WorldWideScience

Sample records for source control branch

  1. BDC 500 branch driver controller

    CERN Document Server

    Dijksman, A

    1981-01-01

    This processor has been designed for very fast data acquisition and date pre-processing. The dataway and branch highway speeds have been optimized for approximately 1.5 mu sec. The internal processor cycle is approximately 0.8 mu sec. The standard version contains the following functions (slots): crate controller type A1; branch highway driver including terminator; serial I/O port (TTY, VDU); 24 bit ALU and 24 bit program counter; 16 bit memory address counter and 4 word stack; 4k bit memory for program and/or data; battery backup for the memory; CNAFD and crate LAM display; request/grant logic for time- sharing operation of several BDCs. The free slots can be equipped with e.g. extra RAM, computer interfaces, hardware multiplier/dividers, etc. (0 refs).

  2. Environmental control of branching in petunia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Revel S M; Janssen, Bart J; Luo, Zhiwei; Oplaat, Carla; Ledger, Susan E; Wohlers, Mark W; Snowden, Kimberley C

    2015-06-01

    Plants alter their development in response to changes in their environment. This responsiveness has proven to be a successful evolutionary trait. Here, we tested the hypothesis that two key environmental factors, light and nutrition, are integrated within the axillary bud to promote or suppress the growth of the bud into a branch. Using petunia (Petunia hybrida) as a model for vegetative branching, we manipulated both light quality (as crowding and the red-to-far-red light ratio) and phosphate availability, such that the axillary bud at node 7 varied from deeply dormant to rapidly growing. In conjunction with the phenotypic characterization, we also monitored the state of the strigolactone (SL) pathway by quantifying SL-related gene transcripts. Mutants in the SL pathway inhibit but do not abolish the branching response to these environmental signals, and neither signal is dominant over the other, suggesting that the regulation of branching in response to the environment is complex. We have isolated three new putatively SL-related TCP (for Teosinte branched1, Cycloidia, and Proliferating cell factor) genes from petunia, and have identified that these TCP-type transcription factors may have roles in the SL signaling pathway both before and after the reception of the SL signal at the bud. We show that the abundance of the receptor transcript is regulated by light quality, such that axillary buds growing in added far-red light have greatly increased receptor transcript abundance. This suggests a mechanism whereby the impact of any SL signal reaching an axillary bud is modulated by the responsiveness of these cells to the signal. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Control module and module for priority set-up for the CAMAC universal branch driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguen Fuk; Smirnov, V.A.

    1976-01-01

    Control module of BKD-871 universal branch driver operates as a controller in the control crate. This module performs synchronous data transmission to (from) the computer and shapes time signals for A-type controllers. The following regimes of data block transmission may be organized with the help of the control module: address scanning regime; repeated reference regime; stop regime. A priority driving module is required for organization of simultaneous operation from several control sources

  4. Controlling branching in streamer discharge by laser background ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, E; Kato, S; Furutani, H; Sasaki, A; Kishimoto, Y

    2011-01-01

    Irradiation with a KrF laser controlled the positive streamer branching in atmospheric argon gas. This laser irradiation changed the amount of background ionization before the streamer discharge. Measuring the ionization current allowed us to evaluate the initial electron density formed by the KrF laser. We observed characteristic feather-like branching structure and found that it was only suppressed in the irradiated region. The threshold of ionization density which can influence the branching was evaluated to be 5 x 10 5 cm -3 . The relationship between the size of avalanche head and mean distance between initial electrons explained this suppression behaviour. These experimental results support that the feather-like structure originates from the branching model of Loeb-Meek, a probabilistic merging of individual avalanches.

  5. Controlling the branching ratio of photodissociation using aligned molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, J.J.; Wendt-Larsen, I.; Stapelfeldt, H.

    1999-01-01

    Using a sample of iodine molecules, aligned by a strong, linearly polarized laser pulse, we control the branching ratio of the I+I and I+I* photodissociation channels by a factor of 26. The control relies on selective photoexcitation of two potential curves that each correlate adiabatically...

  6. Gas compressor with side branch absorber for pulsation control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ralph E [San Antonio, TX; Scrivner, Christine M [San Antonio, TX; Broerman, III, Eugene L.

    2011-05-24

    A method and system for reducing pulsation in lateral piping associated with a gas compressor system. A tunable side branch absorber (TSBA) is installed on the lateral piping. A pulsation sensor is placed in the lateral piping, to measure pulsation within the piping. The sensor output signals are delivered to a controller, which controls actuators that change the acoustic dimensions of the SBA.

  7. Cell lineage branching as a strategy for proliferative control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzi, Gentian; Lander, Arthur D; Khammash, Mustafa

    2015-02-19

    How tissue and organ sizes are specified is one of the great unsolved mysteries in biology. Experiments and mathematical modeling implicate feedback control of cell lineage progression, but a broad understanding of what lineage feedback accomplishes is lacking. By exploring the possible effects of various biologically relevant disturbances on the dynamic and steady state behaviors of stem cell lineages, we find that the simplest and most frequently studied form of lineage feedback - which we term renewal control - suffers from several serious drawbacks. These reflect fundamental performance limits dictated by universal conservation-type laws, and are independent of parameter choice. Here we show that introducing lineage branches can circumvent all such limitations, permitting effective attenuation of a wide range of perturbations. The type of feedback that achieves such performance - which we term fate control - involves promotion of lineage branching at the expense of both renewal and (primary) differentiation. We discuss the evidence that feedback of just this type occurs in vivo, and plays a role in tissue growth control. Regulated lineage branching is an effective strategy for dealing with disturbances in stem cell systems. The existence of this strategy provides a dynamics-based justification for feedback control of cell fate in vivo.

  8. Advanced Branching Control and Characterization of Inorganic Semiconducting Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Steven Michael [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The ability to finely tune the size and shape of inorganic semiconducting nanocrystals is an area of great interest, as the more control one has, the more applications will be possible for their use. The first two basic shapes develped in nanocrystals were the sphere and the anistropic nanorod. the II_VI materials being used such as Cadmium Selenide (CdSe) and Cadmium Telluride (CdTe), exhibit polytypism, which allows them to form in either the hexagonally packed wurtzite or cubically packed zinc blende crystalline phase. The nanorods are wurtzite with the length of the rod growing along the c-axis. As this grows, stacking faults may form, which are layers of zinc blende in the otherwise wurtzite crystal. Using this polytypism, though, the first generation of branched crystals were developed in the form of the CdTe tetrapod. This is a nanocrystal that nucleates in the zincblend form, creating a tetrahedral core, on which four wurtzite arms are grown. This structure opened up the possibility of even more complex shapes and applications. This disseration investigates the advancement of branching control and further understanding the materials polytypism in the form of the stacking faults in nanorods.

  9. Module for the organization of a branch of the universal branch driver in the CAMAC standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguen Fuk; Smirnov, V.A.; Khmelevski, E.

    1976-01-01

    A module is elaborated for the organization of a branch of the universal branch driver in the CAMAC standard for the conjugation of a control crate trunk with a branch trunk. A block diagram of the module is described; its principal specifications are given. The universal branch driver system may accomodate up to 10 branch organization modules with one control source module

  10. RESEARCH AREA -- ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE CONTROL (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, NC, has conducted several research projects for evaluating the use of artificial intelligence (AI) to improve the control of pollution control systems an...

  11. Foreign Banks: Internal Control and Audit Weaknesses in U.S. Branches

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    .... Weaknesses in the branch's internal controls, including inadequate segregation of duties in trading and electronic funds transfer activities, had enabled an employee to trade illegally and to hide...

  12. Control of trichome branching by Chromatin Assembly Factor-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennig Lars

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromatin dynamics and stability are both required to control normal development of multicellular organisms. Chromatin assembly factor CAF-1 is a histone chaperone that facilitates chromatin formation and the maintenance of specific chromatin states. In plants and animals CAF-1 is essential for normal development, but it is poorly understood which developmental pathways require CAF-1 function. Results Mutations in all three CAF-1 subunits affect Arabidopsis trichome morphology and lack of CAF-1 function results in formation of trichomes with supernumerary branches. This phenotype can be partially alleviated by external sucrose. In contrast, other aspects of the CAF-1 mutant phenotype, such as defective meristem function and organ formation, are aggravated by external sucrose. Double mutant analyses revealed epistatic interactions between CAF-1 mutants and stichel, but non-epistatic interactions between CAF-1 mutants and glabra3 and kaktus. In addition, mutations in CAF-1 could partly suppress the strong overbranching and polyploidization phenotype of kaktus mutants. Conclusion CAF-1 is required for cell differentiation and regulates trichome development together with STICHEL in an endoreduplication-independent pathway. This function of CAF-1 can be partially substituted by application of exogenous sucrose. Finally, CAF-1 is also needed for the high degree of endoreduplication in kaktus mutants and thus for the realization of kaktus' extreme overbranching phenotype.

  13. Deciphering acoustic emission signals in drought stressed branches: the missing link between source and sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidewei L Vergeynst

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available When drought occurs in plants, acoustic emission signals can be detected, but the actual causes of these signals are still unknown. By analyzing the waveforms of the measured signals, it should however be possible to trace the characteristics of the acoustic emission source and get information about the underlying physiological processes. A problem encountered during this analysis is that the waveform changes significantly from source to sensor and lack of knowledge on wave propagation impedes research progress made in this field. We used finite element modeling and the well-known pencil lead break source to investigate wave propagation in a branch. A cylindrical rod of polyvinyl chloride was first used to identify the theoretical propagation modes. Two wave propagation modes could be distinguished and we used the finite element model to interpret their behavior in terms of source position for both the PVC rod and a wooden rod. Both wave propagation modes were also identified in drying-induced signals from woody branches, and we used the obtained insights to provide recommendations for further acoustic emission research in plant science.

  14. Environmental Control of Branching in Petunia1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oplaat, Carla; Wohlers, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    Plants alter their development in response to changes in their environment. This responsiveness has proven to be a successful evolutionary trait. Here, we tested the hypothesis that two key environmental factors, light and nutrition, are integrated within the axillary bud to promote or suppress the growth of the bud into a branch. Using petunia (Petunia hybrida) as a model for vegetative branching, we manipulated both light quality (as crowding and the red-to-far-red light ratio) and phosphate availability, such that the axillary bud at node 7 varied from deeply dormant to rapidly growing. In conjunction with the phenotypic characterization, we also monitored the state of the strigolactone (SL) pathway by quantifying SL-related gene transcripts. Mutants in the SL pathway inhibit but do not abolish the branching response to these environmental signals, and neither signal is dominant over the other, suggesting that the regulation of branching in response to the environment is complex. We have isolated three new putatively SL-related TCP (for Teosinte branched1, Cycloidia, and Proliferating cell factor) genes from petunia, and have identified that these TCP-type transcription factors may have roles in the SL signaling pathway both before and after the reception of the SL signal at the bud. We show that the abundance of the receptor transcript is regulated by light quality, such that axillary buds growing in added far-red light have greatly increased receptor transcript abundance. This suggests a mechanism whereby the impact of any SL signal reaching an axillary bud is modulated by the responsiveness of these cells to the signal. PMID:25911529

  15. NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center Dynamics and Controls Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Steve

    2015-01-01

    NASA Armstrong continues its legacy of exciting work in the area of Dynamics and Control of advanced vehicle concepts. This presentation describes Armstrongs research in control of flexible structures, peak seeking control and adaptive control in the Spring of 2015.

  16. Emissions of perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFAS) from point sources--identification of relevant branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara, M; Scheffknecht, C; Scharf, S; Weiss, S; Gans, O

    2008-01-01

    Effluents of wastewater treatment plants are relevant point sources for the emission of hazardous xenobiotic substances to the aquatic environment. One group of substances, which recently entered scientific and political discussions, is the group of the perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFAS). The most studied compounds from this group are perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS), which are the most important degradation products of PFAS. These two substances are known to be persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT). In the present study, eleven PFAS were investigated in effluents of municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and in industrial wastewaters. PFOS and PFOA proved to be the dominant compounds in all sampled wastewaters. Concentrations of up to 340 ng/L of PFOS and up to 220 ng/L of PFOA were observed. Besides these two compounds, perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) was also present in nearly all effluents and maximum concentrations of up to 280 ng/L were measured. Only N-ethylperfluorooctane sulphonamide (N-EtPFOSA) and its degradation/metabolisation product perfluorooctane sulphonamide (PFOSA) were either detected below the limit of quantification or were not even detected at all. Beside the effluents of the municipal WWTPs, nine industrial wastewaters from six different industrial branches were also investigated. Significantly, the highest emissions or PFOS were observed from metal industry whereas paper industry showed the highest PFOA emission. Several PFAS, especially perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA) and PFOS are predominantly emitted from industrial sources, with concentrations being a factor of 10 higher than those observed in the municipal WWTP effluents. Perfluorodecane sulphonate (PFDS), N-Et-PFOSA and PFOSA were not detected in any of the sampled industrial point sources. (c) IWA Publishing 2008.

  17. Abscisic acid signaling is controlled by a BRANCHED1/HD-ZIP i cascade in Arabidopsis axillary buds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Grandio, Eduardo; Pajoro, Alice; Franco-Zorrilla, Jose M.; Tarancon, Carlos; Immink, Richard G.H.; Cubas, Pilar

    2017-01-01

    Shoot-branching patterns determine key aspects of plant life and are important targets for crop breeding. However, we are still largely ignorant of the genetic networks controlling locally themost important decision during branch development: whether the axillary bud, or branch primordium, grows out

  18. Kidney branching morphogenesis under the control of a ligand–receptor-based Turing mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menshykau, Denis; Iber, Dagmar

    2013-01-01

    The main signalling proteins that control early kidney branching have been defined. Yet the underlying mechanism is still elusive. We have previously shown that a Schnakenberg-type Turing mechanism can recapitulate the branching and protein expression patterns in wild-type and mutant lungs, but it is unclear whether this mechanism would extend to other branched organs that are regulated by other proteins. Here, we show that the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor–RET regulatory interaction gives rise to a Schnakenberg-type Turing model that reproduces the observed budding of the ureteric bud from the Wolffian duct, its invasion into the mesenchyme and the observed branching pattern. The model also recapitulates all relevant protein expression patterns in wild-type and mutant mice. The lung and kidney models are both based on a particular receptor–ligand interaction and require (1) cooperative binding of ligand and receptor, (2) a lower diffusion coefficient for the receptor than for the ligand and (3) an increase in the receptor concentration in response to receptor–ligand binding (by enhanced transcription, more recycling or similar). These conditions are met also by other receptor–ligand systems. We propose that ligand–receptor-based Turing patterns represent a general mechanism to control branching morphogenesis and other developmental processes. (paper)

  19. Controls on stream network branching angles, tested using landscape evolution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoratos, Nikolaos; Seybold, Hansjörg; Kirchner, James W.

    2016-04-01

    Stream networks are striking landscape features. The topology of stream networks has been extensively studied, but their geometry has received limited attention. Analyses of nearly 1 million stream junctions across the contiguous United States [1] have revealed that stream branching angles vary systematically with climate and topographic gradients at continental scale. Stream networks in areas with wet climates and gentle slopes tend to have wider branching angles than in areas with dry climates or steep slopes, but the mechanistic linkages underlying these empirical correlations remain unclear. Under different climatic and topographic conditions different runoff generation mechanisms and, consequently, transport processes are dominant. Models [2] and experiments [3] have shown that the relative strength of channel incision versus diffusive hillslope transport controls the spacing between valleys, an important geometric property of stream networks. We used landscape evolution models (LEMs) to test whether similar factors control network branching angles as well. We simulated stream networks using a wide range of hillslope diffusion and channel incision parameters. The resulting branching angles vary systematically with the parameters, but by much less than the regional variability in real-world stream networks. Our results suggest that the competition between hillslope and channeling processes influences branching angles, but that other mechanisms may also be needed to account for the variability in branching angles observed in the field. References: [1] H. Seybold, D. H. Rothman, and J. W. Kirchner, 2015, Climate's watermark in the geometry of river networks, Submitted manuscript. [2] J. T. Perron, W. E. Dietrich, and J. W. Kirchner, 2008, Controls on the spacing of first-order valleys, Journal of Geophysical Research, 113, F04016. [3] K. E. Sweeney, J. J. Roering, and C. Ellis, 2015, Experimental evidence for hillslope control of landscape scale, Science, 349

  20. Synthetic aperture controlled source electromagnetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, Y.; Snieder, R.; Slob, E.; Hunziker, J.W.; Singer, J.; Sheiman, J.; Rosenquist, M.

    2010-01-01

    Controlled?source electromagnetics (CSEM) has been used as a de?risking tool in the hydrocarbon exploration industry. Although there have been successful applications of CSEM, this technique is still not widely used in the industry because the limited types of hydrocarbon reservoirs CSEM can detect.

  1. Advanced Light Source control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magyary, S.; Chin, M.; Cork, C.; Fahmie, M.; Lancaster, H.; Molinari, P.; Ritchie, A.; Robb, A.; Timossi, C.

    1989-03-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a third generation 1--2 GeV synchrotron radiation source designed to provide ports for 60 beamlines. It uses a 50 MeV electron linac and 1.5 GeV, 1 Hz, booster synchrotron for injection into a 1--2 GeV storage ring. Interesting control problems are created because of the need for dynamic closed beam orbit control to eliminate interaction between the ring tuning requirements and to minimize orbit shifts due to ground vibrations. The extremely signal sensitive nature of the experiments requires special attention to the sources of electrical noise. These requirements have led to a control system design which emphasizes connectivity at the accelerator equipment end and a large I/O bandwidth for closed loop system response. Not overlooked are user friendliness, operator response time, modeling, and expert system provisions. Portable consoles are used for local operation of machine equipment. Our solution is a massively parallel system with >120 Mbits/sec I/O bandwidth and >1500 Mips computing power. At the equipment level connections are made using over 600 powerful Intelligent Local Controllers (ILC-s) mounted in 3U size Eurocard slots using fiber-optic cables between rack locations. In the control room, personal computers control and display all machine variables at a 10 Hz rate including the scope signals which are collected though the control system. Commercially available software and industry standards are used extensively. Particular attention is paid to reliability, maintainability and upgradeability. 10 refs., 11 figs

  2. Constraints on the sources of branched tetraether membrane lipids in distal marine sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijers, J.W.H.; Schefuß, E.; Kim, J.-H.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.; Schouten, S.

    2014-01-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) are membrane lipids produced by soil bacteria and occur in near coastal marine sediments as a result of soil organic matter input. Their abundance relative to marine-derived crenarchaeol, quantified in the BIT index, generally decreases

  3. Invasive Species Science Branch: research and management tools for controlling invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Robert N.; Walters, Katie D.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive, nonnative species of plants, animals, and disease organisms adversely affect the ecosystems they enter. Like “biological wildfires,” they can quickly spread and affect nearly all terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Invasive species have become one of the greatest environmental challenges of the 21st century in economic, environmental, and human health costs, with an estimated effect in the United States of more than $120 billion per year. Managers of the Department of the Interior and other public and private lands often rank invasive species as their top resource management problem. The Invasive Species Science Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center provides research and technical assistance relating to management concerns for invasive species, including understanding how these species are introduced, identifying areas vulnerable to invasion, forecasting invasions, and developing control methods. To disseminate this information, branch scientists are developing platforms to share invasive species information with DOI cooperators, other agency partners, and the public. From these and other data, branch scientists are constructing models to understand and predict invasive species distributions for more effective management. The branch also has extensive herpetological and population biology expertise that is applied to harmful reptile invaders such as the Brown Treesnake on Guam and Burmese Python in Florida.

  4. Control of sealed radioactive sources in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez Quijada, R.

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes the inventory of radioactive sources in Peru and assesses the control. Three groups of source conditions are established: controlled sources, known sources, and lost and orphan sources. The potential risk, described as not significant, for producing accidents is established and the needed measures are discussed. The paper concludes that, while the control on sealed sources is good, there is still room for improvement. (author)

  5. Branched-Chain Aminotransferases Control TORC1 Signaling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne M Kingsbury

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The conserved target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1 integrates nutrient signals to orchestrate cell growth and proliferation. Leucine availability is conveyed to control TORC1 activity via the leu-tRNA synthetase/EGOC-GTPase module in yeast and mammals, but the mechanisms sensing leucine remain only partially understood. We show here that both leucine and its α-ketoacid metabolite, α-ketoisocaproate, effectively activate the yeast TORC1 kinase via both EGOC GTPase-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Leucine and α-ketoisocaproate are interconverted by ubiquitous branched-chain aminotransferases (BCAT, which in yeast are represented by the mitochondrial and cytosolic enzymes Bat1 and Bat2, respectively. BCAT yeast mutants exhibit severely compromised TORC1 activity, which is partially restored by expression of Bat1 active site mutants, implicating both catalytic and structural roles of BCATs in TORC1 control. We find that Bat1 interacts with branched-chain amino acid metabolic enzymes and, in a leucine-dependent fashion, with the tricarboxylic acid (TCA-cycle enzyme aconitase. BCAT mutation perturbed TCA-cycle intermediate levels, consistent with a TCA-cycle block, and resulted in low ATP levels, activation of AMPK, and TORC1 inhibition. We propose the biosynthetic capacity of BCAT and its role in forming multicomplex metabolons connecting branched-chain amino acids and TCA-cycle metabolism governs TCA-cycle flux to activate TORC1 signaling. Because mammalian mitochondrial BCAT is known to form a supramolecular branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase enzyme complex that links leucine metabolism to the TCA-cycle, these findings establish a precedent for understanding TORC1 signaling in mammals.

  6. Study on color identification for monitoring and controlling fermentation process of branched chain amino acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lei; Wang, Yizhong; Chen, Ning; Liu, Tiegen; Xu, Qingyang; Kong, Fanzhi

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, a new method for monitoring and controlling fermentation process of branched chain amino acid (BCAA) was proposed based on color identification. The color image of fermentation broth of BCAA was firstly taken by a CCD camera. Then, it was changed from RGB color model to HIS color model. Its histograms of hue H and saturation S were calculated, which were used as the input of a designed BP network. The output of the BP network was the description of the color of fermentation broth of BCAA. After training, the color of fermentation broth was identified by the BP network according to the histograms of H and S of a fermentation broth image. Along with other parameters, the fermentation process of BCAA was monitored and controlled to start the stationary phase of fermentation soon. Experiments were conducted with satisfied results to show the feasibility and usefulness of color identification of fermentation broth in fermentation process control of BCAA.

  7. Regulatory Control of Radioactive Sources in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, M.; Martin, J.L., E-mail: mrm@csn.es [Nuclear Safety Council, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    The arrangements for the regulatory control of the safety and security of sealed radioactive sources in Spain are described. Emphasis is given to the situations which are most likely to result in the loss of control of sources and on the procedures introduced to reduce the likelihood of losses in these cases. Finally, the strategy for locating sources which have been lost from control (orphan sources) is described. (author)

  8. Association mapping in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) reveals independent control of apical vs. basal branching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambeesan, Savithri U; Mandel, Jennifer R; Bowers, John E; Marek, Laura F; Ebert, Daniel; Corbi, Jonathan; Rieseberg, Loren H; Knapp, Steven J; Burke, John M

    2015-03-11

    Shoot branching is an important determinant of plant architecture and influences various aspects of growth and development. Selection on branching has also played an important role in the domestication of crop plants, including sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Here, we describe an investigation of the genetic basis of variation in branching in sunflower via association mapping in a diverse collection of cultivated sunflower lines. Detailed phenotypic analyses revealed extensive variation in the extent and type of branching within the focal population. After correcting for population structure and kinship, association analyses were performed using a genome-wide collection of SNPs to identify genomic regions that influence a variety of branching-related traits. This work resulted in the identification of multiple previously unidentified genomic regions that contribute to variation in branching. Genomic regions that were associated with apical and mid-apical branching were generally distinct from those associated with basal and mid-basal branching. Homologs of known branching genes from other study systems (i.e., Arabidopsis, rice, pea, and petunia) were also identified from the draft assembly of the sunflower genome and their map positions were compared to those of associations identified herein. Numerous candidate branching genes were found to map in close proximity to significant branching associations. In sunflower, variation in branching is genetically complex and overall branching patterns (i.e., apical vs. basal) were found to be influenced by distinct genomic regions. Moreover, numerous candidate branching genes mapped in close proximity to significant branching associations. Although the sunflower genome exhibits localized islands of elevated linkage disequilibrium (LD), these non-random associations are known to decay rapidly elsewhere. The subset of candidate genes that co-localized with significant associations in regions of low LD represents the most

  9. Controlling the unstable emission of a semiconductor laser subject to conventional optical feedback with a filtered feedback branch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, I V; Tronciu, V Z; Colet, Pere; Mirasso, Claudio R

    2009-05-25

    We show the advantages of controlling the unstable dynamics of a semiconductor laser subject to conventional optical feedback by means of a second filtered feedback branch. We give an overview of the analytical solutions of the double cavity feedback and show numerically that the region of stabilization is much larger when using a second branch with filtered feedback than when using a conventional feedback one.

  10. Controlling the unstable emission of a semiconductor laser subject to conventional optical feedback with a filtered feedback branch

    OpenAIRE

    Ermakov, Ilya; Tronciu, Vasile; Colet, Pere; Mirasso, Claudio R.

    2009-01-01

    We show the advantages of controlling the unstable dynamics of a semiconductor laser subject to conventional optical feedback by means of a second filtered feedback branch. We give an overview of the analytical solutions of the double cavity feedback and show numerically that the region of stabilization is much larger when using a second branch with filtered feedback than when using a conventional feedback one.

  11. Pulse-train control of branching processes: Elimination of background and intruder state population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidl, Markus; Uiberacker, Christoph; Jakubetz, Werner; Etinski, Mihajlo

    2008-01-01

    The authors introduce and describe pulse train control (PTC) of population branching in strongly coupled processes as a novel control tool for the separation of competing multiphoton processes. Control strategies are presented based on the different responses of processes with different photonicities and/or different frequency detunings to the pulse-to-pulse time delay and the pulse-to-pulse phase shift in pulse trains. The control efficiency is further enhanced by the property of pulse trains that complete population transfer can be obtained over an extended frequency range that replaces the resonance frequency of simple pulses. The possibility to freely tune the frequency assists the separation of the competing processes and reduces the number of subpulses required for full control. As a sample application, PTC of leaking multiphoton resonances is demonstrated by numerical simulations. In model systems exhibiting sizable background (intruder) state population if excited with single pulses, PTC leading to complete accumulation of population in the target state and elimination of background population is readily achieved. The analysis of the results reveals different mechanisms of control and provides clues on the mechanisms of the leaking process itself. In an alternative setup, pulse trains can be used as a phase-sensitive tool for level switching. By changing only the pulse-to-pulse phase shift of a train with otherwise unchanged parameters, population can be transferred to any of two different target states in a near-quantitative manner.

  12. Colloidal polymers with controlled sequence and branching constructed from magnetic field assembled nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannwarth, Markus B; Utech, Stefanie; Ebert, Sandro; Weitz, David A; Crespy, Daniel; Landfester, Katharina

    2015-03-24

    The assembly of nanoparticles into polymer-like architectures is challenging and usually requires highly defined colloidal building blocks. Here, we show that the broad size-distribution of a simple dispersion of magnetic nanocolloids can be exploited to obtain various polymer-like architectures. The particles are assembled under an external magnetic field and permanently linked by thermal sintering. The remarkable variety of polymer-analogue architectures that arises from this simple process ranges from statistical and block copolymer-like sequencing to branched chains and networks. This library of architectures can be realized by controlling the sequencing of the particles and the junction points via a size-dependent self-assembly of the single building blocks.

  13. Protein kinase A is involved in the control of morphology and branching during aerobic growth of Mucor circinelloides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübbehüsen, Tina Louise; Polo, V.G.; Rossi, S.

    2004-01-01

    and colony morphology suggested a role for PKAR in the control of morphology and branching. Here strain KFA121, which overexpresses the M. circinelloides pkaR gene, was used to quantify growth and branching under different aerobic growth conditions in a flow-through cell by computerized image analysis....... An inverse relationship between the pkaR expression level in KFA121 and the hyphal growth unit length was observed in KFA121, suggesting a central role for PKAR in branching. A biochemical analysis of PKAR using antibodies and enzyme assay demonstrated that the level of PKAR is higher in KFA121 under...... indicate that cAMP-dependent PKA in M. circinelloides might be down-regulated during hyphal-tube emergence and that an increase in PKAR levels results in increased branching....

  14. Advanced controls for light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, S. G.; Edelen, A. L.; Milton, S. V.

    2016-09-01

    We present a summary of our team's recent efforts in developing adaptive, artificial intelligence-inspired techniques specifically to address several control challenges that arise in machines/systems including those in particle accelerator systems. These techniques can readily be adapted to other systems such as lasers, beamline optics, etc… We are not at all suggesting that we create an autonomous system, but create a system with an intelligent control system, that can continually use operational data to improve itself and combines both traditional and advanced techniques. We believe that the system performance and reliability can be increased based on our findings. Another related point is that the controls sub-system of an overall system is usually not the heart of the system architecture or design process. More bluntly, often times all of the peripheral systems are considered as secondary to the main system components in the architecture design process because it is assumed that the controls system will be able to "fix" challenges found later with the sub-systems for overall system operation. We will show that this is not always the case and that it took an intelligent control application to overcome a sub-system's challenges. We will provide a recent example of such a "fix" with a standard controller and with an artificial intelligence-inspired controller. A final related point to be covered is that of system adaptation for requirements not original to a system's original design.

  15. Neutron generator tube ion source control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridges, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    A system is claimed for controlling the output of a neutron generator tube of the deuterium-tritium accelerator type and having an ion source to produce sharply defined pulses of neutrons for well logging use. It comprises: means for inputting a relatively low voltage input control pulse having a leading edge and a trailing edge; means, responsive to the input control pulse, for producing a relatively high voltage ion source voltage pulse after receipt of the input pulse; and means, responsive to the input control pulse, for quenching, after receipt of the input pulse, the ion source control pulse, thereby providing a sharply time defined neutron output from the generator tube

  16. THE DUST BUDGET OF THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD: ARE ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STARS THE PRIMARY DUST SOURCE AT LOW METALLICITY?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, M. L.; Gordon, K. D.; Meixner, M.; Sargent, B. A.; Srinivasan, S.; Riebel, D.; McDonald, I.; Van Loon, J. Th.; Clayton, G. C.; Sloan, G. C.

    2012-01-01

    We estimate the total dust input from the cool evolved stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud, using the 8 μm excess emission as a proxy for the dust-production rate (DPR). We find that asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and red supergiant (RSG) stars produce (8.6-9.5) × 10 –7 M ☉ yr –1 of dust, depending on the fraction of far-infrared sources that belong to the evolved star population (with 10%-50% uncertainty in individual DPRs). RSGs contribute the least ( –3 M ☉ of dust each, then the total SN dust input and AGB input are roughly equivalent. We consider several scenarios of SN dust production and destruction and find that the interstellar medium (ISM) dust can be accounted for solely by stellar sources if all SNe produce dust in the quantities seen around the dustiest examples and if most SNe explode in dense regions where much of the ISM dust is shielded from the shocks. We find that AGB stars contribute only 2.1% of the ISM dust. Without a net positive contribution from SNe to the dust budget, this suggests that dust must grow in the ISM or be formed by another unknown mechanism.

  17. The Proprotein Convertase KPC-1/Furin Controls Branching and Self-avoidance of Sensory Dendrites in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bülow, Hannes E.

    2014-01-01

    Animals sample their environment through sensory neurons with often elaborately branched endings named dendritic arbors. In a genetic screen for genes involved in the development of the highly arborized somatosensory PVD neuron in C. elegans, we have identified mutations in kpc-1, which encodes the homolog of the proprotein convertase furin. We show that kpc-1/furin is necessary to promote the formation of higher order dendritic branches in PVD and to ensure self-avoidance of sister branches, but is likely not required during maintenance of dendritic arbors. A reporter for kpc-1/furin is expressed in neurons (including PVD) and kpc-1/furin can function cell-autonomously in PVD neurons to control patterning of dendritic arbors. Moreover, we show that kpc-1/furin also regulates the development of other neurons in all major neuronal classes in C. elegans, including aspects of branching and extension of neurites as well as cell positioning. Our data suggest that these developmental functions require proteolytic activity of KPC-1/furin. Recently, the skin-derived MNR-1/menorin and the neural cell adhesion molecule SAX-7/L1CAM have been shown to act as a tripartite complex with the leucine rich transmembrane receptor DMA-1 on PVD mechanosensory to orchestrate the patterning of dendritic branches. Genetic analyses show that kpc-1/furin functions in a pathway with MNR-1/menorin, SAX-7/L1CAM and DMA-1 to control dendritic branch formation and extension of PVD neurons. We propose that KPC-1/furin acts in concert with the ‘menorin’ pathway to control branching and growth of somatosensory dendrites in PVD. PMID:25232734

  18. Abscisic acid signaling is controlled by a BRANCHED1/HD-ZIP I cascade in Arabidopsis axillary buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Grandío, Eduardo; Pajoro, Alice; Franco-Zorrilla, José M; Tarancón, Carlos; Immink, Richard G H; Cubas, Pilar

    2017-01-10

    Shoot-branching patterns determine key aspects of plant life and are important targets for crop breeding. However, we are still largely ignorant of the genetic networks controlling locally the most important decision during branch development: whether the axillary bud, or branch primordium, grows out to give a lateral shoot or remains dormant. Here we show that, inside the buds, the TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, CYCLOIDEA, PCF (TCP) transcription factor BRANCHED1 (BRC1) binds to and positively regulates the transcription of three related Homeodomain leucine zipper protein (HD-ZIP)-encoding genes: HOMEOBOX PROTEIN 21 (HB21), HOMEOBOX PROTEIN 40 (HB40), and HOMEOBOX PROTEIN 53 (HB53). These three genes, together with BRC1, enhance 9-CIS-EPOXICAROTENOID DIOXIGENASE 3 (NCED3) expression, lead to abscisic acid accumulation, and trigger hormone response, thus causing suppression of bud development. This TCP/HD-ZIP genetic module seems to be conserved in dicot and monocotyledonous species to prevent branching under light-limiting conditions.

  19. Synthesis of branched polymers under continuous-flow microprocess: an improvement of the control of macromolecular architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bally, Florence; Serra, Christophe A; Brochon, Cyril; Hadziioannou, Georges

    2011-11-15

    Polymerization reactions can benefit from continuous-flow microprocess in terms of kinetics control, reactants mixing or simply efficiency when high-throughput screening experiments are carried out. In this work, we perform for the first time the synthesis of branched macromolecular architecture through a controlled/'living' polymerization technique, in tubular microreactor. Just by tuning process parameters, such as flow rates of the reactants, we manage to generate a library of polymers with various macromolecular characteristics. Compared to conventional batch process, polymerization kinetics shows a faster initiation step and more interestingly an improved branching efficiency. Due to reduced diffusion pathway, a characteristic of microsystems, it is thus possible to reach branched polymers exhibiting a denser architecture, and potentially a higher functionality for later applications. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Control of radiation sources in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, S.

    2001-01-01

    The report refers to the regulations for radioactive material in force in Japan, and to the organizations with responsibilities for regulating radiation sources. An outline of the law regulating the use of radiation sources and radioactive materials is provided, including its scope, types of radiation sources under control, exemptions and the system of notification, authorization and inspection. The experience of Japan with orphan sources is presented in three different cases, and the measures carried out to store the orphan sources in safe conditions. (author)

  1. Sources and distributions of branched tetraether lipids and crenarchaeol along the Portuguese continental margin: Implications for the BIT index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zell, C.; Kim, J-H; Dorhout, D.; Baas, M.; Baas, M.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    The branched vs. isoprenoid tetraethers (BIT) index, which is based on the relative abundance of non-isoprenoidal, so-called branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) versus a structurally related isoprenoid GDGT “crenarchaeol”, has been used to trace soil organic carbon (OC) from the

  2. Automatic control of a negative ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saadatmand, K.; Sredniawski, J.; Solensten, L.

    1989-01-01

    A CAMAC based control architecture is devised for a Berkeley-type H - volume ion source. The architecture employs three 80386 PCs. One PC is dedicated to control and monitoring of source operation. The other PC functions with digitizers to provide data acquisition of waveforms. The third PC is used for off-line analysis. Initially, operation of the source was put under remote computer control (supervisory). This was followed by development of an automated startup procedure. Finally, a study of the physics of operation is now underway to establish a data base from which automatic beam optimization can be derived. (orig.)

  3. Automatic control of a negative ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadatmand, K.; Sredniawski, J.; Solensten, L.

    1989-04-01

    A CAMAC based control architecture is devised for a Berkeley-type H - volume ion source [1]. The architecture employs three 80386 TM PCs. One PC is dedicated to control and monitoring of source operation. The other PC functions with digitizers to provide data acquisition of waveforms. The third PC is used for off-line analysis. Initially, operation of the source was put under remote computer control (supervisory). This was followed by development of an automated startup procedure. Finally, a study of the physics of operation is now underway to establish a data base from which automatic beam optimization can be derived.

  4. Automatic control of a negative ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saadatmand, K.; Sredniawski, J.; Solensten, L. (Grumman Corp., Long Island, NY (USA))

    1989-04-01

    A CAMAC based control architecture is devised for a Berkeley-type H/sup -/ volume ion source. The architecture employs three 80386 PCs. One PC is dedicated to control and monitoring of source operation. The other PC functions with digitizers to provide data acquisition of waveforms. The third PC is used for off-line analysis. Initially, operation of the source was put under remote computer control (supervisory). This was followed by development of an automated startup procedure. Finally, a study of the physics of operation is now underway to establish a data base from which automatic beam optimization can be derived. (orig.).

  5. 41 CFR 102-74.330 - What smoking restrictions apply to outside areas under Executive branch control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What smoking restrictions apply to outside areas under Executive branch control? 102-74.330 Section 102-74.330 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Smoking § 102-74.330 What...

  6. Control system for Siam photon source

    CERN Document Server

    Apiwatwaja, R; Isoyama, G; Ishii, T; Pairsuwan, W

    2003-01-01

    A new computer control system has been developed for Siam photon source, which is the first synchrotron light source in Thailand, personal computers and PLC's have been employed which are connected together through Ethernet. Man Machine Interface Stations (MMIS) at the front end act as a graphical user interface within Windows environment. The monitoring and controlling of individual devices is handled through several pairs of digital control station and the device interface located in each part of the synchrotron complex. The installation of the control system has been completed. The commissioning test of the control system is underway and the reliability of the system is on the positive side. Details of commissioning tests as well as characteristics of this newly built control system for the Siam photon source are described in this report.

  7. The IAEA and Control of Radioactive Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, B.

    2004-01-01

    The presentation discusses the authoritative functions and the departments of the IAEA, especially the Department of Nuclear Safety and Security and its Safety and Security of Radiation Sources Unit. IAEA safety series and IAEA safety standards series inform about international standards, provide underlying principles, specify obligations and responsibilities and give recommendations to support requirements. Other IAEA relevant publications comprise safety reports, technical documents (TECDOCs), conferences and symposium papers series and accident reports. Impacts of loss of source control is discussed, definitions of orphan sources and vulnerable sources is given. Accidents with orphan sources, radiological accidents statistic (1944-2000) and its consequences are discussed. These incidents lead to development of the IAEA guidance. The IAEA's action plan for the safety of radiation sources and the security of radioactive material was approved by the IAEA Board of Governors and the General Conference in September 1999. This led to the 'Categorization of Radiation Sources' and the 'Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources'. After 0911 the IAEA developed a nuclear security plan of activities including physical protection of nuclear material and nuclear facilities, detection of malicious activities involving nuclear and other radioactive materials, state systems for nuclear material accountancy and control, security of radioactive material other than nuclear material, assessment of safety and security related vulnerability of nuclear facilities, response to malicious acts, or threats thereof, adherence to and implementation of international agreements, guidelines and recommendations and nuclear security co-ordination and information management. The remediation of past problems comprised collection and disposal of known disused sources, securing vulnerable sources and especially high-risk sources (Tripartite initiative), searching for

  8. Branched GDGTs in Lacustrine Environments: Tracing Allochthonous and Autochthonous Sources Using Compound-Specific Stable Carbon Isotope Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Y.; S Sinninghe Damsté, J.; Lehmann, M. F.; Niemann, H.; Schubert, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) are bacterial membrane lipids that are ubiquitous in soils and peat, as well as in sediments of lakes, rivers and coastal marine environments. It has been found that the distribution of brGDGTs changes systematically with ambient temperature and pH, attesting to their potential as proxy indicators for paleoclimatic reconstruction. In lacustrine sedimentary archives, brGDGTs can originate from two sources: (1) allochthonous soil organic matter and (2) autochthonous brGDGTs produced within the lake system, both of which display fairly distinct temperature-brGDGT relationships. Until now, disentangling the relative contribution of these sources was impossible, complicating the use of brGDGTs for quantitative paleotemperature reconstructions. BrGDGTs in soils display a narrow range with respect to their stable carbon isotope composition (δ13C), generally between -27 and -30 ‰, whereas we recently found contrasting δ13C values as low as -43 ‰ to -46 ‰ for brGDGTs in sediments of a small Alpine lake. To trace the origin of this distinct isotope signal, we determined the 13C content of brGDGTs in suspended particulate matter (SPM) from the water column of Lake Lugano (Switzerland). The δ13C of SPM-derived brGDGTs decreased systematically from -34 ‰ in the mixolimnion to -41 ‰ in the anoxic monimolimnion of Lake Lugano, providing evidence for aquatic in situ production of 13C-depleted brGDGT. In order to study whether the negative δ13C offset of water column- vs. soil-derived brGDGTs may serve as an indicator for lacustrine brGDGT production, we also analyzed surface sediments from 36 lakes across the Alpine Region. In most (~85 %) of the studied lake sediments, the δ13C of brGDGTs ranged between -34 ‰ and -45 ‰, indicating predominance or a substantial contribution of aquatically produced brGDGTs. However, in some lakes (~15 %) δ13C values between -27 ‰ and -30 ‰ suggest a mainly

  9. Regulatory control of radiation sources in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auxtova, L.

    2001-01-01

    In Slovakia, there are two regulatory authorities. Regulatory control of the utilization of nuclear energy, based on the Slovak National Council's law No. 130/1998 on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, is exercised by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic. The second regulatory authority - the Ministry of Health - is empowered by law No. 72/1994 on the protection of human health to license radiation sources and is responsible for radiation protection supervision (there are nearly 3000 establishments with sealed sources, radiation generators and unsealed sources in Slovakia). Pursuant to a new radiation protection regulation based on international standards, radiation sources are to be categorized in six classes according to the associated exposure and contamination hazards. A national strategy for improving the safety of radiation sources over their life-cycle and for the management of disused and orphan sources is being prepared for governmental approval. (author)

  10. Control for nuclear thermionic power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, J.C.; Sawyer, C.D.

    1978-01-01

    A control for a power source is described which includes nuclear fuel interspersed with thermionic converters, including a power regulator that maintains a substantially constant output voltage to a variable load, and a control circuit that drives a neutron flux regulator in accordance with the current supplied to the power regulator and the neutron flux density in the region of the converters. The control circuit generates a control signal which is the difference between the neutron flux density and a linear fucntion of the current, and which drives the neutron regulator in a direction to decrease or increase the neutron flux according to the polarity of the control signal

  11. Effective regulatory control of radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meserve, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the situation in the USA regarding government control over use of radiation sources, the challenges it faces and the potential paths to their resolution. In the light of the large number of radiation sources in use worldwide, the safety record on balance is remarkably good. But there is still considerable room for improvement. The IAEA has an important role to play, and it is playing it effectively

  12. Regulated control of practices and radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Excepting the radiation caused by the natural background radiation, the Executive Secretariat for Nuclear Affairs (SEAN) does not authorize any source no practice within the national territory that may imply exposure of a person to ionizing radiation unless this use is ruled. This document establishes the basic criteria to set up such system as well as to exclude or exempt practices and sources from this regulated control

  13. Shape-controlled synthesis of NIR absorbing branched gold nanoparticles and morphology stabilization with alkanethiols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Broek, B; Frederix, F; Bonroy, K; Jans, H; Jans, K; Borghs, G; Maes, G

    2011-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles are ideal candidates for clinical applications if their plasmon absorption band is situated in the near infrared region (NIR) of the electromagnetic spectrum. Various parameters, including the nanoparticle shape, strongly influence the position of this absorption band. The aim of this study is to produce stabilized NIR absorbing branched gold nanoparticles with potential for biomedical applications. Hereto, the synthesis procedure for branched gold nanoparticles is optimized varying the different synthesis parameters. By subsequent electroless gold plating the plasmon absorption band is shifted to 747.2 nm. The intrinsic unstable nature of the nanoparticles' morphology can be clearly observed by a spectral shift and limits their use in real applications. However, in this article we show how the stabilization of the branched structure can be successfully achieved by exchanging the initial capping agent for different alkanethiols and disulfides. Furthermore, when using alkanethiols/disulfides with poly(ethylene oxide) units incorporated, an increased stability of the gold nanoparticles is achieved in high salt concentrations up to 1 M and in a cell culture medium. These achievements open a plethora of opportunities for these stabilized branched gold nanoparticles in nanomedicine.

  14. Folded plate assemblies with branching column supports : Interaction and control of overall shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falk, A.; Turrin, M.; von Buelow, P.

    2010-01-01

    The work described in this paper aims at developing the interrelation and overall effects of interaction between a folded plate roof structure and a system of branching column supports. In the context of architectural performance it is of interest to discuss the effects of the material on

  15. Neutron generator tube ion source control apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridges, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    A pulsed neutron well logging system includes a neutron generator tube of the deuterium-tritium accelerator type and an ion source control apparatus providing extremely sharply time-defined neutron pulses. A low voltage control pulse supplied to an input by timing circuits turns a power FET on via a buffer-driver whereby a 2000 volt pulse is produced in the secondary of a pulse transformer and applied to the ion source of the tube. A rapid fall in this ion source control pulse is ensured by a quenching circuit wherein a one-shot responds to the falling edge of the control pulse and produces a 3 microsecond delay to compensate for the propagation delay. A second one-shot is triggered by the falling edge of the output of the first one-shot and gives an 8 microsecond pulse to turn on the power FET which, via an isolation transformer turns on a series-connected transistor to ground the secondary of the pulse transformer and the ion source. (author)

  16. Ampicillin-Ester Bonded Branched Polymers: Characterization, Cyto-, Genotoxicity and Controlled Drug-Release Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Oledzka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The development and characterization of novel macromolecular conjugates of ampicillin using branched biodegradable polymers has been described in this study. The conjugates have been prepared coupling the β-lactam antibiotic with branched polymer matrices based on the natural oligopeptide core. The cyto- and genotoxicity of the synthesized polymers were evaluated with a bacterial luminescence test, two protozoan assays and Salmonella typhimurium TA1535. The presence of a newly formed covalent bond between the drug and the polymer matrices was confirmed by 1H-NMR and FTIR studies. A drug content (15.6 and 10.2 mole % in the macromolecular conjugates has been determined. The obtained macromolecular products have been subjected to further in vitro release studies. The total percentage of ampicillin released after 21 days of incubation was nearly 60% and 14% and this resulted from the different physicochemical properties of the polymeric matrices. This is the first report on the application of branched biodegradable polymeric matrices for the covalent conjugation of ampicillin. The obtained results showed that the synthesized macromolecular drug-conjugates might slowly release the active drug molecule and improve the pharmacokinetics of ampicillin.

  17. EPICS application source/release control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zieman, B.; Anderson, J.; Kraimer, M.

    1995-01-01

    This manual describes a set of Application Source/Release Control tools (appSR) that can be used to develop software for EPICS based control systems. The Application Source/Release Control System (appSR) has been unbundled from base EPICS and is now available as an EPICS extension. Due to this unbundling, two new directories must be added to a user's path (see section ''Environment'' on page 3 for more information) and a new command getapp must be issued after the getrel command to get a specific version of appSR (see section ''Creating The Initial Application System Area'' on page 7 for more information). It is now required that GNU make version 3.71 or later be used for makes instead of SUN make. Users should now type gmake instead of make

  18. Inadequate control of world's radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The radioactive materials needed to build a 'dirty bomb' can be found in almost any country in the world, and more than 100 countries may have inadequate control and monitoring programs necessary to prevent or even detect the theft of these materials. The IAEA points out that while radioactive sources number in the millions, only a small percentage have enough strength to cause serious radiological harm. It is these powerful sources that need to be focused on as a priority. In a significant recent development, the IAEA, working in collaboration with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Russian Federation's Ministry for Atomic Energy (MINATOM), have established a tripartite working group on 'Securing and Managing Radioactive Sources'. Through its program to help countries improve their national infrastructures for radiation safety and security, the IAEA has found that more than 100 countries may have no minimum infrastructure in place to properly control radiation sources. However, many IAEA Member States - in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and Europe - are making progress through an IAEA project to strengthen their capabilities to control and regulate radioactive sources. The IAEA is also concerned about the over 50 countries that are not IAEA Member States (there are 134), as they do not benefit from IAEA assistance and are likely to have no regulatory infrastructure. The IAEA has been active in lending its expertise to search out and secure orphaned sources in several countries. More than 70 States have joined with the IAEA to collect and share information on trafficking incidents and other unauthorized movements of radioactive sources and other radioactive materials. The IAEA and its Member States are working hard to raise levels of radiation safety and security, especially focusing on countries known to have urgent needs. The IAEA has taken the leading role in the United Nations system in establishing standards of safety, the most significant of

  19. Involved accounting and control in health care : Different perceptions of management accounting and control systems in the Dutch branch of nursing homes, homes for the elderly and homecare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wil van Erp

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore why and how Management Accounting and Control Systems (MACS) enact and are enacted upon in the Dutch branch of nursing homes, homes for the elderly and home care. In search for answers, this study chooses an actor-network theory (ANT) perspective combined with

  20. The use of chipped pruned branches to control the soil and water losses in citrus plantations in Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Keesstra, Saskia; Jordán, Antonio; Pereira, Paulo; Prosdocimi, Massimo; Ritsema, Coen J.; Burguet, María

    2016-04-01

    Soil erosion is the main cause of soil degradation in agriculture land, which is a world-wide problem (Cerdà et al., 2009; Novara et al., 2011; Biwas et al., 2015, Colazo and Buschiazzo, 2015; Ligonja and Shrestha, 2015). High erosion rates result in the loss of soil and also changes the hydrological, erosional, biological, and geochemical cycles (Keesstra et al., 2012; Berendse et al., 2015; Decock et al., 2015; Brevik et al., 2015; Smith et al., 2015). Thus, there is a need to reduce the soil losses to achieve soil sustainability. However, although some findings show that straw, geotextiles, vegetation cover and tillage reduction are efficient strategies (Gimenez Morera et al., 2010; Cerdà et al., 2015; Lieskovský and Kenderessy, 2014; Taguas et al., 2015) there is still a need to find easy strategies for farmers to adopt in their fields that will protect, and also recover, their soils. Chipped branches are usually burned in many orchards to remove them from the fields. However, when they would be chipped and spread on the fields, they can be a source of organic matter, and in addition this might reduce soil losses and improve the water retention capacity of the soils (Mukherjee et al., 2014; Yazdanpanah et al., 2016). The hypothesis is that the chipped branches reduce soil loss. To test this hypothesis we selected 3 study sites in which chipped branches were applied, and paired sites with bare soil to check the changes introduced by the chipped branches on the soils. We selected 3 sites of the Cànyoles river watershed (Montesa municipality), SW Spain, with 10 plots in each site. At each site, 10 rainfall simulation experiments were carried out. Paired plots were selected in the nearby (less than 10 m in distance) orchard where the pruned branches were removed. Then, 60 rainfall simulation experiments at 55 mm h-1 of rainfall intensity during 1 hour were carried out in small 0.25 m2 plots to determine the soil particle detachment. The results show that in all

  1. Control of radiation sources in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Silvia Maria Velasques de; Menezes, Sergio Ferreira; Alves Filho, Aristeu Dacio; Xavier, Ana Maria

    1997-01-01

    The radiological accident occurred in Goiania, in 1987, brought to light several deficiencies in the conduction of the licensing processes of medical, industrial and research facilities that handle radioisotopes as well as int he control of radioactive sources in Brazil. The objective of this article is to describe some of the technical and administrative measures taken to ensure the adoption of appropriate radiological safety standards throughout the country, thus reducing the incidence of radiological accidents. (author)

  2. The control of radioactive sources in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, S.M.V.; Menezes, C.F.; Alves Filho, A.D.; Xavier, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The radiological accident of Goiania in 1987 brought to light several deficiencies in the licensing of medical, industrial and research facilities, which handle radioisotopes, as well as in the control of radioactive sources in Brazil. The article describes some of the technical and administrative measures taken to ensure the adoption of appropriate radiological safety standards throughout the country and thereby reduce the incidence of radiological accidents. (author)

  3. A quality control program for radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, C.E. de; Sibata, C.H.; Cecatti, E.R.; Kawakami, N.S.; Alexandre, A.C.; Chiavegatti Junior, M.

    1982-01-01

    An extensive quality control program was established covering the following areas: physical parameters of the therapeutical machines, dosimetric standards, preventive maintenance of radiation sources and measuring instruments. A critical evaluation of this program was done after two years (1977-1979) of routine application and the results will be presented. The fluctuation on physical parameters strongly supports the efforts and cost of a quality control program. This program has certainly improved the accuracy required on the delivery of the prescribed dose for radiotherapy treatment. (Author) [pt

  4. Infrastructure of Taiwan photon source control network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.T.; Kuo, C.H.; Cheng, Y.S.; Jenny Chen; Hsu, S.Y.; Wu, C.Y.; Hu, K.H.; Hsu, K.T.

    2012-01-01

    A reliable, flexible and secure network is essential for the Taiwan Photon Source (TPS) control system which is based upon the EPICS tool-kit framework. Subsystem sub-nets will connect to control system via EPICS based CA gateways for forwarding data and reducing network traffic. Combining cyber security technologies such as fire-wall, NAT and VLAN, control network is isolated to protect IOCs and accelerator components. Network management tools are used to improve network performance. Remote access mechanism will be constructed for maintenance and troubleshooting. The Ethernet is also used as field-bus for instruments such as power supplies. This paper will describe the system architecture for the TPS control network. Cabling topology, redundancy and maintainability are also discussed. (authors)

  5. A Feed-Forward Control Realizing Fast Response for Three-Branch Interleaved DC-DC Converter in DC Microgrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haojie Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It is a common practice for storage batteries to be connected to DC microgrid buses through DC-DC converters for voltage support on islanded operation mode. A feed-forward control based dual-loop constant voltage PI control for three-branch interleaved DC-DC converters (TIDC is proposed for storage batteries in DC microgrids. The working principle of TIDC is analyzed, and the factors influencing the response rate based on the dual-loop constant voltage control for TIDC are discussed, and then the method of feed-forward control for TIDC is studied to improve the response rate for load changing. A prototype of the TIDC is developed and an experimental platform is built. The experiment results show that DC bus voltage sags or swells caused by load changing can be reduced and the time for voltage recovery can be decreased significantly with the proposed feed-forward control.

