Matlab Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernet, Cyril R.; Wilcox, Rand; Rousselet, Guillaume A.

    2012-01-01

    Pearson’s correlation measures the strength of the association between two variables. The technique is, however, restricted to linear associations and is overly sensitive to outliers. Indeed, a single outlier can result in a highly inaccurate summary of the data. Yet, it remains the most commonly used measure of association in psychology research. Here we describe a free Matlab(R) based toolbox (http://sourceforge.net/projects/robustcorrtool/) that computes robust measures of association between two or more random variables: the percentage-bend correlation and skipped-correlations. After illustrating how to use the toolbox, we show that robust methods, where outliers are down weighted or removed and accounted for in significance testing, provide better estimates of the true association with accurate false positive control and without loss of power. The different correlation methods were tested with normal data and normal data contaminated with marginal or bivariate outliers. We report estimates of effect size, false positive rate and power, and advise on which technique to use depending on the data at hand. PMID:23335907

  13. Robust correlation analyses: false positive and power validation using a new open source matlab toolbox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernet, Cyril R; Wilcox, Rand; Rousselet, Guillaume A

    2012-01-01

    Pearson's correlation measures the strength of the association between two variables. The technique is, however, restricted to linear associations and is overly sensitive to outliers. Indeed, a single outlier can result in a highly inaccurate summary of the data. Yet, it remains the most commonly used measure of association in psychology research. Here we describe a free Matlab((R)) based toolbox (http://sourceforge.net/projects/robustcorrtool/) that computes robust measures of association between two or more random variables: the percentage-bend correlation and skipped-correlations. After illustrating how to use the toolbox, we show that robust methods, where outliers are down weighted or removed and accounted for in significance testing, provide better estimates of the true association with accurate false positive control and without loss of power. The different correlation methods were tested with normal data and normal data contaminated with marginal or bivariate outliers. We report estimates of effect size, false positive rate and power, and advise on which technique to use depending on the data at hand.

  14. Positive matrix factorization as source apportionment of soil lead and cadmium around a battery plant (Changxing County, China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jian-long; Zhi, Yu-you; Yang, Li-ping; Shi, Jia-chun; Zeng, Ling-zao; Wu, Lao-sheng

    2014-06-01

    Chemical compositions of soil samples are multivariate in nature and provide datasets suitable for the application of multivariate factor analytical techniques. One of the analytical techniques, the positive matrix factorization (PMF), uses a weighted least square by fitting the data matrix to determine the weights of the sources based on the error estimates of each data point. In this research, PMF was employed to apportion the sources of heavy metals in 104 soil samples taken within a 1-km radius of a lead battery plant contaminated site in Changxing County, Zhejiang Province, China. The site is heavily contaminated with high concentrations of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd). PMF successfully partitioned the variances into sources related to soil background, agronomic practices, and the lead battery plants combined with a geostatistical approach. It was estimated that the lead battery plants and the agronomic practices contributed 55.37 and 29.28%, respectively, for soil Pb of the total source. Soil Cd mainly came from the lead battery plants (65.92%), followed by the agronomic practices (21.65%), and soil parent materials (12.43%). This research indicates that PMF combined with geostatistics is a useful tool for source identification and apportionment.

  15. Super-resolution for a point source better than λ/500 using positive refraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miñano, Juan C; González, Juan C; Benítez, Pablo; Grabovickic, Dejan; Marqués, Ricardo; Delgado, Vicente; Freire, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Leonhardt (2009 New J. Phys. 11 093040) demonstrated that the two-dimensional (2D) Maxwell fish eye (MFE) lens can focus perfectly 2D Helmholtz waves of arbitrary frequency; that is, it can transport perfectly an outward (monopole) 2D Helmholtz wave field, generated by a point source, towards a ‘perfect point drain’ located at the corresponding image point. Moreover, a prototype with λ/5 super-resolution property for one microwave frequency has been manufactured and tested (Ma et al 2010 arXiv:1007.2530v1; Ma et al 2010 New J. Phys. 13 033016). However, neither software simulations nor experimental measurements for a broad band of frequencies have yet been reported. Here, we present steady-state simulations with a non-perfect drain for a device equivalent to the MFE, called the spherical geodesic waveguide (SGW), which predicts up to λ/500 super-resolution close to discrete frequencies. Out of these frequencies, the SGW does not show super-resolution in the analysis carried out. (paper)

  16. Super-resolution for a point source better than λ/500 using positive refraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miñano, Juan C.; Marqués, Ricardo; González, Juan C.; Benítez, Pablo; Delgado, Vicente; Grabovickic, Dejan; Freire, Manuel

    2011-12-01

    Leonhardt (2009 New J. Phys. 11 093040) demonstrated that the two-dimensional (2D) Maxwell fish eye (MFE) lens can focus perfectly 2D Helmholtz waves of arbitrary frequency; that is, it can transport perfectly an outward (monopole) 2D Helmholtz wave field, generated by a point source, towards a ‘perfect point drain’ located at the corresponding image point. Moreover, a prototype with λ/5 super-resolution property for one microwave frequency has been manufactured and tested (Ma et al 2010 arXiv:1007.2530v1; Ma et al 2010 New J. Phys. 13 033016). However, neither software simulations nor experimental measurements for a broad band of frequencies have yet been reported. Here, we present steady-state simulations with a non-perfect drain for a device equivalent to the MFE, called the spherical geodesic waveguide (SGW), which predicts up to λ/500 super-resolution close to discrete frequencies. Out of these frequencies, the SGW does not show super-resolution in the analysis carried out.

  17. Evaluation of effective source position for local linear accelerator and inserts

    CERN Document Server

    Mansy, M; Sharaf, M; El-Fiki, M A; Sherif, M

    1999-01-01

    All types of treatment planning systems need some input measured beam data. Such data differ in type and number depending on the model of electron beam algorithm used inside. In addition to the number of percentage depth dose (%DD) and cross beam profiles, the effective source surface distance parameter SSD sub e sub f sub f was also recommended to be measured and transferred to the planning system. Output measurements were carried out using 0.6cc cylindrical Farmer type ion chamber placed in water phantom at depth of dose maximum, in Radiat. Phys. Dep., Malmoe Hospital, Lund University, Sweden. Results were collected for all available energies combined with both applicators and inserts on a Varian Clinac 2100C. SSD sub e sub f sub f was determined from the ionization measurements using equation given by Khan et al.(1991). Comparing the results with those obtained by Roback et al. (1995) on a similar Varian Clinac 2100C, it was found that the deviation of SSD sub e sub f sub f was <=7.5% for combination of...

  18. Vibratory response of a mirror support/positioning system for the Advanced Photon Source project at Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basdogan, I.; Shu, Deming; Kuzay, T.M.; Royston, T.J.; Shabana, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    The vibratory response of a typical mirror support/positioning system used at the experimental station of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) project at Argonne National Laboratory is investigated. Positioning precision and stability are especially critical when the supported mirror directs a high-intensity beam aimed at a distant target. Stability may be compromised by low level, low frequency seismic and facility-originated vibrations traveling through the ground and/or vibrations caused by flow-structure interactions in the mirror cooling system. The example case system has five positioning degrees of freedom through the use of precision actuators and rotary and linear bearings. These linkage devices result in complex, multi-dimensional vibratory behavior that is a function of the range of positioning configurations. A rigorous multibody dynamical approach is used for the development of the system equations. Initial results of the study, including estimates of natural frequencies and mode shapes, as well as limited parametric design studies, are presented. While the results reported here are for a particular system, the developed vibratory analysis approach is applicable to the wide range of high-precision optical positioning systems encountered at the APS and at other comparable facilities

  19. Dealing with radon in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castren, O.

    1987-01-01

    A review is made of the measurements, regulatory initiatives and remedial action taken in Finland since the discovery in 1981 of the first indoor radon concentrations higher than 10,000 Bq/m 3 . The emphasis is on the results of measurements, explanations of them and their use for the rational solution of the radon problems. Localizing the high-concentration areas and dwellings has been one of the main objectives. The latest radon map is based on measurements in 8,150 dwellings in 235 localities. The geographical distribution cannot be explained only by the uranium concentration of the bedrock. The main reason for deviations is the ground permeability. The local fine structure is most notably influenced by the glacifluvial sand and grvel formations (eskers and ice-marginal formations). The highest concentrations are often caused by synergism between an elevated uranium concentration, situation on an esker and a great temperature difference between indoor and outdoor air. They are usually connected with a large seasonal variation, the concentration being at maximum during the coldest time in winter. Indoor radon distribution is compared with newly published maps on the incidence of lung cancer in Finland

  20. Positive matrix factorization and trajectory modelling for source identification: A new look at Indian Ocean Experiment ship observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanuprasad, S. G.; Venkataraman, Chandra; Bhushan, Mani

    The sources of aerosols on a regional scale over India have only recently received attention in studies using back trajectory analysis and chemical transport modelling. Receptor modelling approaches such as positive matrix factorization (PMF) and the potential source contribution function (PSCF) are effective tools in source identification of urban and regional-scale pollution. In this work, PMF and PSCF analysis is applied to identify categories and locations of sources that influenced surface concentrations of aerosols in the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) domain measured on-board the research vessel Ron Brown [Quinn, P.K., Coffman, D.J., Bates, T.S., Miller, T.L., Johnson, J.E., Welton, E.J., et al., 2002. Aerosol optical properties during INDOEX 1999: means, variability, and controlling factors. Journal of Geophysical Research 107, 8020, doi:10.1029/2000JD000037]. Emissions inventory information is used to identify sources co-located with probable source regions from PSCF. PMF analysis identified six factors influencing PM concentrations during the INDOEX cruise of the Ron Brown including a biomass combustion factor (35-40%), three industrial emissions factors (35-40%), primarily secondary sulphate-nitrate, balance trace elements and Zn, and two dust factors (20-30%) of Si- and Ca-dust. The identified factors effectively predict the measured submicron PM concentrations (slope of regression line=0.90±0.20; R2=0.76). Probable source regions shifted based on changes in surface and elevated flows during different times in the ship cruise. They were in India in the early part of the cruise, but in west Asia, south-east Asia and Africa, during later parts of the cruise. Co-located sources include coal-fired electric utilities, cement, metals and petroleum production in India and west Asia, biofuel combustion for energy and crop residue burning in India, woodland/forest burning in north sub-Saharan Africa and forest burning in south-east Asia. Significant findings

  1. 517 DWELLING DENSITY VARIABILITY ACROSS GOVERNMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    confidence level, apartment type had no significant effect on dwelling density in ... words: dwelling density, home spaces, housing units, multifamily apartments ... spaces for work, Obateru (2005) defined .... of Statistics Year Book, 2008; Seeling et al., ... stress. The bedroom and habitable room indicators show similar trend.

  2. Approximations to the electron energy distribution and positive column models for low-pressure discharge light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lister, G G; Sheverev, V A; Uhrlandt, D

    2002-01-01

    The applicability of 'fluid' models based on analytic approximations of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) and of kinetic models for low-pressure discharge light sources is discussed. Traditionally, 'fluid' models of fluorescent lamps assume that the EEDF is Maxwellian up to the energy of the first excited state. It is shown that such an approach is sufficiently accurate in most cases of conventional as well as of 'highly loaded' fluorescent lamps. However, this assumption is strongly violated for many rare gas glow discharges for mercury free light sources. As an example, a neon dc discharge is studied. The densities of the four lowest excited states and the electric field have been measured. The experimental results can be fairly well reproduced by a kinetic positive column model. This article was scheduled to appear in issue 14 of J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. To access this special issue please follow this link: http://stacks.iop.org/0022-3727/35/i=14/

  3. Initial testing of a Compact Crystal Positioning System for the TOPAZ Single-Crystal Diffractometer at the Spallation Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, Matthew J.; Austin, Michael D.; Viola, Robert; Thomison, Jack; Carmen, Peter; Hoffmann, Christina; Miller, Echo M.; Mosier, Lisa B.; Overbay, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    A precise, versatile, and automated method of orienting a sub-millimeter crystal in a focused neutron beam is required for e cient operation of the TOPAZ Single Crystal Di ractometer at the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. To ful ll this need, a Compact Crystal Positioning System (CCPS) has been developed in collaboration with Square One Systems Design in Jackson, Wyoming. The system incorporates a tripod design with six vacuum-compatible piezoelectric linear motors capable of < 1 m resolution. National Instruments LabVIEW provides a means of system automation while at the same time accommodating the modular nature of the SNS sample environment control software for straightforward system integration. Initial results in a cryogenic test environment will be presented, as well as results from ambient tests performed at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory.

  4. Suspended particulate matter in dwellings - the impact of tobacco smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revsbech, P.; Korsgaard, J.; Lundqvist, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    The indoor concentration of suspended particulate matter (SPM) was measured in 44 retrofitted and tight dwellings, which had electric cooking and were central heated and where the basic ventilation rate in median amounted 0.23 air changes per hour as measured with a tracer dilution method. The indoor concentration of SPM was in medium 230 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ with a strong correlation to the tobacco consumption (r/sub s/ = 0.716), but with no correlation to the frequency of airing or the basic ventilation rate. Tobacco smoking seems to be the main indoor source of SPM in contemporary dwellings. The importance of these findings is underlined by epidemiologic studies on passive smoking and health. Air quality standards for the ambient air are based on certain risk groups such as infants, children, persons with chronic obstructive lung disorders, and indoor air standards should be based on the same concepts of health protection.

  5. Application of Positive Matrix Factorization in the Identification of the Sources of PM2.5 in Taipei City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yuan Ho

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Fine particulate matter (PM2.5 has a small particle size, which allows it to directly enter the respiratory mucosa and reach the alveoli and even the blood. Many countries are already aware of the adverse effects of PM2.5, and determination of the sources of PM2.5 is a critical step in reducing its concentration to protect public health. This study monitored PM2.5 in the summer (during the southwest monsoon season of 2017. Three online monitoring systems were used to continuously collect hourly concentrations of key chemical components of PM2.5, including anions, cations, carbon, heavy metals, and precursor gases, for 24 h per day. The sum of the concentrations of each compound obtained from the online monitoring systems is similar to the actual PM2.5 concentration (98.75%. This result suggests that the on-line monitoring system of this study covers relatively complete chemical compounds. Positive matrix factorization (PMF was adopted to explore and examine the proportion of each source that contributed to the total PM2.5 concentration. According to the source contribution analysis, 55% of PM2.5 can be attributed to local pollutant sources, and the remaining 45% can be attributed to pollutants emitted outside Taipei City. During the high-PM2.5-concentration (episode period, the pollutant conversion rates were higher than usual due to the occurrence of vigorous photochemical reactions. Moreover, once pollutants are emitted by external stationary pollutant sources, they move with pollution air masses and undergo photochemical reactions, resulting in increases in the secondary pollutant concentrations of PM2.5. The vertical monitoring data indicate that there is a significant increase in PM2.5 concentration at high altitudes. High-altitude PM2.5 will descend to the ground and thereby affect the ground-level PM2.5 concentration.

  6. Energy statistics for one- and two-dwelling buildings in 2008; Energistatistik foer smaahus 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-09-15

    The survey of energy statistics in 2008 on one- and two-dwelling buildings, including agricultural one- and two-dwelling buildings, is based on a sample of 6 852 buildings. The survey was carried out as a mail survey in June 2008. The non-response rate was 39 percent. The presentation provides data on energy use, number of one- and two-dwelling buildings, and heated floor areas for the total population and for various subdivisions. During the last two years the number one- and two-dwelling buildings heated solely by district heating has greatly increased. The total use of district heating has increased by 32 percent. The use of oil for hot water and heating of one- and two dwelling buildings has decreased by 21 percent compared to 2007, and by 75 percent during the last five-year period. Nearly 40 percent of one- and two-dwelling buildings are heated completely or partially with a heat pump. However, the sharp increase in the number of heat pumps during the last five-year period has nearly come to a standstill in the last two years. About 42 percent of all one- and two-dwelling buildings in Sweden are heated by electricity as the only source of heat, including houses that are heated by heat pumps. Combined heating with electricity and biomass fuel is the second most common heating method, followed by heating with solely biomass fuel. 17 100 kWh electricity per household in one- and two-dwelling buildings heated by direct electricity exclusively and 18 800 kWh in one- and two dwelling buildings heated by water-borne electricity exclusively or 130 kWh per square metre of heated surface area (incl. electricity for household purposes). 2.5 cubic metres of oil per household in one- and two-dwelling buildings heated by oil exclusively or 18.7 litres of oil per square metre of heated surface area. 12.7 TWh electricity for households in one- and two-dwelling buildings, including the electricity used in combinations with other types of heating, but excluding electricity for

  7. Verification and analysis of the positioning of a source of brachytherapy high dose within an applicator gynecological interstitial fletcher Utrecht TC/RM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panedo Cobos, J. M.; Garcia castejon, M. A.; Huertas Martinez, C.; Gomez-Tejedor Alonso, S.; Rincon Perez, M.; Luna Tirado, J.; Perez Casas, A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Applicators are guides that circulate and are located within the patient brachytherapy sources. Applicators can suffer mechanical deformations due to processes of sterilization or shock, which may result in that the source do not place within these very precise and coincides with the planned. In these cases the planned treatment deviate actually managed. The object of this study is to verify that the position of the source into the dispenser coincides with the planned position, with a procedure that is described. (Author)

  8. The effect of proximity to major roads on indoor air quality in typical Australian dwellings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Sarah J.; Galbally, Ian E.; Powell, Jennifer C.; Keywood, Melita D.; Molloy, Suzie B.; Cheng, Min; Selleck, Paul W.

    2011-04-01

    An Indoor Air Quality Study of residential dwellings was carried out in Melbourne, Australia, and a subset of the data was analysed to investigate the effect of proximity to major roads on indoor air quality (IAQ). Seven-day measurements of PM 10, NO 2, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes, along with continuous CO and PM 2.5 measurements were utilised. The measurements were made indoors and outdoors in 27 dwellings; 15 Near Road (300 m from a major road). Dwellings were sampled for one week each in Winter/Spring 2008 and Summer/Autumn 2009, over an eight month period. Analysis of 7-day measurements showed that NO 2 and toluene were elevated at the 5% significance level both indoors and outdoors at Near Road Dwellings compared to Far Road Dwellings. Indoor/Outdoor (I/O) ratios of NO 2 and toluene were not significantly different between Near and Far Road dwellings giving no evidence of any anomalous dominant indoor source for NO 2 and toluene in Near Road dwellings. Indoor NO 2 was significantly correlated to gas stovetop and oven use in both Near and Far Road dwellings. In the absence of gas cooking, indoor NO 2 was elevated in Near Road dwellings relative to Far Road dwellings by approximately 4 ppb and this can be attributed to infiltration of outdoor air. I/O ratios for NO 2 were 2 indicating that indoor sources dominate with minor contribution from outdoors. Hence the relative contribution of roadways to indoor NO 2 is potentially greater than the relative contribution of roadways to indoor toluene. Findings elsewhere suggest that a similar outdoor enhancement of traffic related NO 2 (˜5 ppb) increases risk of lung cancer and childhood asthma ( Brauer et al., 2000; Nyberg et al., 2000). A simple conceptual model indicated spatial and temporal variance in the concentrations was the biggest limitation in detecting roadway influence outside Near Road dwellings for PM 10, PM 2.5 and NO 2 while measurement uncertainty was also important for CO.

  9. Prosocial attitudes and empathic behavior in emotional positive versus negative situations: brain response (ERPs) and source localization (LORETA) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Canavesio, Ylenia

    2013-03-01

    The present research firstly investigated the neural correlates (ERPs, event-related potentials) of attitudes to engage in prosocial-helping behaviors, and secondly, it analyzed the relation between these brain-based potentials and personal profile (high vs. low empathic profile). It was considered the subjects' behavior in response to specific emotional situations (positive vs. negative) in case it was required a possible prosocial intervention. Thirty-one subjects were invited to empathize with the emotional contexts (videotapes that reproduced two person's exchanges) and to decide whether to intervene or not to support these persons. BEES questionnaire for empathic behavior was submitted to the subjects after the experimental session. ERP acquisition and LORETA source analysis revealed a negative ongoing deflection (N200 effect) more prefrontally distributed (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) in response to prosocial intervention options mainly for negative and positive contexts. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was found between high-empathic profiles, intervention behaviors (higher frequency of interventions) and N200 amplitude (higher peak). These results highlight the role of emotions in prosocial behavior, since the N200 effect was considered a marker of the emotional significance of the interpersonal situation. Secondly, the empathic trait may explain the prosocial decisional processes: Higher empathic trait contributes to induce subject's intervention behavior which in turn appears to be directly related to the cortical responsiveness within the prefrontal areas.

  10. Solar-assisted low energy dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esbensen, T V

    1980-02-01

    The Zero Energy House Group was formed as a subproject of the CCMS Solar Energy Pilot Study in 1974 by seven participating countries experimenting with solar-assisted low-energy dwellings for temperate and northern European climatic conditions. A Zero Energy House is one in which solar energy is used to meet the reduced energy needs of buildings incorporating various thermal energy conservation features. This final report of the Zero Energy House Group includes brief descriptions of 13 major low-energy dwellings in the participating CCMS countries. An overall assessment of the state-of-the-art in solar-assisted low-energy dwellings is also included.

  11. On the relationships between electron spot size, focal spot size, and virtual source position in Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterpin, E.; Chen, Y.; Lu, W.; Mackie, T. R.; Olivera, G. H.; Vynckier, S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Every year, new radiotherapy techniques including stereotactic radiosurgery using linear accelerators give rise to new applications of Monte Carlo (MC) modeling. Accurate modeling requires knowing the size of the electron spot, one of the few parameters to tune in MC models. The resolution of integrated megavoltage imaging systems, such as the tomotherapy system, strongly depends on the photon spot size which is closely related to the electron spot. The aim of this article is to clarify the relationship between the electron spot size and the photon spot size (i.e., the focal spot size) for typical incident electron beam energies and target thicknesses. Methods: Three electron energies (3, 5.5, and 18 MeV), four electron spot sizes (FWHM=0, 0.5, 1, and 1.5 mm), and two tungsten target thicknesses (0.15 and 1 cm) were considered. The formation of the photon beam within the target was analyzed through electron energy deposition with depth, as well as photon production at several phase-space planes placed perpendicular to the beam axis, where only photons recorded for the first time were accounted for. Photon production was considered for ''newborn'' photons intersecting a 45x45 cm 2 plane at the isocenter (85 cm from source). Finally, virtual source position and ''effective'' focal spot size were computed by backprojecting all the photons from the bottom of the target intersecting a 45x45 cm 2 plane. The virtual source position and focal spot size were estimated at the plane position where the latter is minimal. Results: In the relevant case of considering only photons intersecting the 45x45 cm 2 plane, the results unambiguously showed that the effective photon spot is created within the first 0.25 mm of the target and that electron and focal spots may be assumed to be equal within 3-4%. Conclusions: In a good approximation photon spot size equals electron spot size for high energy X-ray treatments delivered by linear accelerators.

  12. Detecting and accounting for multiple sources of positional variance in peak list registration analysis and spin system grouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smelter, Andrey; Rouchka, Eric C; Moseley, Hunter N B

    2017-08-01

    Peak lists derived from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra are commonly used as input data for a variety of computer assisted and automated analyses. These include automated protein resonance assignment and protein structure calculation software tools. Prior to these analyses, peak lists must be aligned to each other and sets of related peaks must be grouped based on common chemical shift dimensions. Even when programs can perform peak grouping, they require the user to provide uniform match tolerances or use default values. However, peak grouping is further complicated by multiple sources of variance in peak position limiting the effectiveness of grouping methods that utilize uniform match tolerances. In addition, no method currently exists for deriving peak positional variances from single peak lists for grouping peaks into spin systems, i.e. spin system grouping within a single peak list. Therefore, we developed a complementary pair of peak list registration analysis and spin system grouping algorithms designed to overcome these limitations. We have implemented these algorithms into an approach that can identify multiple dimension-specific positional variances that exist in a single peak list and group peaks from a single peak list into spin systems. The resulting software tools generate a variety of useful statistics on both a single peak list and pairwise peak list alignment, especially for quality assessment of peak list datasets. We used a range of low and high quality experimental solution NMR and solid-state NMR peak lists to assess performance of our registration analysis and grouping algorithms. Analyses show that an algorithm using a single iteration and uniform match tolerances approach is only able to recover from 50 to 80% of the spin systems due to the presence of multiple sources of variance. Our algorithm recovers additional spin systems by reevaluating match tolerances in multiple iterations. To facilitate evaluation of the

  13. Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, L.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the sources of radiation in the narrow perspective of radioactivity and the even narrow perspective of those sources that concern environmental management and restoration activities at DOE facilities, as well as a few related sources. Sources of irritation, Sources of inflammatory jingoism, and Sources of information. First, the sources of irritation fall into three categories: No reliable scientific ombudsman to speak without bias and prejudice for the public good, Technical jargon with unclear definitions exists within the radioactive nomenclature, and Scientific community keeps a low-profile with regard to public information. The next area of personal concern are the sources of inflammation. This include such things as: Plutonium being described as the most dangerous substance known to man, The amount of plutonium required to make a bomb, Talk of transuranic waste containing plutonium and its health affects, TMI-2 and Chernobyl being described as Siamese twins, Inadequate information on low-level disposal sites and current regulatory requirements under 10 CFR 61, Enhanced engineered waste disposal not being presented to the public accurately. Numerous sources of disinformation regarding low level radiation high-level radiation, Elusive nature of the scientific community, The Federal and State Health Agencies resources to address comparative risk, and Regulatory agencies speaking out without the support of the scientific community

  14. 25 CFR 700.55 - Decent, safe, and sanitary dwelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Decent, safe, and sanitary dwelling. 700.55 Section 700... PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.55 Decent, safe, and sanitary dwelling. (a) General. The term decent, safe, and sanitary dwelling means a dwelling which— (1) Meets applicable federal...

  15. High Precision Positioning at Field Camp: Using GNSS as the primary data source to answer geologic questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, B. T.; Lauer, I. H.; Pratt-Sitaula, B.

    2017-12-01

    Thanks to the availability and accessibility of GPS/GNSS enabled consumer grade positioning devices, GNSS are nearly ubiquitous in both geologic field research and education. Though the devices offer sufficient precision to geotag images, digital field book entries or measurements, positions themselves are not precise enough to accomplish independent geodetic analysis. As a consequence, most students learn about GNSS at a tool that aids other forms of geologic data acquisition rather serving as the primary source itself. To resolve this, we developed and tested a three-unit teaching module within the GETSI - SERC curriculum framework that reinforces high precision positioning as a primary source of geologic data. Units focus on three core topics: GNSS Fundamentals, Kinematic GNSS and Static GNSS Methods. Module goals enable students to (a) design and conduct a GNSS survey to answer a geologic question, (b) justify why their GNSS technique is appropriate to their question and (c) to articulate how answering their question benefits society. Skill building is via quantitative and qualitative analysis, concept sketches, and both field and office based data acquisition and interrogation. Exercises are site-independent and include example datasets for those unable to travel. In the summer of 2017, we tested the module with 20 undergraduate students over two days at the ISU field geology course. Located in the Lost River Range of Idaho, positioned among active normal faults, we not only explored the use of static GNSS data for active tectonics but visited a station in person. For a summative assessment, we focused on kinematic GNSS, using RTK rovers to reoccupy leveling monuments spanning the active Lost River fault that ruptured in 1983 (M 7.0). The data collected by our class quantified aseismic deformation occurring in the 30+ years since that event. Displacements were significantly larger than the instrumental uncertainty, confirming that RTK was an appropriate tool

  16. Environmental radon monitoring in Khartoum dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, I. S.

    1992-03-01

    Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas that is released into the surrounding environment. Existence of this gas indoors ( house and dwelling ) mainly depends on its source in the building materials, the soil beneath the buildings and the ventilation of the rooms. In this study the technique of ground activated charcoal and gamma spectrometry system are used for Radon measurement. This technique has been calibrated and optimized. The main reason for radon determination in house comes from the fact that Radon and its daughters are directly responsible of lung cancer and some kidney diseases. The measurements, in this study, have been performed for Khartoum indoors. 644 rooms have been measured. These rooms were sorted out into groups according to their building material as well as the ventilation of each room. The measurements covered the whole year ( the three main seasons ) to see the variation of Radon level, since its emanation is affected by the temperature. Also monthly outdoor measurements have been performed in different locations in Khartoum. On the basis of the results obtained, the radiation dose received by the public due to the inhalation of this gas has been calculated. The average annual effective dose was found to be 1.2 m Sv. (author). 33 refs., 17 tabs., 24 figs

  17. Indoor radon levels in Riyadh city dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alghamdi, Abdulrahman S.; Khalid, Aleissa; Ghazi, Alzeer

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Building materials used for construction of houses represent a major source of indoor radon. In this investigation, indoor radon concentrations are found to vary substantially among the different building materials, ventilation, cooling and heating systems used. This paper presents the effects of these factors on the radon concentration in Riyadh city dwellings. The measurements were obtained by using a passive integrating ionization system with an E-Perm Electret ion chamber. The study covered more than 700 houses and apartments, which were selected to cover the most common type of houses. The concentration range was found to be 1.02 to 196 Bq.m -3 , with an average value of 17.5 ± 3 Bq.m -3 . The results show that the radon concentration is higher in houses where the white bricks, no ventilation systems, plastic paint and Freon air conditioners are used, but relatively lower in houses where the red bricks, window ventilation, and water air conditioner is used. (author)

  18. Impact of Interlayer Dwell Time on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Nickel and Titanium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, B. K.; Beese, A. M.; Keist, J. S.; McHale, E. T.; Palmer, T. A.

    2017-09-01

    Path planning in additive manufacturing (AM) processes has an impact on the thermal histories experienced at discrete locations in simple and complex AM structures. One component of path planning in directed energy deposition is the time required for the laser or heat source to return to a given location to add another layer of material. As structures become larger and more complex, the length of this interlayer dwell time can significantly impact the resulting thermal histories. The impact of varying dwell times between 0 and 40 seconds on the microstructural and mechanical properties of Inconel® 625 and Ti-6Al-4V builds has been characterized. Even though these materials display different microstructures and solid-state phase transformations, the addition of an interlayer dwell generally led to a finer microstructure in both materials that impacted the resulting mechanical properties. With the addition of interlayer dwell times up to 40 seconds in the Inconel® 625 builds, finer secondary dendrite arm spacing values, produced by changes in the thermal history, correspond to increased yield and tensile strengths. These mechanical properties did not appear to change significantly, however, for dwell times greater than 20 seconds in the Inconel® 625 builds, indicating that longer dwell times have a minimal impact. The addition of interlayer dwell times in Ti-6Al-4V builds resulted in a slight decrease in the measured alpha lath widths and a much more noticeable decrease in the width of prior beta grains. In addition, the yield and tensile values continued to increase, nearly reaching the values observed in the rolled plate substrate material with dwell times up to 40 seconds.

  19. Development of a positive column pulsed capillary discharge source for use with high resolution Fourier transform spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed, W A A

    2002-01-01

    We report the designing and application of a positive column pulsed capillary discharge with the Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). The pulsed light source has been used for the first time with the ultraviolet FTS. The experiment has been carried out with the high energy pulsed discharge with energy of 2-3 J lasting about 300 ns. A system has been developed to trigger the discharge at about 600 Hz with the pulses directly taken from the FTS sampling system. The spectrum of Ar III has been recorded in the 19 000-50 000 cm -1 region with good signal to noise ratio. The results have opened a wide range of applications in spectroscopy of multiply ionized species

  20. Implementation status of the global and local beam position feedback systems for the Advanced Photon Source storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y.; Barr, D.; Decker, G.; Galayda, J.; Kirchman, J.; Lenkszus, F.; Lumpkin, A.; Votaw, A.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is implementing an extensive beam position feedback system for both global and local stabilization of particle and photon beams based on digital signal processing. The description and operational experience of the system will be given in this paper. In particular, we will discuss the underlying fundamental principles, hardware layout, controls interface, and automatic software generation for multiple digital signal processors (DSPS) distributed in 20 VME crates around the ring. The feedback system runs at 4-kHz sampling frequency in order to achieve the correction bandwidth of approximately 100 Hz. For the maximum correction efficiency and resolution of conflicts among multiple local feedback systems due to the local bump closure error, the global and local feedback systems are combined into a single unified system. This novel approach is made possible through data sharing among the global and local systems via the fiber-optically networked reflective memories

  1. Development of mini linac-based positron source and an efficient positronium convertor for positively charged antihydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muranaka, T.; Debu, P.; Dupré, P.; Liszkay, L.; Mansoulie, B.; Pérez, P.; Rey, J. M.; Ruiz, N.; Sacquin, Y.; Crivelli, P.; Gendotti, U.; Rubbia, A.

    2010-04-01

    We have installed in Saclay a facility for an intense positron source in November 2008. It is based on a compact 5.5 MeV electron linac connected to a reaction chamber with a tungsten target inside to produce positrons via pair production. The expected production rate for fast positrons is 5·1011 per second. The study of moderation of fast positrons and the construction of a slow positron trap are underway. In parallel, we have investigated an efficient positron-positronium convertor using porous silica materials. These studies are parts of a project to produce positively charged antihydrogen ions aiming to demonstrate the feasibility of a free fall antigravity measurement of neutral antihydrogen.

  2. Development of mini linac-based positron source and an efficient positronium convertor for positively charged antihydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muranaka, T; Debu, P; Dupre, P; Liszkay, L; Mansoulie, B; Perez, P; Rey, J M; Ruiz, N; Sacquin, Y; Crivelli, P; Gendotti, U; Rubbia, A

    2010-01-01

    We have installed in Saclay a facility for an intense positron source in November 2008. It is based on a compact 5.5 MeV electron linac connected to a reaction chamber with a tungsten target inside to produce positrons via pair production. The expected production rate for fast positrons is 5·10 11 per second. The study of moderation of fast positrons and the construction of a slow positron trap are underway. In parallel, we have investigated an efficient positron-positronium convertor using porous silica materials. These studies are parts of a project to produce positively charged antihydrogen ions aiming to demonstrate the feasibility of a free fall antigravity measurement of neutral antihydrogen.

  3. Development of mini linac-based positron source and an efficient positronium convertor for positively charged antihydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muranaka, T; Debu, P; Dupre, P; Liszkay, L; Mansoulie, B; Perez, P; Rey, J M; Ruiz, N; Sacquin, Y [Irfu, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Crivelli, P; Gendotti, U; Rubbia, A, E-mail: tomoko.muranaka@cea.f [Institut fuer TelichenPhysik, ETHZ, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2010-04-01

    We have installed in Saclay a facility for an intense positron source in November 2008. It is based on a compact 5.5 MeV electron linac connected to a reaction chamber with a tungsten target inside to produce positrons via pair production. The expected production rate for fast positrons is 5{center_dot}10{sup 11} per second. The study of moderation of fast positrons and the construction of a slow positron trap are underway. In parallel, we have investigated an efficient positron-positronium convertor using porous silica materials. These studies are parts of a project to produce positively charged antihydrogen ions aiming to demonstrate the feasibility of a free fall antigravity measurement of neutral antihydrogen.

  4. Positive effects of repulsion on boundedness in a fully parabolic attraction-repulsion chemotaxis system with logistic source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhuang, Mengdi; Zheng, Sining

    2018-02-01

    In this paper we study the global boundedness of solutions to the fully parabolic attraction-repulsion chemotaxis system with logistic source: ut = Δu - χ∇ ṡ (u∇v) + ξ∇ ṡ (u∇w) + f (u), vt = Δv - βv + αu, wt = Δw - δw + γu, subject to homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions in a bounded and smooth domain Ω ⊂Rn (n ≥ 1), where χ, α, ξ, γ, β and δ are positive constants, and f : R → R is a smooth function generalizing the logistic source f (s) = a - bsθ for all s ≥ 0 with a ≥ 0, b > 0 and θ ≥ 1. It is shown that when the repulsion cancels the attraction (i.e. χα = ξγ), the solution is globally bounded if n ≤ 3, or θ >θn : = min ⁡ {n+2}/4, n/√{n2 + 6 n + 17 }/-n2 - 3 n + 4 4 } with n ≥ 2. Therefore, due to the inhibition of repulsion to the attraction, in any spatial dimension, the exponent θ is allowed to take values less than 2 such that the solution is uniformly bounded in time.

  5. Measurement and analysis of time-domain characteristics of corona-generated radio interference from a single positive corona source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuebao; Li, Dayong; Chen, Bo; Cui, Xiang; Lu, Tiebing; Li, Yinfei

    2018-04-01

    The corona-generated electromagnetic interference commonly known as radio interference (RI) has become a limiting factor for the design of high voltage direct current transmission lines. In this paper, a time-domain measurement system is developed to measure the time-domain characteristics of corona-generated RI from a single corona source under a positive corona source. In the experiments, the corona current pulses are synchronously measured through coupling capacitors. The one-to-one relationship between the corona current pulse and measured RI voltage pulse is observed. The statistical characteristics of pulse parameters are analyzed, and the correlations between the corona current pulse and RI voltage pulse in the time-domain and frequency-domain are analyzed. Depending on the measured corona current pulses, the time-domain waveform of corona-generated RI is calculated on the basis of the propagation model of corona current on the conductor, the dipolar model for electric field calculation, and the antenna model for inducing voltage calculation. The well matched results between measured and simulated waveforms of RI voltage can show the validity of the measurement and calculation method presented in this paper, which also further show the close correlation between corona current and corona-generated RI.

  6. Transformation of dwelling culture based on riverine community in Musi River Palembang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicaksono, Bambang; Siswanto, Ari; Kusdiwanggo, Susilo; Anwar, Widya Fransiska Febriati

    2017-11-01

    Palembang City development since the Palembang Darussalam Sultanate era to the reformation era has impact on the living culture community, less of the raft houses, houses on stilts transformed into a terraced house, and the house became the dominant land. Dwelling Culture oriented on transformation of river become land-oriented. The development has leaving identity, character, and potential of the riverine architecture and dwelling life of river. The goals of study are to describe a case and revealing the meaning of dwelling cultural transformation in Musi River society from the process of cultural acculturation and investigate the architectural aspect from the form of house and modes of dwelling through the structuralism approach. The data collection is conducted qualitatively by using data collection techniques such as observation, interview, literature study, whereas the method of analysis, is a method that is done through Levi-Strauss structuralism approach that identifies all the elements of community thought in a systematic procedure. The results showed the structure behind the orientation, position, shape, and layout of dwelling revealed through the meanings in it. It means, the change and development from cultural acculturation process which oriented in the land dwelling, based on structure thinking of Palembang society.

  7. Hold it! memory affects attentional dwell time

    OpenAIRE

    Parks, Emily L.; Hopfinger, Joseph B.

    2008-01-01

    The allocation of attention, including the initial orienting and the subsequent dwell time, is affected by several bottom-up and top-down factors. How item memory affects these processes, however, remains unclear. Here, we investigated whether item memory affects attentional dwell time by using a modified version of the attentional blink (AB) paradigm. Across four experiments, our results revealed that the AB was significantly affected by memory status (novel vs. old), but critically, this ef...