  6. A Feed-Forward Control Realizing Fast Response for Three-Branch Interleaved DC-DC Converter in DC Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Haojie; Han, Minxiao; Yan, Wenli

    2016-01-01

    It is a common practice for storage batteries to be connected to DC microgrid buses through DC-DC converters for voltage support on islanded operation mode. A feed-forward control based dual-loop constant voltage PI control for three-branch interleaved DC-DC converters (TIDC) is proposed...... for storage batteries in DC microgrids. The working principle of TIDC is analyzed, and the factors influencing the response rate based on the dual-loop constant voltage control for TIDC are discussed, and then the method of feed-forward control for TIDC is studied to improve the response rate for load...... changing. A prototype of the TIDC is developed and an experimental platform is built. The experiment results show that DC bus voltage sags or swells caused by load changing can be reduced and the time for voltage recovery can be decreased significantly with the proposed feed-forward control....

  7. Controlled synthesis of ZnO branched nanorod arrays by hierarchical solution growth and application in dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Xiaoming; Peng Lihua; Shang Xiaoying; Zhang Zhengguo

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the controlled synthesis of ZnO branched nanorod arrays on fluorine-doped SnO 2 -coated glass substrates by the hierarchical solution growth method. In the secondary growth, the concentration of Zn(NO 3 ) 2 /hexamethylenetetramine plays an important role in controlling the morphology of the branched nanorod arrays, besides that of diaminopropane used as a structure-directing agent to induce the growth of branches. The population density and morphology of the branched nanorod arrays depend on those of the nanorod arrays obtained from the primary growth, which can be modulated though the concentration of Zn(NO 3 ) 2 /hexamethylenetetramine in the primary growth solution. The dye-sensitized ZnO branched nanorod arrays exhibit much stronger optical absorption as compared with its corresponding primary nanorod arrays, suggesting that the addition of the branches improves light harvesting. The dye-sensitized solar cell based on the optimized ZnO branched nanorod array reaches a conversion efficiency of 1.66% under the light radiation of 1000 W/m 2 . The branched nanorod arrays can also be applied in other application fields of ZnO.

  8. The advanced light source control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magyary, S.; Chin, M.; Cork, C.; Fahmie, M.; Lancaster, H.; Molinari, P.; Ritchie, A.; Robb, A.; Timossi, C.; Young, J.

    1990-01-01

    The criteria for the design of a modern control system are discussed in the context of the special requirements for the control of the Advanced Light Source (ALS). This is followed by the description of the system being built, which has a number of special features. The emphasis has been placed on providing an extremely wide I/O and CPU bandwidth (greater than 120 Mbits/s and 1200 Mips, respectively) and on using commercially available hardware and software. The only major custom design item is the Intelligent Local Controller (ILC), of which about 600 will be used to interface to the hardware. The use of personal computers for the operator stations allows the use of a wealth of industrial standards for windows, languages and tools. (orig.)

  9. Efficiency enhancement by grid monitoring, qualification of employees and branch spreaded control systems; Effizienzsteigerung durch Netzmonitoring, Mitarbeiterqualifikationen und spartenuebergreifendes Leitsystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenn, B.; Thoma, D. [Heag Suedhessische Energie AG, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The development and use of mobile data acquisition devices to prepare site measurements required for construction projects and process quotations for power supply connections could provide field staff with a highly effective tool. The introduction of a branch spreaded on-line grid control system and an effective grid monitoring would obviate the need for some of the steps previously involved and thereby significantly accelerate the entire procedure. Technical specialists on site will benefit from plausibility checks and graphic displays. Particular emphasis has been placed during development on simple user guidance specifically aimed at non-computer specialists. (orig./GL)

  10. A randomized controlled trial: branched-chain amino acid levels and glucose metabolism in patients with obesity and sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barceló, Antonia; Morell-Garcia, Daniel; Salord, Neus; Esquinas, Cristina; Pérez, Gerardo; Pérez, Antonio; Monasterio, Carmen; Gasa, Merce; Fortuna, Ana Maria; Montserrat, Josep Maria; Mayos, Mercedes

    2017-12-01

    There is evidence that changes in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) levels may correlate with the efficacy of therapeutic interventions for affecting improvement in metabolic control. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether serum concentrations of BCAAs (leucine, isoleucine, valine) could mediate in insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance after continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). A prospective randomized controlled trial of OSA patients with morbid obesity was conducted. Eighty patients were randomized into two groups: 38 received conservative treatment and 42 received CPAP treatment for 12 weeks. Plasma levels of BCAA, glucose tolerance and insulin resistance were evaluated at baseline and after treatment. After treatment, significant decreases of leucine levels were observed in both groups when compared with baseline levels (P fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin values only in the conservative group (P < 0.05). In summary, we found that the treatment with CPAP for 12 weeks caused similar changes in circulating BCAAs concentrations to conservative treatment and a differential metabolic response of CPAP and conservative treatment was observed between the relationship of BCAAs and glucose homeostasis. Additional studies are needed to determine the interplay between branched-chain amino acids and glucose metabolism in patients with sleep apnea. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  11. SlCCD7 controls strigolactone biosynthesis, shoot branching and mycorrhiza-induced apocarotenoid formation in tomato.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, J.T.; Walter, M.H.; Giavalisco, P.; Lytovchenko, A.; Kohlen, W.; Charnikhova, T.; Simkin, A.J.; Goulet, C.; Strack, D.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Fernie, A.R.; Klee, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    The regulation of shoot branching is an essential determinant of plant architecture, integrating multiple external and internal signals. One of the signaling pathways regulating branching involves the MAX (more axillary branches) genes. Two of the genes within this pathway, MAX3/CCD7 and MAX4/CCD8,

  12. Color identification and fuzzy reasoning based monitoring and controlling of fermentation process of branched chain amino acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lei; Wang, Yizhong; Xu, Qingyang; Huang, Huafang; Zhang, Rui; Chen, Ning

    2009-11-01

    The main production method of branched chain amino acid (BCAA) is microbial fermentation. In this paper, to monitor and to control the fermentation process of BCAA, especially its logarithmic phase, parameters such as the color of fermentation broth, culture temperature, pH, revolution, dissolved oxygen, airflow rate, pressure, optical density, and residual glucose, are measured and/or controlled and/or adjusted. The color of fermentation broth is measured using the HIS color model and a BP neural network. The network's input is the histograms of hue H and saturation S, and output is the color description. Fermentation process parameters are adjusted using fuzzy reasoning, which is performed by inference rules. According to the practical situation of BCAA fermentation process, all parameters are divided into four grades, and different fuzzy rules are established.

  13. Electronic Control on Linear versus Branched Alkylation of 2-/3-Aroylbenzofurans with Acrylates: Combined DFT and Synthetic Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Kolluru; Dangat, Yuvraj; Kommagalla, Yadagiri; Vanka, Kumar; Ramana, Chepuri V

    2017-06-01

    Investigations on the factors that govern unusual branched alkylation of 2-aroylbenzofurans with acrylates by Ru-catalyzed carbonyl-directed C-H activation has been carried out by calculating the kinetics associated with the two key steps-the coordination of the acrylate with the intermediate ruthenacycle and the subsequent migratory insertion reaction-studied with the help of DFT calculations. Eight possible orientations for each mode of alkylation have been considered for the calculations. From these calculations, it has been understood that there is a synergistic operation of the steric and electronic effects favoring the branched alkylation. Further DFT investigations on the alkylation of the isomeric 3-aroylbenzofurans indicated a preference for the linear alkylation and this has been verified experimentally. Overall, the observed/calculated complementary selectivity in the alkylation of 2-/3-aroylbenzofurans with acrylates reveals that the substrate-dependent charge distribution of the Ru-C bond in the intermediate ruthenacycle is an important determining factor and thus the current work opens up a new domain of substrate design for controlling regioselectivity. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Visual control as a key factor in a production process of a company from automotive branch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Borkowski

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a theoretical basis for one type of control in enterprises – visual control. It presents the meaning of visual control in the Toyota Production System and BOST researches as a tool of measure, among other things, the importance of visual control in production companies. The level of importance of visual control usage as one of the production process elements in the analysed company was indicated. The usage of visual control is a main factor in a production process of the analyzed company, the factor which provides continuous help to employees to check whether the process differs from the standard. The characteristic progression of production process elements was indicated and the SW factor (the use of visual control took the third place, PE factor (interruption of production when it detects a problem of quality turned out to be the most important one, while the least important was the EU factor (granting power of attorney down. The main tools for this evaluation: an innovative BOST survey - Toyota's management principles in questions, in particular, the Pareto-Lorenz diagram, radar graph and series of importance as graphical interpretation tools, were used to present the importance of each factor in relation to individual assessments.

  15. Regulatory Control of Radiation Sources. Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This Safety Guide is intended to assist States in implementing the requirements established in Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-1, Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety, for a national regulatory infrastructure to regulate any practice involving radiation sources in medicine, industry, research, agriculture and education. The Safety Guide provides advice on the legislative basis for establishing regulatory bodies, including the effective independence of the regulatory body. It also provides guidance on implementing the functions and activities of regulatory bodies: the development of regulations and guides on radiation safety; implementation of a system for notification and authorization; carrying out regulatory inspections; taking necessary enforcement actions; and investigating accidents and circumstances potentially giving rise to accidents. The various aspects relating to the regulatory control of consumer products are explained, including justification, optimization of exposure, safety assessment and authorization. Guidance is also provided on the organization and staffing of regulatory bodies. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Legal framework for a regulatory infrastructure; 3. Principal functions and activities of the regulatory body; 4. Regulatory control of the supply of consumer products; 5. Functions of the regulatory body shared with other governmental agencies; 6. Organization and staffing of the regulatory body; 7. Documentation of the functions and activities of the regulatory body; 8. Support services; 9. Quality management for the regulatory system.

  16. Strengthening control over radioactive sources in authorized use and regaining control over orphan sources. National strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-02-01

    The objective of this report is to provide practical guidance to States on the development of a national strategy for improving control over radioactive sources, particularly dangerous sources (Categories 1-3). Part of this process involves the determination of the magnitude of the potential problem with orphan and vulnerable sources and indeed, whether or not a national strategy is needed. The ultimate objective is that States will use this report to develop and then implement a plan of action that will result in all significant sources being managed in a safe and secure manner. This report attempts to provide both the background knowledge and the methodology necessary for an individual or small team of responsible persons to develop a national strategy for improving control over all radioactive sources, but especially orphan and vulnerable sources. The background knowledge given in Chapter 3 is an update of the information on practices that was given in IAEA-TECDOC-804, which focused on spent radioactive sources. After some introductory material, this report provides both the factual information and the general steps needed to develop and implement a national strategy. Part I contains background information for those who are not already familiar with the subject including the need for national strategies, the generic causes of loss of control of sources, with specific examples and the common applications of radioactive sources. Part II details the actual process for the development and implementation of a national strategy, which includes assessing the problem by first gathering specific and national information, determining the nature and magnitude of the problem, developing the national strategy by evaluating, and prioritizing possible solutions, implementing the strategy subsequent to a high level decision; and evaluating the effectiveness of the plan and making changes as a result until the desired objective is achieved. Searches for sources will be part of

  17. A Comparison of the Views of Internal Controllers/Auditors and Branch/Call Center Personnel of the Banks for Operational Risk: A Case for Turkish Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinemis Zengin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to compare the views of internal controllers/auditors and branch/call center personnel of the banks with respect to the operational risk. Within this scope, we made two different surveys to the personnel in Turkish banks in order to achieve this objective. The first survey was conducted by 310 branch and call center personnel whereas 151 personnel in internal control and audit departments of the banks carried out the second survey. The major finding in this study is that there is a difference in the views of these two groups regarding the evaluation of operational risk. In general, internal controllers/auditors look at the operational risk more negatively than branch/call center personnel. The personnel who control and audit operations in the bank think that operational risk knowledge level of branch/call center personnel is less sufficient, operational risk levels are higher, the controls to avoid this risk are less efficient than branch/call center personnel consider.

  18. Applying Student Team Achievement Divisions (STAD) Model on Material of Basic Programme Branch Control Structure to Increase Activity and Student Result

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhrian Syahidi, Aulia; Asyikin, Arifin Noor; Asy’ari

    2018-04-01

    Based on my experience of teaching the material of branch control structure, it is found that the condition of the students is less active causing the low activity of the students on the attitude assessment during the learning process on the material of the branch control structure i.e. 2 students 6.45% percentage of good activity and 29 students percentage 93.55% enough and less activity. Then from the low activity resulted in low student learning outcomes based on a daily re-examination of branch control material, only 8 students 26% percentage reached KKM and 23 students 74% percent did not reach KKM. The purpose of this research is to increase the activity and learning outcomes of students of class X TKJ B SMK Muhammadiyah 1 Banjarmasin after applying STAD type cooperative learning model on the material of branch control structure. The research method used is Classroom Action Research. The study was conducted two cycles with six meetings. The subjects of this study were students of class X TKJ B with a total of 31 students consisting of 23 men and 8 women. The object of this study is the activity and student learning outcomes. Data collection techniques used are test and observation techniques. Data analysis technique used is a percentage and mean. The results of this study indicate that: an increase in activity and learning outcomes of students on the basic programming learning material branch control structure after applying STAD type cooperative learning model.

  19. 78 FR 53020 - Branch Technical Position on the Import of Non-U.S. Origin Radioactive Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI), the International Source Suppliers and Producers Association (ISSPA), QSA... Utah's Department of Environmental Quality (UDEQ), the State of Virginia's Department of Health...-for-one exchanges, has a neutral effect on disposal capacity constraints within the U.S. The NRC staff...

  20. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Controls Systems Design and Analysis Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center maintains a critical national capability in the analysis of launch vehicle flight dynamics and flight certification of GN&C algorithms. MSFC analysts are domain experts in the areas of flexible-body dynamics and control-structure interaction, thrust vector control, sloshing propellant dynamics, and advanced statistical methods. Marshall's modeling and simulation expertise has supported manned spaceflight for over 50 years. Marshall's unparalleled capability in launch vehicle guidance, navigation, and control technology stems from its rich heritage in developing, integrating, and testing launch vehicle GN&C systems dating to the early Mercury-Redstone and Saturn vehicles. The Marshall team is continuously developing novel methods for design, including advanced techniques for large-scale optimization and analysis.

  1. Model predictive control for Z-source power converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mo, W.; Loh, P.C.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents Model Predictive Control (MPC) of impedance-source (commonly known as Z-source) power converter. Output voltage control and current control for Z-source inverter are analyzed and simulated. With MPC's ability of multi- system variables regulation, load current and voltage...

  2. Mosquito larval source management for controlling malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tusting, Lucy S; Thwing, Julie; Sinclair, David; Fillinger, Ulrike; Gimnig, John; Bonner, Kimberly E; Bottomley, Christian; Lindsay, Steven W

    2015-01-01

    Background Malaria is an important cause of illness and death in people living in many parts of the world, especially sub-Saharan Africa. Long-lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) reduce malaria transmission by targeting the adult mosquito vector and are key components of malaria control programmes. However, mosquito numbers may also be reduced by larval source management (LSM), which targets mosquito larvae as they mature in aquatic habitats. This is conducted by permanently or temporarily reducing the availability of larval habitats (habitat modification and habitat manipulation), or by adding substances to standing water that either kill or inhibit the development of larvae (larviciding). Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of mosquito LSM for preventing malaria. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EMBASE; CABS Abstracts; and LILACS up to 24 October 2012. We handsearched the Tropical Diseases Bulletin from 1900 to 2010, the archives of the World Health Organization (up to 11 February 2011), and the literature database of the Armed Forces Pest Management Board (up to 2 March 2011). We also contacted colleagues in the field for relevant articles. Selection criteria We included cluster randomized controlled trials (cluster-RCTs), controlled before-and-after trials with at least one year of baseline data, and randomized cross-over trials that compared LSM with no LSM for malaria control. We excluded trials that evaluated biological control of anopheline mosquitoes with larvivorous fish. Data collection and analysis At least two authors assessed each trial for eligibility. We extracted data and at least two authors independently determined the risk of bias in the included studies. We resolved all disagreements through discussion with a third author. We analyzed the data using Review Manager 5 software

  3. Chain-Branching Control of the Atomic Structure of Alkanethiol-Based Gold–Sulfur Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yun; Chi, Qijin; Zhang, Jingdong

    2011-01-01

    Density functional theory structure calculations at 0 K and simulations at 300 K of observed high-resolution in situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images reveal three different atomic-interface structures for the self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of three isomeric butanethiols on Au(111......): direct binding to the Au(111) surface without pitting, binding to adatoms above a regular surface with extensive pitting, and binding to adatoms with local surface vacancies and some pitting. Thermal motions are shown to produce some observed STM features, with a very tight energy balance controlling...

  4. Geometric phase effects in the coherent control of the branching ratio of photodissociation products of phenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Mayumi; Ohtsuki, Yukiyoshi; Fujimura, Yuichi; Lan, Zhenggang; Domcke, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    Optimal control simulation is used to examine the control mechanisms in the photodissociation of phenol within a two-dimensional, three-electronic-state model with two conical intersections. This model has two channels for H-atom elimination, which correspond to the 2 π and 2 σ states of the phenoxyl radical. The optimal pulse that enhances 2 σ dissociation initially generates a wave packet on the S 1 potential-energy surface of phenol. This wave packet is bifurcated at the S 2 -S 1 conical intersection into two components with opposite phases because of the geometric phase effect. The destructive interference caused by the geometric phase effect reduces the population around the S 1 -S 0 conical intersection, which in turn suppresses nonadiabatic transitions and thus enhances dissociation to the 2 σ limit. The optimal pulse that enhances S 0 dissociation, on the other hand, creates a wave packet on the S 2 potential-energy surface of phenol via an intensity borrowing mechanism, thus avoiding geometric phase effects at the S 2 -S 1 conical intersection. This wave packet hits the S 1 -S 0 conical intersection directly, resulting in preferred dissociation to the 2 π limit. The optimal pulse that initially prepares the wave packet on the S 1 potential-energy surface (PES) has a higher carrier frequency than the pulse that prepares the wave packet on the S 2 PES. This counterintuitive effect is explained by the energy-level structure and the S 2 -S 1 vibronic coupling mechanism

  5. Reconnaissance of the hydrology, water quality, and sources of bacterial and nutrient contamination in the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system and Cave Springs Branch of Honey Creek, Delaware County, Oklahoma, March 1999-March 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlottmann, Jamie L.; Tanner, Ralph S.; Samadpour, Mansour

    2000-01-01

    A reconnaissance investigation of hydrology and water quality was conducted to evaluate possible sources of bacteria and nutrient contamination in the Cave Springs Branch basin and the underlying karstic Ozark Plateau aquifer system. Objectives were to: (1) determine the directions of ground-water flow in the basin and determine whether Cave Springs Branch interacts with ground water, (2) compare water quality in Cave Springs Branch with water quality in nearby wells to determine whether the stream is contaminating nearby wells, and (3) determine sources of fecal coliform bacteria and nitrate contamination in Cave Springs Branch and ground water. Potential sources of bacteria and nitrate in the area include cultivated agriculture, cow and horse on pasture, poultry production, households, and wildlife. Presence of fecal coliform and fecal streptococcal bacteria directly indicate fecal contamination and the potential for the presence of other pathogenic organisms in a water supply. Nitrate in drinking water poses health risks and may indicate the presence of additional contaminants. Fecal coliform bacteria colony counts were least in wells, intermediate in the poultry-processing plant wastewater outfall and Honey Creek above the confluence with Cave Springs Branch, and greatest in Cave Springs Branch. Bacteria strains and resistance to antibiotics by some bacteria indicate that livestock may have been sources of some bacteria in the water samples. Multiple antibiotic resistances were not present in the isolates from the water samples, indicating that the bacteria may not be from human or poultry sources. Ribotyping indicates that Escherichia coli bacteria in water samples from the basin were from bird, cow, horse, dog, deer, and human sources. The presence of multiple ribotypes from each type of animal source except bird indicates that most of the bacteria are from multiple populations of source animals. Identifiable sources of bacteria in Cave Springs Branch at the

  6. Sensor Fusion of a Mobile Device to Control and Acquire Videos or Images of Coffee Branches and for Georeferencing Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Jimena Ramos Giraldo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Smartphones show potential for controlling and monitoring variables in agriculture. Their processing capacity, instrumentation, connectivity, low cost, and accessibility allow farmers (among other users in rural areas to operate them easily with applications adjusted to their specific needs. In this investigation, the integration of inertial sensors, a GPS, and a camera are presented for the monitoring of a coffee crop. An Android-based application was developed with two operating modes: (i Navigation: for georeferencing trees, which can be as close as 0.5 m from each other; and (ii Acquisition: control of video acquisition, based on the movement of the mobile device over a branch, and measurement of image quality, using clarity indexes to select the most appropriate frames for application in future processes. The integration of inertial sensors in navigation mode, shows a mean relative error of ±0.15 m, and total error ±5.15 m. In acquisition mode, the system correctly identifies the beginning and end of mobile phone movement in 99% of cases, and image quality is determined by means of a sharpness factor which measures blurriness. With the developed system, it will be possible to obtain georeferenced information about coffee trees, such as their production, nutritional state, and presence of plagues or diseases.

  7. Sensor Fusion of a Mobile Device to Control and Acquire Videos or Images of Coffee Branches and for Georeferencing Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Paula Jimena Ramos; Aguirre, Álvaro Guerrero; Muñoz, Carlos Mario; Prieto, Flavio Augusto; Oliveros, Carlos Eugenio

    2017-04-06

    Smartphones show potential for controlling and monitoring variables in agriculture. Their processing capacity, instrumentation, connectivity, low cost, and accessibility allow farmers (among other users in rural areas) to operate them easily with applications adjusted to their specific needs. In this investigation, the integration of inertial sensors, a GPS, and a camera are presented for the monitoring of a coffee crop. An Android-based application was developed with two operating modes: ( i ) Navigation: for georeferencing trees, which can be as close as 0.5 m from each other; and ( ii ) Acquisition: control of video acquisition, based on the movement of the mobile device over a branch, and measurement of image quality, using clarity indexes to select the most appropriate frames for application in future processes. The integration of inertial sensors in navigation mode, shows a mean relative error of ±0.15 m, and total error ±5.15 m. In acquisition mode, the system correctly identifies the beginning and end of mobile phone movement in 99% of cases, and image quality is determined by means of a sharpness factor which measures blurriness. With the developed system, it will be possible to obtain georeferenced information about coffee trees, such as their production, nutritional state, and presence of plagues or diseases.

  8. Radiographic Control of 137-Cs Brachytherapy Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bistrovic, M.; Viculin, T.; Jurkovic, S.

    2003-01-01

    1 37C s brachytherapy sources are practical for the intracavitary application due to their relatively long lifetime (T 1/2 = 30 y). On the other hand, due to the relatively low energy (0.66 MeV) of the emitted photons, they are suitable for an efficient radiation protection. The dose distribution around the sources is usually calculated by a specific program. However this program requires the knowledge of the position of sources within the applicator as well as the distribution of activity along them. The only way to learn these data is to make an X-ray picture of applicators and sources superimposed to the autoradiography of every source. It is difficult to achieve satisfactory radiographs with high dose rate sources with standard X-ray film material because autoradiography covers the structure of the radiographic shadow. The problem can be overcome either by applying a high intensity X-ray or gamma beam (originating from a radiotherapeutic machine), or by using photographic material of very low sensitivity, for example photographic paper. Combining both possibilities one can obtain satisfactory images. (author)

  9. Control of sources of ionizing radiation in Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastauskas, Albinas; Ziliukas, Julius; Morkunas, Gendrutis [Radiation Protection Centre, Vilnius (Lithuania)

    1997-12-31

    Aspects connected with regulatory control of radioactive sources in Lithuania, such as keeping of the computer-based registry, investigation of arrested illegal radioactive material, decision making, control of users of radioactive sources are discussed. Most of the sources of ionizing radiation are smoke detectors and x-ray equipment. Potentially most dangerous sources (both sealed and unsealed) of therapy and industry are also presented 2 refs., 2 tabs.; e-mail: rsc at post.omnitel.net

  10. Control of sources of ionizing radiation in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastauskas, Albinas; Ziliukas, Julius; Morkunas, Gendrutis

    1997-01-01

    Aspects connected with regulatory control of radioactive sources in Lithuania, such as keeping of the computer-based registry, investigation of arrested illegal radioactive material, decision making, control of users of radioactive sources are discussed. Most of the sources of ionizing radiation are smoke detectors and x-ray equipment. Potentially most dangerous sources (both sealed and unsealed) of therapy and industry are also presented

  11. Establishing control over nuclear materials and radiation sources in Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basilia, G.

    2010-01-01

    Regulatory control over radiation sources in Georgia was lost after disintegration of the Soviet Union. A number of radiation accidents and illegal events occurred in Georgia. From 1999 Nuclear and Radiation Safety Service of the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources is responsible for regulatory control over radiation sources in Georgia. US NRC Regulatory Assistance Program in Georgia Assist the Service in establishing long term regulatory control over sources. Main focuses of US NRC program are country-wide inventory, create National Registry of sources, safe storage of disused sources, upgrade legislation and regulation, implementation licensing and inspection activities

  12. Controlling hazardous energy sources (lockout/tagout)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Manuel B.

    1991-10-01

    The minimum requirements as established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standard 29 CFR 1910.147 are discussed for preventing the unexpected operation of equipment or release of energy which could cause injury to personnel, damage to equipment, harm to the environment, or loss or compromise of test data. Safety requirements both for government and contractor personnel are explained for potentially hazardous energy sources during work operations at LeRC (Cleveland and Plum Brook Stations). Basic rules are presented to ensure protection against harmful exposures, and baseline implementation requirements are discussed from which detailed lockout/tagout procedures can be developed for individual equipment items. Examples of energy sources covered by this document include electrical, pneumatic, mechanical, chemical, cryogenic, thermal, spring tension/compression suspended or moving loads, and other potentially hazardous sources. Activities covered by this standard include, but are not limited to, construction, maintenance, installation, calibration, inspection, cleaning, or repair.

  13. The bHLH transcription factor BIS1 controls the iridoid branch of the monoterpenoid indole alkaloid pathway in Catharanthus roseus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Moerkercke, Alex; Steensma, Priscille; Schweizer, Fabian; Pollier, Jacob; Gariboldi, Ivo; Payne, Richard; Vanden Bossche, Robin; Miettinen, Karel; Espoz, Javiera; Purnama, Purin Candra; Kellner, Franziska; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; O’Connor, Sarah E.; Rischer, Heiko; Memelink, Johan; Goossens, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Plants make specialized bioactive metabolites to defend themselves against attackers. The conserved control mechanisms are based on transcriptional activation of the respective plant species-specific biosynthetic pathways by the phytohormone jasmonate. Knowledge of the transcription factors involved, particularly in terpenoid biosynthesis, remains fragmentary. By transcriptome analysis and functional screens in the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle), the unique source of the monoterpenoid indole alkaloid (MIA)-type anticancer drugs vincristine and vinblastine, we identified a jasmonate-regulated basic helix–loop–helix (bHLH) transcription factor from clade IVa inducing the monoterpenoid branch of the MIA pathway. The bHLH iridoid synthesis 1 (BIS1) transcription factor transactivated the expression of all of the genes encoding the enzymes that catalyze the sequential conversion of the ubiquitous terpenoid precursor geranyl diphosphate to the iridoid loganic acid. BIS1 acted in a complementary manner to the previously characterized ethylene response factor Octadecanoid derivative-Responsive Catharanthus APETALA2-domain 3 (ORCA3) that transactivates the expression of several genes encoding the enzymes catalyzing the conversion of loganic acid to the downstream MIAs. In contrast to ORCA3, overexpression of BIS1 was sufficient to boost production of high-value iridoids and MIAs in C. roseus suspension cell cultures. Hence, BIS1 might be a metabolic engineering tool to produce sustainably high-value MIAs in C. roseus plants or cultures. PMID:26080427

  14. Review of ASME code criteria for control of primary loads on nuclear piping system branch connections and recommendations for additional development work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodabaugh, E.C.; Gwaltney, R.C.; Moore, S.E.

    1993-11-01

    This report collects and uses available data to reexamine the criteria for controlling primary loads in nuclear piping branch connections as expressed in Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. In particular, the primary load stress indices given in NB-3650 and NB-3683 are reexamined. The report concludes that the present usage of the stress indices in the criteria equations should be continued. However, the complex treatment of combined branch and run moments is not supported by available information. Therefore, it is recommended that this combined loading evaluation procedure be replaced for primary loads by the separate leg evaluation procedure specified in NC/ND-3653.3(c) and NC/ND-3653.3(d). No recommendation is made for fatigue or secondary load evaluations for Class 1 piping. Further work should be done on the development of better criteria for treatment of combined branch and run moment effects

  15. Hearing aid controlled by binaural source localizer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    An adaptive directional hearing aid system comprising a left hearing aid and a right hearing aid, wherein a binaural acoustic source localizer is located in the left hearing aid or in the right hearing aid or in a separate body- worn device connected wirelessly to the left hearing aid and the right

  16. Rate Control in Dual Source Evaporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielinga, T.; Gruisinga, W.; Leeuwis, H.; Lodder, J.C.; van Weers, J.F.; Wilmans, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    Two-component thin films are deposited in a high-vacuum system from two close sources, heated by an electron beam which is deflected between them. By using quartz-crystal monitors the evaporation rates are measured seperately, which is usually considered to be problematical. One rate signal is used

  17. VD-411 branch driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbunov, N.V.; Karev, A.G.; Mal'tsev, Eh.I.; Morozov, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    The VD-411 branch driver for CAMAC moduli control by the SM-4 computer is described. The driver realizes data exchange with moduli disposed in 28 crates grouped in 4 branches. Data exchange can be carried out either in the program regime or in the regime of direct access to the memory. Fulfilment of 11 block regimes and one program regime is provided for. A possibility of individual programming of exchange methods in block regimes is left for users for organisation of quicker and most flexible data removal from the CAMAC moduli. In the regime of direct access the driver provides data transmission at the size up to 64 Kwords placing it in the computer memory of 2 M byte. High rate of data transmission and the developed system of interruptions ensure efficient utilization of the VD-411 branch driver at data removal from facilities in high energy physics experiments

  18. Regulatory control of radiation sources. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The basic requirements for the protection of persons against exposure to ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources were established in the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (the Basic Safety Standards), jointly sponsored by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the International Labour Organization (ILO), the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/ NEA), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) (the Sponsoring Organizations). The application of the Basic Safety Standards is based on the presumption that national infrastructures are in place to enable governments to discharge their responsibilities for radiation protection and safety. Requirements relating to the legal and governmental infrastructure for the safety of nuclear facilities and sources of ionizing radiation, radiation protection, the safe management of radioactive waste and the safe transport of radioactive material are established in the Safety Requirements on Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety, Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-1. This Safety Guide, which is jointly sponsored by the FAO, the IAEA, the International Labour Office, the PAHO and the WHO, gives detailed guidance on the key elements for the organization and operation of a national regulatory infrastructure for radiation safety, with particular reference to the functions of the national regulatory body that are necessary to ensure the implementation of the Basic Safety Standards. The Safety Guide is based technically on material first published in IAEA-TECDOC-10671, which was jointly sponsored by the FAO, the IAEA, the OECD/NEA, the PAHO and the WHO. The requirements established in GS-R-1 have been taken into account. The Safety Guide is oriented towards national

  19. Time-lapse controlled-source electromagnetics using interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunziker, J.W.; Slob, E.C.; Wapenaar, C.P.A.

    In time-lapse controlled-source electromagnetics, it is crucial that the source and the receivers are positioned at exactly the same location at all times of measurement. We use interferometry by multidimensional deconvolution (MDD) to overcome problems in repeatability of the source location.

  20. The regulatory control of ionizing radiation sources in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastauskas, A.; Ziliukas, J.; Morkunas, G.

    1998-01-01

    The Radiation Protection Centre of the Ministry of Health is the regulatory authority responsible for radiation protection of the public and of workers using sources of ionizing radiation in Lithuania. One of its responsibilities is the control of radioactive sources, which includes keeping the registry, investigating persons arrested while illegally carrying or in possession of radioactive material, decision making and control of users of radioactive sources. The computer based registry contains a directory of more than 24,000 sources and some 800 users in research, medicine and industry. Most of these sources are found in smoke detectors and X ray equipment. The potentially most dangerous sources for therapy and industry (sealed and unsealed) are also listed in this registry. Problems connected with the regulatory control of radioactive sources in Lithuania are presented and their solution is discussed. (author)

  1. Effluent release limits, sources and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindell, G.E.

    1977-01-01

    Objectives of radiation protection in relation to releases. Environmental transfer models for radionuclides. Relationship between releases, environmental levels and doses to persons. Establishment of release limits: Limits based on critical population group concept critical pathway analysis and identification of critical group. Limits based on optimization of radiation protection individual dose limits, collective doses and dose commitments 1) differential cost benefit analysis 2) authorized and operational limits taking account of future exposures. Monitoring of releases to the environment: Objectives of effluent monitoring. Typical sources and composition of effluents; design and operation of monitoring programmes; recording and reporting of monitoring results; complementary environmental monitoring. (orig.) [de

  2. 10 CFR 36.31 - Control of source movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control of source movement. 36.31 Section 36.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR IRRADIATORS Design and Performance Requirements for Irradiators § 36.31 Control of source movement. (a) The mechanism that moves the...

  3. Computer aided control of the Bonn Penning polarized ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, N.W.; VonRossen, P.; Eversheim, P.D.; Busch, R.

    1984-01-01

    A CBM computer system is described which has been set up to control the Bonn Polarized Ion Source. The controlling program, besides setting and logging parameters, performs an optimization of the ion source output. A free definable figure of merit, being composed of the current of the ionizer and its variance, has proven to be an effective means in directing the source optimization. The performance that has been reached during the first successful tests is reported

  4. Radiological control in fires involving radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, J.O.A.; Coelho, C.P.

    1984-01-01

    The copies used during the chatter by techniques from CDTN in the I Mineiro Symposium of Fire Engineering, are presented. The chatter was based on emergency radiation control course, given by CDTN. Basic concepts, such as nuclear physics fundaments, radiation nature and detection, radiation protection and practical aspects of radiological fire emergency, were enphasized. (M.C.K.) [pt

  5. Identification of major sources controlling groundwater chemistry ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The study area Mettur forms an important industrial town situated NW of Salem district. The geology of the area is mainly composed of Archean crystalline metamorphic complexes. To iden- tify the major process activated for controlling the groundwater chemistry an attempt has been made by collecting a total of 46 ...

  6. Acid deposition: sources, effects and controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhurst, J.W.S. (ed.)

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this collection of 19 papers is to review our understanding of the cause and effect of acid deposition, to present new data that assist in the provision of a fuller understanding of cause, process and implication and thus to assist in defining the research agenda of the future. The materials presented are European in perspective, drawn from the Federal Republic of Germany, Hungary, Norway, Sweden and the United Kingdom. The current position as regards deposition monitoring, ecological effects and control technologies is presented in five sections: acid deposition monitoring, freshwater acidification, soils and forest systems, structural materials and control technologies. Each section is introduced by an overview paper outlining the contemporary understanding and identifying areas requiring future work. Specialist papers presenting new data or re-interpretations of existing information comprise the remainder of each section. Four of the papers have been abstracted separately.

  7. Software architecture considerations for ion source control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, J.W.

    1997-09-01

    General characteristics of distributed control system software tools are examined from the perspective of ion source control system requirements. Emphasis is placed on strategies for building extensible, distributed systems in which the ion source element is one component of a larger system. Vsystem, a commercial software tool kit from Vista Control Systems was utilized extensively in the control system upgrade of the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility. Part of the control system is described and the characteristics of Vsystem are examined and compared with those of EPICS, the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System

  8. Regulatory control of radiation sources in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coy, K.

    1998-01-01

    The regulatory programme governing the safe use of radioisotopes in Germany is based on the federal legislation enacted as Atomic Energy Control Act (Atomgesetz) and Radiation Protection Ordinance (Strahlen-schutzverordnung) and its implementation by the competent authorities of the individual states. Despite this highly decentralized infrastructure of enforcement the basic principles of regulations described in this paper such as authorization criteria, conditions imposed as well as depth and intensity of inspection balanced according to the individual radiation hazard involved are harmonized to the greatest possible extent by regular coordination among the competent authorities as well as a series of technical regulations such as standards and guidelines. (author)

  9. Control of sealed sources and equipments used in gammagraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahyun, A.; Sordi, G.-M.A.A.; Biazzini Filho, F.L.

    1988-01-01

    The Radiation Protection Department of the IPEN-CNEN/SP, in 1987, formed a section incharged to control all radioactive material: a) received by the IPEN-CNEN/SP; b) produced by the IPEN-CNEN/SP; c) delivered from the IPEN-CNEN/SP. The aim of this section is to maintain a permanent control of all radioactive sources movement got at the IPEN-CNEN/SP. This control is performed with a microcomputer, trademark MICRODIGITAL, model TK3000 //e, 256 KBytes of memory, utilizing the TOTALWORKS program. This program permits to have the origin, characteristics and address of the radioactive sources, its sites in the IPEN, its uses, etc. Already we have put in the microcomputer, the control of the sealed sources produced used in nondestructive test, the inspection control of the gamagraphy irradiator and the control of the depleted sources. The next step is to introduce in the computer the inspection of the remote control of the irradiator. The aim of this paper is to describe the control program that was already put on. This radioactive material control was started with the sealed sources used in gamagraphy because we believe that is the field with the most likelihood of accident in the population, and therefore it's that need the most hard control about the site and the performance of the irradiation facility. (author) [pt

  10. 42: An Open-Source Simulation Tool for Study and Design of Spacecraft Attitude Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneking, Eric

    2018-01-01

    Simulation is an important tool in the analysis and design of spacecraft attitude control systems. The speaker will discuss the simulation tool, called simply 42, that he has developed over the years to support his own work as an engineer in the Attitude Control Systems Engineering Branch at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. 42 was intended from the outset to be high-fidelity and powerful, but also fast and easy to use. 42 is publicly available as open source since 2014. The speaker will describe some of 42's models and features, and discuss its applicability to studies ranging from early concept studies through the design cycle, integration, and operations. He will outline 42's architecture and share some thoughts on simulation development as a long-term project.

  11. Characteristics of a high-power RF source of negative hydrogen ions for neutral beam injection into controlled fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdrashitov, G. F.; Belchenko, Yu. I.; Gusev, I. A.; Ivanov, A. A.; Kondakov, A. A.; Sanin, A. L.; Sotnikov, O. Z., E-mail: O.Z.Sotnikov@inp.nsk.su; Shikhovtsev, I. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    An injector of hydrogen atoms with an energy of 0.5–1 MeV and equivalent current of up to 1.5 A for purposes of controlled fusion research is currently under design at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences. Within this project, a multiple-aperture RF surface-plasma source of negative hydrogen ions is designed. The source design and results of experiments on the generation of a negative ion beam with a current of >1 A in the long-pulse mode are presented.

  12. 238Pu sources for cardiac pacemakers. II. Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pottier, R.; Merigot, S.

    1976-01-01

    The method and the apparatus used for thermal (power) and radioactive control of radioisotopic sources for pacemakers are briefly described. The cybernetic system is also presented, which assumes almost automatically the monitoring of control, mechanical and electronic works, data processing, the measurements and computations, and the works related to quality control [fr

  13. Femtosecond Light Source for Phase-Controlled Multiphoton Ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, A. V.; Walker, D. R.; Yavuz, D. D.; Yin, G. Y.; Harris, S. E.

    2001-01-01

    We describe a femtosecond Raman light source with more than an octave of optical bandwidth. We use this source to demonstrate phase control of multiphoton ionization under conditions where ionization requires eleven photons of the lowest frequency of the spectrum or five photons of the highest frequency. The nonlinearity of the photoionization process allows us to characterize the light source. Experiment-to-theory comparison implies generation of a near single-cycle waveform

  14. Orphan sources control in the Republic of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C.-W.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the orphan source control programme in Korea will be discussed. Orphan sources are, in general, classified into three groups: 1) Illegally trafficking radioactive sources; 2) Domestic loss of radioactive sources due to the bankruptcy of licensees or authorized suppliers; and 3) Contaminated metal scrap, which has been imported. There are, currently, two approaches going on to control and manage orphan sources in Korea. First, the Korean regulatory authority (Ministry of Science and Technology: MOST) will fully run an information system on radiation safety to effectively trace and monitor all radioactive sources in the country by the year 2001. Second, the regulatory authority strongly advises steel mill companies to closely scrutinize and inspect scrap metal through a scrap monitoring system when they attempt to reutilize it in order to prevent it from being contaminated by uncontrolled sources. The Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS), a regulatory expert organization, is carrying out a three-year multiphase project to control and monitor orphan sources in Korea. The system, called the Information System on Integrated Radiation Safety (ISIRS) on the inter- and intra-net system has been developed to effectively control and accurately monitor radioactive sources on a real time basis since 1998. If the system is successfully set up as scheduled by the middle of May next year, the regulatory authority will be able to control any reutilization of uncontrolled sources efficiently. At the same time, the system can also provide, not only licensees, suppliers, or perspective end users but also the Korean general public of interests with information on radiation safety, safe radiation management tools and public services. The system has been created because of the necessity to effectively control radioactive sources safely. Also, it serves to prepare necessary protective measures in a timely manner for abnormal events of uncontrolled radiation from

  15. Status report on the ADVANCED LIGHT SOURCE control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magyary, S.; Chin, M.; Fahmie, M.; Lancaster, H.; Molinari, P.; Robb, A.; Timossi, C.; Young, J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper is a status report on the ADVANCED LIGHT SOURCE (ALS) control system. The current status, performance data, and future plans will be discussed. Manpower, scheduling, and costs issues are addressed. (author)

  16. National Management Measures to Control Nonpoint Source Pollution from Forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report helps forest owners protect lakes and streams from polluted runoff that can result from forestry activities. The report will also help states to implement their nonpoint source control programs.

  17. Rate-control algorithms testing by using video source model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belyaev, Evgeny; Turlikov, Andrey; Ukhanova, Anna

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the method of rate control algorithms testing by the use of video source model is suggested. The proposed method allows to significantly improve algorithms testing over the big test set.......In this paper the method of rate control algorithms testing by the use of video source model is suggested. The proposed method allows to significantly improve algorithms testing over the big test set....

  18. Endurance performance and energy metabolism during exercise in mice with a muscle-specific defect in the control of branched-chain amino acid catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Minjun; Kitaura, Yasuyuki; Ishikawa, Takuya; Kadota, Yoshihiro; Terai, Chihaya; Shindo, Daichi; Morioka, Takashi; Ota, Miki; Morishita, Yukako; Ishihara, Kengo; Shimomura, Yoshiharu

    2017-01-01

    It is known that the catabolism of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) in skeletal muscle is suppressed under normal and sedentary conditions but is promoted by exercise. BCAA catabolism in muscle tissues is regulated by the branched-chain α-keto acid (BCKA) dehydrogenase complex, which is inactivated by phosphorylation by BCKA dehydrogenase kinase (BDK). In the present study, we used muscle-specific BDK deficient mice (BDK-mKO mice) to examine the effect of uncontrolled BCAA catabolism on endurance exercise performance and skeletal muscle energy metabolism. Untrained control and BDK-mKO mice showed the same performance; however, the endurance performance enhanced by 2 weeks of running training was somewhat, but significantly less in BDK-mKO mice than in control mice. Skeletal muscle of BDK-mKO mice had low levels of glycogen. Metabolome analysis showed that BCAA catabolism was greatly enhanced in the muscle of BDK-mKO mice and produced branched-chain acyl-carnitine, which induced perturbation of energy metabolism in the muscle. These results suggest that the tight regulation of BCAA catabolism in muscles is important for homeostasis of muscle energy metabolism and, at least in part, for adaptation to exercise training.

  19. Endurance performance and energy metabolism during exercise in mice with a muscle-specific defect in the control of branched-chain amino acid catabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjun Xu

    Full Text Available It is known that the catabolism of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs in skeletal muscle is suppressed under normal and sedentary conditions but is promoted by exercise. BCAA catabolism in muscle tissues is regulated by the branched-chain α-keto acid (BCKA dehydrogenase complex, which is inactivated by phosphorylation by BCKA dehydrogenase kinase (BDK. In the present study, we used muscle-specific BDK deficient mice (BDK-mKO mice to examine the effect of uncontrolled BCAA catabolism on endurance exercise performance and skeletal muscle energy metabolism. Untrained control and BDK-mKO mice showed the same performance; however, the endurance performance enhanced by 2 weeks of running training was somewhat, but significantly less in BDK-mKO mice than in control mice. Skeletal muscle of BDK-mKO mice had low levels of glycogen. Metabolome analysis showed that BCAA catabolism was greatly enhanced in the muscle of BDK-mKO mice and produced branched-chain acyl-carnitine, which induced perturbation of energy metabolism in the muscle. These results suggest that the tight regulation of BCAA catabolism in muscles is important for homeostasis of muscle energy metabolism and, at least in part, for adaptation to exercise training.

  20. RCT: Module 2.08, Radiological Source Control, Course 8774

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillmer, Kurt T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-10

    radioactive source is material used for its emitted radiation. Sources are sealed or unsealed and are classified as accountable or exempt. Radioactive sources are used for response checks, functional checks, and the calibration of instruments and monitors to traceable standards. To ensure the safety and welfare of all personnel, it is important to maintain control of radioactive sources to minimize the potential for the spread of contamination, unnecessary exposure to personnel, loss or theft, and improper disposal. This course will prepare the student with the skills necessary for RCT qualification by passing quizzes, tests, and the RCT Comprehensive Phase 1, Unit 2 Examination (TEST 27566) and will provide in-the-field skills.

  1. Study on road surface source pollution controlled by permeable pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaocheng

    2018-06-01

    The increase of impermeable pavement in urban construction not only increases the runoff of the pavement, but also produces a large number of Non-Point Source Pollution. In the process of controlling road surface runoff by permeable pavement, a large number of particulate matter will be withheld when rainwater is being infiltrated, so as to control the source pollution at the source. In this experiment, we determined the effect of permeable road surface to remove heavy pollutants in the laboratory and discussed the related factors that affect the non-point pollution of permeable pavement, so as to provide a theoretical basis for the application of permeable pavement.

  2. Controlled-source seismic interferometry with one way wave fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Neut, J.; Wapenaar, K.; Thorbecke, J. W.

    2008-12-01

    In Seismic Interferometry we generally cross-correlate registrations at two receiver locations and sum over an array of sources to retrieve a Green's function as if one of the receiver locations hosts a (virtual) source and the other receiver location hosts an actual receiver. One application of this concept is to redatum an area of surface sources to a downhole receiver location, without requiring information about the medium between the sources and receivers, thus providing an effective tool for imaging below complex overburden, which is also known as the Virtual Source method. We demonstrate how elastic wavefield decomposition can be effectively combined with controlled-source Seismic Interferometry to generate virtual sources in a downhole receiver array that radiate only down- or upgoing P- or S-waves with receivers sensing only down- or upgoing P- or S- waves. For this purpose we derive exact Green's matrix representations from a reciprocity theorem for decomposed wavefields. Required is the deployment of multi-component sources at the surface and multi- component receivers in a horizontal borehole. The theory is supported with a synthetic elastic model, where redatumed traces are compared with those of a directly modeled reflection response, generated by placing active sources at the virtual source locations and applying elastic wavefield decomposition on both source and receiver side.

  3. Orphan sources: Consequences, regaining control and learning the lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croft, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    The safety and security record of technologies that use radiation sources is adequate in most cases, but on occasions there has been a lack of appropriate controls or circumvention of those that exist, leading to radiological accidents. Particular concern rise those radiation sources that have become orphans i.e. sources that were never subject to regulatory control, or were abandoned, lost or misplaced, stolen, or removed without authorisation. These sources are likely to be found in the public domain; examples include sources that used in radiotherapy units which have been unintentionally sold as scrap metal and melted thereafter, or which have been found by unsuspecting individuals or stolen, causing serious radiation exposure of people and contamination of the human habitat

  4. National Strategy for Regaining Control Over Orphan Sources and Improving Control Over Vulnerable Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    . The standards are also applied by regulatory bodies and operators around the world to enhance safety in nuclear power generation and in nuclear applications in medicine, industry, agriculture and research. Safety is not an end in itself but a prerequisite for the purpose of the protection of people in all States and of the environment - now and in the future. The risks associated with ionizing radiation must be assessed and controlled without unduly limiting the contribution of nuclear energy to equitable and sustainable development. Governments, regulatory bodies and operators everywhere must ensure that nuclear material and radiation sources are used beneficially, safely and ethically. The IAEA safety standards are designed to facilitate this, and I encourage all Member States to make use of them.

  5. National Strategy for Regaining Control over Orphan Sources and Improving Control over Vulnerable Sources (Arabic Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-15

    . The standards are also applied by regulatory bodies and operators around the world to enhance safety in nuclear power generation and in nuclear applications in medicine, industry, agriculture and research. Safety is not an end in itself but a prerequisite for the purpose of the protection of people in all States and of the environment - now and in the future. The risks associated with ionizing radiation must be assessed and controlled without unduly limiting the contribution of nuclear energy to equitable and sustainable development. Governments, regulatory bodies and operators everywhere must ensure that nuclear material and radiation sources are used beneficially, safely and ethically. The IAEA safety standards are designed to facilitate this, and I encourage all Member States to make use of them.

  6. Urban stormwater source control policies: why and how?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Petrucci

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Stormwater source control is becoming a common strategy for urban stormwater management in many countries. It relies on regulations or other policy instruments compelling or inciting implementation, for each new urban development, of small-scale facilities to locally store and manage stormwater. Local authorities that pioneered source control since the 1980s have already observed that small-scale facilities systematically implemented over a catchment are able to influence its hydrological behaviour. This capability is the main strength of source control, as it allows compensation for the negative effects of urbanization. Yet, it also represents its main risk: if initial decision-making is not sufficiently accurate, source control can produce long-term negative effects. Because of its current spreading, source control will acquire an increasing role as a driver of hydrological changes in urban catchments, and the directions of these changes depend on current policy-making practices. This paper presents an analysis and a critical discussion of the main objectives that policy-makers attribute to stormwater source control. The investigation is based on a sample of French case studies, completed by a literature review for international comparison. It identifies four main objectives, some typical of urban stormwater management and some more innovative: flood reduction, receiving waters protection, sustainable development, costs reduction. The discussion focuses on how current policy-making practices are able to translate these objectives in concrete policy instruments, and on which knowledge and tools could improve this process. It is shown that for some objectives, basic knowledge is available, but the creation of policy instruments which are effective at the catchment scale and adapted to local conditions is still problematic. For other objectives, substantial lacks of knowledge exist, casting doubts on long-term effectiveness of current policy

  7. CLOSED LOOP CONTROL OF EMBEDDED Z-SOURCE INVERTER WITH FUZZY CONTROLLER FOR SOLAR PV APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Midde Mahesh*, K. Leleedhar Rao

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of Embedded Z –source inverter system with fuzzy controller for Solar Photo Voltaic (PV) applications with adjustable speed drives. Closed loop operation FUZZY control strategies of EZSI system are proposed. EZSI produces the same voltage gain as Z-source inverter (ZSI) but due to the DC sources embedded within the X- shaped impedance network, it has the added advantage of inherent source filtering capability and also reduced capacitor sizing. This can be achiev...

  8. Energy control of supercapacitor/fuel cell hybrid power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payman, Alireza; Pierfederici, Serge; Meibody-Tabar, Farid

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with a flatness based control principle in a hybrid system utilizing a fuel cell as a main power source and a supercapacitor as an auxiliary power source. The control strategy is based on regulation of the dc bus capacitor energy and, consequently, voltage regulation. The proposed control algorithm does not use a commutation algorithm when the operating mode changes with the load power variation and, thus, avoids chattering effects. Using the flatness based control method, the fuel cell dynamic and its delivered power is perfectly controlled, and the fuel cell can operate in a safe condition. In the hybrid system, the supercapacitor functions during transient energy delivery or during energy recovery situations. To validate the proposed method, the control algorithms are executed in dSPACE hardware, while analogical current loops regulators are employed in the experimental environment. The experimental results prove the validity of the proposed approach

  9. Sources of core and intact branched tetraether membrane lipids in the lacustrine environment: Anatomy of Lake Challa and its catchment, equatorial East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buckles, L.K.; Weijers, J.W.H.; Verschuren, D.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    The MBT/CBT palaeotemperature proxy uses the distribution of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs), membrane lipids that are supposed to derive from soil bacteria, to reconstruct mean annual air temperature (MAAT). Applied successfully in coastal marine sediments, its extension to

  10. Sources and distributions of branched and isoprenoid tetraether lipids on the Amazon shelf and fan : Implications for the use of GDGT-based proxies in marine sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zell, Claudia; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Hollander, David; Lorenzoni, Laura; Baker, Paul; Silva, Cleverson Guizan; Nittrouer, Charles; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2014-01-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) in river fan sediments have been used successfully to reconstruct mean annual air temperature (MAAT) and soil pH of the Congo River drainage basin. However, in a previous study of Amazon deep-sea fan sediments the reconstructed MAATs were ca.

  11. The regulatory control of radioactive sources in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojkind, Roberto Hector [Autoridade Regulatoria Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1997-12-31

    Argentina has been conducting nuclear activities for more than forty years, and as early as in 1956 established a Regulatory Authority. Procedures for compliance monitoring and enforcement have been in use in the regulatory control of radioactive sources, and regulatory standards and regulations had been set in Argentina, before the accident in Goiania. The conclusions drawn from that accident encouraged in Argentina the improvement of some regulatory procedures and helped to enhance the quality of the regulatory process. Therefore, the effectiveness of the control of spent radioactive sources has gradually increased, and enforcement actions to prevent radioactive sources ending up in the public domain improved. Some lessons learned in Argentina from the accident in Goiania and the main characteristics of an effective enforcement program helpful to prevent radiological accidents in industrial, medical, research and teaching uses of radioactive sources are presented. (author) 9 refs; e-mail: rrojkind at sede.arn.gov.br

  12. The regulatory control of radioactive sources in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojkind, R.H.

    1998-01-01

    Argentina has been conducting nuclear activities for more than forty years, and had established a Regulatory Authority as early as in 1956. Procedures for compliance monitoring and enforcement have been in use in the regulatory control of radioactive sources, and regulatory standards and regulations were in force in Argentina before the accident in Goiania. The conclusions drawn from the Goiania accident encouraged the Argentine authorities to improve some regulatory procedures and helped to enhance the quality of the regulatory process. As a result, the effectiveness of the control of spent radioactive sources has gradually increased, and enforcement actions to prevent radioactive sources ending up in the public domain have improved. Lessons learned in Argentina from the accident in Goiania are presented as well as the main characteristics of an effective enforcement programme to prevent radiological accidents when radioactive sources are used for industrial, medical, research and teaching purposes. (author)

  13. The regulatory control of radioactive sources in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojkind, Roberto Hector

    1997-01-01

    Argentina has been conducting nuclear activities for more than forty years, and as early as in 1956 established a Regulatory Authority. Procedures for compliance monitoring and enforcement have been in use in the regulatory control of radioactive sources, and regulatory standards and regulations had been set in Argentina, before the accident in Goiania. The conclusions drawn from that accident encouraged in Argentina the improvement of some regulatory procedures and helped to enhance the quality of the regulatory process. Therefore, the effectiveness of the control of spent radioactive sources has gradually increased, and enforcement actions to prevent radioactive sources ending up in the public domain improved. Some lessons learned in Argentina from the accident in Goiania and the main characteristics of an effective enforcement program helpful to prevent radiological accidents in industrial, medical, research and teaching uses of radioactive sources are presented. (author)

  14. APPLICATION OF CONTROLLED SOURCE AUDIO MAGNETOTELLURIC (CSAMT AT GEOTHERMAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susilawati S.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available CSAMT or Controlled Source Audio-Magnetotelluric is one of the Geophysics methods to determine the resistivity of rock under earth surface. CSAMT method utilizes artificial stream and injected into the ground, the frequency of artificial sources ranging from 0.1 Hz to 10 kHz, CSAMT data source effect correction is inverted. From the inversion results showed that there is a layer having resistivity values ranged between 2.5 Ω.m – 15 Ω.m, which is interpreted that the layer is clay.