  8. Dwelling thermal renovation: which stakes, which solutions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delduc, Paul; Demeulenaere, Laurence; Verdure, Mathieu; Ayong Le Kama, Alain; Fuk Chun Wing, Dimitri; Kiefer, Noemie; Mauroux, Amelie; Charlier, Dorothee; Hini, Sihame; Pinto Silva, Kleber; Giraudet, Louis Gaetan; Nauleau, Marie-Laure; Daussin-Benichou, Jeanne-Marie; Teissier, Olivier; Finidori, Esther; Grandjean, Alain; Allibe, Benoit; Gadrat, Pierre; Couriol, Aude; Menard, Francois; Rouquette, Celine; Houriez, Guillaume; Francois, Dominique; Aubert, Celine; Canardon, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This publication proposes three sets of contributions. The first one addresses context and stakes. The contributions propose: a literature review on household behaviour and investments in energy efficiency, a focus on the key role of dwellings in energy transition through a comparative study of the four pathways of the National Debate for Energy Transition, and a discussion about consensus and uncertainties regarding the determining factors of heating temperature in dwellings. The second set addresses public policies and their assessment: improvement of the technical-economical assessment of the benefit of dwelling energetic renovations, discussion of the organisation and results of a survey on dwelling, equipment, and energy needs and uses, an analysis of several measures aimed at reaching objectives of energy efficiency of dwellings, a discussion of renovation works quality, a discussion of the impact of the sustainable development tax credit on thermal renovation, the optimisation of energy renovation in co-properties by third party financing, some foreign examples of policies in favour of dwelling thermal renovation. The third set of contributions addresses the needed technical, organisational and market evolutions: how the building sector can face the challenges of energy transition, the possibilities to propose innovative solutions adapted to existing housing buildings, and a comparative analysis of material and building equipment costs and market structures in Europe. Other texts are proposed in appendix: the origin of the Phebus survey, a description of incentive arrangements, and a map of climate zones in France

  9. Neurobiological Mediators of Squalor-dwelling Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, David A

    2017-09-01

    Squalor-dwelling behavior has been characterized as living in conditions so unsanitary that feelings of revulsion are elicited among visitors. This behavior is commonly associated with an insensitivity to distress/disgust and a failure to understand the direness of one's living situation, which leads to social isolation and impairment in quality of life. Etiologically, several associations have been described in the literature, including age-related decline, lower socioeconomic status, and rural dwelling status. Primary neuropsychiatric disorders, such as psychosis, alcoholism, dementia, personality disorders, developmental delays, and learning or physical disabilities are frequently seen in squalor-dwelling individuals. However, none of these disorders seems to be necessary or sufficient to explain the behavior. Neurobiologically, squalor-dwelling behavior has been associated with frontal lobe dysfunction as evidenced by executive dysfunction; however, cognitive impairments also fail to completely explain this behavior. The purpose of this report is to describe a typical case of squalor-dwelling behavior and use it as an example to illustrate the complexity of uncovering the neurobiological basis for this maladaptive personal and public health threat. Neuroimaging findings from our case and a review of the literature point toward decreased activity in the insular cortex and the amygdala as a unifying biological explanation for squalor-dwelling behaviors.

  10. sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yin Chiang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the simplified models of the ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode multiplexer network with Bernoulli random traffic sources. Based on the model, the performance measures are analyzed by the different output service schemes.

  11. Mass closure and source apportionment of PM2.5 by Positive Matrix Factorization analysis in urban Mediterranean environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantas, E.; Remoundaki, E.; Halari, I.; Kassomenos, P.; Theodosi, C.; Hatzikioseyian, A.; Mihalopoulos, N.

    2014-09-01

    A systematic monitoring of PM2.5 was carried out during a period of three years (from February 2010 to April 2013) at an urban site, at the National Technical University of Athens campus. Two types of 24-h PM2.5 samples have been collected: 271 samples on PTFE and 116 samples on quartz filters. Daily PM2.5 concentrations were determined for both types of samples. Total sulfur, crustal origin elements and elements of a major crustal component (Al, Si, Fe, Ca, K, Mg, Ti) trace elements (Zn, Pb, Cu, Ni, P, V, Cr, Mn) and water soluble ions (Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, Na+, K+, NH4+, Ca2+, Mg2+) were determined on the PTFE samples. Organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and water soluble ions were determined on the quartz samples. For the mass closure six components were considered: Secondary Inorganic Aerosol (SIA), Organic Matter (OM), Elemental Carbon (EC), Dust, Mineral anthropogenic component (MIN) and Sea Salt (SS). SIA and OM contributed in the mass of PM2.5 almost equally: 30-36% and 30% respectively. EC, SS and MIN accounted for 5, 4 and 3% respectively of the total PM2.5 mass. Dust accounted for about 3-5% in absence of dust transport event and reached a much higher percentage in case of dust transport event. These contributions justify at least 80% of the PM2.5 mass. Source apportionment analysis has been performed by Positive Matrix Factorization. The combination of the PMF results obtained by both data sets lead to the definition of six factors: 1. SO42-, NH4+, OC (industrial/regional sources, secondary aerosol) 2. EC, OC, K and trace metals (traffic and heating by biomass burning, locally emitted aerosol). 3. Ca, EC, OC and trace metals (urban-resuspended road dust reflecting exhaust emissions), 4. Secondary nitrates 5. Na, Cl (marine source) 6. Si, Al, Ti, Ca, Fe (Dust transported from Sahara). These factors reflect not only main sources contributions but also underline the key role of atmospheric dynamics and aerosol ageing processes in this Mediterranean

  12. Assessing the risks from exposure to radon in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, P.J.; Lowder, W.M.

    1983-07-01

    The factors used to assess the radiation dose and health risks from human exposure to radon in dwellings are critically reviewed in this summary. Sources of indoor radon and determinants of air concentrations and exposure levels are given as well as the uncertainties that exist in their formulation. Methods of assessing health effects from inhalation of radon and its progeny are discussed with emphasis on dosimetry of radon daughters and formulation of risk per dose values. Finally, methods of assessing risks for general population exposures to indoor radon concentrations are treated

  13. Relationships between air-tightness and its influencing factors of post-2006 new-build dwellings in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Wei [School of Architecture, Design and Environment, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-15

    Addressing air leakage of dwellings is important to improving energy efficiency and thermal comfort. This paper reports on the air permeability test results of 287 post-2006 new-build dwellings in the UK. The paper explores the relationships between air-tightness and its influencing factors including build method, dwelling type, management context, design target, season, number of significant penetrations, and envelope and floor area. One-way ANOVA analysis was utilised to compare means of air permeability in relation to the individual factors, and two- and three-way ANOVA analyses were applied for examining the interactions between them. The air-tightness of the dwellings averaged 5.97 m{sup 3}/(h m{sup 2}) at 50 Pa, which has improved from UK historic data. Dwellings built using precast concrete panels were significantly air-tighter than those built using timber frame, whilst those masonry and reinforced concrete frame dwellings were most leaky. Greater extent of innovative practice and 'self-build' procurement led to achieving superior air-tightness. Interaction was observed between 'build method' and 'dwelling type' and between 'dwelling type' and 'management context'. A modest positive correlation was noticed between air permeability and design target, which became weak in relation to the number of significant penetrations and envelope area. Applying the linear regression technique a predictive model is developed for estimating air permeability of dwellings. This model integrates the influencing factors and their significant interactions. The findings should contribute to future research in predicting impacts of controlling the influencing factors on achieving air-tightness of dwellings more consistently. (author)

  14. A New Database Facilitates Characterization of Flavonoid Intake, Sources, and Positive Associations with Diet Quality among US Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Rhonda S; Wilkinson Enns, Cecilia; Goldman, Joseph D; Martin, Carrie L; Steinfeldt, Lois C; Murayi, Theophile; Moshfegh, Alanna J

    2015-06-01

    Epidemiologic studies demonstrate inverse associations between flavonoid intake and chronic disease risk. However, lack of comprehensive databases of the flavonoid content of foods has hindered efforts to fully characterize population intakes and determine associations with diet quality. Using a newly released database of flavonoid values, this study sought to describe intake and sources of total flavonoids and 6 flavonoid classes and identify associations between flavonoid intake and the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) 2010. One day of 24-h dietary recall data from adults aged ≥ 20 y (n = 5420) collected in What We Eat in America (WWEIA), NHANES 2007-2008, were analyzed. Flavonoid intakes were calculated using the USDA Flavonoid Values for Survey Foods and Beverages 2007-2008. Regression analyses were conducted to provide adjusted estimates of flavonoid intake, and linear trends in total and component HEI scores by flavonoid intake were assessed using orthogonal polynomial contrasts. All analyses were weighted to be nationally representative. Mean intake of flavonoids was 251 mg/d, with flavan-3-ols accounting for 81% of intake. Non-Hispanic whites had significantly higher (P empty calories increased (P < 0.001) across flavonoid intake quartiles. A new database that permits comprehensive estimation of flavonoid intakes in WWEIA, NHANES 2007-2008; identification of their major food/beverage sources; and determination of associations with dietary quality will lead to advances in research on relations between flavonoid intake and health. Findings suggest that diet quality, as measured by HEI, is positively associated with flavonoid intake. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Indoor radon levels and inhalation doses in dwellings near the some sites of Himachal Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajwa, B.S.; Singh, S.; Virk, H.S.

    2005-01-01

    In view of the fact that radon and its daughters are a major source of natural radiation exposure, the measurement of radon concentration levels in dwellings has assumed ever-increasing importance. Keeping this in view, the indoor radon level measurements were carried out in the dwellings of different villages known to be located in the vicinity of uranium-mineralized pockets of Hamirpur district, Himachal Pradesh. Track-etch technique, a passive method using the Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs), LR-115 type II, was utilized for these measurements. An attempt has been made to assess the levels of the indoor radon in the dwellings and inhalation dose rates of the population living in these villages. The radon concentrations were found to be varying with seasonal changes, building materials and mode of construction of houses. The radon concentrations were found to be higher in houses made from local sandstone and with mud floor in comparison to the houses having cemented brick floors. The annual indoor radon concentration and thus annual effective dose in most of the dwellings of these villages is certainly quite higher and even in some of the dwellings it even exceeds the upper limit of the proposed action level of ICRP, 1993. The inhalation dose rates in dwellings of these villages located in the vicinity of uranium mineralized pockets of Hamirpur district, Himachal Pradesh have been found to be quite higher than dose rate in the dwellings in the Amritsar city, Punjab, which is located in a completely uranium free zone. The radon survey in the dwellings of these villages has also been carried out using the Alpha-Guard technique, which is based on the pulse ionization chamber. The indoor radon concentration levels measured using the active technique of Alpha Guard have been found to be quite different from those measured in these dwellings by the passive technique of SSNTDs; indicating the importance of the SSNTDs in the long-term integrated measurement

  16. Source identification of water-soluble organic aerosols at a roadway site using a positive matrix factorization analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seungshik; Cho, Sung Yong; Bae, Min-Suk

    2015-11-15

    Daily PM2.5 measurements were carried out at a local roadway every sixth day from May 2011 to August 2013 to obtain seasonal quantitative information on the primary and secondary sources of two water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) fractions. Filter samples were analyzed for OC, elemental carbon (EC), WSOC, hydrophilic and hydrophobic WSOC fractions (WSOC(HPI) and WSOC(HPO)), and ionic species. An XAD solid phase extraction method and a total organic carbon analyzer were used to isolate the two WSOC fractions and determine their amounts, respectively. The WSOC/OC and WSOC(HPI)/WSOC ratios were 0.62±0.13 and 0.47±0.14, respectively. Similar seasonal profiles in EC, OC, and WSOC concentrations were observed, with higher concentrations occurring in the cold season and lower concentrations in the warm season. However, opposite results were obtained in WSOC/OC and WSOC(HPI)/WSOC ratios, with the higher in the warm season and the lower in the cold season. Correlation analyses indicated that two WSOC fractions in winter were likely attributed to secondary formation processes, biomass burning (BB), and traffic emissions, while WSOC(HPI) observed in other seasons were associated with secondary formation processes similar to those of oxalate and secondary inorganic species. A positive matrix factorization (PMF) model was employed to investigate the sources of two WSOC fractions. PMF indicated that concentrations of WSOC fractions were affected by five sources: secondary NO3(-) related, secondary SO4(2-) and oxalate related, traffic emissions, BB emissions, and sea-salt. Throughout the study period, secondary organic aerosols were estimated to be the most dominant contributor of WSOC fractions, with higher contributions occurring in the warm seasons. The contribution of secondary aerosol formation processes (NO3(-) related+SO4(2-) and oxalate related) to WSOC(HPI) and WSOC(HPO) was on an average 56.2% (45.0-73.8%) and 47.7% (39.6-52.1%), respectively. The seasonal average

  17. Determination of dose factors for external gamma radiation in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maduar, M.F.; Hiromoto, G.

    2000-01-01

    A significant contribution to the global population exposure to ionizing radiation arises from natural sources, especially from radionuclides present in terrestrial crust. Human activities can eventually increase that exposure to significant levels, from the point of view of radiological protection. The presence of natural radionuclides in building materials may lead to an increment of both external and internal radiation exposure of the population. External exposure in dwellings arises from gamma-emitter radionuclides existing in the walls, floor and ceiling of their rooms. Mathematical models can be used to predict external dose rates inside the room, known the radionuclide concentration activities in dwelling constituents. This paper presents a methodology for theoretical evaluation of external gamma doses due to radionuclides present in the walls of an hypothetical standard room. The room is modeled as three pairs of rectangular sheets with finite thickness. Assessment of doses was performed through the application of photon transport model, taking in account self-absorption and radiation buildup. As the external dose due to a particular radionuclide is proportional to its activity concentration, results are presented as dose factors, defined as a ratio of absorbed dose (nGy.h -1 ) to the activity concentration (Bq.kg -1 ), for each radionuclide. The radionuclides were assumed to be uniformly distributed in the building materials. Calculations were performed for concrete walls and results are presented for 40 K, 226 Ra, and 232 Th, taking in account, for dose calculations, all gamma emitters from 226 Ra and 232 Th decay chains. Sensitivity of the model was estimated by varying four of its input parameters within a reasonable range of applicability, while leaving all other parameters at fixed selected values. The parameters studied and respective ranges of variation were: for thickness, 5 to 60 cm; for density, 0.5 to 4 g.cm -3 ; for the room length, 1.5 to 10 m

  18. Radon in dwellings and shelters in Zagreb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokobauer, N.; Franic, Z.; Sencar, J.; Bauman, A.

    1994-01-01

    Since 1990, radon activity was measured in dwellings of Zagreb. In only small number of dwellings radon activity exceeded 100 Bq.m -3 . Since the inhabitants of Croatia have to stay in the facilities below the ground due to the war against Croatia, the paper gives also data on radon activity measured in the shelters and cellars in 1991. Measurements were performed using Kodak LR-115 detectors, type II. At several locations radon activity was measured with a silicon detector (Radhome). Radon values obtained for the shelters, cellars and dwellings at all locations were compared. With respect to children as most susceptable population group the paper gives data on radon activity for kindergartens and elementary schools (and its shelters) where children usually spend almost one-third to the day. (orig.)

  19. Recommended action levels for radon in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The recommendation made by a group appointed by the Directorate of Public Health, arrives at the conclusion that radon in Norwegian dwellings implies a substantial health problem for the country. For this reason it is recommended that actions should be taken to reduce the radiation exposure from radon in Norway. Upper levels for such actions are set to 200 Bq/m 3 (radon in air of dwellings) for new contructions. For existing dwellings having concentrations of 200 - 800 Bq/m 3 , simple and unexpensive remedial actions to reduce levels are sufficient. When levels exceed 800 Bq/m 3 , more elaborate and costly actions are necessary. An evaluation of the extent of the radon problem in Norway is included, together with a survey of the cost and benefit involved in choosing various levels for remedial actions

  20. Influence of relative trophic position and carbon source on selenium bioaccumulation in turtles from a coal fly-ash spill site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dyke, James U.; Hopkins, William A.; Jackson, Brian P.

    2013-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is a bioaccumulative constituent of coal fly-ash that can disrupt reproduction of oviparous wildlife. In food webs, the greatest enrichment of Se occurs at the lowest trophic levels, making it readily bioavailable to higher consumers. However, subsequent enrichment at higher trophic levels is less pronounced, leading to mixed tendencies for Se to biomagnify. We used stable isotopes ( 15 N and 13 C) in claws to infer relative trophic positions and relative carbon sources, respectively, of seven turtle species near the site of a recently-remediated coal fly-ash spill. We then tested whether Se concentrations differed with relative trophic position or relative carbon source. We did not observe a strong relationship between δ 15 N and Se concentration. Instead, selenium concentrations decreased with increasing δ 13 C among species. Therefore, in an assemblage of closely-related aquatic vertebrates, relative carbon source was a better predictor of Se bioaccumulation than was relative trophic position. -- Highlights: •Stable isotope results showed trophic separation among turtle species. •Selenium concentrations did not biomagnify with relative trophic position. •Selenium concentrations decreased with increasing δ 13 C among species. •Carbon source influenced Se bioaccumulation in an assemblage of related vertebrates. -- Stable isotope differences indicate that claw selenium concentrations differ among relative carbon sources, and not among relative trophic positions, in an assemblage of aquatic turtles

  1. TARGET-DIRECTED RUNNING IN GYMNASTICS: THE ROLE OF THE SPRINGBOARD POSITION AS AN INFORMATIONAL SOURCE TO REGULATE HANDSPRINGS ON VAULT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Heinen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Empirical evidence highlights the role of visual information to control gymnastics vaulting and thus neglects a stereotyped approach run. However, there is no evidence on which informational source this regulation is based on. The aim of this study was to examine the position of the springboard as an informational source in the regulation of the handspring on vault. The hypothesis tested was that the action of running towards the springboard brings about changes in the approach run kinematics and handspring kinematics that relate directly to the position of the springboard. Therefore, kinematics of N = 14 female expert gymnasts’ handsprings on vault and their approach runs were examined while manipulating the position of the springboard. The results revealed that expert gymnasts placed their feet on average in the same position on the springboard and adapted to the springboard position during the last three steps of the approach run. A smaller springboard distance to the front edge of the vaulting table resulted in a different hand placement on the vaulting table, a shorter first flight phase, a take-off angle closer to 90° and a longer second flight phase. Findings suggest that the position of the springboard is a relevant informational source in gymnastics vaulting. We state that knowledge about relationships between informational sources in the environment and the resulting regulatory processes in athletes may help coaches to develop specific training programmes in order to optimize performance in complex skills.

  2. Parametric normalization for full-energy peak efficiency of HPGe γ-ray spectrometers at different counting positions for bulky sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Nie; Bang-Fa, Ni; Wei-Zhi, Tian

    2013-02-01

    Application of effective interaction depth (EID) principle for parametric normalization of full energy peak efficiencies at different counting positions, originally for quasi-point sources, has been extended to bulky sources (within ∅30 mm×40 mm) with arbitrary matrices. It is also proved that the EID function for quasi-point source can be directly used for cylindrical bulky sources (within ∅30 mm×40 mm) with the geometric center as effective point source for low atomic number (Z) and low density (D) media and high energy γ-rays. It is also found that in general EID for bulky sources is dependent upon Z and D of the medium and the energy of the γ-rays in question. In addition, the EID principle was theoretically verified by MCNP calculations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Survey of Ground Dwelling Arthropods Associated with Two Habitat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survey of Ground Dwelling Arthropods Associated with Two Habitat Types in the Jos ... in the mean abundance of ground dwelling arthropods in relation to taxa. ... Food availability and vegetation cover were found to be critical to arthropods ...

  4. Icodextrin with nitroprusside increases ultrafiltration and peritoneal transport during long CAPD dwells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, C. E.; Hiralall, J. K.; de Waart, D. R.; Struijk, D. G.; Krediet, R. T.

    1998-01-01

    Addition of the nitric oxide (NO) donor nitroprusside to 1.36% glucose dialysate enlarges the effective peritoneal surface area during four-hour dwells. The theoretical positive effect on ultrafiltration is, however, counteracted by an increase in glucose absorption. The absorption of the glucose

  5. Low frequency sounds in dwellings : A case control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Frits (G P)

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to systematically assess the level and spectral distribution of low frequency (LF) sounds in dwellings. Measurements of broad and narrow hand sound levels have been made in 36 Dutch dwellings in 1998. In 19 dwellings there were complaints about LF noise, in 17 others no

  6. Curriculum Making as the Enactment of Dwelling in Places

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Hamish; Mannion, Greg

    2012-01-01

    This article uses an account of dwelling to interrogate the concept of curriculum making. Tim Ingold's use of dwelling to understand culture is productive here because of his implicit and explicit interest in intergenerational learning. His account of dwelling rests on a foundational ontological claim--that mental construction and representation…

  7. 24 CFR 203.38 - Location of dwelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Location of dwelling. 203.38... § 203.38 Location of dwelling. At the time a mortgage is insured there must be located on the mortgaged property one or more dwellings designed principally for residential use for not more than four families...

  8. 24 CFR 9.153 - Distribution of accessible dwelling units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distribution of accessible dwelling units. 9.153 Section 9.153 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing... dwelling units. Accessible dwelling units required by § 9.152 shall, to the maximum extent feasible, be...

  9. 24 CFR 8.26 - Distribution of accessible dwelling units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distribution of accessible dwelling units. 8.26 Section 8.26 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing... accessible dwelling units. Accessible dwelling units required by § 8.22, 8.23, 8.24 or 8.25 shall, to the...

  10. Radon measurements in mines and dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, M.

    1985-01-01

    Radon measurements using a time integrating passive radon dosemeter (MAKROFOL track etch detector) have been performed in Brazilian and German mines and dwellings. The present state of the measurement technique is summarized. The results are presented together with exposure calculations and dose estimations for occupational exposure in open pit and underground mines and for the general public in houses. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Environmental impact of NORM in Israeli dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neeman, E.; Steiner, V.

    2002-01-01

    In the last decade the construction of public dwellings in Israel has been intensified. New construction sites are being created and new construction materials, local or imported, are being used. Since the origin of the building materials is essentially the soil, they inherit the radioactive properties of the environment. The level of Natural Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM),from the decay chains of the ubiquitous radio nuclides U 238 ,Th 232 ,U 235 and K 40 ,as well as artificial radioisotopes like Cs 137 ,in building materials needs to be controlled, in order to limit the gamma and Radon radiation dose of the general public in dwellings. The Ministry of the Environment collaborates with other institutions to evaluate, document and control the NORM content in our environment, based on international standards. The operation of quarries is controlled to ensure a low NORM content in raw building materials. The use of bottom and fly ash, abundantly produced in electrical power stations, in constructions is also being controlled. A new Israeli standard controls the NORM content in building materials such as to limit the radiation dose in dwellings from this practice to 0.45 mSv /year. Special construction solutions are developed and used in areas with high Radon concentration in the soil. The aim is to maintain the Radon concentration in dwellings below the Action Limit of 200 Bq/m 3

  12. The efficient model to define a single light source position by use of high dynamic range image of 3D scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu-yang; Zhdanov, Dmitry D.; Potemin, Igor S.; Wang, Ying; Cheng, Han

    2016-10-01

    One of the challenges of augmented reality is a seamless combination of objects of the real and virtual worlds, for example light sources. We suggest a measurement and computation models for reconstruction of light source position. The model is based on the dependence of luminance of the small size diffuse surface directly illuminated by point like source placed at a short distance from the observer or camera. The advantage of the computational model is the ability to eliminate the effects of indirect illumination. The paper presents a number of examples to illustrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method.

  13. Policy Instruments to Improve Energy Performance of Existing Owner Occupied Dwellings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Colette Murphy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this thesis is to add knowledge to the role and impact of policy instruments in meeting energy performance ambition in the existing owner occupied housing stock. The focus was instruments available in the Netherlands in 2011 and 2012. These instruments represented the ‘on the ground’ efforts to meet climate change targets and many continue to do so today in the same or slightly altered forms. At international level there is a recognized need to keep global temperatures within the range of 1.5 - 2°C above pre-industrial levels (Carrington, 2016. At European level, the 2020 package contains a series of binding legislation to help the EU meet its more immediate climate and energy targets. 2020 targets include 20% reduction in greenhouse gas emission, 20% of EU energy obtained from renewable sources and 20% improvement in energy efficiency. 2020 targets for the Netherlands are a 20% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and a 14% increase in energy generation from renewable sources (Vringer et al., 2014. A raft of policies has been produced over the last number of decades from international to local level to orientate action towards targets. At European level the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD drives efforts at reducing energy among one of the biggest players, the building sector. By requiring a mandatory certificate at the point of sale and rent of buildings and making regulatory demands on existing buildings the EPBD upped the ante of what could be expected from the building sector, but especially the existing dwelling stock. National governments have already been tackling existing dwellings for decades propelled by the energy crisis and later by climate change policy. Information campaigns, subsidies, energy taxes, energy loans and tailored advice are among the instruments that have been available to homeowners to carry out works on their dwellings to reduce energy consumption. In recent years, the pace of efforts

  14. The dwelling space of postnatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smythe, Elizabeth A; Payne, Deborah; Wilson, Sally; Wynyard, Sue

    2013-06-01

    This paper considers the dwelling space of postnatal care, how being-there feels for the woman going through the experience of matrescence. The research takes a hermeneutic approach and draws on philosophical notions from Heidegger. 'What is the nature of the dwelling space of valued postnatal care?'. Appropriate ethics approval was gained. Participants were midwives, nurses, women, and other relevant stakeholders. There were 4 focus groups involving 11 participants and 19 individual interviews. Data collection was conducted over a one week period by a team of three researchers. An interview schedule had been organised by the administrator at the Centre. Participants chose whether to come to the centre to be interviewed, or be interviewed in their own homes. Most interviews were an hour. All interviews were tape recorded and transcribed, with the participant's permission. Data was analysed through a hermeneutic process set in the context of related literature. When women are invited into a dwelling space that strengthens them they feel 'mothered': being listened to, have their needs anticipated, and are cared for in a loving manner. In such a way they grow confidence. A child health nurse reported the difference such care made to on-going mothering at home. All women deserve a dwelling space in their early days of matrescence. Small birthing centres perhaps achieve such care and ambience more easily than large institutional units. Nevertheless, wherever the place, practices need to be enabled that foster the spirit of dwelling. Copyright © 2012 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of a source line position on results of EM observations applied to the diagnostics of underground heating system pipelines in urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrov, A.

    2009-05-01

    The condition of underground constructions, communication and supply systems in the cities has to be periodically monitored and controlled in order to prevent their breakage, which can result in serious accident, especially in urban area. The most risk of damage have the underground construction made of steal such as pipelines widely used for water, gas and heat supply. To ensure the pipeline survivability it is necessary to carry out the operative and inexpensive control of pipelines condition. Induced electromagnetic methods of geophysics can be applied to provide such diagnostics. The highly developed surface in urbane area is one of cause hampering the realization of electromagnetic methods of diagnostics. The main problem is in finding of an appropriate place for the source line and electrodes on a limited surface area and their optimal position relative to the observation path to minimize their influence on observed data. Author made a number of experiments of an underground heating system pipeline diagnostics using different position of the source line and electrodes. The experiments were made on a 200 meters section over 2 meters deep pipeline. The admissible length of the source line and angle between the source line and the observation path were determined. The minimal length of the source line for the experiment conditions and accuracy made 30 meters, the maximum admissible angle departure from the perpendicular position made 30 degrees. The work was undertaken in cooperation with diagnostics company DIsSO, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.

  16. Community structure of grassland ground-dwelling arthropods along increasing soil salinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chengchen; Feng, Qi; Liu, Jiliang; Li, Yulin; Li, Yuqiang; Yu, Xiaoya

    2018-03-01

    Ground-dwelling arthropod communities are influenced by numerous biotic and abiotic factors. Little is known, however, about the relative importance of vegetation structure and abiotic environmental factors on the patterns of ground-dwelling arthropod community across a wide range of soil salinities. Here, a field survey was conducted to assess the driving forces controlling ground-dwelling arthropod community in the salinized grasslands in the Hexi Corridor, Gansu Province, China. The data were analyzed by variance partitioning with canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). We found that vegetation structure and edaphic factors were at least of similar importance to the pattern of the whole ground-dwelling arthropod community. However, when all collected ground-dwelling arthropods were categorized into three trophic guilds (predators, herbivores, and decomposers), as these groups use different food sources, their populations were controlled by different driving forces. Predators and decomposers were mainly determined by biotic factors such as vegetation cover and aboveground plant biomass and herbivores by plant density and vegetation cover. Abiotic factors were also major determinants for the variation occurring in these guilds, with predators strongly affected by soil electrical conductivity (EC) and the content of fine particles (silt + clay, CS), herbivores by soil N:P, EC, and CS, and decomposers by soil EC and organic matter content (SOM). Since plant cover, density, and aboveground biomass can indicate resource availability, which are mainly constrained by soil N:P, EC, CS, and SOM, we consider that the ground-dwelling arthropod community in the salinized grasslands was mainly influenced by resource availability.

  17. Chemical characterization of PM1.0 aerosol in Delhi and source apportionment using positive matrix factorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiprakash; Singhai, Amrita; Habib, Gazala; Raman, Ramya Sunder; Gupta, Tarun

    2017-01-01

    Fine aerosol fraction (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <= 1.0 μm (PM) 1.0 ) over the Indian Institute of Technology Delhi campus was monitored day and night (10 h each) at 30 m height from November 2009 to March 2010. The samples were analyzed for 5 ions (NH 4 + , NO 3 - , SO 4 2- , F - , and Cl - ) and 12 trace elements (Na, K, Mg, Ca, Pb, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu, Cd, Cr, and Ni). Importantly, secondary aerosol (sulfate and nitrate) formation was observed during dense foggy events, supporting the fog-smog-fog cycle. A total of 76 samples were used for source apportionment of PM mass. Six factors were resolved by PMF analyses and were identified as secondary aerosol, secondary chloride, biomass burning, soil dust, iron-rich source, and vehicular emission. The geographical location of the sources and/or preferred transport pathways was identified by conditional probability function (for local sources) and potential source contribution function (for regional sources) analyses. Medium- and small-scale metal processing (e.g. steel sheet rolling) industries in Haryana and National Capital Region (NCR) Delhi, coke and petroleum refining in Punjab, and thermal power plants in Pakistan, Punjab, and NCR Delhi were likely contributors to secondary sulfate, nitrate, and secondary chloride at the receptor site. The agricultural residue burning after harvesting season (Sept-Dec and Feb-Apr) in Punjab, and Haryana contributed to potassium at receptor site during November-December and March 2010. The soil dust from North and East Pakistan, and Rajasthan, North-East Punjab, and Haryana along with the local dust contributed to soil dust at the receptor site, during February and March 2010. A combination of temporal behavior and air parcel trajectory ensemble analyses indicated that the iron-rich source was most likely a local source attributed to emissions from metal processing facilities. Further, as expected, the vehicular emissions source did not show any seasonality and

  18. Yet one more dwell time algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberl, Alexander; Rascher, Rolf

    2017-06-01

    The current demand of even more powerful and efficient microprocessors, for e.g. deep learning, has led to an ongoing trend of reducing the feature size of the integrated circuits. These processors are patterned with EUV-lithography which enables 7 nm chips [1]. To produce mirrors which satisfy the needed requirements is a challenging task. Not only increasing requirements on the imaging properties, but also new lens shapes, such as aspheres or lenses with free-form surfaces, require innovative production processes. However, these lenses need new deterministic sub-aperture polishing methods that have been established in the past few years. These polishing methods are characterized, by an empirically determined TIF and local stock removal. Such a deterministic polishing method is ion-beam-figuring (IBF). The beam profile of an ion beam is adjusted to a nearly ideal Gaussian shape by various parameters. With the known removal function, a dwell time profile can be generated for each measured error profile. Such a profile is always generated pixel-accurately to the predetermined error profile, with the aim always of minimizing the existing surface structures up to the cut-off frequency of the tool used [2]. The processing success of a correction-polishing run depends decisively on the accuracy of the previously computed dwell-time profile. So the used algorithm to calculate the dwell time has to accurately reflect the reality. But furthermore the machine operator should have no influence on the dwell-time calculation. Conclusively there mustn't be any parameters which have an influence on the calculation result. And lastly it should take a minimum of machining time to get a minimum of remaining error structures. Unfortunately current dwell time algorithm calculations are divergent, user-dependent, tending to create high processing times and need several parameters to bet set. This paper describes an, realistic, convergent and user independent dwell time algorithm. The

  19. Source term assessment using inverse modeling of radiation dose measured with environmental radiation monitors located at different positions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivas, C.V.; Rakesh, P.T.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.

    2018-01-01

    Source term is an important input for consequence analysis using Decision Support Systems (DSS) to project radiological impact in the event of nuclear emergencies. A source term model called 'ASTER' is incorporated in the Online Nuclear Emergency Response System (ONERS) operational at Kalpakkam site for decision making during nuclear emergencies. This computes release rates using inverse method by employing an atmospheric dispersion model and gamma dose rates measured by environmental radiation monitors (ERM) deployed around the nuclear plant. The estimates may depend on the distribution of ERMs around the release location. In this work, data from various gamma monitors located at different radii 0.75 km and 1.5 km is used to assess the accuracy in the source term estimation for stack releases of MAPS-PHWR at Kalpakkam

  20. Conceptual source design and dosimetric feasibility study for intravascular treatment: a proposal for intensity modulated brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Si Yong; Han, Eun Young; Palta, Jatinder R.; Ha, Sung W.

    2003-01-01

    To propose a conceptual design of a novel source for intensity modulated brachytherapy. The source design incorporates both radioactive and shielding materials (stainless steel or tungsten), to provide an asymmetric dose intensity in the azimuthal direction. The intensity modulated intravascular brachytherapy was performed by combining a series of dwell positions and times, distributed along the azimuthal coordinates. Two simple designs for the beta-emitting sources, with similar physical dimensions to a 90 Sr/Y Novoste Beat-Cath source, were considered in the dosimetric feasibility study. In the first design, the radioactive and materials each occupy half of the cylinder and in the second, the radioactive material occupies only a quarter of the cylinder. The radial and azimuthal dose distributions around each source were calculated using the MCNP Monte Carlo code. The preliminary hypothetical simulation and optimization results demonstrated the 87% difference between the maximum and minimum doses to the lumen wall, due to off-centering of the radiation source, could be reduced to less than 7% by optimizing the azimuthal dwell positions and times of the partially shielded intravascular brachytherapy sources. The novel brachytherapy source design, and conceptual source delivery system, proposed in this study show promising dosimetric characteristics for the realization of intensity modulated brachytherapy in intravascular treatment. Further development of this concept will center on building a delivery system that can precisely control the angular motion of a radiation source in a small-diameter catheter

  1. Conceptual source design and dosimetric feasibility study for intravascular treatment: a proposal for intensity modulated brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Si Yong; Han, Eun Young; Palta, Jatinder R. [College of Medicine, Florida Univ., Florida (United States); Ha, Sung W. [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-01

    To propose a conceptual design of a novel source for intensity modulated brachytherapy. The source design incorporates both radioactive and shielding materials (stainless steel or tungsten), to provide an asymmetric dose intensity in the azimuthal direction. The intensity modulated intravascular brachytherapy was performed by combining a series of dwell positions and times, distributed along the azimuthal coordinates. Two simple designs for the beta-emitting sources, with similar physical dimensions to a {sub 90}Sr/Y Novoste Beat-Cath source, were considered in the dosimetric feasibility study. In the first design, the radioactive and materials each occupy half of the cylinder and in the second, the radioactive material occupies only a quarter of the cylinder. The radial and azimuthal dose distributions around each source were calculated using the MCNP Monte Carlo code. The preliminary hypothetical simulation and optimization results demonstrated the 87% difference between the maximum and minimum doses to the lumen wall, due to off-centering of the radiation source, could be reduced to less than 7% by optimizing the azimuthal dwell positions and times of the partially shielded intravascular brachytherapy sources. The novel brachytherapy source design, and conceptual source delivery system, proposed in this study show promising dosimetric characteristics for the realization of intensity modulated brachytherapy in intravascular treatment. Further development of this concept will center on building a delivery system that can precisely control the angular motion of a radiation source in a small-diameter catheter.

  2. Positivity effect in source attributions of arousal-matched emotional and non-emotional words during item-based directed forgetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallant, Sara N; Yang, Lixia

    2014-01-01

    Consistent with their emphasis on emotional goals, older adults often exhibit a positivity bias in attention and memory relative to their young counterparts (i.e., a positivity effect). The current study sought to determine how this age-related positivity effect would impact intentional forgetting of emotional words, a process critical to efficient operation of memory. Using an item-based directed forgetting task, 36 young and 36 older adults studied a series of arousal-equivalent words that varied in valence (i.e., positive, negative, and neutral). Each word was followed by a cue to either remember or forget the word. A subsequent "tagging" recognition task required classification of items as to-be-remembered (TBR), to-be-forgotten (TBF), or new as a measure of directed forgetting and source attribution in participants' memory. Neither young nor older adults' intentional forgetting was affected by the valence of words. A goal-consistent valence effect did, however, emerge in older adults' source attribution performance. Specifically, older adults assigned more TBR-cues to positive words and more TBF-cues to negative words. Results are discussed in light of existing literature on emotion and directed forgetting as well as the socioemotional selectivity theory underlying the age-related positivity effect.

  3. Positivity effect in source attributions of arousal-matched emotional and non-emotional words during item-based directed forgetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara N. Gallant

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Consistent with their emphasis on emotional goals, older adults often exhibit a positivity bias in attention and memory relative to their young counterparts (i.e., a positivity effect. The current study sought to determine how this age-related positivity effect would impact intentional forgetting of emotional words, a process critical to efficient operation of memory. Using an item-based directed forgetting task, 36 young and 36 older adults studied a series of arousal-equivalent words that varied in valence (i.e., positive, negative, and neutral. Each word was followed by a cue to either remember or forget the word. A subsequent tagging recognition task required classification of items as to-be-remembered (TBR, to-be-forgotten (TBF, or new as a measure of directed forgetting and source attribution in participants’ memory. Valence did not affect intentional forgetting in both young and older age groups. A goal-consistent valence effect did, however, emerge in older adults’ source attribution performance. Specifically, older adults assigned more TBR-cues to positive words and more TBF-cues to negative words. Results are discussed in light of existing literature on emotion and directed forgetting as well as the socioemotional selectivity theory underlying the age-related positivity effect.

  4. 78 FR 53020 - Branch Technical Position on the Import of Non-U.S. Origin Radioactive Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI), the International Source Suppliers and Producers Association (ISSPA), QSA... Utah's Department of Environmental Quality (UDEQ), the State of Virginia's Department of Health...-for-one exchanges, has a neutral effect on disposal capacity constraints within the U.S. The NRC staff...

  5. Temporal Architecture: Poetic Dwelling in Japanese buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lazarin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Heidegger’s thinking about poetic dwelling and Derrida’s impressions of Freudian estrangement are employed to provide a constitutional analysis of the experience of Japanese architecture, in particular, the Japanese vestibule (genkan. This analysis is supplemented by writings by Japanese architects and poets. The principal elements of Japanese architecture are: (1 ma, and (2 en. Ma is usually translated as ‘interval’ because, like the English word, it applies to both space and time.  However, in Japanese thinking, it is not so much an either/or, but rather a both/and. In other words, Japanese architecture emphasises the temporal aspect of dwelling in a way that Western architectural thinking usually does not. En means ‘joint, edge, the in-between’ as an ambiguous, often asymmetrical spanning of interior and exterior, rather than a demarcation of these regions. Both elements are aimed at producing an experience of temporality and transiency.

  6. Monitoring of radon concentration in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosawa, Ryuhei

    1991-01-01

    Radon problems in dwellings have recently received much attention. Radon concentration in dwellings, as well as in the general environment, varies with various factors such as meteorological conditions and soil components. Therefore, a long term monitoring of radon concentration is required to obtain an average concentration. This paper reviews a passive type radon monitor that is handy and allows a long term radon monitoring. It provides the structure and principle of the radon monitor, covering the type, filter function, sensitivity of diffusion collecting type (cup type), electrostatic collecting type, adsorption collecting type, and detector of radon monitor. Actual examples of the radon monitor are also given. Radon daughter nuclides will have become major foci of exposure countermeasures. In the future, the development of a passive type monitor for determining potential alpha energy concentration is required. (N.K.)

  7. The intramolecular position of docosahexaenoic acid in the triacylglycerol sources used for pediatric nutrition has a minimal effect on its metabolic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala-Vila, Aleix; Castellote, Ana I; López-Sabater, M Carmen

    2008-03-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) plays an important role in normal development of the brain and retina in the human. In utero, DHA is incorporated in the fetus, and its accretion continues throughout early postnatal life. Although human breast milk contains this fatty acid, several organizations recommend supplementing infant formulas with DHA for infants and premature infants. Traditionally, certain types of fish oil have been used for fortifying some infant formulas, but with the decline in world fisheries, the search for alternative sources of DHA continues. Among the viable ingredient sources of DHA is oil derived from single-cell organisms (marine microorganisms); however, these oil sources display different positional specificity of DHA in the glycerol lipids compared with that found in human breast milk lipids. In the latter, the DHA is mainly esterified in the central position of the glycerol backbone. Because of these differences in human milk and oils derived from single-cell organisms, recent research in biotechnology has focused on developing new structured triacylglycerols with an intramolecular structure resembling that found in human milk lipids. This research is justified by the potential differences in metabolism of DHA based on the hypothetical bioavailability and benefits in DHA found in human milk lipids. Presented herein is a review of the published research on the metabolism of DHA from different triacylglycerol sources including in vitro studies and animal studies. Despite small differences observed in digestion, the current data reveal a minimal effect on the parameters of development studied for the intramolecular position in which DHA is esterified.

  8. A new method to quantify the health risks from sources of perfluoroalkyl substances, combined with positive matrix factorization and risk assessment models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiao; Shi, Guo-Liang; Guo, Chang-Sheng; Wang, Hai-Ting; Tian, Ying-Ze; Huangfu, Yan-Qi; Zhang, Yuan; Feng, Yin-Chang; Xu, Jian

    2018-01-01

    A hybrid model based on the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model and the health risk assessment model for assessing risks associated with sources of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in water was established and applied at Dianchi Lake to test its applicability. The new method contains 2 stages: 1) the sources of PFASs were apportioned by the PMF model and 2) the contribution of health risks from each source was calculated by the new hybrid model. Two factors were extracted by PMF, with factor 1 identified as aqueous fire-fighting foams source and factor 2 as fluoropolymer manufacturing and processing and perfluorooctanoic acid production source. The health risk of PFASs in the water assessed by the health risk assessment model was 9.54 × 10 -7  a -1 on average, showing no obvious adverse effects to human health. The 2 sources' risks estimated by the new hybrid model ranged from 2.95 × 10 -10 to 6.60 × 10 -6  a -1 and from 1.64 × 10 -7 to 1.62 × 10 -6  a -1 , respectively. The new hybrid model can provide useful information on the health risks of PFAS sources, which is helpful for pollution control and environmental management. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:107-115. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  9. [Mechanism of the constant representation of the position of a sound signal source by the cricket cercal system neurons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhkova, G I; Polishcuk, N A

    1976-01-01

    Previously it has been shown that some abdominal giant neurones of the cricket have constant preffered directions of sound stimulation in relation not to the cerci (the organs bearing sound receptors) but to the insect body (fig. 1) [1]. Now it is found that the independence of directional sensitivity of giant neurones on the cerci position disappears after cutting all structures connecting the cerci to the body (except cercal nerves) (fig 2). Therefore the constancy of directional sensitivity of the giant nerones is provided by proprioceptive signals about cerci position.

  10. Indoor radon measurements in dwellings of Mizoram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalramengzami, R.; Laldawngliana, C.; Sinha, D.; Ghosh, S.; Dwivedi, K.K.

    1995-01-01

    The concentration of indoor radon has been measured in some dwellings of Mizoram state by employing time integrated method using solid state nuclear track detector. This state is located in the north eastern region of India which has been identified as a high background area. The indoor radon levels determined in this work are compared with data obtained from other regions of India and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) prescribed safe limit. (author). 7 refs., 2 figs

  11. Wood-burning stoves in low-carbon dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo; Jensen, Ole Michael; Afshari, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    The European climate change strategy intends to encourage the erection of low-carbon buildings and the upgrading of existing buildings to low-carbon level. At the same time, it is an EU vision to maximise the use of renewable energy resources. In this strategy, small-scale wood......-burning is an overlooked source for heating. A wood-burning stove is considered low-carbon technology since its fuel is based on local residual biomass. A field study investigating how modern wood-burning stoves operated in modern single-family houses showed that intermittent heat supply occasionally conflicted...... combustion technology and automatics, controlling the interplay between stove and house, can make wood-burning stoves suitable for low-carbon dwellings and meet the remaining heat demand during the coldest period. It was further concluded that new guidelines need to be elaborated about how to install...

  12. Uncertainty analysis of energy consumption in dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersen, Trine Dyrstad

    1997-12-31

    This thesis presents a comprehensive study of an energy estimation model that can be used to examine the uncertainty of predicted energy consumption in a dwelling. The variation and uncertainty of input parameters due to the outdoor climate, the building construction and the inhabitants are studied as a basis for further energy evaluations. The occurring variations of energy consumption in nominal similar dwellings are also investigated due to verification of the simulated energy consumption. The main topics are (1) a study of expected variations and uncertainties in both input parameters used in energy consumption calculations and the energy consumption in the dwelling, (2) the development and evaluation of a simplified energy calculation model that considers uncertainties due to the input parameters, (3) an evaluation of the influence of the uncertain parameters on the total variation so that the most important parameters can be identified, and (4) the recommendation of a simplified procedure for treating uncertainties or possible deviations from average conditions. 90 refs., 182 figs., 73 tabs.

  13. A methodology for translating positional error into measures of attribute error, and combining the two error sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohay Carmel; Curtis Flather; Denis Dean

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes our efforts to investigate the nature, behavior, and implications of positional error and attribute error in spatiotemporal datasets. Estimating the combined influence of these errors on map analysis has been hindered by the fact that these two error types are traditionally expressed in different units (distance units, and categorical units,...

  14. Positive and Negative Self-Esteem Among Ethnic Minority Early Adolescents : Social and Cultural Sources and Threats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuyten, Maykel

    2003-01-01

    This paper uses data from a large-scale study (N D 1070) of Turkish and Moroccan early adolescents in the Netherlands. In it, it was found that a distinction between positive and negative self-esteem as 2 relatively independent dimensions of global self-esteem could be made. Other results were that

  15. Influence of the gate position on source-to-drain resistance in AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Using a suitable dual-gate structure, the source-to-drain resistance (RSD of AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistor (HFET with varying gate position has been studied at room temperature. The theoretical and experimental results have revealed a dependence of RSD on the gate position. The variation of RSD with the gate position is found to stem from the polarization Coulomb field (PCF scattering. This finding is of great benefit to the optimization of the performance of AlGaN/AlN/GaN HFET. Especially, when the AlGaN/AlN/GaN HFET works as a microwave device, it is beneficial to achieve the impedance matching by designing the appropriate gate position based on PCF scattering.

  16. The position of the individual gods and goddesses in various types of sources - with special reference to the female divinities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Else Mundal

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In the written sources the gods are arranged in a patriarchal family structure with Odin on the top. If we try to rank the gods in order of precedence on the basis of the number of instances in the toponymic material, Odin would be found a good way down the list. Generally, we should expect gods connected with the cult of fertility and the agricultural society to be overrepresented in the toponymic material in comparison with a god of war. If we consider our literary sources and ask which of the goddesses' names are most frequently used as basic words in kenningar for women, we see that many of the more "unknown" goddesses are very well represented in this material. In the toponymic material, it was the leading goddess who was considered to be the leading god's wife, but not necessarily. Both Frigg and Freyja belong to the type of fertility goddess.

  17. Analytical formulae to calculate the solid angle subtended at an arbitrarily positioned point source by an elliptical radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, Mahmoud I.; Hammoud, Sami; Ibrahim, Tarek; Sakr, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we introduce a direct analytical mathematical method for calculating the solid angle, Ω, subtended at a point by closed elliptical contours. The solid angle is required in many areas of optical and nuclear physics to estimate the flux of particle beam of radiation and to determine the activity of a radioactive source. The validity of the derived analytical expressions was successfully confirmed by the comparison with some published data (Numerical Method)

  18. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATION OF A GAMMA-RAY SOURCE AT THE POSITION OF ETA CARINAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bonamente, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.

    2010-01-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope detected a γ-ray source that is spatially consistent with the location of Eta Carinae. This source has been persistently bright since the beginning of the LAT survey observations (from 2008 August to 2009 July, the time interval considered here). The γ-ray signal is detected significantly throughout the LAT energy band (i.e., up to ∼100 GeV). The 0.1-100 GeV energy spectrum is well represented by a combination of a cutoff power-law model ( 10 GeV). The total flux (>100 MeV) is 3.7 +0.3 -0.1 x 10 -7 photons s -1 cm -2 , with additional systematic uncertainties of 10%, and consistent with the average flux measured by AGILE. The light curve obtained by Fermi is consistent with steady emission. Our observations do not confirm the presence of a γ-ray flare in 2008 October, as reported by Tavani et al., although we cannot exclude that a flare lasting only a few hours escaped detection by the Fermi LAT. We also do not find any evidence for γ-ray variability that correlates with the large X-ray variability of Eta Carinae observed during 2008 December and 2009 January. We are thus not able to establish an unambiguous identification of the LAT source with Eta Carinae.

  19. Heating energy flexibility of dwellings. Asuinrakennusten laemmityksen energiajoustavuus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haapalahti, P [Valtion Teknillinen Tutkimuskeskus, Espoo (Finland). Yhdyskunta- ja rakennussuojelun Lab

    1989-02-01

    The problem area under study concens the heating of dwellings fluctuations in energy supply. The research has been restricted to dwellings only and those activities linked to energy production and transportation have been excluded. During energy shortage, home-owners are faced with two alternatives: to cut down their energy consumption or to use other forms of energy as substitutes for primary energy. In the case of a serious crisis regarding domestic fuel, wood in particular can be considered as a viable alternative. However, when considering present-day installations, any increase in use of wood as a fuel must be seen as limited. Thus the saving of energy in times of shortage is rendered still more important. Energy-savings is, of course, possible in terms of reduced comfort and quality factors in comparison to those preveiling under normal circumstances. For example, indoor temperatures can be lowered, ventilation diminished or the consumption of warm water deccreased. With respect to saving activities, the adjustability of heating and ventilation should be as efficient as possible. With regard to altering situations regarding energy prices, energy flexibility means, primarily, changing energy sources. Replacing an energy source is, however, a quite an expensive operation and economic dependence on the chosen system is considerable.Energy flexibility, particularly in the choice of main heating system, is easiest to achieve during new building phases and can be improved by recourse to various main solutions such as, for instance, the construction of fireplace. Mechanical incoming and exhaust air system can be chosen for direct electrical heating for a ventilation system. The control of the indoor temperature and ventilation of each separate room can be developed in all heating systems.

  20. The second Dutch national survey on radon in dwellings. Set-up of the project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiemstra, Y.; Stoop, P.; Lembrechts, J.

    1997-03-01

    In 1994 the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM) commissioned RIVM to carry out a national survey on radon in dwellings, the set-up of which is described in this report. The goals of the survey were: (a) to determine the average and the range of the radon (222Rn) concentration in Dutch dwellings built since the previous survey in 1984, and (b) to quantify the relative contribution of radon from the building materials and from the soil to the indoor radon level in dwellings built in the course of the last decade. These data will be used for the selection of possible countermeasures and as a reference for evaluating the effectiveness of final regulations on radon. Two separate random samples from the Dutch housing stock were taken to answer these questions. A sample of about 1000 dwellings built between 1985 and 1993 in 52 municipalities was taken to answer the first question. The composition of the sample differs from the Dutch housing stock for a number of characteristics, the most obvious of which is the over-representation of single-family and private homes. A sample of about 450 single-family dwellings built in 14 municipalities on different soil types was taken to answer the second question. Two groups of municipalities were distinguished because of geographic differences in building practices: those where town houses predominate and those with mainly detached and semi-detached houses. Information on radon and its sources was collected through placement of alpha track detectors, installation of so-called PFT sources and passive samplers for air infiltration measurement, collection of soil samples and completion of a questionnaire on building and ventilation characteristics. The results of the study are dealt with in RIVM report no. 610058006. 8 figs., 9 tabs., 31 refs. 4 appendices

  1. Transforming South Africa’s low-income housing projects through backyard dwellings: Intersections with households and the state in Alexandra, Johannesburg

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shapurjee, Y

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available not working. I am not even a pensioner…’ (Mrs L, 21/06/2010) Mrs L’s primary source of income derives from her grandchild’s disability grant, much of which is used to cover medical and household consumption costs. This type of gendered vulnerability... backyard dwellings. We consider how these local perspectives offer potential for the state, arguing that backyard dwellings offer a useful supply of household-managed cheap rental accommodation; that these dwellings gear private investment from state...

  2. Surveying dwellings with high indoor radon levels: a BRE guide to remedial measures in existing dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scivyer, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    This report is one of a series giving practical advice on methods of reducing radon levels in existing dwellings. It is aimed specifically at builders, surveyors and building specialists surveying for and prescribing remedial measures for dwellings. It supplements guidance available in The householders' guide to radon obtainable from local environmental health officers or from the Department of the Environment. The report has been prepared on the basis of experience gained in remedial work on more than 100 dwellings following advice given by BRE, and of discussions with others in the field, notably the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) and Cornwall County Council. Work is continuing, particularly dealing with suspended timber floors, basements and ventilation systems. Results will be incorporated into revisions of this report as they become available. (Author)

  3. The average cost of pressure ulcer management in a community dwelling spinal cord injury population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Brian C; Nanwa, Natasha; Mittmann, Nicole; Bryant, Dianne; Coyte, Peter C; Houghton, Pamela E

    2013-08-01

    Pressure ulcers (PUs) are a common secondary complication experienced by community dwelling individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). There is a paucity of literature on the health economic impact of PU in SCI population from a societal perspective. The objective of this study was to determine the resource use and costs in 2010 Canadian dollars of a community dwelling SCI individual experiencing a PU from a societal perspective. A non-comparative cost analysis was conducted on a cohort of community dwelling SCI individuals from Ontario, Canada. Medical resource use was recorded over the study period. Unit costs associated with these resources were collected from publicly available sources and published literature. Average monthly cost was calculated based on 7-month follow-up. Costs were stratified by age, PU history, severity level, location of SCI, duration of current PU and PU surface area. Sensitivity analyses were also carried out. Among the 12 study participants, total average monthly cost per community dwelling SCI individual with a PU was $4745. Hospital admission costs represented the greatest percentage of the total cost (62%). Sensitivity analysis showed that the total average monthly costs were most sensitive to variations in hospitalisation costs. © 2012 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc.

  4. Radon level and radon effective dose rate determination in Moroccan dwellings using SSNTDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oufni, L.; Misdaq, M.A.; Amrane, M.

    2005-01-01

    Inhalation of radon ( 222 Rn) and its daughter product are a major source of natural radiation exposure. The measurement of radon activity in dwelling is assuming ever increasing importance. It is known from recent surveys in many countries that radon and its progeny contribute significantly to total inhalation dose and it is fairly established that radon when inhaled in large quantity causes lung disorder. Keeping this in view, the indoor radon activity level and radon effective dose rate were carried out in the dwellings of Beni-Mellal, Khouribgra and Ben Guerir cities, Morocco, using the solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) technique. Assuming an indoor occupancy factor of 0.8 and 0.4 for the equilibrium factor of radon indoors, we found that the 222 Rn effective dose rate in the studied dwellings ranges from 1.01 to 7.90mSvy -1 . The radon activity in the corresponding dwellings was found to vary from 40 to 532Bqm -3 . The radon activity has not only been found to vary with seasonal changes, but also with the age, the construction mode of houses, the ventilation conditions and with specific sites and geological materials

  5. Radon in Finnish dwellings. Sample survey 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekelaeinen, I.; Kinnunen, T.; Reisbacka, H.; Valmari, T.; Arvela, H.

    2009-12-01

    Indoor radon concentration was measured in 2882 dwellings randomly selected by the Population Register Centre of Finland. Radon measurements were made in two half-year periods, the first one lasting from April to November 2006 and the second one from November 2006 to April 2007. Measurements were made using STUK's alpha track detectors. According to the decree 944 / 92 by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health, the indoor radon concentration should not exceed the 400 Bq /m 3 , whereas new buildings should be built so that 200 Bq /m 3 is not exceeded. In addition, the part D2 of the National Building Code of Finland (Indoor climate and ventilation of buildings) sets 200 Bq /m 3 as a reference value for planning of new buildings. Since 2004, according to the regulation B3 (Foundations), radon should be taken into account in new building in the whole country. A radon technical plan should be included into the building licence application. This plan can be exceptionally ignored only when building in areas where exceeding of 200 Bq / m 3 seldom occurs. In this study the nationwide means weighted by number of inhabitants in provinces in houses and flats were 121 Bq /m 3 and 49 Bq /m 3 , and 96 Bq /m 3 for all dwellings. The percentages of dwellings exceeding 200 Bq /m 3 for houses and flats were 15.1% and 1.5%, and 10.4% for all dwellings. The respective values for the reference value 400 Bq/m 3 were 3.8%, 0.7%, and 2.7%. The numbers of dwellings exceeding 200 Bq /m 3 were 204 000 for houses and 16 000 for flats, respectively. The respective numbers of dwellings exceeding 400 Bq /m 3 were 51 000 and 8.000. The highest radon concentrations were measured in the areas of Tavastia and South-Eastern Finland, in the provinces Eastern Uusimaa, Kymenlaakso, Paeijaenne Tavastia, Tavastia Proper, Pirkanmaa and South Karelia. In these provinces 29 - 51 per cent of small houses exceed 200 Bq /m 3 . The lowest radon concentrations were achieved with a crawl space foundation. Radon

  6. Optimization of transmission-scan time for the FixER method: a MR-based PET attenuation correction with a weak fixed-position external radiation source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Kershaw, Jeff; Yoshida, Eiji [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Shiraishi, Takahiro [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Suga, Mikio [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Center for Frontier Medical Engineering, Chiba University (Japan); Obata, Takayuki [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Ito, Hiroshi; Yamaya, Taiga [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2014-07-29

    In recent work, we proposed an MRI-based attenuation-coefficient (μ-value) estimation method that uses a weak fixed-position external radiation source to construct an attenuation map for PET/MRI. In this presentation we refer to this method as FixER, and perform a series of simulations to investigate the duration of the transmission scan required to accurately estimate μ-values.

  7. Optimization of transmission-scan time for the FixER method: a MR-based PET attenuation correction with a weak fixed-position external radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Kershaw, Jeff; Yoshida, Eiji; Shiraishi, Takahiro; Suga, Mikio; Obata, Takayuki; Ito, Hiroshi; Yamaya, Taiga

    2014-01-01

    In recent work, we proposed an MRI-based attenuation-coefficient (μ-value) estimation method that uses a weak fixed-position external radiation source to construct an attenuation map for PET/MRI. In this presentation we refer to this method as FixER, and perform a series of simulations to investigate the duration of the transmission scan required to accurately estimate μ-values.

  8. The principles of radon remediation and protection in UK dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woolliscroft, M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the principles of radon remediation and protection in UK dwellings. It states briefly why and how radon gets into dwellings and the main methods of remediation and protection; sealing, pressurisation, sub-floor ventilation, sub-floor depressurisation and, more problematically, ventilation of the dwelling. It goes on to discuss the effectiveness of the methods and why some methods are more or less effective than others. Data is presented on the effectiveness of protection in new dwellings. Solutions for existing dwellings are discussed and the remaining issues which are the subject of ongoing research are described. It is concluded that in general radon protection and remediation in new and the great majority of existing dwellings can be achieved simply and cheaply. (Author)

  9. Determinants of Perceived Physical Environment Barriers among Community-Dwelling Elderly in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, W-C; Chang, J-H; Guo, N-W; Lin, Y-C; Hsieh, P-C; Kuan, T-S

    2015-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that mobility, activities of daily living, and the interaction between them can play a key role in determining perceived physical environment barriers among community-dwelling elderly. Cross-sectional. Community. One hundred and ninety-seven community-dwelling elderly with more than 7 points on the Short Portable Mental State Questionnaire and less than 7 points on the Geriatric Depression Scale (15 items). None. Time Get-up and Go test (TUG), the subscales of basic activity of daily living (BADL)/instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) of the Hierarchy of Care Required (HCR), and the physical/structural subscale of the Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors in Community-dwelling Elderly in Taiwan were used to measure mobility, activities of daily living and perceived physical environment barriers, respectively. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were used to test the study hypothesis. Significant and positive relations were found to exist between perceived physical environment barriers and (1) the TUG time (β=.300, pdwelling elderly under consideration. Strategies targeting the enhancement of mobility among community-dwelling elderly are suggested to lead to improvements in the degree to which physical environment barriers are perceived. This beneficial effect could be greater in the case of elderly individuals with better IADL function.

  10. Fontes cotidianas de estresse entre mulheres portadoras de HIV Daily sources of stress among HIV-positive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Gaspar Tunala

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Categorizar e descrever as fontes de estresse cotidianas de mulheres portadoras do vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV. MÉTODOS: Foram realizadas entrevistas individuais, por meio de um questionário semi-estruturado, com uma amostra consecutiva de 150 mulheres portadoras do HIV, de julho a dezembro de 1997, no Centro de Referência e Tratamento de Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis e Aids (CRT DST/Aids (Secretaria de Estado da Saúde, SP. As variáveis investigadas foram: dados demográficos, estrutura familiar, percepção de risco, sexualidade, acesso ao sistema de saúde, adesão ao tratamento, uso de álcool e drogas, evento significativo e evento estressante, sendo este o foco de discussão do artigo. RESULTADOS: Apenas 14% dos eventos estressantes são diretamente resultados do tratamento ou do adoecimento. Os relatos das fontes de estresse foram distribuídos nos seguintes assuntos: familiares (17%; relacionamento com o parceiro (12%; filhos (14%; enfermidade (14%; relacionamento com outras pessoas (9%; problemas financeiros (8% e profissionais (7%; vivências de discriminação (7%; outros (4%; e não responderam (8%. CONCLUSÕES: As fontes de estresse apresentam principalmente um conteúdo afetivo-relacional, derivadas muitas vezes do estigma associado ao HIV e, na maioria das vezes, a temas comuns a todas as mulheres. Os profissionais de saúde deveriam oferecer cuidado integral às mulheres portadoras do HIV.OBJECTIVE: To categorize and describe the daily sources of stress encountered by HIV-infected women. METHODS: Using a semi-structured questionnaire, 150 interviews were conducted among HIV-infected women who attended the Reference and Treatment Center for Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Aids in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, between July and December 1997. The studied variables were: demographics, family structure, risk perception, sexuality, access to health system, treatment compliance, drug use, and

  11. Dependence of ion beam current on position of mobile plate tuner in multi-frequencies microwaves electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurisu, Yosuke; Kiriyama, Ryutaro; Takenaka, Tomoya; Nozaki, Dai; Sato, Fuminobu; Kato, Yushi; Iida, Toshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    We are constructing a tandem-type electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). The first stage of this can supply 2.45 GHz and 11-13 GHz microwaves to plasma chamber individually and simultaneously. We optimize the beam current I FC by the mobile plate tuner. The I FC is affected by the position of the mobile plate tuner in the chamber as like a circular cavity resonator. We aim to clarify the relation between the I FC and the ion saturation current in the ECRIS against the position of the mobile plate tuner. We obtained the result that the variation of the plasma density contributes largely to the variation of the I FC when we change the position of the mobile plate tuner.

  12. Radon in dwellings in Northern Ireland. 1993 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, B.; Lomas, P.; O'Riordan, M.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of radon made in some 1500 dwellings throughout Northern Ireland by the autumn of 1993 show that the average concentration is 19 Bq m -3 with some values up to fifty times higher. Around 30 of these dwellings are above the Action Level of 200 Bq m -3 adopted by the Government. Data are presented in considerable detail and various forms. Several hundred dwellings in Northern Ireland are estimated to exceed the Action Level, most of which are in a separately designated Affected Area in the southeast. Recommendations are made to promote the discovery and remedy of dwellings above the Action Level throughout Northern Ireland. (author)

  13. Culture-positive Pediatric Tuberculosis in Toronto, Ontario: Sources of Infection and Relationship of Birthplace and Mycobacterial Lineage to Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayment, Jonathan H; Guthrie, Jennifer L; Lam, Karen; Whelan, Michael; Lee, Brenda; Jamieson, Frances B; Kitai, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Few data relate Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) lineage and disease phenotype in the pediatric population or examine the contribution of travel to the tuberculosis (TB)-endemic country in North America. We examined clinical, demographic and Mtb genotype data from patients with TB who were treated in Toronto between 2002 and 2012. Consecutive Mtb culture-positive, pediatric patients were included. Clinical data were collected from a prospectively populated clinical database. Mtb case isolate genotypes were identified using Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units-Variable Number Tandem Repeat (MIRU-VNTR) and spoligotyping and were categorized into phylogeographic lineages for analysis. The 77 patients included 30.4% of all culture-positive pediatric TB cases in Ontario from 2002 to 2012. Seventy-six (99%) patients were first or second generation Canadians. Foreign-born patients were more likely to have extrathoracic disease [odds ratios (OR) = 3.0; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-8.71; P < 0.05] and less likely to have a genotype match in the Public Health Ontario Laboratories database [OR = 0.32 (95% CI: 0.11-0.90); P < 0.05] than Canadian-born patients. For those without a known TB contact, Canadian-born patients were more likely to have travelled to a TB-endemic country [OR = 13.0 (95% CI: 2.5-78.5); P < 0.001]. Extrathoracic disease was less likely in patients infected with the East Asian Mtb lineage [OR = 0.1 (95% CI: 0.01-0.9); P < 0.05] and more likely in those infected with the Indo-Oceanic Mtb lineage [OR = 5.4 (95% CI: 1.5-19.2); P < 0.05]. Travel to TB-endemic countries likely plays an important part in the etiology of pediatric TB infection and disease, especially in Canadian-born children. Mtb lineage seems to contribute to disease phenotype in children as it has been described in adults.

  14. Characterization of a new dosimeter for the development of a position-sensitive detector of radioactive sources in industrial NDT equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. T.; Kim, J. H.; Han, M. J.; Heo, Y. J.; Park, S. K.

    2018-02-01

    Imaging technology based on gamma-ray sources has been extensively used in non-destructive testing (NDT) to detect any possible internal defects in products without changing their shapes or functions. However, such technology has been subject to increasingly stricter regulations, and an international radiation-safety management system has been recently established. Consequently, radiation source location in NDT systems has become an essential process, given that it can prevent radiation accidents. In this study, we focused on developing a monitoring system that can detect, in real time, the position of a radioactive source in the source guide tube of a projector. We fabricated a lead iodide (PbI2) dosimeter based on the particle-in-binder method, which has a high production yield and facilitates thickness and shape adjustment. Using a gamma-ray source, we then tested the reproducibility, linearity of the dosimeter response, and the dosimeter's percentage interval distance (PID). It was found that the fabricated PbI2 dosimeter yields highly accurate, reproducible, and linear dose measurements. The PID analysis—conducted to investigate the possibility of developing a monitoring system based on the proposed dosimeter—indicated that the valid detection distance was approximately 11.3 cm. The results of this study are expected to contribute to the development of an easily usable radiation monitoring system capable of significantly reducing the risk of radiation accidents.

  15. Dismantling the dwelling : A systematic approach to investigating the meaning of the dwelling: draft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, J.; Coolen, H.C.C.H.

    2009-01-01

    The meaning of the dwelling consists of multiple layers, which makes it a complex concept. Therefore it should be dismantled (ref. Rapoport, 2001). This paper presents a conceptual framework in which settings, activities and values are systematically related. The data is derived from a telephone

  16. Distance to faults as a proxy for radon gas concentration in dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolet, Jean-Philippe; Martel, Richard

    2016-02-01

    This research was done to demonstrate the usefulness of the local structural geology characteristics to predict indoor radon concentrations. The presence of geologic faults near dwellings increases the vulnerability of the dwellings to elevated indoor radon by providing favorable pathways from the source uranium-rich bedrock units to the surface. Kruskal-Wallis one-way analyses of variance by ranks were used to determine the distance where faults have statistically significant influence on indoor radon concentrations. The great-circle distance between the 640 spatially referenced basement radon concentration measurements and the nearest fault was calculated using the Haversine formula and the spherical law of cosines. It was shown that dwellings located less than 150 m from a major fault had a higher radon potential. The 150 m threshold was determined using Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA on: (1) all the basement radon measurements dataset and; (2) the basement radon measurements located on uranium-rich bedrock units only. The results indicated that 22.8% of the dwellings located less than 150 m from a fault exceeded the Canadian radon guideline of 200 Bq/m(3) when using all the basement radon measurements dataset. This percentage fell to 15.2% for the dwellings located between 150 m and 700 m from a fault. When using only the basement radon measurements located on uranium-rich bedrock units, these percentages were 30.7% (0-150 m) and 17.5% (150 m-700 m). The assessment and management of risk can be improved where structural geology characteristics base maps are available by using this proxy indicator. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Modelling window opening behaviour in Danish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Vinther; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Toftum, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present and analyse data from two studies of window opening behaviour in residential buildings in Denmark. Based on measurements of indoor environment, weather and window opening behaviour in 15 dwellings, we propose a model that will predict window opening behaviour. The data...... showed that other factors than thermal effects impact the behaviour of the occupants. Some of these factors were included in the model. We present data from repeated questionnaire surveys that show that occupants tend to adjust heating setpoints, adjust clothing and operate windows when feeling thermally...

  18. Radon levels in dwellings in chalk terrain. Development and analysis of distributional and causal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killip, Ian Richmond

    2002-01-01

    This thesis investigates the range, distribution and causes of high radon levels in dwellings in the Brighton area of Southeast England. Indoor radon levels were measured in more than 1000 homes. The results show that high radon levels can arise in an area previously considered to offer low radon potential from local geological sources. Climate and building-related factors were found to affect significantly the radon levels in dwellings. Multiple regression was used to determine the influence of the various factors on indoor radon levels and an empirical model develop to predict indoor radon levels. The radon hazard, independent of building-related effects, was determined for each surveyed location by adjusting the radon measurement to that expected on the ground floor of a 'model' dwelling. This standardised set of radon levels was entered into a geographical information system (GIS) and related to surface geology. The geometric mean radon level for each lithological unit was plotted to produce a radon hazard map for the area. The highest radon levels were found to be associated with the youngest Chalk Formations, particularly where they meet overlying Tertiary deposits, and with Clay-with-Flints Quaternary deposits in the area. The results were also converted to the radon activity equivalent to that expected from the NRPB's standard dual-detector dwelling survey method and analysed by lognormal modelling to estimate the proportion of dwellings likely to exceed the UK Action Level of 200 Bq/m 3 for each lithological unit. The likely percentages of dwellings affected by radon thus obtained were mapped to lithological boundaries to produce a radon potential map. The radon hazard map and the empirical radon model facilitate the prediction of radon levels in dwellings of comparable construction and above similar geology and should further the understanding of the behaviour of radon gas in buildings to allow indoor radon concentrations to be controlled. The radon

  19. Extracellular fluid management and hypertension in urban dwelling versus rural dwelling hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonelli, Marcello; Lloyd, Anita; Pannu, Neesh; Klarenbach, Scott; Ravani, Pietro; Jindal, Kailash; MacRae, Jennifer; Unsworth, Larry; Manns, Braden; Hemmelgarn, Brenda

    2018-02-01

    Rural-dwelling hemodialysis patients have less frequent contact with nephrologists than urban-dwelling patients, and are known to have higher mortality. We hypothesized that rural-dwelling hemodialysis patients would have more evidence of poorly controlled extracellular fluid volume (ECVF) than otherwise similar urban-dwellers. We studied prevalent hemodialysis patients within a single renal program in Alberta, Canada and assessed ECFV using bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS). Our primary outcome was impedance vector length (ohm/m) as assessed by BIS using the Xitron Hydra 4200 device, where shorter vector length indicated poorer ECFV control. Because poor ECFV control can lead to hypertension, we also assessed pre- and post-dialysis blood pressure. We measured outcomes at baseline. We studied 228 hemodialysis patients, of whom 115 (50.4 %) and 113 (49.6 %) were urban- and rural-dwelling, respectively. There were no differences in volume control in urban versus rural participants; odds ratio (OR) for vector length in the lowest sex-specific quartile of vector length was 0.93 (95 % CI 0.54, 1.59) after adjusting for age, sex, diabetic status, years since dialysis initiation and phase angle. The odds of very poor blood pressure control (pre-dialysis blood pressure ≥180/100) did not differ between urban and rural participants [fully adjusted OR 0.96 (0.36, 2.60)]. Differences in ECFV control do not appear to explain higher mortality among remote- and rural- dwelling hemodialysis patients, compared to urban-dwellers.

  20. Real-Time Verification of a High-Dose-Rate Iridium 192 Source Position Using a Modified C-Arm Fluoroscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nose, Takayuki, E-mail: nose-takayuki@nms.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, Nippon Medical School Tamanagayama Hospital, Tama (Japan); Chatani, Masashi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Rosai Hospital, Sakai (Japan); Otani, Yuki [Department of Radiology, Kaizuka City Hospital, Kaizuka (Japan); Teshima, Teruki [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Kumita, Shinichirou [Department of Radiology, Nippon Medical School Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    2017-03-15

    Purpose: High-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy misdeliveries can occur at any institution, and they can cause disastrous results. Even a patient's death has been reported. Misdeliveries could be avoided with real-time verification methods. In 1996, we developed a modified C-arm fluoroscopic verification of an HDR Iridium 192 source position prevent these misdeliveries. This method provided excellent image quality sufficient to detect errors, and it has been in clinical use at our institutions for 20 years. The purpose of the current study is to introduce the mechanisms and validity of our straightforward C-arm fluoroscopic verification method. Methods and Materials: Conventional X-ray fluoroscopic images are degraded by spurious signals and quantum noise from Iridium 192 photons, which make source verification impractical. To improve image quality, we quadrupled the C-arm fluoroscopic X-ray dose per pulse. The pulse rate was reduced by a factor of 4 to keep the average exposure compliant with Japanese medical regulations. The images were then displayed with quarter-frame rates. Results: Sufficient quality was obtained to enable observation of the source position relative to both the applicators and the anatomy. With this method, 2 errors were detected among 2031 treatment sessions for 370 patients within a 6-year period. Conclusions: With the use of a modified C-arm fluoroscopic verification method, treatment errors that were otherwise overlooked were detected in real time. This method should be given consideration for widespread use.

  1. Smart x-ray beam position monitor system using artificial intelligence methods for the advanced photon source insertion-device beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, D.; Ding, H.; Barraza, J.; Kuzay, T.M.; Haeffner, D.; Ramanathan, M.

    1997-09-01

    At the Advanced Photon Source (APS), each insertion device (ID) beamline front-end has two XBPMs to monitor the X-ray beam position for both that vertical and horizontal directions. Performance challenges for a conventional photoemission type X-ray beam position monitor (XBPM) during operations are contamination of the signal from the neighboring bending magnet sources and the sensitivity of the XBPM to the insertion device (ID) gap variations. Problems are exacerbated because users change the ID gap during their operations, and hence the percentage level of the contamination in the front end XBPM signals varies. A smart XBPM system with a high speed digital signal processor has been built at the Advanced Photon Source for the ID beamline front ends. The new version of the software, which uses an artificial intelligence method, provides a self learning and self-calibration capability to the smart XBPM system. The structure of and recent test results with the system are presented in this paper

  2. Impacts of Rotation Schemes on Ground-Dwelling Beneficial Arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Mike W; Gassmann, Aaron J; O'Neal, Matthew E

    2016-10-01

    Crop rotation alters agroecosystem diversity temporally, and increasing the number of crops in rotation schemes can increase crop yields and reduce reliance on pesticides. We hypothesized that increasing the number of crops in annual rotation schemes would positively affect ground-dwelling beneficial arthropod communities. During 2012 and 2013, pitfall traps were used to measure activity-density and diversity of ground-dwelling communities within three previously established, long-term crop rotation studies located in Wisconsin and Illinois. Rotation schemes sampled included continuous corn, a 2-yr annual rotation of corn and soybean, and a 3-yr annual rotation of corn, soybean, and wheat. Insects captured were identified to family, and non-insect arthropods were identified to class, order, or family, depending upon the taxa. Beneficial arthropods captured included natural enemies, granivores, and detritivores. The beneficial community from continuous corn plots was significantly more diverse compared with the community in the 2-yr rotation, whereas the community in the 3-yr rotation did not differ from either rotation scheme. The activity-density of the total community and any individual taxa did not differ among rotation schemes in either corn or soybean. Crop species within all three rotation schemes were annual crops, and are associated with agricultural practices that make infield habitat subject to anthropogenic disturbances and temporally unstable. Habitat instability and disturbance can limit the effectiveness and retention of beneficial arthropods, including natural enemies, granivores, and detritivores. Increasing non-crop and perennial species within landscapes in conjunction with more diverse rotation schemes may increase the effect of biological control of pests by natural enemies. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Studying Self-esteem among the Seniors Dwelling in Ahwaz Nursing Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidarali Abedi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The growth of the elderly and middle-aged population, and the life expectancy have changed the attitudes towards the seniors; Meanwhile, the importance of caring for the self-esteem among the seniors required to do this study in the field; which, its results can help to improve the seniors’ mental health. This study has been carried out aiming to measure the elderly’s self-esteem dwelling in Ahwaz Nursing Homes in 2014. This is a descriptive-comparative study carried out on 190 people of the seniors dwelling in Ahwaz nursing homes. For the eligible seniors, two questioners of Rosenberg’s Measuring Scale, and Cooper Smith’s Measuring Scale were filled out. The variables regression was determined by using SPSS statistical software, version 18. About 44% of participants in the study were aged from 60 to 65 years old. 68% were men, and 61% were married. Some 50% had 3 to 5 children. More than 43% received higher education. Some 53% were financially dependent. About 50% were self-employed. There was no significant difference between self-esteem among the male and female seniors. Also, there was no significant difference among the elderly’s self-esteem based on their marital status. But, there was a significant negative correlation between the total scores of self-esteem, and the marital status, the financial independence, and dwelling in the nursing homes. As, for the effect of the self-esteem on the elderly’s mental health, and their being highly affected by the life conditions, and with respect to the cultural, religious, and social position of Iran, as much as possible, the backgrounds should be provided for the seniors to dwell with their families; and, if dwelling in the nursing homes is the best choice, providing necessary services with high quality should be employed with grater attempts.