  15. System control for the modulated 252Cf source ''Shuffler''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, M.M.

    1975-06-01

    The design and theory of operation of the control chassis for a 252 Cf nondestructive assay system are described. This system repetitively transfers a 252 Cf source from the irradiation region to a shielded position before measuring the delayed neutrons. The design criteria for the system were: rapid movement and precise positioning of the 252 Cf source, precise positioning of the sample, and very accurate timing of the irradiate and count cycles. To achieve these results crystal oscillators were used for timing, and stepping motors were used to position the sample and the source. (U.S.)

  16. An optical system for controlling ion source parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Baifang; Liu Zhenhao; Jiang Yi; Xu Zhengjia

    1999-01-01

    An optical control system used for adjusting the source's parameters of an ion separator is described. There are two slice microcomputers at HV terminal and the ground respectively. These microcomputers communicate each other with the full-duplex mode through two pieces of optical fiber, in which many parameters are time-share transmitted in the form of optical pulse. This system can stabilize the arc current and temperature, adjust and display all parameters and has safe-guard ability. At HV terminal, the optical coupling technique is used for connecting the CPU and the ion source, and at the ground the CPU can communicate with a control microcomputer

  17. Status report on the Advanced Light Source control system, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.; Brown, W. Jr.; Cork, C.

    1993-10-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), under construction for the past seven years, has become operational. The accelerator has been successfully commissioned using a control system based on hundreds of controllers of our own design and high performance personal computers which are the operator interface. The first beamlines are being commissioned using a control system based on VME hardware and the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) software. The two systems are being integrated, and this paper reports on the current work being done

  18. Control of orphan sources. Import to and transport through Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesarek, J.; Vokal Nemec, B.

    2007-01-01

    Orphan sources are radioactive sources which are not under regulatory control, either because they have never been under regulatory control, or because they have been abandoned, lost, misplaced, stolen or transferred without proper authorisation. The issue of orphan sources is not a new one but the situation has been highlighted more and more in the last ten years. One of the most important international milestones in this regard was the conference in Dijon, France in 1998. The orphan sources have become an international problem due to steady increase in international trade which made impossible to control every transfer of goods between countries. Shipments of metal scrap, either national or international, could comprise orphan sources which had come into metal stream. The consequences of such events vary greatly: from contaminated metal just above exemption levels to a melting of volatile radionuclides of significant activity which may cause enormous remediation costs. In addition, the phenomenon of deliberate abuse of nuclear material and radioactive material or previous accidents with found orphan sources worldwide and fatalities have made this issue even more provoking. In Slovenia, no such drastic events have occurred so far. Since 1991 there have been a few meltings of cobalt-60 sources with only economic impact. On several occasions, Italy - the country with strict import control - has detected elevated radiation and denied shipments of scrap metal. They had originated either from Slovenia or from other countries, mostly from former Yugoslav republics. The Slovenian experience shows that majority of cases is related to import of scrap metal in Slovenia or to transit of such material through Slovenia. These orphan sources have originated from past industrial activities or have been under no or weak regulatory control in their countries of origin. In order to prevent inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of nuclear material and radioactive sources some

  19. Strengthening the control on radioactive sources - Cernavoda NPP operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daian, I.; Simionov, V.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the national legal frame governing the radioactive source management, legislative requirements introduced during last years and current status of controlled radioactive sources program at Cernavoda NPP. Romania has only one nuclear power plant, Cernavoda NPP, equipped with five PHWR - CANDU-6 Canadian type reactors - with a 700 MW(e) gross capacity each, in different implementation stages. The legal representative of the nuclear power production sector in Romania is 'Nuclearelectrica' S.A. National Company (SNN). SNN is a governmental company controlled by the Ministry of Industry and Trade. The company has headquarters in Bucharest and three subsidiaries: - CNE-PROD Cernavoda (CNE-PROD), operating the Cernavoda NPP - Unit 1; - CNE-INVEST Cernavoda, in charge with the completion of Unit 2 and with the preservation of Units 3,4,5; - Nuclear Fuel Plant in Pitesti (FCN). Unit 1 is in commercial operation since December 2, 1996, Unit 2 is under construction (80% completed) and Units 3, 4, 5 are under preservation. The operation of Cernavoda NPP implies use of radioactive sources that may present a significant risk to health, property and the environment when control is lost. Within the last years CNCAN issued new regulations stating clear responsibilities for the different institutions involved in radioactive materials control programs. To manage radioactive sources in a safe way CNE-PROD established and revised the Controlled Radioactive Sources Program, as part of Station Radiation Protection Regulation, ensuring strict recording of the radioactive sources and their usage, ensuring physical and radiological security, protecting the personnel, members of the public and the environment from the hazards of ionizing radiation during the life cycle of the plant, including decommissioning. (authors)

  20. Strengthening the control on radioactive sources - Cernavoda NPP operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daian, I.; Simionov, V.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: This paper presents the national legal frame governing the radioactive source management, legislative requirements introduced during last years and current status of controlled radioactive sources program at Cernavoda NPP. Romania has only one nuclear power plant, Cernavoda NPP, equipped with five PHWR - CANDU-6 Canadian type reactors - with a 700 MW(e) gross capacity each, in different implementation stages. The legal representative of the nuclear power production sector in Romania is 'Nuclearelectrica' S.A. National Company (SNN). SNN is a governmental company controlled by the Ministry of Industry and Trade. The company has headquarters in Bucharest and three subsidiaries: - CNE-PROD Cernavoda (CNE-PROD), operating the Cernavoda NPP - Unit 1; - CNE-INVEST Cernavoda, in charge with the completion of Unit 2 and with the preservation of Units 3,4,5; - Nuclear Fuel Plant in Pitesti (FCN). Unit 1 is in commercial operation since December 2, 1996, Unit 2 is under construction (80% completed) and Units 3, 4, 5 are under preservation. The operation of Cernavoda NPP implies use of radioactive sources that may present a significant risk to health, property and the environment when control is lost. Within the last years CNCAN issued new regulations stating clear responsibilities for the different institutions involved in radioactive materials control programs. To manage radioactive sources in a safe way CNE-PROD established and revised the Controlled Radioactive Sources Program, as part of Station Radiation Protection Regulation, ensuring strict recording of the radioactive sources and their usage, ensuring physical and radiological security, protecting the personnel, members of the public and the environment from the hazards of ionizing radiation during the life cycle of the plant. (authors)

  1. CLS A Fully Open-Source Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Matias, Elder; Johnson, Terry; Tanner, Robby; Wilson, Tony; Wright, Glen; Zhang, Hao

    2005-01-01

    The Canadian Light Source is one of the first major accelerator facility to adopt a fully open source control system. The control system is based on Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) in use at may other facilities. From the outset CLS utilised RTEMS and Linux as the underlying operating systems for real-time control computers, operator interface computers and servers. When communicating with PLC and other intelligent devices CLS has also adopted a policy of using open communications protocols where possible. Combined these strategies have lead to a system that can easily evolve over the life of the facility without being tied to specific hardware or software suppliers. The operational experience over the past few years has indicates the selected architecture is sufficiently robust and reliable.

  2. Effective Regulatory Control of Radioactive Sources in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, W.; Yuan, C.; Fan, S.; Su, S.

    2004-01-01

    Since the incident of radioactively contaminated buildings first surfaced in Taiwan in 1992, efforts have been made by AEC (Atomic Energy Council) of Taiwan to prevent recurrence of similar incidents involving radioactive materials and to achieve effective regulatory control over radioactive sources. The most important milestone is when AEC began to enforce IRPA he Ionizing Radiation Protection Act with the promulgation of 18 relevant regulations on Feb. 1, 2003. In order to enhance accountability of radioactive material and equipment capable of producing ionizing radiation, AEC develops and begins implementing a RPCS Radiation Protection Control System which is a powerful tool in controlling radiation safety and security. In addition, AEC develops a monthly registration program via internet, an o n-line reporting system f or owners/operators of radioactive sources, to improve monitoring of sealed sources (in-use and not-in-use). The registration requirement applies to 469 licensees possessing about 3,000 sealed sources in Taiwan. Because of the threat of orphan sources, AEC has made great efforts in preventing their contamination of construction steel material by establishing and enforcing the RPMMPIRCB Regulation for Preventive Measures and Management Plans for Incident of Radioactively Contaminated Buildings. To comply with this regulation, all 19 of Taiwan's steel factories with melting furnace have installed portal-type radiation detection system to monitor incoming scrap metal. (Author)

  3. Access control and interlock system at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrestal, J.; Hogrefe, R.; Knott, M.; McDowell, W.; Reigle, D.; Solita, L.; Koldenhoven, R.; Haid, D.

    1997-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) consists of a linac, position accumulator ring (PAR), booster synchrotron, storage ring, and up to 70 experimental beamlines. The Access Control and Interlock System (ACIS) utilizes redundant programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and a third hard-wired chain to protect personnel from prompt radiation generated by the linac, PAR, synchrotron, and storage ring. This paper describes the ACIS's design philosophy, configuration, hardware, functionality, validation requirements, and operational experience

  4. REGIONAL DRAINWATER MANAGEMENT: SOURCE CONTROL, AGROFORESTRY, AND EVAPORATION PONDS

    OpenAIRE

    Posnikoff, Judith F.; Knapp, Keith C.

    1996-01-01

    Source control is one way to address salinity and drainage problems in irrigated agriculture, and reuse of drainage flows on salt-tolerant crops or trees in agroforestry production is another. A regional model of agricultural production with drainwater reuse and disposal is developed. Deep percolation flows are controlled through choice of crop areas, irrigation systems, and applied-water quantities. Crop drainwater may by reused in agroforestry production, and residual emissions are disposed...

  5. Revised accident source terms and control room habitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahti, G.P.; Hubner, R.S.; Johnson, W.J.; Schwartz, B.C.

    1993-01-01

    In April 1992, the NRC staff presented to the Commissioners the draft NUREG open-quotes Revised Accident Source Terms for Light-Water Nuclear Power Plants.close quotes This document is the culmination of more than ten years of NRC-sponsored research and represents the first change in the NRC's position on source terms since TID-14844 was issued in 1962. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of the revised source terms on the current approach to analyzing control room habitability as required by 10 CFR 50. Sample calculations are presented that identify aspects of the model requiring clarification before the implementation of the revised source terms. 6 refs., 4 tabs

  6. The Sources of Air Pollution and Their Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Arlington, VA.

    The problems of air pollution and its control are discussed. Major consideration is given the sources of pollution - motor vehicles, industry, power plants, space heating, and refuse disposal. Annual emission levels of five principle pollutants - carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter - are listed…

  7. Regulatory control of radioactive sources: an international perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flakus, F.N.

    1998-01-01

    Within its Regular Programme and its Technical Co-operation Programme, the IAEA undertakes a number of activities in support of national efforts aimed at strengthening national infrastructures for the control of radiation sources. The framework of these activities is described. (author)

  8. Sources of ionizing radiation in industry: licensing and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, V.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper are presented several methods, which the Inspection on the Safe Use of Atomic Energy applies for the control on the use of sources of ionizing radiation in industry. It reviews some problems, which we have to solve during our inspections. An analysis and assessment of them is done. The prescribed safety ensuring measures are discussed. (author)

  9. Stability analysis of direct current control in current source rectifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Dapeng; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    Current source rectifier with high switching frequency has a great potential for improving the power efficiency and power density in ac-dc power conversion. This paper analyzes the stability of direct current control based on the time delay effect. Small signal model including dynamic behaviors...

  10. Generalized space vector control for current source inverters and rectifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseline J. Anitha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Current source inverters (CSI is one of the widely used converter topology in medium voltage drive applications due to its simplicity, motor friendly waveforms and reliable short circuit protection. The current source inverters are usually fed by controlled current source rectifiers (CSR with a large inductor to provide a constant supply current. A generalized control applicable for both CSI and CSR and their extension namely current source multilevel inverters (CSMLI are dealt in this paper. As space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM features the advantages of flexible control, faster dynamic response, better DC utilization and easy digital implementation it is considered for this work. This paper generalizes SVPWM that could be applied for CSI, CSR and CSMLI. The intense computation involved in framing a generalized space vector control are discussed in detail. The algorithm includes determination of band, region, subregions and vectors. The algorithm is validated by simulation using MATLAB /SIMULINK for CSR 5, 7, 13 level CSMLI and for CSR fed CSI.

  11. Plasma control for efficient extreme ultra-violet source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kensaku; Nakajima, Mitsuo; Kawamura, Tohru; Shiho, Makoto; Hotta, Eiki; Horioka, Kazuhiko

    2008-01-01

    To generate a high efficiency extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) source, effects of plasma shape for controlling radiative plasmas based on xenon capillary discharge are experimentally investigated. The radiation characteristics observed via tapered capillary discharge are compared with those of straight one. From the comparison, the long emission period and different plasma behaviors of tapered capillary discharge are confirmed. This means that control of the plasma geometry is effective for prolonging the EUV emission period. This result also indicates that the plasma shape control seems to have a potential for enhancing the conversion efficiency. (author)

  12. [Automatic adjustment control system for DC glow discharge plasma source].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Zhen-zhen; Wang, Yong-qing; Li, Xiao-jia; Wang, Hai-zhou; Shi, Ning

    2011-03-01

    There are three important parameters in the DC glow discharge process, the discharge current, discharge voltage and argon pressure in discharge source. These parameters influence each other during glow discharge process. This paper presents an automatic control system for DC glow discharge plasma source. This system collects and controls discharge voltage automatically by adjusting discharge source pressure while the discharge current is constant in the glow discharge process. The design concept, circuit principle and control program of this automatic control system are described. The accuracy is improved by this automatic control system with the method of reducing the complex operations and manual control errors. This system enhances the control accuracy of glow discharge voltage, and reduces the time to reach discharge voltage stability. The glow discharge voltage stability test results with automatic control system are provided as well, the accuracy with automatic control system is better than 1% FS which is improved from 4% FS by manual control. Time to reach discharge voltage stability has been shortened to within 30 s by automatic control from more than 90 s by manual control. Standard samples like middle-low alloy steel and tin bronze have been tested by this automatic control system. The concentration analysis precision has been significantly improved. The RSDs of all the test result are better than 3.5%. In middle-low alloy steel standard sample, the RSD range of concentration test result of Ti, Co and Mn elements is reduced from 3.0%-4.3% by manual control to 1.7%-2.4% by automatic control, and that for S and Mo is also reduced from 5.2%-5.9% to 3.3%-3.5%. In tin bronze standard sample, the RSD range of Sn, Zn and Al elements is reduced from 2.6%-4.4% to 1.0%-2.4%, and that for Si, Ni and Fe is reduced from 6.6%-13.9% to 2.6%-3.5%. The test data is also shown in this paper.

  13. Regulatory inspection: a powerful tool to control industrial radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, F.C.A. da; Leocadio, J.C.; Ramalho, A.T.

    2008-01-01

    An important contribution for Brazilian development, especially for the quality control of products, is the use of radiation sources by conventional industries. There are in Brazil roughly 3,000 radioactive sources spread out among 950 industries. The main industrial practices involved are: industrial radiography, industrial irradiators, industrial accelerators, well logging petroleum and nuclear gauges. More than 1,800 Radiation Protection Officers (RPOs) were qualified to work in these practices. The present work presents a brief description of the safety control over industrial radioactive installations performed by the Brazilian Regulatory Authority, i.e. the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN). This paper also describes the national system for radiation safety inspections, the regulation infrastructure and the national inventory of industrial installations. The inspections are based on specific indicators, and their periodicity depends on the risk and type of installation. The present work discusses some relevant aspects that must be considered during the inspections, in order to make the inspections more efficient in controlling the sources. One of these aspects regards the evaluation of the storage place for the sources, a very important parameter for preventing future risky situations. (author)

  14. Bundle Branch Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... known cause. Causes can include: Left bundle branch block Heart attacks (myocardial infarction) Thickened, stiffened or weakened ... myocarditis) High blood pressure (hypertension) Right bundle branch block A heart abnormality that's present at birth (congenital) — ...

  15. Neuro-Oncology Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BTTC are experts in their respective fields. Neuro-Oncology Clinical Fellowship This is a joint program with ... can increase survival rates. Learn more... The Neuro-Oncology Branch welcomes Dr. Mark Gilbert as new Branch ...

  16. A Look at the Future of Controlled-Source Seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, G. R.; Klemperer, S.; Hole, J.; Snelson, C.

    2008-12-01

    Facilities like EarthScope and IRIS/PASSCAL offer a framework in which to re-assess the role of our highest- resolution geophysical tool, controlled-source seismology. This tool is effective in near surface studies that focus on the upper 100 m of the crust to studies that focus on Moho structure and the lithospheric mantle. IRIS has now existed for over two decades and has transformed the way in which passive-source seismology in particular is carried out. Progress over these two decades has led to major discoveries about continental architecture and evolution through the development of three-dimensional images of the upper mantle and lithosphere. Simultaneously the hydrocarbon exploration industry has mapped increasingly large fractions of our sedimentary basins in three-dimensions and at unprecedented resolution and fidelity. Thanks to the additional instruments in the EarthScope facility, a clear scientific need and opportunity exists to map, at similar resolution, all of the crust - the igneous/metamorphic basement, the non-petroliferous basins that contain the record of continental evolution, and the seismogenic faults and active volcanoes that are the principal natural hazards we face. Controlled-source seismology remains the fundamental technology behind exploration for all fossil fuels and many water resources, and as such is a multi-billion-dollar industry centered in the USA. Academic scientists are leaders in developing the algorithms to process the most advanced industry data, but lack the academic data sets to which to apply this technology. University and government controlled-source seismologists, and their students who will populate the exploration industry, are increasingly divorced from that industry by their reliance on sparse spatial recording of usually only a single-component of the wavefield, generated by even sparser seismic sources. However, if we can find the resources, the technology now exists to provide seismic images of immense

  17. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1999-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere....

  18. Modeling in control of the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, J.; Forest, E.; Nishimura, H.; Schachinger, L.

    1991-05-01

    A software system for control of accelerator physics parameters of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) is being designed and implemented at LBL. Some of the parameters we wish to control are tunes, chromaticities, and closed orbit distortions as well as linear lattice distortions and, possibly, amplitude- and momentum-dependent tune shifts. In all our applications, the goal is to allow the user to adjust physics parameters of the machine, instead of turning knobs that control magnets directly. This control will take place via a highly graphical user interface, with both a model appropriate to the application and any correction algorithm running alongside as separate processes. Many of these applications will run on a Unix workstation, separate from the controls system, but communicating with the hardware database via Remote Procedure Calls (RPCs)

  19. Control of radioisotopes and radiation sources in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridwan, M.

    2001-01-01

    Radioisotopes and radiation sources are extensively used in Indonesia in medicine, industry, mining, agriculture and research. These materials are controlled by the regulatory authority, according to established legal procedures. The Nuclear Energy Control Board of Indonesia (BAPETEN), which was established in 1998 through the Nuclear Energy Act No. 10/1997, is entrusted with the control of any application of nuclear energy, including the application of radioisotopes and radiation sources, through regulation, licensing and inspection. The control is aimed to assure welfare, security and peace, the safety and health of workers and the public, and environmental protection. The number of licences issued to date is around 2400, consisting of 1600 licences for radioisotopes and radiation sources used in hospitals, 347 in radiography, 256 in industry, 53 in mining, and the rest in many other areas such as research and agriculture. A licence can cover one or more radioisotopes or radiation sources, depending on the location of the user institution. These radioisotopes and radiation sources are Co-60, Cs-137, Ir-192, Ra-226, Am-241, Sr-90, Kr-85, Pm-147, linear accelerator and X-ray, and short half-life radioisotopes such as I-125, I-131 and Tc-99m. There are 10 LINACs, 27 X-ray medicines, 61 radioisotope devices for Co-60 and Cs-137, and 10 mHDR Ir-192 for therapeutic purposes currently used in Indonesia and some Ra-226 in storage. Any activity related to the application of nuclear energy is required to be conducted in a manner which observes safety and security. According to the legal requirements, each user has to employ at least one radiation safety officer. To improve the control of the application of radiation sources and radioactive material in the country, BAPETEN introduced some new approaches to the users, including regular dialogues with radiation safety officers and the management of the users, requalification for radiation protection officers twice in five

  20. Control of radioactive sources in industry through regulatory inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leocadio, J.C.; Ramalho, A.T.; Pinho, A.S.; Lourenco, M.M.J.; Nicola, M.S.; D'Avila, R.L.; Melo, I.F.; Cucco, A.C.S.

    2005-01-01

    In Brazil, the applications of ionizing radiation in industry are accomplished about 900 radioactive facilities, which handle approximately 3.000 radiation sources. The control of radioactive sources used in industrial installations authorized by the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) is accomplished by Servico de Radioprotecao na Industria Radiativa (SERIR) of the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. This service carries out regulatory inspections in the practices of industrial radiography, nuclear gauges, industrial irradiators and oil wells logging. The frequency of inspections depends on the type of practice, ranging from a year to 5 years, depending on the risk involved. This paper presents a brief description of the situation of radiation safety in the use of radioactive sources in the industries of the country. The results obtained with regulatory inspections at industrial installations demonstrate that the conditions of safety and radiation protection in these facilities are satisfactory when compared with the technical regulations, both national and international

  1. Deghosting, Demultiple, and Deblurring in Controlled-Source Seismic Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost van der Neut

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With controlled-source seismic interferometry we aim to redatum sources to downhole receiver locations without requiring a velocity model. Interferometry is generally based on a source integral over cross-correlation (CC pairs of full, perturbed (time-gated, or decomposed wavefields. We provide an overview of ghosts, multiples, and spatial blurring effects that can occur for different types of interferometry. We show that replacing cross-correlation by multidimensional deconvolution (MDD can deghost, demultiple, and deblur retrieved data. We derive and analyze MDD for perturbed and decomposed wavefields. An interferometric point spread function (PSF is introduced that can be obtained directly from downhole data. Ghosts, multiples, and blurring effects that may populate the retrieved gathers can be locally diagnosed with the PSF. MDD of perturbed fields can remove ghosts and deblur retrieved data, but it leaves particular multiples in place. To remove all overburden-related effects, MDD of decomposed fields should be applied.

  2. Regulatory control of radiation sources in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daroy, Rosita R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the radiation protection and safety infrastructure providing emphasis on the regulation and control of radiation sources in the Philippines. It deals with the experiences of the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, as a regulatory body, in the regulation and control of radioactive materials in radiotherapy, nuclear medicine, industrial radiography, industrial gauges, industrial irradiators, and well logging. This paper includes an inventory of the sources and types of devices/equipment used by licensed users of radioactive materials in the Philippines as a contribution to the data base being prepared by the IAEA. The problems encountered by the regulatory body in the licensing and enforcement process, as well as the lessons learned from incidents involving radioactive materials are discussed. Plans for improving compliance to the regulations and enhancing the effectiveness of PNRI's regulatory functions are presented. (author)

  3. Stability and vibration control in synchrotron light source buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godel, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    Synchrotron light sources have undergone three generations of development in the last two decades. The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory has two second generation'' storage rings that currently provide the world's most intense sources of photons in the VUV and X-ray spectral ranges. There are almost 90 beam lines serving a community of 2600 scientists from 370 institutions. They are engaged in basic and applied research in physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, materials science and various technologies. When design of the NSLS began in 1977, emphasis was given to the stability of the concrete slab on which the storage rings and experimental beam lines were placed. Stability is the result of controlling: vibration from sources internal and external to the building, thermal effects of air and water temperature variations, foundation settlement and contact between the slab and underlying subsoil. With the advent of new research where highly focused beams of x-rays must be placed on increasingly smaller targets located 35 meters or more from the source, and the development of x-ray lithography with resolutions approaching 0.1 micron at chip exposure stations, even greater attention to stability is required in building designs. This paper will review the results of the successful NSLS experience and give an integrated design approach that includes elements which contribute to instabilities, and the means available to reduce them to acceptable levels.

  4. Stability and vibration control in synchrotron light source buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godel, J.B.

    1991-12-31

    Synchrotron light sources have undergone three generations of development in the last two decades. The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory has two ``second generation`` storage rings that currently provide the world`s most intense sources of photons in the VUV and X-ray spectral ranges. There are almost 90 beam lines serving a community of 2600 scientists from 370 institutions. They are engaged in basic and applied research in physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, materials science and various technologies. When design of the NSLS began in 1977, emphasis was given to the stability of the concrete slab on which the storage rings and experimental beam lines were placed. Stability is the result of controlling: vibration from sources internal and external to the building, thermal effects of air and water temperature variations, foundation settlement and contact between the slab and underlying subsoil. With the advent of new research where highly focused beams of x-rays must be placed on increasingly smaller targets located 35 meters or more from the source, and the development of x-ray lithography with resolutions approaching 0.1 micron at chip exposure stations, even greater attention to stability is required in building designs. This paper will review the results of the successful NSLS experience and give an integrated design approach that includes elements which contribute to instabilities, and the means available to reduce them to acceptable levels.

  5. Stability and vibration control in synchrotron light source buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godel, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    Synchrotron light sources have undergone three generations of development in the last two decades. The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory has two ''second generation'' storage rings that currently provide the world's most intense sources of photons in the VUV and X-ray spectral ranges. There are almost 90 beam lines serving a community of 2600 scientists from 370 institutions. They are engaged in basic and applied research in physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, materials science and various technologies. When design of the NSLS began in 1977, emphasis was given to the stability of the concrete slab on which the storage rings and experimental beam lines were placed. Stability is the result of controlling: vibration from sources internal and external to the building, thermal effects of air and water temperature variations, foundation settlement and contact between the slab and underlying subsoil. With the advent of new research where highly focused beams of x-rays must be placed on increasingly smaller targets located 35 meters or more from the source, and the development of x-ray lithography with resolutions approaching 0.1 micron at chip exposure stations, even greater attention to stability is required in building designs. This paper will review the results of the successful NSLS experience and give an integrated design approach that includes elements which contribute to instabilities, and the means available to reduce them to acceptable levels

  6. Mobile source pollution control in the United States and China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menz, Fredric C

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews policies for the control of mobile source pollution and their potential application in China. The first section of the paper reviews the U.S. experience with mobile source pollution control since regulations were first established in the Clean Air Act of 1970. Highlights in the policy and trends in vehicle emissions over the 1970 to 2000 time period are discussed. The second section of the paper discusses the range of policy instruments that could be used to control vehicle pollution, ranging from traditional direct regulations to market-based instruments. Experiences with the use of economic incentives in the United States and elsewhere are also discussed. The third section of the paper discusses possible implications of the U.S. experience for controlling vehicle pollution in China. While market-based instruments might be particularly appropriate for use in several aspects of China's pollution control policies, important differences between the institutional structures in China and the United States suggest that they should be phased in gradually. The paper closes with concluding remarks. (author)

  7. Mobile source pollution control in the United States and China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menz, Fredric C

    2002-07-01

    This paper reviews policies for the control of mobile source pollution and their potential application in China. The first section of the paper reviews the U.S. experience with mobile source pollution control since regulations were first established in the Clean Air Act of 1970. Highlights in the policy and trends in vehicle emissions over the 1970 to 2000 time period are discussed. The second section of the paper discusses the range of policy instruments that could be used to control vehicle pollution, ranging from traditional direct regulations to market-based instruments. Experiences with the use of economic incentives in the United States and elsewhere are also discussed. The third section of the paper discusses possible implications of the U.S. experience for controlling vehicle pollution in China. While market-based instruments might be particularly appropriate for use in several aspects of China's pollution control policies, important differences between the institutional structures in China and the United States suggest that they should be phased in gradually. The paper closes with concluding remarks. (author)

  8. Regulatory control of radiation sources in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daroy, Rosita R

    1996-12-31

    This paper is concerned with the radiation protection and safety infrastructure providing emphasis on the regulation and control of radiation sources in the Philippines. It deals with the experiences of the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, as a regulatory body, in the regulation and control of radioactive materials in radiotherapy, nuclear medicine, industrial radiography, industrial gauges, industrial irradiators, and well logging. This paper includes an inventory of the sources and types of devices/equipment used by licensed users of radioactive materials in the Philippines as a contribution to the data base being prepared by the IAEA. The problems encountered by the regulatory body in the licensing and enforcement process, as well as the lessons learned from incidents involving radioactive materials are discussed. Plans for improving compliance to the regulations and enhancing the effectiveness of PNRI`s regulatory functions are presented. (author). Paper presented during the IAEA Regional (RCA) Workshop on System of Notification, Registration, Licensing, and Control of Radiation Sources and Installations, Jakarta, Indonesia, 24-28 April 1995. 6 refs., 2 figs., 12 tabs.

  9. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2002-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch ...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.......A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...

  10. A source-controlled data center network model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Liang, Mangui; Wang, Zhe

    2017-01-01

    The construction of data center network by applying SDN technology has become a hot research topic. The SDN architecture has innovatively separated the control plane from the data plane which makes the network more software-oriented and agile. Moreover, it provides virtual multi-tenancy, effective scheduling resources and centralized control strategies to meet the demand for cloud computing data center. However, the explosion of network information is facing severe challenges for SDN controller. The flow storage and lookup mechanisms based on TCAM device have led to the restriction of scalability, high cost and energy consumption. In view of this, a source-controlled data center network (SCDCN) model is proposed herein. The SCDCN model applies a new type of source routing address named the vector address (VA) as the packet-switching label. The VA completely defines the communication path and the data forwarding process can be finished solely relying on VA. There are four advantages in the SCDCN architecture. 1) The model adopts hierarchical multi-controllers and abstracts large-scale data center network into some small network domains that has solved the restriction for the processing ability of single controller and reduced the computational complexity. 2) Vector switches (VS) developed in the core network no longer apply TCAM for table storage and lookup that has significantly cut down the cost and complexity for switches. Meanwhile, the problem of scalability can be solved effectively. 3) The SCDCN model simplifies the establishment process for new flows and there is no need to download flow tables to VS. The amount of control signaling consumed when establishing new flows can be significantly decreased. 4) We design the VS on the NetFPGA platform. The statistical results show that the hardware resource consumption in a VS is about 27% of that in an OFS.

  11. A source-controlled data center network model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Liang, Mangui; Wang, Zhe

    2017-01-01

    The construction of data center network by applying SDN technology has become a hot research topic. The SDN architecture has innovatively separated the control plane from the data plane which makes the network more software-oriented and agile. Moreover, it provides virtual multi-tenancy, effective scheduling resources and centralized control strategies to meet the demand for cloud computing data center. However, the explosion of network information is facing severe challenges for SDN controller. The flow storage and lookup mechanisms based on TCAM device have led to the restriction of scalability, high cost and energy consumption. In view of this, a source-controlled data center network (SCDCN) model is proposed herein. The SCDCN model applies a new type of source routing address named the vector address (VA) as the packet-switching label. The VA completely defines the communication path and the data forwarding process can be finished solely relying on VA. There are four advantages in the SCDCN architecture. 1) The model adopts hierarchical multi-controllers and abstracts large-scale data center network into some small network domains that has solved the restriction for the processing ability of single controller and reduced the computational complexity. 2) Vector switches (VS) developed in the core network no longer apply TCAM for table storage and lookup that has significantly cut down the cost and complexity for switches. Meanwhile, the problem of scalability can be solved effectively. 3) The SCDCN model simplifies the establishment process for new flows and there is no need to download flow tables to VS. The amount of control signaling consumed when establishing new flows can be significantly decreased. 4) We design the VS on the NetFPGA platform. The statistical results show that the hardware resource consumption in a VS is about 27% of that in an OFS. PMID:28328925

  12. Dual Catalytic Activity of a Cytochrome P450 Controls Bifurcation at a Metabolic Branch Point of Alkaloid Biosynthesis in Rauwolfia serpentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Thu-Thuy T; Franke, Jakob; Tatsis, Evangelos; O'Connor, Sarah E

    2017-08-01

    Plants create tremendous chemical diversity from a single biosynthetic intermediate. In plant-derived ajmalan alkaloid pathways, the biosynthetic intermediate vomilenine can be transformed into the anti-arrhythmic compound ajmaline, or alternatively, can isomerize to form perakine, an alkaloid with a structurally distinct scaffold. Here we report the discovery and characterization of vinorine hydroxylase, a cytochrome P450 enzyme that hydroxylates vinorine to form vomilenine, which was found to exist as a mixture of rapidly interconverting epimers. Surprisingly, this cytochrome P450 also catalyzes the non-oxidative isomerization of the ajmaline precursor vomilenine to perakine. This unusual dual catalytic activity of vinorine hydroxylase thereby provides a control mechanism for the bifurcation of these alkaloid pathway branches. This discovery highlights the unusual catalytic functionality that has evolved in plant pathways. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  13. Status and design of the Advanced Photon Source control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, W.; Knott, M.; Lenkszus, F.; Kraimer, M.; Arnold, N.; Daly, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the current status of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) control system. It will discuss the design decisions which led us to use industrial standards and collaborations with other laboratories to develop the APS control system. The system uses high performance graphic workstations and the X-windows Graphical User Interface (GUI) at the operator interface level. It connects to VME/VXI-based microprocessors at the field level using TCP/IP protocols over high performance networks. This strategy assures the flexibility and expansibility of the control system. A defined interface between the system components will allow the system to evolve with the direct addition of future, improved equipment and new capabilities

  14. The geological controls of geothermal groundwater sources in Lebanon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaban, Amin [National Council for Scientific Research, Remote Sensing Center, Beirut (Lebanon); Khalaf-Keyrouz, Layla [Notre Dame University-Louaize, Zouk Mosbeh (Lebanon)

    2013-07-01

    Lebanon is a country that is relatively rich in water resources, as compared to its neighboring states in the Middle East. Several water sources are issuing on the surface or subsurface, including nonconventional water sources as the geothermal groundwater. This aspect of water sources exists in Lebanon in several localities, as springs or in deep boreholes. To the present little attention has been given to these resources and their geological setting is still unidentified. The preliminary geological field surveys revealed that they mainly occur in the vicinity of the basalt outcrops. Therefore, understanding their geological controls will help in exploring their origin, and thus giving insights into their economical exploitation. This can be investigated by applying advanced detection techniques, field surveys along with detailed geochemical analysis. This study aims at assessing the geographic distribution of the geothermal water in Lebanon with respect to the different geological settings and controls that govern their hydrogeologic regimes. It will introduce an approach for an integrated water resources management which became of utmost significance for the country.

  15. PM10 standards and nontraditional particulate source controls: Research perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    Knowledge of how to measure suspended particles, what their concentrations are, what they are composed of, and where they come from has increased substantially since 1975. At that time, much of the pioneering work in these areas was just being conducted and published. Size-classified measurements, low-level elemental analysis, inorganic ion analysis, and carbon determinations for aerosol samples were novel research developments. Receptor modeling was not considered to be a scientific discipline, let alone a useful tool for source apportionment. Presentations at earlier conferences went to great lengths to document and justify methodologies which are taken for granted at this conference. This paper goes on to discuss research findings in control of wood smoke, fugitive dusts, motor vehicle exhausts, and secondary aerosols. Research results in source apportionment are also discussed

  16. Implementation and performance evaluation open-source controller for precision control of gripper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Yong; Ham, Un-Hyeong; Park, Young-Woo; Jung, Hak-Sang; Jung, Il-Kyun; Lim, Sun

    2017-12-01

    This paper proposes integrating gripper embedded operating system, which consist of external interface structure for sophisticated gripper control. This system has multiple functions that control the gripping module and measure the pose of the gripper body with respect to contact environment. A controller based on open source only for the gripper is developed and an external communication interface between robot controller and gripper controller is designed. An experimental environment for the fixed-cycle test consists of integrating magic gripper software system and hardware on commercial business. As a result, a deviation is measured approximately 2% and the system were verified for gripper control.

  17. Assessment of pollution and identification of sources of heavy metals in the sediments of Changshou Lake in a branch of the Three Gorges Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ao; Wang, Yechun; Guo, Hongtao; Bo, Lei; Zhang, Sheng; Bai, Yili

    2015-10-01

    To assess the heavy metal pollution in Changshou Lake, sediments were collected from nine sites at three periods (dry, normal, and wet) in 2013. The Hg, As, Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn levels were then determined. The index of geoaccumulation (I geo) and the sediment pollution index (SPI) were applied to the sediment assessment, and Pearson's correlation analysis and factor analysis (FA) were performed to identify common pollution sources in the basin. The results showed that heavy metals presented significant spatial variations with Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Hg, and As concentrations of 29.66~42.58, 0.62~0.91, 24.91~37.96, 21.18~74.91, 41.65~86.86, 0.079~0.152, and 20.17~36.88 mg kg(-1), respectively, and no obvious variations were found among the different periods. The average contents of the metals followed the order Zn > Cu > Cr > Pb > As > Cd > Hg, which showed a high pollution in the sediments collected from open water and at the river mouth. The assessment results indicated that toxic heavy metals presented obvious pollution with I Hg of 0.64~1.36 (moderately polluted), I Cd of 1.66~2.22 (moderately to heavily polluted), and I As of 1.21~2.07 (moderately to heavily polluted). The heavy metal pollution states followed the order Cd > As > Hg > Cu > Pb > Zn > Cr, and the SPI showed that the sediment collected from open water area was more polluted than those obtained from the tributaries and the river mouth. Cr, Cd, Hg, Pb, Cu, As, and Zn were mainly attributed to sediment weathering with Hg, Pb, and Cu and partially due to domestic sewage from the upper reaches. These results indicate that the more attention should be paid to the inner loads of sediment in order to achieve improvements in reservoir water quality after the control of external pollution.

  18. Cash efficiency for bank branches

    OpenAIRE

    Cabello, Julia Garc?a

    2013-01-01

    Bank liquidity management has become a major issue during the financial crisis as liquidity shortages have intensified and have put pressure on banks to diversity and improve their liquidity sources. While a significant strand of the literature concentrates on wholesale liquidity generation and on the alternative to deposit funding, the management of an inventory of cash holdings within the banks? branches is also a relevant issue as any significant improvement in cash management at the bank ...

  19. Sensor Fusion of a Mobile Device to Control and Acquire Videos or Images of Coffee Branches and for Georeferencing Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos Giraldo, Paula Jimena; Guerrero Aguirre, ?lvaro; Mu?oz, Carlos Mario; Prieto, Flavio Augusto; Oliveros, Carlos Eugenio

    2017-01-01

    Smartphones show potential for controlling and monitoring variables in agriculture. Their processing capacity, instrumentation, connectivity, low cost, and accessibility allow farmers (among other users in rural areas) to operate them easily with applications adjusted to their specific needs. In this investigation, the integration of inertial sensors, a GPS, and a camera are presented for the monitoring of a coffee crop. An Android-based application was developed with two operating modes: (i)...

  20. Optimization and control of a small angle ion source using an adaptive neural network controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, S.K.; Mead, W.C.; Bowling, P.S.; Jones, R.D.; Barnes, C.W.

    1993-09-01

    This project developed an automated controller based on an artificial neural network and evaluated its applicability in a real-time environment. This capability was developed within the context of a small angle negative ion source on the Discharge Test Stand at Los Alamos. The controller processes information obtained from the beam current waveform, developing a figure of merit (fom) to determine the ion source operating conditions. The fom is composed of the magnitude of the beam current, the stability of operation, and the quietness of the beam. Using no knowledge of operating conditions, the controller begins by making of rough scan of the four-dimensional operating surface. This surface uses as independent variables the anode and cathode temperatures, the hydrogen flow rate, and the arc voltage. `Me dependent variable is the fom described above. Once the rough approximation of the surface has been determined, the network formulates a model from which it determines the best operating point. The controller takes the ion source to that operating point for a reality check. As real data is fed in, the model of the operating surface is updated until the neural network`s model agrees with reality. The controller then uses a gradient ascent method to optimize the operation of the ion source. Initial tests of the controller indicate that it is remarkably capable. It has optimized the operation of the ion source on six different occasions bringing the beam to excellent quality and stability.

  1. Current perspectives on shoot branching regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunquan YUAN,Lin XI,Yaping KOU,Yu ZHAO,Liangjun ZHAO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Shoot branching is regulated by the complex interactions among hormones, development, and environmental factors. Recent studies into the regulatory mecha-nisms of shoot branching have focused on strigolactones, which is a new area of investigation in shoot branching regulation. Elucidation of the function of the D53 gene has allowed exploration of detailed mechanisms of action of strigolactones in regulating shoot branching. In addition, the recent discovery that sucrose is key for axillary bud release has challenged the established auxin theory, in which auxin is the principal agent in the control of apical dominance. These developments increase our understan-ding of branching control and indicate that regulation of shoot branching involves a complex network. Here, we first summarize advances in the systematic regulatory network of plant shoot branching based on current information. Then we describe recent developments in the synthesis and signal transduction of strigolactones. Based on these considerations, we further summarize the plant shoot branching regulatory network, including long distance systemic signals and local gene activity mediated by strigolactones following perception of external envi-ronmental signals, such as shading, in order to provide a comprehensive overview of plant shoot branching.

  2. Branched multifunctional polyether polyketals: variation of ketal group structure enables unprecedented control over polymer degradation in solution and within cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoi, Rajesh A; Narayanannair, Jayaprakash K; Hamilton, Jasmine L; Lai, Benjamin F L; Horte, Sonja; Kainthan, Rajesh K; Varghese, Jos P; Rajeev, Kallanthottathil G; Manoharan, Muthiah; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran N

    2012-09-12

    Multifunctional biocompatible and biodegradable nanomaterials incorporating specific degradable linkages that respond to various stimuli and with defined degradation profiles are critical to the advancement of targeted nanomedicine. Herein we report, for the first time, a new class of multifunctional dendritic polyether polyketals containing different ketal linkages in their backbone that exhibit unprecedented control over degradation in solution and within the cells. High-molecular-weight and highly compact poly(ketal hydroxyethers) (PKHEs) were synthesized from newly designed α-epoxy-ω-hydroxyl-functionalized AB(2)-type ketal monomers carrying structurally different ketal groups (both cyclic and acyclic) with good control over polymer properties by anionic ring-opening multibranching polymerization. Polymer functionalization with multiple azide and amine groups was achieved without degradation of the ketal group. The polymer degradation was controlled primarily by the differences in the structure and torsional strain of the substituted ketal groups in the main chain, while for polymers with linear (acyclic) ketal groups, the hydrophobicity of the polymer may play an additional role. This was supported by the log P values of the monomers and the hydrophobicity of the polymers determined by fluorescence spectroscopy using pyrene as the probe. A range of hydrolysis half-lives of the polymers at mild acidic pH values was achieved, from a few minutes to a few hundred days, directly correlating with the differences in ketal group structures. Confocal microscopy analyses demonstrated similar degradation profiles for PKHEs within live cells, as seen in solution and the delivery of fluorescent marker to the cytosol. The cell viability measured by MTS assay and blood compatibility determined by complement activation, platelet activation, and coagulation assays demonstrate that PKHEs and their degradation products are highly biocompatible. Taken together, these data

  3. Creativity and Innovation in the Context of Team-work: an Evaluation in the Self-management Cells and Quality Control Circles of Ambev S.C. Branch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeska Nahas Guimarães

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about changes in the business world. The main goal is to study the implications related to people’s creativity expression owing to work organization in small groups in the Ambev S.C. branch. This is a qualitative study based on a case study. 21 self-management circles and 18 quality control circles in the organization were found. The self management circles are responsible for achieving the organizational main goals and the quality control circles to bring best practices and new ideas. The result shows that quality control circles are more powerful than the self management circles as a space to develop people creativity and organizational innovation. It is relevant to stress that in the CCQs there are more multidisciplinary and common purpose guided to a collective objective desired by all the members of the team. On the other hand, in the CGA´s there are more discipline to accept the common tactics to people reach the objectives of the group and the corporative aims. The conclusion is that the changes in the business environment make the small work group very important to a company’s creativity and a fundamental strategy differentiation in the process of work organization in the context of the business world.

  4. Controlled branched-chain amino acids auxotrophy in Listeria monocytogenes allows isoleucine to serve as a host signal and virulence effector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Moran; Lobel, Lior; Borovok, Ilya; Sigal, Nadejda; Herskovits, Anat A

    2018-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is a saprophyte and intracellular pathogen. Transition to the pathogenic state relies on sensing of host-derived metabolites, yet it remains unclear how these are recognized and how they mediate virulence gene regulation. We previously found that low availability of isoleucine signals Lm to activate the virulent state. This response is dependent on CodY, a global regulator and isoleucine sensor. Isoleucine-bound CodY represses metabolic pathways including branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) biosynthesis, however under BCAA depletion, as occurs during infection, BCAA biosynthesis is upregulated and isoleucine-unbound CodY activates virulence genes. While isoleucine was revealed as an important input signal, it was not identified how internal levels are controlled during infection. Here we show that Lm regulates BCAA biosynthesis via CodY and via a riboregulator located upstream to the BCAA biosynthesis genes, named Rli60. rli60 is transcribed when BCAA levels drop, forming a ribosome-mediated attenuator that cis-regulates the downstream genes according to BCAA supply. Notably, we found that Rli60 restricts BCAA production, essentially starving Lm, a mechanism that is directly linked to virulence, as it controls the internal isoleucine pool and thereby CodY activity. This controlled BCAA auxotrophy likely evolved to enable isoleucine to serve as a host signal and virulence effector.

  5. Controlled branched-chain amino acids auxotrophy in Listeria monocytogenes allows isoleucine to serve as a host signal and virulence effector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moran Brenner

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes (Lm is a saprophyte and intracellular pathogen. Transition to the pathogenic state relies on sensing of host-derived metabolites, yet it remains unclear how these are recognized and how they mediate virulence gene regulation. We previously found that low availability of isoleucine signals Lm to activate the virulent state. This response is dependent on CodY, a global regulator and isoleucine sensor. Isoleucine-bound CodY represses metabolic pathways including branched-chain amino acids (BCAA biosynthesis, however under BCAA depletion, as occurs during infection, BCAA biosynthesis is upregulated and isoleucine-unbound CodY activates virulence genes. While isoleucine was revealed as an important input signal, it was not identified how internal levels are controlled during infection. Here we show that Lm regulates BCAA biosynthesis via CodY and via a riboregulator located upstream to the BCAA biosynthesis genes, named Rli60. rli60 is transcribed when BCAA levels drop, forming a ribosome-mediated attenuator that cis-regulates the downstream genes according to BCAA supply. Notably, we found that Rli60 restricts BCAA production, essentially starving Lm, a mechanism that is directly linked to virulence, as it controls the internal isoleucine pool and thereby CodY activity. This controlled BCAA auxotrophy likely evolved to enable isoleucine to serve as a host signal and virulence effector.

  6. Cash efficiency for bank branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Julia García

    2013-01-01

    Bank liquidity management has become a major issue during the financial crisis as liquidity shortages have intensified and have put pressure on banks to diversity and improve their liquidity sources. While a significant strand of the literature concentrates on wholesale liquidity generation and on the alternative to deposit funding, the management of an inventory of cash holdings within the banks' branches is also a relevant issue as any significant improvement in cash management at the bank distribution channels may have a positive effect in reducing liquidity tensions. In this paper, we propose a simple programme of cash efficiency for the banks' branches, very easy to implement, which conform to a set of instructions to be imposed from the bank to their branches. This model proves to significantly reduce cash holdings at branches thereby providing efficiency improvements in liquidity management. The methodology we propose is based on the definition of some stochastic processes combined with renewal processes, which capture the random elements of the cash flow, before applying suitable optimization programmes to all the costs involved in cash movements. The classical issue of the Transaction Demand for the Cash and some aspects of Inventory Theory are also present. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000) C02, C60, E50.

  7. [Bibliometric analysis of literature regarding integrated schistosomiasis control strategy with emphasis on infectious source control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yi-Li; Wang, Wei; Hong, Qing-Biao; Liang, You-Sheng

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the outcomes of implementation of integrated schistosomiasis control strategy with emphasis on infectious source control using a bibliometric method. The literature pertaining to integrated schistosomiasis control strategy with emphasis on infectious source control was retrieved from CNKI, Wanfangdata, VIP, PubMed, Web of Science, BIOSIS and Google Scholar, and a bibliometric analysis of literature captured was performed. During the period from January 1, 2004 through September 30, 2014, a total of 94 publications regarding integrated schistosomiasis control strategy with emphasis on infectious source control were captured, including 78 Chinese articles (82.98%) and 16 English papers (17.02%). The Chinese literature was published in 21 national journals, and Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control had the largest number of publications, consisting of 37.23% of total publications; 16 English papers were published in 12 international journals, and PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases had the largest number of publications (3 publications). There were 37 affiliations publishing these 94 articles, and National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (16 publications), Anhui Institute of Schistosomiasis Control (12 publications) and Hunan Institute of Schistosomiasis Control (9 publications) ranked top three affiliations in number of publications. A total of 157 persons were co-authored in these 94 publications, and Wang, Zhou and Zhang ranked top 3 authors in number of publications. The integrated schistosomiasis control strategy with emphasis on infectious source control has been widely implemented in China, and the achievements obtained from the implementation of this strategy should be summarized and transmitted internationally.

  8. Improved Livingness and Control over Branching in RAFT Polymerization of Acrylates: Could Microflow Synthesis Make the Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derboven, Pieter; Van Steenberge, Paul H M; Vandenbergh, Joke; Reyniers, Marie-Francoise; Junkers, Thomas; D'hooge, Dagmar R; Marin, Guy B

    2015-12-01

    The superior capabilities of structured microreactors over batch reactors are demonstrated for reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) solution polymerization of n-butyl acrylate with the aid of simulations, explicitly accounting for the chain length distribution of all macrospecies types. Since perfect isothermicity can be established in a microreactor, less side products due to backbiting and β-scission are formed compared to the batch operation in which ineffective heat removal leads to an undesirable temperature spike. For a given RAFT chain transfer agent (CTA), additional microstructural control results under microflow conditions by optimizing the reaction temperature, lowering the dilution degree, or decreasing the initial molar ratio of monomer to RAFT CTA. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Adaptive Sliding Mode Control of MEMS AC Voltage Reference Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Ranjbar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of physical parameters of a tunable MEMS capacitor, as the major part of MEMS AC voltage reference, is of great importance to achieve an accurate output voltage free of the malfunctioning noise and disturbance. Even though strenuous endeavors are made to fabricate MEMS tunable capacitors with desiderated accurate physical characteristics and ameliorate exactness of physical parameters’ values, parametric uncertainties ineluctably emerge in fabrication process attributable to imperfections in micromachining process. First off, this paper considers applying an adaptive sliding mode controller design in the MEMS AC voltage reference source so that it is capable of giving off a well-regulated output voltage in defiance of jumbling parametric uncertainties in the plant dynamics and also aggravating external disturbance imposed on the system. Secondly, it puts an investigatory comparison with the designed model reference adaptive controller and the pole-placement state feedback one into one’s prospective. Not only does the tuned adaptive sliding mode controller show remarkable robustness against slow parameter variation and external disturbance being compared to the pole-placement state feedback one, but also it immensely gets robust against the external disturbance in comparison with the conventional adaptive controller. The simulation results are promising.

  10. Turing mechanism underlying a branching model for lung morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Sun, Mingzhu; Zhao, Xin

    2017-01-01

    The mammalian lung develops through branching morphogenesis. Two primary forms of branching, which occur in order, in the lung have been identified: tip bifurcation and side branching. However, the mechanisms of lung branching morphogenesis remain to be explored. In our previous study, a biological mechanism was presented for lung branching pattern formation through a branching model. Here, we provide a mathematical mechanism underlying the branching patterns. By decoupling the branching model, we demonstrated the existence of Turing instability. We performed Turing instability analysis to reveal the mathematical mechanism of the branching patterns. Our simulation results show that the Turing patterns underlying the branching patterns are spot patterns that exhibit high local morphogen concentration. The high local morphogen concentration induces the growth of branching. Furthermore, we found that the sparse spot patterns underlie the tip bifurcation patterns, while the dense spot patterns underlies the side branching patterns. The dispersion relation analysis shows that the Turing wavelength affects the branching structure. As the wavelength decreases, the spot patterns change from sparse to dense, the rate of tip bifurcation decreases and side branching eventually occurs instead. In the process of transformation, there may exists hybrid branching that mixes tip bifurcation and side branching. Since experimental studies have reported that branching mode switching from side branching to tip bifurcation in the lung is under genetic control, our simulation results suggest that genes control the switch of the branching mode by regulating the Turing wavelength. Our results provide a novel insight into and understanding of the formation of branching patterns in the lung and other biological systems.

  11. Role of Tulipa gesneriana TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 (TgTB1) in the control of axillary bud outgrowth in bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Pachon, Natalia M; Mutimawurugo, Marie-Chantal; Heynen, Eveline; Sergeeva, Lidiya; Benders, Anne; Blilou, Ikram; Hilhorst, Henk W M; Immink, Richard G H

    2018-06-01

    Tulip vegetative reproduction. Tulips reproduce asexually by the outgrowth of their axillary meristems located in the axil of each bulb scale. The number of axillary meristems in one bulb is low, and not all of them grow out during the yearly growth cycle of the bulb. Since the degree of axillary bud outgrowth in tulip determines the success of their vegetative propagation, this study aimed at understanding the mechanism controlling the differential axillary bud activity. We used a combined physiological and "bottom-up" molecular approach to shed light on this process and found that first two inner located buds do not seem to experience dormancy during the growth cycle, while mid-located buds enter dormancy by the end of the growing season. Dormancy was assessed by weight increase and TgTB1 expression levels, a conserved TCP transcription factor and well-known master integrator of environmental and endogenous signals influencing axillary meristem outgrowth in plants. We showed that TgTB1 expression in tulip bulbs can be modulated by sucrose, cytokinin and strigolactone, just as it has been reported for other species. However, the limited growth of mid-located buds, even when their TgTB1 expression is downregulated, points at other factors, probably physical, inhibiting their growth. We conclude that the time of axillary bud initiation determines the degree of dormancy and the sink strength of the bud. Thus, development, apical dominance, sink strength, hormonal cross-talk, expression of TgTB1 and other possibly physical but unidentified players, all converge to determine the growth capacity of tulip axillary buds.