  4. The beam based alignment technique for the measurements of beam position monitors offsets and beam offsets from quadrupoles in the Pohang Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.H.; Huang, J.Y.; Ko, I.S.

    1999-01-01

    The beam based alignment (BBA) technique is applied to the 2-GeV storage ring of the Pohang Light Source to measure the offsets of beam position monitors. This measurement is particularly necessary for beam position monitors (BPMs) plugged into a long (∼10 m) aluminum chamber, since the mechanical deformation of the vacuum chamber is experienced after repeated heating for the outgassing process, and the BPM positions are changed accordingly. A part of the excitation current of each quadrupole magnet is shunted through an electronic shunt circuit. Then, the closed orbit receives a perturbation due to the current reduction. Using two quadrupole magnets, we can measure the offset of each BPM. Also, the BBA technique is applied to measure the beam offsets from the center of quadrupole magnets, and gives information to the survey team about which quadrupole magnets should be aligned mostly. In this process, we introduce the merit function to reduce various errors such as BPM characteristic changes and the lattice imperfection. By minimizing the merit function, we can get the beam offset as the maximized expectation value. This paper presents the BBA technique used and experimental results taken from the 2-GeV Pohang Light Source (PLS) storage ring. When the BPM offset is measured, it is observed that a 3% of the shunt current is suitable. (author)

  5. Producing more persuasive antiviolence messages for college students: testing the effects of framing, information sources, and positive/negative fact appeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hyunjae Jay

    2012-06-01

    College students, between the ages of about 18 and 24, are the group of people who are most often exposed to situations involving diverse types of violence. They have greater access to alcohol and drugs and are under far less parental supervision than younger age groups; reports have shown that frequent involvement in several types of violent behaviors can seriously damage college students physically and psychologically. However, despite the high rate of violence among college students, there has not been enough discussion about how we can produce more effective antiviolence messages targeting college students. This research provides some useful insights into this issue by testing the possible effects of three antiviolence message conditions: gain/loss framing, different information sources, and negative/positive fact appeal. The results reveal that college students in this study find more appeal in antiviolence messages conveyed by a traditional public service announcement (PSA) than in a TV news report. The results also reveal that people pay more attention to messages that use negative fact appeal (e.g., "There are many people losing a lot of precious things because of their violent behaviors") than to those that use positive fact appeal (e.g., "There are many people gaining a lot of precious things by avoiding violent behaviors"). An interaction effect between information sources and positive/negative fact appeal was also detected.

  6. Source apportionment of NMVOCs in the Kathmandu Valley during the SusKat-ABC international field campaign using positive matrix factorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sarkar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A positive matrix factorization model (US EPA PMF version 5.0 was applied for the source apportionment of the dataset of 37 non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs measured from 19 December 2012 to 30 January 2013 during the SusKat-ABC international air pollution measurement campaign using a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer in the Kathmandu Valley. In all, eight source categories were identified with the PMF model using the new constrained model operation mode. Unresolved industrial emissions and traffic source factors were the major contributors to the total measured NMVOC mass loading (17.9 and 16.8 %, respectively followed by mixed industrial emissions (14.0 %, while the remainder of the source was split approximately evenly between residential biofuel use and waste disposal (10.9 %, solvent evaporation (10.8 %, biomass co-fired brick kilns (10.4 %, biogenic emissions (10.0 % and mixed daytime factor (9.2 %. Conditional probability function (CPF analyses were performed to identify the physical locations associated with different sources. Source contributions to individual NMVOCs showed that biomass co-fired brick kilns significantly contribute to the elevated concentrations of several health relevant NMVOCs such as benzene. Despite the highly polluted conditions, biogenic emissions had the largest contribution (24.2 % to the total daytime ozone production potential, even in winter, followed by solvent evaporation (20.2 %, traffic (15.0 % and unresolved industrial emissions (14.3 %. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA production had approximately equal contributions from biomass co-fired brick kilns (28.9 % and traffic (28.2 %. Comparison of PMF results based on the in situ data versus REAS v2.1 and EDGAR v4.2 emission inventories showed that both the inventories underestimate the contribution of traffic and do not take the contribution of brick kilns into account. In addition, the REAS

  7. Application of the positive matrix factorization approach to identify heavy metal sources in sediments. A case study on the Mexican Pacific Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Macías, C; Sánchez-Reyna, G; Salazar-Coria, L; Schifter, I

    2014-01-01

    During the last two decades, sediments collected in different sources of water bodies of the Tehuantepec Basin, located in the southeast of the Mexican Pacific Coast, showed that concentrations of heavy metals may pose a risk to the environment and human health. The extractable organic matter, geoaccumulation index, and enrichment factors were quantified for arsenic, cadmium, copper, chromium, nickel, lead, vanadium, zinc, and the fine-grained sediment fraction. The non-parametric SiZer method was applied to assess the statistical significance of the reconstructed metal variation along time. This inference method appears to be particularly natural and well suited to temperature and other environmental reconstructions. In this approach, a collection of smooth of the reconstructed metal concentrations is considered simultaneously, and inferences about the significance of the metal trends can be made with respect to time. Hence, the database represents a consolidated set of available and validated water and sediment data of an urban industrialized area, which is very useful as case study site. The positive matrix factorization approach was used in identification and source apportionment of the anthropogenic heavy metals in the sediments. Regionally, metals and organic matter are depleted relative to crustal abundance in a range of 45-55 %, while there is an inorganic enrichment from lithogenous/anthropogenic sources of around 40 %. Only extractable organic matter, Pb, As, and Cd can be related with non-crustal sources, suggesting that additional input cannot be explained by local runoff or erosion processes.

  8. Gachin dwellings on a hot area, but with normal background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahreyni Toosi, M.; Hagh Parast, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: General population, everywhere in the world is exposed to a small dose of ionizing radiation from natural sources. Stochastic effects such as cancer and genetic disorders are caused when living creatures are exposed to low doses. In many countries, intensive studies have been carried out to establish natural back ground radiation in general, and also its significant components such as indoor and out door gamma radiation as well as radon contribution. Until 1996 sporadic studies had been carried out in Iran to assess background radiation in some area susceptible to high levels of radiation. Since 1996 M. T. Bahreyni Toossi and co-workers have measured environmental gamma radiation out- door and in-door for a vast area covering several provinces to establish the environmental gamma radiation level map of Iran. So far, Khorasan, Mazandaran, Kurdestan, Kerman and Bushehr counties have been investigated. In our latest project of these kind two counties, Sistan Baluchestan and Hormozgan in the south and south east Iran were studied. Gachin, a village located in south west Bandar Abbass had already been recognized as a high level natural back ground radiation with possible deposit of uranium. Therefore particular attention was paid to this village with some 3000 populations. Out door environmental radiation were measured for all 16 towns. In each town 5 stations were selected similar to those in previous studies i.e. one station at the town center and four station at the marginal area of the town along the four main geographical directions, i.e: north, south, east and west. Dose rates were measured over one minute interval for one hour. Mean of 60 individual measurements were taken as average dose rate for the selected station. In order to assess additional risk to Gachin inhabitants, in -door measurements were carried out inside 115 dwelling selected randomly. To measure environmental gamma radiation an environmental radiation meter type

  9. Gachin dwellings on a hot area, but with normal background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahreyni Toosi, M.; Hagh Parast, M. [Mashhad Univ. of Medical Sciences, Medical Physics Dep., Faculty of Medicine (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: General population, everywhere in the world is exposed to a small dose of ionizing radiation from natural sources. Stochastic effects such as cancer and genetic disorders are caused when living creatures are exposed to low doses. In many countries, intensive studies have been carried out to establish natural back ground radiation in general, and also its significant components such as indoor and out door gamma radiation as well as radon contribution. Until 1996 sporadic studies had been carried out in Iran to assess background radiation in some area susceptible to high levels of radiation. Since 1996 M. T. Bahreyni Toossi and co-workers have measured environmental gamma radiation out- door and in-door for a vast area covering several provinces to establish the environmental gamma radiation level map of Iran. So far, Khorasan, Mazandaran, Kurdestan, Kerman and Bushehr counties have been investigated. In our latest project of these kind two counties, Sistan Baluchestan and Hormozgan in the south and south east Iran were studied. Gachin, a village located in south west Bandar Abbass had already been recognized as a high level natural back ground radiation with possible deposit of uranium. Therefore particular attention was paid to this village with some 3000 populations. Out door environmental radiation were measured for all 16 towns. In each town 5 stations were selected similar to those in previous studies i.e. one station at the town center and four station at the marginal area of the town along the four main geographical directions, i.e: north, south, east and west. Dose rates were measured over one minute interval for one hour. Mean of 60 individual measurements were taken as average dose rate for the selected station. In order to assess additional risk to Gachin inhabitants, in -door measurements were carried out inside 115 dwelling selected randomly. To measure environmental gamma radiation an environmental radiation meter type

  10. Design rules for a compact and low-cost optical position sensing of MOEMS tilt mirrors based on a Gaussian-shaped light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Marcus; Tortschanoff, Andreas

    2013-05-01

    A tilt mirror's deflection angle tracking setup is examined from a theoretical point of view. The proposed setup is based on a simple optical approach and easily scalable. Thus, the principle is especially of interest for small and fast oscillating MEMS/MOEMS based tilt mirrors. An experimentally established optical scheme is used as a starting point for accurate and fast mirror angle-position detection. This approach uses an additional layer, positioned under the MOEMS mirror's backside, consisting of a light source in the center and two photodetectors positioned symmetrical around the center. The mirror's back surface is illuminated by the light source and the intensity change due to mirror tilting is tracked via the photodiodes. The challenge of this method is to get a linear relation between the measured intensity and the current mirror tilt angle even for larger angles. State-of-the-art MOEMS mirrors achieve angles up to ±30°, which exceeds the linear angle approximations. The use of an LED, small laser diode or VCSEL as a lightsource is appropriate due to their small size and inexpensive price. Those light sources typically emit light with a Gaussian intensity distribution. This makes an analytical prediction of the expected detector signal quite complicated. In this publication an analytical simulation model is developed to evaluate the influence of the main parameters for this optical mirror tilt-sensor design. An easy and fast to calculate value directly linked to the mirror's tilt-angle is the "relative differential intensity" (RDI = (I1 - I2) / (I1 + I2)). Evaluation of its slope and nonlinear error highlights dependencies between the identified parameters for best SNR and linearity. Also the energy amount covering the detector area is taken into account. Design optimizing rules are proposed and discussed based on theoretical considerations.

  11. Pinyon pine mortality alters communities of ground-dwelling arthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Delph; Michael J. Clifford; Neil S. Cobb; Paulette L. Ford; Sandra L. Brantley

    2014-01-01

    We documented the effect of drought-induced mortality of pinyon pine (Pinus edulis Engelm.) on communities of ground-dwelling arthropods. Tree mortality alters microhabitats utilized by ground-dwelling arthropods by increasing solar radiation, dead woody debris, and understory vegetation. Our major objectives were to determine (1) whether there were changes in...

  12. 7 CFR 1924.259 - Handling dwelling construction complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling dwelling construction complaints. 1924.259 Section 1924.259 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... Construction Defects § 1924.259 Handling dwelling construction complaints. This section describes the procedure...

  13. 7 CFR 1944.424 - Dwelling construction and standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Dwelling construction and standards. 1944.424 Section 1944.424 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE....424 Dwelling construction and standards. All construction will be performed in accordance with subpart...

  14. 24 CFR 9.154 - Occupancy of accessible dwelling units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Occupancy of accessible dwelling units. 9.154 Section 9.154 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing... dwelling units. (a) The agency shall adopt suitable means to assure that information regarding the...

  15. 24 CFR 990.145 - Dwelling units with approved vacancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dwelling units with approved vacancies. 990.145 Section 990.145 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...; Computation of Eligible Unit Months § 990.145 Dwelling units with approved vacancies. (a) A PHA is eligible to...

  16. 24 CFR 8.27 - Occupancy of accessible dwelling units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Occupancy of accessible dwelling units. 8.27 Section 8.27 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing... accessible dwelling units. (a) Owners and managers of multifamily housing projects having accessible units...

  17. The meaning of dwelling features : Conceptual and methodological issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coolen, H.C.C.H.

    2008-01-01

    This study is about the meaning of dwelling features. It relates the research areas of housing preferences and the meaning of a dwelling with each other and with aspects of the means-end approach as applied in marketing research. It results in a conceptual and methodological framework for studying

  18. 24 CFR 990.140 - Occupied dwelling units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Occupied dwelling units. 990.140 Section 990.140 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... Eligible Unit Months § 990.140 Occupied dwelling units. A PHA is eligible to receive operating subsidy for...

  19. MR-based source localization for MR-guided HDR brachytherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beld, E.; Moerland, M. A.; Zijlstra, F.; Viergever, M. A.; Lagendijk, J. J. W.; Seevinck, P. R.

    2018-04-01

    For the purpose of MR-guided high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy, a method for real-time localization of an HDR brachytherapy source was developed, which requires high spatial and temporal resolutions. MR-based localization of an HDR source serves two main aims. First, it enables real-time treatment verification by determination of the HDR source positions during treatment. Second, when using a dummy source, MR-based source localization provides an automatic detection of the source dwell positions after catheter insertion, allowing elimination of the catheter reconstruction procedure. Localization of the HDR source was conducted by simulation of the MR artifacts, followed by a phase correlation localization algorithm applied to the MR images and the simulated images, to determine the position of the HDR source in the MR images. To increase the temporal resolution of the MR acquisition, the spatial resolution was decreased, and a subpixel localization operation was introduced. Furthermore, parallel imaging (sensitivity encoding) was applied to further decrease the MR scan time. The localization method was validated by a comparison with CT, and the accuracy and precision were investigated. The results demonstrated that the described method could be used to determine the HDR source position with a high accuracy (0.4–0.6 mm) and a high precision (⩽0.1 mm), at high temporal resolutions (0.15–1.2 s per slice). This would enable real-time treatment verification as well as an automatic detection of the source dwell positions.

  20. Train Dwell Time Models for Rail Passenger Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San Hor Peay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, more studies had been conducted about train dwell time as it is a key parameter of rail system performance and reliability. This paper draws an overview of train dwell time models for rail passenger service from various continents, namely Asia, North America, Europe and Australia. The factors affecting train dwell time are identified and analysed across some rail network operators. The dwell time models developed by various researches are also discussed and reviewed. Finally, the contributions from the outcomes of these models are briefly addressed. In conclusion, this paper suggests that there is a need to further study the factors with strong influence upon dwell time to improve the quality of the train services.

  1. Sound classification of dwellings in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger; Turunen-Rise, Iiris

    1997-01-01

    be met. The classification system is based on limit values for airborne sound insulation, impact sound pressure level, reverberation time and indoor and outdoor noise levels. The purpose of the standard is to offer a tool for specification of a standardised acoustic climate and to promote constructors......A draft standard INSTA 122:1997 on sound classification of dwellings is for voting as a common national standard in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Iceland) and in Estonia. The draft standard specifies a sound classification system with four classes A, B, C and D, where...... class C is proposed as the future minimum requirements for new dwellings. The classes B and A define criteria for dwellings with improved or very good acoustic conditions, whereas class D may be used for older, renovated dwellings in which the acoustic quality level of a new dwelling cannot reasonably...

  2. Investigation of force, contact area, and dwell time in finger-tapping tasks on membrane touch interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Yu, Ruifeng

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the touch characteristics during tapping tasks on membrane touch interface and investigate the effects of posture and gender on touch characteristics variables. One hundred participants tapped digits displayed on a membrane touch interface on sitting and standing positions using all fingers of the dominant hand. Touch characteristics measures included average force, contact area, and dwell time. Across fingers and postures, males exerted larger force and contact area than females, but similar dwell time. Across genders and postures, thumb exerted the largest force and the force of the other four fingers showed no significant difference. The contact area of the thumb was the largest, whereas that of the little finger was the smallest; the dwell time of the thumb was the longest, whereas that of the middle finger was the shortest. Relationships among finger sizes, gender, posture and touch characteristics were proposed. The findings helped direct membrane touch interface design for digital and numerical control products from hardware and software perspectives. Practitioner Summary: This study measured force, contact area, and dwell time in tapping tasks on membrane touch interface and examined effects of gender and posture on force, contact area, and dwell time. The findings will direct membrane touch interface design for digital and numerical control products from hardware and software perspectives.

  3. goGPS: open source software for enhancing the accuracy of low-cost receivers by single-frequency relative kinematic positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Realini, Eugenio; Reguzzoni, Mirko

    2013-01-01

    goGPS is a free and open source satellite positioning software package aiming to provide a collaborative platform for research and teaching purposes. It was first published in 2009 and since then several related projects are on-going. Its objective is the investigation of strategies for enhancing the accuracy of low-cost single-frequency GPS receivers, mainly by relative positioning with respect to a base station and by a tailored extended Kalman filter working directly on code and phase observations. In this paper, the positioning algorithms implemented in goGPS are presented, emphasizing the modularity of the software design; two specific strategies to support the navigation with low-cost receivers are also proposed and discussed, namely an empirical observation weighting function calibrated on the receiver signal-to-noise ratio and the inclusion of height information from a digital terrain model as an additional observation in the Kalman filter. The former is crucial when working with high-sensitivity receivers, while the latter can significantly improve the positioning in the vertical direction. The overall goGPS positioning accuracy is assessed by comparison with a dual-frequency receiver and with the positioning computed by a standard low-cost receiver. The benefits of the calibrated weighting function and the digital terrain model are investigated by an experiment in a dense urban environment. It comes out that the use of goGPS and low-cost receivers leads to results comparable with those obtained by higher level receivers; goGPS has good performances also in a dense urban environment, where its additional features play an important role. (paper)

  4. Distribution of 222Rn in dwellings around proposed uranium mining site at Rohil, Rajasthan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, V.N.; Kumar, Rajesh; Singh, M.K.; Patnaik, R.L.; Sahoo, S.K.; Jha, S.K.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2018-01-01

    Prior to commissioning of uranium ore mining and processing facility baseline radiological monitoring vis-a-vis public exposure assessment is required. Such information are utilized for developing control measures during operational phases to ascertain the minimal impact on the surrounding areas. Among the various pathways the inhalation component far exceeds the other component in the natural background of a region. Further, in inhalation component also the contribution of 222 Rn is almost 50%. The main sources of indoor radon are geological features, soil characteristics, construction materials of the dwellings, water utilization pattern, use of natural cooking gas, climatological/weather variables. As part of preliminary radiological assessment exercise twenty three dwellings were selected in this region comprising of different types of construction design/materials and passive radon dosimeters were provided of evaluation of radon level and inhalation exposure. The results presented in the text are part of the said radiological assessment exercise

  5. Simulating occupant behaviour and energy performance of dwellings : A sensitivity analysis of presence patterns in different dwelling types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bedir, M.; Harputlugil, G.U.

    2011-01-01

    Influence of occupant behaviour on the energy performance of dwellings is an emerging research topic: Not only the amount of studies is insufficient, but also they provide contradictory results. The aim of this study is to reveal the sensitivity of dwelling energy performance to the presence of

  6. Surveying dwellings with high indoor radon levels: a BRE guide to radon remedial measures in existing dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scivyer, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    This report is one of a series giving practical advice on methods of reducing radom levels in existing dwellings. It is aimed specifically at builders, surveyors and building specialists surveying for and prescribing remedial measures for dwellings. It supplements guidance available in 'The householders' guide to radon, obtainable from local environmental health officers or from the Department of the Environment. (Author)

  7. The stepping source dosimetry system as an extension of the manchester system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rembowska, A.M.E.; Cook, M.; Hoskin, P.J.; Mahdevan, A.

    1996-01-01

    Brachytherapy based on absolute application of Manchester distribution rules has been used at Mount Vernon Hospital for single and two plane breast implants. Here dwell times are extracted from the required ratio of source activity in the periphery to that at the centre of the implant. Required dwell times can then be calculated directly from the original Manchester tables using a simple formula. Traditionally High Dose Rate Brachytherapy Dosimetry has used equal exposure times at each source dwell position as a starting point, an approach comparable to a Paris type implant. An optimisation system based on introducing constraints into the system can then be applied, however the number and type of constraints are limited, and there is little clinical evidence to justify this approach. The advantages of using Manchester distribution rules in planar implants, where the sources are contained in the target area or volume and also circumscribe it, but do not extend beyond it, together with the homogenous dose distribution achievable, are illustrated, with clinical examples. A proposed distribution, based on this approach for treating a spherical volume typical of planned prostate treatments at this centre is also described

  8. Neighborhood attributes security and solidarity promote the well-being of community-dwelling older people in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramm, Jane M; Nieboer, Anna P

    2014-07-01

    To determine whether the neighborhood attributes solidarity and security positively affect the well-being of community-dwelling older people in the Netherlands after accounting for individual characteristics, and to test if a higher level of security in combination with a stronger sense of neighborhood solidarity results in a higher level of well-being. The study sample for the cross-sectional study consisted of 869 out of 2212 (39% response rate) independently-living older adults (aged >70 years) in 92 neighborhoods of Rotterdam. We fitted a hierarchical random-effects model to account for the structure of the study design: 869 older people (level 1) nested in 92 neighborhoods (level 2) in 10 districts (level 3). Neighborhood security and solidarity among neighbors varied significantly among the 10 districts. Univariate analyses showed that education, income, neighborhood security and solidarity within neighborhoods (all P ≤ 0.001) were significantly related to the well-being of community-dwelling older people. Multilevel analyses showed neighborhood security and solidarity within neighborhoods predicted the well-being of community-dwelling older people. Furthermore, a positive interaction effect was found between neighborhood security and solidarity within neighborhoods, and well-being of community-dwelling older people. Neighborhood security and solidarity among neighbors are important for the well-being of community-dwelling older people. Furthermore, neighborhoods with high levels of perceived security in combination with stronger solidarity among neighbors are especially beneficial to the well-being of community-dwelling older people. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  9. Emergency Department Utilization and Self-Reported Symptoms in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Patricia; Kennedy, Richard; Williams, Courtney; Brown, Cynthia J.

    2016-01-01

    Background The rise in emergency department (ED) utilization among older adults is a nursing concern, because emergency nurses are uniquely positioned to positively impact the care of older adults. Symptoms have been associated with ED utilization, however, it remains unclear if symptoms are the primary reason for ED utilization. Purpose Describe the self-reported symptoms of community-dwelling older adults prior to accessing the emergency department. Examine the differences in self-reported symptoms among those who utilized the emergency department, and those who did not. Procedures A prospective longitudinal design was used. The sample included 403 community-dwelling older adults 75 years and older. Baseline in-home interviews were conducted followed by monthly telephone interviews over 15 months. Main Findings Commonly reported symptoms at baseline included pain, feeling tired, and having shortness of breath. In univariate analysis, pain, shortness of breath, fair/poor well-being, and feeling tired were significantly correlated with ED utilization. In multivariable models, problems with balance, and fair/poor well-being were significantly associated with ED utilization. Conclusions Several symptoms were common among this cohort of older adults. However, there were no significant differences in the types of symptoms reported by older adults who utilized the emergency department compared to those who did not use the emergency department. Based on these findings, symptoms among community-dwelling older adults may not be the primary reason for ED utilization. PMID:28131350

  10. Source apportionment for indoor PM2.5 and elemental concentrations using by a positive matrix factorization and an instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jong Myoung; Moon, Jong Hwa; Chung, Yong Sam; Jung, Byoung Won; Lee, Jin Hong

    2009-01-01

    Airborne particulate matters, especially the PM2.5 (aerodynamic equivalent diameter, AED, less than 2.5 μm) fraction has been important. This is because of their potential for deposition on to the human respiratory system being accompanied by many harmful trace metals (such as As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Se, and Zn). The indoor air quality has become a great concern since late 1980s, because the population spends a majority of their time in various indoor environments. The indoor particulate matter may be influenced from outdoor environment and indoor sources such as environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), combustion devices, cooking, etc. In this study, we undertake the measurements of about 26 elements using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Based on our measurement data, we characterize concentration status and mutual relationship between indoor and adjacent outdoor air quality. Next, sources at indoor/outdoor environment were identified and the contributions of each source were quantified by positive matrix factorization (PMF)

  11. Analytical estimation of emission zone mean position and width in organic light-emitting diodes from emission pattern image-source interference fringes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, Ariel; Tessler, Nir; Einziger, Pinchas D.; Roberts, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    We present an analytical method for evaluating the first and second moments of the effective exciton spatial distribution in organic light-emitting diodes (OLED) from measured emission patterns. Specifically, the suggested algorithm estimates the emission zone mean position and width, respectively, from two distinct features of the pattern produced by interference between the emission sources and their images (induced by the reflective cathode): the angles in which interference extrema are observed, and the prominence of interference fringes. The relations between these parameters are derived rigorously for a general OLED structure, indicating that extrema angles are related to the mean position of the radiating excitons via Bragg's condition, and the spatial broadening is related to the attenuation of the image-source interference prominence due to an averaging effect. The method is applied successfully both on simulated emission patterns and on experimental data, exhibiting a very good agreement with the results obtained by numerical techniques. We investigate the method performance in detail, showing that it is capable of producing accurate estimations for a wide range of source-cathode separation distances, provided that the measured spectral interval is large enough; guidelines for achieving reliable evaluations are deduced from these results as well. As opposed to numerical fitting tools employed to perform similar tasks to date, our approximate method explicitly utilizes physical intuition and requires far less computational effort (no fitting is involved). Hence, applications that do not require highly resolved estimations, e.g., preliminary design and production-line verification, can benefit substantially from the analytical algorithm, when applicable. This introduces a novel set of efficient tools for OLED engineering, highly important in the view of the crucial role the exciton distribution plays in determining the device performance.

  12. Analytical estimation of emission zone mean position and width in organic light-emitting diodes from emission pattern image-source interference fringes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, Ariel, E-mail: ariel.epstein@utoronto.ca; Tessler, Nir, E-mail: nir@ee.technion.ac.il; Einziger, Pinchas D. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Roberts, Matthew, E-mail: mroberts@cdtltd.co.uk [Cambridge Display Technology Ltd, Building 2020, Cambourne Business Park, Cambourne, Cambridgeshire CB23 6DW (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-14

    We present an analytical method for evaluating the first and second moments of the effective exciton spatial distribution in organic light-emitting diodes (OLED) from measured emission patterns. Specifically, the suggested algorithm estimates the emission zone mean position and width, respectively, from two distinct features of the pattern produced by interference between the emission sources and their images (induced by the reflective cathode): the angles in which interference extrema are observed, and the prominence of interference fringes. The relations between these parameters are derived rigorously for a general OLED structure, indicating that extrema angles are related to the mean position of the radiating excitons via Bragg's condition, and the spatial broadening is related to the attenuation of the image-source interference prominence due to an averaging effect. The method is applied successfully both on simulated emission patterns and on experimental data, exhibiting a very good agreement with the results obtained by numerical techniques. We investigate the method performance in detail, showing that it is capable of producing accurate estimations for a wide range of source-cathode separation distances, provided that the measured spectral interval is large enough; guidelines for achieving reliable evaluations are deduced from these results as well. As opposed to numerical fitting tools employed to perform similar tasks to date, our approximate method explicitly utilizes physical intuition and requires far less computational effort (no fitting is involved). Hence, applications that do not require highly resolved estimations, e.g., preliminary design and production-line verification, can benefit substantially from the analytical algorithm, when applicable. This introduces a novel set of efficient tools for OLED engineering, highly important in the view of the crucial role the exciton distribution plays in determining the device performance.

  13. Variation of radon exposure in Damascus dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shweikani, R.

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, activity concentrations of 222 Rn in air and 222 Rn and 226 Ra in drinking water were measured in Damascus city covering its old and modern parts. It was found that the average air radon activity concentration in the old part was higher than in the modern part, and in drinking water, radon was found to be 60±3 Bq/l, and less than 0.13 Bq/l for radium, which were lower than the recommended levels set by WHO. - Highlights: ► This work presents screening of natural radioactivity in dwellings in Damascus city. ► Radon, 226 Rn and total alpha/beta in air and drinking water were measured. ► Most of the obtained results were within the recommended levels set by WHO. ► In general radon in the old part was higher than the modern part of the city.

  14. Acoustic quality and sound insulation between dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger

    1998-01-01

    to another, however, several of the results show a slope around 4 % per dB. The results may be used to evaluate the acoustic quality level of a certain set of sound insulation requirements, or they may be used as a basis for specifying the desired acoustic quality of future buildings......During the years there have been several large field investigations in different countries with the aim to find a relationship between sound insulation between dwellings and the subjective degree of annoyance. This paper presents an overview of the results, and the difficulties in comparing...... the different findings are discussed. It is tried to establish dose-response relationships between airborne sound insulation or impact sound pressure level according to ISO 717 and the percentage of people being annoyed by noise from neighbours. The slopes of the dose-response curves vary from one investigation...

  15. Acoustic quality and sound insulation between dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger

    1999-01-01

    to another, however, several of the results show a slope around 4 % per dB. The results may be used to evaluate the acoustic quality level of a certain set of sound insulation requirements, or they may be used as a basis for specifying the desired acoustic quality of future buildings.......During the years there have been several large field investigations in different countries with the aim to find a relationship between sound insulation between dwellings and the subjective degree of annoyance. This paper presents an overview of the results, and the dif-ficulties in comparing...... the different findings are discussed. It is tried to establish dose-response relationships between airborne sound insulation or impact sound pressure level according to ISO 717 and the percentage of people being annoyed by noise from neighbours. The slopes of the dose-response curves vary from one investigation...

  16. The effect of temperature and the control rod position on the spatial neutron flux distribution in the Syrian Miniature Neutron Source Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, K.; Omar, H.; Ghazi, N.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of water and fuel temperature increase and changes in the control rod positions on the spatial neutron flux distribution in the Syrian Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR) is discussed. The cross sections of all the reactor components at different temperatures are generated using the WIMSD4 code. These group constants are used then in the CITATION code to calculate the special neutron flux distribution using four energy groups. This work shows that water and fuel temperature increase in the reactor during the reactor daily operating time does not affect the spatial neutron flux distribution in the reactor. Changing the control rod position does not affect as well the spatial neutron flux distribution except in the region around the control rod position. This stability in the spatial neutron flux distribution, especially in the inner and outer irradiation sites, makes MNSR as a good tool for the neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique and production of radioisotopes with medium or short half lives during the reactor daily operating time. (author)

  17. Pollution sources for indoor PM2.5 at the platform in subway station using a positive matrix factorization and an instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jong Myoung; Moon, Jong Hwa; Chung, Yong Sam [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin Hong [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Airborne particulate matters, especially the PM2.5 (aerodynamic equivalent diameter, AED, less than 2.5 )m) fraction has been important. This is because of their potential for deposition on to the human respiratory system being accompanied by many harmful trace metals (such as As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Se, and Zn). As most people spend more than 80% of their time indoors, indoor air quality (IAQ) can exert a considerable impact on the inhalation condition of toxic substances. Therefore, assessment of the absolute concentration levels and elemental composition of PM in an indoor environment such as subway station can be used as a practical barometer of IAQ. The contaminants originated from the indoor pollution sources as well as various outdoor sources are easily accumulated in indoor environment dissimilar to the outdoor. Especially, since the natural ventilation is nearly impossible in the subway station, its pollution status can be worsened under the circumstance that contaminants are constantly originated and circulated inside of station by the repetitive action of subway trains. In this study, a total of 60 PM2.5 samples were collected for 4 seasonal campaigns in 2009 with a low-volume air sampler at one subway station in Daejeon, Korea. We undertook the measurements of up to 25 elements in PM2.5 using an instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). And inorganic ion species (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}) also were determined by ion chromatography (IC). Next, sources at indoor/outdoor environment were identified and the contributions of each source were quantified by positive matrix factorization (PMF).

  18. Pollution sources for indoor PM2.5 at the platform in subway station using a positive matrix factorization and an instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jong Myoung; Moon, Jong Hwa; Chung, Yong Sam; Lee, Jin Hong

    2010-01-01

    Airborne particulate matters, especially the PM2.5 (aerodynamic equivalent diameter, AED, less than 2.5 )m) fraction has been important. This is because of their potential for deposition on to the human respiratory system being accompanied by many harmful trace metals (such as As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Se, and Zn). As most people spend more than 80% of their time indoors, indoor air quality (IAQ) can exert a considerable impact on the inhalation condition of toxic substances. Therefore, assessment of the absolute concentration levels and elemental composition of PM in an indoor environment such as subway station can be used as a practical barometer of IAQ. The contaminants originated from the indoor pollution sources as well as various outdoor sources are easily accumulated in indoor environment dissimilar to the outdoor. Especially, since the natural ventilation is nearly impossible in the subway station, its pollution status can be worsened under the circumstance that contaminants are constantly originated and circulated inside of station by the repetitive action of subway trains. In this study, a total of 60 PM2.5 samples were collected for 4 seasonal campaigns in 2009 with a low-volume air sampler at one subway station in Daejeon, Korea. We undertook the measurements of up to 25 elements in PM2.5 using an instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). And inorganic ion species (SO 4 2- , NO 3 - , NH 4 + ) also were determined by ion chromatography (IC). Next, sources at indoor/outdoor environment were identified and the contributions of each source were quantified by positive matrix factorization (PMF).

  19. Balancing out dwelling and moving: optimal sensorimotor synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Benoît; Guigon, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Sensorimotor synchronization is a fundamental skill involved in the performance of many artistic activities (e.g., music, dance). After a century of research, the manner in which the nervous system produces synchronized movements remains poorly understood. Typical rhythmic movements involve a motion and a motionless phase (dwell). The dwell phase represents a sizable fraction of the rhythm period, and scales with it. The rationale for this organization remains unexplained and is the object of this study. Twelve participants, four drummers (D) and eight nondrummers (ND), performed tapping movements paced at 0.5–2.5 Hz by a metronome. The participants organized their tapping behavior into dwell and movement phases according to two strategies: 1) Eight participants (1 D, 7 ND) maintained an almost constant ratio of movement time (MT) and dwell time (DT) irrespective of the metronome period. 2) Four participants increased the proportion of DT as the period increased. The temporal variabilities of both the dwell and movement phases were consistent with Weber's law, i.e., their variability increased with their durations, and the longest phase always exhibited the smallest variability. We developed an optimal statistical model that formalized the distribution of time into dwell and movement intervals as a function of their temporal variability. The model accurately predicted the participants' dwell and movement durations irrespective of their strategy and musical skill, strongly suggesting that the distribution of DT and MT results from an optimization process, dependent on each participant's skill to predict time during rest and movement. PMID:25878154

  20. Radon concentration in dwellings in Aomori Prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyogi, T.; Ueda, S.; Hisamatsu, S.; Kondo, K.; Nakamura, Y.; Tsuji, N.; Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe

    2002-01-01

    To obtain an average dose from 222 Rn to the people in Aomori Prefecture where the first Japan's nuclear fuel cycling facilities are now under construction, we surveyed 222 Rn concentrations in 109 dwellings in the Prefecture from 1992 to 1996. The outdoor 222 Rn concentrations were also measured in gardens of 15 dwellings. The 222 Rn concentrations were measured with passive 222 Rn detectors which used a polycarbonate film for counting α-ray and could separate concentrations of 222 Rn from 220 Rn. Counting efficiencies of the detectors were calibrated with a standard 222 Rn chamber in the Environmental Measurement Laboratory in USA and in the National Radiological Protection Board in UK. Geometric means of 222 Rn concentration were 13 and 4.4 Bq x m -3 in the dwellings and outdoor, respectively. These values were consistent to nationwide survey results in Japan. The 222 Rn concentrations in the dwellings depended on their age. The concentrations were higher in recent dwellings than in older ones. The radiation dose from 222 Rn was estimated, taking into account the occupancy factor for inside and outside of dwellings. The annual dose was 0.32 mSv x y -1 , and 99% of the dose came from the exposure to 222 Rn inside the dwelling. (author)

  1. Radon in dwellings and lung cancer - a discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stranden, E.

    1980-01-01

    A discussion of the lung cancer risk associated with radon exposure inside dwellings is presented. The risk factors found for miners are discussed and modified according to the lower mean breathing rates inside dwellings and the differences in atmosphere. Statistical information on the lung cancer incidence in the Norwegian population indicates that a 'doubling exposure rate' of radon daughters inside dwellings may be about 2-3 WLM/yr. This corresponds to a radon concentration of about 10-15 pCi/l. These values are used in a discussion of the consequences of a future reduction of the mean ventilation rates in modern houses. (author)

  2. 24 CFR 42.375 - One-for-one replacement of lower-income dwelling units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... related to the conversion. (5) The units must be designed to remain lower-income dwelling units for at... result in the demolition of lower-income dwelling units or the conversion of lower-income dwelling units...-income dwelling units. 42.375 Section 42.375 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary...

  3. Diurnal and seasonal trends and source apportionment of redox-active metals in Los Angeles using a novel online metal monitor and Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Amirhosein; Sowlat, Mohammad H.; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2018-02-01

    In the present study, we identified the sources of four redox-active metals, including Iron (Fe), Chromium (Cr), Cupper (Cu), and Manganese (Mn) and quantified the contribution of these sources to PM2.5 concentrations in central Los Angeles, California, by employing time-resolved measurements (i.e., a time resolution of 2 h) with a recently developed online metal monitor and Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). Size distribution of ambient PM (14 nm-10 μm) was measured using the Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and Optical Particle Sizer (OPS). Auxiliary variables were also collected, including elemental (EC) and organic carbon (OC), gaseous pollutants (NO2 and O3), meteorological parameters (including relative humidity (RH) and temperature), and traffic data (for heavy- (HDVs) and light-duty vehicles (LDVs)). A 4-factor solution was found to be optimum for the chemically-speciated dataset, whereas a 5-factor solution appeared to be most plausible for the size distribution data. The factors included fresh traffic, soil/road dust, urban background aerosol, secondary aerosol, and nucleation (only resolved for the size distribution data). Fresh traffic was the major contributor to Fe and Cu concentrations, whereas Cr was mostly found in the urban background aerosol (reflecting a mixture of small local sources as well as aged traffic emissions), and Mn mostly came from both soil/road dust and was to a lesser degree found in urban background aerosol. Secondary aerosol did not contribute to the concentrations of any of these metals, but was associated with very high loading of OC, as expected. Even though the urban background aerosol and secondary aerosol appeared to be characterized by "aged" particles and have a rather homogeneous spatial distribution, the reactions and processes involved in their formation are entirely different. Our results provide insights into the sources of redox-active metals in central Los Angeles. They also underscore the benefits of

  4. What is the relationship between built form and energy use in dwellings?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Energy is used in dwellings to provide four services: space heating, hot water, lighting and to power appliances. This paper describes how the usage of energy in a UK home results from a complex interaction between built form, location, energy-using equipment, occupants and the affordability of fuel. Current models with standard occupancy predict that energy use will be strongly related to size and built form, but surveys of real homes show only weak correlations, across all types of dwelling. Recent research has given us insights into occupancy factors including preferred comfort, 'take-back' from thermal efficiency improvements, and patterns of electricity use. Space heating is on a downward trend and is low in new dwellings. Energy use for lights and appliances, which is only weakly related to built form, is increasing. Strong legislation, combined with low-carbon technologies, will be needed to counteract this trend. Future challenges discussed include increases in real energy prices and climate change mitigation efforts, which are likely to improve the existing stock. Challenging targets are now in place for new housing to move towards low or zero energy and carbon standards. In the longer term, dwellings will demand less energy. Alternatives to gas for space heating will be increasingly common, including ground source heat and local combined heat and power (CHP) from biomass, while electricity could come from a more decarbonised electricity system. However, these improvements must be set alongside a demand for many new homes, demographic trends towards smaller households, and a more holistic approach to overall carbon use including personal transport

  5. Upward creep of the heart: A frequent source of false-positive reversible defects during thallium-201 stress-redistribution SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, J.; Van Train, K.; Maddahi, J.; Rozanski, A.; Prigent, F.; Bietendorf, J.; Waxman, A.; Berman, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    A new cause of artifactual 201 Tl defects on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) termed upward creep of the heart is described. In 102 consecutive patients undergoing 201 Tl SPECT, 30 (29%) demonstrated upward creep defined by an upward movement of the heart of greater than or equal to 2 pixels during acquisition. In 45 consecutive patients with a less than 5% likelihood of coronary artery disease, 17 (38%) had upward creep. Of these nine had reversible 201 Tl defects localized to the inferior and basal inferoseptal walls, while none of the 28 without upward creep had defects. The 17 low likelihood patients with upward creep had longer exercise duration and higher peak heart rate than those without upward creep. In five additional low likelihood patients with upward creep in whom imaging was immediately repeated, the upward creep pattern disappeared on the repeated images. After we changed our test protocol to begin imaging 15 min postexercise, only five (14%) of 36 low likelihood patients tested demonstrated upward creep. Upward creep is probably related to a transient increase in mean total lung volume early following exhaustive exercise, resulting in a mean lower position of the diaphragm (and thus the heart) at the beginning of imaging. The frequency of this source of false-positive 201 Tl studies can be reduced by delaying SPECT acquisition until 15 min postexercise

  6. Carbon sources and trophic position of the main species of fishes of Baía River, Paraná River floodplain, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manetta G. I.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to verify the carbon source and trophic position of the main species of fishes, of the Paraná River floodplain, we analysed the proportion of stable carbon (delta13C and nitrogen (delta15N isotopes in muscle of fishes sampled in the rainy season. We analyzed adult individuals of Loricariichthys platymetopon, Schizodon borellii, Leporinus lacustris, Auchenipterus osteomystax, Iheringichthys labrosus, Leporinus friderici, and Serrasalmus marginatus. These data were compared with the results obtained by the analyzing stomach contents. The primary producers found in the Baía River were the C3 plants (riparian vegetation, macrophytes, periphyton, and phytoplankton and the C4 plants (macrophytes. The results of the contribution analysis revealed that the carbon used by the species was derived from C3 plants. According to the trophic position estimates (diet and delta15N, the species primarily consumed Loricariichthys platymetopon, Schizodon borellii, Leporinus lacustris, and Leporinus friderici and, secondarily Auchenipterus osteomystax, Iheringichthys labrosus, and Serrasalmus marginatus. There was no significant difference between the two methods utilized.

  7. The effect of masking in the attentional dwell time paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    , 1994). In most studies of attentional dwell time, two masked targets have been used. Moore et al. (1996) have criticised the masking of the first target when measuring the attentional dwell time, finding a shorter attentional dwell time when the first mask was omitted. In the presented work, the effect...... of the first mask is further investigated by including a condition where the first mask is presented without a target. The results from individual subjects show that the findings of Moore et al. can be replicated. The results also suggest that presenting the first mask without a target is enough to produce...... an impairment of the second target. Hence, the attentional dwell time may be a combined effect arising from attending to both the first target and its mask....

  8. Measurements of radon gas in dwellings of Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canoba, A.C.; Arnaud, M.I.; Lopez, F.O.; Oliveira, A.A.

    1998-01-01

    The concentration of radon gas in dwellings of several cities of Argentina was measured. For this purpose, different kind of detectors were used such as passive solid state nuclear track detectors, electrets and detectors which use activated charcoal. Since 1983, a total of 1630 dwellings were analysed. The cases monitored were dwellings where the main construction materials are reinforced concrete and brick. The average values found in each city are below 50 Bq/m 3 . The values above 200-Bqm 3 are very few, and none of them is above 300 Bq/m 3 . The average value of radon gas in air dwellings in our country is 33 Bq/m 3 , with a geometric mean of 23 Bq/m 3 , corresponding to an annual effective dose of 0.83 mSv. (author) [es

  9. Electron microscopic examination of uncultured soil-dwelling bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amako, Kazunobu; Takade, Akemi; Taniai, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Shin-ichi

    2008-05-01

    Bacteria living in soil collected from a rice paddy in Fukuoka, Japan, were examined by electron microscopy using a freeze-substitution fixation method. Most of the observed bacteria could be categorized, based on the structure of the cell envelope and overall morphology, into one of five groups: (i) bacterial spore; (ii) Gram-positive type; (iii) Gram-negative type; (iv) Mycobacterium like; and (v) Archaea like. However, a few of the bacteria could not be readily categorized into one of these groups because they had unique cell wall structures, basically resembling those of Gram-negative bacteria, but with the layer corresponding to the peptidoglycan layer in Gram-negative bacteria being extremely thick, like that of the cortex of a bacterial spore. The characteristic morphological features found in many of these uncultured, soil-dwelling cells were the nucleoid being in a condensed state and the cytoplasm being shrunken. We were able to produce similar morphologies in vitro using a Salmonella sp. by culturing under low-temperature, low-nutrient conditions, similar to those found in some natural environments. These unusual morphologies are therefore hypothesized to be characteristic of bacteria in resting or dormant stages.

  10. Modeling gamma radiation dose in dwellings due to building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Peter; van Dijk, Willem

    2008-01-01

    A model is presented that calculates the absorbed dose rate in air of gamma radiation emitted by building materials in a rectangular body construction. The basis for these calculations is formed by a fixed set of specific absorbed dose rates (the dose rate per Bq kg(-1) 238U, 232Th, and 40K), as determined for a standard geometry with the dimensions 4 x 5 x 2.8 m3. Using the computer codes Marmer and MicroShield, correction factors are assessed that quantify the influence of several room and material related parameters on the specific absorbed dose rates. The investigated parameters are the position in the construction; the thickness, density, and dimensions of the construction parts; the contribution from the outer leave; the presence of doors and windows; the attenuation by internal partition walls; the contribution from building materials present in adjacent rooms; and the effect of non-equilibrium due to 222Rn exhalation. To verify the precision, the proposed method is applied to three Dutch reference dwellings, i.e., a row house, a coupled house, and a gallery apartment. The averaged difference with MCNP calculations is found to be 4%.

  11. Ureteric stent dwelling time: a risk factor for post-ureteroscopy sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevo, Amihay; Mano, Roy; Baniel, Jack; Lifshitz, David A

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the association between stent dwelling time and sepsis after ureteroscopy, and identify risk factors for sepsis in this setting. The prospectively collected database of a single institution was queried for all patients who underwent ureteroscopy for stone extraction between 2010 and 2016. Demographic, clinical, preoperative and operative data were collected. The primary study endpoint was sepsis within 48 h of ureteroscopy. Logistic regressions were performed to identify predictors of post-ureteroscopy sepsis in the ureteroscopy cohort and specifically in patients with prior stent insertion. Between October 2010 and April 2016, 1 256 patients underwent ureteroscopy for stone extraction. Risk factors for sepsis included prior stent placement, female gender and Charlson comorbidity index. A total of 601 patients had a ureteric stent inserted before the operation and were included in the study cohort, in which the median age was 56 years, 90 patients were women (30%), and 97 patients were treated for positive preoperative urine cultures (16.1%). Postoperative sepsis, Sepsis rates after stent dwelling times of 1, 2, 3 and >3 months were 1, 4.9, 5.5 and 9.2%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, stent dwelling time, stent insertion because of sepsis, and female gender were significantly associated with post-ureteroscopy sepsis in patients with prior stent placement. Patients who undergo ureteroscopy after ureteric stent insertion have a higher risk of postoperative sepsis. Prolonged stent dwelling time, sepsis as an indication for stent insertion, and female gender are independent risk factors. Stent placement should be considered cautiously, and if inserted, ureteroscopy should be performed within 1 month. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Sedative-hypnotic drug use among community-dwelling elderly in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Han-Yun; Yu, Shu-Han; Lee, Chun-Yi; Huang, Wen-Hao; Huang, Seng-Loong; Wu, Chi-Shin; Chiu, Yen-Feng; Hsiung, Chao A

    2018-03-21

    Sedative-hypnotic medication use has been related to severe adverse events and risks. This study investigated the prevalence of and characteristics associated with the use of sedatives and hypnotics among community-dwelling elderly persons aged 65 years and over in Taiwan. A representative sample of community-dwelling adults was recruited. Clinical and sociodemographic data were collected for assessing physical, mental, and cognitive functioning and disorders. Sedatives and hypnotics use was determined via both self-reporting and prescription records. Logistic regression modeling was used to evaluate associations between sedative-hypnotic use and demographic and health status. Among the 3,978 participants aged 65 years and over, the rate of sedative-hypnotic use was 19.7% (n = 785). 4.5% (n = 35) of users reported sedative-hypnotic use without a doctor's prescription. Several sociodemographic characteristics were positively associated with sedative and hypnotic use, including older age, female gender, higher education level, married status, unemployment, and current alcohol consumption. Comorbid chronic and cardiovascular diseases, mental illness, depression, pain, and sleep problems also increased the likelihood of sedative-hypnotic use. This study is one of the largest pioneer studies to date to survey sedatives-hypnotics use among community-dwelling elderly. One in five community-dwelling older adults reported sedative-hypnotic drugs use in Taiwan, and about 5% of sedative and/or hypnotics usage was without a doctor's prescription. Findings could be helpful for drug-use safety interventions to identify target geriatric patients who are in general at higher risk of downstream harm associated with sedative-hypnotic use in geriatric patients.

  13. Assembly patterns of soil-dwelling lichens after glacier retreat in the European Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimbene, Juri; Mayrhofer, Helmut; Dainese, Matteo; Bilovitz, Peter Othmar

    2017-06-01

    To assess the spatial-temporal dynamics of primary succession following deglaciation in soil-dwelling lichen communities. European Alps (Austria, Switzerland and Italy). Five glacier forelands subjected to relevant glacier retreat during the last century were investigated. In each glacier foreland, three successional stages were selected at increasing distance from the glacier, corresponding to a gradient of time since deglaciation between 25 and 160 years. In each successional stage, soil-dwelling lichens were surveyed within five 1 × 1 m plots. In addition to a classical ecological framework, based on species richness and composition, we applied a functional approach to better elucidate community assembly mechanisms. A positive relationship was found between species richness and time since deglaciation indicating that richer lichen communities can be found at increasing terrain ageing. This pattern was associated with compositional shifts, suggesting that different community assemblages can be found along the successional stages. The analysis of β-diversity revealed a significant nested pattern of species assemblages along the gradient (i.e. earlier successional stages hosted a subset of the species already established in older successional stages), while the turnover component was less relevant. Considering functional groups, we found contrasting patterns in relation to time since deglaciation: the incidence of species with a cyanobacterial photobiont and those reproducing by spores decreased, while that of species reproducing by vegetative propagules increased. This study reveals that community assembly patterns of soil-dwelling lichens in alpine glacier forelands are ruled by mechanisms of directional species accumulation and trait selection that involve a trade-off between different functional strategies. Functional traits that reflect the dispersal and adaptation capability of the species underpin the colonization success of soil-dwelling lichens in

  14. FEAR OF FALLING AMONG COMMUNITY DWELLING OLDER ADULTS

    OpenAIRE

    Michaela Dingová; Eva Králová

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to describe experience with falls, fear of falling, perceptions of the consequences of falls and how the fear of falling affects daily life in community-dwelling older adults. Design: The study used a qualitative design to describe the lived experiences of community-dwelling older adults with the fear of falling. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted individually with six participants who reported the fear of falling. Results: Five main areas emerged...

  15. Radon and thoron in cave dwellings (Yan'an, China)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiegand, J.; Feige, S.; Xie Quingling; Schreiber, U.; Wieditz, K.; Wittmann, C.; Luo Xiarong

    2000-01-01

    222 Rn and 220 Rn concentrations were measured in cave dwellings and brick houses in the region of Yan'an (China) during summer 1997. The underground dwellings are built into Quaternary loess, and all investigated houses are founded on it. The median values of indoor 222 Rn and 220 Rn concentrations are 42 (n = 18) and 77Bq m -3 (n = 15) for brick houses and 92 (n = 23) and 215 (n = 17) Bq m -3 for cave dwellings. To classify the dwellings in respect to their cave-character, the fraction of walls having a direct contact to the loess is calculated for each dwelling. While the 222 Rn concentrations are increasing with higher fractions, the 220 Rn concentrations are not correlated with this fraction. On the other hand, due to the short half-life of 220 Rn the distance from the measuring point to the walls is negatively correlated with the 220 Rn concentration, while there is no correlation with the 222 Rn concentration. Therefore, concentric isolines of 220 Rn concentrations showing a strong gradient were detected in cave dwellings. An influence of the ventilation rate is distinct for 222 Rn but weak for 220 Rn. The effective dose rates for 222 Rn and 220 Rn and their progenies are calculated for brick houses (2.7 mSv y -1 ), cave dwellings (7.1 mSv y -1 ), and for traditional cave dwellings with a bed foundation built with loess (16.7 mSv y -1 ). These calculations are based on summer measurements only. It is expected that the true effective dose rates will be significantly higher

  16. Dwellings with cellars and basements. A BRE guide to radon remedial measures in existing dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scivyer, C.R.; Jaggs, M.P.R.

    1998-01-01

    This guide is one of a series giving practical advice on methods of reducing radon levels in existing dwellings. It is intended to help surveyors, builders and householders who are trying to reduce indoor radon levels in houses with cellars or basements. The guide is based on a large body of remedial work carried out to advice given by BRE, and on discussions with others working in the field. The measures it describes are applicable, in principle, to all dwellings and other buildings of a similar scale and construction which have cellars or basements. Contact details of other organisations referred to are listed at the back of this guide. Basements and cellars are relatively uncommon in the United Kingdom, but where they do occur they are likely to be major contributors to the radon problem within a building. Experience shows that most houses with high indoor radon levels can be remedied through the use of straightforward building works. These can be carried out by a builder or householder competent in DIY. The cost should not be excessive. Before reading this guide, for background information on radon, consult Radon: a householder's guide and Radon: a guide to reducing levels M your home, obtainable from local Environmental Health Officers or from the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions. The Government recommends that, if the average radon concentration in a dwelling exceeds 200 Bq/m 3 (the 'action' level), measures should be taken to reduce it. This guide assumes that radon measurements have been made in the building and that the annual average indoor radon level was shown to exceed the action level

  17. UK standards for exposure to radon daughters in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.A.M.; O'Riordan, M.C.

    1988-01-01

    The National Radiological Protection Board has issued formal advice on the standards to be adopted in the UK for control of exposures to radon daughters in existing dwellings and for changes in building procedures for future dwellings. The standards are based on those recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection but adapted to circumstances in the United Kingdom. The matters taken into account by the Board when formulating its advice include the conversion from measured concentrations of radon to effective dose equivalent and the implied levels of risk, the comparison of these levels with risks from other causes, the numbers of dwellings in which various annual doses are likely to be exceeded, the geographical distribution of these dwellings, the likely costs and effectiveness of various remedial measures and the degree of domestic disruption. The action level for existing dwellings selected by the Board was the same, 20 mSv per annum, as that recommended by the ICRP, but the upper bound for new dwellings of 5 mSv per annum was lower than that suggested by the ICRP

  18. UK standards for exposure to radon daughters in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.A.M.; O'Riordan, M.C.

    1988-01-01

    The National Radiological Protection Board has issued formal advice on the standards to be adopted in the UK for control of exposures to radon daughters in existing dwellings and for changes in building procedures for future dwellings. The standards are based on those recommended by the international commission on radiological protection but adapted to circumstances in the United Kingdom. The matters taken into account by the Board when formulating its advice, and which are discussed in the paper, include the conversion from measured concentrations of radon to effective dose equivalent and the implied levels of risk, the comparison of these levels with risks from other causes, the numbers of dwellings in which various annual doses are likely to be exceeded, the geographical distribution of these dwellings, the likely costs and effectiveness of various remedial measures and the degree of domestic disruption. The action level for existing dwellings selected by the Board was the same, 20 mSv per annum, as that recommended by the ICRP, but the upper bound for new dwellings of 5 mSv per annum was lower than that suggested by the ICRP [fr

  19. Modeling ventilation and radon in new dutch dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, M.P.M.

    2003-01-01

    Indoor radon concentrations were estimated for various ventilation conditions, the differences being mainly related to the airtightness of the dwelling and the ventilation behavior of its occupants. The estimations were aimed at describing the variation in air change rates and radon concentrations to be expected in the representative newly built Dutch dwellings and identifying the most important parameters determining air change rate and indoor radon concentration. The model estimations were compared with measurements. Most of the air was predicted to enter the model dwelling through leaks in the building shell, independent of the ventilation conditions of the dwelling. Opening the air inlets was shown to be an efficient way to increase infiltration and thus to decrease radon concentration. The effect of increasing the mechanical ventilation rate was considerably less than opening the air inlets. The mechanical ventilation sets the lower limit to the air change rate of the dwelling, and is effective in reducing the radon concentration when natural infiltration is low. Opening inside doors proved to be effective in preventing peak concentrations in poorly ventilated rooms. As the airtightness of newly built dwellings is still being improved, higher radon concentrations are to be expected in the near future and the effect of occupant behavior on indoor radon concentrations is likely to increase. According to the model estimations soil-borne radon played a moderate role, which is in line with measurements. (au)

  20. Cost effectiveness of reducing radon exposure in Spanish dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgan, P.A.; Gutierrez, J.

    1996-01-01

    Published information on the distribution of radon levels in Spanish single family dwellings is used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of three different intervention scenarios: remediation of existing dwellings, radon proofing of all future dwellings and the targetting of areas with higher than average indoor radon concentrations. Analysis is carried out on the basis of a Reference Level of 400 Bq m -3 for the existing housing stock and 200 Bq m -3 for new dwellings. Certain assumptions are made about the effectiveness and durability of the measures applied and annualised costs are used to calculate the costs per lung cancer death averted. The results reveal that targetting future housing is a more cost-effective option than remediation of existing dwellings with radon concentrations above the Reference Level -the costs per lung cancer death averted are typically $145000. In high-risk areas, these costs can be considerably less, depending on the percentage of dwellings expected to exceed the Reference Level and the average savings in exposure as a result of the intervention. The costs of intervention to reduce lung cancer deaths following exposure to radon compare favourably with those of other health programmes in other countries. (Author)

  1. Contamination of dwellings by particulate matter: ingress and distribution within the dwelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannell, R.J.; Goddard, A.J.H.; ApSimon, H.M.

    1987-01-01

    A newly developed system for rapid, non-invasive measurements of deposited fluorescent tracer materials over extended surface areas has been used to gather information on the rate at which these materials would be introduced into a dwelling from the exterior by the occupants' footwear. Some additional information on the rate at which redistribution would occur and the potential for decontamination by normal household equipment has also been obtained. The limitations of using tracers to acquire such data are recognised but few experimental alternatives exist. Further work is planned to extend the range of particle sizes used in the continuing laboratory studies before a more realistic simulation is undertaken in test houses. (author)

  2. Radiation in dwellings and cancer in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stjernfeldt, M.; Samuelsson, L.; Ludvigsson, J.

    1987-01-01

    Indoor radiation, especially radon exposure, has been in focus in the public domain during the past several years. The growing concern among parents of children with cancer possibly having high radiation levels in their homes led us to study the levels of gamma- and alpha-radiation levels in the homes of a group of children in the county of Ostergoetland. The indoor concentration of alpha-emitting radon daughters was measured by a high-voltage method. The gamma activity was measured with a standard detector scintillation meter. The yearly average for radon-daughter concentration in both cases (57 Bq/m3) and controls (61 Bq/m3) corresponds fairly well with the national average of 53 Bq/m3. The yearly average for gamma radiation (cases 0.37 mGy, controls 0.36 mGy) is much lower than the permissible upper level in dwellings (2.5 mGy/year). The values seem to be of the same order as the subtracted cosmic radiation, which is 0.24-0.26 mGy. No appreciable difference could thus be found between cases and controls either from gamma radiation or radon-daughter exposure. We cannot from our study rule out the possibility of an effect of low-level radiation in susceptible individuals, but it seems clear that children who get cancer do not live in more radioactive homes than other children

  3. Management and outcomes of ST-elevation myocardial infarction in nursing home versus community-dwelling older patients: a propensity matched study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khera, Sahil; Kolte, Dhaval; Gupta, Tanush; Mujib, Marjan; Aronow, Wilbert S; Agarwal, Pallak; Palaniswamy, Chandrasekar; Jain, Diwakar; Ahmed, Ali; Fonarow, Gregg C; Frishman, William H; Panza, Julio A

    2014-08-01

    The influence of admission source (nursing home [NH] versus community-dwelling) on treatment strategies and outcomes among elderly patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has not been investigated. Nationwide Inpatient Sample databases from 2003 to 2010 were used to identify 270,117 community-dwelling and 4082 NH patients 75 years of age or older with STEMI. Retrospective observational study. Propensity scores for admission source were used to assemble a matched cohort of 3081 community-dwelling and 3132 NH patients, who were balanced on baseline demographic and clinical characteristics. Bivariate logistic regression models were then used to determine the associations of NH with in-hospital outcomes among matched patients. In-hospital mortality was significantly higher in patients with STEMI presenting from a NH as compared with community-dwelling patients (30.5% versus 27.6%; odds ratio [OR] 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-1.29; P = .012). Overall, NH patients were less likely to receive reperfusion (thrombolysis, percutaneous coronary intervention, or coronary artery bypass grafting) (11.5% versus 13.4%; OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.72-0.98; P = .022). However, rates of percutaneous coronary intervention alone were similar in both groups (9.9% in NH versus 9.1% in community-dwelling; OR 1.10, 95% CI 0.93-1.30; P = .276). Mean length of stay was also similar in both groups (5.68 ± 5.40 days in NH versus 5.69 ± 4.98 days in community-dwelling, P = .974). Compared with their community-dwelling counterparts, older NH patients are less likely to receive reperfusion therapy for STEMI and have higher in-hospital mortality. Copyright © 2014 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Seasonal levels of radon and thoron in the dwellings along southern coastal Orissa, Eastern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulekha Rao, N.; Sengupta, D.

    2010-01-01

    Inhalation of radon ( 222 Rn) and thoron ( 220 Rn) are a major source of natural radiation exposure. Indoor radon-thoron study has been carried out in some dwellings of Ganjam district, southern coastal Orissa, India using LR-115 type II plastic track detectors. Seasonal variation of indoor radon and thoron shows high values in winter and low values in both summer and rainy. The inhalation dose lies in the range of 0-0.06 μSv h -1 and is not high from those found elsewhere in India.

  5. Seasonal levels of radon and thoron in the dwellings along southern coastal Orissa, Eastern India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulekha Rao, N [Department of Geology and Geophysics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Sengupta, D. [Department of Geology and Geophysics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India)], E-mail: dsgg@gg.iitkgp.ernet.in

    2010-01-15

    Inhalation of radon ({sup 222}Rn) and thoron ({sup 220}Rn) are a major source of natural radiation exposure. Indoor radon-thoron study has been carried out in some dwellings of Ganjam district, southern coastal Orissa, India using LR-115 type II plastic track detectors. Seasonal variation of indoor radon and thoron shows high values in winter and low values in both summer and rainy. The inhalation dose lies in the range of 0-0.06 {mu}Sv h{sup -1} and is not high from those found elsewhere in India.

  6. 25 CFR 256.21 - Will I have to vacate my dwelling while repair work or replacement of my dwelling is being done?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Will I have to vacate my dwelling while repair work or replacement of my dwelling is being done? 256.21 Section 256.21 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOUSING HOUSING IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM § 256.21 Will I have to vacate my dwelling while...

  7. Source apportionment of organic compounds in Berlin using positive matrix factorization - assessing the impact of biogenic aerosol and biomass burning on urban particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Sandra; Langner, Marcel; Hansen, Ute; Moriske, Heinz-Jörn; Endlicher, Wilfried R

    2012-10-01

    Source apportionment of 13 organic compounds, elemental carbon and organic carbon of ambient PM(10) and PM(1) was performed with positive matrix factorization (PMF). Samples were collected at three sites characterized by different vegetation influences in Berlin, Germany in 2010. The aim was to determine organic, mainly biogenic sources and their impact on urban aerosol collected in a densely populated region. A 6-factor solution provided the best data fit for both PM-fractions, allowing the sources isoprene- and α-pinene-derived secondary organic aerosol (SOA), bio primary, primarily attributable to fungal spores, bio/urban primary including plant fragments in PM(10) and cooking and traffic emissions in PM(1), biomass burning and combustion fossil to be identified. With mean concentrations up to 2.6 μg Cm(-3), biomass burning dominated the organic fraction in cooler months. Concentrations for α-pinene-derived SOA exceeded isoprene-derived concentrations. Estimated secondary organic carbon contributions to total organic carbon (OC) were between 7% and 42% in PM(10) and between 11% and 60% in PM(1), which is slightly lower than observed for US- or Asian cities. Primary biogenic emissions reached up to 33% of OC in the PM(10)-fraction in the late summer and autumn months. Temperature-dependence was found for both SOA-factors, correlations with ozone and mix depth only for the α-pinene-derived SOA-factor. Latter indicated input of α-pinene from the borders, highlighting differences in the origin of the precursors of both factors. Most factors were regionally distributed. High regional distribution was found to be associated with stronger influence of ambient parameters and higher concentrations at the background station. A significant contribution of biogenic emissions and biomass burning to urban organic aerosol could be stated. This indicates a considerable impact on PM concentrations also in cities in a densely populated area, and should draw the attention

  8. A proposal for PET/MRI attenuation correction with μ-values measured using a fixed-position radiation source and MRI segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Yoshida, Eiji; Kershaw, Jeff; Shiraishi, Takahiro; Suga, Mikio; Ikoma, Yoko; Obata, Takayuki; Ito, Hiroshi; Yamaya, Taiga

    2014-01-01

    Several MRI-based attenuation correction methods have been reported for PET/MRI; these methods are expected to make efficient use of high-quality anatomical MRIs and reduce the radiation dose for PET/MRI scanning. The accuracy of the attenuation map (μ-map) from an MRI depends on the accuracy of tissue segmentation and the attenuation coefficients to be assigned (μ-values). In this study, we proposed an MRI-based μ-value estimation method with a non-rotational radiation source to construct a suitable μ-map for PET/MRI. The proposed method uses an accurately segmented tissue map, the partial path length of each tissue, and detected intensities of attenuated radiation from a fixed-position (rather than a rotating) radiation source to obtain the μ-map. We estimated the partial path length from a virtual blank scan of fixed-point radiation with the same scanner geometry using the known tissue map from MRI. The μ-values of every tissue were estimated by inverting a linear relationship involving the partial path lengths and measured radioactivity intensity. Validation of the proposed method was performed by calculating a fixed- point data set based upon real a real transmission scan. The root-mean-square error between the μ-values derived from a conventional transmission scan and those obtained with our proposed method were 2.4±1.4%, 17.4±9.1% and 6.6±4.3% for brain, bone and soft tissue other than brain, respectively. Although the error estimates for bone and soft tissue are not insignificant, the method we propose is able to estimate the brain μ-value accurately and it is this factor that most strongly affects the quantitative value of PET images because of the large volumetric ratio of the brain. -- Highlights: • An MRI-derived µ-map for the attenuation correction of PET images is proposed. • Method relies on segmentation of MRI and a fixed-point source transmission scan. • Tissue segmentation reduces the number of unknown µ-values. • Method

  9. A proposal for PET/MRI attenuation correction with μ-values measured using a fixed-position radiation source and MRI segmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Hiroshi, E-mail: kwgc@nirs.go.jp [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Hirano, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: yhirano@nirs.go.jp [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Yoshida, Eiji, E-mail: rush@nirs.go.jp [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Kershaw, Jeff, E-mail: len@nirs.go.jp [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Shiraishi, Takahiro, E-mail: tshira@nirs.go.jp [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Suga, Mikio, E-mail: mikio.suga@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering of Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Ikoma, Yoko, E-mail: ikoma@nirs.go.jp [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Obata, Takayuki, E-mail: t_obata@nirs.go.jp [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Ito, Hiroshi, E-mail: hito@nirs.go.jp [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Yamaya, Taiga, E-mail: taiga@nirs.go.jp [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2014-01-11

    Several MRI-based attenuation correction methods have been reported for PET/MRI; these methods are expected to make efficient use of high-quality anatomical MRIs and reduce the radiation dose for PET/MRI scanning. The accuracy of the attenuation map (μ-map) from an MRI depends on the accuracy of tissue segmentation and the attenuation coefficients to be assigned (μ-values). In this study, we proposed an MRI-based μ-value estimation method with a non-rotational radiation source to construct a suitable μ-map for PET/MRI. The proposed method uses an accurately segmented tissue map, the partial path length of each tissue, and detected intensities of attenuated radiation from a fixed-position (rather than a rotating) radiation source to obtain the μ-map. We estimated the partial path length from a virtual blank scan of fixed-point radiation with the same scanner geometry using the known tissue map from MRI. The μ-values of every tissue were estimated by inverting a linear relationship involving the partial path lengths and measured radioactivity intensity. Validation of the proposed method was performed by calculating a fixed- point data set based upon real a real transmission scan. The root-mean-square error between the μ-values derived from a conventional transmission scan and those obtained with our proposed method were 2.4±1.4%, 17.4±9.1% and 6.6±4.3% for brain, bone and soft tissue other than brain, respectively. Although the error estimates for bone and soft tissue are not insignificant, the method we propose is able to estimate the brain μ-value accurately and it is this factor that most strongly affects the quantitative value of PET images because of the large volumetric ratio of the brain. -- Highlights: • An MRI-derived µ-map for the attenuation correction of PET images is proposed. • Method relies on segmentation of MRI and a fixed-point source transmission scan. • Tissue segmentation reduces the number of unknown µ-values. • Method

  10. Coalition Building for Health: A Community Garden Pilot Project with Apartment Dwelling Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert, Lynne K; Blood-Siegfried, Jane; Champagne, Mary; Al-Jumaily, Maha; Biederman, Donna J

    2015-01-01

    Refugees often experience compromised health from both pre- and post-migration stressors. Coalition theory has helped guide the development of targeted programs to address the health care needs of vulnerable populations. Using the Community Coalition Action Theory as a framework, a coalition was formed to implement a community garden with apartment-dwelling refugees. Outcomes included successful coalition formation, a community garden, reported satisfaction from all gardeners with increased vegetable intake, access to culturally meaningful foods, and evidence of increased community engagement. The opportunity for community health nurses to convene a coalition to affect positive health for refugees is demonstrated.

  11. Cognitive health benefits of strengthening exercise for community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Nimon, Joseph P; Westen, Sarah C

    2010-11-01

    While aerobic exercise has been linked to improved performance on cognitive tasks of executive functioning among older adults, not all older adults can avail themselves of such exercise due to physical limitations. In this study, community-dwelling older adults were evaluated on tasks of executive functioning before and after a month-long strengthening, nonaerobic exercise program. A total of 16 participants who engaged in such exercise showed significantly improved scores on Digits Backward and Stroop C tasks when compared to 16 participants who were on an exercise waiting list. Positive benefits of strengthening exercise on cognition are supported. Additional research is needed to clarify the generalizability of these findings.

  12. Infinite dwell time and group delay in resonant electron tunneling through double complex potential barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opacak, Nikola; Milanović, Vitomir; Radovanović, Jelena

    2017-12-01

    Tunneling times in complex potentials are investigated. Analytical expressions for dwell time, self-interference time and group delay are obtained for the case of complex double delta potentials. It is shown that we can always find a set of parameters of the potential so that the tunneling times achieve very large values and even approach infinity for the case of resonance. The phenomenon of infinite tunneling times occurs for only one particular positive value of the imaginary part of the potential, if all other parameters are given.

  13. Estimating impacts of the nuclear family and heritability of nutritional outcomes in a boat-dwelling community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkweather, Kathrine E; Keith, Monica H

    2018-05-01

    General health status is reflected in measures of height, weight, and BMI. Assessing sources of variation in these outcomes reveals population-specific variables of importance to health and nutrition. We characterize the impacts of socioeconomic variables related to the nuclear family on health outcomes of boat-dwelling Shodagor children, mothers, and fathers, and to estimate the proportion of variation in height, weight, and BMI influenced by both genetic variation and nongenetic variation among household environments. Bayesian linear mixed models (LMMs) estimate heritability and household-effect variance components among the Shodagor. These models also assess the influences of specific socioeconomic predictor variables on different types of individuals within the household (children, mothers, and fathers). Overall, models explain 61.7% of variation in height, 59.4% in weight, and 65.8% in BMI for this sample of Shodagor. Mother's decision-making and household income have expected, positive associations with children's weight and BMI. Number of children has an unexpected positive relationship to children's height and a negative relationship to father's BMI. Genetic variation explains less than 26% of phenotypic variation for each of these traits on average. Our results show that resource flows and distributions within Shodagor households account for a significant amount of variance in nutritional outcomes. Problems commonly associated with increasing market integration may lead to negative outcomes for children, while mother's autonomy may lead to positive outcomes. Our models also indicate that environmental factors account for more variation in these outcomes than expected, relative to genetics, and we discuss the implications. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. PERCEPATAN DWELLING TIME : STRATEGI PENINGKATAN KINERJA PERDAGANGAN INTERNASIONAL PELABUHAN TANJUNG PRIOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Septi Utami

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini memiliki bertujuan untuk menganalisis strategi kebijakan yang dapat diimplementasikan untuk mempercepat waktu tinggal di pelabuhan Tanjung Priok, dalam rangka meningkatkan kinerja dalam perdagangan internasional. Penelitian ini menunjukkan hasil analisis dari wadah perhitungan impor tinggal waktu di Pelabuhan Tanjung Priok yang saat tinggal di pelabuhan Tanjung Priok pada 2013 adalah 8,59 hari, menunjukkan tinggal waktu masih di bawah standar kelayakan berdasarkan Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 26 Tahun 2012 tentang Cetak    Biru Sistem Logistik Pembangunan Nasional adalah 3 hari. Berdasarkan hasil analisis SWOT disimpulkan bahwa kinerja Pelabuhan Tanjung Priok berada di quadran saya posisi (1,24; 1,25 Strategi yang digunakan untuk meningkatkan Pelabuhan Tanjung Priok SO tinggal waktu, yaitu meningkatkan jumlah jalur importir MITA, memperbanyak sejajar dengan bea cukai, insentif untuk awal PIB, mengoptimalkan INSW dan adat istiadat, meningkatkan kerjasama para pemangku kepentingan, membangun Cikarang Dry Port (CDP sebagai perluasan dari Komisi Pemilihan Umum Bea Pelabuhan Tanjung Priok.  This research had an aims to to analyze the policy strategies that can be implemented to accelerate the dwelling time at Tanjung Priok port, in order to improve performance in international trade. This research showed results of analysis of container import calculation dwelling time at Tanjung Priok Port that the dwelling time  at Tanjung Priok port in 2013 was 8,59 days, indicating dwelling time is still below standard eligibility is based on Government Regulation No. 26 Year 2012 on the Blueprint of the National Logistics System Development is 3 days. Based on the results of the SWOT analysis concluded that the performance of the Tanjung Priok Port was in quadran I the position (1,24; 1,25 Strategies used to improve the Port of Tanjung Priok is SO dwelling time, ie increasing the number of lanes importers MITA, multiply the parallel to the

  15. Indoor environmental quality in French dwellings and building characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Sarka; Ramalho, Olivier; Derbez, Mickaël; Ribéron, Jacques; Kirchner, Severine; Mandin, Corinne

    2016-03-01

    A national survey on indoor environmental quality covering 567 residences in mainland France was performed during 2003-2005. The measured parameters were temperature, relative humidity, CO2, and the indoor air pollutants: fourteen individual volatile organic compounds (VOC), four aldehydes and particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5. The measured indoor concentrations were analyzed for correlations with the building characteristics: type of dwelling, period of construction, dwelling location, type of ventilation system, building material, attached garage and retrofitting. The median night time air exchange rate (AER) for all dwellings was 0.44 h-1. The night time AER was higher in apartments (median = 0.49 h-1) than in single-family houses (median = 0.41 h-1). Concentration of formaldehyde was approximately 30% higher in dwellings built after 1990 compared with older ones; it was higher in dwellings with mechanical ventilation and in concrete buildings. The VOC concentrations depended on the building characteristics to various extents. The sampling season influenced the majority of the indoor climate parameters and the concentrations of the air pollutants to a higher degree than the building characteristics. Multivariate linear regression models revealed that the indoor-outdoor difference in specific humidity, a proxy for number of occupants and their indoor activities, remained a significant predictor for most gaseous and particulate air pollutants. The other strong predictors were outdoor concentration, smoking, attached garage and AER (in descending order).