  12. Entanglement branching operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kenji

    2018-01-01

    We introduce an entanglement branching operator to split a composite entanglement flow in a tensor network which is a promising theoretical tool for many-body systems. We can optimize an entanglement branching operator by solving a minimization problem based on squeezing operators. The entanglement branching is a new useful operation to manipulate a tensor network. For example, finding a particular entanglement structure by an entanglement branching operator, we can improve a higher-order tensor renormalization group method to catch a proper renormalization flow in a tensor network space. This new method yields a new type of tensor network states. The second example is a many-body decomposition of a tensor by using an entanglement branching operator. We can use it for a perfect disentangling among tensors. Applying a many-body decomposition recursively, we conceptually derive projected entangled pair states from quantum states that satisfy the area law of entanglement entropy.

  13. FEL polarization control studies on Dalian coherent light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tong; Deng Haixiao; Wang Dong; Zhao Zhentang; Zhang Weiqing; Wu Guorong; Dai Dongxu; Yang Xueming

    2013-01-01

    The polarization switch of a free-electron laser (FEL) is of great importance to the user scientific community. In this paper, we investigate the generation of controllable polarization FEL from two well-known approaches for Dalian coherent light source, i.e., crossed planar undulator and elliptical permanent undulator. In order to perform a fair comparative study, a one-dimensional time-dependent FEL code has been developed, in which the imperfection effects of an elliptical permanent undulator are taken into account. Comprehensive simulation results indicate that the residual beam energy chirp and the intrinsic FEL gain may contribute to the degradation of the polarization performance for the crossed planar undulator. The elliptical permanent undulator is not very sensitive to the undulator errors and beam imperfections. Meanwhile, with proper configurations of the main planar undulators and additional elliptical permanent undulator section, circular polarized FEL with pulse energy exceeding 100 μJ could be achieved at Dalian coherent light source. (authors)

  14. Regularized inversion of controlled source and earthquake data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandran, Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Estimation of the seismic velocity structure of the Earth's crust and upper mantle from travel-time data has advanced greatly in recent years. Forward modelling trial-and-error methods have been superseded by tomographic methods which allow more objective analysis of large two-dimensional and three-dimensional refraction and/or reflection data sets. The fundamental purpose of travel-time tomography is to determine the velocity structure of a medium by analysing the time it takes for a wave generated at a source point within the medium to arrive at a distribution of receiver points. Tomographic inversion of first-arrival travel-time data is a nonlinear problem since both the velocity of the medium and ray paths in the medium are unknown. The solution for such a problem is typically obtained by repeated application of linearized inversion. Regularization of the nonlinear problem reduces the ill posedness inherent in the tomographic inversion due to the under-determined nature of the problem and the inconsistencies in the observed data. This paper discusses the theory of regularized inversion for joint inversion of controlled source and earthquake data, and results from synthetic data testing and application to real data. The results obtained from tomographic inversion of synthetic data and real data from the northern Cascadia subduction zone show that the velocity model and hypocentral parameters can be efficiently estimated using this approach. (paper)

  15. Plasma shape control by pulsed solenoid on laser ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekine, M.; Ikeda, S.; Romanelli, M.; Kumaki, M.; Fuwa, Y.; Kanesue, T.; Hayashizaki, N.; Lambiase, R.; Okamura, M.

    2015-01-01

    A Laser ion source (LIS) provides high current heavy ion beams with a very simple mechanical structure. Plasma is produced by a pulsed laser ablation of a solid state target and ions are extracted by an electric field. However, it was difficult to manipulate the beam parameters of a LIS, since the plasma condition could only be adjusted by the laser irradiation condition. To enhance flexibility of LIS operation, we employed a pulsed solenoid in the plasma drift section and investigated the effect of the solenoid field on singly charged iron beams. The experimentally obtained current profile was satisfactorily controlled by the pulsed magnetic field. This approach may also be useful to reduce beam emittance of a LIS

  16. Plasma shape control by pulsed solenoid on laser ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, M.; Ikeda, S.; Romanelli, M.; Kumaki, M.; Fuwa, Y.; Kanesue, T.; Hayashizaki, N.; Lambiase, R.; Okamura, M.

    2015-09-01

    A Laser ion source (LIS) provides high current heavy ion beams with a very simple mechanical structure. Plasma is produced by a pulsed laser ablation of a solid state target and ions are extracted by an electric field. However, it was difficult to manipulate the beam parameters of a LIS, since the plasma condition could only be adjusted by the laser irradiation condition. To enhance flexibility of LIS operation, we employed a pulsed solenoid in the plasma drift section and investigated the effect of the solenoid field on singly charged iron beams. The experimentally obtained current profile was satisfactorily controlled by the pulsed magnetic field. This approach may also be useful to reduce beam emittance of a LIS.

  17. Plasma shape control by pulsed solenoid on laser ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekine, M. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 2-12-1 (Japan); RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Ikeda, S. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8502 (Japan); RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Romanelli, M. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850 (United States); Kumaki, M. [RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-0072 (Japan); Fuwa, Y. [RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kanesue, T. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Hayashizaki, N. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 2-12-1 (Japan); Lambiase, R. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Okamura, M. [RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2015-09-21

    A Laser ion source (LIS) provides high current heavy ion beams with a very simple mechanical structure. Plasma is produced by a pulsed laser ablation of a solid state target and ions are extracted by an electric field. However, it was difficult to manipulate the beam parameters of a LIS, since the plasma condition could only be adjusted by the laser irradiation condition. To enhance flexibility of LIS operation, we employed a pulsed solenoid in the plasma drift section and investigated the effect of the solenoid field on singly charged iron beams. The experimentally obtained current profile was satisfactorily controlled by the pulsed magnetic field. This approach may also be useful to reduce beam emittance of a LIS.

  18. Monitoring Hydraulic Fracturing Using Ground-Based Controlled Source Electromagnetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, M. S.; Trevino, S., III; Everett, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing allows hydrocarbon production in low permeability formations. Imaging the distribution of fluid used to create a hydraulic fracture can aid in the characterization of fracture properties such as extent of plume penetration as well as fracture azimuth and symmetry. This could contribute to improving the efficiency of an operation, for example, in helping to determine ideal well spacing or the need to refracture a zone. A ground-based controlled-source electromagnetics (CSEM) technique is ideal for imaging the fluid due to the change in field caused by the difference in the conductive properties of the fluid when compared to the background. With advances in high signal to noise recording equipment, coupled with a high-power, broadband transmitter we can show hydraulic fracture extent and azimuth with minimal processing. A 3D finite element code is used to model the complete well casing along with the layered subsurface. This forward model is used to optimize the survey design and isolate the band of frequencies with the best response. In the field, the results of the modeling are also used to create a custom pseudorandom numeric (PRN) code to control the frequencies transmitted through a grounded dipole source. The receivers record the surface voltage across two grounded dipoles, one parallel and one perpendicular to the transmitter. The data are presented as the displays of amplitude ratios across several frequencies with the associated spatial information. In this presentation, we show multiple field results in multiple basins in the United States along with the CSEM theory used to create the survey designs.

  19. Power conversion and control methods for renewable energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dachuan

    2005-07-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in the use of renewable energy due to the growing concern over the pollution caused by fossil-fuel-based energy. Renewable energy sources, such as photovoltaic (PV) and fuel cell, can be used to enhance the safety, reliability, sustainability, and transmission efficiency of a power system. This dissertation focuses on the power conversion and control for two major renewable-energy sources: PV and fuel cell. Firstly, a current-based, maximum power-point tracking (MPPT) algorithm is proposed for PV energy. An economical converter system using the above scheme for converting the output from PV panels into 60 Hz AC voltage is developed and built. Secondly, a novel circuit model for the Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel-cell stack that is useful in the design and analysis of fuel-cell-based power systems is proposed. This Pspice-based model uses elements available in the Pspice library with some modifications to represent both the static and dynamic responses of a PEM fuel-cell module. The accuracy of the model is verified by comparing the simulation and experimental results. Thirdly, a DSP-controlled three-phase induction-motor drive using constant voltage over frequency is built and can be used in a fuel-cell automobile. A hydrogen sensor is used in the drive to both sound an alarm and shut down the inverter trigger pulses through the DSP. Finally, a hybrid power system consisting of PV panels and fuel cell is proposed and built. In the proposed system, PV panels can supply most of the power when the sunlight is available, and the excess power required by the load is supplied by a fuel cell. Load sharing between a fuel cell (FC) and the PV panel is investigated by both simulation and experiments.

  20. Poisson branching point processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, K.; Teich, M.C.; Saleh, B.E.A.

    1984-01-01

    We investigate the statistical properties of a special branching point process. The initial process is assumed to be a homogeneous Poisson point process (HPP). The initiating events at each branching stage are carried forward to the following stage. In addition, each initiating event independently contributes a nonstationary Poisson point process (whose rate is a specified function) located at that point. The additional contributions from all points of a given stage constitute a doubly stochastic Poisson point process (DSPP) whose rate is a filtered version of the initiating point process at that stage. The process studied is a generalization of a Poisson branching process in which random time delays are permitted in the generation of events. Particular attention is given to the limit in which the number of branching stages is infinite while the average number of added events per event of the previous stage is infinitesimal. In the special case when the branching is instantaneous this limit of continuous branching corresponds to the well-known Yule--Furry process with an initial Poisson population. The Poisson branching point process provides a useful description for many problems in various scientific disciplines, such as the behavior of electron multipliers, neutron chain reactions, and cosmic ray showers

  1. [Branches of the National Institute of Hygiene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromulska, Marta

    2008-01-01

    National Epidemiological Institute (National Institute of Hygiene, from 7th September 1923) was established in 1918 in Warsaw and acted at national level. Its actions in the field of diseases combat were supported by bacteriological stations and vaccine production in voivodeship cities, which were taken charge of by the state, and names "National Epidemiological Institutes". According to the ministers resolution from 6th July 1921,Epidemiological Institutes were merged to National Central Epidemiological Institutes (PZH), the epidemiological institutes outside Warsaw were named branches, which were to be located in every voivodeship city, according to the initial organizational resolutions. There were country branches of NCEI in: Cracow, Lwów, Lódź, Toruń, Lublin, and Wilno in the period 1919-1923. New branches in Poznań (1925), Gdynia(1934), Katowice (Voivodeship Institute of Hygiene (1936), Luck (1937), Stanisławów (1937), Kielce(1938), and Brześć/Bug (Municipal Station acting as branch of National Central Epidemiological Institute. Branches were subordinated to NCEI-PZH) in Warsaw where action plans and unified research and diagnostic method were established and annual meeting of the country branches managers took place. All branches cooperated with hospitals, national health services, district general practitioners and administration structure in control of infectious diseases. In 1938, the post of branch inspector was established, the first of whom was Feliks Przesmycki PhD. Branches cooperated also with University of Cracow, University of Lwów and University of Wilno. In 1935, National Institutes of Food Research was incorporated in PZH, Water Department was established, and these areas of activity began to develop in the branches accordingly. In 1938 there were 13 branches of PZH, and each had three divisions: bacteriological, food research and water research. Three branches in Cracow, Kielce and Lublin worked during World War II under German

  2. Renal Branch Artery Stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Zarah; Thisted, Ebbe; Andersen, Ulrik Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    Renovascular hypertension is a common cause of pediatric hypertension. In the fraction of cases that are unrelated to syndromes such as neurofibromatosis, patients with a solitary stenosis on a branch of the renal artery are common and can be diagnostically challenging. Imaging techniques...... that perform well in the diagnosis of main renal artery stenosis may fall short when it comes to branch artery stenosis. We report 2 cases that illustrate these difficulties and show that a branch artery stenosis may be overlooked even by the gold standard method, renal angiography....

  3. Regulatory control for safe usage of radiation sources in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, P.K.; Sonawane, A.U.

    1998-01-01

    The widespread applications of radioactive materials and radiation generating equipment in the field of industry, medicine agriculture and research in India necessitated the establishment of an efficient regulatory framework and consequently the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) was constituted to exercise regulatory control over the safe usage of the radioactive materials and the radiation generating equipment. The Atomic Energy Act, 1962 and the Radiation Protection Rules, 1971 promulgated under the Act forms the basis of radiation safety in India and Chairman, AERB is the Competent Authority to enforce the regulatory provisions of the Radiation Protection Rules, 1971, for safe use of radiation source in the country. AERB has published a number of documents such as Radiation Surveillance Procedures, Standards, Codes, Guides and Manuals for safe use and handling of radioactive materials and radiation generating equipment. Apart from nuclear fuel cycle documents, these publications pertain to industrial radiography, medical application of radiation, transport of radioactive material, industrial gamma irradiators, X-ray units etc. AERB safety related publications are based on international standards e.g. BSS, IAEA, ICRP, ISO etc. This paper outlines the methodology of regulatory control exercised by AERB for safe use of the radioactive materials and the radiation generating equipment in the country. (author)

  4. Regulatory Control of Radiation Sources. Safety Guide (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This Safety Guide is intended to assist States in implementing the requirements established in Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-1, Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety, for a national regulatory infrastructure to regulate any practice involving radiation sources in medicine, industry, research, agriculture and education. The Safety Guide provides advice on the legislative basis for establishing regulatory bodies, including the effective independence of the regulatory body. It also provides guidance on implementing the functions and activities of regulatory bodies: the development of regulations and guides on radiation safety; implementation of a system for notification and authorization; carrying out regulatory inspections; taking necessary enforcement actions; and investigating accidents and circumstances potentially giving rise to accidents. The various aspects relating to the regulatory control of consumer products are explained, including justification, optimization of exposure, safety assessment and authorization. Guidance is also provided on the organization and staffing of regulatory bodies. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Legal framework for a regulatory infrastructure; 3. Principal functions and activities of the regulatory body; 4. Regulatory control of the supply of consumer products; 5. Functions of the regulatory body shared with other governmental agencies; 6. Organization and staffing of the regulatory body; 7. Documentation of the functions and activities of the regulatory body; 8. Support services; 9. Quality management for the regulatory system.

  5. Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation enhances adaptability to exercise training of mice with a muscle-specific defect in the control of BCAA catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Minjun; Kitaura, Yasuyuki; Shindo, Daichi; Shimomura, Yoshiharu

    2018-03-01

    Branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) kinase (BDK) suppresses the branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolism by inactivation of the BCKDH complex. The muscle-specific BDK-deficient (BDK-mKO) mice showed accelerated BCAA oxidation in muscle and decreased endurance capacity after training (Xu et al. PLoS One. 12 (2017) e0180989). We here report that BCAA supplementation overcompensated endurance capacity in BDK-mKO mice after training.

  6. Branching processes in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kimmel, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical background of branching processes and discusses their biological applications. Branching processes are a well-developed and powerful set of tools in the field of applied probability. The range of applications considered includes molecular biology, cellular biology, human evolution and medicine. The branching processes discussed include Galton-Watson, Markov, Bellman-Harris, Multitype, and General Processes. As an aid to understanding specific examples, two introductory chapters, and two glossaries are included that provide background material in mathematics and in biology. The book will be of interest to scientists who work in quantitative modeling of biological systems, particularly probabilists, mathematical biologists, biostatisticians, cell biologists, molecular biologists, and bioinformaticians. The authors are a mathematician and cell biologist who have collaborated for more than a decade in the field of branching processes in biology for this new edition. This second ex...

  7. Branching trajectory continual integral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslov, V.P.; Chebotarev, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    Heuristic definition of the Feynman continual integral over branching trajectories is suggested which makes it possible to obtain in the closed form the solution of the Cauchy problem for the model Hartree equation. A number of properties of the solution is derived from an integral representation. In particular, the quasiclassical asymptotics, exact solution in the gaussian case and perturbation theory series are described. The existence theorem for the simpliest continual integral over branching trajectories is proved [ru

  8. Branches of the landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dine, Michael; O'Neil, Deva; Sun Zheng

    2005-01-01

    With respect to the question of supersymmetry breaking, there are three branches of the flux landscape. On one of these, if one requires small cosmological constant, supersymmetry breaking is predominantly at the fundamental scale; on another, the distribution is roughly flat on a logarithmic scale; on the third, the preponderance of vacua are at very low scale. A priori, as we will explain, one can say little about the first branch. The vast majority of these states are not accessible even to crude, approximate analysis. On the other two branches one can hope to do better. But as a result of the lack of access to branch one, and our poor understanding of cosmology, we can at best conjecture about whether string theory predicts low energy supersymmetry or not. If we hypothesize that are on branch two or three, distinctive predictions may be possible. We comment of the status of naturalness within the landscape, deriving, for example, the statistics of the first branch from simple effective field theory reasoning

  9. Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control. Volume II: Control Technology and General Source Inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisburd, Melvin I.

    The Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control, Volume II, explains in detail the following: technology of source control, modification of operations, particulate control equipment, sulfur dioxide removal systems for power plants, and control equipment for gases and vapors; inspection procedures for general sources, fuel…

  10. Sole-Source Lighting for Controlled-Environment Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell.Cary; Stutte, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    Since plants on Earth evolved under broad-spectrum solar radiation, anytime they are grown exclusively under electric lighting that does not contain all wavelengths in similar proportion to those in sunlight, plant appearance and size could be uniquely different. Nevertheless, plants have been grown for decades under fluorescent (FL) (1) + incandescent (IN) (2) lamps as a sole source of lighting (SSL), and researchers have become comfortable that, in certain proportions of FL + IN for a given species, plants can appear "normal" relative to their growth outdoors. The problem with using such traditional SSLs for commercial production typically is short lamp lifespans and not obtaining enough photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) when desired. These limitations led to supplementation of FL + IN lamp outputs with longer-lived, high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps in growth chambers (3). As researchers became comfortable that mixes of orange-biased high-pressure sodium (HPS) and blue-biased metal halide (MH) HIDs together also could give normal plant growth at higher intensities, growth chambers and phytotrons subsequently were equipped mainly with HID lamps, with their intense thermal output filtered out by ventilated light caps or thermal-controlled water barriers. For the most part, IN and HID lamps have found a home in commercial protected horticulture, usually for night-break photoperiod lighting (IN) or for seasonal supplemental lighting (mostly HPS) in greenhouses. However, lack of economically viable options for SSL have held back aspects of year-round indoor agriculture from taking off commercially.

  11. Alarm handler for the advanced photon source control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraimer, M.R.; Cha, B.K.; Anderson, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS), now under construction at Argonne National Laboratory, will have a control system employing graphics workstations at the operator interface level and VME-based microprocessors operating with a distributed database at the field level. The alarm handler is an application utilizing X-Windows running on one or more operator interface workstations which monitors alarms generated by the VME-based microprocessors. Alarms can be grouped in a hierarchical manner. The operator can monitor, acknowledge, and mask alarms either individually or aggregately. Alarm changes of state and all operator modifications are logged. When alarms occur, display windows are automatically generated conveying system and subsystem relationships and severity. Menus are used to modify the alarm action configuration files and to obtain help. Since alarm groups are defined via an alarm configuration file, the alarm handler is a general purpose application which can be customized to monitor a single subsystem or configured to monitor the entire accelerator complex. 2 refs., 2 figs

  12. Branches of the Facial Artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Lee, Geun In; Park, Hye Jin

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study is to review the name of the branches, to review the classification of the branching pattern, and to clarify a presence percentage of each branch of the facial artery, systematically. In a PubMed search, the search terms "facial," AND "artery," AND "classification OR variant OR pattern" were used. The IBM SPSS Statistics 20 system was used for statistical analysis. Among the 500 titles, 18 articles were selected and reviewed systematically. Most of the articles focused on "classification" according to the "terminal branch." Several authors classified the facial artery according to their terminal branches. Most of them, however, did not describe the definition of "terminal branch." There were confusions within the classifications. When the inferior labial artery was absent, 3 different types were used. The "alar branch" or "nasal branch" was used instead of the "lateral nasal branch." The angular branch was used to refer to several different branches. The presence as a percentage of each branch according to the branches in Gray's Anatomy (premasseteric, inferior labial, superior labial, lateral nasal, and angular) varied. No branch was used with 100% consistency. The superior labial branch was most frequently cited (95.7%, 382 arteries in 399 hemifaces). The angular branch (53.9%, 219 arteries in 406 hemifaces) and the premasseteric branch were least frequently cited (53.8%, 43 arteries in 80 hemifaces). There were significant differences among each of the 5 branches (P < 0.05) except between the angular branch and the premasseteric branch and between the superior labial branch and the inferior labial branch. The authors believe identifying the presence percentage of each branch will be helpful for surgical procedures.

  13. The Arabidopsis LAZY1 Family Plays a Key Role in Gravity Signaling within Statocytes and in Branch Angle Control of Roots and Shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Masatoshi; Furutani, Masahiko; Nishimura, Takeshi; Nakamura, Moritaka; Fushita, Toyohito; Iijima, Kohta; Baba, Kenichiro; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Toyota, Masatsugu; Tasaka, Masao; Morita, Miyo Terao

    2017-08-01

    During gravitropism, the directional signal of gravity is perceived by gravity-sensing cells called statocytes, leading to asymmetric distribution of auxin in the responding organs. To identify the genes involved in gravity signaling in statocytes, we performed transcriptome analyses of statocyte-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana mutants and found two candidates from the LAZY1 family, AtLAZY1 / LAZY1-LIKE1 ( LZY1 ) and AtDRO3 / AtNGR1 / LZY2 We showed that LZY1 , LZY2 , and a paralog AtDRO1/AtNGR2/LZY3 are redundantly involved in gravitropism of the inflorescence stem, hypocotyl, and root. Mutations of LZY genes affected early processes in gravity signal transduction without affecting amyloplast sedimentation. Statocyte-specific expression of LZY genes rescued the mutant phenotype, suggesting that LZY genes mediate gravity signaling in statocytes downstream of amyloplast displacement, leading to the generation of asymmetric auxin distribution in gravity-responding organs. We also found that lzy mutations reversed the growth angle of lateral branches and roots. Moreover, expression of the conserved C-terminal region of LZY proteins also reversed the growth direction of primary roots in the lzy mutant background. In lateral root tips of lzy multiple mutants, asymmetric distribution of PIN3 and auxin response were reversed, suggesting that LZY genes regulate the direction of polar auxin transport in response to gravity through the control of asymmetric PIN3 expression in the root cap columella. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  14. The regulatory control of radiation sources in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uslu, I.; Birol, E.

    2001-01-01

    In Turkey, the national competent authority for regulating activities involving radioactive sources is the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority, which implements the responsibility for the safety and security of radiation sources through its Radiation Health and Safety Department. The report describes the organization of the regulatory infrastructure for radiation safety in Turkey and, after a brief explanation of the current legal framework for such purpose, it refers to how the management of radiation sources is carried out and to the new provisions regarding radiation sources, including inspections of licensees and training on source safety. Finally, the report provides information on the Ikitelli radiological accident in Turkey and the current public concern about radiation sources after it happened. (author)

  15. Cross-Layer Design of Source Rate Control and Congestion Control for Wireless Video Streaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-layer design has been used in streaming video over the wireless channels to optimize the overall system performance. In this paper, we extend our previous work on joint design of source rate control and congestion control for video streaming over the wired channel, and propose a cross-layer design approach for wireless video streaming. First, we extend the QoS-aware congestion control mechanism (TFRCC proposed in our previous work to the wireless scenario, and provide a detailed discussion about how to enhance the overall performance in terms of rate smoothness and responsiveness of the transport protocol. Then, we extend our previous joint design work to the wireless scenario, and a thorough performance evaluation is conducted to investigate its performance. Simulation results show that by cross-layer design of source rate control at application layer and congestion control at transport layer, and by taking advantage of the MAC layer information, our approach can avoid the throughput degradation caused by wireless link error, and better support the QoS requirements of the application. Thus, the playback quality is significantly improved, while good performance of the transport protocol is still preserved.

  16. Tracheobronchial Branching Anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Min Ji; Kim, Young Tong; Jou, Sung Shick; Park, A Young

    2010-01-01

    There are various congenital anomalies with respect to the number, length, diameter, and location of tracheobronchial branching patterns. The tracheobronchial anomalies are classified into two groups. The first one, anomalies of division, includes tracheal bronchus, cardiac bronchus, tracheal diverticulum, pulmonary isomerism, and minor variations. The second one, dysmorphic lung, includes lung agenesis-hypoplasia complex and lobar agenesis-aplasia complex

  17. Intermittency in branching models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, C.B.; Texas Univ., Austin; Hwa, R.C.; Oregon Univ., Eugene

    1990-01-01

    The intermittency properties of three branching models have been investigated. The factorial moments show power-law behavior as function of small rapidity width. The slopes and energy dependences reveal different characteristics of the models. The gluon model has the weakest intermittency. (orig.)

  18. State-set branching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rune Møller; Veloso, Manuela M.; Bryant, Randal E.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we present a framework called state-set branching that combines symbolic search based on reduced ordered Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs) with best-first search, such as A* and greedy best-first search. The framework relies on an extension of these algorithms from expanding a sing...

  19. Tracheobronchial Branching Anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Min Ji; Kim, Young Tong; Jou, Sung Shick [Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, A Young [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    There are various congenital anomalies with respect to the number, length, diameter, and location of tracheobronchial branching patterns. The tracheobronchial anomalies are classified into two groups. The first one, anomalies of division, includes tracheal bronchus, cardiac bronchus, tracheal diverticulum, pulmonary isomerism, and minor variations. The second one, dysmorphic lung, includes lung agenesis-hypoplasia complex and lobar agenesis-aplasia complex

  20. Two randomized controlled studies comparing the nutritional benefits of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) granules and a BCAA-enriched nutrient mixture for patients with esophageal varices after endoscopic treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Sakai, Yoshiyuki; Iwata, Yoshinori; Enomoto, Hirayuki; Saito, Masaki; Yoh, Kazunori; Ishii, Akio; Takashima, Tomoyuki; Aizawa, Nobuhiro; Ikeda, Naoto; Tanaka, Hironori; Iijima, Hiroko; Nishiguchi, Shuhei

    2014-01-01

    Background The usefulness of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) granules and BCAA-enriched nutrient mixtures for patients with liver cirrhosis is often reported. However, no randomized controlled studies have investigated the usefulness of these supplements in the nutritional intervention of cirrhotic patients receiving endoscopic treatment for esophageal varices. Methods Patients without BCAA before endoscopic treatment were divided into study 1, and those who received BCAA were divided into s...

  1. Control of radiation sources in Brazil; Controle de fontes de radiacao no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Silvia Maria Velasques de; Menezes, Sergio Ferreira; Alves Filho, Aristeu Dacio; Xavier, Ana Maria [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Superintendencia de Licenciamento e Controle

    1997-12-31

    The radiological accident occurred in Goiania, in 1987, brought to light several deficiencies in the conduction of the licensing processes of medical, industrial and research facilities that handle radioisotopes as well as int he control of radioactive sources in Brazil. The objective of this article is to describe some of the technical and administrative measures taken to ensure the adoption of appropriate radiological safety standards throughout the country, thus reducing the incidence of radiological accidents. (author) 9 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.; e-mail: corad at cnen.gov.br

  2. Research on wireless remote control scheme for the water source well of a uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yun; Bao Feng

    2013-01-01

    Traditional wired electrical control method is applicable to simple control for the short-distance industrial equipment, but it is not suitable for the water source well of uranium mines requiring remote control. A kind of wireless remote control system based on high-speed radio modem communication technology was presented for the water source wells of a uranium mine, and the water source wells can be remotely controlled with the system. The component, implementation and characteristics of the control system are introduced. (authors)

  3. Why the 2002 Denali fault rupture propagated onto the Totschunda fault: implications for fault branching and seismic hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, David P.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Seitz, Gordon G.; Dawson, Timothy E.

    2012-01-01

    The propagation of the rupture of the Mw7.9 Denali fault earthquake from the central Denali fault onto the Totschunda fault has provided a basis for dynamic models of fault branching in which the angle of the regional or local prestress relative to the orientation of the main fault and branch plays a principal role in determining which fault branch is taken. GeoEarthScope LiDAR and paleoseismic data allow us to map the structure of the Denali-Totschunda fault intersection and evaluate controls of fault branching from a geological perspective. LiDAR data reveal the Denali-Totschunda fault intersection is structurally simple with the two faults directly connected. At the branch point, 227.2 km east of the 2002 epicenter, the 2002 rupture diverges southeast to become the Totschunda fault. We use paleoseismic data to propose that differences in the accumulated strain on each fault segment, which express differences in the elapsed time since the most recent event, was one important control of the branching direction. We suggest that data on event history, slip rate, paleo offsets, fault geometry and structure, and connectivity, especially on high slip rate-short recurrence interval faults, can be used to assess the likelihood of branching and its direction. Analysis of the Denali-Totschunda fault intersection has implications for evaluating the potential for a rupture to propagate across other types of fault intersections and for characterizing sources of future large earthquakes.

  4. Sealed Radioactive Sources. Information, Resources, and Advice for Key Groups about Preventing the Loss of Control over Sealed Radioactive Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-10-01

    Among its many activities to improve the safety and security of sealed sources, the IAEA has been investigating the root causes of major accidents and incidents since the 1980's and publishes findings so that others can learn from them. There are growing concerns today about the possibility that an improperly stored source could be stolen and used for malicious purposes. To improve both safety and security, information needs to be in the hands of those whose actions and decisions can prevent a source from being lost or stolen in the first place. The IAEA developed this booklet to help improve communication with key groups about hazards that may result from the loss of control over sealed radioactive sources and measures that should be implemented to prevent such loss of control. Many people may benefit from the information contained in this booklet, particularly those working with sources and those likely to be involved if control over a source is lost; especially: officials in government agencies, first responders, medical users, industrial users and the metal recycling industry. The general public may also benefit from an understanding of the fundamentals of radiation safety. This booklet is comprised of several stand-alone chapters intended to communicate with these key groups. Various accidents that are described and information that is provided are relevant to more than one key group and therefore, some information is repeated throughout the booklet. This booklet seeks to raise awareness of the importance of the safety and security of sealed radioactive sources. However, it is not intended to be a comprehensive 'how to' guide for implementing safety and security measures for sealed radioactive sources. For more information on these measures, readers are encouraged to consult the key IAEA safety and security-related publications identified in this booklet

  5. Effects of branched-chain amino acids supplementation on both plasma amino acids concentration and muscle energetics changes resulting from muscle damage: A randomized placebo controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouré, Alexandre; Nosaka, Kazunori; Gastaldi, Marguerite; Mattei, Jean-Pierre; Boudinet, Hélène; Guye, Maxime; Vilmen, Christophe; Le Fur, Yann; Bendahan, David; Gondin, Julien

    2016-02-01

    Branched-chain amino acids promote muscle-protein synthesis, reduce protein oxidation and have positive effects on mitochondrial biogenesis and reactive oxygen species scavenging. The purpose of the study was to determine the potential benefits of branched-chain amino acids supplementation on changes in force capacities, plasma amino acids concentration and muscle metabolic alterations after exercise-induced muscle damage. (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy and biochemical analyses were used to follow the changes after such damage. Twenty six young healthy men were randomly assigned to supplemented branched-chain amino acids or placebo group. Knee extensors maximal voluntary isometric force was assessed before and on four days following exercise-induced muscle damage. Concentrations in phosphocreatine [PCr], inorganic phosphate [Pi] and pH were measured during a standardized rest-exercise-recovery protocol before, two (D2) and four (D4) days after exercise-induced muscle damage. No significant difference between groups was found for changes in maximal voluntary isometric force (-24% at D2 and -21% at D4). Plasma alanine concentration significantly increased immediately after exercise-induced muscle damage (+25%) in both groups while concentrations in glycine, histidine, phenylalanine and tyrosine decreased. No difference between groups was found in the increased resting [Pi] (+42% at D2 and +34% at D4), decreased resting pH (-0.04 at D2 and -0.03 at D4) and the slower PCr recovery rate (-18% at D2 and -24% at D4). The damaged muscle was not able to get benefits out of the increased plasma branched-chain amino acids availability to attenuate changes in indirect markers of muscle damage and muscle metabolic alterations following exercise-induced muscle damage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  6. Control system for compact SR light source 'AURORA'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukami, Nobutaka; Kariya, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Hironari

    1991-01-01

    The computer control system developed for 'AURORA' has a three level hierarchical architecture. The top level is Central Intelligence System (CIS), and the second one is Autonomic Control System (ACS). The bottom one is an assembly of distributed local controllers linked to the ACS level through optical fibers. This system provides fully automated operation, and a powerful machine study capability through the associated man-machine console and an interpretive operation language. (author)

  7. Rupture-control via T-Branches - now with precise indication of the rupture; Abrissueberwachung ueber T-Weichen mit Lokalisierung des Abrisses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentz, S. [Roetter Industrieelektronik GmbH, Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    2000-05-01

    In hierarchical monitoring systems, normally only the main line can be checked automatically for rupture of the sensor wire. During the AGFW lecture conference in 1998 in Essen, a solution was introduced, where through closing the branch lines with endpieces by the Roetter Industrieelektronik GmbH, the branch lines could be also monitored for ruptures automatically. This process has been further developed since then and now offers the possibility to directly indicate the ruptured branch and if there is more than one rupture, this can be indicated separately as well. (orig.) [German] In hierarchischen Ueberwachungssystemen kann ueblicherweise nur die Hauptleitung automatisch auf Abriss des Sensordrahtes geprueft werden. Bereits auf der AGFW Vortragstagung 1998 in Essen wurde eine Loesung vorgestellt, durch Abschluss der Abzweigleitungen mit Endstuecken von Roetter Industrieelektronik GmbH auch die Abzweigleitungen automatisch auf Abriss zu ueberwachen. Dieses Verfahren wurde praxisgerecht weiterentwickelt und bietet nun die Moeglichkeit, den vom Abriss betroffenen Abzweig direkt anzuzeigen, bei mehreren Abrissen ist jeder einzelne zuzuordnen. (orig.)

  8. Branching structure and strain hardening of branched metallocene polyethylenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Enrique; Li, Si-Wan; Costeux, Stéphane; Dealy, John M.

    2015-01-01

    There have been a number of studies of a series of branched metallocene polyethylenes (BMPs) made in a solution, continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) polymerization. The materials studied vary in branching level in a systematic way, and the most highly branched members of the series exhibit mild strain hardening. An outstanding question is which types of branched molecules are responsible for strain hardening in extension. This question is explored here by use of polymerization and rheological models along with new data on the extensional flow behavior of the most highly branched members of the set. After reviewing all that is known about the effects of various branching structures in homogeneous polymers and comparing this with the structures predicted to be present in BMPs, it is concluded that in spite of their very low concentration, treelike molecules with branch-on-branch structure provide a large number of deeply buried inner segments that are essential for strain hardening in these polymers

  9. Branching structure and strain hardening of branched metallocene polyethylenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Enrique; Li, Si-Wan; Costeux, Stéphane; Dealy, John M., E-mail: john.dealy@mcgill.ca [Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 0C4 (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    There have been a number of studies of a series of branched metallocene polyethylenes (BMPs) made in a solution, continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) polymerization. The materials studied vary in branching level in a systematic way, and the most highly branched members of the series exhibit mild strain hardening. An outstanding question is which types of branched molecules are responsible for strain hardening in extension. This question is explored here by use of polymerization and rheological models along with new data on the extensional flow behavior of the most highly branched members of the set. After reviewing all that is known about the effects of various branching structures in homogeneous polymers and comparing this with the structures predicted to be present in BMPs, it is concluded that in spite of their very low concentration, treelike molecules with branch-on-branch structure provide a large number of deeply buried inner segments that are essential for strain hardening in these polymers.

  10. Right bundle branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussink, Barbara E; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jespersen, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    AimsTo determine the prevalence, predictors of newly acquired, and the prognostic value of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram in men and women from the general population.Methods and resultsWe followed 18 441 participants included...... in the Copenhagen City Heart Study examined in 1976-2003 free from previous myocardial infarction (MI), chronic heart failure, and left bundle branch block through registry linkage until 2009 for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular outcomes. The prevalence of RBBB/IRBBB was higher in men (1.4%/4.7% in men vs. 0.......5%/2.3% in women, P block was associated with significantly...

  11. Sources of Social Control in School: A Speculative Essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlechty, Phillip C.; Burke, William I.

    1980-01-01

    This essay attempts to demonstrate that age segregation and subject matter specialization are two important supports of the authority of teachers and the school's ability to control students. Therefore, efforts to change these organizational patterns without considering alternative means of establishing control are doomed to failure. (Author/SJL)

  12. Research on control technology of hardware parallelism for marine controlled source electromagnetic transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Deng, Ming; Luo, Xianhu; Zhao, Qingxian; Chen, Kai; Jing, Jianen

    2018-02-01

    The marine controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) method has been recognized as an effective exploration method of shallow hydrocarbons around the world. We developed our own underwater marine CSEM transmitter that consisted of many functional modules with various response times. We previously adopted a centralized software-control technology to design the transmitter circuit topological structure. That structure probably generated a control disorder or malfunction. These undesirable conditions could lead to repeated recovery and deployment of the transmitter, which not only consumed time but also affected data continuity and establishment of stable and continuous CSEM field. We developed an instrument design concept named ‘control technology of hardware parallelism’. In this design, a noteworthy innovation of our new technology is to solve the above-mentioned problems at the physical and fundamental levels. We used several self-contained control-units to simultaneously accomplish the predetermined functions of the transmitter. The new solution relies on two technologies: multi-core embedded technology and multi-channel parallel optical-fiber data transmission technology. The first technology depends on many independent microcontrollers. Every microcontroller is only used to achieve a customized function. The second one relies on several multiple optical-fiber transmission channels realized by a complex programmable logic device and two optical-fiber conversion devices, which are used to establish a communication link between the shipboard monitoring and control-unit and underwater transmitter. We have conducted some marine experiments to verify the reliability and stability of the new method. In particular, the new technology used in the transmitter system could help us obtain more useful measured data in a limited time, improve real-time efficiency, and support the establishment of a stable CSEM field.

  13. Generalized Markov branching models

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Junping

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, we first considered a modified Markov branching process incorporating both state-independent immigration and resurrection. After establishing the criteria for regularity and uniqueness, explicit expressions for the extinction probability and mean extinction time are presented. The criteria for recurrence and ergodicity are also established. In addition, an explicit expression for the equilibrium distribution is presented.\\ud \\ud We then moved on to investigate the basic proper...

  14. Tau leptonic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Garrido, L; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    A sample of 62249 \\tau-pair events is selected from data taken with the ALEPH detector in 1991, 1992 and 1993. The measurement of the branching fractions for \\tau decays into electrons and muons is presented with emphasis on the study of systematic effects from selection, particle identification and decay classification. Combined with the most recent ALEPH determination of the \\tau lifetime, these results provide a relative measurement of the leptonic couplings in the weak charged current for transverse W bosons.

  15. Respiratory source control using a surgical mask: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rajeev B; Skaria, Shaji D; Mansour, Mohamed M; Smaldone, Gerald C

    2016-07-01

    Cough etiquette and respiratory hygiene are forms of source control encouraged to prevent the spread of respiratory infection. The use of surgical masks as a means of source control has not been quantified in terms of reducing exposure to others. We designed an in vitro model using various facepieces to assess their contribution to exposure reduction when worn at the infectious source (Source) relative to facepieces worn for primary (Receiver) protection, and the factors that contribute to each. In a chamber with various airflows, radiolabeled aerosols were exhaled via a ventilated soft-face manikin head using tidal breathing and cough (Source). Another manikin, containing a filter, quantified recipient exposure (Receiver). The natural fit surgical mask, fitted (SecureFit) surgical mask and an N95-class filtering facepiece respirator (commonly known as an "N95 respirator") with and without a Vaseline-seal were tested. With cough, source control (mask or respirator on Source) was statistically superior to mask or unsealed respirator protection on the Receiver (Receiver protection) in all environments. To equal source control during coughing, the N95 respirator must be Vaseline-sealed. During tidal breathing, source control was comparable or superior to mask or respirator protection on the Receiver. Source control via surgical masks may be an important adjunct defense against the spread of respiratory infections. The fit of the mask or respirator, in combination with the airflow patterns in a given setting, are significant contributors to source control efficacy. Future clinical trials should include a surgical mask source control arm to assess the contribution of source control in overall protection against airborne infection.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of branched fcc/hcp ruthenium nanostructures and their catalytic activity in ammonia borane hydrolysis

    KAUST Repository

    AlYami, Noktan

    2018-01-30

    Several systems have shown the ability to stabilize uncommon crystal structures during the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles. By tailoring the nanoparticle crystal structure, the physical and chemical properties of the particles can also be controlled. Herein, we first synthesized branched nanoparticles of mixed hcp/fcc ruthenium, which were formed using tungsten carbonyl [W(CO)6] as both a reducing agent and a source of carbon monoxide. The branched particles were formed from multiple particulates off a central core. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) clearly showed that the branched structures consisted of aligned hcp crystal domains, a mixture of fcc and hcp crystal domains with several defects and misalignments, and particles that contained multiple cores and branches. Branched particles were also formed with molybdenum carbonyl [Mo(CO)6], and faceted particles of hcp and fcc particles were formed with Re2(CO)10 as a carbon monoxide source. Without metal carbonyls, small particles of spherical hcp ruthenium were produced, and their size could be controlled by the selection of the precursor. The ruthenium nanoparticles were tested for ammonia borane hydrolysis; the branched nanoparticles were more reactive for catalytic hydrogen evolution than the faceted hcp/fcc nanoparticles or the spherical hcp nanoparticles. This work showcases the potential of crystal phase engineering of transition metal nanoparticles by different carbon monoxide precursors for tailoring their catalytic reactivity.

  17. Electron dynamics in RF sources with a laser controlled emission

    CERN Document Server

    Khodak, I V; Metrochenko, V V

    2001-01-01

    Photoemission radiofrequency (RF) electron sources are sources of electron beams with extremely high brightness. Beam bunching processes in such devices are well studied in case when laser pulse duration is much lower of rf oscillation period.At the same time photoemission RF guns have some merits when operating in 'long-pulse' mode. In this case the laser pulse duration is much higher of rf oscillation period but much lower of rise time of oscillations in a gun cavity. Beam parameters at the gun output are compared for photoemission and thermoemission cathode applications. The paper presents results of a beam dynamics simulation in such guns with different resonance structures. Questions connected with defining of the current pulse peak value that can be obtained in such guns are discussed.

  18. Control of radiation sources and general regulations for accidental situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slimani, A.

    1998-01-01

    In order to prevent accidents caused by application of radiation sources the Tunisian O.N.P.C. established straightforward strategy made up of 3 phases: prevention, planning and intervention. Civil Protection conducts prevention studies of all radiation sources by examining normal application conditions as well as possible accidental situations. It keeps up with scientific, technical and statistical aspects of radiation risks, elaborates specific plans and programs for intervention operations and cooperates with administrative and security services as well as international organisations. The O.N.P.C. established a model intervention plan based on observation (according to preliminary information), evaluation of the situation (according to the head of operation) intervention (specialized units) and post intervention (testing of personnel)

  19. Induced chorioretinal venous anastomosis in experimental retinal branch vein occlusion.

    OpenAIRE

    McAllister, I L; Yu, D Y; Vijayasekaran, S; Barry, C; Constable, I

    1992-01-01

    Iatrogenic retinal vein to choroidal vein anastomoses were created using laser photocoagulation in six of seven dog eyes in which a partial branch retinal vein occlusion had previously been created photochemically. A similar attempt to create an anastomosis was made in six control eyes in which no branch vein occlusion was present. In the eyes in which a branch retinal vein had been created, a venous chorioretinal anastomosis appeared to be present by 3 to 6 weeks. In three control eyes simil...

  20. BEAMLINE-CONTROLLED STEERING OF SOURCE-POINT ANGLE AT THE ADVANCED PHOTON SOURCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, L.; Fystro, G.; Shang, H.; Smith, M.

    2017-06-25

    An EPICS-based steering software system has been implemented for beamline personnel to directly steer the angle of the synchrotron radiation sources at the Advanced Photon Source. A script running on a workstation monitors "start steering" beamline EPICS records, and effects a steering given by the value of the "angle request" EPICS record. The new system makes the steering process much faster than before, although the older steering protocols can still be used. The robustness features of the original steering remain. Feedback messages are provided to the beamlines and the accelerator operators. Underpinning this new steering protocol is the recent refinement of the global orbit feedback process whereby feedforward of dipole corrector set points and orbit set points are used to create a local steering bump in a rapid and seamless way.

  1. Quality control of concretes for conditioning of spent radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez N, M.

    2015-01-01

    The spent sealed radioactive sources are considered as a specific type of radioactive wastes and should be properly stored to ensure their integrity and prevent or limit the release of radionuclides in the geosphere. For this, these sources can be put up in concrete matrices. This research presents the evaluation and characterization of five concretes prepared with 4 brands of commercial cements: CPC Extra RS, CPC 30R Impercem of Cemex, Cruz Azul CPC 30R and CPC 30R of Apasco; three sizes of coarse aggregate (<30 mm, 29-11 mm and <10 mm) and fine aggregate (0.0797 mm) used as matrices for conditioning of spent sealed radioactive sources, in order to verify if these specific concretes accredit the standard NOM-019-Nucl-1995. After hardening for 28 days the concrete specimens were subjected to the tests: compressive strength; thermal cycles, irradiation, leaching and permeability, later to be characterized by: 1) X-ray diffraction in order to meet their crystalline phases; 2) scanning electron microscopy, to determine changes in morphology; 3) infrared spectroscopy, to determine the structural changes of concrete from its functional groups; 4) Raman spectroscopy to determine their structural changes and 5) Moessbauer spectroscopy, which determines changes in the oxidation state of iron in the concrete. According to the results and the changes presented by each concrete after applying the tests set by NOM-019-Nucl-1995, is concluded that the concrete made with cement Cemex brand (CPC 30-RS Extra), gravel of particle size 11-29 mm and sieved sand (0.0797 mm) can be used as matrices of spent sealed sources conditioning. Is remarkable a morphological and structural change of the concrete due to gamma irradiation and heat treatment. (Author)

  2. Control and Driving Methods for LED Based Intelligent Light Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Beczkowski, Szymon

    2012-01-01

    High power light-emitting diodes allow the creation of luminaires capable of generating saturated colour light at very high efficacies. Contrary to traditional light sources like incandescent and high-intensity discharge lamps, where colour is generated using filters, LEDs use additive light mixing, where the intensity of each primary colour diode has to be adjusted to the needed intensity to generate specified colour. The function of LED driver is to supply the diode with power needed to ach...

  3. Method for controlling an accelerator-type neutron source, and a pulsed neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Givens, W.W.

    1991-01-01

    The patent deals with an accelerator-type neutron source which employs a target, an ionization section and a replenisher for supplying accelerator gas. A positive voltage pulse is applied to the ionization section to produce a burst of neutrons. A negative voltage pulse is applied to the ionization section upon the termination of the positive voltage pulse to effect a sharp cut-off to the burst of neutrons. 4 figs

  4. Control and Driving Methods for LED Based Intelligent Light Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beczkowski, Szymon

    of the diode is controlled either by varying the magnitude of the current or by driving the LED with a pulsed current and regulate the width of the pulse. It has been shown previously, that these two methods yield different effects on diode's efficacy and colour point. A hybrid dimming strategy has been...... proposed where two variable quantities control the intensity of the diode. This increases the controllability of the diode giving new optimisation possibilities. It has been shown that it is possible to compensate for temperature drift of white diode's colour point using hybrid dimming strategy. Also...

  5. Regulatory control of radiation sources and radioactive materials in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGarry, A.T.; Fenton, D.; O'Flaherty, T.

    2001-01-01

    The primary legislation governing safety in uses of ionizing radiation in Ireland is the Radiological Protection Act, 1991. This Act provided for the establishment in 1992 of the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, and gives the Institute the functions and powers which enable it to be the regulatory body for all matters relating to ionizing radiation. A Ministerial Order made under the Act in 2000 consolidates previous regulations and, in particular, provides for the implementation in Irish law of the 1996 European Union Directive which lays down basic safety standards for the protection of the health of workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionizing radiation. Under the legislation, the custody, use and a number of other activities involving radioactive substances and irradiating apparatus require a licence issued by the Institute. Currently some 1260 licences are in force. Of these, some 850 are in respect of irradiating apparatus only and are issued principally to dentists and veterinary surgeons. The remaining licences involve sealed radiation sources and/or unsealed radioactive substances used in medicine, industry or education. A schedule attached to each licence fully lists the sealed sources to which the licence applies, and also the quantities of radioactive substances which may be acquired or held under the licence. It is an offence to dispose of, or otherwise relinquish possession of, any licensable material other than in accordance with terms and conditions of the licence. Disused sources are returned to the original supplier or, where this is not possible, stored under licence by the licensee who used them. Enforcement of the licensing provisions relies primarily on the programme of inspection of licensees, carried out by the Institute's inspectors. The Institute's Regulatory Service has a complement of four inspectors, one of whom is the Manager of the Service. The Manager reports to one of the Institute's Principal

  6. Modeling generalized interline power-flow controller (GIPFC using 48-pulse voltage source converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ghorbani

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Generalized interline power-flow controller (GIPFC is one of the voltage-source controller (VSC-based flexible AC transmission system (FACTS controllers that can independently regulate the power-flow over each transmission line of a multiline system. This paper presents the modeling and performance analysis of GIPFC based on 48-pulsed voltage-source converters. This paper deals with a cascaded multilevel converter model, which is a 48-pulse (three levels voltage source converter. The voltage source converter described in this paper is a harmonic neutralized, 48-pulse GTO converter. The GIPFC controller is based on d-q orthogonal coordinates. The algorithm is verified using simulations in MATLAB/Simulink environment. Comparisons between unified power flow controller (UPFC and GIPFC are also included. Keywords: Generalized interline power-flow controller (GIPFC, Voltage source converter (VCS, 48-pulse GTO converter

  7. Energy : branch out now

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebel, J.; Pluvinage, S

    2008-01-01

    This articled proposed the use of renewable energy sources to address the challenge of increasing energy demand and concerns about greenhouse gas emissions and climate change. Hydrocarbon exploitation is expected to peak by 2030, and while coal is still abundant, pollution increases with its utilization. The authors discussed the feasibility of using waste heat from industry to heat buildings. Solutions for urban traffic control were also discussed with reference to high quality public transportation, bicycle and pedestrian paths, and car pooling. Plans are underway to have about 20 hydrogen buses in circulation during the 2010 Olympic games in Whistler, British Columbia. Windpower has also become a major contender as a viable energy source, particularly with new technologies that have helped to maintain the efficiency of wind turbines. This article also discussed the use of biofuels derived from living matter. Bioenergy can be exploited from agricultural, forest or aquatic biomass. This biomass can be used to produce fuels or electricity. On a short term basis, the objective is to improve the yield of biogas, such as methane, from organic matter. The viability of deep geothermal energy was also discussed along with solar energy. Ideally, solar energy combines 3 types of technologies, notably passive, thermal and photovoltaic energy. Flexibility and affordability of materials are needed to facilitate the widespread commercialization of solar energy. The article concluded with a review of nuclear energy, which has been touted as the solution to climate change because it emits very few greenhouse gases and other atmospheric pollutants. 15 figs

  8. Effects of the airwave in time-domain marine controlled-source electromagnetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunziker, J.W.; Slob, E.C.; Mulder, W.

    2011-01-01

    In marine time-domain controlled-source electromagnetics (CSEM), there are two different acquisition methods: with horizontal sources for fast and simple data acquisition or with vertical sources for minimizing the effects of the airwave. Illustrations of the electric field as a function of space

  9. Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, L.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the sources of radiation in the narrow perspective of radioactivity and the even narrow perspective of those sources that concern environmental management and restoration activities at DOE facilities, as well as a few related sources. Sources of irritation, Sources of inflammatory jingoism, and Sources of information. First, the sources of irritation fall into three categories: No reliable scientific ombudsman to speak without bias and prejudice for the public good, Technical jargon with unclear definitions exists within the radioactive nomenclature, and Scientific community keeps a low-profile with regard to public information. The next area of personal concern are the sources of inflammation. This include such things as: Plutonium being described as the most dangerous substance known to man, The amount of plutonium required to make a bomb, Talk of transuranic waste containing plutonium and its health affects, TMI-2 and Chernobyl being described as Siamese twins, Inadequate information on low-level disposal sites and current regulatory requirements under 10 CFR 61, Enhanced engineered waste disposal not being presented to the public accurately. Numerous sources of disinformation regarding low level radiation high-level radiation, Elusive nature of the scientific community, The Federal and State Health Agencies resources to address comparative risk, and Regulatory agencies speaking out without the support of the scientific community

  10. A Modified Droop Control Method for Parallel-Connected Current Source Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Baoze; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel control method was proposed for current source inverters under the grid-connected working mode. The control scheme is based on a modified droop control method, with an additional current reference signal that will be generated instead of the voltage reference. Hence......, there is only a current control loop with droop control in the whole control scheme without voltage control loop. So it is very suitable for grid-connected current source inverter which will simplify the design of the control scheme and combine the advantage of droop control. The parallel configuration...... is widely used to acquire high power demand, but the circulating current problem is a key issue that should be considered. In this paper, a simulation based on parallel current source inverters using the proposed control scheme is provided. Simulation results showed that a good circulating current...

  11. Model Predictive Control of Z-source Neutral Point Clamped Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mo, Wei; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents Model Predictive Control (MPC) of Z-source Neutral Point Clamped (NPC) inverter. For illustration, current control of Z-source NPC grid-connected inverter is analyzed and simulated. With MPC’s advantage of easily including system constraints, load current, impedance network...... response are obtained at the same time with a formulated Z-source NPC inverter network model. Operation steady state and transient state simulation results of MPC are going to be presented, which shows good reference tracking ability of this method. It provides new control method for Z-source NPC inverter...

  12. Branching habit and the allocation of reproductive resources in conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Andrew B

    2012-09-01

    Correlated relationships between branch thickness, branch density, and twig and leaf size have been used extensively to study the evolution of plant canopy architecture, but fewer studies have explored the impact of these relationships on the allocation of reproductive resources. This study quantifies pollen cone production in conifers, which have similar basic reproductive biology but vary dramatically in branching habit, in order to test how differences in branch diameter influence pollen cone size and the density with which they are deployed in the canopy. Measurements of canopy branch density, the number of cones per branch and cone size were used to estimate the amount of pollen cone tissues produced by 16 species in three major conifer clades. The number of pollen grains produced was also estimated using direct counts from individual pollen cones. The total amount of pollen cone tissues in the conifer canopy varied little among species and clades, although vegetative traits such as branch thickness, branch density and pollen cone size varied over several orders of magnitude. However, branching habit controls the way these tissues are deployed: taxa with small branches produce small pollen cones at a high density, while taxa with large branches produce large cones relatively sparsely. Conifers appear to invest similar amounts of energy in pollen production independent of branching habit. However, similar associations between branch thickness, branch density and pollen cone size are seen across conifers, including members of living and extinct groups not directly studied here. This suggests that reproductive features relating to pollen cone size are in large part a function of the evolution of vegetative morphology and branching habit.