  16. Dwell time adjustment for focused ion beam machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Jun; Satake, Shin-ichi; Oosumi, Takaki; Fukushige, Akihisa; Kogo, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    Focused ion beam (FIB) machining is potentially useful for micro/nano fabrication of hard brittle materials, because the removal method involves physical sputtering. Usually, micro/nano scale patterning of hard brittle materials is very difficult to achieve by mechanical polishing or dry etching. Furthermore, in most reported examples, FIB machining has been applied to silicon substrates in a limited range of shapes. Therefore, a versatile method for FIB machining is required. We previously established the dwell time adjustment for mechanical polishing. The dwell time adjustment is calculated by using a convolution model derived from Preston’s hypothesis. More specifically, the target removal shape is a convolution of the unit removal shape, and the dwell time is calculated by means of one of four algorithms. We investigate these algorithms for dwell time adjustment in FIB machining, and we found that a combination a fast Fourier transform calculation technique and a constraint-type calculation is suitable. By applying this algorithm, we succeeded in machining a spherical lens shape with a diameter of 2.93 μm and a depth of 203 nm in a glassy carbon substrate by means of FIB with dwell time adjustment

  17. Characteristics of napping in community-dwelling insomnia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Kwang Ho; Lee, Jung Hie; Kim, Seong Jae; Kwon, Hyo Jeong

    2018-05-01

    We aimed to determine napping characteristics of community-dwelling patients with insomnia disorder (ID) compared to characteristics of normal controls (NC), and to examine the effect of napping on nocturnal sleep. Adult volunteers who were more than 18 years old were recruited from three rural public health centers in Korea. Data from actigraphy recording and a sleep diary filled out for seven days were obtained. Finally, 115 ID patients and 80 NC subjects were included in this study. Parameters and timing of nocturnal sleep and nap were compared between the ID and NC groups. Two-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was performed to determine the effect of ID diagnosis and napping on sleep parameters. Sleep efficiency (SE) in the ID group was significantly lower (p = 0.010), and wake time after sleep onset (WASO) was significantly greater (p = 0.023), compared to the NC group. There was no significant difference in nocturnal sleep or nap timing between the two groups. Nap frequency in the ID group was significantly higher than that in the NC group (p = 0.025). Although ID diagnosis and napping had no independent effect on fragmentation index, their interaction had a significant effect on fragmentation index (p = 0.021). Nap frequency was positively correlated with PSQI score (r = 0.166, p = 0.033). Insomnia patients showed no significant difference in nap timing or nap duration compared to NC subjects. However, insomnia patients showed higher nap frequency. Frequent napping was associated with poorer subjective sleep quality. Therefore, although napping might not have a negative impact on nocturnal sleep maintenance in NC subjects, it did have an effect on nocturnal sleep in insomnia patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Risk factors of falls in community dwelling active elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuunainen, Eeva; Rasku, Jyrki; Jäntti, Pirkko; Pyykkö, Ilmari

    2014-02-01

    To search for measures to describe and relate to accidental falls in community dwelling elderly. A EuroQol EQ-5D questionnaire based on a patient's otoneurological case history provided a general health related quality of life measure, a fall history for the last 3 months and force platform measures for 96 active elderly from a pensioner organization. On average, the elderly experienced 0.3 falls over the preceding three months. A fall was seen to cause a significant deterioration in the quality of life and vertigo and caused fear of falling. The postural instability correlated with falls. Vertigo was present among 42% and was most commonly characterized as episodic and rotatory in factorial analysis items relating to vertigo correlated to falls and balance complaints. Four factors were identified and three of these correlated with falls. Vestibular failure correlated to a fall occurring when a person was rising up; Movement intolerance correlated with falls due to slips and trips, and Near-syncope factor correlated to falls for other reasons. In posturography, the variable measuring critical time describing the memory based "closed loop" control of postural stability carried a risk for accidental fall with an odds ratio of 6. The variable measuring zero crossing velocity showed a high rate of velocity change around the neutral position of stance. Vertigo and poor postural stability were the major reasons for falls in the active elderly. In ageing, postural control is shifted towards open loop control (visual, proprioception, exteroception and vestibular) instead of closed loop control and is a factor that contributes to a fall. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluating horizontal positional accuracy of low-cost UAV orthomosaics over forest terrain using ground control points extracted from different sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patias, Petros; Giagkas, Fotis; Georgiadis, Charalampos; Mallinis, Giorgos; Kaimaris, Dimitris; Tsioukas, Vassileios

    2017-09-01

    Within the field of forestry, forest road mapping and inventory plays an important role in management activities related to wood harvesting industry, sentiment and water run-off modelling, biodiversity distribution and ecological connectivity, recreation activities, future planning of forest road networks and wildfire protection and fire-fighting. Especially in countries of the Mediterranean Rim, knowledge at regional and national scales regarding the distribution and the characteristics of rural and forest road network is essential in order to ensure an effective emergency management and rapid response of the fire-fighting mechanism. Yet, the absence of accurate and updated geodatabases and the drawbacks related to the use of traditional cartographic methods arising from the forest environment settings, and the cost and efforts needed, as thousands of meters need to be surveyed per site, trigger the need for new data sources and innovative mapping approaches. Monitoring the condition of unpaved forest roads with unmanned aerial vehicle technology is an attractive option for substituting objective, laboursome surveys. Although photogrammetric processing of UAV imagery can achieve accuracy of 1-2 centimeters and dense point clouds, the process is commonly based on the establishment of control points. In the case of forest road networks, which are linear features, there is a need for a great number of control points. Our aim is to evaluate low-cost UAV orthoimages generated over forest areas with GCP's captured from existing national scale aerial orthoimagery, satellite imagery available through a web mapping service (WMS), field surveys using Mobile Mapping System and GNSS receiver. We also explored the direct georeferencing potential through the GNSS onboard the low cost UAV. The results suggest that the GNSS approach proved to most accurate, while the positional accuracy derived using the WMS and the aerial orthoimagery datasets deemed satisfactory for the

  20. Effects of a dietary self-management programme for community-dwelling older adults: a quasi-experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Su-Hui; Huang, Yu-Ping; Shao, Jung-Hua

    2017-09-01

    Nutritional health plays a crucial role in determining successful ageing and differs by different living area. Although nutritional interventions have long been advocated, little research has directly assessed the effectiveness of nutritional interventions on community-dwelling older adults in urban and rural areas and compared intervention effects on these two populations. To examine the effectiveness of a 12-week dietary self-management programme for salt-, fluid-, fat- and cholesterol-intake behaviours of community-dwelling older adults and to compare these effects in rural- and urban-dwelling older adults. For this quasi-experimental two-group study, older adults (≥65 years old) were recruited from two randomly selected public health centres in a rural north-eastern county and a northern city of Taiwan from January through December 2011. Outcomes included nutritional status, nutritional self-efficacy and health locus of control. Data were collected at baseline and 12 weeks later. To compare changes in outcome variables over time between the control (usual care) and intervention (nutritional programme) groups and between the urban- and rural-dwelling participants in the experimental group, we used generalised estimating equation analysis. Of the 129 participants, 120 completed this study (58 in the intervention group and 62 in the control group). After 12 weeks, the intervention group had significantly better nutritional status and higher internal health locus of control than the control group. Moreover, older rural participants who received the intervention tended towards higher nutritional self-efficacy and internal health locus of control than their urban counterparts. Our research findings support the positive effect of our nutritional self-management programme for community-dwelling older adults. The knowledge gained from this study can help stakeholders recognise the need for healthcare policy to establish effective strategies and sustainable

  1. Radon, thoron and their progeny levels in some dwellings of Union Territory Chandigarh, India using SSNTDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, Vimal; Kumar, Amit; Chauhan, R.P.; Mudahar, G.S.

    2013-01-01

    Indoor air quality is an important issue for protection against adverse health effects caused by the inhalation of pollutants because most individuals spend 90% of their time indoors and that indoor air quality is deteriorated by a large variety of sources. Out of these sources radon is a major pollutant and is an important global problem of radiation hygiene. Radon and its progeny are the major contributors in the radiation dose received by general population of the world. Next to cigarette smoking, the inhalation of radon gas and the products of its radioactive disintegration are considered the most significant cause of lung cancer. Due to the potentially serious public health implications of exposure to high levels of radon, the environmental monitoring of radon, thoron and their progeny in some dwellings of Chandigarh, union territory of India has been carried out. The radon-thoron twin dosimeter cups were used for the study. The aim of the study is the possible health risk assessment in the dwellings under consideration. (author)

  2. Health hazards from radon daughters in dwellings in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelson, O.; Edling, C.

    1980-01-01

    To clarify the possible etiological role for lung cancer from exposure to the low levels of radon and its daughters in dwellings, a case-control study was made, comparing cases of lung cancer with controls with respect to residency in different types of houses. This pilot study was restricted to include only people who lived in typically rural areas. The results support the hypothesis that radon and radon daughter exposure in dwellings is pertinent to the question of the etiology of lung cancer

  3. Spin-dependent dwell time through ferromagnetic graphene barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattari, F.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the dwell time of electrons tunneling through a ferromagnetic (FM) graphene barrier. The results show that the spin polarization can be efficiently controlled by the barrier width, barrier height, and the incident electron energy. Furthermore, it is found that electrons with different spin orientations will spend different times through the barrier. The difference of the dwell time between spin-up and spin-down electrons arises from the exchange splitting, which is induced by the FM strip. Study results indicate that a ferromagnetic graphene barrier can cause a nature spin filter mechanism in the time domain

  4. Simplified hourly method to calculate summer temperatures in dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lone Hedegaard; Aggerholm, Søren

    2012-01-01

    with an ordinary distribution of windows and a “worst” case where the window area facing south and west was increased by more than 60%. The simplified method used Danish weather data and only needs information on transmission losses, thermal mass, surface contact, internal load, ventilation scheme and solar load...... program for thermal simulations of buildings. The results are based on one year simulations of two cases. The cases were based on a low energy dwelling of 196 m². The transmission loss for the building envelope was 3.3 W/m², not including windows and doors. The dwelling was tested in two cases, a case...

  5. Sound classification of dwellings - Comparison of schemes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2009-01-01

    National sound classification schemes for dwellings exist in nine countries in Europe, and proposals are under preparation in more countries. The schemes specify class criteria concerning several acoustic aspects, the main criteria being about airborne and impact sound insulation between dwellings......, facade sound insulation and installation noise. The quality classes reflect dierent levels of acoustical comfort. The paper presents and compares the sound classification schemes in Europe. The schemes have been implemented and revised gradually since the 1990es. However, due to lack of coordination...

  6. Exposure to radon in Sweden dwellings - attitudes and elimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansson, B.; Tholander, M.; Axelson, O.

    1989-01-01

    Owners of 208 dwellings with radon daughter concentrations of 400 Bq/m 3 EER or above were asked about attitudes and measures toward elimination via mailed questionnaires. The response rate was 88% and some steps toward elimination had been taken in 83 dwellings. For the remaining houses, no improvements had been made either because of financial problems, lack of technical advice, or doubts about radon daughter exposure as a health hazard. The results of this study suggest the need to more definitely assess the risk through epidemiologic studies, as well as to provide more information about technical solutions and financial support to house owners

  7. Measurements of radon in dwellings with CR-39 track detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majborn, Benny

    1986-01-01

    A passive integrating dosemeter has been designed for measuring natural radiation in dwellings. The dosemeter contains one or two CR-39 track detectors to measure radon and three thermoluminescence dosemeters to measure external radiation. The dosemeter was investigated in a pilot study in 1983....../84, and it is now used in a nationwide survey of natural radiation in Danish dwellings. The characteristics of the dosemeter with respect to radon measurements are presented, and the radon monitoring results obtained in the pilot study are summarized...

  8. Radon in Dwellings in the Republic of Kalmykia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakerblom, Gustav (Aakerblom och Aakerblom HP, Skaerholmen (Sweden)); German, Olga; Soederman, Ann-Louise (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)); Stamat, Ivan; Venkov, Vladimir (Research Inst. of Radiation Hygiene, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation))

    2009-02-15

    The National Radon Survey in the Republic of Kalmykia, Russian Federation during 2006-2007 was carried out in a cooperation project between the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) and the Russian Institute of Radiation Hygiene (RIRH). In August 2006 SSI, RIRH, federal and local authorities carried out a field study in Kalmykia when radon daughter measurements (equilibrium equivalent radon concentrations in the air) and gamma radiation measurements were made in 103 buildings. Gamma spectrometry measurements were made at several sites. During the visit the cooperating parties devoted some time to the education of local authorities on radon related issues. During three months in the winter season 2006-2007, long term radon trace measurements were made in 525 randomly chosen dwellings in the Republic of Kalmykia. The radon gas activity varied between 3 and 973 Bq/m3, with a mean value of 122 Bq/m3. In 19 of a total of 835 measurement points, the radon activity exceeded the maximum permitted value in Russia of 200 Bq/m3 of EERC. The year-round radon trace measurement were made in 20 houses in Elista, the capital of the Republic of Kalmykia, for comparison with the three-month measurements. The year-round measurements showed some higher values for the radon activity, and a correction factor of 0.85 was applied. Using data on the number of people living in detached houses and apartments, and applying the radon activities measured, the number of new lung cancer cases caused by radon was calculated to be 20 to 40 of the 100 new cases reported annually. The methods of construction of the dwellings in Kalmykia is greatly influenced by the history and culture. Most of them were built after World War II and there are only a few that are newly built because of the poor economic situation and the low population growth rate in the Republic. Most people live in detached houses, one-storied with 3-5 rooms, built directly on the ground or on coquina blocks or on a cast

  9. SU-G-201-03: Automation of High Dose Rate Brachytherapy Quality Assurance: Development of a Radioluminescent Detection System for Simultaneous Detection of Activity, Timing, and Positioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, C; Xing, L; Fahimian, B [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Accuracy of positioning, timing and activity is of critical importance for High Dose Rate (HDR) brachytherapy delivery. Respective measurements via film autoradiography, stop-watches and well chambers can be cumbersome, crude or lack dynamic source evaluation capabilities. To address such limitations, a single device radioluminescent detection system enabling automated real-time quantification of activity, position and timing accuracy is presented and experimentally evaluated. Methods: A radioluminescent sheet was fabricated by mixing Gd?O?S:Tb with PDMS and incorporated into a 3D printed device where it was fixated below a CMOS digital camera. An Ir-192 HDR source (VS2000, VariSource iX) with an effective active length of 5 mm was introduced using a 17-gauge stainless steel needle below the sheet. Pixel intensity values for determining activity were taken from an ROI centered on the source location. A calibration curve relating intensity values to activity was generated and used to evaluate automated activity determination with data gathered over 6 weeks. Positioning measurements were performed by integrating images for an entire delivery and fitting peaks to the resulting profile. Timing measurements were performed by evaluating source location and timestamps from individual images. Results: Average predicted activity error over 6 weeks was .35 ± .5%. The distance between four dwell positions was determined by the automated system to be 1.99 ± .02 cm. The result from autoradiography was 2.00 ± .03 cm. The system achieved a time resolution of 10 msec and determined the dwell time to be 1.01 sec ± .02 sec. Conclusion: The system was able to successfully perform automated detection of activity, positioning and timing concurrently under a single setup. Relative to radiochromic and radiographic film-based autoradiography, which can only provide a static evaluation positioning, optical detection of temporary radiation induced luminescence enables dynamic

  10. National impacts of the Weatherization Assistance Program in single-family and small multifamily dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G.; Balzer, R.A.; Faby, E.

    1993-05-01

    Since 1976, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has operated one of the largest energy conservation programs in the nation -- the low-income Weatherization Assistance Program. The program strives to increase the energy efficiency of dwellings occupied by low-income persons in order to reduce their energy consumption, lower their fuel bills, increase the comfort of their homes, and safeguard their health. It targets vulnerable groups including the elderly, people with disabilities, and families with children. The most recent national evaluation of the impacts of the Program was completed in 1984 based on energy consumption data for households weatherized in 1981. DOE Program regulations and operations have changed substantially since then: new funding sources, management principles, diagnostic procedures, and weatherization technologies have been incorporated. Many of these new features have been studied in isolation or at a local level; however, no recent evaluation has assessed their combined, nationwide impacts to date or their potential for the future. In 1990, DOE initiated such an evaluation. This evaluation is comprised of three ``impact`` studies (the Single-Family Study, High-Density Multifamily Study, and Fuel-Oil Study) and two ``policy`` studies. Altogether, these five studies will provide a comprehensive national assessment of the Weatherization Assistance Program as it existed in the 1989 Program Year (PY 1989). This report presents the results of the first phase of the Single-Family Study. It evaluates the energy savings and cost effectiveness of the Program as it has been applied to the largest portion of its client base -- low-income households that occupy single-family dwellings, mobile homes, and small (2- to 4-unit) multifamily dwellings. It is based upon a representative national sample that covers the full range of conditions under which the program was implemented in PY 1989.

  11. Application of positive matrix factorization to on-road measurements for source apportionment of diesel- and gasoline-powered vehicle emissions in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Thornhill

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to quantify diesel- and gasoline-powered motor vehicle emissions within the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA using on-road measurements captured by a mobile laboratory combined with positive matrix factorization (PMF receptor modeling. During the MCMA-2006 ground-based component of the MILAGRO field campaign, the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory (AML measured many gaseous and particulate pollutants, including carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide (CO, nitrogen oxides (NOx, benzene, toluene, alkylated aromatics, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, ammonia, particle number, fine particulate mass (PM2.5, and black carbon (BC. These serve as inputs to the receptor model, which is able to resolve three factors corresponding to gasoline engine exhaust, diesel engine exhaust, and the urban background. Using the source profiles, we calculate fuel-based emission factors for each type of exhaust. The MCMA's gasoline-powered vehicles are considerably dirtier, on average, than those in the US with respect to CO and aldehydes. Its diesel-powered vehicles have similar emission factors of NOx and higher emission factors of aldehydes, particle number, and BC. In the fleet sampled during AML driving, gasoline-powered vehicles are found to be responsible for 97% of total vehicular emissions of CO, 22% of NOx, 95–97% of each aromatic species, 72–85% of each carbonyl species, 74% of ammonia, negligible amounts of particle number, 26% of PM2.5, and 2% of BC; diesel-powered vehicles account for the balance. Because the mobile lab spent 17% of its time waiting at stoplights, the results may overemphasize idling conditions, possibly resulting in an underestimate of NOx and overestimate of CO emissions. On the other hand, estimates of the inventory that do not correctly account for emissions during idling are likely to produce bias in the opposite direction.The resulting fuel

  12. Experiments for the validation of computer codes uses to assess the protection factors afforded by dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Grand, J.; Roux, Y.; Kerlau, G.

    1988-09-01

    Two experimental campaigns were carried out to verify: 1) the method of assessing the mean kerma in a household used in the computer code BILL calculating the protection factor afforded by dwellings; 2) in what conditions the kerma calculated in cubic meshes of a given size (code PIECE) agreed with TLD measurements. To that purpose, a house was built near the caesium 137 source of the Ecosystem irradiator located at the Cadarache Nuclear Research Center. During the first campaign, four experiments with different house characteristics were conducted. Some 50 TLSs locations describing the inhabitable volume were defined in order to obtain the mean kerma. 16 locations were considered outside the house. During the second campaign a cobalt 60 source was installed on the side. Only five measurement locations were defined, each with 6 TLDs. The results of dosimetric measurements are presented and compared with the calculations of the two computer codes. The effects of wall heterogeneity were also studied [fr

  13. 24 CFR 200.926 - Minimum property standards for one and two family dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... acceptable code; and (2) Those portions of the CABO One and Two Family Dwelling Code designated by the HUD... must comply with: (1) The CABO One and Two Family Dwelling Code as identified in § 200.926b(a); and (2... (ii) Those portions of the CABO One and Two Family Dwelling Code designated by the HUD Field Office in...

  14. 24 CFR 206.51 - Eligibility of mortgages involving a dwelling unit in a condominium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... a dwelling unit in a condominium. 206.51 Section 206.51 Housing and Urban Development Regulations...; Endorsement Eligible Properties § 206.51 Eligibility of mortgages involving a dwelling unit in a condominium. If the mortgage involves a dwelling unit in a condominium, the project in which the unit is located...

  15. 25 CFR 91.7 - Permits to occupy land for dwelling purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permits to occupy land for dwelling purposes. 91.7... INDIAN VILLAGES, OSAGE RESERVATION, OKLAHOMA § 91.7 Permits to occupy land for dwelling purposes. The issuance of permits for the use of land for dwelling purposes within any village reserve described in § 91...

  16. 25 CFR 256.19 - Who performs the improvements, repairs, or replacement of my dwelling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... my dwelling? 256.19 Section 256.19 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... dwelling? Independent or tribal repair or construction trades persons, home building contractors, or construction companies will perform the repairs, renovation, or replacement of your dwelling. [63 FR 10134, Mar...

  17. 49 CFR 24.204 - Availability of comparable replacement dwelling before displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Availability of comparable replacement dwelling... General Relocation Requirements § 24.204 Availability of comparable replacement dwelling before displacement. (a) General. No person to be displaced shall be required to move from his or her dwelling unless...

  18. Life-Space Assessment questionnaire: Novel measurement properties for Brazilian community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Maria do Socorro Mp; Garcia, Isabel Ff; Costa, Lucíola da Cm; Lunardi, Adriana C

    2018-05-01

    The Life-Space Assessment (LSA) assesses mobility from the spaces that older adults go, and how often and how independent they move. Despite its increased use, LSA measurement properties remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to analyze the content validity, reliability, construct validity and interpretability of the LSA for Brazilian community-dwelling older adults. In this clinimetric study we analyzed the measurement properties (content validity, reliability, construct validity and interpretability) of the LSA administered to 80 Brazilian community-dwelling older adults. Reliability was analyzed by Cronbach's alpha (internal consistency), intraclass correlation coefficients and 95% confidence interval (reproducibility), and standard error of measurement (measurement error). Construct validity was analyzed by Pearson's correlations between the LSA and accelerometry (time in inactivity and moderate-to-vigorous activities), and interpretability was analyzed by determination of the minimal detectable change, and floor and ceiling effects. The LSA met the criteria for content validity. The Cronbach's alpha was 0.92, intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.97 (95% confidence interval 0.95-0.98) and standard error of measurement was 4.12. The LSA showed convergence with accelerometry (negative correlation with time in inactivity and positive correlation with time in moderate to vigorous activities), the minimal detectable change was 0.36 and we observed no floor or ceiling effects. The LSA showed adequate reliability, validity and interpretability for life-space mobility assessment of Brazilian community-dwelling older adults. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; 18: 783-789. © 2018 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  19. [Relationship between Quality of Life (QOL) and cognitive function among community-dwelling elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konagaya, Yoko; Watanabe, Tomoyuki; Ohta, Toshiki; Takata, Kazuko

    2009-03-01

    It has become important for elderly to live better rather than to live longer. There have been many reports about quality of life (QOL) of the elderly, but we have no knowledge about the relation between the QOL and the cognitive function. We investigated the relationship between the QOL and the cognitive function among community-dwelling elderly. A total of 12,059 community-dwelling elderly were invited to join a cognitive screening study by telephone (TICS-J) combined with a mailed QOL questionnaire. Among them, 1,920 subjects (age 71.87+/-5.50 (mean+/-SD) years old, duration of education 11.08+/-2.61 years) who completed both TICS-J and QOL questionnaire were actually measured. TICS-J was administered by the previously reported method, and the QOL questionnaire was developed based on the component of QOL proposed by Lawton, and consisted of 6 subscales (daily activity, satisfaction with health, satisfaction with human support, satisfaction with economic state, symptoms of depression, and positive mental attitude). Correlations were analyzed among the scores of TICS-J, age, duration of education, and scores on each QOL subscale. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted after QOL subscale scores, adjusting for gender, age, and duration of education, were entered as dependent variables. Four out of 6 subscales scores of QOL showed significant differences between men and women. All QOL subscale scores showed significant differences between the two groups in the TICS-J scores. Partial correlations were seen among TICS-J scores and each QOL subscale score. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed significant influence of cognitive function by TICS-J on QOL subscales scores. Cognitive function was considered to have more influence on QOL scores than gender or age. TICS-J and the QOL questionnaire in this study were useful to evaluate the outcome of welfare in community-dwelling elderly.

  20. Potentially inappropriate prescribing in community-dwelling older people across Europe: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommelein, Eline; Mehuys, Els; Petrovic, Mirko; Somers, Annemie; Colin, Pieter; Boussery, Koen

    2015-12-01

    Potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP) is one of the main risk factors for adverse drug events (ADEs) in older people. This systematic literature review aims to determine prevalence and type of PIP in community-dwelling older people across Europe, as well as identifying risk factors for PIP. The PubMed and Web of Science database were searched systematically for relevant manuscripts (January 1, 2000-December 31, 2014). Manuscripts were included if the study design was observational, the study participants were community-dwelling older patients in Europe, and if a published screening method for PIP was used. Studies that focused on specific pathologies or that focused on merely one inappropriate prescribing issue were excluded. Data analysis was performed using R statistics. Fifty-two manuscripts were included, describing 82 different sample screenings with an estimated overall PIP prevalence of 22.6 % (CI 19.2-26.7 %; range 0.0-98.0 %). Ten of the sample screenings were based on the Beers 1997 criteria, 19 on the Beers 2003 criteria, 14 on STOPP criteria (2008 version), 8 on START-criteria (2008 version), and 7 on the PRISCUS list. The 24 remaining sample screenings were carried out using compilations of screening methods or used country-specific lists such as the Laroche criteria. It appears that only PIP prevalence calculated from insurance data significantly differs from the other data collection method categories. Furthermore, risk factors most often positively associated with PIP prevalence were polypharmacy, poor functional status, and depression. Drug groups most often involved in PIP were anxiolytics (ATC-code: N05B), antidepressants (N06A), and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory and anti-rheumatic products (M01A). PIP prevalence in European community-dwelling older adults is high and depends partially on the data collection method used. Polypharmacy, poor functional status, and depression were identified as the most common risk factors for PIP.

  1. Adaptive heating, ventilation and solar shading for dwellings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alders, E.E.

    2017-01-01

    Calculation of various strategies for the heating of, and the prevention of overheating in, a Dutch standard dwelling that includes (automated) adaptive ventilation systems and solar shading to maintain indoor temperatures at acceptably comfortable temperatures informs this analysis of the costs,

  2. Methods of radon remediation in Finnish dwellings; Asuntojen radonkorjauksen menetelmaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvela, H.

    1995-12-01

    A study was made of remedial measures taken in dwellings with high indoor radon concentrations and the results obtained. The data regarding the remedial measures taken in 400 dwellings was obtained from a questionnaire study. The mean annual average indoor radon concentration before the remedies was 1.500 Bq/m{sup 3}, the concentration exceeding in nearly every house the action level of 400 Bq/m{sup 3}. After the measures were taken the mean indoor radon concentration was 500 Bq/m{sup 3}. The resulting indoor radon concentration was less than 400 Bq/m{sup 3} in 60 percent of the dwellings. The best results were achieved using sub-slab-suction and radon well. These methods effectively decrease both the flow of radon bearing air from soil into dwellings and the radon concentration of leakage air. Typical reduction rates in radon concentration were 70-95 percent. The action level was achieved in more than 70 percent of the houses. Sealing the entry routes and improvement of the ventilation resulted typically in reduction rates of 10-50 percent. The goal of the report is to give useful information for the house owners, the do-it-yourself-mitigators, the mitigation firms and the local authorities. The report includes practical guidance, price information and examples of remedial measures. (13 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.).

  3. Radon: guidance on protective measures for new dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report gives guidance for reducing the presence of radon in new dwellings and hence reducing the risk to occupants of exposure to radon. This is a follow-up to the interim guidance of 1988. The report provides comprehensive practical details on the methods of protection including both primary and secondary measures. (UK)

  4. The spectrum of worry in the community-dwelling elderly.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Golden, Jeannette

    2011-11-01

    In this study, we examine the prevalence and distribution of worry, its content, and its associations with quality of life and depression, based on a large sample of community-dwelling elderly. We will attempt to distinguish between pathological and non-pathological worry based on these associations.

  5. Long term monitoring of window opening behaviour in Danish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Vinther; Toftum, Jørn; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: During the first eight months of 2008, measurements of occupant behaviour and eight environmental variables was carried out in 15 dwellings. Logistical regression was applied to infer the probability of open window as a function of the outdoor temperature. The results were compared...

  6. Occupant behaviour and control of indoor environment in Danish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Vinther; Toftum, Jørn; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2007-01-01

    Repeated surveys on occupant behaviour and indoor climate were carried out in Danish dwellings from September to October 2006 and again from February to March 2007. The summer survey comprised 933 respondents and the winter survey 636 respondents. The surveys were carried out by sending 5000...

  7. Meaningful spatial and temporal sequences of activities in dwelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hematalikeikha, M.A.; Coolen, H.C.C.H.; Pourdeihimi, S.

    2014-01-01

    Human activities based on human needs are affected by affordances and meanings that occur in the dwelling. Activities over time and space have meaningful sequences. The meaningfulness of activities in the cultural framework is conditioned by its special temporality and spatiality. Also, temporal or

  8. Distribution and status of the desert-dwelling giraffe ( Giraffa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The population density and distribution of desert dwelling giraffes was estimated in three study areas in the Hoanib River catchment, northwestern Namibia. Giraffe population densities (0.01 giraffe/km2) were equal to the lowest recorded in Africa with population numbers fluctuating over past decades. Sex ratios, herd sizes ...

  9. Resilience in Rural Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Context: Identifying ways to meet the health care needs of older adults is important because their numbers are increasing and they often have more health care issues. High resilience level may be one factor that helps older adults adjust to the hardships associated with aging. Rural community-dwelling older adults often face unique challenges such…

  10. The cost-effectiveness of remedial and preventative measures against radon in Norwegian dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, T.; Aanestad, K.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The indoor radon concentrations in Norway are among the highest in Europe. This is partly explained by the geology due to the large occurrences of radium rich soil and bedrock (e.g. alum shale and uranium rich granites), large occurrences of highly permeable unconsolidated sediments (e.g. moraines and eskers), and the construction of buildings due to the cold climate. An additional factor is the extensive use of highly permeable light expanded clay aggregates in the foundation construction. Entry of radon from the building ground is the dominant source of indoor radon in Norway. Based on the results of nation-wide surveys it has been concluded that most homes with high levels of radon are located on highly permeable sediments, and some of the homes on are sometimes very difficult and expensive to mitigate. In order to limit the mitigation costs it is therefore important the cost -effectiveness of measures is optimised. In this paper, the results of a Norwegian analysis of the cost -effectiveness of remedial measures in existing dwellings and preventative measures in new buildings will be presented. The analysis on measures in existing dwellings is based on data from approximately 1100 buildings which were mitigated by grants from the Government during the National Action Plan against Cancer between 1999 and 2003. The results show that the mitigation costs are significantly higher than earlier estimates based on controlled experiments in research projects, and it seem as though the mitigation costs have been significantly underestimated in earlier cost-effect analysis. There are several factor that have contributed to an increase of the mitigation costs and some of these factors will be discusses in more detail in this paper. The upper level for new dwellings is 200 Bq/m 3 and it is generally recommended by the Norwegian authorities that preventative measures are implemented in all new dwellings. By this strategy the costs of

  11. Compliance with building energy regulations for new-build dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Wei; Garmston, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Despite increasingly stringent building energy regulations worldwide, non-compliance exists in practice. This paper examines the profile of compliance with building energy regulations for new-build dwellings. In total 404 new-build dwellings completed in the UK from 2006 to 2009 were investigated. Only a third of these dwellings were evidenced as being compliant with Building Regulations Part L (England and Wales). Such low compliance casts a serious concern over the achievability of the UK Government's target for all new-build homes to be ‘zero carbon’ from 2016. Clearly evidenced was a lack of knowledge of Part L and its compliance requirements among the supply and building control sides of new-build dwellings. The results also indicate that the compliance profile was influenced by factors including Standard Assessment Procedure (UK Government's methodology for energy efficiency) calculation submissions, learning and experience of builders and building controls with Part L, use of Part L1A checklist, the introduction of energy performance certificate (EPC), build method, dwelling type, and project size. Better compliance was associated with flats over houses and timber frame over masonry. The use of EPC and Part L1A checklist should be encouraged. Key to addressing the lack of compliance with building energy regulations is training. -- Highlights: ► There exists a lack of compliance, worldwide, with building energy regulations. ► The implementation of England and Wales building energy regulations is problematic. ► Training, learning and experience of builders and building control are critical. ► Energy performance certificate and Part L 2006 checklist helped achieve compliance. ► Flats achieved better compliance over houses; and timber frame over masonry.

  12. Operational energy in the life cycle of residential dwellings: The experience of Spain and Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, Oscar; Castells, Francesc; Sonnemann, Guido

    2010-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been applied within the residential building sector of two buildings, one in each a developed (Spain) and a developing (Colombia) country. The main goal of this paper involves the environmental loads and also brings together the operational energy for activities during the operation phase such as HVAC, domestic hot water, electrical appliances, cooking and illumination. The present research compares two real scenarios: Situation 1, where 100% of the dwelling's energy is supplied with electricity only and Situation 2, where dwellings can be operated with natural gas plus electricity. The results for the environmental impacts using natural gas plus electricity show that of the Spanish environmental impacts air conditioning had the highest impact with approximately 27-42% due to the electricity used to power it. In Colombian results showed that electrical appliances had the highest environmental impacts in the same order of magnitude with approximately 60% and cooking had the best reduction of emissions due to the use of natural gas, from 10% down to less than 2%. The origin of the energy source used in each Country plays an important role to minimize environmental impacts, as was demonstrated by the environmental impacts of its use in Colombia where 78% of the electricity came from hydroelectric plants whereas in Spain it is more mixed, fossil fuels represented 55%, nuclear 18% and wind 9%. In summary, LCA has been applied because this methodology supports the decision making to concern environmental sustainability.

  13. Radionuclide content in some building materials and gamma dose rate in dwellings in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brigido, Oslvaldo; Montalvan, Adelmo; Rosa, Ramon; Hernandez, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides in building materials are one of the sources of radiation exposure of the population. This study was undertaken with the purpose of determining radioactivity in some Cuban building materials and for assessing the annual effective dose to Cuban population due external gamma exposure in dwellings for typical Cuban room model. Forty four samples of raw materials and building products were collected in some Cuban provinces. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides were determined by gamma ray spectrometry using a p-type coaxial high purity germanium detector and their mean values are in the ranges: 9 to 857 Bq.kg -1 for 40 K; 6 to 57 Bq.kg -1 for 226 Ra; and 1.2 to 22 Bq.kg -1 for 232 Th. The radium equivalent activity in the 44 samples varied from 4 Bq.kg -1 (wood) to 272 Bq.kg -1 (brick). A high pressure ionisation chamber was used for measuring of the indoor absorbed dose rate in 543 dwellings and workplaces in five Cuban provinces. The average absorbed dose rates in air ranged from 43 n Gy.h -1 (Holguin) to 73 n Gy.h -1 (Camaguey) and the corresponding population-weighted annual effective dose due to terrestrial gamma radiation was estimated to be 145 ± 40 μSv. This dose value is 16% higher than the calculated value for typical room geometry of Cuban house. (author)

  14. SU-F-T-32: Evaluation of the Performance of a Multiple-Array-Diode Detector for Quality Assurance Tests in High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy with Ir-192 Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harpool, K; De La Fuente Herman, T; Ahmad, S; Ali, I [University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of a two-dimensional (2D) array-diode- detector for geometric and dosimetric quality assurance (QA) tests of high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy with an Ir-192-source. Methods: A phantom setup was designed that encapsulated a two-dimensional (2D) array-diode-detector (MapCheck2) and a catheter for the HDR brachytherapy Ir-192 source. This setup was used to perform both geometric and dosimetric quality assurance for the HDR-Ir192 source. The geometric tests included: (a) measurement of the position of the source and (b) spacing between different dwell positions. The dosimteric tests include: (a) linearity of output with time, (b) end effect and (c) relative dose verification. The 2D-dose distribution measured with MapCheck2 was used to perform the previous tests. The results of MapCheck2 were compared with the corresponding quality assurance testes performed with Gafchromic-film and well-ionization-chamber. Results: The position of the source and the spacing between different dwell-positions were reproducible within 1 mm accuracy by measuring the position of maximal dose using MapCheck2 in contrast to the film which showed a blurred image of the dwell positions due to limited film sensitivity to irradiation. The linearity of the dose with dwell times measured from MapCheck2 was superior to the linearity measured with ionization chamber due to higher signal-to-noise ratio of the diode readings. MapCheck2 provided more accurate measurement of the end effect with uncertainty < 1.5% in comparison with the ionization chamber uncertainty of 3%. Although MapCheck2 did not provide absolute calibration dosimeter for the activity of the source, it provided accurate tool for relative dose verification in HDR-brachytherapy. Conclusion: The 2D-array-diode-detector provides a practical, compact and accurate tool to perform quality assurance for HDR-brachytherapy with an Ir-192 source. The diodes in MapCheck2 have high radiation sensitivity and

  15. Recreational Trails Reduce the Density of Ground-Dwelling Birds in Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Bill

    2015-05-01

    Recreational disturbance associated with trails has been identified as one of the major factors causing a decline of native biodiversity within protected areas. However, despite the negative impacts that recreation can have on biodiversity, providing public access to nature is critical for the future of the conservation of biodiversity. As such, many protected area managers are looking for tools to help maintain a balance between public access and biodiversity conservation. The objectives of this study were to examine the impacts of recreational trails on forest-dwelling bird communities in eastern North America, identify functional guilds which are particularly sensitive to recreational trails, and derive guidelines for trail design to assist in managing the impacts of recreational trails on forest-dwelling birds. Trails within 24 publicly owned natural areas were mapped, and breeding bird communities were described with the use of point count surveys. The density of forest birds, particularly of those species which nest or forage on the ground, were significantly positively influenced by the amount of trail-free refuge habitat. Although management options to control trail use in non-staffed protected areas are limited, this study suggests that protected area managers could design and maintain a trail network that would minimize impacts on resident wildlife, while providing recreational opportunities for visitors, by designing their trail network to maximize the area of trail-free habitat.

  16. Invasion patterns of ground-dwelling arthropods in Canarian laurel forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Erik; Perner, Jörg

    2008-09-01

    Patterns of invasive species in four different functional groups of ground-dwelling arthropods (Carnivorous ground dwelling beetles; Chilopoda; Diplopoda; Oniscoidea) were examined in laurel forests of the Canary Islands. The following hypotheses were tested: (A) increasing species richness is connected with decreasing invasibility as predicted by the Diversity-invasibility hypothesis (DIH); (B) disturbed or anthropogenically influenced habitats are more sensitive for invasions than natural and undisturbed habitats; and (C) climatic differences between laurel forest sites do not affect the rate of invasibility. A large proportion of invasives (species and abundances) was observed in most of the studied arthropod groups. However, we did not find any support for the DIH based on the examined arthropod groups. Regarding the impact of the extrinsic factors 'disturbance' and 'climate' on invasion patterns, we found considerable differences between the studied functional groups. Whereas the 'disturbance parameters' played a minor role and only affected the relative abundances of invasive centipedes (positively) and millipedes (negatively), the 'climate parameters' were significantly linked with the pattern of invasive detritivores. Interactions between native and invading species have not been observed thus far, but cannot completely be excluded.

  17. Parenting style, resilience, and mental health of community-dwelling elderly adults in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xue; Wu, Daxing; Nie, Xueqing; Xia, Jie; Li, Mulei; Lei, Feng; Lim, Haikel A; Kua, Ee-Heok; Mahendran, Rathi

    2016-07-08

    Given the increasing elderly population worldwide, the identification of potential determinants of successful ageing is important. Many studies have shown that parenting style and mental resilience may influence mental health; however, little is known about the psychological mechanisms that underpin this relationship. The current study sought to explore the relationships among mental resilience, perceptions of parents' parenting style, and depression and anxiety among community-dwelling elderly adults in China. In total, 439 community-dwelling elderly Chinese adults aged 60-91 years completed the Personal and Parents' Parenting Style Scale, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. Elderly adults whose parents preferred positive and authoritative parenting styles had higher levels of mental resilience and lower levels of depression and anxiety. Elderly adults parented in the authoritarian style were found to have higher levels of depression and anxiety, with lower mental resilience. The findings of this study provide evidence related to successful ageing and coping with life pressures, and highlight the important effects of parenting on mental health. The results suggest that examination of the proximal determinants of successful ageing is not sufficient-distal factors may also contribute to the 'success' of ageing by modifying key psychological dispositions that promote adaptation to adversity.

  18. Residents’ Experiences of Privacy and Comfort in Multi-Storey Apartment Dwellings in Subtropical Brisbane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Kennedy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dwellings in multi-storey apartment buildings (MSAB are predicted to increase dramatically as a proportion of housing stock in subtropical cities over coming decades. The problem of designing comfortable and healthy high-density residential environments and minimising energy consumption must be addressed urgently in subtropical cities globally. This paper explores private residents’ experiences of privacy and comfort and their perceptions of how well their apartment dwelling modulated the external environment in subtropical conditions through analysis of 636 survey responses and 24 interviews with residents of MSAB in inner urban neighbourhoods of Brisbane, Australia. The findings show that the availability of natural ventilation and outdoor private living spaces play important roles in resident perceptions of liveability in the subtropics where the climate is conducive to year round “outdoor living”. Residents valued choice with regard to climate control methods in their apartments. They overwhelmingly preferred natural ventilation to manage thermal comfort, and turned to the air-conditioner for limited periods, particularly when external conditions were too noisy. These findings provide a unique evidence base for reducing the environmental impact of MSAB and increasing the acceptability of apartment living, through incorporating residential attributes positioned around climate-responsive architecture.

  19. Relationships between socioeconomic and lifestyle factors and indoor air quality in French dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Terry; Dassonville, Claire; Derbez, Mickael; Ramalho, Olivier; Kirchner, Severine; Crump, Derrick; Mandin, Corinne

    2015-07-01

    To date, few studies have analyzed the relationships between socioeconomic status (SES) and indoor air quality (IAQ). The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between socioeconomic and other factors and indoor air pollutant levels in French homes. The indoor air concentrations of thirty chemical, biological and physical parameters were measured over one week in a sample of 567 dwellings representative of the French housing stock between September 2003 and December 2005. Information on SES (household structure, educational attainment, income, and occupation), building characteristics, and occupants' habits and activities (smoking, cooking, cleaning, etc.) were collected through administered questionnaires. Separate stepwise linear regression models were fitted to log-transformed concentrations on SES and other factors. Logistic regression was performed on fungal contamination data. Households with lower income were more likely to have higher indoor concentrations of formaldehyde, but lower perchloroethylene indoor concentrations. Formaldehyde indoor concentrations were also associated with newly built buildings. Smoking was associated with increasing acetaldehyde and PM2.5 levels and the risk of a positive fungal contamination index. BTEX levels were also associated with occupant density and having an attached garage. The major predictors for fungal contamination were dampness and absolute humidity. These results, obtained from a large sample of dwellings, show for the first time in France the relationships between SES factors and indoor air pollutants, and believe they should be considered alongside occupant activities and building characteristics when study IAQ in homes. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Emergy Evaluation of Dwelling Operation in Five Housing Units of Montreal Island, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Enrique Vega-Azamar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability of cities and the environmental implications of high resource utilization by the domestic sector are growing concerns related to urban regions. Well-informed urban planning decision-making is an essential tool to help in the task and, for that, an important point to consider is the influence of parameters like residential density and housing typology on the intensity of resource utilization. Emergy synthesis, a life-cycle energy analysis methodological approach that considers the interaction of natural and human-made flows, was used to evaluate the environmental support for dwelling operational stage in five typical present-day housing units on the island of Montreal. As expected, resource utilization, measured as total emergy used, was positively correlated to housing unit size both with respect to number of occupants and dwelling size. Results suggest that variables affecting notably the intensity of resource utilization are per household income and per dweller habitable space and, while a higher income increased per capita emergy in all cases, increasing space availability per resident did not result in a decrease of empower density after 50 m2/person. Future work should consider lower and higher densities and analyses at the scale of blocks, neighborhoods and urban planning zones.

  1. Radon and thoron concentrations in traditional cave dwellings and soil beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Bing; Cui Hongxing; Li Hongzhou

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the measured results of 222 Rn and 220 Tn concentrations in six cave dwellings and adobe Kang in Ning county of Gansu Province by using Rn-Tn solid-state nuclear track detectors. 222 Rn and 220 Tn concentrations are 161 and 307 Bq·m -3 (10 cm from soil wall), 99 and 158 Bq·m -3 (middle of the room) in cave dwellings, and 133 and 317 Bq·m -3 (5 cm above adobe Kang), 179 and 145 Bq·m -3 (20 cm above adobe Kang) on soil beds, respectively. 222 Rn and 220 Tn concentrations near the wall are higher than those obtained other place in the room. 222 Rn and 220 Tn concentrations above the adobe Kang are related to the distance from the surface of adobe Kang and heating situation. The residents sleep directly on the beds, especially for the children, the time staying on the adobe Kang are longer than other position. The dose of 222 Rn and 220 Tn from the traditional adobe Kang should be continuously studied

  2. Recreational trails reduce the density of ground-dwelling birds in protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Bill

    2015-05-01

    Recreational disturbance associated with trails has been identified as one of the major factors causing a decline of native biodiversity within protected areas. However, despite the negative impacts that recreation can have on biodiversity, providing public access to nature is critical for the future of the conservation of biodiversity. As such, many protected area managers are looking for tools to help maintain a balance between public access and biodiversity conservation. The objectives of this study were to examine the impacts of recreational trails on forest-dwelling bird communities in eastern North America, identify functional guilds which are particularly sensitive to recreational trails, and derive guidelines for trail design to assist in managing the impacts of recreational trails on forest-dwelling birds. Trails within 24 publicly owned natural areas were mapped, and breeding bird communities were described with the use of point count surveys. The density of forest birds, particularly of those species which nest or forage on the ground, were significantly positively influenced by the amount of trail-free refuge habitat. Although management options to control trail use in non-staffed protected areas are limited, this study suggests that protected area managers could design and maintain a trail network that would minimize impacts on resident wildlife, while providing recreational opportunities for visitors, by designing their trail network to maximize the area of trail-free habitat.

  3. Measurements of volumic activity of radon in indoor air in dwellings and enclosed work areas in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakam, O. K.; Lferde, M.

    1994-01-01

    The principal source of exposure to radiation for public in built-up areas is known to be the inhalation of radon and its short-lived daughters. Most of this exposure occurs inside homes, where many hours are spent each day and where the volumic activity of radon are usually higher than outdoors. For measure these volumic activity, cellulose nitrate films LR-115 type II already calibrated of volumic activity of radon are used. The measurements were performed in 30 dwellings and enclosed work areas in different regions of Morocco. The volumic mean activity obtained in dwellings is 64 +- 5 Bq/m sup 3 in Rabat, 59 +- 6 Bq/ m sup 3 in Kenitra, 124 +- 8 Bq/ m sup 3 in youssoufia and 136 +- 9 Bq/ m sup 3 in Khouribga. It was showed that the volumic activity of radon are more higher in two factory locals of moroccan ores treatment than in dwellings. The average volumic activity of radon in geophysical observatory cellar in Berchid was 1541 +- 64 Bq/ m sup 3. We also observed that the volumic activity of radon in indoor air is more higher in winter than in summer and it decrease with altitude and increase with depth. 4 tabs. 2 refs. (author)

  4. A study of indoor radon levels and radon effective dose in dwellings of some cities of Gezira State in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzain Abd-Elmoniem Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to natural sources of radiation, especially 222Rn and its short-lived daughter products has become an important issue throughout the world because sustained exposure of humans to indoor radon may cause lung cancer. The indoor radon concentration level and radon effective dose rate were carried out in the dwellings of Medani, El Hosh, Elmanagil, Haj Abd Allah, and Wad Almahi cities, Gezira State - Central Sudan, in 393 measurements, using passive integrated solid-state nuclear track devices containing allyl diglycol carbonate plastic detectors. The radon concentration in the corresponding dwellings was found to vary from (57 ± 8 Bq/m3 in Medani to 41 ± 9 Bq/m3 in Wad Almahi, with an average of 49 ± 10 Bq/m3. Assuming an indoor occupancy factor of 0.8 and 0.4 for the equilibrium factor of radon indoors, we found that the annual effective dose rate from 222Rn in the studied dwellings ranges from 1.05 to 1.43 mSv per year and the relative lung cancer risk for radon exposure was 1.044%. In this research, we also correlated the relationship of radon concentration and building age. From our study, it is clear that the annual effective dose rate is larger than the “normal” background level as quoted by UNSCEAR, lower than the recommended action level of ICRP, and less than the maximum permissible dose defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency.

  5. 25 CFR 256.11 - What are the occupancy and square footage standards for a dwelling provided with Category C...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... dwelling provided with Category C assistance? 256.11 Section 256.11 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS... footage standards for a dwelling provided with Category C assistance? A modest dwelling provided with... bedrooms Total dwelling square footage 1 (maximum) 1-3 2 2 900 4-6 2 3 1050 7 or more 2 4 31350 1 Total...

  6. 25 CFR 256.16 - Who is responsible for identifying what work will be done on my dwelling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... on my dwelling? 256.16 Section 256.16 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... my dwelling? The servicing housing office is responsible for identifying what work is to be done on your dwelling or whether your dwelling will be replaced. This includes responsibility to communicate...

  7. Positive and negative symptom scores are correlated with activation in different brain regions during facial emotion perception in schizophrenia patients: a voxel-based sLORETA source activity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Won; Kim, Han-Sung; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Im, Chang-Hwan

    2013-12-01

    Schizophrenia is one of the most devastating of all mental illnesses, and has dimensional characteristics that include both positive and negative symptoms. One problem reported in schizophrenia patients is that they tend to show deficits in face emotion processing, on which negative symptoms are thought to have stronger influence. In this study, four event-related potential (ERP) components (P100, N170, N250, and P300) and their source activities were analyzed using EEG data acquired from 23 schizophrenia patients while they were presented with facial emotion picture stimuli. Correlations between positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) scores and source activations during facial emotion processing were calculated to identify the brain areas affected by symptom scores. Our analysis demonstrates that PANSS positive scores are negatively correlated with major areas of the left temporal lobule for early ERP components (P100, N170) and with the right middle frontal lobule for a later component (N250), which indicates that positive symptoms affect both early face processing and facial emotion processing. On the other hand, PANSS negative scores are negatively correlated with several clustered regions, including the left fusiform gyrus (at P100), most of which are not overlapped with regions showing correlations with PANSS positive scores. Our results suggest that positive and negative symptoms affect independent brain regions during facial emotion processing, which may help to explain the heterogeneous characteristics of schizophrenia. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Phantom position dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorson, M.R.; Endres, G.W.R.

    1981-01-01

    Sensitivity of the Hanford dosimeter response to its position relative to the phantom and the neutron source has always been recognized. A thorough investigation was performed to quantify dosimeter response according to: (a) dosimeter position on phantom, (b) dosimeter distance from phantom, and (c) angular relationship of dosimeter relative to neutron source and phantom. Results were obtained for neutron irradiation at several different energies

  9. Radon in dwellings the national radon survey Galway and Mayo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGarry, A.T.; Fennell, S.G.; Mackin, G.M.; Madden, J.S.; O'Colmain, M.

    1999-07-01

    This report presents the results of the final phase of the National Radon Survey carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland. The counties included in this phase are Galway and Mayo. The average radon concentrations for the houses measured in these counties were 112 Bq/m 3 and 100 Bq/m 3 , respectively. The measurement data were grouped on the basis of the 10 km grid squares of the Irish National Grid System and used to predict the percentage of dwellings in each grid square which exceeds the Reference Level of 200 Bq/m 3 . Grid squares where this percentage is predicted to be 10% or higher are designated High Radon Areas. The health effects of exposure to high radon levels are discussed and recommendations are made regarding both new and existing dwellings. (author)

  10. Radon in dwellings the national radon survey Cork and Kerry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGarry, A.T.; Fennell, S.G.; Mackin, G.M.; Madden, J.S.

    1998-07-01

    This report presents the results of the third phase of the National Radon Survey carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland. The counties included in this phase are Cork and Kerry. The average radon concentrations for the houses measured in these counties were 76 Bq/m 3 and 70 Bq/m 3 . The measurement data were grouped on the basis of the 10 km grid squares of the Irish National Grid System and used to predict the percentage of dwellings in each grid square which exceeds the Reference Level of 200 Bq/m 3 . Grid squares where this percentage is predicted to be 10% or higher are designated High Radon Areas. The health effects of exposure to high radon levels are discussed and recommendations are made regarding both new and existing dwellings. (author)

  11. Cost-benefit of ventilation and averted radon in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katona, T.; Kanyar, B.

    2003-01-01

    To assess an economically optimal ventilation rate we have introduced a cost-benefit analysis taking into account the cost of heating and benefit of averted dose due to ventilation. The cost of heating due to the elevated ventilation for mitigation of radon content in dwellings can be compensated by the monetary benefit of the averted dose, in case of higher (annually 3-10 mSv) exposure. During the heating season the economically optimal ventilation takes 0.1-0.5 h -1 , meanwhile the radon concentration in the indoor air decreases to 200-800 Bq/m 3 , depending on the exhalation of radon, number of persons living in the dwellings and other local parameters. Our results from the optimal planning correspond to the radon concentrations recommended by the international organizations as action levels. In general, the periodic ventilation in daytime provides a higher averted dose than the constant one in case of the same heating cost. (authors)

  12. International proposal for an acoustic classification scheme for dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic classification schemes specify different quality levels for acoustic conditions. Regulations and classification schemes for dwellings typically include criteria for airborne and impact sound insulation, façade sound insulation and service equipment noise. However, although important...... classes, implying also trade barriers. Thus, a harmonized classification scheme would be useful, and the European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", running 2009-2013 with members from 32 countries, including three overseas...... for quality of life, information about acoustic conditions is rarely available, neither for new or existing housing. Regulatory acoustic requirements will, if enforced, ensure a corresponding quality for new dwellings, but satisfactory conditions for occupants are not guaranteed. Consequently, several...

  13. Window opening behaviour modelled from measurements in Danish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Fabi, Valentina; Toftum, Jorn

    2013-01-01

    environment.Measurements of occupant's window opening behaviour were conducted in 15 dwellings in Denmark during eight months. Indoor and outdoor environmental conditions were monitored in an effort to relate the behaviour of the occupants to the environmental conditions. The dwellings were categorized......A method of defining occupants' window opening behaviour patterns in simulation programs, based on measurements is proposed.Occupants' window opening behaviour has a strong effect on indoor environment and the energy consumed to sustain it. Only few models of window opening behaviour exist...... and these are solely based on the thermal indoor/outdoor environment. Consequently, users of simulation software are often left with little or no guidance for the modelling of occupants' window opening behaviour, resulting in potentially large discrepancies between real and simulated energy consumption and indoor...

  14. A search profile for dwellings with elevated radon levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, A.; Andersen, C.E.; Majborn, B.

    1996-01-01

    A search profile for dwellings with elevated radon levels has been employed to investigate possibly radon-prone areas in Denmark and to find houses suitable for radon mitigation studies. The profile is defined as dwellings which are single-family houses with slab-on-grade foundation or partly...... basement/slab-on-grade foundation built on either fractured granitic basement rocks, or fractured limestone. Clayey till areas were also included in the profile in order to confirm earlier findings. Three areas representing these surface geologies were selected for indoor radon measurements with CR-39...... track detectors, and a total of 200 houses matching the profile underwent radon measurements during the winter 1994-95. The distribution of the measured radon concentrations were found in most cases to comply with log-normal distributions. Measurements in the living rooms of houses in each of the three...

  15. Dwell time considerations for large area cold plasma decontamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konesky, Gregory

    2009-05-01

    Atmospheric discharge cold plasmas have been shown to be effective in the reduction of pathogenic bacteria and spores and in the decontamination of simulated chemical warfare agents, without the generation of toxic or harmful by-products. Cold plasmas may also be useful in assisting cleanup of radiological "dirty bombs." For practical applications in realistic scenarios, the plasma applicator must have both a large area of coverage, and a reasonably short dwell time. However, the literature contains a wide range of reported dwell times, from a few seconds to several minutes, needed to achieve a given level of reduction. This is largely due to different experimental conditions, and especially, different methods of generating the decontaminating plasma. We consider these different approaches and attempt to draw equivalencies among them, and use this to develop requirements for a practical, field-deployable plasma decontamination system. A plasma applicator with 12 square inches area and integral high voltage, high frequency generator is described.

  16. Analysis of a photovoltaic dwelling in remote sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliot, P

    1982-01-01

    This work is a design analysis of autonomous or quasi-autonomous photovolaic system suited to dwellings on remote sites in France; this study allowed to establish ''curves'' of sizing related to several performance, from which it is possible to estimate costs (under many conditions of house occupancy, of climates). The interest of a back-up generating sit for the permanent resident is studied. Then, an adaptation and an improvement of existing analysis tools are looked.

  17. Comparison of sine dwell and broadband methods for modal testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jay-Chung

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of modal tests for large complex spacecraft structural systems are outlined. The comparison criteria for the modal test methods, namely, the broadband excitation and the sine dwell methods, are established. Using the Galileo spacecraft modal test and the Centaur G Prime upper stage vehicle modal test as examples, the relative advantage or disadvantage of each method is examined. The usefulness or shortcomings of the methods are given from a practical engineering viewpoint.

  18. On sine dwell or broadband methods for modal testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jay-Chung; Wada, Ben K.

    1987-01-01

    For large, complex spacecraft structural systems, the objectives of the modal test are outlined. Based on these objectives, the comparison criteria for the modal test methods, namely, the broadband excitation and the sine dwell methods are established. Using the Galileo spacecraft modal test and the Centaur G Prime upper stage vehicle modal test as examples, the relative advantages or disadvantages of each method are examined. The usefulness or shortcoming of the methods are given from a practicing engineer's view point.

  19. Measurement Techniques for Radon in Mines, Dwellings and the Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snihs, J.O.

    1983-06-01

    Definitions and units appropriate for radon and radon daughters are given. The principle methods of detection are ionization chamber, scintillation technique, nuclear track detector, thermoluminescent discs and alpha spectrometry. The activity concentration is determined by grab sampling and subsequent measurement, frequent or continuous grab sampling and measurement and continuous sampling and long time integrated measurement. Sampling and measurement strategies for mines, dwellings and the environment are discussed. (author)

  20. Spatial and vertical distribution of radon and thoron in a typical Indian dwelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinay Kumar Reddy, K.; Gopal Reddy, Ch.; Yadagiri Reddy, P.; Rama Reddy, K.

    2012-01-01

    Radon and thoron have been identified as potential radiological health hazard and the dose estimation due to their exposure is an important task. Understanding their behavior in indoor environment helps in calculating the inhalation doses due to them. Present study aims at the distribution of radon and thoron concentrations in a typical Indian dwelling. Solid state nuclear track detectors are employed in the study. The concentration of radon is found to be invariant in indoor environment. The thoron concentration is found to decrease exponentially as a function of distance from the source (wall/floor). Solution of one dimensional diffusion equation is used for regression fittings for thoron variation, from which the diffusion constants and the exhalation rates were calculated. The diffusion constants varied from 0.00195 to 0.00540 m 2 s -1 . (author)

  1. Basement depressurization using dwelling mechanical exhaust ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collignan, B.; O'Kelly, P.; Pilch, E.

    2004-01-01

    The mechanical ventilation exhaust system is commonly used in France to generate air renewal into building and especially into dwelling. It consists of a permanent mechanical air extraction from technical rooms (kitchen, bathrooms and toilets) using a unique fan connected to exhaust ducts. Natural air inlets in living room and bed rooms ensure an air flow from living spaces towards technical rooms. To fight against radon into building, the most recognised efficient technique is the Soil Depressurization System (S.D.S.) consisting in depressurizing the house basement. The aim of this study is to test the ability of the dwelling mechanical ventilation system to depressurize the basement in conjunction with air renewal of a house. For that purpose, a S.D.S. has been installed in an experimental house at CSTB during its construction. At first, tests undertaken with a variable velocity fan connected to the S.D.S. have characterised the permeability of the basement. It is shown that basement can be depressurized adequately with a relatively low air flow rate. At a second stage, S.D.S. has been connected to the exhaust ventilation fan used for the mechanical ventilation of the house. Results obtained show the ability of such ventilation system to generate sufficient depressurization in the basement and to ensure simultaneously adequate air change rate in the dwelling. (author)

  2. Measurement of radon concentration in Taiz city dwellings-yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Taher M.; Ahmed, Hayel A.; Ismail, Rokhsana M.

    2001-01-01

    Radon gas considered being a high part of natural radiation background. Emitting alpha particles; radon daughters may be deposited into the lungs and cause health hazards. For this reason, estimation of radon levels in dwellings was done in many countries. In our country, Radon group in the Department of physics, University of Aden has been studied radon level in Aden dwelling. The present study is about the radon level in Taiz City - Yemen. Passive diffusion dosimeters containing (SSNTD s ) Cr - 39 detectors were used in the present work. 125 dosimeters were distributed into dwellings of ten regions in Taiz City. Results obtained show that Rn 222 levels vary between 4 Bq/m 3 and 99 Bq/m 3 . The average concentration in Al-Hasseb district is 23 Bq/m 3 and in Algumhuri hospital district is 53 Bq/m 3 . In other regions it varies between the two values. Whereas the general average in the Taiz City is 34 Bq/m 3 . (author)

  3. Mobile work, multilocal dwelling and spaces of wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman-Murray, Andrew; Bissell, David

    2018-05-01

    Mobile work is increasingly common. For our purposes, mobile work entails long-distance commuting arrangements with periods living away from the primary domestic residence that may be considered 'home'. Mobile work reconfigures the relational fabric of 'home', introducing multilocal mooring points into worker's lives, and thus reshaping the spatial and temporal patterns and meanings of dwelling. Geography and cognate disciplines have begun to investigate the spatialities and temporalities of mobile work and multilocal dwelling, including the complexities of space-time management, but as yet little attention has been given to implications and impacts on the wellbeing of workers and their families - this is despite growing concern for worker and family wellbeing in some mobile work sectors, such as FIFO mining. Wellbeing is also a complex and multivalent concept, taking in objective and subjective dimensions, including health indicators and quality of life. In this context, this paper reviews recent literature on mobile work and multilocal dwelling and geographies of wellbeing to identify productive intersections for conceptual and empirical development. We suggest that provocations about space-times of wellbeing (Fleuret and Prugneau, 2015) and wellbeing as a relational, situated assemblage (Atkinson, 2013) are productive for analysing wellbeing in a context of mobility and multilocality. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Actual heating energy savings in thermally renovated Dutch dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majcen, Daša; Itard, Laure; Visscher, Henk

    2016-01-01

    The register of the Dutch social housing stock was analysed, containing 300.000 dwellings, renovated between 2010 and 2013. The main objective was twofold: to evaluate the performance gap in these dwellings before and after the renovation and to establish what renovation measures achieve the highest reduction of consumption, particularly in practice (actual savings). The results showed large performance gaps in dwellings with low R and high U values, local heating systems, changes from a non-condensing into a condensing boiler and upgrades to a natural ventilation system. Regarding the actual effectiveness of renovation measures, replacement of old gas boilers with more efficient ones yields the highest energy reduction, followed by deep improvements of windows. Installing mechanical ventilation yields a small reduction compared to other measures, but still much larger than theoretically expected. The paper shows once more that the calculation method currently in use cannot be considered accurate if compared to actual consumption. The study demonstrated that unrealistic theoretical efficiencies of heating systems and insulation values are causing a part of the performance gap. Nowadays, large datasets of buildings thermal performance and actual consumption offer an opportunity to improve these misconceptions. - Highlights: • Performance gap is lower in more efficient buildings. • Replacements of gas boilers – the most energy reduction among renovation measures. • Replacing the ventilation system yields a much larger reduction than expected. • How well are the standard values of the calculation methods defined? • Provide large public building performance databases including actual use data.

  5. Increased gait unsteadiness in community-dwelling elderly fallers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausdorff, J. M.; Edelberg, H. K.; Mitchell, S. L.; Goldberger, A. L.; Wei, J. Y.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that quantitative measures of gait unsteadiness are increased in community-dwelling elderly fallers. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective, case-control study. SETTING: General community. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-five community-dwelling elderly subjects older than 70 years of age who were capable of ambulating independently for 6 minutes were categorized as fallers (age, 82.2 +/- 4.9 yrs [mean +/- SD]; n = 18) and nonfallers (age, 76.5 +/- 4.0 yrs; n = 17) based on history; 22 young (age, 24.6 +/- 1.9 yrs), healthy subjects also participated as a second reference group. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Stride-to-stride variability (standard deviation and coefficient of variation) of stride time, stance time, swing time, and percent stance time measured during a 6-minute walk. RESULTS: All measures of gait variability were significantly greater in the elderly fallers compared with both the elderly nonfallers and the young subjects (p elderly fallers was similar to that of the nonfallers. There were little or no differences in the variability measures of the elderly nonfallers compared with the young subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Stride-to-stride temporal variations of gait are relatively unchanged in community-dwelling elderly nonfallers, but are significantly increased in elderly fallers. Quantitative measurement of gait unsteadiness may be useful in assessing fall risk in the elderly.

  6. The effect of tubing dwell time on insulin adsorption during intravenous insulin infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Cecilia D; Vital-Carona, Jessica; Faustino, E Vincent S

    2012-10-01

    Insulin adsorbs to plastic tubing, which decreases the concentration of an insulin solution delivered from an intravenous infusion set. Dwelling insulin within tubing before starting the infusion decreases adsorption but delays treatment initiation and wastes time in infusion preparation. The lack of data on dwell time effects results in wide variability in practice. We aim to determine the effect of dwell time on insulin concentration from intravenous infusion tubing. In this in vitro study, we used insulin solutions with concentrations of 0.1 unit/mL, 1 unit/mL, and 10 units/mL. Each solution dwelled in intravenous infusion sets for 0, 15, 30, or 60 min. After the dwell, we measured insulin concentrations from the solution bags and tubing. We repeated each insulin concentration-dwell time combination five times. Comparisons were performed using analyses of variance. For each of the three insulin concentrations, the mean insulin concentrations from the tubing were not significantly different between dwell times. Duration of dwell time did not affect insulin adsorption in polypropylene intravenous infusion sets. We recommend that following a 20-mL flush, insulin infusions can be started without any dwell time. Removal of dwell times may improve clinical practice by minimizing preparation time and will allow faster initiation of insulin infusion therapy.

  7. Factors Influencing Dwell Fatigue Cracking in Notches of Powder Metallurgy Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabb, T. P.; Telesman, J.; Ghosn, L.; Garg, A.; Gayda, J.

    2011-01-01

    The influences of heat treatment and cyclic dwells on the notch fatigue resistance of powder metallurgy disk superalloys were investigated for low solvus high refractory (LSHR) and ME3 disk alloys. Disks were processed to produce material conditions with varied microstructures and associated mechanical properties. Notched specimens were first subjected to baseline dwell fatigue cycles having a dwell at maximum load, as well as tensile, stress relaxation, creep rupture, and dwell fatigue crack growth tests at 704 C. Several material heat treatments displayed a bimodal distribution of fatigue life with the lives varying by two orders-of-magnitude, while others had more consistent fatigue lives. This response was compared to other mechanical properties, in search of correlations. The wide scatter in baseline dwell fatigue life was observed only for material conditions resistant to stress relaxation. For selected materials and conditions, additional tests were then performed with the dwells shifted in part or in total to minimum tensile load. The tests performed with dwells at minimum load exhibited lower fatigue lives than max dwell tests, and also exhibited early crack initiation and a substantial increase in the number of initiation sites. These results could be explained in part by modeling evolution of peak stresses in the notch with continued dwell fatigue cycling. Fatigue-environment interactions were determined to limit life for the fatigue cycles with dwells.

  8. Radon Activity measurements in Drinking Water and in Indoors of Dwellings of Dwellings, using RAD7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehra, R.; Badhan, K.; Sonkawade, R.G.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the radon levels of groundwater being used for drinking and indoor radon levels in the environs of villages/towns of Hoshiarpur district of Punjab, India, to determine the health hazards. Radon concentrations in the collected water samples were measured with RAD7 an electronic radon detector connected to a RAD- H 2 O accessory (Durridge Co., USA). In the setup, the RAD7 detector was used for measuring radon in water by connecting it with a bubbling kit which enables to degas radon from a water sample into the air in a closed loop. A sample of water was taken in a radon-tight reagent bottle of 250 ml capacity connected in a close circuit with a zinc sulphide coated detection chamber which acts as scintillator to detect alpha activity and a glass bulb containing calcium chloride to absorb the moisture. Air was then circulated in a closed circuit for a period of 5-10 min until the radon was uniformly mixed with the air and the resulting alpha activity was recorded and it directly gives the radon concentration. The measured radon concentration in drinking water ranges from 2.03 BqL -1 to 6.65 BqL -1 with an average value of 4.27 BqL -1 . The measured values of radon concentration in drinking water are well within the range (4 to 40 BqL -1 ) suggested for radon concentration in water for human consumption by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. The measured values of indoor radon concentration in dwellings of the same area vary from 10 Bqm -3 to 28.2 Bqm -3 with an average value of 20.28 Bqm -3 . The measured values for drinking water and for indoor air for the study area suggest that the area is safe for residents and there is no significant threat to the population as per as radon concentration is concerned

  9. Submicron aerosol source apportionment of wintertime pollution in Paris, France by double positive matrix factorization (PMF2) using an aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM) and a multi-wavelength Aethalometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, J.E.; Favez, O.; Leoz-Garziandia, E.; Sciare, J.

    2014-01-01

    Online non-refractory submicron aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements in urban areas have successfully allowed the apportionment of specific sources and/or physical and chemical properties of the organic fraction. However, in order to be fully representative of PM pollution, a comprehensive source apportionment analysis is needed by taking into account all major components of submicron aerosols, creating strengthened bonds between the organic components and pollution sources. We present here a novel two-step methodology to perform such an analysis, by taking advantage of high time resolution of monitoring instruments: the aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM) and the multi-wavelength absorption measurements (Aethalometer AE31) in Paris, France. As a first step, organic aerosols (OA) were de-convolved to hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), biomass burning OA (BBOA) and oxygenated OA (OOA) with positive matrix factorization (PMF), and black carbon was de-convolved into its wood burning and fossil fuel combustion fractions. A second PMF analysis was then carried out with organic factors, BC fractions and inorganic species (nitrate, sulfate, ammonium, chloride), leading to a four-factor solution allowing highly time-resolved characterization of the major sources of PM1. Outputs of this PMF2 include two dominant combustion sources (wood burning and traffic) as well as semi-volatile and low-volatile secondary aerosols. While HOA is found to be emitted by both wood burning and traffic, the latter sources occurred to significantly contribute also to OOA. (authors)

  10. Role of positive ions on the surface production of negative ions in a fusion plasma reactor type negative ion source--Insights from a three dimensional particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collisions model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fubiani, G.; Boeuf, J. P.

    2013-11-01

    Results from a 3D self-consistent Particle-In-Cell Monte Carlo Collisions (PIC MCC) model of a high power fusion-type negative ion source are presented for the first time. The model is used to calculate the plasma characteristics of the ITER prototype BATMAN ion source developed in Garching. Special emphasis is put on the production of negative ions on the plasma grid surface. The question of the relative roles of the impact of neutral hydrogen atoms and positive ions on the cesiated grid surface has attracted much attention recently and the 3D PIC MCC model is used to address this question. The results show that the production of negative ions by positive ion impact on the plasma grid is small with respect to the production by atomic hydrogen or deuterium bombardment (less than 10%).

  11. Response to Letter Regarding the Louisiana Department of Environmental Protection's Position on the PSD Significant Emission Level for ODS at Existing Major Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  12. Affective health bias in older adults: Considering positive and negative affect in a general health context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Brenda R; Bergeman, C S

    2016-09-01

    Because subjective health reports are a primary source of health information in a number of medical and research-based contexts, much research has been devoted to establishing the extent to which these self-reports of health correspond to health information from more objective sources. One of the key factors considered in this area is trait affect, with most studies emphasizing the impact of negative affect (negative emotions) over positive affect (positive emotions), and focusing on high-arousal affect (e.g., anger, excitement) over moderate- or low-arousal affect (e.g., relaxed, depressed). The present study examines the impact of both Positive and Negative Affect (PA/NA)-measured by items of both high and low arousal-on the correspondence between objective health information and subjective health reports. Another limitation of existing literature in the area is the focus on samples suffering from a particular diagnosis or on specific symptom reports; here, these effects are investigated in a sample of community-dwelling older adults representing a broader spectrum of health. 153 older adults (Mage = 71.2) took surveys assessing Perceived Health and Affect and underwent an objective physical health assessment. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the extent to which the relationship between Objective Health and Perceived Health was moderated by PA or NA, which would indicate the presence of affective health bias. Results reveal a significant moderation effect for NA, but not for PA; PA appeared to serve a more mediational function, indicating that NA and PA operate on health perceptions in distinct ways. These findings provide evidence that in our high-functioning, community-dwelling sample of older adults, a) affective health bias is present within a general health context, and not only within specific symptom or diagnostic categories; and b) that both PA and NA play important roles in the process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  13. Prevalence of faecal incontinence in community-dwelling older people in Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyasa, I Gede Putu Darma; Xiao, Lily Dongxia; Lynn, Penelope Ann; Skuza, Pawel Piotr; Paterson, Jan

    2015-06-01

    To explore the prevalence rate of faecal incontinence in community-dwelling older people, associated factors, impact on quality of life and practices in managing faecal incontinence. Using a cross-sectional design, 600 older people aged 60+ were randomly selected from a population of 2916 in Bali, Indonesia using a simple random sampling technique. Three hundred and three participants were interviewed (response rate 51%). The prevalence of faecal incontinence was 22.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 18.0-26.8). Self-reported constipation (odds ratio (OR) 3.68, 95% CI 1.87-7.24) and loose stools (OR 2.66, 95% CI 1.47-4.78) were significantly associated with faecal incontinence. There was a strong positive correlation between total bowel control score and total quality-of-life score (P Bali. © 2014 ACOTA.

  14. Woody biomass: Niche position as a source of sustainable renewable chemicals and energy and kinetics of hot-water extraction/hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shijie

    2010-01-01

    The conversion of biomass to chemicals and energy is imperative to sustaining our way of life as known to us today. Fossil chemical and energy sources are traditionally regarded as wastes from a distant past. Petroleum, natural gas, and coal are not being regenerated in a sustainable manner. However, biomass sources such as algae, grasses, bushes and forests are continuously being replenished. Woody biomass represents the most abundant and available biomass source. Woody biomass is a reliably sustainable source of chemicals and energy that could be replenished at a rate consistent with our needs. The biorefinery is a concept describing the collection of processes used to convert biomass to chemicals and energy. Woody biomass presents more challenges than cereal grains for conversion to platform chemicals due to its stereochemical structures. Woody biomass can be thought of as comprised of at least four components: extractives, hemicellulose, lignin and cellulose. Each of these four components has a different degree of resistance to chemical, thermal and biological degradation. The biorefinery concept proposed at ESF (State University of New York - College of Environmental Science and Forestry) aims at incremental sequential deconstruction, fractionation/conversion of woody biomass to achieve efficient separation of major components. The emphasis of this work is on the kinetics of hot-water extraction, filling the gap in the fundamental understanding, linking engineering developments, and completing the first step in the biorefinery processes. This first step removes extractives and hemicellulose fractions from woody biomass. While extractives and hemicellulose are largely removed in the extraction liquor, cellulose and lignin largely remain in the residual woody structure. Xylo-oligomers and acetic acid in the extract are the major components having the greatest potential value for development. Extraction/hydrolysis involves at least 16 general reactions that could

  15. Source Apportionment of PM2.5 Mass and Optical Attenuation Over an Ecologically Sensitive Zone in Central India by Positive Matrix Factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmalkar, J.; Raman, R. S.

    2016-12-01

    Ambient PM2.5 samples (N=366) were collected over an ecologically sensitive zone (Van Vihar National Park) in Bhopal, Central India for two years (01 January, 2012 to 31 December, 2013). Samples were collected using three co-located Mini-Vol® samplers on Teflon, Nylon, and Quartz filter substrates. The aerosol was then chemically characterized for water-soluble inorganic ions, elements, and carbon fractions (elemental carbon and organic carbon) using ion chromatography, ED-XRF, and thermal-optical EC/OC analyzer, respectively. The optical attenuation (at 370 nm and 800 nm) of PM2.5 aerosols was also determined by optical transmissometry (OT-21). The application of Positive matrix factorization (PMF) to a combination of PM2.5 mass, its ions, elements, carbon fractions, and optical attenuation and its outcomes will be discussed.

  16. Discussion about the range of natural radiation exposure rate found in dwelling-houses in the Federal Republic of Germany and in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmier, H.; Pensko, J.; Wicke, A.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper the range of natural radiation exposure rate found in dwelling-houses is discussed. The source of this exposure are natural radionuclides 40 K, 226 Ra, 232 Th and their decay products widely distributed in soil and in building materials. The resulting whole body dose equivalent rate of gamma radiation is compared to the effective dose equivalent rate of alpha radiation originating from 222 Rn diffusing out of building materials and decaying to alpha emitting short living daughters. (Author) [de

  17. Effects of incentives on psychosocial performances in simulated space-dwelling groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hienz, Robert D.; Brady, Joseph V.; Hursh, Steven R.; Gasior, Eric D.; Spence, Kevin R.; Emurian, Henry H.

    Prior research with individually isolated 3-person crews in a distributed, interactive, planetary exploration simulation examined the effects of communication constraints and crew configuration changes on crew performance and psychosocial self-report measures. The present report extends these findings to a model of performance maintenance that operationalizes conditions under which disruptive affective responses by crew participants might be anticipated to emerge. Experiments evaluated the effects of changes in incentive conditions on crew performance and self-report measures in simulated space-dwelling groups. Crews participated in a simulated planetary exploration mission that required identification, collection, and analysis of geologic samples. Results showed that crew performance effectiveness was unaffected by either positive or negative incentive conditions, while self-report measures were differentially affected—negative incentive conditions produced pronounced increases in negative self-report ratings and decreases in positive self-report ratings, while positive incentive conditions produced increased positive self-report ratings only. Thus, incentive conditions associated with simulated spaceflight missions can significantly affect psychosocial adaptation without compromising task performance effectiveness in trained and experienced crews.

  18. Dwelling in the Apocalypse: Capitalist Modernity, Antimodernism, Zombies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Tutek

    2017-09-01

          On the one hand, if the adverbial “in a global age” is taken to denote a radical historical caesura between “our age” and the age in which the concept was first deployed, one has to prove that the caesura is indeed not only historically operative but legitimate on an ontological level. This would, however, be a futile attempt: there hardly exists an essential, qualitative difference between the ontological regime of “our global age” and the one sketched in Heidegger's 1954 essay “Building Dwelling Thinking.” We have not been blessed by any epochal turns, despite important switches – to move for a second to a different register—in regimes of accumulation. Thus, it may be concluded, the ontological question about the state of “dwelling in a precarious age” has already been posed and answered by Heidegger himself—from an ontological perspective, he is our contemporary. And of course, to such question there can in fact be only one answer: it is the same “metaphysics” that has precluded the possibility of “dwelling” (initiated a “denial of dwelling” as it is put here throughout modernity that gave rise to our age as global. But then to avoid the mistake sketched out above and the repetition of an already accomplished analysis, the question as it is posed for us here (“what does it mean to dwell in a global age” should be taken as a politicization of the original concept, foreign to a puritanically ontological Heideggerian diagnostics, although building on its foundations: what is to be done historically at this moment to enter “dwelling”?