  13. 40 CFR 450.24 - New source performance standards reflecting the best available demonstrated control technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... performance standards reflecting the best available demonstrated control technology (NSPS). Any new source... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New source performance standards reflecting the best available demonstrated control technology (NSPS). 450.24 Section 450.24 Protection of...

  14. Analysis and Optimal Condition of the Rear-Sound-Aided Control Source in Active Noise Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Kreuter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An active noise control scenario of simple ducts is considered. The previously suggested technique of using an single loudspeaker and its rear sound to cancel the upstream sound is further examined and compared to the bidirectional solution in order to give theoretical proof of its advantage. Firstly, a model with a new approach for taking damping effects into account is derived based on the electrical transmission line theory. By comparison with the old model, the new approach is validated, and occurring differences are discussed. Moreover, a numerical application with the consideration of damping is implemented for confirmation. The influence of the rear sound strength on the feedback-path system is investigated, and the optimal condition is determined. Finally, it is proven that the proposed source has an advantage of an extended phase lag and a time delay in the feedback-path system by both frequency-response analysis and numerical calculation of the time response.

  15. How phosphorus limitation can control climatic gas sources and sinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gypens, Nathalie; Borges, Alberto V.; Ghyoot, Caroline

    2017-04-01

    Since the 1950's, anthropogenic activities severely increased river nutrient loads in European coastal areas. Subsequent implementation of nutrient reduction policies have considerably reduced phosphorus (P) loads from mid-1980's, while nitrogen (N) loads were maintained, inducing a P limitation of phytoplankton growth in many eutrophied coastal areas such as the Southern Bight of the North Sea (SBNS). When dissolved inorganic phosphorous (DIP) is limiting, most phytoplankton organisms are able to indirectly acquire P from dissolved organic P (DOP). We investigate the impact of DOP use on the importance of phytoplankton production and atmospheric fluxes of CO2 and dimethylsulfide (DMS) in the SBNS from 1951 to 2007 using an extended version of the R-MIRO-BIOGAS model. This model includes a description of the ability of phytoplankton organisms to use DOP as a source of P. Results show that primary production can increase up to 70% due to DOP uptake in limiting DIP conditions. Consequently, simulated DMS emissions double while CO2 emissions to the atmosphere decrease, relative to the reference simulation without DOP uptake. At the end of the simulated period (late 2000's), the net direction of air-sea CO2 annual flux, changed from a source to a sink for atmospheric CO2 in response to use of DOP and increase of primary production.

  16. Distributed control system for the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batchelor, K.; Culwick, B.B.; Goldstick, J.; Sheehan, J.; Smith, J.

    1979-01-01

    Until recently, accelerator and similar control systems have used modular interface hardware such as CAMAC or DATACON which translated digital computer commands transmitted over some data link into hardware device status and monitoring variables. Such modules possessed little more than local buffering capability in the processing of commands and data. The advent of the micro-processor has made available low cost small computers of significant computational capability. This paper describes how micro-computers including such micro-processors and associated memory, input/output devices and interrupt facilities have been incorporated into a distributed system for the control of the NSLS

  17. Outbreaks: Sources of Epidemiological Knowledge in Communicable Disease Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.L.J.M. Mertens (Paulus Leonardus Johannes Marie)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractPublic health has been defined as the science and art of disease prevention, prolonging life, and promoting health and well-being through organized community effort for the sanitation of the environment, the control of communicable infections, the organization of medical and nursing

  18. Advanced control for ground source heat pump systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Patrick [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gehl, Anthony C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liu, Xiaobing [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Ground source heat pumps (GSHP), also known as geothermal heat pumps (GHP), are proven advanced HVAC systems that utilize clean and renewable geothermal energy, as well as the massive thermal storage capacity of the ground, to provide space conditioning and water heating for both residential and commercial buildings. GSHPs have higher energy efficiencies than conventional HVAC systems. It is estimated, if GSHPs achieve a 10% market share in the US, in each year, 0.6 Quad Btu primary energy consumption can be saved and 36 million tons carbon emissions can be avoided (Liu et al. 2017). However, the current market share of GSHPs is less than 1%. The foremost barrier preventing wider adoption of GSHPs is their high installation costs. To enable wider adoption of GSHPs, the costeffectiveness of GSHP applications must be improved.

  19. The branch librarians' handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Rivers, Vickie

    2004-01-01

    ""Recommended""--Booklist; ""an excellent addition...highly recommended""--Public Libraries; ""clear...very sound advice...strongly recommend""--Catholic Library World; ""excellent resource...organized...well written""--Against the Grain; ""interesting...thoroughly practical...a very good book...well organized...clearly written""--ARBA. This handbook covers a wide variety of issues that the branch librarian must deal with every day. Chapters are devoted to mission statements (the Dallas Public Library and Dayton Metro Library mission statements are highlighted as examples), library systems,

  20. sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yin Chiang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the simplified models of the ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode multiplexer network with Bernoulli random traffic sources. Based on the model, the performance measures are analyzed by the different output service schemes.

  1. Cravity modulation of the moss Tortula modica branching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorkavtsiv, Yaroslava; Kit, Nadja

    Among various abiotic factors the sensor system of plants constantly perceives light and gravitation impulses and reacts on their action by photo- and gravitropisms. Tropisms play fundamental part in ontogenesis and determination of plant forms. Essentially important question is how light initiating phototropic bending modulates gravitropism. In contrast to flower plants, red light is phototropically active for mosses, and phytochromic system controls initiation of apical growth, branching and photomorphogenesis of mosses. The aim of this investigation was to analyse cell branching of protonemata Tortula modica Zander depending on the direction of light and gravitation vector. The influence of light and gravitation on the form of protonemal turf T. modica, branching and the angle of lateral branches relative to axis of mother cell growth has been investigated. As moss protonemata is not branched in the darkness, light is necessary for branching activation. Minimally low intensity of the red light (0.2 mmol (.) m (-2) ({) .}sec (-1) ) induced branching without visual display of phototropic growth. It has been established that unidirectional action of light and gravitation intensifies branching, and, on the contrary, perpendicularly oriented vectors of factors weaken branches formation. Besides, parallel oriented vectors initiated branching from both cell sides, but oppositely directed vectors initiated branching only from one side. Clinostate rotation the change of the vector gravity and causes uniform cell branching, hence, light and gravitation mutually influence the branching system form of the protonemata cell. It has been shown that the angle of lateral branches in darkness does not depend on the direction of light and gravitation action. After lighting the local growth of the cell wall took place mainly under the angle 90 (o) to the axes of mother cell growth. Then the angle gradually decreased and in 3-4 cell divisions the lateral branch grew under the angle

  2. Pulsed positive corona streamer propagation and branching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veldhuizen, E.M. van; Rutgers, W.R.

    2002-01-01

    The propagation and branching of pulsed positive corona streamers in a short gap is observed with high resolution in space and time. The appearance of the pre-breakdown phenomena can be controlled by the electrode configuration, the gas composition and the impedance of the pulsed power circuit. In a point-wire gap the positive corona shows much more branching than in the parallel plane gap with a protrusion. In air, the branching is more pronounced than in argon. The pulsed power circuit appears to operate in two modes, either as an inductive circuit creating a lower number of thick streamers or as a resistive circuit giving a higher number of thin streamers. A possible cause for branching is electrostatic repulsion of two parts of the streamer head. The electric field at the streamer head is limited, the maximum values found are ∼170 kV cm -1 in air and ∼100 kV cm -1 in argon. At these maximum field strengths, the electrons have 5-10 eV energy, so the ionization is dominated by two-step processes. Differences between argon and ambient air in the field strength at which streamers propagate are ascribed to the difference in de-excitation processes in noble and molecular gases. The fact that the pulsed power circuit can control the streamer structure is important for applications, but this effect must also be taken into account in fundamental studies of streamer propagation and branching. (author)

  3. Pulsed positive corona streamer propagation and branching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veldhuizen, E.M. van [Department of Physics, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven (Netherlands)]. E-mail: e.m.v.veldhuizen@tue.nl; Rutgers, W.R. [Department of Physics, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2002-09-07

    The propagation and branching of pulsed positive corona streamers in a short gap is observed with high resolution in space and time. The appearance of the pre-breakdown phenomena can be controlled by the electrode configuration, the gas composition and the impedance of the pulsed power circuit. In a point-wire gap the positive corona shows much more branching than in the parallel plane gap with a protrusion. In air, the branching is more pronounced than in argon. The pulsed power circuit appears to operate in two modes, either as an inductive circuit creating a lower number of thick streamers or as a resistive circuit giving a higher number of thin streamers. A possible cause for branching is electrostatic repulsion of two parts of the streamer head. The electric field at the streamer head is limited, the maximum values found are {approx}170 kV cm{sup -1} in air and {approx}100 kV cm{sup -1} in argon. At these maximum field strengths, the electrons have 5-10 eV energy, so the ionization is dominated by two-step processes. Differences between argon and ambient air in the field strength at which streamers propagate are ascribed to the difference in de-excitation processes in noble and molecular gases. The fact that the pulsed power circuit can control the streamer structure is important for applications, but this effect must also be taken into account in fundamental studies of streamer propagation and branching. (author)

  4. A rule-based expert system for generating control displays at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulter, K.J.

    1993-01-01

    The integration of a rule-based expert system for generating screen displays for controlling and monitoring instrumentation under the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) is presented. The expert system is implemented using CLIPS, an expert system shell from the Software Technology Branch at Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. The user selects the hardware input and output to be displayed and the expert system constructs a graphical control screen appropriate for the data. Such a system provides a method for implementing a common look and feel for displays created by several different users and reduces the amount of time required to create displays for new hardware configurations. Users are able to modify the displays as needed using the EPICS display editor tool

  5. A rule-based expert system for generating control displays at the advanced photon source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulter, K.J.

    1994-01-01

    The integration of a rule-based expert system for generating screen displays for controlling and monitoring instrumentation under the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) is presented. The expert system is implemented using CLIPS, an expert system shell from the Software Technology Branch at Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. The user selects the hardware input and output to be displayed and the expert system constructs a graphical control screen appropriate for the data. Such a system provides a method for implementing a common look and feel for displays created by several different users and reduces the amount of time required to create displays for new hardware configurations. Users are able to modify the displays as needed using the EPICS display editor tool. ((orig.))

  6. Storage of low-level radioactive waste and regulatory control of sealed sources in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahola, T.; Markkanen, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is concentrated on the non nuclear low-level radioactive waste. The cornerstone for maintaining radioactive sources under control in Finland is that all practices involving sources are subject to authorization and all licensing information, including information on each individual source, are entered into a register which is continuously updated based on applications and notifications received from the licenses. Experiences during the past twenty years have shown that source-specific records of sources combined with regular inspections at the places of use have prevented efficiency losing control over sealed radioactive sources. The current capacity in the interim storage for State owned waste is not adequate for all used sealed sources and other small user waste which are currently kept in the possession of the licensees. Thus, expansion of the storage capacity and other options for taking care of the small user waste is under consideration. (N.C.)

  7. [A landscape ecological approach for urban non-point source pollution control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qinghai; Ma, Keming; Zhao, Jingzhu; Yang, Liu; Yin, Chengqing

    2005-05-01

    Urban non-point source pollution is a new problem appeared with the speeding development of urbanization. The particularity of urban land use and the increase of impervious surface area make urban non-point source pollution differ from agricultural non-point source pollution, and more difficult to control. Best Management Practices (BMPs) are the effective practices commonly applied in controlling urban non-point source pollution, mainly adopting local repairing practices to control the pollutants in surface runoff. Because of the close relationship between urban land use patterns and non-point source pollution, it would be rational to combine the landscape ecological planning with local BMPs to control the urban non-point source pollution, which needs, firstly, analyzing and evaluating the influence of landscape structure on water-bodies, pollution sources and pollutant removal processes to define the relationships between landscape spatial pattern and non-point source pollution and to decide the key polluted fields, and secondly, adjusting inherent landscape structures or/and joining new landscape factors to form new landscape pattern, and combining landscape planning and management through applying BMPs into planning to improve urban landscape heterogeneity and to control urban non-point source pollution.

  8. Real-time control using open source RTOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Philip C.; Johnson, Richard L., Jr.

    2002-12-01

    Complex telescope systems such as interferometers tend to rely heavily on hard real-time operating systems (RTOS). It has been standard practice at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and many other institutions to use costly commercial RTOSs and hardware. After developing a real-time toolkit for VxWorks on the PowerPC platform (dubbed RTC), the interferometry group at JPL is porting this code to the real-time Application Interface (RTAI), an open source RTOS that is essentially an extension to the Linux kernel. This port has the potential to reduce software and hardware costs for future projects, while increasing the level of performance. The goals of this paper are to briefly describe the RTC toolkit, highlight the successes and pitfalls of porting the toolkit from VxWorks to Linux-RTAI, and to discuss future enhancements that will be implemented as a direct result of this port. The first port of any body of code is always the most difficult since it uncovers the OS-specific calls and forces "red flags" into those portions of the code. For this reason, It has also been a huge benefit that the project chose a generic, platform independent OS extension, ACE, and its CORBA counterpart, TAO. This port of RTC will pave the way for conversions to other environments, the most interesting of which is a non-real-time simulation environment, currently being considered by the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) and the Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) Projects.

  9. A wavenumber approach to analysing the active control of plane waves with arrays of secondary sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Stephen J.; Cheer, Jordan; Bhan, Lam; Shi, Chuang; Gan, Woon-Seng

    2018-04-01

    The active control of an incident sound field with an array of secondary sources is a fundamental problem in active control. In this paper the optimal performance of an infinite array of secondary sources in controlling a plane incident sound wave is first considered in free space. An analytic solution for normal incidence plane waves is presented, indicating a clear cut-off frequency for good performance, when the separation distance between the uniformly-spaced sources is equal to a wavelength. The extent of the near field pressure close to the source array is also quantified, since this determines the positions of the error microphones in a practical arrangement. The theory is also extended to oblique incident waves. This result is then compared with numerical simulations of controlling the sound power radiated through an open aperture in a rigid wall, subject to an incident plane wave, using an array of secondary sources in the aperture. In this case the diffraction through the aperture becomes important when its size is compatible with the acoustic wavelength, in which case only a few sources are necessary for good control. When the size of the aperture is large compared to the wavelength, and diffraction is less important but more secondary sources need to be used for good control, the results then become similar to those for the free field problem with an infinite source array.

  10. Source-dependent and source-independent controls on plutonium oxidation state and colloid associations in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buesseler, Ken O; Kaplan, Daniel I; Dai, Minhan; Pike, Steven

    2009-03-01

    Plutonium (Pu) was characterized for its isotopic composition, oxidation states, and association with colloids in groundwater samples near disposal basins in F-Area of the Savannah River Site and compared to similar samples collected six years earlier. Two sources of Pu were identified, the disposal basins, which contained a 24Pu/l39Pu isotopic signature consistent with weapons grade Pu, and 244Cm, a cocontaminant that is a progenitor radionuclide of 24Pu. 24Pu that originated primarily from 244Cm tended to be appreciably more oxidized (Pu(V/VI)), less associated with colloids (approximately 1 kDa - 0.2 microm), and more mobile than 239Pu, as suggested by our prior studies at this site. This is not evidence of isotope fractionation but rather "source-dependent" controls on 240Pu speciation which are processes that are not at equilibrium, i.e., processes that appear kinetically hindered. There were also "source-independent" controls on 239Pu speciation, which are those processes that follow thermodynamic equilibrium with their surroundings. For example, a groundwater pH increase in one well from 4.1 in 1998 to 6.1 in 2004 resulted in an order of magnitude decrease in groundwater 239Pu concentrations. Similarly, the fraction of 239Pu in the reduced Pu(III/IV) and colloidal forms increased systematically with decreases in redox condition in 2004 vs 1998. This research demonstrates the importance of source-dependent and source-independent controls on Pu speciation which would impact Pu mobility during changes in hydrological, chemical, or biological conditions on both seasonal and decadal time scales, and over short spatial scales. This implies more dynamic shifts in Pu speciation, colloids association, and transport in groundwater than commonly believed.

  11. National strategies for improving control over orphan sources of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nizamska, M.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1989 Bulgaria started reformation of economy sector. Part of this process is the intensive privatisation, as well as in the sited using radioactive materials for different applications - industry, medicine, agriculture, etc. The quick change of property ownership results in difficulties to identify the assessor of radioactive source or material and finally led to appearance of orphan sources. A orphan source is defined as a source that poses sufficient radiological hazard to warrant regulatory control, but which is not under regulatory control because it has never been so, or because it has been abandoned, lost, misplaced, stolen or otherwise transferred without proper authorisation. A face on these problems, Bulgaria is performing a series of measure to improve the control over orphan sources and to strengthening the control over the nuclear and radioactive materials. The report presents briefly this measures. (author)

  12. Tracing and control of raw materials sourcing for vaccine manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faretra Peysson, Laurence

    2010-05-01

    The control of the raw materials used to manufacture vaccines is mandatory; therefore, a very clear process must be in place to guarantee that raw materials are traced. Those who make products or supplies used in vaccine manufacture (suppliers of culture media, diagnostic tests, etc.) must apply quality systems proving that they adhere to certain standards. ISO certification, Good Manufacturing Practices for production sites and the registration of culture media with a 'Certificate of Suitability' from the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and Healthcare are reliable quality systems pertaining to vaccine production. Suppliers must assure that each lot of raw materials used in a product that will be used in vaccine manufacture adheres to the level of safety and traceability required. Incoming materials must be controlled in a single 'Enterprise Resource Planning' system which is used to document important information, such as the assignment of lot number, expiration date, etc. Ingredients for culture media in particular must conform to certain specifications. The specifications that need to be checked vary according to the ingredient, based on the level of risk. The way a raw material is produced is also important, and any aspect relative to cross-contamination, such as the sanitary measures used in producing and storing the raw material must be checked as well. In addition, suppliers can reduce the risk of viral contamination of raw materials by avoiding purchases in countries where a relevant outbreak is currently declared. 2010 The International Association for Biologicals. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of Remote Control and Interlock System for the PEFP Microwave Ion Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Young Gi; Seol, Kyung Tae; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Jang, Ji Ho; Cho, Yong Sub

    2011-01-01

    The control system for a microwave ion source as an isolated high voltage device is a main part of the PEFP distributed control system. The system is used to control two sets of microwave ion sources, the remote control and the interlock system. A VME system with an embedded Power PC CPU is used as main computer. The VME system is dedicated to control and monitoring of the ion source operation. An isolated control system has been designed and developed for remote control and monitoring of a microwave generator and various power supplies. As the source is placed on high voltage platform, optical fiber isolation has been used between the serial to optical fiber VME I/O board and the control system on the high voltage platform. These are connected through RS232 serial interface. A fast Ethernet is used to communicate between the microwave ion source control system and other control stations in the PEFP control system. EPICS toolkit is adopted to provide network programming and user interface by using EPICS Channel Access (CA)

  14. The regulatory control of radiation sources in Australia -- The challenges of a federal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loy, J.; Colgan, P.

    2001-01-01

    The report refers to the challenges that Australia is facing, as a federal nation having a Commonwealth Government and six States and two territories, in establishing appropriate regulatory control of radiation sources. Information on the national inventory of radiation sources and existing regulatory infrastructure, including the system of notification, registration, licensing, inspection and enforcement, is explained in the report. The national provisions for the management of disused sources; the planning, preparedness and response to abnormal events and emergencies; the recovery of control over orphan sources; and education and training; are specifically emphasized. (author)

  15. Activities of the Development Branch. 1978-1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candame de Gallo, Rita; Marrapodi, M.R.E.; Baez, L.B.

    1982-01-01

    The activities carried out by the Development Branch from 1978 through 1981 are summarized. Subjects covered include: Metallurgy, Nuclear Fuels, Instrumentation and Control, Nuclear Reactors, as well as the various projects developed during this period and the administrative and technical activities of various groups belonging to this Branch. A list of publications by personnel of this Branch during the same period is also included. (C.A.K.) [es

  16. Timing reference generators and chopper controllers for neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.; Merl, R.; Rose, C.

    2001-01-01

    Due to AC-power-grid frequency fluctuations, the designers for accelerator-based spallation-neutron facilities have worked to optimize the competing and contrasting demands of accelerator and neutron chopper performance. Powerful new simulation techniques have enabled the modeling of the timing systems that integrate chopper controllers and chopper hardware. For the first time, we are able to quantitatively access the tradeoffs between these two constraints and design or upgrade a facility to optimize total system performance. Thus, at LANSCE, we now operate multiple chopper systems and the accelerator as simple slaves to a single master-timing-reference generator. For the SNS we recommend a similar system that is somewhat less tightly coupled to the power grid. (author)

  17. High speed CAMAC differential branch highway driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMillan, D.E.; Nelson, R.O.; Poore, R.V.; Sunier, J.W.; Ross, J.J.

    1979-01-01

    A new CAMAC branch driver is described that incorporates several unusual features which combine to give reliable, high-speed performance. These include balanced line driver/receivers, stored CAMAC command lists, 8 DMA channels, pseudo LAMS, hardware priority encoding of LAMS, and hardware-implemented Q-controlled block transfers. 3 figures

  18. A Survey of Open-Source UAV Flight Controllers and Flight Simulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebeid, Emad Samuel Malki; Skriver, Martin; Terkildsen, Kristian Husum

    2018-01-01

    , which are all tightly linked to the UAV flight controller hardware and software. The lack of standardization of flight controller architectures and the use of proprietary closed-source flight controllers on many UAV platforms, however, complicates this work: solutions developed for one flight controller...... may be difficult to port to another without substantial extra development and testing. Using open-source flight controllers mitigates some of these challenges and enables other researchers to validate and build upon existing research. This paper presents a survey of the publicly available open...

  19. Quiver Varieties and Branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiraku Nakajima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Braverman and Finkelberg recently proposed the geometric Satake correspondence for the affine Kac-Moody group Gaff [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., arXiv:0711.2083]. They conjecture that intersection cohomology sheaves on the Uhlenbeck compactification of the framed moduli space of Gcpt-instantons on $R^4/Z_r$ correspond to weight spaces of representations of the Langlands dual group $G_{aff}^{vee}$ at level $r$. When $G = SL(l$, the Uhlenbeck compactification is the quiver variety of type $sl(r_{aff}$, and their conjecture follows from the author's earlier result and I. Frenkel's level-rank duality. They further introduce a convolution diagram which conjecturally gives the tensor product multiplicity [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., Private communication, 2008]. In this paper, we develop the theory for the branching in quiver varieties and check this conjecture for $G = SL(l$.

  20. Integrating over Higgs branches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.; Shatashvili, S.

    2000-01-01

    We develop some useful techniques for integrating over Higgs branches in supersymmetric theories with 4 and 8 supercharges. In particular, we define a regularized volume for hyperkaehler quotients. We evaluate this volume for certain ALE and ALF spaces in terms of the hyperkaehler periods. We also reduce these volumes for a large class of hyperkaehler quotients to simpler integrals. These quotients include complex coadjoint orbits, instanton moduli spaces on R 4 and ALE manifolds, Hitchin spaces, and moduli spaces of (parabolic) Higgs bundles on Riemann surfaces. In the case of Hitchin spaces the evaluation of the volume reduces to a summation over solutions of Bethe ansatz equations for the non-linear Schroedinger system. We discuss some applications of our results. (orig.)

  1. Tillering and panicle branching genes in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wei-hong; Shang, Fei; Lin, Qun-ting; Lou, Chen; Zhang, Jing

    2014-03-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important staple food crops in the world, and rice tillering and panicle branching are important traits determining grain yield. Since the gene MONOCULM 1 (MOC 1) was first characterized as a key regulator in controlling rice tillering and branching, great progress has been achieved in identifying important genes associated with grain yield, elucidating the genetic basis of yield-related traits. Some of these important genes were shown to be applicable for molecular breeding of high-yielding rice. This review focuses on recent advances, with emphasis on rice tillering and panicle branching genes, and their regulatory networks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The IAEA Regional Training Course on Regulatory Control of Radiation Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Materials of the IAEA Regional Training Course contains 8 presented lectures. Authors deals with regulatory control of radiation sources. The next materials of the IAEA were presented: Organization and implementation of a national regulatory infrastructure governing protection against ionizing radiation and the safety of radiation sources. (IAEA-TECDOC-1067); Safety assessment plants for authorization and inspection of radiation sources (IAEA-TECDOC-1113); Regulatory authority information system RAIS, Version 2.0, Instruction manual

  3. The importance of governmental control of radioactive sources used in industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anna Firpo Fuerth, Q.F.; Beatriz Souto Ameigenda, Q.F.

    1998-01-01

    Industrial applications of radioactive sources require good management practices dealing with control and registration. In the following case, a special event occurred between two routine inspections: trading. Then a new human factor came into scene: workers with no specific training and knowledge related to radioactive sources. The up going situation triggered emergency procedures. Finally, there were no negative consequences. (author)

  4. General problems associated with the control and safe use of radiation sources (199)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, J.U.

    1993-01-01

    There are problems at various levels in ensuring safety in the use of radiation sources. A relatively new problem that warrants international action is the smuggling of radioactive material across international borders. An international convention on the control and safe use of radiation sources is essential to provide a universally harmonized mechanism for ensuring safety

  5. 40 CFR 63.2343 - What are my requirements for emission sources not requiring control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What are my requirements for emission sources not requiring control? 63.2343 Section 63.2343 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... (Non-Gasoline) What This Subpart Covers § 63.2343 What are my requirements for emission sources not...

  6. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) Old Burial Ground (OBG) source control technology and inventory study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G.P.; Rehder, T.E.; Kanzleiter, J.P.

    1996-10-02

    This report has been developed to support information needs for wastes buried in the Burial Ground Complex. Information discussed is presented in a total of four individual attachments. The general focus of this report is to collect information on estimated source inventories, leaching studies, source control technologies, and to provide information on modeling parameters and associated data deficiencies.

  7. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) Old Burial Ground (OBG) source control technology and inventory study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flach, G.P.; Rehder, T.E.; Kanzleiter, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    This report has been developed to support information needs for wastes buried in the Burial Ground Complex. Information discussed is presented in a total of four individual attachments. The general focus of this report is to collect information on estimated source inventories, leaching studies, source control technologies, and to provide information on modeling parameters and associated data deficiencies

  8. The efficiency of bank branches

    OpenAIRE

    Omid Takbiri; Mohammad Mohammadi; Bahman Naderi

    2015-01-01

    Banking industry has significant contribution in development of economies of developing countries. Most banks execute their operations through different branches. Therefore it is important to measure the relative efficiencies of these branches. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is one of the most useful tools in measuring banks’ performance. The present paper aims to extract ranking pattern of banks based on performance evaluation using DEA analysis. In the present research, 120 bank branches o...

  9. An amplitude and phase control system for the TFTR rf heating sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutsogeorge, G.

    1989-04-01

    Feedback loops that control the amplitude and phase of the rf heating sources on TFTR are described. The method for providing arc protection is also discussed. Block diagrams and Bode plots are included. 6 figs

  10. Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS): Application source/release control for EPICS R3.11.6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zieman, B.; Kraimer, M.

    1994-01-01

    This manual describes a set of tools that can be used to develop software for EPICS based control systems. It provides the following features: Multiple applications; the entire system is composed of an arbitrary number of applications: Source/Release Control; all files created or modified by the applications developers can be put under sccs (a UNIX Source/Release control utility): Multiple Developers; it allows a number of applications developers to work separately during the development phase but combine their applications for system testing and for a production system; Makefiles: makefiles are provided to automatically rebuild various application components. For C and state notation programs, Imagefiles are provided

  11. The Meckel-Gruber syndrome protein TMEM67 controls basal body positioning and epithelial branching morphogenesis in mice via the non-canonical Wnt pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakia A. Abdelhamed

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ciliopathies are a group of developmental disorders that manifest with multi-organ anomalies. Mutations in TMEM67 (MKS3 cause a range of human ciliopathies, including Meckel-Gruber and Joubert syndromes. In this study we describe multi-organ developmental abnormalities in the Tmem67tm1Dgen/H1 knockout mouse that closely resemble those seen in Wnt5a and Ror2 knockout mice. These include pulmonary hypoplasia, ventricular septal defects, shortening of the body longitudinal axis, limb abnormalities, and cochlear hair cell stereociliary bundle orientation and basal body/kinocilium positioning defects. The basal body/kinocilium complex was often uncoupled from the hair bundle, suggesting aberrant basal body migration, although planar cell polarity and apical planar asymmetry in the organ of Corti were normal. TMEM67 (meckelin is essential for phosphorylation of the non-canonical Wnt receptor ROR2 (receptor-tyrosine-kinase-like orphan receptor 2 upon stimulation with Wnt5a-conditioned medium. ROR2 also colocalises and interacts with TMEM67 at the ciliary transition zone. Additionally, the extracellular N-terminal domain of TMEM67 preferentially binds to Wnt5a in an in vitro binding assay. Cultured lungs of Tmem67 mutant mice failed to respond to stimulation of epithelial branching morphogenesis by Wnt5a. Wnt5a also inhibited both the Shh and canonical Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathways in wild-type embryonic lung. Pulmonary hypoplasia phenotypes, including loss of correct epithelial branching morphogenesis and cell polarity, were rescued by stimulating the non-canonical Wnt pathway downstream of the Wnt5a-TMEM67-ROR2 axis by activating RhoA. We propose that TMEM67 is a receptor that has a main role in non-canonical Wnt signalling, mediated by Wnt5a and ROR2, and normally represses Shh signalling. Downstream therapeutic targeting of the Wnt5a-TMEM67-ROR2 axis might, therefore, reduce or prevent pulmonary hypoplasia in ciliopathies and other congenital

  12. Methods and Technologies Branch (MTB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Methods and Technologies Branch focuses on methods to address epidemiologic data collection, study design and analysis, and to modify technological approaches to better understand cancer susceptibility.

  13. Branched chain amino acids supplemented with L-acetylcarnitine versus BCAA treatment in hepatic coma: a randomized and controlled double blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaguarnera, Mariano; Risino, Corrado; Cammalleri, Lisa; Malaguarnera, Lucia; Astuto, Marinella; Vecchio, Ignazio; Rampello, Liborio

    2009-07-01

    Our earlier study has demonstrated that the administration of L-acetylcarnitine (LAC) improves neurological symptoms and serum parameters in hepatic coma. The aim of this work has been to evaluate the efficacy of the LAC and branched chain amino acids (BCAA) versus BCAA, administered in intravenous infusion, in patients with cirrhotic hepatic coma. Forty-eight highly selected patients were enrolled in the study and, after randomization, received blindly LAC+BCAA (n=24) versus BCAA (n=24). The two groups were similar in age, sex, pathogenesis of cirrhosis, and severity of liver disease. The comparison between values before and after LAC planned treatment showed statistical significant differences in neurological findings, evaluated by the Glasgow Scale, ammonia serum levels, blood urea nitrogen, and EEG. After 60 min of the study period, the LAC+BCAA treated patients compared with BCCA treated showed a significant decrease of ammonia serum levels: 41.20 versus 10.40 mumol PBCAA treated patients compared with BCCA treated patients showed a significant increase of Glasgow's score: 3.60 versus 1.50 score PBCAA supplemented with LAC might improve neurological symptoms and serum ammonium levels in selected cirrhotic patients with hepatic coma.

  14. Correlation of (99m) Tc-DPD SPECT/CT Scan Findings and Diagnostic Blockades of Lumbar Medial Branches in Patients with Unspecific Low Back Pain in a Randomized-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiermuth, David; Kretzschmar, Martin; Bilecen, Denis; Schaeren, Stefan; Jacob, Augustinus Ludwig; Aeschbach, Armin; Ruppen, Wilhelm

    2015-10-01

    Zygapophyseal joints are the origin of pain in up to 30% of those with unspecific chronic low back pain. Until recently, no reliable clinical tests have been found to identify the patients who would benefit from denervation of the zygapophyseal joints by medial branch blockades. We performed a prospective randomized placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the value of high-resolution single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) of the lumbar spine prior to any diagnostic infiltration of the medial branches. Patients with suspected zygapophyseal joint-related pain were included in the study. After obtaining a SPECT/CT scan of the lumbar spine a set of infiltrations of the medial branches was done with local anesthetics and placebo on different days. Patients and anesthetists were blinded to the results of SPECT/CT and to the infiltrated agents. In a total of 29 study patients, 7 had positive and 22 negative infiltration tests, and 9 had positive and 20 negative SPECT/CT findings. Sensitivity of SPECT/CT for a positive response after diagnostic infiltration was 0.57 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.18-0.90); specificity was 0.77 (CI 95% 0.55-0.92); odds ratio was 4.53 (CI 95% 0.75-27.40); and diagnostic accuracy was 0.72. Compared with diagnostic infiltrations SPECT/CT scans showed only a moderate sensitivity and specificity and, therefore, may not be recommended as a first line diagnostic tool prior to diagnostic infiltrations. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Procedures for identifying reasonably available control technology for stationary sources of PM-10. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, M.J.; Ellefson, R.

    1992-09-01

    The guidance document sets forth procedures and identifies sources of information that will assist State and local air pollution control agencies in determining Reasonably Available Control Technology (RACT) for PM-10 (particulate matter having a nominal aerometric diameter of 10 microns or less) emission from existing stationary sources on a case-by-case basis. It provides an annotated bibliography of documents to aid in identifying the activities that cause PM-10 emissions as well as applicable air pollution control measures and their effectiveness in reducing emissions. The most stringent state total particulate matter (PM) emission limits are identified for several categories of PM-10 sources and compared to available emission test data. Finally, guidance is provided on procedures for estimating total capital investment and total annual cost of the control measures which are generally used to control PM-10 emissions

  16. Automatic control system of the PIG ion source for the U-400 cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutner, V.B.; Subbotin, V.G.; Sukhov, A.M.; Tretyakov, Y.P.; Fefilov, B.V.; Kasyanov, A.A.; Rybin, V.M.

    1990-01-01

    An automatic control system is described for the multiply charged ion source of the U-400 cyclotron based on CAMAC apparatus and microprocessor controllers. The system allows the automatic tuning of the ion source to the necessary regime, including the automatic start-up of discharge, determination of the necessary parameters of sputtering, and the automatic search for a maximum beam current for given discharge parameters. The system performs the tuning of the ion source to the quasioptimal regime in 10--15 min with up to 5% deviation from the preset parameters. It is possible to stabilize the beam current within 3% using the automatic correction of the discharge regime

  17. Note: Tormenta: An open source Python-powered control software for camera based optical microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabas, Federico M; Masullo, Luciano A; Stefani, Fernando D

    2016-12-01

    Until recently, PC control and synchronization of scientific instruments was only possible through closed-source expensive frameworks like National Instruments' LabVIEW. Nowadays, efficient cost-free alternatives are available in the context of a continuously growing community of open-source software developers. Here, we report on Tormenta, a modular open-source software for the control of camera-based optical microscopes. Tormenta is built on Python, works on multiple operating systems, and includes some key features for fluorescence nanoscopy based on single molecule localization.

  18. Automatic control system for the pig ion source for the U-400 cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutner, V.B.; Subbotin, V.G.; Sukhov, A.M.; Tret'yakov, Yu.P.; Fefilov, B.V.

    1989-01-01

    An automatic control system is described for the cyclotron U-400 multiply-charged ion source based on CAMAC apparatus and microprocesor controllers. The system allows the automatic tuning of the ion source to the necessary regime including the automatic start-up of discharge, the obtaining of the necessary parameters of sputtering, the automatic search for a maximum beam current within the given discharge parameters. The system performs tuning the ion source to the quasioptimal regime for 10-15 minutes with up to 5% deviation from the preset parameters. It is possible to stabilize the beam current within 3% using the automatic correction of the discharge regime. 6 refs.; 4 figs

  19. Regularity of the wear control of radioactive sources from the nuclear measurers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira L, M.

    2006-01-01

    The control of radioactive sources in Brazil is regulated by the CNEN (National Comissao of Nuclear Energy). The Laboratory of Descontaminacao of the IPEN (Institute of Energy Y Nuclear Investigations) it offers to the companies that work with nuclear measurers, essays for control of the source wear according to the ISO 9978/1992 through the smear tests Y of leakage. The analyses are taken in alpha Y beta detectors of low bottom radiation with annual detection limits around 1 Bq. Certificates of the accepted analyses by the CNEN for sources that already passed its time of validity assured by the makers, but its continue operational are emitted. The smear test is repeated the whole year, while the leakage test repeats to every two years. A balance of the last two years of the activities of the laboratory shows the regularity of the clients Y the growth of companies specialized in radioprotection with official of radioprotection, credited by the regulatory authority that its act as intermediaries in the process, contacting the clients, gathering the samples next to the proprietors of sources Y hiring our services. Overalls, proves that the inspection activities by part of the regulatory authority are fulfil. In 2004, 192 sources were analyzed by the smear method Y 86 sources by leakage. In 2005, 232 sources were analyzed by the smear method Y 60 sources by leakage. All the leakage tests was made in sources of Americium of oneself Y only client that brings the sources so that they dismantle them to him in the Sources production laboratory of the IPEN. By the quantity Y age of the sources that were analyzed in those two years, it is proven that the number of sources without use conditions (total activity measured by the two added methods smaller than 180Bq) it doesn't arrive to 2%. (Author)

  20. Operational experience of SST1 NBI control system with prototype Ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, V B; Patel, P J; Singh, N P; Tripathi, V; Thakkar, D; Gupta, L N; Prahlad, V; Sharma, S K; Bandyopadyay, M; Chakraborty, A K; Baruah, U K; Mattoo, S K; Patel, G B; Onali, Raja

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents operational experience of integrated control of the arc-filament and High-voltage power supply of Steady State Tokamak (SST)-1 NBI system using Versa Module Europa (VME) system on prototype Ion source. The control algorithm is implemented on the VxWorks operating system using 'C' language. This paper also describes the operating sequence and controls on power supply system. Discharge and Filament power supplies are controlled in such a way so that necessary discharge current can be available in Ion Source. The discharge current is controlled by manipulating the filament current. Close loop control is implemented on each filament power supply with feedback from Discharge Current to control the overall discharge inside the ion source. Necessary actions for shut OFF and subsequent Turn ON are also taken during breakdowns between the Grids of the ion source. Total numbers of breakdowns are also monitored. Shot is terminated, if the breakdown count is higher than the set value. This control system can be programmed to restart High-voltage power supply within 5mS after breakdown occurs. This control system is capable to handle the all types of dynamics in the system. This paper also presents results of experiment.

  1. National system of notification, authorization and inspection for the control of radiation sources in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schandorf, C.; Darko, E.O.; Yeboah, J.; Asiamah, S.D.

    2001-01-01

    The Radiation Protection Board (RPB) was established in 1993 in Ghana as the regulatory authority for radiation protection and safety of radiation sources; its functions are prescribed in the 1993 national radiation protection regulation. The report describes how the country's radiation protection and safety infrastructure have been established, including the RPB's organizational structure, with reference in particular to the main activities carried out by both the Regulatory Control Department and the Radiation and Waste Safety Department. It also briefly mentions the existing RPB human resources; the national system of notification, authorization and inspection of radiation sources; the inventory of radiation sources; and the management of disused radiation sources. Finally, the report identifies the two main problem areas regarding the regulatory control of radiation sources in the country. (author)

  2. Tau hadronic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    From 64492 selected \\tau-pair events, produced at the Z^0 resonance, the measurement of the tau decays into hadrons from a global analysis using 1991, 1992 and 1993 ALEPH data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the reconstruction of photons and \\pi^0's, and the removal of fake photons. A detailed study of the systematics entering the \\pi^0 reconstruction is also given. A complete and consistent set of tau hadronic branching ratios is presented for 18 exclusive modes. Most measurements are more precise than the present world average. The new level of precision reached allows a stringent test of \\tau-\\mu universality in hadronic decays, g_\\tau/g_\\mu \\ = \\ 1.0013 \\ \\pm \\ 0.0095, and the first measurement of the vector and axial-vector contributions to the non-strange hadronic \\tau decay width: R_{\\tau ,V} \\ = \\ 1.788 \\ \\pm \\ 0.025 and R_{\\tau ,A} \\ = \\ 1.694 \\ \\pm \\ 0.027. The ratio (R_{\\tau ,V} - R_{\\tau ,A}) / (R_{\\tau ,V} + R_{\\tau ,A}), equal to (2.7 \\pm 1.3) \\ \\%, is a measure of the importance of Q...

  3. Two Model-Based Methods for Policy Analyses of Fine Particulate Matter Control in China: Source Apportionment and Source Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zheng, B.; Zhang, Q.; He, K.

    2013-12-01

    Anthropogenic emissions have been controlled in recent years in China to mitigate fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution. Recent studies show that sulfate dioxide (SO2)-only control cannot reduce total PM2.5 levels efficiently. Other species such as nitrogen oxide, ammonia, black carbon, and organic carbon may be equally important during particular seasons. Furthermore, each species is emitted from several anthropogenic sectors (e.g., industry, power plant, transportation, residential and agriculture). On the other hand, contribution of one emission sector to PM2.5 represents contributions of all species in this sector. In this work, two model-based methods are used to identify the most influential emission sectors and areas to PM2.5. The first method is the source apportionment (SA) based on the Particulate Source Apportionment Technology (PSAT) available in the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx) driven by meteorological predictions of the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model. The second method is the source sensitivity (SS) based on an adjoint integration technique (AIT) available in the GEOS-Chem model. The SA method attributes simulated PM2.5 concentrations to each emission group, while the SS method calculates their sensitivity to each emission group, accounting for the non-linear relationship between PM2.5 and its precursors. Despite their differences, the complementary nature of the two methods enables a complete analysis of source-receptor relationships to support emission control policies. Our objectives are to quantify the contributions of each emission group/area to PM2.5 in the receptor areas and to intercompare results from the two methods to gain a comprehensive understanding of the role of emission sources in PM2.5 formation. The results will be compared in terms of the magnitudes and rankings of SS or SA of emitted species and emission groups/areas. GEOS-Chem with AIT is applied over East Asia at a horizontal grid

  4. Accelerator Physics Branch annual technical report, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulbert, J.A.

    1990-08-01

    The report describes, in a series of separate articles, the achievements of the Accelerator Physics Branch for the calendar year 1989. Work in basic problems of accelerator physics including ion sources, high-duty-factor rf quadrupoles, coupling effects in standing wave linacs and laser acceleration is outlined. A proposal for a synchrotron light source for Canada is described. Other articles cover the principal design features of the IMPELA industrial electron linac prototype, the cavities developed for the HERA complex at DESY, Hamburg, West Germany, and further machine projects that have been completed

  5. Active control of aircraft engine inlet noise using compact sound sources and distributed error sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdisso, Ricardo (Inventor); Fuller, Chris R. (Inventor); O'Brien, Walter F. (Inventor); Thomas, Russell H. (Inventor); Dungan, Mary E. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An active noise control system using a compact sound source is effective to reduce aircraft engine duct noise. The fan noise from a turbofan engine is controlled using an adaptive filtered-x LMS algorithm. Single multi channel control systems are used to control the fan blade passage frequency (BPF) tone and the BPF tone and the first harmonic of the BPF tone for a plane wave excitation. A multi channel control system is used to control any spinning mode. The multi channel control system to control both fan tones and a high pressure compressor BPF tone simultaneously. In order to make active control of turbofan inlet noise a viable technology, a compact sound source is employed to generate the control field. This control field sound source consists of an array of identical thin, cylindrically curved panels with an inner radius of curvature corresponding to that of the engine inlet. These panels are flush mounted inside the inlet duct and sealed on all edges to prevent leakage around the panel and to minimize the aerodynamic losses created by the addition of the panels. Each panel is driven by one or more piezoelectric force transducers mounted on the surface of the panel. The response of the panel to excitation is maximized when it is driven at its resonance; therefore, the panel is designed such that its fundamental frequency is near the tone to be canceled, typically 2000-4000 Hz.

  6. Exercise-induced muscle damage is reduced in resistance-trained males by branched chain amino acids: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howatson Glyn

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well documented that exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD decreases muscle function and causes soreness and discomfort. Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA supplementation has been shown to increase protein synthesis and decrease muscle protein breakdown, however, the effects of BCAAs on recovery from damaging resistance training are unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of a BCAA supplementation on markers of muscle damage elicited via a sport specific bout of damaging exercise in trained volunteers. Methods Twelve males (mean ± SD age, 23 ± 2 y; stature, 178.3 ± 3.6 cm and body mass, 79.6 ± 8.4 kg were randomly assigned to a supplement (n = 6 or placebo (n = 6 group. The damaging exercise consisted of 100 consecutive drop-jumps. Creatine kinase (CK, maximal voluntary contraction (MVC, muscle soreness (DOMS, vertical jump (VJ, thigh circumference (TC and calf circumference (CC were measured as markers of muscle damage. All variables were measured immediately before the damaging exercise and at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h post-exercise. Results A significant time effect was seen for all variables. There were significant group effects showing a reduction in CK efflux and muscle soreness in the BCAA group compared to the placebo (P Conclusion The present study has shown that BCAA administered before and following damaging resistance exercise reduces indices of muscle damage and accelerates recovery in resistance-trained males. It seems likely that BCAA provided greater bioavailablity of substrate to improve protein synthesis and thereby the extent of secondary muscle damage associated with strenuous resistance exercise. Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT01529281.

  7. Six-Phase Vehicular Drive with Renewable DC Sources and Hybrid PWM Control of Four Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleschuk, Valentin; Ermuratskii, Vladimir; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents results of research of quad-inverter-based automotive system with combined scheme of PWM control of inverters, supplied by two renewable dc sources (by fuel cells and by battery). It has been shown, that hybrid switching techniques can be used successfully for control of vehicle...

  8. Active and reactive power control of a current-source PWM-rectifier using space vectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salo, M.; Tuusa, H. [Tampere University of Technology (Finland). Department of Electrical Engineering, Power Electronics

    1997-12-31

    In this paper the current-source PWM-rectifier with active and reactive power control is presented. The control system is realized using space vector methods. Also, compensation of the reactive power drawn by the line filter is discussed. Some simulation results are shown. (orig.) 8 refs.

  9. A Novel Coordinated Control of Renewable Energy Sources and Energy Storage System in Islanded Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gui, Yonghao; Li, Mingshen; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2018-01-01

    A novel coordinated control for energy storage system (ESS) and renewable energy source (RES) units is proposed in islanded AC microgrids without a phase-locked loop system. We use a proportional-resonant control technique for the ESS, which fixes the voltage and frequency of the microgrid...

  10. Design and Control of Parallel Three Phase Voltage Source Inverters in Low Voltage AC Microgrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Hassane Margoum

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Design and hierarchical control of three phase parallel Voltage Source Inverters are developed in this paper. The control scheme is based on synchronous reference frame and consists of primary and secondary control levels. The primary control consists of the droop control and the virtual output impedance loops. This control level is designed to share the active and reactive power correctly between the connected VSIs in order to avoid the undesired circulating current and overload of the connected VSIs. The secondary control is designed to clear the magnitude and the frequency deviations caused by the primary control. The control structure is validated through dynamics simulations.The obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness of the control structure.

  11. Applying neural networks to control the TFTR neutral beam ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagin, L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the application of neural networks to the control of the neutral beam long-pulse positive ion source accelerators on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) at Princeton University. Neural networks were used to learn how the operators adjust the control setpoints when running these sources. The data sets used to train these networks were derived from a large database containing actual setpoints and power supply waveform calculations for the 1990 run period. The networks learned what the optimum control setpoints should initially be set based uon desired accel voltage and perveance levels. Neural networks were also used to predict the divergence of the ion beam

  12. Design of Programmable LED Controller with a Variable Current Source for 3D Image Display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Ryang Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Conventional fluorescent light sources, as well as incandescent light sources are gradually being replaced by Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs for reducing power consumption in the image display area for multimedia application. An LED light source requires a controller with a low-power operation. In this paper, a low-power technique using adiabatic operation is applied for the implementation of LED controller with a stable constant-current, a low-power and low-heat function. From the simulation result, the power consumption of the proposed LED controller using adiabatic operation was reduced to about 87% in comparison with conventional operation with a constant VDD. The proposed circuit is expected to be an alternative LED controller which is sensitive to external conditions such as heat.

  13. Study on upgrade on nuclear control related open source information website

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. T.; Park, S. S.; Park, W. S.; Choi, Y. M.

    2002-01-01

    The open source information relevant to the nuclear control is regularly collected, analyzed, and published to the three web sites by the Technology Center for Nuclear Control (TCNC) of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). These web sites are world-wide, KAERI-wide, and TCNC-wide, respectively. We are to upgrade the KAERI-wide website to the access-controlled world-wide web site with some additional functionality. In this research, the current status of the three nuclear control related open source information websites managed by the TCNC was introduced and methods for upgrading the KAERI-wide open source information website and associated information security technology were reviewed

  14. The regulatory control over radiation sources: the Brazilian experience and some lessons learned from industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, E.L.C.; Gomes, J.D.R.L.; Gomes, R.S.; Costa, M.L.L.; Thomé, Z.D.; Instituto Militar de Engenharia

    2017-01-01

    This study gives an overview of the activities of the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), as the Brazilian nuclear regulatory authority. These activities are described, especially those related to management of orphan sources and radioactive material in scrap metal considering the actions already put into place by CNEN during the licensing and controlling of radioactive sources in the industry and other facilities. In Brazil, there is not yet an effective system for controlling the scrap metal and recycling industry, thus a coordinated approach to achieve a harmonized and effective response with the involvement of third parties is needed, especially the metal industries and ores facilities. These practices call for stringent regulatory control, in order to reduce the occurrence of orphan sources, and consequently, radioactive material appearing in scrap metal. Some challenges of managing the national radiation sources register systems will be discussed, in order to cover effectively all the radiation source history (in a 'from the cradle to the grave' basis), and the dynamic maintenance and update of these data. The main industrial applications considered in this work are those dealing with constant movement of sources all over the country, with geographical issues to be considered in the managing and controlling actions, such as gammagraphy and well-logging. This study aims to identify and promote good practices to prevent inadvertent diversion of radioactive material, taking into account existing international recommendations and some lessons learned in national level. (author)

  15. The regulatory control over radiation sources: the Brazilian experience and some lessons learned from industrial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, E.L.C.; Gomes, J.D.R.L.; Gomes, R.S.; Costa, M.L.L.; Thomé, Z.D., E-mail: evaldo@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: jlopes@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: rogeriog@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: mara@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: zielithome@gmail.com [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Radioproteção e Segurança Nuclear; Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Seção de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-11-01

    This study gives an overview of the activities of the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), as the Brazilian nuclear regulatory authority. These activities are described, especially those related to management of orphan sources and radioactive material in scrap metal considering the actions already put into place by CNEN during the licensing and controlling of radioactive sources in the industry and other facilities. In Brazil, there is not yet an effective system for controlling the scrap metal and recycling industry, thus a coordinated approach to achieve a harmonized and effective response with the involvement of third parties is needed, especially the metal industries and ores facilities. These practices call for stringent regulatory control, in order to reduce the occurrence of orphan sources, and consequently, radioactive material appearing in scrap metal. Some challenges of managing the national radiation sources register systems will be discussed, in order to cover effectively all the radiation source history (in a 'from the cradle to the grave' basis), and the dynamic maintenance and update of these data. The main industrial applications considered in this work are those dealing with constant movement of sources all over the country, with geographical issues to be considered in the managing and controlling actions, such as gammagraphy and well-logging. This study aims to identify and promote good practices to prevent inadvertent diversion of radioactive material, taking into account existing international recommendations and some lessons learned in national level. (author)

  16. Summary of dynamic analyses of the advanced neutron source reactor inner control rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrich, W.R.

    1995-08-01

    A summary of the structural dynamic analyses that were instrumental in providing design guidance to the Advanced Neutron source (ANS) inner control element system is presented in this report. The structural analyses and the functional constraints that required certain performance parameters were combined to shape and guide the design effort toward a prediction of successful and reliable control and scram operation to be provided by these inner control rods

  17. Overview of the Spallation Neutron Source Linac Low-Level RF Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Champion, Mark; Doolittle, Lawrence; Kasemir, Kay-Uwe; Ma, Hengjie; Piller, Maurice; Ratti, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    The design and production of the Spallation Neutron Source Linac Low-Level RF control system is complete, and installation will be finished in Spring 2005. The warm linac beam commissioning run in Fall 2004 was the most extensive test to date of the LLRF control system, with fourteen (of an eventual 96) systems operating simultaneously. In this paper we present an overview of the LLRF control system, the experience in designing, building and installing the system, and operational results.

  18. Single-crate stand-alone CAMAC control system for a negative ion source test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juras, R.C.; Ziegler, N.F.

    1979-01-01

    A single-crate CAMAC system was configured to control a negative ion source development facility at ORNL and control software was written for the crate microcomputer. The software uses inputs from a touch panel and a shaft encoder to control the various operating parameters of the test facility and uses the touch panel to display the operating status. Communication to and from the equipment at ion source potential is accomplished over optical fibers from an ORNL-built CAMAC module. A receiver at ion source potential stores the transmitted data and some of these stored values are then used to control discrete parameters of the ion source (i.e., power supply on or off). Other stored values are sent to a multiplexed digital-to-analog converter to provide analog control signals. A transmitter at ion source potential transmits discrete status information and several channels of analog data from an analog-to-digital converter back to the ground-potential receiver where it is stored to be read and displayed by the software

  19. Medial branch neurotomy in low back pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masala, Salvatore; Mammucari, Matteo; Simonetti, Giovanni [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Rome (Italy); Nano, Giovanni [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Rome (Italy); University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Marcia, Stefano [S. Giovanni di Dio Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Cagliari (Italy)

    2012-07-15

    This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of pulsed radiofrequency medial branch dorsal ramus neurotomy in patients with facet joint syndrome. From January 2008 to April 2010, 92 patients with facet joint syndrome diagnosed by strict inclusion criteria and controlled diagnostic blocks undergone medial branch neurotomy. We did not exclude patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). Electrodes (20G) with 5-mm active tip were placed under fluoroscopy guide parallel to medial branch. Patients were followed up by physical examination and by Visual Analog Scale and Oswestry Disability Index at 1, 6, and 12 months. In all cases, pain improvement was statistically significant and so quality of life. Three non-FBSS patients had to undergo a second neurotomy because of non-satisfactory pain decrease. Complications were reported in no case. Medial branch radiofrequency neurotomy has confirmed its well-established effectiveness in pain and quality of life improvement as long as strict inclusion criteria be fulfilled and nerve ablation be accomplished by parallel electrode positioning. This statement can be extended also to FBSS patients. (orig.)