  19. Evaluation of positive Rift Valley fever virus formalin-fixed paraffin embedded samples as a source of sequence data for retrospective phylogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubemba, B; Thompson, P N; Odendaal, L; Coetzee, P; Venter, E H

    2017-05-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF), caused by an arthropod borne Phlebovirus in the family Bunyaviridae, is a haemorrhagic disease that affects ruminants and humans. Due to the zoonotic nature of the virus, a biosafety level 3 laboratory is required for isolation of the virus. Fresh and frozen samples are the preferred sample type for isolation and acquisition of sequence data. However, these samples are scarce in addition to posing a health risk to laboratory personnel. Archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples are safe and readily available, however FFPE derived RNA is in most cases degraded and cross-linked in peptide bonds and it is unknown whether the sample type would be suitable as reference material for retrospective phylogenetic studies. A RT-PCR assay targeting a 490 nt portion of the structural G N glycoprotein encoding gene of the RVFV M-segment was applied to total RNA extracted from archived RVFV positive FFPE samples. Several attempts to obtain target amplicons were unsuccessful. FFPE samples were then analysed using next generation sequencing (NGS), i.e. Truseq ® (Illumina) and sequenced on the Miseq ® genome analyser (Illumina). Using reference mapping, gapped virus sequence data of varying degrees of shallow depth was aligned to a reference sequence. However, the NGS did not yield long enough contigs that consistently covered the same genome regions in all samples to allow phylogenetic analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The equivalent doses of indoor radon in some dwellings and enclosed areas in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakam, O.; Choukri, J.; Reyss, L.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The principal source of exposure to radiation for public in built-up areas is known to be the inhalation for radon its short-lived daughters.Most of this exposure occurs inside homes,where many hours are spent each day and where the volumic activity of radon is usually higher than outdoors. The compelling effects of radon and its short-lived decay products spread slowly but surely through a wide range of biological problems encountered in such areas as the mortality rates and lung cancer in uranium mines,the results of experimental work with animals, and the discovery of unsually high levels of radon in the living environments of the general population. As a way of prevention, we have measured the volumic activities of indoor radon-222 and we have calculated their effective equivalent dose in some dwellings and enclosed areas in Morocco. The obtained results show that the effective equivalent dose of activities measured indoor dwellings are inferior to the admissible annual limit fixed by ICRP for population, except in two twons situated in regions rich in phosphate deposits where the calculated doses are slightly upper than this limit. The results obtained for enclosed areas are inferior to the admissible annual limit fixed by ICRP for workers, except in the cave of geophysical observatory situated at depth of-12 meters where the obtained value don't present in risk for workers health because workers pass only a few minutes by day in this cave. The risks related to the volumic activities for indoor radon could be avoided by simple precautions such the continuous ventilation

  1. Subjective cognitive decline and fall risk in community-dwelling older adults with or without objective cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirooka, Hidehiko; Nishiguchi, Shu; Fukutani, Naoto; Tashiro, Yuto; Nozaki, Yuma; Aoyama, Tomoki

    2018-05-01

    The association between subjective cognitive decline and falls has not been clearly determined. Our aim was to explore the effect of subjective cognitive decline on falls in community-dwelling older adults with or without objective cognitive decline. We included 470 older adults (mean age 73.6 ± 5.2; 329 women) living in the community and obtained data on fall history directly from the participants. Subjective cognitive decline was assessed using a self-administered question. Objective cognitive function was measured using the Mini-Mental State Examination. Statistical analyses were carried out separately for participants with objective cognitive decline and those without. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that, among participants without objective cognitive decline, subjective cognitive decline was positively associated with falls [OR 1.91; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17-3.12; p = 0.01). Conversely, among participants with objective cognitive decline, subjective cognitive decline was negatively associated with falls (OR 0.07; 95% CI 0.01-0.85, p = 0.04). The result suggests that the objective-subjective disparity may affect falls in community-dwelling older adults. The presence of subjective cognitive decline was significantly positively associated with falls among cognitively intact older adults. However, among their cognitively impaired peers, the absence of subjective cognitive decline was positively associated with falls.

  2. Effect of weatherization on radon levels in Maine dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, C.T.; Hill, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    A study of radon concentration in the air of 30 Maine dwellings was performed before and after weatherization during November 1982-May 1983. The average radon (.75 pCi/1) was lower than a group of houses in a previous study in October 1980-May 1981 (3.1 pCi/1). The after-weatherization levels show an increase over the before-weatherization levels. Trailers were found to have lower radon concentrations than houses. The maximum value measured was 3.2 pCi/1 before and 6.2 pCi/1 after correction for season of exposure. 13 references, 5 figures, 3 tables

  3. Trends and reduction scenarios for Rn 222 concentrations in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaauboer, R.O.; Heling, R.

    1993-07-01

    In the title study the effects of possible measures on the average radon concentration in Dutch dwellings is evaluated. Attention is paid to the trends in building methods, the use of building materials and using the trends as a reference development (scenario 0). A total of seven scenarios has been evaluated. The model that was used was kept rather simple, because most of the parameter values are average values. The measures studied were selected on the basis of cost-effectiveness. All measures are based on reducing the infiltration of radon from the crawl space under the house to the living quarters and reducing the exhalation rates of building materials. The evaluation shows a rather good match with earlier measurements and projections as far as the average radon concentration is concerned. The trend, i.e. the development without taking measures directed at reducing the radon concentration, predicts a slow increase of about 15% until approximately the year 2025. The scenario that is directed at using concrete with low Ra-226 concentrations in new houses projects an end to this trend. Other scenarios reveal that taking measures solely in the existing housing stock would give a substantial decrease in radon concentrations in the near future. The spread sheet model that was developed to evaluate the consequences of the different scenarios projects a possible reduction of the average radon concentration in dwellings with 25% by the year 2025, compared to 1991, if measures, directed at Rn-reduction are applied. If in addition to that concrete with low Ra-226 concentrations is used in new buildings, a reduction of the average radon concentration is projected of about 30%. This would result in an average radon concentration in dwellings of about 23 Bq.m -3 in the future. These reduction percentages have to be handled with some care however, because the effect of the obviously occurring uncertainties in several parameters used, are not yet quite clear. Trends in and the

  4. Control strategies for demand controlled ventilation in dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Toke Rammer; Drivsholm, Christian

    2011-01-01

    and efficient fans is becoming the standard solution. The building regulation requirement for air change in dwellings is often a constant value that has been chosen to avoid moisture related problems in the indoor environment. This required air change is sometimes sufficient, sometimes too low and sometimes too....... In the studied house two control strategies were tested. A simple strategy where all sensors and controls were located in the air handling unit and only the speed of the fans can be controlled, and a complex strategy where sensors were placed in each room and where individual control of air flow in each room...

  5. The Primitive Thylakoid-Less Cyanobacterium Gloeobacter Is a Common Rock-Dwelling Organism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Mareš

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are an ancient group of photosynthetic prokaryotes, which are significant in biogeochemical cycles. The most primitive among living cyanobacteria, Gloeobacter violaceus, shows a unique ancestral cell organization with a complete absence of inner membranes (thylakoids and an uncommon structure of the photosynthetic apparatus. Numerous phylogenetic papers proved its basal position among all of the organisms and organelles capable of plant-like photosynthesis (i.e., cyanobacteria, chloroplasts of algae and plants. Hence, G. violaceus has become one of the key species in evolutionary study of photosynthetic life. It also numbers among the most widely used organisms in experimental photosynthesis research. Except for a few related culture isolates, there has been little data on the actual biology of Gloeobacter, being relegated to an "evolutionary curiosity" with an enigmatic identity. Here we show that members of the genus Gloeobacter probably are common rock-dwelling cyanobacteria. On the basis of morphological, ultrastructural, pigment, and phylogenetic comparisons of available Gloeobacter strains, as well as on the basis of three new independent isolates and historical type specimen, we have produced strong evidence as to the close relationship of Gloeobacter to a long known rock-dwelling cyanobacterial morphospecies Aphanothece caldariorum. Our results bring new clues to solving the 40 year old puzzle of the true biological identity of Gloeobacter violaceus, a model organism with a high value in several biological disciplines. A probable broader distribution of Gloeobacter in common wet-rock habitats worldwide is suggested by our data, and its ecological meaning is discussed taking into consideration the background of cyanobacterial evolution. We provide observations of previously unknown genetic variability and phenotypic plasticity, which we expect to be utilized by experimental and evolutionary researchers worldwide.

  6. Association between participation in social activity and physical fitness in community-dwelling older Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeuchi, Yuka; Honda, Takanori; Chen, Tao; Narazaki, Kenji; Chen, Sanmei; Kumagai, Shuzo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to examine the relationship between participation in social activity and both, composite and individual measures of physical fitness in community-dwelling older adults.Methods This study was conducted using baseline data from the Sasaguri Genkimon Study (SGS), a longitudinal cohort study conducted in 2011. Participants were 1,365 community-dwelling men and women aged 65 years or above, who did not require certified nursing care and who resided in Sasaguri, a town located east of the Fukuoka metropolitan area. Participation in social activity was assessed by asking participants whether they engaged in any of eight social activities. Physical fitness tests assessed participants' handgrip strength and knee extension strength as measures of muscle strength, and their one-leg standing time, 5-m maximum gait speed, and 5-repetition sit-to-stand rate as measures of their physical performance. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between participation in social activity and each measure of physical fitness, adjusting for sex; age; body mass index; socioeconomic status; solitary living; exercise, habitual drinking and smoking; accelerometer-measured, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; cognitive function; instrumental activities of daily living; distress; social network; and comorbidities.Results A total of 83.6% of the participants were engaged in at least one social activity. After adjusting for potential confounders, engagement in social activity was positively associated with a higher composite physical fitness score, faster gait speed and 5-repetition sit-to-stand rate, and longer one-leg standing time (P=0.008, P=0.030, P=0.034, and P=0.009, respectively).Conclusion Participation in social activity was significantly associated with physical fitness, specifically those related to locomotive function. These associations were independent of various confounders including

  7. Skin hydration and lifestyle-related factors in community-dwelling older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizaka, Shinji

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate skin hydration status of the lower legs by comparing several methods and examining lifestyle-related factors in community-dwelling older people. A cross-sectional study was conducted in three community settings in Japan from autumn to winter. Participants were older people aged ≥65 years (n=118). Skin hydration status of the lower legs was evaluated by stratum corneum hydration using an electrical device, clinical symptoms by an expert's observation and the visual analogue scale. Lifestyle factors of skin care were evaluated by a self-administered questionnaire. The mean age of participants was 74.4 years and 83.9% were women. Stratum corneum hydration was significantly correlated with clinical scores by an expert's observation (rho=-0.46, Pskin, 57.5% showed low stratum corneum hydration. Hospitalization in the past year (b=-9.4, P=0.008), excessive bathing habits (b=-4.6, P=0.014), and having an outdoor hobby (b=-5.7, P=0.007) were negatively associated, and diuretics (b=11.5, P=0.002) and lotion-type moisturizer use (b=4.6, P=0.022) were positively associated with stratum corneum hydration. Stratum corneum hydration measurements show an adequate association with observation-based evaluation by an expert, but poor agreement with subjective evaluation in community-dwelling older people. Hospitalization experience and lifestyle factors are associated with skin hydration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Residential radon in Finland: sources, variation, modelling and dose comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvela, H

    1995-09-01

    The study deals with sources of indoor radon in Finland, seasonal variations in radon concentration, the effect of house construction and ventilation and also with the radiation dose from indoor radon and terrestrial gamma radiation. The results are based on radon measurements in approximately 4000 dwellings and on air exchange measurements in 250 dwellings as well as on model calculations. The results confirm that convective soil air flow is by far the most important source of indoor radon in Finnish low-rise residential housing. (97 refs., 61 figs., 30 tabs.).

  9. Residential radon in Finland: sources, variation, modelling and dose comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvela, H.

    1995-09-01

    The study deals with sources of indoor radon in Finland, seasonal variations in radon concentration, the effect of house construction and ventilation and also with the radiation dose from indoor radon and terrestrial gamma radiation. The results are based on radon measurements in approximately 4000 dwellings and on air exchange measurements in 250 dwellings as well as on model calculations. The results confirm that convective soil air flow is by far the most important source of indoor radon in Finnish low-rise residential housing. (97 refs., 61 figs., 30 tabs.)

  10. Spectroscopic confirmation of the optical identification of X-ray sources used to determine accurate positions for the anomalous X-ray pulsars 1E 2259+58.6 and 4U 0142+61

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, M.; Verbunt, F.

    2001-03-01

    Optical spectra show that two proposed counterparts for X-ray sources detected near 1E 2259+58.6 are late G stars, and a proposed counterpart for a source near 4U 0142+61 is a dMe star. The X-ray luminosities are as expected for such stars. We thus confirm the optical identification of the three X-ray objects, and thereby the correctness of the accurate positions for 1E 2259+58.6 and 4U 0142+61 based on them. Based on observations made with the William Herschel Telescope operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias.

  11. Environmental constraints and call evolution in torrent-dwelling frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutte, Sandra; Dubois, Alain; Howard, Samuel D; Marquez, Rafael; Rowley, Jodi J L; Dehling, J Maximilian; Grandcolas, Philippe; Rongchuan, Xiong; Legendre, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    Although acoustic signals are important for communication in many taxa, signal propagation is affected by environmental properties. Strong environmental constraints should drive call evolution, favoring signals with greater transmission distance and content integrity in a given calling habitat. Yet, few empirical studies have verified this prediction, possibly due to a shortcoming in habitat characterization, which is often too broad. Here we assess the potential impact of environmental constraints on the evolution of advertisement call in four groups of torrent-dwelling frogs in the family Ranidae. We reconstruct the evolution of calling site preferences, both broadly categorized and at a finer scale, onto a phylogenetic tree for 148 species with five markers (∼3600 bp). We test models of evolution for six call traits for 79 species with regard to the reconstructed history of calling site preferences and estimate their ancestral states. We find that in spite of existing morphological constraints, vocalizations of torrent-dwelling species are most probably constrained by the acoustic specificities of torrent habitats and particularly their high level of ambient noise. We also show that a fine-scale characterization of calling sites allows a better perception of the impact of environmental constraints on call evolution. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  12. Typology of double-tract units in multi family dwellings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfirević Đorđe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The double-tract unit is a rather rare typological shape in residential architecture in the world, and this is why it has not been explored extensively in the field of habitology, although it is known that the first examples of double-tract units in multi- family dwellings were implemented back in XIX century. Every attempt at typology depends on the angle of analysis of a given subject, as well as the selection and hierarchy of the criteria and categorization of individual elements. This makes it hard to tell whether it is feasible to establish universal typology for all architectural patterns. Typology of residential types in architecture is mostly set according to current patterns (most often, only those that were executed. However, since the shape of double-tract unit is quite rare in the world, in most cases it was not even recorded, and even when it was, it was most often included as part of some other category or terminological definition. The aim of this paper is to outline the typology for the double-tract units in multi-family dwellings with an overview of current, established patterns (designed and executed, but also those which could yet be taken into consideration.

  13. Cave-dwelling pholcid spiders (Araneae, Pholcidae: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard A. Huber

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Pholcidae are ubiquitous spiders in tropical and subtropical caves around the globe, yet very little is known about cave-dwelling pholcids beyond what is provided in taxonomic descriptions and faunistic papers. This paper provides a review based on a literature survey and unpublished information, while pointing out potential biases and promising future projects. A total of 473 native (i.e. non-introduced species of Pholcidae have been collected in about 1000 caves. The large majority of cave-dwelling pholcids are not troglomorphic; a list of 86 troglomorphic species is provided, including 21 eyeless species and 21 species with strongly reduced eyes. Most troglomorphic pholcids are representatives of only two genera: Anopsicus Chamberlin & Ivie, 1938 and Metagonia Simon, 1893. Mexico is by far the richest country in terms of troglomorphic pholcids, followed by several islands and mainland SE Asia. The apparent dominance of Mexico may partly be due to collectors’ and taxonomists’ biases. Most caves harbor only one pholcid species, but 91 caves harbor two and more species (up to five species. Most troglomorphic pholcids belong to two subfamilies (Modisiminae, Pholcinae, very few belong to Smeringopinae and Arteminae, none to Ninetinae. This is in agreement with the recent finding that within Pholcidae, microhabitat changes in general are concentrated in Modisiminae and Pholcinae.

  14. FEAR OF FALLING AMONG COMMUNITY DWELLING OLDER ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Dingová

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to describe experience with falls, fear of falling, perceptions of the consequences of falls and how the fear of falling affects daily life in community-dwelling older adults. Design: The study used a qualitative design to describe the lived experiences of community-dwelling older adults with the fear of falling. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted individually with six participants who reported the fear of falling. Results: Five main areas emerged from data analysis: development of the fear of falling, feared consequences of falling, activities curtailment, fall prevention behavior and meaning of social support in daily life. The fear of falling was described as a negative experience, directly linked to fall consequences such as physical injury, incapacitation, loss of autonomy, fear of dependence and experience of humiliating conditions. To maintain a certain level of independence in daily life, the participants chose to avoid falls by activity curtailment, organizing their lives more carefully and getting support from others. Conclusion: All participants identified that they had discovered their fear of falling after experiencing falls. The fear of falling was associated with feared consequences of a potential fall and had an impact on their daily life. The participant also mentioned other contributors to their fear of falling, including ill health and aging. Keywords: Fear of falling, older adults, perceived consequences of falls, daily life.

  15. Exponential Stability of Switched Positive Homogeneous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadong Tian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the exponential stability of switched positive nonlinear systems defined by cooperative and homogeneous vector fields. In order to capture the decay rate of such systems, we first consider the subsystems. A sufficient condition for exponential stability of subsystems with time-varying delays is derived. In particular, for the corresponding delay-free systems, we prove that this sufficient condition is also necessary. Then, we present a sufficient condition of exponential stability under minimum dwell time switching for the switched positive nonlinear systems. Some results in the previous literature are extended. Finally, a numerical example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the obtained results.

  16. On the influence of the ventilation rate to the radiation burden in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschurlovits, M.

    1980-01-01

    Calculations on the influence of the ventilation rate to the concentration of radon in dwellings from radioactive material of natural origin in building material are completed with a few examples of measurements. In addition, the optimization of the ventilation rate and the consequences of poorly ventilated dwellings are reported briefly. (author)

  17. Estimation of train dwell time at short stops based on track occupation event data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, D.; Daamen, W.; Goverde, R.M.P.

    2015-01-01

    Train dwell time is one of the most unpredictable components of railway operations mainly due to the varying volumes of alighting and boarding passengers. For reliable estimations of train running times and route conflicts on main lines it is however necessary to obtain accurate estimations of dwell

  18. Dwell Notch Low Cycle Fatigue Behavior of a Powder Metallurgy Nickel Disk Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesman, J.; Gabb, T. P.; Yamada, Y.; Ghosn, L. J.; Jayaraman, N.

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the processes which govern dwell notch low cycle fatigue (NLCF) behavior of a powder metallurgy (P/M) ME3 disk superalloy. The emphasis was placed on the environmentally driven mechanisms which may embrittle the highly stressed notch surface regions and reduce NLCF life. In conjunction with the environmentally driven notch surface degradation processes, the visco-plastic driven mechanisms which can significantly change the notch root stresses were also considered. Dwell notch low cycle fatigue testing was performed in air and vacuum on a ME3 P/M disk alloy specimens heat treated using either a fast or a slow cooling rate from the solutioning treatment. It was shown that dwells at the minimum stress typically produced a greater life debit than the dwells applied at the maximum stress, especially for the slow cooled heat treatment. Two different environmentally driven failure mechanisms were identified as the root cause of early crack initiation in the min dwell tests. Both of these failure mechanisms produced mostly a transgranular crack initiation failure mode and yet still resulted in low NLCF fatigue lives. The lack of stress relaxation during the min dwell tests produced higher notch root stresses which caused early crack initiation and premature failure when combined with the environmentally driven surface degradation mechanisms. The importance of environmental degradation mechanisms was further highlighted by vacuum dwell NLCF tests which resulted in considerably longer NLCF lives, especially for the min dwell tests.

  19. The effect of coverplates on the dwell characteristics of silican carbide subject to KE impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pickup, I.M.; Barker, A.K.; Elgy, I.D.; Peskes, G.J.J.M.; Voorde, M.J. van der

    2004-01-01

    The high ballistic efficiency of non-oxide ceramics such as silicon carbide against kinetic energy (KE) threats is largely due to penetrator dwell (the erosion of the tip of the rod prior to ceramic target penetration). This paper considers the effect of target surface conditions on the dwell

  20. 25 CFR 700.155 - Expenses in searching for replacement dwelling-residential move.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expenses in searching for replacement dwelling... Expenses in searching for replacement dwelling—residential move. (a) A certified eligible head of household is entitled to actual reasonable expenses incurred in the search for a replacement dwelling. (b...

  1. Ecobuild measurement report of the infiltration measurements of the Ecobuild dwellings and the ICT dwelling; Ecobuild meetverslag infiltratiemetingen van de Ecobuild woningen en de ICT woning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuitema, R.; Bakker, E.J. [ECN Zonne-energie, Petten (Netherlands)

    2002-04-01

    By means of blower door measurements the airtightness of so-called Ecobuild dwellings (A, B and C) and the ICT-dwelling (D) has been determined. The airtightness is of importance with regard to calculations on heat losses and the heat balance. Data on air infiltration are important for other similar projects. [Dutch] Met blowerdeur metingen is door J.E. StorkAir de lekdichtheid van de Ecobuild woningen (woning A, B en C) en de ICT woning (woning D) bepaald.

  2. A comprehensive dwelling unit choice model accommodating psychological constructs within a search strategy for consideration set formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This study adopts a dwelling unit level of analysis and considers a probabilistic choice set generation approach for residential choice modeling. In doing so, we accommodate the fact that housing choices involve both characteristics of the dwelling u...

  3. Dwell time-based stabilisation of switched delay systems using free-weighting matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koru, Ahmet Taha; Delibaşı, Akın; Özbay, Hitay

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present a quasi-convex optimisation method to minimise an upper bound of the dwell time for stability of switched delay systems. Piecewise Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals are introduced and the upper bound for the derivative of Lyapunov functionals is estimated by free-weighting matrices method to investigate non-switching stability of each candidate subsystems. Then, a sufficient condition for the dwell time is derived to guarantee the asymptotic stability of the switched delay system. Once these conditions are represented by a set of linear matrix inequalities , dwell time optimisation problem can be formulated as a standard quasi-convex optimisation problem. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the improvements over previously obtained dwell time bounds. Using the results obtained in the stability case, we present a nonlinear minimisation algorithm to synthesise the dwell time minimiser controllers. The algorithm solves the problem with successive linearisation of nonlinear conditions.

  4. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN MUSCLE MASS, MUSCLE STRENGTH, PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE, AND MUSCLE FATIGUE RESISTANCE IN COMMUNITY-DWELLING ELDERLY SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the correlations between muscle mass, muscle strength, physical performance, and muscle fatigue resistance in community-dwelling elderly people in order to elucidate factors which contribute to elderly’s performance of daily activities. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on community-dwelling elderly in Bandung from September to December 2014. One hundred and thirty elderly, 60 years old or above, were evaluated using bioelectrical impedance analysis to measure muscle mass; grip strength to measure muscle strength and muscle fatigue resistance; habitual gait speed to measure physical performance; and Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ to assess physical activity. Results: There were significant positive correlations between muscle mass (r=0,27, p=0,0019, muscle strength (r=0,26, p=0,0024, and physical performance (r=0,32, p=0,0002 with muscle fatigue resistance. Physical performance has the highest correlation based on multiple regression test (p=0,0025. In association with muscle mass, the physical activity showed a significant positive correlation (r=0,42, p=0,0000. Sarcopenia was identified in 19 (14.61% of 130 subjects. Conclusions: It is suggested that muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance influence muscle fatigue resistance.

  5. Dwelling on Courtyards. Exploring the energy efficiency and comfort potential of courtyards for dwellings in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taleghani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The urban heat island (UHI phenomenon and the dependency of buildings on
fossil fuels were the two main issues that formed this dissertation. UHI results in higher air temperatures in dense urban areas compared with their suburbs and rural surroundings. This phenomenon affects human health through thermal discomfort. Furthermore, in the Netherlands, it is estimated that by 2050 the air temperature could be up to 2.3°C warmer as compared to the period of 1981-2010. Besides, the energy consumption of buildings is responsible for 30 to 45% of CO2 emissions. 31% of this consumption belongs to residential buildings. Residential buildings can play a major role in reducing the CO2 emissions caused by fossil fuel consumption. One of the passive architectural design solutions is the courtyard building form. Courtyards have been used for thousands of years in different climates in the world. In hot climates they provide shading, in humid climates they cause a stack effect helping ventilation, in cold climates they break cold winds and protect their microclimate. In temperate climates (such as of the Netherlands, the thermal behaviour of courtyards has been studied less. In this dissertation, low-rise residential courtyard buildings were therefore studied among (and along different urban block types in the Netherlands. As the first step, computer simulations were done as a parametric study for indoor and outdoor thermal comfort. Field measurements were done in actual urban courtyards and in dwellings alongside urban courtyards in the Netherlands (and in a similar temperate climate in the US. A scale model experiment later followed the simulations. Some of these field measurements were used to validate the simulation models. These efforts answered the two main research questions: 1 To what extent is a dwelling alongside an urban courtyard more efficient and thermally comfortable than other dwellings? 2 To what extent do people have a more comfortable

  6. Indoor aldehydes: measurement of contamination levels and identification of their determinants in Paris dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarisse, B.; Laurent, A.M.; Seta, N.; Le Moullec, Y.; El Hasnaoui, A.; Momas, I.

    2003-01-01

    The recent increased prevalence of childhood asthma and atopy has brought into question the impact of outdoor pollutants and indoor air quality. The contributory role of aldehydes to this problem and the fact that they are mainly derived from the domestic environment make them of particular interest. This study therefore measures six different aldehyde levels in Paris dwellings from potentially different sources and identifies their indoor determinants. The study was carried out in the three principal rooms of 61 flats with no previous history of complaint for olfactory nuisance or specific symptoms, two-thirds of the flats having been recently refurbished. Aldehydes were sampled in these rooms using passive samplers, and a questionnaire on potential aldehyde sources was filled out at the same time. A multiple linear regression model was used to investigate indoor aldehyde determinants. Our study revealed that propionaldehyde and benzaldehyde were of minor importance compared to formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, pentanal, and hexanal. We found that levels of these last four compounds depended on the age of wall or floor coverings (renovations less than 1 year old), smoking, and ambient parameters (carbon dioxide levels, temperature). These results could help in the assessment of indoor aldehyde emissions

  7. SU-G-201-13: Investigation of Dose Variation Induced by HDR Ir-192 Source Global Shift Within the Varian Ring Applicator Using Monte Carlo Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Y; Cai, J; Meltsner, S; Chang, Z; Craciunescu, O [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The Varian tandem and ring applicators are used to deliver HDR Ir-192 brachytherapy for cervical cancer. The source path within the ring is hard to predict due to the larger interior ring lumen. Some studies showed the source could be several millimeters different from planned positions, while other studies demonstrated minimal dosimetric impact. A global shift can be applied to limit the effect of positioning offsets. The purpose of this study was to assess the necessities of implementing a global source shift using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Methods: The MCNP5 radiation transport code was used for all MC simulations. To accommodate TG-186 guidelines and eliminate inter-source attenuation, a BrachyVision plan with 10 dwell positions (0.5cm step sizes) was simulated as the summation of 10 individual sources with equal dwell times for simplification. To simplify the study, the tandem was also excluded from the MC model. Global shifts of ±0.1, ±0.3, ±0.5 cm were then simulated as distal and proximal from the reference positions. Dose was scored in water for all MC simulations and was normalized to 100% at the normalization point 0.5 cm from the cap in the ring plane. For dose comparison, Point A was 2 cm caudal from the buildup cap and 2 cm lateral on either side of the ring axis. With seventy simulations, 108 photon histories gave a statistical uncertainties (k=1) <2% for (0.1 cm)3 voxels. Results: Compared to no global shift, average Point A doses were 0.0%, 0.4%, and 2.2% higher for distal global shifts, and 0.4%, 2.8%, and 5.1% higher for proximal global shifts, respectively. The MC Point A doses differed by < 1% when compared to BrachyVision. Conclusion: Dose variations were not substantial for ±0.3 cm global shifts, which is common in clinical practice.

  8. SU-G-201-13: Investigation of Dose Variation Induced by HDR Ir-192 Source Global Shift Within the Varian Ring Applicator Using Monte Carlo Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y; Cai, J; Meltsner, S; Chang, Z; Craciunescu, O

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The Varian tandem and ring applicators are used to deliver HDR Ir-192 brachytherapy for cervical cancer. The source path within the ring is hard to predict due to the larger interior ring lumen. Some studies showed the source could be several millimeters different from planned positions, while other studies demonstrated minimal dosimetric impact. A global shift can be applied to limit the effect of positioning offsets. The purpose of this study was to assess the necessities of implementing a global source shift using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Methods: The MCNP5 radiation transport code was used for all MC simulations. To accommodate TG-186 guidelines and eliminate inter-source attenuation, a BrachyVision plan with 10 dwell positions (0.5cm step sizes) was simulated as the summation of 10 individual sources with equal dwell times for simplification. To simplify the study, the tandem was also excluded from the MC model. Global shifts of ±0.1, ±0.3, ±0.5 cm were then simulated as distal and proximal from the reference positions. Dose was scored in water for all MC simulations and was normalized to 100% at the normalization point 0.5 cm from the cap in the ring plane. For dose comparison, Point A was 2 cm caudal from the buildup cap and 2 cm lateral on either side of the ring axis. With seventy simulations, 108 photon histories gave a statistical uncertainties (k=1) <2% for (0.1 cm)3 voxels. Results: Compared to no global shift, average Point A doses were 0.0%, 0.4%, and 2.2% higher for distal global shifts, and 0.4%, 2.8%, and 5.1% higher for proximal global shifts, respectively. The MC Point A doses differed by < 1% when compared to BrachyVision. Conclusion: Dose variations were not substantial for ±0.3 cm global shifts, which is common in clinical practice.

  9. Theoretical vs. actual energy consumption of labelled dwellings in the Netherlands: Discrepancies and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majcen, D.; Itard, L.C.M.; Visscher, H.

    2013-01-01

    In Europe, the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) provides for compulsory energy performance certification (labelling) for all existing dwellings. In the Netherlands, a labelling scheme was introduced in 2008. Certificates contain the energy label of the dwelling and corresponding theoretical gas and electricity consumption, calculated based on the dwellings physical characteristics, its heating, ventilation and cooling systems and standard use characteristics. This paper reports on a large-scale study of around 200,000 dwellings comparing labels and theoretical energy use with data on actual energy use. The study shows that dwellings with a low energy label actually consume much less energy than predicted by the label, but on the other hand, energy-efficient dwellings consume more than predicted. In practice, policy targets are set according to the theoretical rather than the actual consumptions of the building stock. In line with identified discrepancies, the study shows that whereas most energy reduction targets can be met according to the theoretical energy consumption of the dwelling stock, the future actual energy reduction potential is much lower and fails to meet most of the current energy reduction targets. - Highlights: ► Actual gas consumption in Dutch dwellings is lower than the theoretical. ► In the dwellings with label A–B, theoretical gas consumption is lower than actual gas consumption. ► In less efficient dwellings, theoretical gas consumption is much higher than the actual. ► Most current energy reduction targets are unachievable if modelled with actual instead of theoretical energy consumption

  10. Verification and analysis of the positioning of a source of brachytherapy high dose within an applicator gynecological interstitial fletcher Utrecht TC/RM; Verificacion y analysis del posicionamiento de una fuente de braquiterapia de alta tasa de dosis dentro de un aplicador ginecologico fletcher intersticial UTRECHT TC/RM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panedo Cobos, J. M.; Garcia castejon, M. A.; Huertas Martinez, C.; Gomez-Tejedor Alonso, S.; Rincon Perez, M.; Luna Tirado, J.; Perez Casas, A. M.

    2013-07-01

    Applicators are guides that circulate and are located within the patient brachytherapy sources. Applicators can suffer mechanical deformations due to processes of sterilization or shock, which may result in that the source do not place within these very precise and coincides with the planned. In these cases the planned treatment deviate actually managed. The object of this study is to verify that the position of the source into the dispenser coincides with the planned position, with a procedure that is described. (Author)

  11. 25 CFR 256.15 - How long will I have to wait for repair, renovation, or replacement of my dwelling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... replacement of my dwelling? 256.15 Section 256.15 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... replacement of my dwelling? The length of time that it takes to accomplish the work to be done on your dwelling is dependent on: (a) Whether funds are available; (b) The type of work to be done; (c) The climate...

  12. 24 CFR 1000.160 - Are non-dwelling structures developed, acquired or assisted under the IHBG program subject to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are non-dwelling structures...-dwelling structures developed, acquired or assisted under the IHBG program subject to limitations on cost or design standards? Yes. Non-dwelling structures must be of a design, size and with features or...

  13. 24 CFR 906.5 - Dwelling units and types of assistance that a PHA may make available under a homeownership...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dwelling units and types of... HOUSING HOMEOWNERSHIP PROGRAMS Basic Program Requirements § 906.5 Dwelling units and types of assistance... for financing to eligible families (see § 905.15 of this title) purchasing dwelling units eligible...

  14. The impact of exercise and vitamin D supplementation on physical function in community-dwelling elderly individuals: A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Kana; Sakuma, Mayumi; Endo, Naoto

    2018-04-25

    We investigated the impact of exercise and vitamin D supplementation on physical function and locomotor dysfunction in community-dwelling elderly individuals. In total, 148 community-dwelling elderly individuals (aged ≥60 years) who were not taking osteoporosis medications participated in a 24-week intervention. The participants were randomly divided into an exercise group, vitamin D group, and exercise and vitamin D group. The participants and outcome-assessing staff were not blinded to group assignment. Exercise comprised three daily sets each of single-leg standing (1 min/leg/set) and squatting (5-6 repetitions/set); vitamin D supplementation was 1000 IU/day. Participants were contacted every 2 weeks to check on their condition and encourage continued participation. The primary outcome was lower limb muscle strength and mass; secondary outcomes were several physical function measurements, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, and results of a self-assessment questionnaire completed pre- and post-intervention. We analyzed data from 45, 42, and 43 participants in the exercise, vitamin D, and exercise and vitamin D groups, respectively, who completed the intervention. Locomotive syndrome, which involves reduced mobility due to locomotive organ impairment, was diagnosed in 99 participants (76.2%). Many physical function measurements improved in all groups. Lower limb muscle mass increased significantly in all three groups, with no significant differences between the groups in the degree of change. The average serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D of all vitamin D-supplemented participants increased from 28.1 ng/ml to 47.3 ng/ml after vitamin D supplementation. Both exercise and vitamin D supplementation independently improved physical function and increased muscle mass in community-dwelling elderly individuals. Moreover, the combination of exercise and vitamin D supplementation might further enhance these positive effects. UMIN Clinical Trial, UMIN000028229. Copyright © 2018

  15. Falls self-efficacy and falls incidence in community-dwelling older people: the mediating role of coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loft, Christine C; Jones, Fergal W; Kneebone, Ian I

    2017-11-08

    A cognitive behavioral model predicts that coping responses mediate the relationship between falls related psychological concerns and falls incidence, in community-dwelling older people. If empirical support could be found for this pathway then interventions could be developed to reduce falls risk by targeting coping strategies. Therefore, this study aimed to begin the process of testing whether coping responses mediate the association between falls self-efficacy (a principal element of falls related psychological concerns) and falls incidence, in community-dwelling older people. In a cross-sectional design, 160 community-dwelling older people (31 male, 129 female; mean age 83.47 years) completed the Falls Efficacy Scale-International, the Revised-Ways of Coping Questionnaire, the Turning to Religion subscale of the COPE, and a falls questionnaire. Data were analyzed via mediation analysis using a bootstrapping approach. Lower falls self-efficacy was associated with higher falls incidence, and more self-controlling coping was found to be a partial mediator of this association, with a confidence interval for the indirect effect of (0.003, 0.021) and an effect size of κ 2 = 0.035. The association was not mediated by the other measured coping responses; namely, turning to religion, distancing, seeking social support, accepting responsibility, escape-avoidance, planful problem-solving, and positive reappraisal. Self-controlling coping may mediate the association between falls self-efficacy and falling. If longitudinal studies confirm this finding then coping could be targeted in interventions to reduce falls.

  16. Fluorescent optical position sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2005-11-15

    A fluorescent optical position sensor and method of operation. A small excitation source side-pumps a localized region of fluorescence at an unknown position along a fluorescent waveguide. As the fluorescent light travels down the waveguide, the intensity of fluorescent light decreases due to absorption. By measuring with one (or two) photodetectors the attenuated intensity of fluorescent light emitted from one (or both) ends of the waveguide, the position of the excitation source relative to the waveguide can be determined by comparing the measured light intensity to a calibrated response curve or mathematical model. Alternatively, excitation light can be pumped into an end of the waveguide, which generates an exponentially-decaying continuous source of fluorescent light along the length of the waveguide. The position of a photodetector oriented to view the side of the waveguide can be uniquely determined by measuring the intensity of the fluorescent light emitted radially at that location.

  17. Position Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Position Information Data Asset provides the ability to search for active SSA position descriptions using various search criteria. An individual may search by PD...

  18. ENGAGEMENT AS A SOURCE OF POSITIVE CONSUMER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ederick Stander

    The results strengthen the theory of fan engagement, which flows from customer ... proposed. Key words: Fan engagement; Customer engagement theory; Consumer behaviour; ... of football in SA is evolving unremittingly, despite challenging economic .... The engaged fan will more likely attend games at the stadium, as this.

  19. Estimation of CO{sub 2}-emissions from Fires in Dwellings, Schools and Cars in the Nordic Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomqvist, Per; Simonson McNamee, Margaret

    2009-07-01

    Updated estimates of emissions from fires in dwellings, schools, pre schools and cars are presented for the Nordic countries with the exception of Iceland. The updated emissions are calculated based on fire statistics from 2007 and are compared to results previously presented for 1994 in Sweden. To put the fire emissions data into perspective they are also compared to national estimates of CO{sub 2} emissions as reported by the Swedish EPA to the EU in their National Inventory Report for 2007. The statistical data on fires for Sweden for 2007 is more reliable compared with the data for 1994, which strengthens the updated emission estimate. The major uncertainty in the fire data used for the emission estimate is the interpretation of fire spread which is based on rather crude assumptions. In particular in the case of houses the fire spread area used for the estimate may be an exaggeration thereby giving a possible overestimation of the estimated emissions. Data indicates that the total emission of CO{sub 2} from fires in dwellings (including single family homes, semi-detached houses, summer houses and apartments) in Sweden 2007 is 15,5 kton. Similar values for Denmark (4,1 kton), Finland (6,9 kton) and Norway (6,4 kton). Similar data for school/preschool and car fires indicate that emissions in Sweden are higher than in the other Nordic countries for these categories as well although not by as great an amount. Finally, a comparison between emissions data from other sources of CO{sub 2} and those from fires indicate that emissions of CO{sub 2} from fires are minor compared to most other sources. The previous study based on statistics from 1994 also concluded that fires are a minor source of CO{sub 2} but a relatively significant source of, e.g., particulate matter, VOC, PAH and other large organic species

  20. Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…