  20. Medial branch neurotomy in low back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masala, Salvatore; Mammucari, Matteo; Simonetti, Giovanni; Nano, Giovanni; Marcia, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of pulsed radiofrequency medial branch dorsal ramus neurotomy in patients with facet joint syndrome. From January 2008 to April 2010, 92 patients with facet joint syndrome diagnosed by strict inclusion criteria and controlled diagnostic blocks undergone medial branch neurotomy. We did not exclude patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). Electrodes (20G) with 5-mm active tip were placed under fluoroscopy guide parallel to medial branch. Patients were followed up by physical examination and by Visual Analog Scale and Oswestry Disability Index at 1, 6, and 12 months. In all cases, pain improvement was statistically significant and so quality of life. Three non-FBSS patients had to undergo a second neurotomy because of non-satisfactory pain decrease. Complications were reported in no case. Medial branch radiofrequency neurotomy has confirmed its well-established effectiveness in pain and quality of life improvement as long as strict inclusion criteria be fulfilled and nerve ablation be accomplished by parallel electrode positioning. This statement can be extended also to FBSS patients. (orig.)

  1. AHP Expert Programme As A Tool For Unsealed Sources Contamination Control Of The Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, E.T.; Ibrahim, M.S.; Hussein, A.Z.

    2007-01-01

    Unsealed sources of radionuclides are widely used in hot laboratories of medical centers and hospitals which can be easily dispersed and may be taken undue into the body. The presence of radioactive substances inside the human body generates risk of internal intakes of radionuclides and organ's tissue retention. In order to make control for any contamination occurring from unsealed sources, an AHP programme (PC programme) has been developed so that it includes all data of most unsealed sources used in the hot laboratories of nuclear medicine units at hospitals/medical centers. Sequence of questions are retrieved by the programme in relevance to the place address, uses, activity and half life of the unsealed radioisotopes that may cause contamination. The programme will also give information output about the hospital that use the unsealed source and its location which facilitate emergency planning and contamination control to the environment

  2. Controlling radioactive sources. Stronger 'cradle-to-grave' security needed, IAEA says

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This article highlights the IAEA activities in the field of radiation safety and security of radiation sources and other radioactive materials in its Member States. The IAEA has been active in lending its expertise to search out and secure orphaned sources in several countries. Additionally more than 70 States have joined with the IAEA to collect and share information on trafficking incidents and other unauthorized movements of radioactive sources and other radioactive materials. In March 2002 the IAEA Board of Governors approved a multi-faceted Action plan to Combat Nuclear Terrorism that includes upgrading radiation safety and security. One programme is designed to ensure that significant, uncontrolled radioactive sources are brought under regulatory control and properly secured by providing assistance to Member States in their efforts to identify, locate and secure or dispose of orphan sources

  3. Power Controllability of Three-phase Converter with Unbalanced AC Source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Liserre, Marco; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    Three-phase DC-AC power converters suffer from power oscillation and overcurrentt problems in case of unbalanced AC source voltage that can be caused by grid/generator faults. Existing solutions to handle these problems are properly selecting and controlling the positive and negative sequence...... currents. In this work a new series of control strategies which utilize the zero-sequence components are proposed to enhance the power control ability under this adverse conditions. It is concluded that by introducing proper zero sequence current controls and corresponding circuit configurations, the power...... converter can enable more flexible control targets, achieving better performances in the delivered power and load current when suffering from unbalanced AC sources....

  4. Reproductive success and mortality rates of Ceriodaphnia dubia maintained in water from Upper Three Runs, Pen Branch, and Fourmile Branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, W.L.

    1994-12-01

    It is anticipated that the new SRS NPDES permit will require toxicity testing of at numerous outfalls and receiving streams, using the standard test species, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Because SRS surface waters differ markedly from the standard culture water that is used for Ceriodaphnia, studies were undertaken to determine if unimpacted SRS surface waters will support this species. Three SRS surface waters were evaluated; Upper Three Runs at Road 8-1, Pen Branch at Road B, and Fourmile Branch at Road F. Toxicity tests were performed monthly on each water source for eleven months. All three water sources exhibited varying degrees of toxicity to Ceriodaphnia, with Pen Branch being the least toxic and Fourmile Branch being the most toxic. These results indicate that if in-stream toxicity testing is required, it may not be possible to separate the naturally occurring toxic effects of the receiving water from possible toxic effects of SRS effluents

  5. Preparation method and quality control of multigamma volume sources with different matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listkowska, A; Lech, E; Saganowski, P; Tymiński, Z; Dziel, T; Cacko, D; Ziemek, T; Kołakowska, E; Broda, R

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the work was to develop new radioactive standard sources based on epoxy resins. The optimal proportions of the components and the homogeneity of the matrices were determined. The activity of multigamma sources prepared in Marinelli beakers was determined with reference to the National Standard of Radionuclides Activity in Poland. The difference of radionuclides activity values determined using calibrated gamma spectrometer and the activity of standard solutions used are in most cases significantly lower than measurement uncertainty limits. Sources production method and quality control procedure have been developed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Information Support of Optimal Control of Modes of Electric Systems with Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalina Gryniewicz-Jaworska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To provide necessary quality of electric energy and reliable supply and reduce environmental contamination as a result of energy units operation, renewable sources of energy (RSE, in particular solar electric stations (SES, wind electric stations (WES and small hydropower stations (SHES are intensively developed. The paper considers the conditions of optimality of renewable sources of energy (RSE functioning in electric systems, controllability of which is limited by the impact of non-stable weather conditions. The influence of control system information support on the efficiency of RSE usage is shown.

  7. An Open Source Rapid Computer Aided Control System Design Toolchain Using Scilab, Scicos and RTAI Linux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchpan-Lerust-Juéry, L.

    2007-08-01

    Current and next generation on-board computer systems tend to implement real-time embedded control applications (e.g. Attitude and Orbit Control Subsystem (AOCS), Packet Utililization Standard (PUS), spacecraft autonomy . . . ) which must meet high standards of Reliability and Predictability as well as Safety. All these requirements require a considerable amount of effort and cost for Space Sofware Industry. This paper, in a first part, presents a free Open Source integrated solution to develop RTAI applications from analysis, design, simulation and direct implementation using code generation based on Open Source and in its second part summarises this suggested approach, its results and the conclusion for further work.

  8. Regulatory control of radiation sources and radioactive materials in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drabova, D.; Prouza, Z.

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes legal and regulatory provisions for radiation protection and safe use of sources of ionizing radiation in the Czech Republic with special emphasis on aspects of bringing activities under regulatory control and releasing them from it. It covers the development of a new legal framework, the work of the regulatory body, an overview of sources in use and provisions to achieve effective regulatory control of facilities and releases of radioactive material into the environment. Also, it describes reported unusual events with a proposed scheme for their classification and evaluation. (author)

  9. Control of emissions from stationary combustion sources: Pollutant detection and behavior in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licht, W.; Engel, A.J.; Slater, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    Stationary combustion resources continue to be significant sources of NOx and SOx pollutants in the ambient atmosphere. This volume considers four problem areas: (1) control of emissions from stationary combustion sources, particularly SOx and NOx (2) pollutant behavior in the atmosphere (3) advances in air pollution analysis and (4) air quality management. Topics of interest include carbon slurries for sulfur dioxide abatement, mass transfer in the Kellogg-Weir air quality control system, oxidation/inhibition of sulfite ion in aqueous solution, some micrometeorological methods of measuring dry deposition rates, Spanish moss as an indicator of airborne metal contamination, and air quality impacts from future electric power generation in Texas

  10. Parsing pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: forensic chemistry, receptor models, and source control policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Kirk T; Pietari, Jaana; Boehm, Paul D

    2014-04-01

    A realistic understanding of contaminant sources is required to set appropriate control policy. Forensic chemical methods can be powerful tools in source characterization and identification, but they require a multiple-lines-of-evidence approach. Atmospheric receptor models, such as the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)'s chemical mass balance (CMB), are increasingly being used to evaluate sources of pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments. This paper describes the assumptions underlying receptor models and discusses challenges in complying with these assumptions in practice. Given the variability within, and the similarity among, pyrogenic PAH source types, model outputs are sensitive to specific inputs, and parsing among some source types may not be possible. Although still useful for identifying potential sources, the technical specialist applying these methods must describe both the results and their inherent uncertainties in a way that is understandable to nontechnical policy makers. The authors present an example case study concerning an investigation of a class of parking-lot sealers as a significant source of PAHs in urban sediment. Principal component analysis is used to evaluate published CMB model inputs and outputs. Targeted analyses of 2 areas where bans have been implemented are included. The results do not support the claim that parking-lot sealers are a significant source of PAHs in urban sediments. © 2013 SETAC.

  11. Regulatory control and challenges in Medical facilities using ionising radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, S.P.

    2008-01-01

    Medical facilities utilising ionising radiation sources for diagnostic and treatment of cancer are regulated under the provisions of Atomic Energy (Radiation Protection) Rules, 2004 promulgated under the Atomic Energy Act 1962. The Competent Authority for the enforcement of the rules is Chairman, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB). Practice specific codes are issued by AERB for medical facilities such as Radiotherapy, Nuclear Medicine and Radiology. Regulatory process for control of medical facilities covers the entire life cycle of the radiation sources in three stages viz pre-Iicensing, during useful life and decommissioning and disposal. Pre-Iicensing requirements include use of type approved sources and equipment, approval of design layout of the facility and installation, exclusive (safe and secure) source storage facility when the equipment is not in use, radiation (area/individual) monitoring devices, qualified, trained and certified manpower, emergency response plans and commitment from the licensee for the safe disposal of disused/decayed sources. Compliance to these requirements makes the applicant eligible to obtain license from AERB for the operation of the medical facility. During the use of radiation sources, specific prior approval of the Competent Authority is required in respect of every source replacement, sale, transfer, transport, import and export. Further, all licensees are required to send the periodic safety Status reports to AERB as well as reporting of any off normal events. AERB conducts inspection of the facilities to ensure compliance with the safety requirements during operation of the facility. Violation of safety norms by licensee attracts enforcement action which includes suspension, modification or withdrawal of licensee for operation of the facility. Upon completion of the useful life of the source, the licensee decommissions the facility and returns the source to the original supplier. For returning the source, prior

  12. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  13. Highly Branched Bio-Based Unsaturated Polyesters by Enzymatic Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiep Dinh Nguyen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A one-pot, enzyme-catalyzed bulk polymerization method for direct production of highly branched polyesters has been developed as an alternative to currently used industrial procedures. Bio-based feed components in the form of glycerol, pentaerythritol, azelaic acid, and tall oil fatty acid (TOFA were polymerized using an immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB and the potential for an enzymatic synthesis of alkyds was investigated. The developed method enables the use of both glycerol and also pentaerythritol (for the first time as the alcohol source and was found to be very robust. This allows simple variations in the molar mass and structure of the polyester without premature gelation, thus enabling easy tailoring of the branched polyester structure. The postpolymerization crosslinking of the polyesters illustrates their potential as binders in alkyds. The formed films had good UV stability, very high water contact angles of up to 141° and a glass transition temperature that could be controlled through the feed composition.

  14. Maritime Branch Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mougaard, Krestine; Neugebauer, Line Maria; Garcia i Mateu, Adrià

    The vast majority of countries in the developed world are now dependent on their service sectors for between 70-80% of their gross domestic product. Even companies with decades of expertise in producing manufactured products are experiencing an increased need to understand before-, during- and af...... industry sector’s readiness and first steps towards servitisation. Although this book is written primarily for our partners on the PROTEUS project, we are sure it can be a source of inspiration to a broad range of practitioners, policy makers, academics and students....

  15. Branch formation induced by microbeam irradiation of Adiantum protonemata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, M.

    1998-01-01

    Branches were induced in centrifuged Adiantum protonemal cells by partial irradiation with polarized red light. Nuclear behavior and microtubule pattern change during branch formation were investigated. A branch formed at any part where a red microbeam was focused along a long apical cell. The nucleus moved towards the irradiated area and remained there until a branch developed. The pattern of microtubules changed from parallel to oblique at the irradiated area and then a transverse arrangement of microtubules appeared on both sides of the area. It appeared as if the nucleus was suspended between two microtubule rings. This nuclear behavior and the changes in microtubule pattern were different from those observed during branch formation under whole cell irradiation. From the results of this work we suggest that there is an importance for precise control of experimental conditions

  16. Licensing authority's control of radiation sources and nuclear materials in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binns, D.A.C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission is the national licensing authority and among its responsibilities is the control of nuclear materials and radiation sources. This control is carried out in three different ways: 1) Control of the import and export of nuclear materials and radiation sources. To be able to import or export any nuclear material or radiation source, the user has to have an explicit permission of the licensing authority. This is controlled by electronic means in which the user has to fill a special form found on the licensing authority's home page, where he has to fill in his name, license number, license number of his radiation protection officer and data of the material to be imported or exported. These data are checked with a data base that contains all the information of the licensed users and qualified personnel before authorization is emitted. The airport authorities have already installed x-ray machines to check all baggages entering or leaving the country. 2) Transport and transfer permit for radiation sources. In order to transport and/or transfer radiations sources and nuclear materials within the country, the user(s) have to submit an application to the licensing authority. The user(s) fill out an application form where he fills in his company's name, licensing I.D., radiation protection officer's name and I.D and identification of the sources involved. These information are checked with the licensing operations data before the operations is permitted. 3) Inspections and radiation monitoring systems. Routine and regulatory inspections are continuously carried out where the user's radiation sources and nuclear materials inventory are checked. Also the physical security and protection of these materials are verified. The installation of monitoring systems is an item that is being discussed with the airport authorities so as to increase the possibilities of detecting any illegal transport of these materials. (author)

  17. Plans for a Collaboratively Developed Distributed Control System for the Spallation Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVan, W.R.; Gurd, D.P.; Hammonds, J.; Lewis, S.A.; Smith, J.D.

    1999-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is an accelerator-based pulsed neutron source to be built in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The facility has five major sections - a ''front end'' consisting of a 65 keV H - ion source followed by a 2.5 MeV RFQ; a 1 GeV linac; a storage ring; a 1MW spallation neutron target (upgradeable to 2 MW); the conventional facilities to support these machines and a suite of neutron scattering instruments to exploit them. These components will be designed and implemented by five collaborating institutions: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Front End), Los Alamos National Laboratory (Linac); Brookhaven National Laboratory (Storage Ring); Argonne National Laboratory (Instruments); and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Neutron Source and Conventional Facilities). It is proposed to implement a fully integrated control system for all aspects of this complex. The system will be developed collaboratively, with some degree of local autonomy for distributed systems, but centralized accountability. Technical integration will be based upon the widely-used EPICS control system toolkit, and a complete set of hardware and software standards. The scope of the integrated control system includes site-wide timing and synchronization, networking and machine protection. This paper discusses the technical and organizational issues of planning a large control system to be developed collaboratively at five different institutions, the approaches being taken to address those issues, as well as some of the particular technical challenges for the SNS control system

  18. Control of trafficking of radioactive sources/substances on European Community eastern border

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovjagina, Irina; Graveris, Visvaldis

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Taking into account Latvia geographical location, historical core stones (the dissolution of Soviet Union, join to European Community) and increasing of the international terrorism treats, control fissile and non-fissile radioactive material become one of high priorities. During past 2 years active work and practical exercise with representative from Ministry of Defense, Police, and Custom etc. on control of trafficking of such materials were performed and Operational Manual for Control on Radioactive Materials for Customs and Policy officers is issued. All land borders check points with Russian Federation and Byelorussian, all harbors and airports were equipped with a gamma/ neutrons or gamma control portals. To control unwanted material traffic within the country, as well as to ensure the recycled scrap metal is source-free use of monitoring portals and additional portable detectors in the past years strictly increased. Cases with alarm levels, when gamma dose rate exceeds more than 1.5 times the background level, are subject to reporting and analyzing by Radiation Safety Centre (RDC) experts (24 hours on duty). Consultative phone service for inhabitants is maintained; guidelines and working procedures within Authority and other Institutions involving were developed and implemented. As a result, in 2007 RDC has got 612 reports from the border. In 83% cases this was relevant to the trains, in 17%- to the trucks. Mostly enhanced activity was due to potassium compounds in fertilizers (85%), due to ceramics (4%), abrasives (2.5%), and refractory materials (3%). Controlling scrap metal there were revealed two sources in 2007 - one Sr-90 calibration source and other Cs-137 orphan source (origin unknown). The presence of radioactive sources in scrap in the past 3 years has been represented by Co-60, Cs-137 and Sr-90 sources, parts of statically electricity neutralizers, Ra-226. Several times NORM industries polluted materials were from scrap excluded

  19. Spiral branches and star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zasov, A.V.

    1974-01-01

    Origin of spiral branches of galaxies and formation of stars in them are considered from the point of view of the theory of the gravitational gas condensation, one of comparatively young theories. Arguments are presented in favour of the stellar condensation theory. The concept of the star formation of gas is no longer a speculative hypothesis. This is a theory which assumes quantitative verification and explains qualitatively many facts observed. And still our knowledge on the nature of spiral branches is very poor. It still remains vague what processes give origin to spiral branches, why some galaxies have spirals and others have none. And shapes of spiral branches are diverse. Some cases are known when spiral branches spread outside boundaries of galaxies themselves. Such spirals arise exclusively in the region where there are two or some interacting galaxies. Only first steps have been made in the explanation of the galaxy spiral branches, and it is necessary to carry out new observations and new theoretical calculations

  20. Force analysis of the advanced neutron source control rod drive latch mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damiano, B.

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source reactor (ANS), a proposed Department of Energy research reactor currently undergoing conceptual design at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), will generate a thermal neutron flux approximating 10 30 M -2 emdash S -1 . The compact core necessary to produce this flux provides little space for the shim safety control rods, which are located in the central annulus of the core. Without proper control rod drive design, the control rod drive magnets (which hold the control rod latch in a ready-to-scram position) may be unable to support the required load due to their restricted size. This paper describes the force analysis performed on the control rod latch mechanism to determine the fraction of control rod weight transferred to the drive magnet. This information will be useful during latch, control rod drive and magnet design. 5 refs., 12 figs

  1. Regulatory control and safety of radiation and radioactive sources in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollah, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    The application of ionizing radiation and radioactive sources in different fields such as, medicine, industry, agriculture, research and teaching is constantly increasing in Bangladesh. Any system enacted to control exposure to ionizing radiation has as primary objective the protection of health of people against the deleterious effects of radiation. Establishing the appropriate level of radiological protection and safety of radiation sources used in practice or intervention attains this objective. The regulatory program governing the safe use of radioactive and radiation sources in Bangladesh is based on the legislation enacted as Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control (NSRC) Act-93 and NSRC Rules-97 and its implementation by the competent authority. The radiation control infrastructures and procedure are described as well as their functioning for the implementation of relevant activities such as licensing, regular inspection, personal dose monitoring, emergency preparedness, etc. The issue of security of radiation source is dealt in close relation with the preparation and use of the inventory of all radiation sources in the country

  2. Spark-protected ion-source control and monitoring system at 1.5 MV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogaty, J.M.; Zolecki, R.

    1981-01-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Program at Argonne National Laboratory utilizes a 1.5-MV Xe ion preaccelerator. Reliable beam transport requires accurate measurements and precise control of various ion-source parameters. This paper discusses the use of a multiplexed fiberoptic data-transmission system and low-cost digital stepper motors for control functions. Techniques are discussed which allow TTL and CMOS semiconductor curcuits to survive the destructive sparks which can occur in the 1.5-MV preaccelerator

  3. Cold versus hot fusion deuterium branching ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, H.; Bass, R.

    1995-01-01

    A major source of misunderstanding of the nature of cold nuclear fusion has been the expectation that the deuterium branching ratios occurring within a palladium lattice would be consistent with the gas-plasma branching ratios. This misunderstanding has led to the concept of the dead graduate student, the 1989's feverish but fruitless search for neutron emissions from cold fusion reactors, and the follow-on condemnation of the new science of cold fusion. The experimental facts are that in a properly loaded palladium lattice, the deuterium fusion produces neutrons at little above background, a greatly less-than-expected production of tritium (the tritium desert), and substantially more helium-4 than is observed in hot plasma physics. The experimental evidence is now compelling (800 reports of success from 30 countries) that cold nuclear fusion is a reality, that the branching ratios are unexpected, and that a new science is struggling to be recognized. Commercialization of some types of cold fusion devices has already begun

  4. Control and reception of out of use radioactive sources at the CDTN/CNEN, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, Luiz C.A.; Guzella, Marcia F.R.; Seles, Sandro R.N.; Cuccia, Valeria

    2011-01-01

    For reception of the received sources and for accomplish with CNEN regulations and IAEA recommendations, the CDTN have implanted a system for receiving those sources and all the procedures for effective control and recovering of information. The CDTN posses a source deposit, a data bank for the inventory and also a Laboratory for Treatment of Sealed Sources

  5. Variable speed wind turbine generator system with current controlled voltage source inverter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muyeen, S.M.; Al-Durra, Ahmed; Tamura, J.

    2011-01-01

    highlights: → Current controlled voltage source inverter scheme for wind power application. → Low voltage ride through of wind farm. → Variable speed wind turbine driven permanent magnet synchronous generator-operation and control. -- Abstract: The present popular trend of wind power generation is to use variable speed wind turbine (VSWT) driving a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG), wound field synchronous generator (WFSG) or permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). Among them, stability analyses of DFIG type of VSWT have already been reported in many literatures. However, transient stability and low voltage ride through (LVRT) characteristics analyses for synchronous generator type of VSWT is not sufficient enough. This paper focuses on detailed LVRT characteristic analysis of variable speed wind turbine driving a PMSG (VSWT-PMSG) with current controlled voltage source inverter (CC-VSI). Modeling and suitable control strategies for overall system are developed to augment the low voltage ride through capability of variable speed wind generator, considering recent wind farm grid code. Both symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults are analyzed as network disturbances in this paper. The permanent fault due to unsuccessful reclosing of circuit breakers is taken into consideration, which is a salient feature of this study. Moreover, the dynamic characteristic is analyzed using real wind speed data measured in Hokkaido Island, Japan. The proposed control scheme is simulated by using the standard power system simulation package PSCAD/EMTDC and results are verified by comparing that of voltage controlled voltage source inverter scheme available in power system literature.

  6. Variable speed wind turbine generator system with current controlled voltage source inverter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muyeen, S.M., E-mail: muyeen0809@yahoo.co [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Petroleum Institute, P.O. Box 2533, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Al-Durra, Ahmed [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, The Petroleum Institute, P.O. Box 2533, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Tamura, J. [Dept. of EEE, Kitami Institute of Technology, 165 Koen-cho, Kitami 090-8507 (Japan)

    2011-07-15

    highlights: {yields} Current controlled voltage source inverter scheme for wind power application. {yields} Low voltage ride through of wind farm. {yields} Variable speed wind turbine driven permanent magnet synchronous generator-operation and control. -- Abstract: The present popular trend of wind power generation is to use variable speed wind turbine (VSWT) driving a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG), wound field synchronous generator (WFSG) or permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). Among them, stability analyses of DFIG type of VSWT have already been reported in many literatures. However, transient stability and low voltage ride through (LVRT) characteristics analyses for synchronous generator type of VSWT is not sufficient enough. This paper focuses on detailed LVRT characteristic analysis of variable speed wind turbine driving a PMSG (VSWT-PMSG) with current controlled voltage source inverter (CC-VSI). Modeling and suitable control strategies for overall system are developed to augment the low voltage ride through capability of variable speed wind generator, considering recent wind farm grid code. Both symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults are analyzed as network disturbances in this paper. The permanent fault due to unsuccessful reclosing of circuit breakers is taken into consideration, which is a salient feature of this study. Moreover, the dynamic characteristic is analyzed using real wind speed data measured in Hokkaido Island, Japan. The proposed control scheme is simulated by using the standard power system simulation package PSCAD/EMTDC and results are verified by comparing that of voltage controlled voltage source inverter scheme available in power system literature.

  7. Reproduction of nearby sources by imposing true interaural differences on a sound field control approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badajoz, Javier; Chang, Ji-ho; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2015-01-01

    In anechoic conditions, the Interaural Level Difference (ILD) is the most significant auditory cue to judge the distance to a sound source located within 1 m of the listener's head. This is due to the unique characteristics of a point source in its near field, which result in exceptionally high...... as Pressure Matching (PM), and a binaural control technique. While PM aims at reproducing the incident sound field, the objective of the binaural control technique is to ensure a correct reproduction of interaural differences. The combination of these two approaches gives rise to the following features: (i......, distance dependent ILDs. When reproducing the sound field of sources located near the head with line or circular arrays of loudspeakers, the reproduced ILDs are generally lower than expected, due to physical limitations. This study presents an approach that combines a sound field reproduction method, known...

  8. Knowledge and use of the internet as a source of controlled substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Gordon, Susan; Forman, Robert F; Siatkowski, Candis

    2006-04-01

    Despite growing evidence that the internet is a source of controlled substances for nonmedical use, there is a lack of information about who is using it to obtain these drugs. One hundred adult drug-dependent inpatients in a private residential treatment program participated in a semistructured interview regarding how they obtained their drugs. Twenty-nine percent reported knowledge of the internet as a source of drugs, and 11% reported that they had used the internet to either buy drugs or locate a drug dealer. The results of this preliminary study suggest that the internet has become a source of controlled substances for some addicted individuals. Considerations for future research and clinical practice are described.

  9. Passivity-Based Control applied to DC hybrid power source using fuel cell and supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayad, M.Y.; Wack, M.; Laghrouche, S. [SeT, UTBM, Belfort (cedex) 90010 (France); Becherif, M. [SeT, UTBM, Belfort (cedex) 90010 (France); FC-Lab, UTBM, Belfort (cedex) 90010 (France); Henni, A. [Alstom Power System, Energy Management Business, Alstom (France); Aboubou, A. [LMSE Laboratory, Biskra University, 07000 (Algeria)

    2010-07-15

    Nowadays, energy management becomes an absolute necessity. To reduce systems consumption, the idea is to recover energy when it is possible and to reuse it when the system is in need. Energy can be saved in peak power unit (electric double layer capacitors called supercapacitors). Those latter can absorb or supply power peaks. This paper deals with the conception of hybrid power sources using fuel cell as main source, a DC link and supercapacitors as transient power source. The whole system is modeled in state space equations. The energy management is reached using Passivity-Based Control (PBC). PBC is a very powerful nonlinear technique dealing with important system information like the system's total energy. Stability proof and simulation results are given. In this proposed control laws only few measurement are needed (two or three depending on the presented solutions one or two). (author)

  10. The application of controlled source audio frequency magnetotelluric method to prospecting for uranium and gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Taiping

    1992-01-01

    The controlled source audio frequency magnetotelluric method is a new geophysical method which is rapid, effective and economical and can be used for studying the structural pattern of underground strata (rock bodies). This method provides the basis for the determination of the deeper part and structures within the unconformity-related uranium deposit in North China Platform and the result of application is optimal

  11. SOURCE CHARACTERIZATION AND CONTROL TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF METHYLENE CHLORIDE EMISSIONS FROM EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY, ROCHESTER, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an assessment of potential control technologies for methylene chloride (also known as dichloromethane or DCM) emission sources at Eastman Kodak Company's Kodak Park facility in Rochester, NY. DCM is a solvent used by Kodak in the manufacture of cellulo...

  12. Mine Waste Technology Program. In Situ Source Control Of Acid Generation Using Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the results of the Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 3, In Situ Source Control of Acid Generation Using Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S....

  13. A green paper on the regulation and control of sources of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This publication reviews the evidences that sources of ionizing radiation are potentially hazardous to the public and the environment unless appropriate measures are taken to regulate and control their possession, use and the ultimate disposal. The current regulations, subject to some amendments are described and the impacts likely to result from the amendments are discussed. 9 tabs

  14. Sensitivity of the near-surface vertical electric field land Controlled-Source Electromagnetic monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaller, A.M.; Hunziker, J.W.; Streich, R.; Drijkoningen, G.G.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate potential benefits of measuring the vertical electric field component in addition to the routinely measured horizontal electric field components in onshore time-lapse controlled-source electromagnetics. Synthetic electromagnetic data based on a model of the Schoonebeek onshore oil

  15. Modified source of a fast neutral atom beam with a controlled energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gostev, V.A.; Elakhovskij, D.V.; Khakhaev, A.D.

    1980-01-01

    A source of a metastable helium atom beam with a controlled energy based on a phenomenon of resonant ion neutralization on the surface of a solid body is described. The neutral particle energy control is carried out by changing ion velocities before their transformation into metastable atoms. The results of experiments with a modified construction of atomic beam source are stated. These experiments were conducted to find the possibilities to control velocities of atoms in a flow as well as to elucidate the peculiarities of operation of a collimator-converter of this construction. Dependences of a halfwidth of the ion velocity distribution function on the ion source parameters have been investigated. The possibility for particle energy control in a collimated flow of fast neutral. atoms has been experimentally shown, it is also shown that a mean value of atom energy in a beam coincides with a value of mean energy of ions from which atoms are produced by the resonant neutralization method; the construction of the source provides the possibility to realize the method of ''overtaking beams'' for neutral atoms and as a result of this to give a possibility for studying atom-atom collisions in a wide energy range at relatively high densities of flows

  16. The foundation of computer based closed radionuclide sources turnover control system in Moscow city region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, A.E.; Kozlov, A.A.; Lavrov, K.N.; Sobolev, I.A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper concerns the problem of Closed Radionuclide Sources (CRS) automated account and control in Moscow city and Moscow region. Information relations structure between authorities and enterprises is shown. Special computer oriented system of CRS turnover monitoring is used for this purposes. Its possibilities and numeric characteristics of database are mentioned. This system benefit and application aspects are discussed in detail. (author)

  17. Impedance-based Analysis of DC Link Control in Voltage Source Rectifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Dapeng; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2018-01-01

    This paper analyzes the dynamics influences of the outer dc link control in the voltage source rectifiers based on the impedance model. The ac-dc interactions are firstly presented by means of full order small signal model in dq frame, which shows the input voltage and load condition are the two...

  18. Sources and mitigation of interharmonics in back-to-back controllable drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soltani, Hamid; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    for the sources, leading to undistorted grid currents, which are growingly important as more drives are tied to the grid. It is shown that in the case of back-to-back controllable drives it is possible to reduce the input current interharmonic distortion caused by motor current imbalance....

  19. External Carbon Source Addition as a Means to Control an Activated Sludge Nutrient Removal Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaacs, Steven Howard; Henze, Mogens; Søeberg, Henrik

    1994-01-01

    In alternating type activated sludge nutrient removal processes, the denitrification rate can be limited by the availability of readily-degradable carbon substrate. A control strategy is proposed by which an easily metabolizable COD source is added directly to that point in the process at which d...

  20. An optimal control problem by controlling heat source of the surface of tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Dhar, 1Rikhiya; Dhar, Ranajit; Dhar, Piyanka

    2013-01-01

    A distributed optimal control problem for a system described by bio-heat equation for a homogeneous plane tissue is analytically investigated such that a desired temperature of the tissue at a particular point of location of tumour in hyperthermia can be attained at the end of a total time of operation of the process due to induced microwave on the surface of the tissue which is taken as control. Here the temperature of the tissue along the length of the tissue at different times of operation...

  1. Microfocus x-ray imaging of traceable pointlike {sup 22}Na sources for quality control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, T.; Oda, K.; Sato, Y.; Ito, H.; Masuda, S.; Yamada, T.; Matsumoto, M.; Murayama, H.; Takei, H. [Allied Health Sciences, Kitasato University Kitasato 1-15-1, Minami-ku, Sagamihara-shi, Kanagawa 252-0373 (Japan); Positron Medical Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Sakaecho 35-2, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-0015 (Japan); Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) Central 2, Umezono 1-1-1, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Kanagawa Industrial Technology Center (KITC) Shimoimazumi 705-1, Ebina-shi, Kanagawa 243-0435 (Japan); Japan Radioisotope Association (JRIA) Komagome 2-28-45, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8941 (Japan); Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kitasato University Kitasato 1-15-1, Minami-ku, Sagamihara-shi, Kanagawa 252-0373 (Japan)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to propose a microfocus x-ray imaging technique for observing the internal structure of small radioactive sources and evaluating geometrical errors quantitatively, and to apply this technique to traceable pointlike {sup 22}Na sources, which were designed for positron emission tomography calibration, for the purpose of quality control of the pointlike sources. Methods: A microfocus x-ray imaging system with a focus size of 0.001 mm was used to obtain projection x-ray images and x-ray CT images of five pointlike source samples, which were manufactured during 2009-2012. The obtained projection and tomographic images were used to observe the internal structure and evaluate geometrical errors quantitatively. Monte Carlo simulation was used to evaluate the effect of possible geometrical errors on the intensity and uniformity of 0.511 MeV annihilation photon pairs emitted from the sources. Results: Geometrical errors were evaluated with sufficient precision using projection x-ray images. CT images were used for observing the internal structure intuitively. As a result, four of the five examined samples were within the tolerance to maintain the total uncertainty below {+-}0.5%, given the source radioactivity; however, one sample was found to be defective. Conclusions: This quality control procedure is crucial and offers an important basis for using the pointlike {sup 22}Na source as a basic calibration tool. The microfocus x-ray imaging approach is a promising technique for visual and quantitative evaluation of the internal geometry of small radioactive sources.

  2. Signal Corps and Military Intelligence Officer Perceptions of a Multifunctional Branch Merger

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    Ordnance Branch OPMS Officer Personnel Management System ORSA Operations Research—Systems Analysis OSINT Open Source Intelligence PME Primary...HUMINT), Geospatial Intelligence (GEOINT), and Open Source Intelligence ( OSINT ). The broad scope of what is expected from Military Intelligence...and assessment dimensions (SIGINT, MASINT, TECHINT, OSINT , etc.) It is recommended that the Military Intelligence Branch more accurately define which

  3. Standards and the design of the advanced photon source control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, W.P.; Knott, M.J.; Lenkszus, F.R.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS), now under construction at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), is a 7 GeV positron storage ring dedicated to research facilities using synchrotron radiation. This ring, along with its injection accelerators is to be controlled and monitored with a single, flexible, and expandable control system. This paper will cover the present status of the APS control system as well as discuss the design decisions which led us to use industrial standards and collaborations with other laboratories whenever possible to develop a control system. It will explain the APS control system and illustrate how the use of standards has allowed APS to design a control system whose implementation addresses these issues. (J.P.N.)

  4. Status of the Advanced Photon Source and its accelerator control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, W.; Knott, M.; Kraimer, K.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the current status of the Advanced Photon Source (APS), its control system and the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) tools being used to implement this control system. The status of the physical plant and each of the accelerators as well as detailed descriptions of the software tools used to build the accelerator control system are presented. The control system uses high-performance graphic workstations and the X-windows graphical user interface (GUI) at the operator interface level. It connects to VME/VXI-based microprocessors at the field level using TCP/IP protocols over high-performance networks. This strategy assures the flexibility and expansibility of the control system. A defined interface between the system components will allow the system to evolve with the direct addition of future, improved equipment and new capabilities

  5. Multi-sources model and control algorithm of an energy management system for light electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannan, M.A.; Azidin, F.A.; Mohamed, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► An energy management system (EMS) is developed for a scooter under normal and heavy power load conditions. ► The battery, FC, SC, EMS, DC machine and vehicle dynamics are modeled and designed for the system. ► State-based logic control algorithms provide an efficient and feasible multi-source EMS for light electric vehicles. ► Vehicle’s speed and power are closely matched with the ECE-47 driving cycle under normal and heavy load conditions. ► Sources of energy changeover occurred at 50% of the battery state of charge level in heavy load conditions. - Abstract: This paper presents the multi-sources energy models and ruled based feedback control algorithm of an energy management system (EMS) for light electric vehicle (LEV), i.e., scooters. The multiple sources of energy, such as a battery, fuel cell (FC) and super-capacitor (SC), EMS and power controller, DC machine and vehicle dynamics are designed and modeled using MATLAB/SIMULINK. The developed control strategies continuously support the EMS of the multiple sources of energy for a scooter under normal and heavy power load conditions. The performance of the proposed system is analyzed and compared with that of the ECE-47 test drive cycle in terms of vehicle speed and load power. The results show that the designed vehicle’s speed and load power closely match those of the ECE-47 test driving cycle under normal and heavy load conditions. This study’s results suggest that the proposed control algorithm provides an efficient and feasible EMS for LEV.

  6. A Survey on Open-Source Flight Control Platforms of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebeid, Emad Samuel Malki; Skriver, Martin; Jin, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Recently, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), so-called drones, have gotten a lot of attention in academic research and commercial applications due to their simple structure, ease of operations and low-cost hardware components. Flight controller, embedded electronics component, represents the core part...... of the drone. It aims at performing the main operations of the drone (e.g., autonomous control and navigation). There are various types of flight controllers and each of them has its own characteristics and features. This paper presents an extensive survey on the publicly available open-source flight...

  7. Spectrometer control subsystem with high level functionality for use at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberi, J.L.; Stubblefield, F.W.

    1980-11-01

    We have developed a subsystem capable of controlling stepping motors in a wide variety of vuv and x-ray spectrometers to be used at the National Sychrotron Light Source. The subsystem is capable of controlling up to 15 motors with encoder readback and ramped acceleration/deceleration. Both absolute and incremental encoders may be used in any mixture. Function commands to the subsystem are communicated via ASCII characters over an asynchronous serial link in a well-defined protocol in decipherable English. Thus the unit can be controlled via write statements in a high-level language. Details of hardware implementation will be presented

  8. Bi-objective branch-and-cut algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gadegaard, Sune Lauth; Ehrgott, Matthias; Nielsen, Lars Relund

    Most real-world optimization problems are of a multi-objective nature, involving objectives which are conflicting and incomparable. Solving a multi-objective optimization problem requires a method which can generate the set of rational compromises between the objectives. In this paper, we propose...... are strengthened by cutting planes. In addition, we suggest an extension of the branching strategy "Pareto branching''. Extensive computational results obtained for the bi-objective single source capacitated facility location problem prove the effectiveness of the algorithms....... and compares it to an upper bound set. The implicit bound set based algorithm, on the other hand, fathoms branching nodes by generating a single point on the lower bound set for each local nadir point. We outline several approaches for fathoming branching nodes and we propose an updating scheme for the lower...

  9. Autonomous Micro-Air-Vehicle Control Based on Visual Sensing for Odor Source Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenzo Kurotsuchi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel control method for autonomous-odor-source localization using visual and odor sensing by micro air vehicles (MAVs. Our method is based on biomimetics, which enable highly autonomous localization. Our method does not need any instruction signals, including even global positioning system (GPS signals. An experimenter simply blows a whistle, and the MAV will then start to hover, to seek an odor source, and to keep hovering near the source. The GPS-signal-free control based on visual sense enables indoor/underground use. Moreover, the MAV is light-weight (85 grams and does not cause harm to others even if it accidentally falls. Experiments conducted in the real world were successful in enabling odor source localization using the MAV with a bio-inspired searching method. The distance error of the localization was 63 cm, more accurate than the target distance of 120 cm for individual identification. Our odor source localization is the first step to a proof of concept for a danger warning system. These localization experiments were the first step to a proof of concept for a danger warning system to enable a safer and more secure society.

  10. Design and construction of the advanced photon source 352-MHz rf system switching control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horan, D.; Solita, L.; Reigle, D.; Dimonte, N.

    1997-01-01

    A switching control system has been designed and built to provide the capability of rapidly switching the waveguide and low-level cabling between different klystrons to operate the Advanced Photon Source storage ring in the event of a failure of a klystron system or to perform necessary repairs and preventative maintenance. The twelve possible modes of operation allow for complete redundancy of the booster synchrotron rf system and either a maximum of two storage ring rf systems to be completely off-line or one system to be used as a power source for an rf test stand. A programmable controller is used to send commands to intermediate control panels which interface to WR2300 waveguide switches and phase shifters, rf cavity interlock and low-level rf distribution systems, and klystron power supply controls for rapid reconfiguration of the rf systems in response to a mode-selection command. Mode selection is a local manual operation using a keyswitch arrangement which prevents more than one mode from being selected at a time. The programmable controller also monitors for hardware malfunction and guards against open-quotes hot-switchingclose quotes of the rf systems. The rf switching controls system is monitored via the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) for remote system status check

  11. Comparative study of microcontroller controlled four-wire voltage and current source shunt active power filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, S.

    2009-07-01

    During the past two decades, active power filters have increasingly grown their popularity as a viable method for improving electric power quality. The main reasons for this have been the advent of fast self-commutating solid-state devices, the progression of digital technology and the improved sensor technology. Four-wire active power filters provide an efficient solution for improving the quality of supply in grounded three-phase systems or three-phase systems with neutral conductors, which are commonly used for powering residential, office and public buildings. Four-wire active power filters are applicable in compensating current harmonics, reactive power, neutral current and load phase imbalance.This thesis presents a comparative study of microcontroller controlled four-wire voltage and current source shunt active power filters. The study includes two voltage source topologies and a current source topology with two different dc-link energy storage structures, which are compared on the basis of their filtering properties, filtering performance and efficiency. The obtained results are used for determining the suitability of current source technology for four-wire active power filtering and finding the most viable four-wire shunt active power filter topology. One commonly recognized disadvantage of the current source active power filter has always been the bulky dc-link inductor. To reduce the size of the dc-link inductor, an alternative dc-link structure for current source active power filters was introduced in the late 80's. The hybrid energy storage consists of both inductive and capacitive energy storage elements, two diodes and two controllable semiconductor switching devices. Since the capacitive element is used as a main storage unit, the inductance of the dc-link inductor can be considerably reduced. However, the original dc current control method proposed is not able to utilize the full potential of the hybrid energy storage and the inductance

  12. Regulatory control for safe usage of ionizing radiation sources in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollah, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In Bangladesh, there is a widespread and continuos growth in the use of the ionizing radiation sources both radioactive materials and radiation generating equipment in the field of industry, medicine, agriculture, research, teaching etc. In industry, they are employed in production as well as quality control such as non-destructive testing (radiography), nucleonic gauging, radiotracer techniques and in radiation processing. Medical applications of ionizing radiation include X-ray radiography, X-ray fluoroscopy, CT scan, mammography, nuclear medicine, beam therapy and brachytherapy. Besides radioisotopes are also used for research applications, viz., scattering experiments, tracer studies, etc. In agriculture, the uptake of nutrients by soil, and parts of plants are studied using suitable radionuclides. In all the above applications radioisotopes in two forms namely sealed sources and open sources in different chemical forms are employed with source strengths varying from micro curies to mega curies. The benefits to man from the use of ionizing radiation and sources of radiation are accompanied by risks which may result from exposure of man to ionizing radiation. In order to have an effective control on the use of radiation sources and to ensure radiological safety of the user as well as the public, Government of Bangladesh has promulgated Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control (NSRC) rules 1997 under the NSRC Act 1993. The Bangladesh Atomic Energy commission (BAEC) is the competent authority for formulating rules and regulations for ensuring radiological safety. BAEC is legally responsible for developing and strengthening the necessary radiation protection infrastructure in the country through the effective enforcement and implementation of regulatory requirements, criteria, obligations, guiding, codes etc. in order to save man and the related environment from the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation. In Bangladesh, only those persons who have been

  13. The Phenylpropanoid Pathway Is Controlled at Different Branches by a Set of R2R3-MYB C2 Repressors in Grapevine1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallini, Erika; Matus, José Tomás; Finezzo, Laura; Zenoni, Sara; Loyola, Rodrigo; Guzzo, Flavia; Schlechter, Rudolf; Ageorges, Agnès; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2015-01-01

    Because of the vast range of functions that phenylpropanoids possess, their synthesis requires precise spatiotemporal coordination throughout plant development and in response to the environment. The accumulation of these secondary metabolites is transcriptionally controlled by positive and negative regulators from the MYB and basic helix-loop-helix protein families. We characterized four grapevine (Vitis vinifera) R2R3-MYB proteins from the C2 repressor motif clade, all of which harbor the ethylene response factor-associated amphiphilic repression domain but differ in the presence of an additional TLLLFR repression motif found in the strong flavonoid repressor Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) AtMYBL2. Constitutive expression of VvMYB4a and VvMYB4b in petunia (Petunia hybrida) repressed general phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes and selectively reduced the amount of small-weight phenolic compounds. Conversely, transgenic petunia lines expressing VvMYBC2-L1 and VvMYBC2-L3 showed a severe reduction in petal anthocyanins and seed proanthocyanidins together with a higher pH of crude petal extracts. The distinct function of these regulators was further confirmed by transient expression in tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) leaves and grapevine plantlets. Finally, VvMYBC2-L3 was ectopically expressed in grapevine hairy roots, showing a reduction in proanthocyanidin content together with the down-regulation of structural and regulatory genes of the flavonoid pathway as revealed by a transcriptomic analysis. The physiological role of these repressors was inferred by combining the results of the functional analyses and their expression patterns in grapevine during development and in response to ultraviolet B radiation. Our results indicate that VvMYB4a and VvMYB4b may play a key role in negatively regulating the synthesis of small-weight phenolic compounds, whereas VvMYBC2-L1 and VvMYBC2-L3 may additionally fine tune flavonoid levels, balancing the inductive effects of

  14. Power Controllability of Three-phase Converter with Unbalanced AC Source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Chen, Wenjie; Liserre, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Three-phase DC-AC power converters suffer from power oscillation and overcurrent problems in case of unbalanced AC source voltage that can be caused by grid/generator faults. Existing solutions to handle these problems are properly selecting and controlling the positive and negative sequence...... currents. In this work a new series of control strategies which utilize the zerosequence components are proposed to enhance the power control ability under this adverse condition. It is concluded that by introducing proper zero sequence current controls and corresponding circuit configurations, the power...... converter can enable more flexible control targets, achieving better performances in the delivered power and load current when suffering from unbalanced AC voltage....

  15. Space plasma branch at NRL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Naval Research Laboratory (Washington, D.C.) formed the Space Plasma Branch within its Plasma Physics Division on July 1. Vithal Patel, former Program Director of Magnetospheric Physics, National Science Foundation, also joined NRL on the same date as Associate Superintendent of the Plasma Physics Division. Barret Ripin is head of the newly organized branch. The Space Plasma branch will do basic and applied space plasma research using a multidisciplinary approach. It consolidates traditional rocket and satellite space experiments, space plasma theory and computation, with laboratory space-related experiments. About 40 research scientists, postdoctoral fellows, engineers, and technicians are divided among its five sections. The Theory and Computation sections are led by Joseph Huba and Joel Fedder, the Space Experiments section is led by Paul Rodriguez, and the Pharos Laser Facility and Laser Experiments sections are headed by Charles Manka and Jacob Grun.

  16. Coulomb branches with complex singularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyres, Philip C.; Martone, Mario

    2018-06-01

    We construct 4d superconformal field theories (SCFTs) whose Coulomb branches have singular complex structures. This implies, in particular, that their Coulomb branch coordinate rings are not freely generated. Our construction also gives examples of distinct SCFTs which have identical moduli space (Coulomb, Higgs, and mixed branch) geometries. These SCFTs thus provide an interesting arena in which to test the relationship between moduli space geometries and conformal field theory data. We construct these SCFTs by gauging certain discrete global symmetries of N = 4 superYang-Mills (sYM) theories. In the simplest cases, these discrete symmetries are outer automorphisms of the sYM gauge group, and so these theories have lagrangian descriptions as N = 4 sYM theories with disconnected gauge groups.

  17. Branch prediction in the pentium family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fog, Agner

    1998-01-01

    How the branch prediction mechanism in the Pentium has been uncovered with all its quirks, and the incredibly more effective branch prediction in the later versions.......How the branch prediction mechanism in the Pentium has been uncovered with all its quirks, and the incredibly more effective branch prediction in the later versions....

  18. Fast multiprogrammable branch driver for Micral mini-computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, J.; Lacroix, J.

    1975-01-01

    This branch driver allows in association with the stack memories of the minicomputer Micral, very fast exchanges with the 7 crates of a CAMAC branch. A CAMAC program (read, write and control commands) is loaded in the IK stack memory of the Micral and executed in sequence at a rate of 1,6μs per CAMAC command. After programm execution, data may be transferred directly on a magnetic tape

  19. Additional chain-branching pathways in the low-temperature oxidation of branched alkanes

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhandong

    2015-12-31

    Chain-branching reactions represent a general motif in chemistry, encountered in atmospheric chemistry, combustion, polymerization, and photochemistry; the nature and amount of radicals generated by chain-branching are decisive for the reaction progress, its energy signature, and the time towards its completion. In this study, experimental evidence for two new types of chain-branching reactions is presented, based upon detection of highly oxidized multifunctional molecules (HOM) formed during the gas-phase low-temperature oxidation of a branched alkane under conditions relevant to combustion. The oxidation of 2,5-dimethylhexane (DMH) in a jet-stirred reactor (JSR) was studied using synchrotron vacuum ultra-violet photoionization molecular beam mass spectrometry (SVUV-PI-MBMS). Specifically, species with four and five oxygen atoms were probed, having molecular formulas of C8H14O4 (e.g., diketo-hydroperoxide/keto-hydroperoxy cyclic ether) and C8H16O5 (e.g., keto-dihydroperoxide/dihydroperoxy cyclic ether), respectively. The formation of C8H16O5 species involves alternative isomerization of OOQOOH radicals via intramolecular H-atom migration, followed by third O2 addition, intramolecular isomerization, and OH release; C8H14O4 species are proposed to result from subsequent reactions of C8H16O5 species. The mechanistic pathways involving these species are related to those proposed as a source of low-volatility highly oxygenated species in Earth\\'s troposphere. At the higher temperatures relevant to auto-ignition, they can result in a net increase of hydroxyl radical production, so these are additional radical chain-branching pathways for ignition. The results presented herein extend the conceptual basis of reaction mechanisms used to predict the reaction behavior of ignition, and have implications on atmospheric gas-phase chemistry and the oxidative stability of organic substances. © 2015 The Combustion Institute.

  20. Tungsten transport and sources control in JET ITER-like wall H-mode plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorczak, N., E-mail: nicolas.fedorczak@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Monier-Garbet, P. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Pütterich, T. [MPI für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Brezinsek, S. [Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Forschungszentrum Jlich, Assoc EURATOM-FZJ, Jlich (Germany); Devynck, P.; Dumont, R.; Goniche, M.; Joffrin, E. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Lerche, E. [Association EURATOM-Belgian State, LPP-ERM-KMS, TEC partner, Brussels (Belgium); Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Lipschultz, B. [York Plasma Institute, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Luna, E. de la [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusin, Asociacin EURATOM/CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Maddison, G. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, EURATOM-CCFE Association, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Maggi, C. [MPI für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Matthews, G. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, EURATOM-CCFE Association, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Nunes, I. [Istituto de plasmas e fusao nuclear, Lisboa (Portugal); Rimini, F. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, EURATOM-CCFE Association, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Solano, E.R. [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusin, Asociacin EURATOM/CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Tamain, P. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Tsalas, M. [Association EURATOM-Hellenic Republic, NCSR Demokritos 153 10, Attica (Greece); Vries, P. de [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2015-08-15

    A set of discharges performed with the JET ITER-like wall is investigated with respect to control capabilities on tungsten sources and transport. In attached divertor regimes, increasing fueling by gas puff results in higher divertor recycling ion flux, lower divertor tungsten source, higher ELM frequency and lower core plasma radiation, dominated by tungsten ions. Both pedestal flushing by ELMs and divertor screening (including redeposition) are possibly responsible. For specific scenarios, kicks in plasma vertical position can be employed to increase the ELM frequency, which results in slightly lower core radiation. The application of ion cyclotron radio frequency heating at the very center of the plasma is efficient to increase the core electron temperature gradient and flatten electron density profile, resulting in a significantly lower central tungsten peaking. Beryllium evaporation in the main chamber did not reduce the local divertor tungsten source whereas core radiation was reduced by approximately 50%.

  1. Simulation of neutron multiplicity measurements using Geant4. Open source software for nuclear arms control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuett, Moritz

    2016-07-07

    Nuclear arms control, including nuclear safeguards and verification technologies for nuclear disarmament typically use software as part of many different technological applications. This thesis proposes to use three open source criteria for such software, allowing users and developers to have free access to a program, have access to the full source code and be able to publish modifications for the program. This proposition is presented and analyzed in detail, together with the description of the development of ''Open Neutron Multiplicity Simulation'', an open source software tool to simulate neutron multiplicity measurements. The description includes physical background of the method, details of the developed program and a comprehensive set of validation calculations.

  2. New approach for location of continuously emitting acoustic emission sources by phase-controlled probe arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeller, P.; Klein, M.; Waschkies, E.; Deuster, G.

    1991-01-01

    Usually burst-like acoustic emission (AE) is localized by triangulation. For continuous AE, e.g. from leakages, this method is not feasible. Therefore a new method for localization of continuous AE has been developed. It is based on a phase-controlled probe array which consists of many single sensor elements. The AE signals received by the different sensor elements are delayed according to their time-of-flight differences from the source to the single elements of the receiver array. By choosing special combinations of time differences between the array elements the directivity pattern of the sensitivity of the array can be changed, e.g. rotated in the plane of a large plate. Thus, the source direction can be determined by one array. Some preliminary experiments with an artificial noise source, positioned on a large steel plate, have been performed and have demonstrated the feasibility of this approach. (orig.)

  3. Control of the safety and security of radiation sources in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    The report refers to the main elements of the regulatory infrastructure in Argentina, noting as relevant the promulgation in 1997 of the Act 24.804, which established the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) as an independent agency empowered to establish standards and enforce their application with regard to the possession and use of radiation sources. Important elements of such regulatory infrastructure are described in the report, and in particular those explaining the existing licensing system, the basic radiological safety and security requirements, the enforcement programme, and the key actions considered for the appropriate control of radioactive sources. In this respect, the report emphasizes the importance of the management of disused and orphan sources, and the role of education and training. (author)

  4. An investigation of cognitive 'branching' processes in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Nicholas D; Seal, Marc L; Williams, Steven C R; Mehta, Mitul A

    2009-11-10

    Patients with depression demonstrate cognitive impairment on a wide range of cognitive tasks, particularly putative tasks of frontal lobe function. Recent models of frontal lobe function have argued that the frontal pole region is involved in cognitive branching, a process requiring holding in mind one goal while performing sub-goal processes. Evidence for this model comes from functional neuroimaging and frontal-pole lesion patients. We have utilised these new concepts to investigate the possibility that patients with depression are impaired at cognitive 'branching'. 11 non-medicated patients with major depression were compared to 11 matched controls in a behavioural study on a task of cognitive 'branching'. In the version employed here, we recorded participant's performance as they learnt to perform the task. This involved participants completing a control condition, followed by a working memory condition, a dual-task condition and finally the branching condition, which integrates processes in the working memory and dual-task conditions. We also measured participants on a number of other cognitive tasks as well as mood-state before and after the branching experiment. Patients took longer to learn the first condition, but performed comparably to controls after six runs of the task. Overall, reaction times decreased with repeated exposure on the task conditions in controls, with this effect attenuated in patients. Importantly, no differences were found between patients and controls on the branching condition. There was, however, a significant change in mood-state with patients increasing in positive affect and decreasing in negative affect after the experiment. We found no clear evidence of a fundamental impairment in anterior prefrontal 'branching processes' in patients with depression. Rather our data argue for a contextual learning impairment underlying cognitive dysfunction in this disorder. Our data suggest that MDD patients are able to perform high

  5. A Self-Assessment of the Effectiveness to Control Radiation Sources in Sierra Leone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bun-Tejan, Umaru Remilekun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung Soo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    There is an urgent need to effectively control sources of ionizing radiation. Sources of ionizing radiation pose serious occupational, public health, and environmental consequences, if not properly controlled. The government of Sierra Leone knows the importance of controlling these sources of ionizing radiation and of establishing an independent Nuclear Safety Infrastructure. Sierra Leone has no nuclear facilities but, it is rapidly developing its infrastructure in order to obtain nuclear technology. However, the regulatory effectiveness in controlling radiation risk is essential for the International Atomic Energy Agency to allow the transfer of nuclear technology. For this reason, this study will evaluate the status of the regulatory authority in Sierra Leone to control radiation risk. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) review mission to Sierra Leone found that the RPBA did not give sufficient enforcement powers to the Board Secretariat. The research evaluated the status of the regulatory authority of Sierra Leone. The status of the regulatory authority was evaluated against several parameters including management systems, regulatory processes, authorization, inspection, and enforcement. The ability to effectively control ionizing radiation sources depends on the status of the regulatory body. The Integrated Regulatory Review Service Report on Sierra Leone led us to infer that there is a need for the regulatory authority to rapidly improve its ability to control ionizing radiation sources in the country. The findings however, revealed that the overall strengths of the regulatory body in Sierra Leone slightly outnumber the weaknesses. Management systems have a ratio of 0.85:1 of strengths to weaknesses. This ratio makes management systems the weakest parameter evaluated. Thus there is need for stronger collaboration between management staff. The Regulatory processes have a ratio of 1.3:1, authorizations have a ratio of 4.3:1, inspections have ratio of 2

  6. A Self-Assessment of the Effectiveness to Control Radiation Sources in Sierra Leone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bun-Tejan, Umaru Remilekun; Lee, Byung Soo

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need to effectively control sources of ionizing radiation. Sources of ionizing radiation pose serious occupational, public health, and environmental consequences, if not properly controlled. The government of Sierra Leone knows the importance of controlling these sources of ionizing radiation and of establishing an independent Nuclear Safety Infrastructure. Sierra Leone has no nuclear facilities but, it is rapidly developing its infrastructure in order to obtain nuclear technology. However, the regulatory effectiveness in controlling radiation risk is essential for the International Atomic Energy Agency to allow the transfer of nuclear technology. For this reason, this study will evaluate the status of the regulatory authority in Sierra Leone to control radiation risk. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) review mission to Sierra Leone found that the RPBA did not give sufficient enforcement powers to the Board Secretariat. The research evaluated the status of the regulatory authority of Sierra Leone. The status of the regulatory authority was evaluated against several parameters including management systems, regulatory processes, authorization, inspection, and enforcement. The ability to effectively control ionizing radiation sources depends on the status of the regulatory body. The Integrated Regulatory Review Service Report on Sierra Leone led us to infer that there is a need for the regulatory authority to rapidly improve its ability to control ionizing radiation sources in the country. The findings however, revealed that the overall strengths of the regulatory body in Sierra Leone slightly outnumber the weaknesses. Management systems have a ratio of 0.85:1 of strengths to weaknesses. This ratio makes management systems the weakest parameter evaluated. Thus there is need for stronger collaboration between management staff. The Regulatory processes have a ratio of 1.3:1, authorizations have a ratio of 4.3:1, inspections have ratio of 2

  7. Control system for 5 MW neutral beam ion source for SST1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, G. B.; Onali, Raja; Sharma, Vivek; Suresh, S.; Tripathi, V.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Singh, N. P.; Thakkar, Dipal; Gupta, L. N.; Singh, M. J.; Patel, P. J.; Chakraborty, A. K.; Baruah, U. K.; Mattoo, S. K.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the control system for a 5MW ion source of the NBI (neutral beam injector) for steady-state superconducting tokamak-1 (SST-1). The system uses both hardware and software solutions. It comprises a DAS (data acquisition system) and a control system. The DAS is used to read the voltage and current signals from eight filament heater power supplies and 24 discharge power supplies. The control system is used to adjust the filament heater current in order to achieve an effective control on the discharge current in the plasma box. The system consists of a VME (Verse Module Eurocard) system and C application program running on a VxWorks™ real-time operating system. A PID (proportional, integral, and differential) algorithm is used to control the filament heater current. Experiments using this system have shown that the discharge current can be controlled within 1% accuracy for a PID loop time of 20ms. Response of the control system to the pressure variation of the gas in the chamber has also been studied and compared with the results obtained from those of an uncontrolled system. The present approach increases the flexibility of the control system. It not only eases the control of the plasma but also allows an easy changeover to various operation scenarios.

  8. Power angle control of grid-connected voltage source converter in a wind energy application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Jan [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Electric Power Engineering

    1996-12-31

    In this thesis, the connection of a voltage source converter to the grid in a wind energy application is examined. The possibility of using a cheap control system without grid current measurements, is investigated. The control method is based on controlling the voltage angle of the inverter, which governs the active power flow. The highest frequency of the power variation, coming from wind turbine, is approx. 5 Hz. Since the proposed control method easily can handle such power variations it is very well suited for wind turbine applications. The characteristics of the system depend on the DC-link capacitor, the grid filter inductance and resistance. Large values of the resistance damp the system well but increase the energy losses. A high inductance leads to a reduced harmonic level on the grid but makes the system slower. By using feed-forward of the generator/rectifier current signal, the performance is increased compared to an ordinary PI-control. Combining the Linear Quadratic (LQ) control method with Kalman filtered input signals, a robust control method with a good performance is obtained. The LQ controller controls both the phase displacement angle and the modulation index, resulting in higher bandwidth, and the typical power angle resonance at the grid frequency disappears. 22 refs, 109 figs, 14 tabs

  9. Stream nitrogen sources apportionment and pollution control scheme development in an agricultural watershed in eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dingjiang; Lu, Jun; Huang, Hong; Liu, Mei; Gong, Dongqin; Chen, Jiabo

    2013-08-01

    A modeling system that couples a land-usebased export coefficient model, a stream nutrient transport equation, and Bayesian statistics was developed for stream nitrogen source apportionment. It divides a watershed into several sub-catchments, and then considers the major landuse categories as stream nitrogen sources in each subcatchment. The runoff depth and stream water depth are considered as the major factors influencing delivery of nitrogen from land to downstream stream node within each sub-catchment. The nitrogen sources and delivery processes are lumped into several constant parameters that were calibrated using Bayesian statistics from commonly available stream monitoring and land-use datasets. This modeling system was successfully applied to total nitrogen (TN) pollution control scheme development for the ChangLe River watershed containing six sub-catchments and four land-use categories. The temporal (across months and years) and spatial (across sub-catchments and land-use categories) variability of nonpoint source (NPS) TN export to stream channels and delivery to the watershed outlet were assessed. After adjustment for in-stream TNretention, the time periods and watershed areas with disproportionately high-TN contributions to the stream were identified. Aimed at a target stream TN level of 2 mg L-1, a quantitative TN pollution control scheme was further developed to determine which sub-catchments, which land-use categories in a sub-catchment, which time periods, and how large of NPS TN export reduction were required. This modeling system provides a powerful tool for stream nitrogen source apportionment and pollution control scheme development at the watershed scale and has only limited data requirements.

  10. Modeling the effects of integrating larval habitat source reduction and insecticide treated nets for malaria control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laith Yakob

    Full Text Available Integrated vector management for malaria control has received a lot of recent interest. Attacking multiple points in the transmission cycle is hoped to act synergistically and improve upon current single-tool interventions based on the use of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs. In the present study, we theoretically examined the application of larval habitat source reduction with ITNs in reducing malaria transmission. We selected this type of environmental management to complement ITNs because of a potential secondary mode of action that both control strategies share. In addition to increasing vector mortality, ITNs reduce the rate at which female mosquitoes locate human hosts for blood feeding, thereby extending their gonotrophic cycle. Similarly, while reducing adult vector emergence and abundance, source reduction of larval habitats may prolong the cycle duration by extending delays in locating oviposition sites. We found, however, that source reduction of larval habitats only operates through this secondary mode of action when habitat density is below a critical threshold. Hence, we illustrate how this strategy becomes increasingly effective when larval habitats are limited. We also demonstrate that habitat source reduction is better suited to human populations of higher density and in the presence of insecticide resistance or when the insecticidal properties of ITNs are depleted.

  11. The accuracy of webcams in 2D motion analysis: sources of error and their control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, A; Candelas, P; Belmar, F; Moreno, R

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we show the potential of webcams as precision measuring instruments in a physics laboratory. Various sources of error appearing in 2D coordinate measurements using low-cost commercial webcams are discussed, quantifying their impact on accuracy and precision, and simple procedures to control these sources of error are presented. Finally, an experiment with controlled movement is performed to experimentally measure the errors described above and to assess the effectiveness of the proposed corrective measures. It will be shown that when these aspects are considered, it is possible to obtain errors lower than 0.1%. This level of accuracy demonstrates that webcams should be considered as very precise and accurate measuring instruments at a remarkably low cost

  12. The accuracy of webcams in 2D motion analysis: sources of error and their control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, A; Candelas, P; Belmar, F [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Moreno, R [Instituto de Biomecanica de Valencia, Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: alvaro.page@ibv.upv.es

    2008-07-15

    In this paper, we show the potential of webcams as precision measuring instruments in a physics laboratory. Various sources of error appearing in 2D coordinate measurements using low-cost commercial webcams are discussed, quantifying their impact on accuracy and precision, and simple procedures to control these sources of error are presented. Finally, an experiment with controlled movement is performed to experimentally measure the errors described above and to assess the effectiveness of the proposed corrective measures. It will be shown that when these aspects are considered, it is possible to obtain errors lower than 0.1%. This level of accuracy demonstrates that webcams should be considered as very precise and accurate measuring instruments at a remarkably low cost.

  13. Principles for the exemption of radiation sources and practices from regulatory control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Radiation sources, including equipment and installations, which emit ionizing radiations, are potentially harmful to health and their use should therefore be regulated. Some types of radiation source, however, do not need to be subject to regulatory control, because they present such a low hazard that it would be a needless waste of time and effort to exercise control by a regulatory process and they can therefore be exempted from it. An Advisory Group Meeting was convened in Vienna in March 1988 sponsored jointly by the IAEA and NEA. This Safety Guide is the result of that meeting and represents a first international consensus on the subject of exemption principles. This document is issued as an IAEA Safety Guide since it recommends a procedure which might be followed in implementing the Basic Safety Standards (BSS) for Radiation Protection. Its purpose is to recommend a policy on exemptions from the BSS system of notification, registration and licensing. 15 refs

  14. Dynamic Control of Particle Deposition in Evaporating Droplets by an External Point Source of Vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Robert; Volpe, Giovanni; Parkin, Ivan P; Volpe, Giorgio

    2018-02-01

    The deposition of particles on a surface by an evaporating sessile droplet is important for phenomena as diverse as printing, thin-film deposition, and self-assembly. The shape of the final deposit depends on the flows within the droplet during evaporation. These flows are typically determined at the onset of the process by the intrinsic physical, chemical, and geometrical properties of the droplet and its environment. Here, we demonstrate deterministic emergence and real-time control of Marangoni flows within the evaporating droplet by an external point source of vapor. By varying the source location, we can modulate these flows in space and time to pattern colloids on surfaces in a controllable manner.

  15. Plexin A3 and turnout regulate motor axonal branch morphogenesis in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Sainath

    Full Text Available During embryogenesis motor axons navigate to their target muscles, where individual motor axons develop complex branch morphologies. The mechanisms that control axonal branching morphogenesis have been studied intensively, yet it still remains unclear when branches begin to form or how branch locations are determined. Live cell imaging of individual zebrafish motor axons reveals that the first axonal branches are generated at the ventral extent of the myotome via bifurcation of the growth cone. Subsequent branches are generated by collateral branching restricted to their synaptic target field along the distal portion of the axon. This precisely timed and spatially restricted branching process is disrupted in turnout mutants we identified in a forward genetic screen. Molecular genetic mapping positioned the turnout mutation within a 300 kb region encompassing eight annotated genes, however sequence analysis of all eight open reading frames failed to unambiguously identify the turnout mutation. Chimeric analysis and single cell labeling reveal that turnout function is required cell non-autonomously for intraspinal motor axon guidance and peripheral branch formation. turnout mutant motor axons form the first branch on time via growth cone bifurcation, but unlike wild-type they form collateral branches precociously, when the growth cone is still navigating towards the ventral myotome. These precocious collateral branches emerge along the proximal region of the axon shaft typically devoid of branches, and they develop into stable, permanent branches. Furthermore, we find that null mutants of the guidance receptor plexin A3 display identical motor axon branching defects, and time lapse analysis reveals that precocious branch formation in turnout and plexin A3 mutants is due to increased stability of otherwise short-lived axonal protrusions. Thus, plexin A3 dependent intrinsic and turnout dependent extrinsic mechanisms suppress collateral branch

  16. Prevention and Control of Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollutions in UK and Suggestions to China

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Kun; Ren, Tianzhi; Wu, Wenliang; Meng, Fanquiao; Bellarby, Jessica; Smith, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the world is facing challenges of maintaining food production growth while improving agricultural ecological environmental quality. The prevention and control of agricultural non-point source pollution, a key component of these challenges, is a systematic program which integrates many factors such as technology and its extension, relevant regulation and policies. In the project of UK-China Sustainable Agriculture Innovation Network, we undertook a comprehensive analysis of the prev...

  17. Mount St. Helens: Controlled-source audio-frequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) data and inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Jeff; Pierce, Herbert A.

    2015-01-01

    This report describes a series of geoelectrical soundings carried out on and near Mount St. Helens volcano, Washington, in 2010–2011. These soundings used a controlled-source audio-frequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) approach (Zonge and Hughes, 1991; Simpson and Bahr, 2005). We chose CSAMT for logistical reasons: It can be deployed by helicopter, has an effective depth of penetration of as much as 1 kilometer, and requires less wire than a Schlumberger sounding.

  18. Controlled isotropic fission fragment sources on the base of nuclear-physical facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevast'yanov, V.D.; Maslov, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    Isotropic fission fragment sources (IFFS) are developed on the base of a neutron generator and pulse fast reactor. IFFS permit to calibrate fission fragment detectors. The IFFS consist of radiators with 235 U. The radiators are placed in a thermal neutron field of the neutron generator or in the reactor core center. The fragment activity is controlled by indications of an α-particle counter or by indications of a monitor of energy release in the core. 14 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  19. The development of control processes supporting source memory discrimination as revealed by event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chastelaine, Marianne; Friedman, David; Cycowicz, Yael M

    2007-08-01

    Improvement in source memory performance throughout childhood is thought to be mediated by the development of executive control. As postretrieval control processes may be better time-locked to the recognition response rather than the retrieval cue, the development of processes underlying source memory was investigated with both stimulus- and response-locked event-related potentials (ERPs). These were recorded in children, adolescents, and adults during a recognition memory exclusion task. Green- and red-outlined pictures were studied, but were tested in black outline. The test requirement was to endorse old items shown in one study color ("targets") and to reject new items along with old items shown in the alternative study color ("nontargets"). Source memory improved with age. All age groups retrieved target and nontarget memories as reflected by reliable parietal episodic memory (EM) effects, a stimulus-locked ERP correlate of recollection. Response-locked ERPs to targets and nontargets diverged in all groups prior to the response, although this occurred at an increasingly earlier time point with age. We suggest these findings reflect the implementation of attentional control mechanisms to enhance target memories and facilitate response selection with the greatest and least success, respectively, in adults and children. In adults only, response-locked ERPs revealed an early-onsetting parietal negativity for nontargets, but not for targets. This was suggested to reflect adults' ability to consistently inhibit prepotent target responses for nontargets. The findings support the notion that the development of source memory relies on the maturation of control processes that serve to enhance accurate selection of task-relevant memories.

  20. A digital controlled negative high voltage power source for LINAC of HLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Hui; Chen Jun; Hong Jun; Wang Weibing

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces the working principle of a 10-80 kV negative high voltage power source for the electronic gun of the 200 MeV LINAC of NSRL, especially how to realize the switch power, voltage/current sampling, feedback control and microcontroller module. The firmware design for the SOC microcontroller of ADuC8xx and the application software design for PC are also presented. (authors)

  1. Energy Management of Dual-Source Propelled Electric Vehicle using Fuzzy Controller Optimized via Genetic Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoobi, Saeed; Halvaei, Abolfazl; Hajizadeh, Amin

    2016-01-01

    Energy and power distribution between multiple energy sources of electric vehicles (EVs) is the main challenge to achieve optimum performance from EV. Fuzzy inference systems are powerful tools due to nonlinearity and uncertainties of EV system. Design of fuzzy controllers for energy management...... of EV relies too much on the expert experience and it may lead to sub-optimal performance. This paper develops an optimized fuzzy controller using genetic algorithm (GA) for an electric vehicle equipped with two power bank including battery and super-capacitor. The model of EV and optimized fuzzy...

  2. Quality control of Ir-192, Cs-137 and Ra-226 sources for use in brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyrzun Cortes, C.H.; Palma D, A.M.; Penaloza C, H.; Tomicic, M.

    1996-01-01

    In order to establish a certain degree of reliability in the use and managing of radioactive material in brachytherapy, a minimal quality control to each source was implemented. The purpose was to estimate the degree of radioactive leak, resistance to the mechanic traction and stress of use. Through a physical control of the radioactive material (a simple dip test and using a photon scanner or auto-radiography) the minimal conditions that guarantee safe use are established. This information is transmitted to a calibration laboratory for certification in exposure rate and/or activity. Systematic use of these tests, enables discovery of radioactive material leakage due to faults in the seal. (author)

  3. Single Phase Current-Source Active Rectifier for Traction: Control System Design and Practical Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Michalik

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This research has been motivated by industrial demand for single phase current-source active rectifier dedicated for reconstruction of older types of dc machine locomotives. This paper presents converters control structure design and simulations. The proposed converter control is based on the mathematical model and due to possible interaction with railway signaling and required low switching frequency employs synchronous PWM. The simulation results are verified by experimental tests performed on designed laboratory prototype of power of 7kVA

  4. Quality control of Ir-192, Cs-137 and Ra-226 sources for use in brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyrzun Cortes, C H; Palma D, A M; Penaloza C, H; Tomicic, M [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile)

    1996-08-01

    In order to establish a certain degree of reliability in the use and managing of radioactive material in brachytherapy, a minimal quality control to each source was implemented. The purpose was to estimate the degree of radioactive leak, resistance to the mechanic traction and stress of use. Through a physical control of the radioactive material (a simple dip test and using a photon scanner or auto-radiography) the minimal conditions that guarantee safe use are established. This information is transmitted to a calibration laboratory for certification in exposure rate and/or activity. Systematic use of these tests, enables discovery of radioactive material leakage due to faults in the seal. (author).

  5. Investigating The Integral Control Rod Worth Of The Miniature Neutron Source Reactor MNSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Hoang Hai; Do Quang Binh

    2011-01-01

    Determining control rod characteristics is an essential problem of nuclear reactor analysis. In this research, the integral control rod worth of the miniature neutron source reactor MNSR is investigated. Some other parameters of the nuclear reactor, such as core excess reactivity, shut down margin, are also calculated. Group constants for all reactor components are generated by the WIMSD code and then are used in the CITATION code to solve the neutron diffusion equations. The maximum relative error of the calculated results compared with the measurement data is about 3.5%. (author)

  6. Means for controlling operation of power sources associated with an axial tomographic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    An axial tomographic system is described having scanner means normally in an off-condition where all associated power sources are electrically isolated from the units driven thereby. It also includes means for activating the scanner means to establish an on-condition, control means including means to measure one or more system parameters when the scanner means is in an on-condition and to determine if the measured parameters are within predetermined limits, and means for maintaining the on-condition only if the control means is properly operational and all measured system parameters are within the predetermined limits

  7. Operational techniques employed for the liquid sodium source term control loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chulos, L.E.

    1976-01-01

    Four Source Term Control Loops (STCLs) have been designed, constructed, and placed into operation at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) as part of the Radioactivity Control Technology program. The data obtained are used to determine the corrosion and deposition of LMFBR materials, including corrosion product radionuclides, in a non-isothermal flowing sodium system. The paper discusses operation of the STCL Facilities and, in particular, the methods used for controlling the oxygen content of the liquid sodium. These methods include cold trapping techniques, hot trapping, seeding the cold traps with sodium oxide, and precipitating the oxygen in the cold trap in a controlled manner. Operational problems encountered with the STCL Facilities and the techniques for correcting these problems are also discussed

  8. Optimized Controller Design for a 12-Pulse Voltage Source Converter Based HVDC System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ruchi; Singh, Sanjeev

    2017-12-01

    The paper proposes an optimized controller design scheme for power quality improvement in 12-pulse voltage source converter based high voltage direct current system. The proposed scheme is hybrid combination of golden section search and successive linear search method. The paper aims at reduction of current sensor and optimization of controller. The voltage and current controller parameters are selected for optimization due to its impact on power quality. The proposed algorithm for controller optimizes the objective function which is composed of current harmonic distortion, power factor, and DC voltage ripples. The detailed designs and modeling of the complete system are discussed and its simulation is carried out in MATLAB-Simulink environment. The obtained results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme under different transient conditions such as load perturbation, non-linear load condition, voltage sag condition, and tapped load fault under one phase open condition at both points-of-common coupling.

  9. Neutron fluctuations a treatise on the physics of branching processes

    CERN Document Server

    Pazsit, Imre; Pzsit, Imre

    2007-01-01

    The transport of neutrons in a multiplying system is an area of branching processes with a clear formalism. This book presents an account of the mathematical tools used in describing branching processes, which are then used to derive a large number of properties of the neutron distribution in multiplying systems with or without an external source. In the second part of the book, the theory is applied to the description of the neutron fluctuations in nuclear reactor cores as well as in small samples of fissile material. The question of how to extract information about the system under study is discussed. In particular the measurement of the reactivity of subcritical cores, driven with various Poisson and non-Poisson (pulsed) sources, and the identification of fissile material samples, is illustrated. The book gives pragmatic information for those planning and executing and evaluating experiments on such systems. - Gives a complete treatise of the mathematics of branching particle processes, and in particular n...

  10. Variable cycle control model for intersection based on multi-source information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Yue; Qu, Wen-Cong; Chen, Yan-Yan

    2018-05-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of traffic control system in the era of big data, a new variable cycle control model based on multi-source information is presented for intersection in this paper. Firstly, with consideration of multi-source information, a unified framework based on cyber-physical system is proposed. Secondly, taking into account the variable length of cell, hysteresis phenomenon of traffic flow and the characteristics of lane group, a Lane group-based Cell Transmission Model is established to describe the physical properties of traffic flow under different traffic signal control schemes. Thirdly, the variable cycle control problem is abstracted into a bi-level programming model. The upper level model is put forward for cycle length optimization considering traffic capacity and delay. The lower level model is a dynamic signal control decision model based on fairness analysis. Then, a Hybrid Intelligent Optimization Algorithm is raised to solve the proposed model. Finally, a case study shows the efficiency and applicability of the proposed model and algorithm.

  11. Self-optimizing control of air-source heat pump with multivariable extremum seeking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Liujia; Li, Yaoyu; Mu, Baojie; Xiao, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The air-source heat pump (ASHP) is widely adopted for cooling and heating of residential and commercial buildings. The performance of ASHP can be controlled by several operating variables, such as compressor capacity, condenser fan speed, evaporator fan speed and suction superheat. In practice, the system characteristics can be varied significantly by the variations in ambient condition, operation setpoint, internal thermal load and equipment degradation, which makes it difficult to obtain accurate plant models. As consequence, the model based control strategies for ASHP could limit the achievable energy efficiency. Model-free self-optimizing control strategies are thus more preferable. In this study, a multi-input extremum seeking control (ESC) scheme is proposed for both heating and cooling operation of ASHP. The zone temperature is assumed to be regulated by the compressor capacity, while the expansion valve opening is used to regulate the suction superheat at the given setpoint. The total power consumption of the compressor, the condenser fan and the evaporator fan is measured as input to the ESC, while the ESC controls the evaporator fan speed, the condenser fan speed and the suction superheat setpoint. The proposed scheme is evaluated with a Modelica based dynamic simulation model of ASHP under both cooling and heating modes of operation. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme to achieve the maximum achievable efficiency in a nearly model-free manner. - Highlights: • Multi-input ESC. • Air-source heat pump. • Cooling and heating. • Modelica based model

  12. Multi-rate control over AWGN channels via analog joint source-channel coding

    KAUST Repository

    Khina, Anatoly; Pettersson, Gustav M.; Kostina, Victoria; Hassibi, Babak

    2017-01-01

    We consider the problem of controlling an unstable plant over an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel with a transmit power constraint, where the signaling rate of communication is larger than the sampling rate (for generating observations and applying control inputs) of the underlying plant. Such a situation is quite common since sampling is done at a rate that captures the dynamics of the plant and which is often much lower than the rate that can be communicated. This setting offers the opportunity of improving the system performance by employing multiple channel uses to convey a single message (output plant observation or control input). Common ways of doing so are through either repeating the message, or by quantizing it to a number of bits and then transmitting a channel coded version of the bits whose length is commensurate with the number of channel uses per sampled message. We argue that such “separated source and channel coding” can be suboptimal and propose to perform joint source-channel coding. Since the block length is short we obviate the need to go to the digital domain altogether and instead consider analog joint source-channel coding. For the case where the communication signaling rate is twice the sampling rate, we employ the Archimedean bi-spiral-based Shannon-Kotel'nikov analog maps to show significant improvement in stability margins and linear-quadratic Gaussian (LQG) costs over simple schemes that employ repetition.

  13. Multi-rate control over AWGN channels via analog joint source-channel coding

    KAUST Repository

    Khina, Anatoly

    2017-01-05

    We consider the problem of controlling an unstable plant over an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel with a transmit power constraint, where the signaling rate of communication is larger than the sampling rate (for generating observations and applying control inputs) of the underlying plant. Such a situation is quite common since sampling is done at a rate that captures the dynamics of the plant and which is often much lower than the rate that can be communicated. This setting offers the opportunity of improving the system performance by employing multiple channel uses to convey a single message (output plant observation or control input). Common ways of doing so are through either repeating the message, or by quantizing it to a number of bits and then transmitting a channel coded version of the bits whose length is commensurate with the number of channel uses per sampled message. We argue that such “separated source and channel coding” can be suboptimal and propose to perform joint source-channel coding. Since the block length is short we obviate the need to go to the digital domain altogether and instead consider analog joint source-channel coding. For the case where the communication signaling rate is twice the sampling rate, we employ the Archimedean bi-spiral-based Shannon-Kotel\\'nikov analog maps to show significant improvement in stability margins and linear-quadratic Gaussian (LQG) costs over simple schemes that employ repetition.

  14. NCI: DCTD: Biometric Research Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Biometric Research Branch (BRB) is the statistical and biomathematical component of the Division of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis and Centers (DCTDC). Its members provide statistical leadership for the national and international research programs of the division in developmental therapeutics, developmental diagnostics, diagnostic imaging and clinical trials.

  15. Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.

  16. RIO EPICS device support application case study on an ion source control system (ISHP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, Diego [UPM – Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Ruiz, Mariano, E-mail: mariano.ruiz@upm.es [UPM – Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Eguiraun, Mikel [Department of Electricity and Electronic, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Basque Country, Bilbao (Spain); Arredondo, Iñigo [ESS Bilbao Consortium, Zamudio (Spain); Badillo, Inari; Jugo, Josu [Department of Electricity and Electronic, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Basque Country, Bilbao (Spain); Vega, Jesús; Castro, Rodrigo [Asociación EURATOM/CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A use case example of RIO/FlexRIO design methodology is described. • Ion source device is controlled and monitored by means EPICS IOCs. • NIRIO EPICS device support demonstrates that is able to manage RIO devices. • Easy and fast deployment is possible using RIO/FlexRIO design methodology using NIRIO-EDS. • RIO/FlexRIO technology and EPICS are a good combination for support large scale experiments in fusion environments. - Abstract: Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) is a software tool that during last years has become relevant as a main framework to deploy distributed control systems in large scientific environments. At the moment, ESS Bilbao uses this middleware to perform the control of their Ion Source Hydrogen Positive (ISHP) project. The implementation of the control system was based on: PXI Real Time controllers using the LabVIEW-RT and LabVIEW-EPICS tools; and RIO devices based on Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology. Intended to provide a full compliant EPICS IOCs for RIO devices and to avoid additional efforts on the system maintainability, a migration of the current system to a derivative Red Hat Linux (CentOS) environment has been conducted. This paper presents a real application case study for using the NIRIO EPICS device support (NIRIO-EDS) to give support to the ISHP. Although RIO FPGA configurations are particular solutions for ISHP performance, the NIRIO-EDS has permitted the control and monitoring of devices by applying a well-defined design methodology into the previous FPGA configuration for RIO/FlexRIO devices. This methodology has permitted a fast and easy deployment for the new robust, scalable and maintainable software to support RIO devices into the ISHP control architecture.

  17. Control strategy and experimental study on a novel defrosting method for air-source heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Caihua; Zhang Xiaosong; Li Xiuwei; Chen Zhenqian

    2010-01-01

    A new defrosting method - the sensible heat defrosting method, aiming at shelving the various disadvantages of the conventional reverse cycle defrosting was proposed in this paper. The mechanism and process of this method was analysed. To guarantee the reliability, the self-organizing control algorithm with self-learning function was introduced based on the cardinal fuzzy control algorithm. Moreover, the control strategy was enacted; the corresponding self-organizing fuzzy control system was developed; the Micro Controller Unit (MCU) based control unit was accomplished; and the experimental study was conducted to investigate the sample machine of air-source heat pump system. The results of the experiments showed that the self-organizing control algorithm has good control characteristic and effect. On one hand, the adverse shock from the conventional reverse cycle defrosting to the refrigeration system could be avoided through this proposed method; on the other hand, the 'oil rush' could also be eliminated. Besides, the thermal comfort could be greatly improved since the temperature fluctuation range of the supplied water is narrowed by applying this new method in practice.

  18. Top-Down Control of Visual Alpha Oscillations: Sources of Control Signals and Their Mechanisms of Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Rajagovindan, Rajasimhan; Han, Sahng-Min; Ding, Mingzhou

    2016-01-01

    Alpha oscillations (8–12 Hz) are thought to inversely correlate with cortical excitability. Goal-oriented modulation of alpha has been studied extensively. In visual spatial attention, alpha over the region of visual cortex corresponding to the attended location decreases, signifying increased excitability to facilitate the processing of impending stimuli. In contrast, in retention of verbal working memory, alpha over visual cortex increases, signifying decreased excitability to gate out stimulus input to protect the information held online from sensory interference. According to the prevailing model, this goal-oriented biasing of sensory cortex is effected by top-down control signals from frontal and parietal cortices. The present study tests and substantiates this hypothesis by (a) identifying the signals that mediate the top-down biasing influence, (b) examining whether the cortical areas issuing these signals are task-specific or task-independent, and (c) establishing the possible mechanism of the biasing action. High-density human EEG data were recorded in two experimental paradigms: a trial-by-trial cued visual spatial attention task and a modified Sternberg working memory task. Applying Granger causality to both sensor-level and source-level data we report the following findings. In covert visual spatial attention, the regions exerting top-down control over visual activity are lateralized to the right hemisphere, with the dipoles located at the right frontal eye field (FEF) and the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) being the main sources of top-down influences. During retention of verbal working memory, the regions exerting top-down control over visual activity are lateralized to the left hemisphere, with the dipoles located at the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG) being the main source of top-down influences. In both experiments, top-down influences are mediated by alpha oscillations, and the biasing effect is likely achieved via an inhibition

  19. Quantitative evaluation of emission controls on primary and secondary organic aerosol sources during Beijing 2008 Olympics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Guo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To assess the primary and secondary sources of fine organic aerosols after the aggressive implementation of air pollution controls during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, 12 h PM2.5 values were measured at an urban site at Peking University (PKU and an upwind rural site at Yufa during the CAREBEIJING-2008 (Campaigns of Air quality REsearch in BEIJING and surrounding region summer field campaign. The average PM2.5 concentrations were 72.5 ± 43.6 μg m−3 and 64.3 ± 36.2 μg m−3 (average ± standard deviation, below as the same at PKU and Yufa, respectively, showing the lowest concentrations in recent years. Combining the results from a CMB (chemical mass balance model and secondary organic aerosol (SOA tracer-yield model, five primary and four secondary fine organic aerosol sources were compared with the results from previous studies in Beijing. The relative contribution of mobile sources to PM2.5 concentrations was increased in 2008, with diesel engines contributing 16.2 ± 5.9% and 14.5 ± 4.1% and gasoline vehicles contributing 10.3 ± 8.7% and 7.9 ± 6.2% to organic carbon (OC at PKU and Yufa, respectively. Due to the implementation of emission controls, the absolute OC concentrations from primary sources were reduced during the Olympics, and the contributions from secondary formation of OC represented a larger relative source of fine organic aerosols. Compared with the non-controlled period prior to the Olympics, primary vehicle contributions were reduced by 30% at the urban site and 24% at the rural site. The reductions in coal combustion contributions were 57% at PKU and 7% at Yufa. Our results demonstrate that the emission control measures implemented in 2008 significantly alleviated the primary organic particle pollution in and around Beijing. However, additional studies are needed to provide a more comprehensive assessment of the emission control effectiveness on SOA formation.

  20. A scanning point source for quality control of FOV uniformity in GC-PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, H.; Minear, G.; Dobrozemsky, G.; Nowotny, R.; Koenig, B.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: PET imaging with coincidence cameras (GC-PET) requires additional quality control procedures to check the function of coincidence circuitry and detector zoning. In particular, the uniformity response over the field of view needs special attention since it is known that coincidence counting mode may suffer from non-uniformity effects not present in single photon mode. Materials and methods: An inexpensive linear scanner with a stepper motor and a digital interface to a PC with software allowing versatile scanning modes was developed. The scanner is used with a source holder containing a Sodium-22 point source. While moving the source along the axis of rotation of the GC-PET system, a tomographic acquisition takes place. The scan covers the full axial field of view of the 2-D or 3-D scatter frame. Depending on the acquisition software, point source scanning takes place continuously while only one projection is acquired or is done in step-and-shoot mode with the number of positions equal to the number of gantry steps. Special software was developed to analyse the resulting list mode acquisition files and to produce an image of the recorded coincidence events of each head. Results: Uniformity images of coincidence events were obtained after further correction for systematic sensitivity variations caused by acquisition geometry. The resulting images are analysed visually and by calculating NEMA uniformity indices as for a planar flood field. The method has been applied successfully to two different brands of GC-PET capable gamma cameras. Conclusion: Uniformity of GC-PET can be tested quickly and accurately with a routine QC procedure, using a Sodium-22 scanning point source and an inexpensive mechanical scanning device. The method can be used for both 2-D and 3-D acquisition modes and fills an important gap in the quality control system for GC-PET

  1. Angola: source rock control for Lower Congo Coastal and Kwanza Basin petroleum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burwood, R. [Fina Exploration Ltd, Epsom (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of petroleum occurrence and provenance for the 1000 km West African Atlantic Margin from Cabinda to mid-Angola. Over this margin the Lower Congo Coastal and Kwanza provinces cumulatively account for reserves of c. 6 gigabarrels oil recoverable (GBOR). These are dominantly reservoired in Pinda carbonate traps of the former basin. However, with production from a range of aggradational wedge, carbonate platform and pre-salt reservoirs, a diversity in oil character presupposes complex hydrocarbon habitats charged by multiple sourcing. Each of these two major Atlantic margin salt basins constitutes a different, source rock driven, hydrocarbon habitat. As classic passive margin pull-apart basins, Early Cretaceous initiated rift events (Pre-rift, Syn-rift I, II, etc.) evolved into the drift phase opening of the southern Atlantic. A striking feature of this progression was widespread evaporite deposition of the Aptian Loeme salt. This separates two distinct sedimentary and tectonic domains of the Pre- and Post-Salt. The core Lower Congo Coastal habitat is dominated by the Pre-Salt Bucomazi Formation sourced 'poly' petroleum system. These lacustrine, often super-rich, sediments reveal considerable organofacies variation between their basin fill (Syn-rift I) and sheet drape (Syn-rift II) development, accounting for the compositional diversity in their progenic petroleums. Of crucial impact is a cognate diversity in their kerogen kinetic behaviour. This controls the conditions and timing of generation and realization of charge potential. With the Lower Congo Coastal habitat extending southwards towards the Ambriz Spur, the Bucomazi facies proper appears restricted to the northern and deeper proto-lake trend. Over the more weakly subsident margins such troughs host inferior sheet drape potential. Elswhere, Upper Cretaceous-Palaeogene marine clastic Iabe Formation sourced petroleum systems are hydrocarbon productive

  2. Finite-size scaling of survival probability in branching processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Millan, Rosalba; Font-Clos, Francesc; Corral, Álvaro

    2015-04-01

    Branching processes pervade many models in statistical physics. We investigate the survival probability of a Galton-Watson branching process after a finite number of generations. We derive analytically the existence of finite-size scaling for the survival probability as a function of the control parameter and the maximum number of generations, obtaining the critical exponents as well as the exact scaling function, which is G(y)=2ye(y)/(e(y)-1), with y the rescaled distance to the critical point. Our findings are valid for any branching process of the Galton-Watson type, independently of the distribution of the number of offspring, provided its variance is finite. This proves the universal behavior of the finite-size effects in branching processes, including the universality of the metric factors. The direct relation to mean-field percolation is also discussed.

  3. Clean Water Act Section 319 Nonpoint Source Pollution Control Projects Grants, US EPA Region 9, 2008, California Nonpoint Source Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The California Nonpoint Source (NPS) Program allocates about $4.5 million of CWA Section 319 funding from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency annually to...

  4. Nonlinear control of voltage source converters in AC-DC power system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, P K; Nayak, N

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents the design of a robust nonlinear controller for a parallel AC-DC power system using a Lyapunov function-based sliding mode control (LYPSMC) strategy. The inputs for the proposed control scheme are the DC voltage and reactive power errors at the converter station and the active and reactive power errors at the inverter station of the voltage-source converter-based high voltage direct current transmission (VSC-HVDC) link. The stability and robust tracking of the system parameters are ensured by applying the Lyapunov direct method. Also the gains of the sliding mode control (SMC) are made adaptive using the stability conditions of the Lyapunov function. The proposed control strategy offers invariant stability to a class of systems having modeling uncertainties due to parameter changes and exogenous inputs. Comprehensive computer simulations are carried out to verify the proposed control scheme under several system disturbances like changes in short-circuit ratio, converter parametric changes, and faults on the converter and inverter buses for single generating system connected to the power grid in a single machine infinite-bus AC-DC network and also for a 3-machine two-area power system. Furthermore, a second order super twisting sliding mode control scheme has been presented in this paper that provides a higher degree of nonlinearity than the LYPSMC and damps faster the converter and inverter voltage and power oscillations. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Digital Control Techniques Based on Voltage Source Inverters in Renewable Energy Applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohaib Tahir

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the modern era, distributed generation is considered as an alternative source for power generation. Especially, need of the time is to provide the three-phase loads with smooth sinusoidal voltages having fixed frequency and amplitude. A common solution is the integration of power electronics converters in the systems for connecting distributed generation systems to the stand-alone loads. Thus, the presence of suitable control techniques, in the power electronic converters, for robust stability, abrupt response, optimal tracking ability and error eradication are inevitable. A comprehensive review based on design, analysis, validation of the most suitable digital control techniques and the options available for the researchers for improving the power quality is presented in this paper with their pros and cons. Comparisons based on the cost, schemes, performance, modulation techniques and coordinates system are also presented. Finally, the paper describes the performance evaluation of the control schemes on a voltage source inverter (VSI and proposes the different aspects to be considered for selecting a power electronics inverter topology, reference frames, filters, as well as control strategy.

  6. Atmospheric heavy metals and Arsenic in China: Situation, sources and control policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jingchun; Tan, Jihua

    2013-08-01

    In recent years, heavy metal pollution accidents were reported frequently in China. The atmospheric heavy metal pollution is drawing all aspects of attention. This paper summarizes the recent research results from our studies and previous studies in recent years in China. The level, temporal variation, seasonal variation and size distribution of the heavy metals of atmospheric Lead(Pb), Vanadium(V), Manganese(Mn), Nickel(Ni), Chromium(Cr), Cadmium(Cd), Copper(Cu), Zinc(Zn) and Arsenic(As) were characterized in China. The emission characteristics and sources of atmospheric heavy metals and As in China were reviewed. Coal burning, iron and steel industry and vehicle emission are important sources in China. Control policies and effects in China were reviewed including emission standards, ambient air quality standards, phase out of leaded gasoline and so on, and further works for atmospheric heavy metals control were suggested. The comprehensive heavy metals pollution control measures and suggestions were put forward based on the summarization of the development and experience of the atmospheric heavy metal pollution control abroad.

  7. Scrap supply in Bosnian after war situation - sources, quality, regulation and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pihura, Dervis

    1999-01-01

    Before the war, the Bosnian foundry and steel industry were supplied with scrap partly from domestic sources but mainly from foreign market. The annual steel production before the war recorded 130,000 tonnes of casting and 2,000.000 tonnes of crude steel. Most of the scrap was imported to secure and stabilize the production. During and after the war, despite a significant loss of production, efforts have been made to return to the normal production level in many ways. In the wake of the war, there has been a growing concern over the import of radioactive contaminated metallurgical scrap or low quality raw materials which are uncontrolled or of unidentified sources. In this regard, it is urgently required to establish an effective system to prevent from, to detect and to control the flow of the radioactive contaminated metallurgical scrap. The system should be established in such a way that all sorts of radioactive metallurgical elements should be controlled and prevented from use in all the metallurgical manufacturing processes, ferrous and non-ferrous alike. The coverage of control should start from the border or (air) port checkpoint where the flow of the scrap begins to the final steel product. The control system should take a form of internationally common and acceptable standards and regulations. Equipments and measurement techniques should also be internationally common. (author)

  8. Regulatory infrastructure for the control of radiation sources in the Africa region: Status, needs and programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skornik, K.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years, several African countries have taken steps towards creating or strengthening legal, administrative and technical mechanisms for the regulation and control of peaceful uses of nuclear technology, and towards improving the effectiveness and sustainability of radiation protection measures based on international standards. This stems from a growing awareness that a proper national infrastructure is a prerequisite for the implementation of safety standards to achieve and maintain the desired level of protection and safety, particularly in such sectors as public health and industry. Also, other issues of global and regional interest, such as the control of radiation sources, including the handling of hazardous waste, and response capabilities in the case of a radiological emergency, have contributed to a better perception of risks associated with deficiencies in or lack of adequate national radiation protection control mechanisms. Too often, however, this awareness has not been matched with adequate progress in the establishment of a regulatory framework for the control of radiation sources. This paper presents a summary of the current status of radiation protection infrastructure in all African Member States. On a background of still existing weaknesses and challenges, an overview of the Agency's response to assistance needs and programmes in this field is discussed. (author)

  9. Design of current controller of grid-connected voltage source converter based internal model control in wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Xianping; Guo Jindong; Xu Honghua [Inst. of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, BJ (China)

    2008-07-01

    Grid-connected voltage source converter (VSC) is important for variable speed turbines with doubly fed induction generator (DFIG), and bad performance of current loop of VSC may cause VSC inject much low and high order harmonics into grid. Therefore, design of current controller of VSC is very important. PI regulator is often used to regulate current error in dq rotating coordinate to obtain zero steady error. However, it is complex to design PI parameters, and researchers need many trial-and-error steps. Therefore, a novel and simple design method of PI regulator for grid-connected VSC, which is based internal model control (IMC), has been presented in this paper. The parameters of PI regulator can be expressed directly with certain L-type line filter parameters and the desired closed-loop bandwidth. At last, The simulation has been done and result shows that the method in this paper is easy and useful to regulate PI parameters. (orig.)

  10. Standards and the design of the Advanced Photon Source control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, W.P.; Knott, M.J.; Lenkszus, F.R.; Kraimer, M.R.; Daly, R.T.; Arnold, N.D.; Anderson, M.D.; Anderson, J.B.; Zieman, R.C.; Cha, Ben-Chin K.; Vong, F.C.; Nawrocki, G.J.; Gunderson, G.R.; Karonis, N.T.; Winans, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS), now under construction at Argonne National Laboratory is a 7 GeV positron storage ring dedicated to research facilities using synchrotron radiation. This ring, along with its injection accelerators is to be controlled and monitored with a single, flexible, and expandable control system. In the conceptual stage the control system design group faced the challenges that face all control system designers: to force the machine designers to quantify and codify the system requirements, to protect the investment in hardware and software from rapid obsolescence, and to find methods of quickly incorporating new generations of equipment and replace of obsolete equipment without disrupting the exiting system. To solve these and related problems, the APS control system group made an early resolution to use standards in the design of the system. This paper will cover the present status of the APS control system as well as discuss the design decisions which led us to use industrial standards and collaborations with other laboratories whenever possible to develop a control system. It will explain the APS control system and illustrate how the use of standards has allowed APS to design a control system whose implementation addresses these issues. The system will use high performance graphic workstations using an X-Windows Graphical User Interface at the operator interface level. It connects to VME-based microprocessors at the field level using TCP/IP protocols over high performance networks. This strategy assures the flexibility and expansibility of the control system. A defined interface between the system components will allow the system to evolve with the direct addition of future, improved equipment and new capabilities

  11. Development of GUS for control applications at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y.; Barr, D.; Borland, M.; Kirchman, J.; Decker, G.; Kim, K.

    1994-01-01

    A script-based interpretive shell GUS (General Purpose Data Acquisition for Unix Shell) has been developed for application to the Advanced Photon Source (APS) control. The primary design objective of GUS is to provide a mechanism for efficient data flow among modularized objects called Data Access Modules (DAMs). GUS consists of four major components: user interface, kernel, built-in command module, and DAMS. It also incorporates the Unix shell to make use of the existing utility programs for file manipulation and data analysis. At this time, DAMs have been written for device access through EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System), data I/O for SDDS (Self-Describing Data Set) files, matrix manipulation, graphics display, digital signal processing, and beam position feedback system control. The modular and object-oriented construction of GUS will facilitate addition of more DAMs with other functions in the future

  12. Development and implementation of the regulatory control of sources in Latin American Model Project countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferruz Cruz, P.

    2001-01-01

    After a general assessment of the situation regarding radiation safety and the radiation protection infrastructure in Latin American countries, several of them were invited to participate in a Model Project oriented, in some cases, towards establishing a mechanism for national regulatory control of radiation sources, and in others, towards upgrading their national control programme. All these activities aimed at reaching an effective and sustainable radiation protection infrastructure based on international basic safety standards. The paper presents a general overview of the current situation with regard to radiation protection within the Model Project countries in Latin America after almost five years of activities. It includes: the implementation of regulatory issues; the control of occupational, medical and public exposures; emergency response and waste safety issues. The paper also presents some lessons learned during implementation concerning the numerous activities involved in this interregional project. (author)

  13. Low-level rf control of Spallation Neutron Source: System and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengjie Ma

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The low-level rf control system currently commissioned throughout the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS LINAC evolved from three design iterations over 1 yr intensive research and development. Its digital hardware implementation is efficient, and has succeeded in achieving a minimum latency of less than 150 ns which is the key for accomplishing an all-digital feedback control for the full bandwidth. The control bandwidth is analyzed in frequency domain and characterized by testing its transient response. The hardware implementation also includes the provision of a time-shared input channel for a superior phase differential measurement between the cavity field and the reference. A companion cosimulation system for the digital hardware was developed to ensure a reliable long-term supportability. A large effort has also been made in the operation software development for the practical issues such as the process automations, cavity filling, beam loading compensation, and the cavity mechanical resonance suppression.

  14. A Distributed Monitoring and Control System for the Laser Ion Source RILIS at CERN-ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)715185; Richter, Detlef; Wendt, Klaus

    In this work, the implementation of the LabVIEW-based RILIS Equipment Acquisition and Control Toolset (REACT) software framework is documented, revised, and further developed to accomplish remotely operated in-source laser spectroscopy experiments at CERN-ISOLDE. The Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) is an integral part of the radioactive ion beam user facility ISOLDE at CERN. Its task as an ion source is to ensure high isobaric purity and production efficiency of the ion beams that are generated for the various experimental setups of the facility. Reliable operation requires directing 3 pulsed laser beams, precisely wavelength-tuned and overlapped in time to a precision of 5 nanoseconds, to converge into a 3mm diameter ion source cavity located 25m away in an inaccessible radioactive environment. These stable conditions have to be maintained for up to 7 days at a time per experiment setup. Within recent years, the array of RILIS equipment and its need to interface with other experimental apparatu...

  15. Development and operation of a computerized source controller for a gamma calibration well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliburton, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    In the 1950s, the need for an accurately reproducible, real-time gamma calibration facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was met with a manually operated radium source housed in a calibration well. This arrangement was quite satisfactory in the early days but was not able to keep pace with the increasing number of instruments necessary to support an expanding health physics program. Consequently, the hand crank was replaced by an electric motor in the early 1960s. This improvement made it possible to move the source at speeds up to 7 cm/s, resulting in a major increase in efficiency. This configuration served reliably for two decades but, by the 1980s, component aging and the growing scarcity of replacement parts led to the development of a third-generation source controller. The electric motor and vacuum-tube-driven power supply were replaced with a solid state power supply and a stepper motor interfaced to a microcomputer. The software written to operate the system is menu-driven, user-friendly, and provides the greatest flexibility and ease of use while minimizing learning time. The development and use of this control system will be discussed

  16. The scope and control of attention: Sources of variance in working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Michael; Conway, Andrew R A

    2015-04-01

    Working memory capacity is a strong positive predictor of many cognitive abilities, across various domains. The pattern of positive correlations across domains has been interpreted as evidence for a unitary source of inter-individual differences in behavior. However, recent work suggests that there are multiple sources of variance contributing to working memory capacity. The current study (N = 71) investigates individual differences in the scope and control of attention, in addition to the number and resolution of items maintained in working memory. Latent variable analyses indicate that the scope and control of attention reflect independent sources of variance and each account for unique variance in general intelligence. Also, estimates of the number of items maintained in working memory are consistent across tasks and related to general intelligence whereas estimates of resolution are task-dependent and not predictive of intelligence. These results provide insight into the structure of working memory, as well as intelligence, and raise new questions about the distinction between number and resolution in visual short-term memory.

  17. Risk of gastric cancer by water source: evidence from the Golestan case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Eichelberger

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer (GC is the world's fifth most common cancer, and the third leading cause of cancer-related death. Over 70% of incident cases and deaths occur in developing countries. We explored whether disparities in access to improved drinking water sources were associated with GC risk in the Golestan Gastric Cancer Case Control Study.306 cases and 605 controls were matched on age, gender, and place of residence. We conducted unconditional logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI, adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, marital status, education, head of household education, place of birth and residence, homeownership, home size, wealth score, vegetable consumption, and H. pylori seropositivity. Fully-adjusted ORs were 0.23 (95% CI: 0.05-1.04 for chlorinated well water, 4.58 (95% CI: 2.07-10.16 for unchlorinated well water, 4.26 (95% CI: 1.81-10.04 for surface water, 1.11 (95% CI: 0.61-2.03 for water from cisterns, and 1.79 (95% CI: 1.20-2.69 for all unpiped sources, compared to in-home piped water. Comparing unchlorinated water to chlorinated water, we found over a two-fold increased GC risk (OR 2.37, 95% CI: 1.56-3.61.Unpiped and unchlorinated drinking water sources, particularly wells and surface water, were significantly associated with the risk of GC.

  18. Two randomized controlled studies comparing the nutritional benefits of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) granules and a BCAA-enriched nutrient mixture for patients with esophageal varices after endoscopic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Yoshiyuki; Iwata, Yoshinori; Enomoto, Hirayuki; Saito, Masaki; Yoh, Kazunori; Ishii, Akio; Takashima, Tomoyuki; Aizawa, Nobuhiro; Ikeda, Naoto; Tanaka, Hironori; Iijima, Hiroko; Nishiguchi, Shuhei

    2015-01-01

    The usefulness of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) granules and BCAA-enriched nutrient mixtures for patients with liver cirrhosis is often reported. However, no randomized controlled studies have investigated the usefulness of these supplements in the nutritional intervention of cirrhotic patients receiving endoscopic treatment for esophageal varices. Patients without BCAA before endoscopic treatment were divided into study 1, and those who received BCAA were divided into study 2. In study 1, 44 eligible patients were divided into a control group (n = 13), a general liquid nutrient (snack) group (n = 15), and a BCAA-enriched nutrient mixture (BCAA-EN) group (n = 16). In study 2, 48 eligible patients were divided into a BCAA group (n = 24) and a BCAA-EN group (n = 24). The nutritional status including non-protein respiratory quotient (NPRQ) levels, weight gain, and albumin were evaluated on days 0, 7, and 50. In study 1, the BCAA-EN group showed significant improvement in NPRQ levels on day 7 as compared with the snack group. In study 2, the BCAA-EN group showed significant improvement in NPRQ levels on day 7 and in weight levels on day 50 relative to the BCAA group, while the BCAA group showed improved serum albumin levels on day 7 compared to the BCAA-EN group. The BCAA-enriched nutrient mixture maintained NPRQ and weight in cirrhotic patients. Our findings suggest that supplements including both BCAA and a nutritional energy supplement would be beneficial for cirrhotic patients undergoing endoscopic treatment for esophageal varices.

  19. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde exposure mitigation in US residences: In-home measurements of ventilation control and source control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hult, Erin L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Willem, Henry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Phillip N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hotchi, Toshifumi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Russell, Marion L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Measurements were taken in new US residences to assess the extent to which ventilation and source control can mitigate formaldehyde exposure. Increasing ventilation consistently lowered indoor formaldehyde concentrations. However, at a reference air exchange rate of 0.35 h-1, increasing ventilation was up to 60% less effective than would be predicted if the emission rate were constant. This is consistent with formaldehyde emission rates decreasing as air concentrations increase, as observed in chamber studies. In contrast, measurements suggest acetaldehyde emission was independent of ventilation rate. To evaluate the effectiveness of source control, formaldehyde concentrations were measured in Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certified/Indoor airPLUS homes constructed with materials certified to have low emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOC). At a reference air exchange rate of 0.35 h-1, and adjusting for home age, temperature and relative humidity, formaldehyde concentrations in homes built with low-VOC materials were 42% lower on average than in reference new homes with conventional building materials. Without adjustment, concentrations were 27% lower in the low-VOC homes. The mean and standard deviation of formaldehyde concentration were 33 μg m-3 and 22 μg m-3 for low-VOC homes and 45 μg m-3 and 30 μg m-3 for conventional.

  20. Control system for RF-driven negative ion source experimental setup at HUST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Dong; Wang, Xiaomin, E-mail: xm_wang@hust.edu.cn; Zhao, Peng; Liu, Kaifeng; Zhang, Lige; Yue, Haikun; Chen, Dezhi; Zuo, Chen

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • The CompactRIO system is reliable and could achieve high-speed data collection. • The queue and event software structure allows the control code to be flexible. • TCP/IP performs better than shared variable method for mass data transmission. • The method for lowering the peak RF reflected power has been discussed and given. - Abstract: An experimental setup of RF-driven negative ion source has been built at the Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST). The control system for this setup is responsible for RF loading, gas feeding, filament heating, filament DC bias, data collection and Langmuir probe triggering during plasma production. To research influences on the plasma ignition of gas puff and RF power loading, the control system should be of flexible operating sequence, high-speed data collection and reliable data transmission. The general control unit (GCU) adopts a CompactRIO system, which performs high-speed data collection for gas pressure and RF power. The host control program adopts a queue and event structure for flexible operation, and TCP/IP method is applied for mass data transmission. The development of the host control program is described in detail. The test results of the shared variable and TCP/IP methods are presented, as well as data showing the advantages of the TCP/IP method. The experiment results with two different sequences of plasma production are given and discussed here.

  1. Demonstration of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Virtualization Capability in the US Army Research Laboratory (ARL)/Sustaining Base Network Assurance Branch (SBNAB) US Army Cyber Analytics Laboratory (ACAL) SCADA Hardware Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    application ,1 while the simulated PLC software is the open source ModbusPal Java application . When queried using the Modbus TCP protocol, ModbusPal reports...and programmable logic controller ( PLC ) components. The HMI and PLC components were instantiated with software and installed in multiple virtual...creating and capturing HMI– PLC network traffic over a 24-h period in the virtualized network and inspect the packets for errors.  Test the

  2. Branching geodesics in normed spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A O; Tuzhilin, A A

    2002-01-01

    We study branching extremals of length functionals on normed spaces. This is a natural generalization of the Steiner problem in normed spaces. We obtain criteria for a network to be extremal under deformations that preserve the topology of networks as well as under deformations with splitting. We discuss the connection between locally shortest networks and extremal networks. In the important particular case of the Manhattan plane, we get a criterion for a locally shortest network to be extremal

  3. Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30,l 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  4. The deep-tow marine controlled-source electromagnetic transmitter system for gas hydrate exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Deng, Ming; Wu, Zhongliang; Luo, Xianhu; Jing, Jianen; Chen, Kai

    2017-02-01

    The Marine Controlled-Source Electromagnetic (MCSEM) method has been recognized as an important and effective tool to detect electrically resistive structures, such as oil, gas, and gas hydrate. The MCSEM performance is strongly influenced by the transmitter system design. We have developed a deep-tow MCSEM transmitter system. In this paper, some new technical details will be present. A 10,000 m optical-electrical composite cable is used to support high power transmission and fast data transfer; a new clock unit is designed to keep the synchronization between transmitter and receivers, and mark the time stamp into the transmission current full waveform; a data link is established to monitor the real-time altitude of the tail unit; an online insulation measuring instrument is adopted to monitor current leakage from high voltage transformer; a neutrally buoyant dipole antenna of copper cable and flexible electrodes are created to transmit the large power current into seawater; a new design method for the transmitter, which is called "real-time control technology of hardware parallelism", is described to achieve inverting and recording high-power current waveform, controlling functions, and collecting auxiliary information. We use a gas hydrate exploration test to verify the performance of the transmitter system, focusing on more technical details, rather than applications. The test shows that the transmitter can be used for gas hydrate exploration as an effective source.

  5. Fissile material detection and control facility with pulsed neutron sources and digital data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romodanov, V.L.; Chernikova, D.N.; Afanasiev, V.V.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: In connection with possible nuclear terrorism, there is long-felt need of devices for effective control of radioactive and fissile materials in the key points of crossing the state borders (airports, seaports, etc.), as well as various customs check-points. In International Science and Technology Center Projects No. 596 and No. 2978, a new physical method and digital technology have been developed for the detection of fissile and radioactive materials in models of customs facilities with a graphite moderator, pulsed neutron source and digital processing of responses from scintillation PSD detectors. Detectability of fissile materials, even those shielded with various radiation-absorbing screens, has been shown. The use of digital processing of scintillation signals in this facility is a necessary element, as neutrons and photons are discriminated in the time dependence of fissile materials responses at such loads on the electronic channels that standard types of spectrometers are inapplicable. Digital processing of neutron and photon responses practically resolves the problem of dead time and allows implementing devices, in which various energy groups of neutrons exist for some time after a pulse of source neutrons. Thus, it is possible to detect fissile materials deliberately concealed with shields having a large cross-section of absorption of photons and thermal neutrons. Two models of detection and the control of fissile materials were advanced: 1. the model based on graphite neutrons moderator and PSD scintillators with digital technology of neutrons and photons responses separation; 2. the model based on plastic scintillators and detecting of time coincidences of fission particles by digital technology. Facilities that count time coincidences of neutrons and photons occurring in the fission of fissile materials can use an Am Li source of neutrons, e.g. that is the case with the AWCC system. The disadvantages of the facility are related to the issues

  6. Branching processes and neutral evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Taïb, Ziad

    1992-01-01

    The Galton-Watson branching process has its roots in the problem of extinction of family names which was given a precise formulation by F. Galton as problem 4001 in the Educational Times (17, 1873). In 1875, an attempt to solve this problem was made by H. W. Watson but as it turned out, his conclusion was incorrect. Half a century later, R. A. Fisher made use of the Galton-Watson process to determine the extinction probability of the progeny of a mutant gene. However, it was J. B. S. Haldane who finally gave the first sketch of the correct conclusion. J. B. S. Haldane also predicted that mathematical genetics might some day develop into a "respectable branch of applied mathematics" (quoted in M. Kimura & T. Ohta, Theoretical Aspects of Population Genetics. Princeton, 1971). Since the time of Fisher and Haldane, the two fields of branching processes and mathematical genetics have attained a high degree of sophistication but in different directions. This monograph is a first attempt to apply the current sta...

  7. Automation system for quality control in manufacture of iodine-125 sealed sources used in brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somessari, Samir L.; Feher, Anselmo; Sprenger, Francisco E.; Rostellato, Maria E.C.M.; Moura, Joao A.; Costa, Osvaldo L.; Calvo, Wilson A.P.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop an automation system for Quality Control in the production of Iodine-125 sealed sources, after undergoing the process of laser beam welding. These sources, also known as Iodine-125 seeds are used, successfully, in the treatment of cancer by brachytherapy, with low-dose rates. Each small seed is composed of a welded titanium capsule with 0.8 mm diameter and 4.5 mm in length, containing Iodine-125 adsorbed on an internal silver wire. The seeds are implanted in the human prostate to irradiate the tumor and treat the cancerous cells. The technology to automate the quality control system in the manufacture of Iodine-125 seeds consists in developing and associate mechanical parts, electronic components and pneumatic circuits to control machines and processes. The automation technology for Iodine-125 seed production developed in this work employs programmable logic controller, step motors, drivers of control, electrical-electronic interfaces, photoelectric sensors, interfaces of communication and software development. Industrial automation plays an important role in the production of Iodine-125 seeds, with higher productivity and high standard of quality, facilitating the implementation and operation of processes with good manufacturing practices. Nowadays, the Radiation Technology Center at IPEN-CNEN/SP imports and distributes 36,000 Iodine-125 seeds per year for clinics and hospitals in the whole country. However, the Brazilian potential market is of 8,000 Iodine-125 seeds per month. Therefore, the local production of these radioactive seeds has become a priority for the Institute, aiming to reduce the price and increase the supply to the population in Brazil. (author)

  8. Automation system for quality control in manufacture of iodine-125 sealed sources used in brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somessari, Samir L.; Feher, Anselmo; Sprenger, Francisco E.; Rostellato, Maria E.C.M.; Moura, Joao A.; Costa, Osvaldo L.; Calvo, Wilson A.P., E-mail: somessar@ipen.b, E-mail: afeher@ipen.b, E-mail: sprenger@ipen.b, E-mail: elisaros@ipen.b, E-mail: olcosta@ipen.b, E-mail: wapcalvo@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this work is to develop an automation system for Quality Control in the production of Iodine-125 sealed sources, after undergoing the process of laser beam welding. These sources, also known as Iodine-125 seeds are used, successfully, in the treatment of cancer by brachytherapy, with low-dose rates. Each small seed is composed of a welded titanium capsule with 0.8 mm diameter and 4.5 mm in length, containing Iodine-125 adsorbed on an internal silver wire. The seeds are implanted in the human prostate to irradiate the tumor and treat the cancerous cells. The technology to automate the quality control system in the manufacture of Iodine-125 seeds consists in developing and associate mechanical parts, electronic components and pneumatic circuits to control machines and processes. The automation technology for Iodine-125 seed production developed in this work employs programmable logic controller, step motors, drivers of control, electrical-electronic interfaces, photoelectric sensors, interfaces of communication and software development. Industrial automation plays an important role in the production of Iodine-125 seeds, with higher productivity and high standard of quality, facilitating the implementation and operation of processes with good manufacturing practices. Nowadays, the Radiation Technology Center at IPEN-CNEN/SP imports and distributes 36,000 Iodine-125 seeds per year for clinics and hospitals in the whole country. However, the Brazilian potential market is of 8,000 Iodine-125 seeds per month. Therefore, the local production of these radioactive seeds has become a priority for the Institute, aiming to reduce the price and increase the supply to the population in Brazil. (author)

  9. Branch migration and the international dispersal of families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, N; Lucas, D; Mok, M

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the dispersal of facilities where family members migrate to different destination countries. Terminology for internationally dispersed families is proposed, and the term branch migration is suggested for the migration of related people from the same source country to different destination countries. Data from two 1993 surveys of senior secondary students show that 22% of Sydney students and 20% of Hong Kong students have relatives in two or more other countries. The data suggest that many Asian migrant families have branched between the US, Canada, Australia and other migrant-receiving nations. The causes and implications of the international dispersal of families are discussed.

  10. The Design and Performance of the Spallation Neutron Source Low-Level RF Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Champion, M; Kasemir, K; Ma, H; Piller, C

    2004-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source linear accelerator low-level RF control system has been developed within a collaboration of Lawrence Berkeley, Los Alamos, and Oak Ridge national laboratories. Three distinct generations of the system, described in a previous publication [1], have been used to support beam commissioning at Oak Ridge. The third generation system went into production in early 2004, with installation in the coupled-cavity and superconducting linacs to span the remainder of the year. The final design of this system will be presented along with results of performance measurements.

  11. Prevention and control of zoonoses at their source: from the Chinese perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songtao YANG,Yuwei GAO,Jun QIAN,Quan LIU,Xuexing ZHENG,Hualei WANG,Zhiping XIA,Xianzhu XIA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Zoonoses are a significant public health concern and cause considerable socioeconomic problems globally. The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI, and Ebola virus disease (EVD has had a significant effect on the national economy and public health in China, and other countries. This review analyzed zoonotic disease issues faced by China, and the main factors contributing to the risk of zoonotic disease. The Chinese government has devised new strategies and has taken measures to deal with the challenges of these diseases, and the prevention and control of zoonoses at their source. A strategy that is suited to China's national conditions, is proposed.

  12. Strategy of Irrigation Branch in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyliger, A.; Ermolaeva, O.

    2012-04-01

    At this moment, at the starting time of the program on restoration of a large irrigation in Russia till 2020, the scientific and technical community of irrigation branch does not have clear vision on how to promote a development of irrigated agriculture and without repeating of mistakes having a place in the past. In many respects absence of a vision is connected to serious backlog of a scientific and technical and informational and technological level of development of domestic irrigation branch from advanced one. Namely such level of development is necessary for the resolving of new problems in new conditions of managing, and also for adequate answers to new challenges from climate and degradation of ground & water resources, as well as a rigorous requirement from an environment. In such important situation for irrigation branch when it is necessary quickly generate a scientific and technical politics for the current decade for maintenance of translation of irrigated agriculture in the Russian Federation on a new highly effective level of development, in our opinion, it is required to carry out open discussion of needs and requirements as well as a research for a adequate solutions. From political point of view a framework organized in FP6 DESIRE 037046 project is an example of good practice that can serve as methodical approach how to organize and develop such processes. From technical point of view a technology of operational management of irrigation at large scale presents a prospective alternative to the current type of management based on planning. From point of view ICT operational management demands creation of a new platform for the professional environment of activity. This platform should allow to perceive processes in real time, at their partial predictability on signals of a straight line and a feedback, within the framework of variability of decision making scenarious, at high resolution and the big ex-awning of sensor controls and the gauges

  13. Voltage control in Z-source inverter using low cost microcontroller for undergraduate approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, Shamsul Aizam; Sewang, Mohd Rizal; Salimin, Suriana; Shah, Noor Mazliza Badrul

    2017-09-01

    This paper is focussing on controlling the output voltage of Z-Source Inverter (ZSI) using a low cost microcontroller with MATLAB-Simulink that has been used for interfacing the voltage control at the output of ZSI. The key advantage of this system is the ability of a low cost microcontroller to process the voltage control blocks based on the mathematical equations created in MATLAB-Simulink. The Proportional Integral (PI) control equations are been applied and then, been downloaded to the microcontroller for observing the changes on the voltage output regarding to the changes on the reference on the PI. The system has been simulated in MATLAB and been verified with the hardware setup. As the results, the Raspberry Pi and Arduino that have been used in this work are able to respond well when there is a change of ZSI output. It proofed that, by applying/introducing this method to student in undergraduate level, it will help the student to understand more on the process of the power converter combine with a control feedback function that can be applied at low cost microcontroller.

  14. Dead beat filling and feedforward rf control for the spallation neutron source SNQ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, D.

    1982-01-01

    For the 1.1 GeV-100 mA Spallation Neutron Source SNQ operation costs and beam losses ask for the possible potential of rf control improvements. Two novel methods are investigated. First, in order to increase the overall rf efficiency, the cavity field is built up as fast as possible in the open loop state of feedback control and in detuned position of the cavity in such a manner that the cavity with beam is matched to the generator. It is shown that this requires the simulataneous application of a generator amplitude and a generator phase step. Secondly, a feedforward control system is proposed, which reduces the amplitude and phase control error caused by an arbitrary beam transient into the limits of +-0.1% and +-0.1 0 and maintains these error limits also in the presence of parameter drift. This is done by an adaptive parameter adjustment procedure using a digital model of the control system. The system structure and a promising digital simulation are discussed

  15. Modified Motivation System as the Information Source for Personal Controlling. Case of the Hotel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Sztorc

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to analysis of employee system incentive hotel there be source of information for personal controlling. New incentive system fitted look to suggest for notes entered by employee. It pay attention in article, that there is sole form of motivating of forceful employee proprietary form financial motivator. Proper system of motivation effects boost of efficiency of staff aiming at achievement in firm purposes indicated appointee. Besides, it shows revolt of working group about miscellaneous features, requirements, engagement, skilful management leads achievement of fairest effect of work which. We understand control result of taken personal decision through definition personal controlling, structures of employment, system of remuneration, motivation systems, utilization of active time of employee and cost of work. Among others, counteraction belongs to tasks in sphere of management in taking up of erroneous decision human resources controlling, high cost of employment have, helping with fitting human resources for real requirements of firms and through suitable utilization of potential work stimulation. There is in firm personal wanted controlling in order to it were of limited activity of professional employee for forward taking reward only.

  16. 6d, Coulomb branch anomaly matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intriligator, Kenneth

    2014-10-01

    6d QFTs are constrained by the analog of 't Hooft anomaly matching: all anomalies for global symmetries and metric backgrounds are constants of RG flows, and for all vacua in moduli spaces. We discuss an anomaly matching mechanism for 6d theories on their Coulomb branch. It is a global symmetry analog of Green-Schwarz-West-Sagnotti anomaly cancellation, and requires the apparent anomaly mismatch to be a perfect square, . Then Δ I 8 is cancelled by making X 4 an electric/magnetic source for the tensor multiplet, so background gauge field instantons yield charged strings. This requires the coefficients in X 4 to be integrally quantized. We illustrate this for theories. We also consider the SCFTs from N small E8 instantons, verifying that the recent result for its anomaly polynomial fits with the anomaly matching mechanism.

  17. Spallation Neutron Source Drift Tube Linac Resonance Control Cooling System Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Johnny Y; Champion, Marianne M; Feschenko, Alexander; Gibson, Paul; Kiselev, Yuri; Kovalishin, A S; Kravchuk, Leonid V; Kvasha, Adolf; Schubert, James P

    2005-01-01

    The Resonance Control Cooling System (RCCS) for the warm linac of the Spallation Neutron Source was designed by Los Alamos National Laboratory. The primary design focus was on water cooling of individual component contributions. The sizing the RCCS water skid was accomplished by means of a specially created SINDA/FLUINT model tailored to these system requirements. A new model was developed in Matlab Simulink and incorporates actual operational values and control valve interactions. Included is the dependence of RF input power on system operation, cavity detuning values during transients, time delays that result from water flows through the heat exchanger, the dynamic process of water warm-up in the cooling system due to dissipated RF power on the cavity surface, differing contributions on the cavity detuning due to drift tube and wall heating, and a dynamic model of the heat exchanger with characteristics in close agreement to the real unit. Because of the Matlab Simulink model, investigation of a wide range ...

  18. Inverse source problem and null controllability for multidimensional parabolic operators of Grushin type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauchard, K; Cannarsa, P; Yamamoto, M

    2014-01-01

    The approach to Lipschitz stability for uniformly parabolic equations introduced by Imanuvilov and Yamamoto in 1998 based on Carleman estimates, seems hard to apply to the case of Grushin-type operators of interest to this paper. Indeed, such estimates are still missing for parabolic operators degenerating in the interior of the space domain. Nevertheless, we are able to prove Lipschitz stability results for inverse source problems for such operators, with locally distributed measurements in an arbitrary space dimension. For this purpose, we follow a mixed strategy which combines the approach due to Lebeau and Robbiano, relying on Fourier decomposition and Carleman inequalities for heat equations with non-smooth coefficients (solved by the Fourier modes). As a corollary, we obtain a direct proof of the observability of multidimensional Grushin-type parabolic equations, with locally distributed observations—which is equivalent to null controllability with locally distributed controls. (paper)

  19. A closed-loop photon beam control study for the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portmann, G.; Bengtsson, J.

    1993-05-01

    The third generation Advanced Light Source (ALS) will produce extremely bright photon beams using undulators and wigglers. In order to position the photon beams accurate to the micron level, a closed-loop feedback system is being developed. Using photon position monitors and dipole corrector magnets, a closed-loop system can automatically compensate for modeling uncertainties and exogenous disturbances. The following paper will present a dynamics model for the perturbations of the closed orbit of the electron beam in the ALS storage ring including the vacuum chamber magnetic field penetration effects. Using this reference model, two closed-loop feedback algorithms will be compared -- a classical PI controller and a two degree-of-freedom approach. The two degree-of-freedom method provides superior disturbance rejection while maintaining the desired performance goals. Both methods will address the need to gain schedule the controller due to the time varying dynamics introduced by changing field strengths when scanning the insertion devices

  20. First results from experiment in South China Sea using marine controlled source electromagnetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Wang, Lipeng; Deng, Ming

    2016-04-01

    We concentrated on the use of marine controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) sounding with a horizontal electric dipole source towed close to the seafloor and receivers anchored on the seafloor. We applied the CSEM method in South China Sea for the first time in 2014, which not only test the application of our instrument, but also test our data processing method. Electromagnetic fields transmitted by a towed electric dipole source in deep sea were measured by a linear array of six seafloor receivers, positioned 600 meter (m) apart. Our results provided two highly resistivity layers beneath the survey line and the gas hydrate saturation profile associated with the anomalous resistivity. In the letter, we discussed some anomalous layers during the interpretation steps. The most plausible explanation of the first resistivity layer anomalies is that large amounts of gas hydrate have accumulated at 200 m depth below the seep sites, and the second layers is considerable volumes of gas hydrate have accumulated the seafloor at survey line according to the conceptual model, during the resistivity compared with other evidence like seismic and well data from the same survey. We should try other observation like heat flow, geochemical or other evidence to test the statement in the future.

  1. A CMOS microdisplay with integrated controller utilizing improved silicon hot carrier luminescent light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Petrus J.; Alberts, Antonie C.; du Plessis, Monuko; Joubert, Trudi-Heleen; Goosen, Marius E.; Janse van Rensburg, Christo; Rademeyer, Pieter; Fauré, Nicolaas M.

    2013-03-01

    Microdisplay technology, the miniaturization and integration of small displays for various applications, is predominantly based on OLED and LCoS technologies. Silicon light emission from hot carrier electroluminescence has been shown to emit light visibly perceptible without the aid of any additional intensification, although the electrical to optical conversion efficiency is not as high as the technologies mentioned above. For some applications, this drawback may be traded off against the major cost advantage and superior integration opportunities offered by CMOS microdisplays using integrated silicon light sources. This work introduces an improved version of our previously published microdisplay by making use of new efficiency enhanced CMOS light emitting structures and an increased display resolution. Silicon hot carrier luminescence is often created when reverse biased pn-junctions enter the breakdown regime where impact ionization results in carrier transport across the junction. Avalanche breakdown is typically unwanted in modern CMOS processes. Design rules and process design are generally tailored to prevent breakdown, while the voltages associated with breakdown are too high to directly interact with the rest of the CMOS standard library. This work shows that it is possible to lower the operating voltage of CMOS light sources without compromising the optical output power. This results in more efficient light sources with improved interaction with other standard library components. This work proves that it is possible to create a reasonably high resolution microdisplay while integrating the active matrix controller and drivers on the same integrated circuit die without additional modifications, in a standard CMOS process.

  2. Spallation Neutron Source Accelerator Facility Target Safety and Non-safety Control Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battle, Ronald E.; DeVan, B.; Munro, John K. Jr.

    2006-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a proton accelerator facility that generates neutrons for scientific researchers by spallation of neutrons from a mercury target. The SNS became operational on April 28, 2006, with first beam on target at approximately 200 W. The SNS accelerator, target, and conventional facilities controls are integrated by standardized hardware and software throughout the facility and were designed and fabricated to SNS conventions to ensure compatibility of systems with Experimental Physics Integrated Control System (EPICS). ControlLogix Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) interface to instruments and actuators, and EPICS performs the high-level integration of the PLCs such that all operator control can be accomplished from the Central Control room using EPICS graphical screens that pass process variables to and from the PLCs. Three active safety systems were designed to industry standards ISA S84.01 and IEEE 603 to meet the desired reliability for these safety systems. The safety systems protect facility workers and the environment from mercury vapor, mercury radiation, and proton beam radiation. The facility operators operated many of the systems prior to beam on target and developed the operating procedures. The safety and non-safety control systems were tested extensively prior to beam on target. This testing was crucial to identify wiring and software errors and failed components, the result of which was few problems during operation with beam on target. The SNS has continued beam on target since April to increase beam power, check out the scientific instruments, and continue testing the operation of facility subsystems

  3. Dynamic Crack Branching - A Photoelastic Evaluation,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    0.41 mPai and a 0.18 MPa, and predicted a theoretical kinking angle of 84°whichagreed well with experimentally measured angle. After crack kinking...Consistent crack branching’at KIb = 2.04 MPaI -i- and r = 1.3 mm verified this crack branching criterion. The crack branching angle predicted by--.’ DD

  4. A source classification framework supporting pollutant source mapping, pollutant release prediction, transport and load forecasting, and source control planning for urban environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten; Donner, Erica; Wickman, Tonie

    2012-01-01

    for this purpose. Methods Existing source classification systems were examined by a multidisciplinary research team, and an optimised SCF was developed. The performance and usability of the SCF were tested using a selection of 25 chemicals listed as priority pollutants in Europe. Results The SCF is structured...... in the form of a relational database and incorporates both qualitative and quantitative source classification and release data. The system supports a wide range of pollution monitoring and management applications. The SCF functioned well in the performance test, which also revealed important gaps in priority...

  5. An Improved Current-Doubler Rectifier for the Marine Controlled Source Electromagnetic Transmitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxi Song

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High power marine controlled source electromagnetic transmitters have gained interest with applications in marine geological survey and mineral resources exploration. The direct current to direct current (DC-DC converter that is typically used in marine transmitters has some issues, as the insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT tube cannot achieve zero-voltage switching (ZVS. In particular, lagging-leg switching cannot easily achieve ZVS. The conversion efficiency of the heat converter requires improvement. This paper proposes an improved current-doubler rectifier for the marine controlled source electromagnetic transmitter (ICDR-MCSET. Resonant inductance is increased and a blocking capacitor is added to the converter (DC-DC circuit, where the converter can achieve ZVS in a wide load range. This results in the effective decrease of the heating temperature and the improvement of transformation efficiency. Saber software simulation and a 20 KW electromagnetic transmitter are used to verify the results, which show that the method is feasible and effective.

  6. pH control for enhanced reductive bioremediation of chlorinated solvent source zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Clare; Barry, D.A.; McCarty, Perry L.; Gerhard, Jason I.; Kouznetsova, Irina

    2009-01-01

    Enhanced reductive dehalogenation is an attractive treatment technology for in situ remediation of chlorinated solvent DNAPL source areas. Reductive dehalogenation is an acid-forming process with hydrochloric acid and also organic acids from fermentation of the electron donors typically building up in the source zone during remediation. This can lead to groundwater acidification thereby inhibiting the activity of dehalogenating microorganisms. Where the soils' natural buffering capacity is likely to be exceeded, the addition of an external source of alkalinity is needed to ensure sustained dehalogenation. To assist in the design of bioremediation systems, an abiotic geochemical model was developed to provide insight into the processes influencing the groundwater acidity as dehalogenation proceeds, and to predict the amount of bicarbonate required to maintain the pH at a suitable level for dehalogenating bacteria (i.e., > 6.5). The model accounts for the amount of chlorinated solvent degraded, site water chemistry, electron donor, alternative terminal electron-accepting processes, gas release and soil mineralogy. While calcite and iron oxides were shown to be the key minerals influencing the soil's buffering capacity, for the extensive dehalogenation likely to occur in a DNAPL source zone, significant bicarbonate addition may be necessary even in soils that are naturally well buffered. Results indicated that the bicarbonate requirement strongly depends on the electron donor used and availability of competing electron acceptors (e.g., sulfate, iron (III)). Based on understanding gained from this model, a simplified model was developed for calculating a preliminary design estimate of the bicarbonate addition required to control the pH for user-specified operating conditions.

  7. pH control for enhanced reductive bioremediation of chlorinated solvent source zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Clare, E-mail: clare.robinson@epfl.ch [Laboratoire de technologie ecologique, Institut d' ingenierie de l' environnement, Station No. 2, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Now at: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada N6A 5B9 (Canada); Barry, D.A., E-mail: andrew.barry@epfl.ch [Laboratoire de technologie ecologique, Institut d' ingenierie de l' environnement, Station No. 2, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); McCarty, Perry L., E-mail: pmccarty@stanford.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4020 (United States); Gerhard, Jason I., E-mail: j.gerhard@ed.ac.uk [Now at: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada N6A 5B9 (Canada); Institute for Infrastructure and Environment, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JL (United Kingdom); Kouznetsova, Irina, E-mail: irina.kouznetsova@ed.ac.uk [Institute for Infrastructure and Environment, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JL (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-01

    Enhanced reductive dehalogenation is an attractive treatment technology for in situ remediation of chlorinated solvent DNAPL source areas. Reductive dehalogenation is an acid-forming process with hydrochloric acid and also organic acids from fermentation of the electron donors typically building up in the source zone during remediation. This can lead to groundwater acidification thereby inhibiting the activity of dehalogenating microorganisms. Where the soils' natural buffering capacity is likely to be exceeded, the addition of an external source of alkalinity is needed to ensure sustained dehalogenation. To assist in the design of bioremediation systems, an abiotic geochemical model was developed to provide insight into the processes influencing the groundwater acidity as dehalogenation proceeds, and to predict the amount of bicarbonate required to maintain the pH at a suitable level for dehalogenating bacteria (i.e., > 6.5). The model accounts for the amount of chlorinated solvent degraded, site water chemistry, electron donor, alternative terminal electron-accepting processes, gas release and soil mineralogy. While calcite and iron oxides were shown to be the key minerals influencing the soil's buffering capacity, for the extensive dehalogenation likely to occur in a DNAPL source zone, significant bicarbonate addition may be necessary even in soils that are naturally well buffered. Results indicated that the bicarbonate requirement strongly depends on the electron donor used and availability of competing electron acceptors (e.g., sulfate, iron (III)). Based on understanding gained from this model, a simplified model was developed for calculating a preliminary design estimate of the bicarbonate addition required to control the pH for user-specified operating conditions.

  8. Productivity of irrigated beans due to sources of stabilized nitrogen fertilizer and controlled release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiely Gomes Bernardes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT New nitrogen fertilizers are available in the market actually, however, does not have results on the efficiency of the Cerrado conditions. With that objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of urea including stabilized and controlled release urea on yield of irrigated common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L in no-tillage system. The experiment was conducted in the winter crop, at Embrapa Arroz e Feijão, in Santo Antônio de Goiás, State of Goiás, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with five replicates. Treatments consisted of five N sources (urea, urea + NBPT, urea + polymer, ammonium sulphate, and ammonium nitrate and a control (without N being applied 20 kg ha-1 of N at sowing and 80 kg ha-1 onf N in topdressing. We evaluated the chlorophyll content in leaves of common beans, the leaf N content and dry mass weight (MSPA in the flowering of common beans, the number of pods per plant, number of grains per pod, mass of 100 grains, grain yield and final stand of the common beans. The sources of nitrogen fertilizer did not influence, leaf N content, the mass of MSPA and the relative chlorophyll index of common beans. The use of polymerized urea and urea with urease inhibitor, did not produce increases in the number of grains per pod, number of pods per plant, mass of 100 grains and common beans yield compared to traditional sources of N, urea, ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate.

  9. NicoLase-An open-source diode laser combiner, fiber launch, and sequencing controller for fluorescence microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip R Nicovich

    Full Text Available Modern fluorescence microscopy requires software-controlled illumination sources with high power across a wide range of wavelengths. Diode lasers meet the power requirements and combining multiple units into a single fiber launch expands their capability across the required spectral range. We present the NicoLase, an open-source diode laser combiner, fiber launch, and software sequence controller for fluorescence microscopy and super-resolution microscopy applications. Two configurations are described, giving four or six output wavelengths and one or two single-mode fiber outputs, with all CAD files, machinist drawings, and controller source code openly available.

  10. Main Activities to Improve the Control of Radioactive Sources and Maintain an Effective Regulatory Nuclear Systems in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marechal, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2006, the Directorate of Nuclear Safety and Security, DRS, of National Nuclear Energy Commission, CNEN, has gone through many improvements. In 2006 CNEN signed the commitment to the recommendations of the Code of Conduct on The Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources and the Guidance on The Import and Export of Radioactive Sources. The DRS is responsible for the licensing and control of nuclear facilities, fuel cycle, waste management and the control of radioactive sources and authorizations of medical and industrial installations. In 2009 the department responsible for the control of radioactive sources and authorizations of medical and industrial installations implemented an “Electronic Management System” in which this System integrates the transport department and waste management department. The Electronic Management System is linked to the register of radioactive sources and facilities and there is an access on line to the Customs, making the control of import and export of radioactive sources robust, efficient and fast. During the period from 2006 until 2015 the most relevant regulations related to the control of radioactive sources and authorizations of medical and industrial installations were reviewed and some were elaborated and issued. These documents were in line with the Categorization of Radioactive Sources and the International Basic Safety Standards, issued in the IAEA Safety Standard Series as General Safety Requirements Part 3 (GSR Part 3). The paper describes all the steps that were adopted in order to implement these systems and the improvements on our Nuclear Regulatory Systems. (author)

  11. Deterministic control of the emission from light sources in 1D nanoporous photonic crystals (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galisteo-López, Juan F.

    2017-02-01

    Controlling the emission of a light source demands acting on its local photonic environment via the local density of states (LDOS). Approaches to exert such control on large scale samples, commonly relying on self-assembly methods, usually lack from a precise positioning of the emitter within the material. Alternatively expensive and time consuming techniques can be used to produce samples of small dimensions where a deterministic control on emitter position can be achieved. In this work we present a full solution process approach to fabricate photonic architectures containing nano-emitters which position can be controlled with nanometer precision over squared milimiter regions. By a combination of spin and dip coating we fabricate one-dimensional (1D) nanoporous photonic crystals, which potential in different fields such as photovoltaics or sensing has been previously reported, containing monolayers of luminescent polymeric nanospheres. We demonstrate how, by modifying the position of the emitters within the photonic crystal, their emission properties (photoluminescence intensity and angular distribution) can be deterministically modified. Further, the nano-emitters can be used as a probe to study the LDOS distribution within these systems with a spatial resolution of 25 nm (provided by the probe size) carrying out macroscopic measurements over squared milimiter regions. Routes to enhance light-matter interaction in this kind of systems by combining them with metallic surfaces are finally discussed.

  12. Study of the anatomy of the tibial nerve and its branches in the distal medial leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, André Leal Gonçalves; Ferreira, Marcus Castro

    2012-01-01

    Objective Determine, through dissection in fresh cadavers, the topographic anatomy of the tibial nerve and its branches at the ankle, in relation to the tarsal tunnel. Methods Bilateral dissections were performed on 26 fresh cadavers and the locations of the tibial nerve bifurcation and its branches were measured in millimeters. For the calcaneal branches, the amount and their respective nerves of origin were also analyzed. Results The tibial nerve bifurcation occurred under the tunnel in 88% of the cases and proximally in 12%. As for the calcaneal branches, the medial presented with one (58%), two (34%) and three (8%) branches, with the most common source occurring in the tibial nerve (90%) and the lower with a single branch per leg and lateral plantar nerve as the most common origin (70%). Level of Evidence, V Expert opinion. PMID:24453596

  13. Saturable reactor-controlled power supply system for TCT/TFTR neutral beam sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, W.R.; Hopkins, D.B.; Dexter, W.L.; Kuenning, R.W.; Smith, B.J.

    1975-11-01

    Each neutral beam source requires one major power supply, the acceleration supply, and four auxiliary power supplies. The power supplies are designed to permit independent interruption of current to any source and crowbarring within 20 μsec, in the event of a source spark, while not disturbing the normal pulsing of all other adjacent sources. The sources are described

  14. Nuclear science and technology branch report 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-10-01

    Research being conducted include: assessment of world energy sources and their utilization, basic information on fission reactors, reactor performance and safety, nuclear marine propulsion, controlled thermonuclear fusion and alternative energy sources. Staff publications and research interests are outlined. (R.L.)

  15. Adapting Controlled-source Coherence Analysis to Dense Array Data in Earthquake Seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, B.; Sigloch, K.; Nissen-Meyer, T.

    2017-12-01

    Exploration seismology deals with highly coherent wave fields generated by repeatable controlled sources and recorded by dense receiver arrays, whose geometry is tailored to back-scattered energy normally neglected in earthquake seismology. Owing to these favorable conditions, stacking and coherence analysis are routinely employed to suppress incoherent noise and regularize the data, thereby strongly contributing to the success of subsequent processing steps, including migration for the imaging of back-scattering interfaces or waveform tomography for the inversion of velocity structure. Attempts have been made to utilize wave field coherence on the length scales of passive-source seismology, e.g. for the imaging of transition-zone discontinuities or the core-mantle-boundary using reflected precursors. Results are however often deteriorated due to the sparse station coverage and interference of faint back-scattered with transmitted phases. USArray sampled wave fields generated by earthquake sources at an unprecedented density and similar array deployments are ongoing or planned in Alaska, the Alps and Canada. This makes the local coherence of earthquake data an increasingly valuable resource to exploit.Building on the experience in controlled-source surveys, we aim to extend the well-established concept of beam-forming to the richer toolbox that is nowadays used in seismic exploration. We suggest adapted strategies for local data coherence analysis, where summation is performed with operators that extract the local slope and curvature of wave fronts emerging at the receiver array. Besides estimating wave front properties, we demonstrate that the inherent data summation can also be used to generate virtual station responses at intermediate locations where no actual deployment was performed. Owing to the fact that stacking acts as a directional filter, interfering coherent wave fields can be efficiently separated from each other by means of coherent subtraction. We

  16. Development of the integrated control system for the microwave ion source of the PEFP 100-MeV proton accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young-Gi; Seol, Kyung-Tae; Jang, Ji-Ho; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Cho, Yong-Sub

    2012-07-01

    The Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) 20-MeV proton linear accelerator is currently operating at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The ion source of the 100-MeV proton linac needs at least a 100-hour operation time. To meet the goal, we have developed a microwave ion source that uses no filament. For the ion source, a remote control system has been developed by using experimental physics and the industrial control system (EPICS) software framework. The control system consists of a versa module europa (VME) and EPICS-based embedded applications running on a VxWorks real-time operating system. The main purpose of the control system is to control and monitor the operational variables of the components remotely and to protect operators from radiation exposure and the components from critical problems during beam extraction. We successfully performed the operation test of the control system to confirm the degree of safety during the hardware performance.

  17. The relative abundance of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) among other zwitterions in branching coral at Heron Island, southern Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Hilton B; Deschaseaux, Elisabeth S M; Jones, Graham B; Eyre, Bradley D

    2017-07-01

    Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and eleven other target zwitterions were quantified in the branch tips of six Acropora species and Stylophora pistillata hard coral growing on the reef flat surrounding Heron Island in the southern Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS) was used for sample analysis with isotope dilution MS applied to quantify DMSP. The concentration of DMSP was ten times greater in A. aspera than A. valida, with this difference being maintained throughout the spring, summer and winter seasons. In contrast, glycine betaine was present in significantly higher concentrations in these species during the summer than the winter. Exposure of branch tips of A. aspera to air and hypo-saline seawater for up to 1 h did not alter the concentrations of DMSP present in the coral when compared with control samples. DMSP was the most abundant target zwitterion in the six Acropora species examined, ranging from 44-78% of all target zwitterions in A. millepora and A. aspera, respectively. In contrast, DMSP only accounted for 7% in S. pistillata, with glycine betaine and stachydrine collectively accounting for 88% of all target zwitterions in this species. The abundance of DMSP in the six Acropora species examined points to Acropora coral being an important source for the biogeochemical cycling of sulfur throughout the GBR, since this reef-building branching coral dominates the coral cover of the GBR. Graphical Abstract HILIC-MS extracted ion chromatogram showing zwitterionic metabolites from the branching coral Acropora isopora.

  18. Generic inertia emulation controller for multi-terminal voltage-source-converter high voltage direct current systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jiebei; Guerrero, Josep M.; Hung, William

    2014-01-01

    A generic Inertia Emulation Controller (INEC) scheme for Multi-Terminal Voltage-Source-Converter based HVDC (VSC-MTDC) systems is proposed and presented in this paper. The proposed INEC can be incorporated in any Grid-side Voltage-Source-Converter (GVSC) station, allowing the MTDC terminal...

  19. A randomised controlled trial of ultrasound-guided blockade of the saphenous nerve and the posterior branch of the obturator nerve for postoperative analgesia after day-case knee arthroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, B; Jensen, K; Lenz, K

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of blockade of the saphenous nerve and the posterior branch of the obturator nerve in addition to a standard analgesic regimen for patients discharged the same day after knee arthroscopy. The primary outcome was knee pain on flexion during...

  20. Eternal triangle: the interaction of light source, electrical control gear, and optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    S'heeren, Griet

    1998-04-01

    In this particular 'affair' the participants are less than human but have individual personalities they bring to their relationship with each other. High pressure metal halide lamps such as BriteArc lamps have the highest luminance and radiance of all continuously operating practical light source. Since these lamps have short arcs and are available in power ratings from about 30W to 30kW they have found applications with various optical systems. Besides the lamps, such systems include an electrical control device and an optical system. To fulfil the user's requirements for a specific application, it is not only important to choose the right lamp, but crucial to achieve a harmonious marriage between the light source, electrical control device and the optics. To run a high pressure discharge lamp an ignitor/ballast system is essential This stabilizes the lamp parameters. The chemical components inside the lamp determine the lamp voltage and the gear determines, via the current, the lamp power. These are directly related in the luminance and color temperature of the emitted light. Therefore lamp performance and effective life are dependent on the ignitor, control gear and lamp combination. Since the lamp emits radiation in all directions, collection of the light from a lamp can be improved by using reflectors to deliver the light into a lens system. Since lamps with short arc gaps approach a point source they appear ideal for optical system applications. The shape of the reflector and the focusing of the lamp determine which part of the light is collected out of the light-arc. In the case of an LCD projector, the final light output also depends on the transmission characteristics of the LCD panels. Their nonlinearity causes the color of the emitted light to be different from the lamp color. All these parameters have to be optimized to obtain the highest performance. This leads to the conclusion that a carefully matched combination of lamp, ignitor/ballast and optics

  1. Branched-Chain Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Keisuke; Tsuchisaka, Atsunari; Yukawa, Hideaki

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), viz., L-isoleucine, L-leucine, and L-valine, are essential amino acids that cannot be synthesized in higher organisms and are important nutrition for humans as well as livestock. They are also valued as synthetic intermediates for pharmaceuticals. Therefore, the demand for BCAAs in the feed and pharmaceutical industries is increasing continuously. Traditional industrial fermentative production of BCAAs was performed using microorganisms isolated by random mutagenesis. A collection of these classical strains was also scientifically useful to clarify the details of the BCAA biosynthetic pathways, which are tightly regulated by feedback inhibition and transcriptional attenuation. Based on this understanding of the metabolism of BCAAs, it is now possible for us to pursue strains with higher BCAA productivity using rational design and advanced molecular biology techniques. Additionally, systems biology approaches using augmented omics information help us to optimize carbon flux toward BCAA production. Here, we describe the biosynthetic pathways of BCAAs and their regulation and then overview the microorganisms developed for BCAA production. Other chemicals, including isobutanol, i.e., a second-generation biofuel, can be synthesized by branching the BCAA biosynthetic pathways, which are also outlined.

  2. Operation of general purpose stepping motor controllers at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubblefield, F.W.

    1986-10-01

    A prototype and four copies of a general purpose subsystem for mechanical positioning of detectors, samples, and beam line optical elements which constitute experiments at the National Synchrotron Light Source facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory have been constructed and placed into operation. Construction of a sixth subsystem is nearing completion. The subsystems effect mechanical positioning by controlling a set of stepping motors and their associated position encoders. The units are general purpose in the sense that they receive commands over a standard 9600 baud asynchronous serial line compatible with the RS-232-C electrical signal standard, generate TTL-compatible streams of stepping pulses which can be used with a wide variety of stepping motors, and read back position values from a number of different types and models of position encoder. The basic structure of the motor controller subsystem will be briefly reviewed. Short descriptions of the positioning apparatus actuated at each of the test and experiment stations employing a motor control unit are given. Additions and enhancements to the subsystem made in response to problems indicated by actual operation of the four installed units are described in more detail

  3. Operation of general purpose stepping motor controllers at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubblefield, F.W.

    1987-01-01

    A prototype and four copies of a general purpose subsystem for mechanical positioning of detectors, samples, and beam line optical elements which constitute experiments at the National Synchrotron Light Source facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory have been constructed and placed into operation. Construction of a sixth subsystem is nearing completion. The subsystems effect mechanical positioning by controlling a set of stepping motors and their associated position encoders. The units are general purpose in the sense that they receive commands over a standard 9600 baud asynchronous serial line compatible with the RS-232-C electrical signal standard, generate TTL-compatible streams of stepping pulses which can be used with a wide variety of stepping motors, and read back position values from a number of different types and models of position encoder. The basic structure of the motor controller subsystem is briefly reviewed. Short descriptions of the positioning apparatus actuated at each of the test and experiment stations employing a motor control unit are given. Additions and enhancements to the sub-system made in response to problems indicated by actual operation of the four installed units are described in more detail

  4. The laser control system for the TRIUMF optically pumped polarized H- ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadantsev, S.G.; Levy, C.D.P.; Mouat, M.M.

    1994-08-01

    The optically pumped polarized H - ion source at TRIUMF produces up to 100 μΑ dc of 78% polarized beam within an emittance of 1.0 π mm mrad and is now being prepared for an upcoming experiment at TRIUMF that will measure parity violation in pp scattering at 230 MeV. The optical pumping is accomplished by argon laser pumped Ti-sapphire lasers. The laser control system provides monitoring and precision control of the lasers for fast spin reversal up to 200 s -1 . To solve the problems of laser power and frequency stabilization during fast spin flipping, techniques and algorithms have been developed that significantly reduce the variation of laser frequency and power between spin states. The upgraded Faraday rotation system allows synchronous measurement of Rb thickness and polarization while spin flipping. The X Window environment provides both local and remote control to laser operators via a local area network and X window terminals. In this new environment issues such as access authorization, response time, operator interface consistency and ease of use are of particular importance. (author)

  5. Neurophysiological mechanisms of circadian cognitive control in RLS patients - an EEG source localization study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The circadian variation of sensory and motor symptoms with increasing severity in the evening and at night is a key diagnostic feature/symptom of the restless legs syndrome (RLS. Even though many neurological diseases have shown a strong nexus between motor and cognitive symptoms, it has remained unclear whether cognitive performance of RLS patients declines in the evening and which neurophysiological mechanisms are affected by the circadian variation. In the current study, we examined daytime effects (morning vs. evening on cognitive performance in RLS patients (n = 33 compared to healthy controls (n = 29 by analyzing flanker interference effects in combination with EEG and source localization techniques. RLS patients showed larger flanker interference effects in the evening than in the morning (p = .023, while healthy controls did not display a comparable circadian variation. In line with this, the neurophysiological data showed smaller N1 amplitudes in RLS patients compared to controls in the interfering task condition in the evening (p = .042, but not in the morning. The results demonstrate diurnal cognitive changes in RLS patients with intensified impairments in the evening. It seems that not all dopamine-regulated cognitive processes are altered in RLS and thus show daytime-dependent impairments. Instead, the daytime-related cognitive impairment emerges from attentional selection processes within the extra-striate visual cortex, but not from later cognitive processes such as conflict monitoring and response selection.

  6. Medical management of radiation safety and control of ionizing radiation sources in Armenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovhannisyan, N.M.

    1998-01-01

    The events of the last 10 years, Spitak earthquake (1988) and collapse of the former USSR brought forth the changes of the political situation in Armenia and significant disorder in economy, industry, relations, including the radiation safety (RS) and control of the organization of the activities connected with the ionizing radiation sources (IRSs). In 1989 the Armenian Nuclear Power Plant was shut down, and in 1994 it was restarted. In Armenia there are about 750 X-ray rooms, 10 radionuclide diagnostic laboratories, 20 gamma and X-ray units; 95 enterprises in industry, science and technology use the IRSs with different purposes, there are 5 electron particle accelerators of different power capacity. About 6,000 individuals have constant contact to IRS: the roentgenologists, radiologists, the staff of NPP, accelerators, etc. Besides, more than 3,000 liquidators of the Chernobyl NPP disaster live in Armenia. Nowadays, the precise infrastructure of RS is established in Armenia. The regulating body is the 'State Atom Authority', performing the control, coordination and licensing of both enterprises and specialists. Ministry of Health Ministry of Internal Affairs, Ministry of Ecology perform the control of IRSs' delivery into the Republic of Armenia and then their proper use and waste disposal in Armenia. (author)

  7. A frequency controlled LCL - T resonant converter for H- ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauttam, V.K.; Kasliwal, A.; Banwari, R.; Pandit, T.G.; Thakurta, A.C.

    2013-01-01

    An H - ion source is being developed at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore. An LCL-T resonant power converter with variable frequency control is proposed which is utilized to develop a -20 kV/100 mA high voltage (HV) power supply for extraction of H - ions. The LCL-T resonant topology offers many advantages like gainful utilization of the transformer parasitics as a part of resonant network and low circulating current. The power converter is operated with variable frequency control and above resonance to get well known zero-voltage switching (ZVS) advantages for full bridge semiconductor switches in full load range. The converter energizes the symmetrical Cockcroft-Walton (CW) based HV generator to achieve required high voltage. The CW circuit is an attractive solution for HV generation since it has features like low stored energy and low output ripple. The HV power supply is operated in constant current (CC) mode with closed loop control and soft start of the power supply is achieved by sweeping the switching frequency from 40 kHz to defined operating point. Design parameters, simulation results and experimental results of the power converter are presented in this paper. (author)

  8. Direct Power Control for Three-Phase Two-Level Voltage-Source Rectifiers Based on Extended-State Observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Zhanfeng; Tian, Yanjun; Yan, Zhuo

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposed a direct power control strategy for three-phase two-level voltage-source rectifiers based on extended-state observation. Active and reactive powers are directly regulated in the stationary reference frame. Similar to the family of predictive controllers whose inherent characte......This paper proposed a direct power control strategy for three-phase two-level voltage-source rectifiers based on extended-state observation. Active and reactive powers are directly regulated in the stationary reference frame. Similar to the family of predictive controllers whose inherent...

  9. Controlled source electromagnetic data analysis with seismic constraints and rigorous uncertainty estimation in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrmann, R. A. S.; Schwalenberg, K.; Hölz, S.; Zander, T.; Dettmer, J.; Bialas, J.

    2016-12-01

    In 2014 an interdisciplinary survey was conducted as part of the German SUGAR project in the Western Black Sea targeting gas hydrate occurrences in the Danube Delta. Marine controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) data were acquired with an inline seafloor-towed array (BGR), and a two-polarization horizontal ocean-bottom source and receiver configuration (GEOMAR). The CSEM data are co-located with high-resolution 2-D and 3-D seismic reflection data (GEOMAR). We present results from 2-D regularized inversion (MARE2DEM by Kerry Key), which provides a smooth model of the electrical resistivity distribution beneath the source and multiple receivers. The 2-D approach includes seafloor topography and structural constraints from seismic data. We estimate uncertainties from the regularized inversion and compare them to 1-D Bayesian inversion results. The probabilistic inversion for a layered subsurface treats the parameter values and the number of layers as unknown by applying reversible-jump Markov-chain Monte Carlo sampling. A non-diagonal data covariance matrix obtained from residual error analysis accounts for correlated errors. The resulting resistivity models show generally high resistivity values between 3 and 10 Ωm on average which can be partly attributed to depleted pore water salinities due to sea-level low stands in the past, and locally up to 30 Ωm which is likely caused by gas hydrates. At the base of the gas hydrate stability zone resistivities rise up to more than 100 Ωm which could be due to gas hydrate as well as a layer of free gas underneath. However, the deeper parts also show the largest model parameter uncertainties. Archie's Law is used to derive estimates of the gas hydrate saturation, which vary between 30 and 80% within the anomalous layers considering salinity and porosity profiles from a distant DSDP bore hole.

  10. Tectonic control in source rock maturation and oil migration in Trinidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persad, K.M.; Talukdar, S.C.; Dow, W.G. (DGSI, The Woodlands, TX (United States))

    1993-02-01

    Oil accumulation in Trinidad were sourced by the Upper Cretaceous calcareous shales deposited along the Cretaceous passive margin of northern South America. Maturation of these source rocks, oil generation, migration and re-migration occurred in a foreland basin setting that resulted from interaction between Caribbean and South American plates during Late Oligocene to recent times. During Middle Miocene-Recent times, the foreland basin experienced strong compressional events, which controlled generation, migration, and accumulation of oil in Trinidad. A series of mature source rock kitchens formed in Late Miocene-Recent times in the Southern and Colombus Basins to the east-southeast of the Central Range Thrust. This thrust and associated fratured developed around 12 m.y.b.p. and served as vertical migration paths for the oil generated in Late Miocene time. This oil migrated into submarine fans deposited in the foreland basin axis and older reservoirs deformed into structural traps. Further generation and migration of oil, and re-migration of earlier oil took place during Pliocene-Holocene times, when later thrusting and wrench faulting served as vertical migration paths. Extremely high sedimentation rates in Pliocene-Pleistocene time, concurrent with active faulting, was responsible for very rapid generation of oil and gas. Vertically migrating gas often mixed with earlier migrated oil in overlying reservoirs. This caused depletion of oil in light hydrocarbons with accompanied fractionation among hydrocarbon types resulting in heavier oil in lower reservoirs, enrichment of light hydrocarbons and accumulation of gas-condensates in upper reservoirs. This process led to an oil-gravity stratification within about 10,000 ft of section.

  11. Branch Development of Five-Year-Old Betula alnoides Plantations in Response to Planting Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Sheng Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Branch development in the lower part of stem is critical to both early stem growth and wood quality of the most valuable section of tree, and its regulation through planting density has always been greatly concerned. Here the effect of planting density on branch development was examined in a five-year-old plantation of Betula alnoides with six planting densities (625, 833, 1111, 1250, 1667, and 2500 stems per hectare (sph in Guangdong Province, South China. Branch quantity (number, proportion, and density, morphology (diameter, length, and angle, position (height and orientation, and branch status (dead or alive were investigated for 54 dominant or co-dominant trees under six treatments of planting density after the growth of each tree was measured. Factors influencing branch development were also explored by mixed modelling. The results showed that the mean tree heights of 1250 and 1667 sph treatments were higher than those of other planting density treatments. The quantity of live branches decreased with increasing planting density. However, planting density had no significant effect on the number of all branches, and there existed no remarkable difference in branch number and proportion among four orientations. As for branch morphology, only the largest branch diameter had a significantly negative correlation with planting density. In addition, high planting density significantly increased the height of the largest branch within the crown. Mixed effects models indicated that branch diameter, length, and angle were closely correlated with each other, and they were all in positively significant correlation to the branch height at the stem section below six meters. It was concluded that properly increasing planting density will promote natural pruning, improve early branch control, and be beneficial for wood production from the most valuable section of the stem.

  12. Environmental radiation control and quality management system in design and operation of sealed radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A.Z.

    2007-01-01

    New environmental regulations and radiation safety standards are being implemented almost daily to ensure radiation safety, in particular for practices causing exposures to undue radiation doses. A particular emphasis of real challenge for organizations and users of radiation sources has to be for proper radiological safety assessment and is becoming cost effectively to be prepared for auditing. Special concern for the environment is of global . nature, and hence environmental auditing has been and will continue to be an essential practice for improving the environment and for meeting the relevant regulations and standards. In general, most facilities that deal with radioactive sources undertake strict safety measures in terms of personnel radiation protection, handling procedures and security. Hence, those measures should comply with the requirements of the environmental protection standards. Accordingly, a successful quality management system must balance realities of organization and personnel in achieving quality objectives. Organizational principles are found in the technical aspects of' quality management, such as, charting, requirements, measurements, procedures, ... , etc. Human principles are found in the communication side of quality management (e.g. meetings, ,decision making, ,teams, ... , etc). The quality management must understand and balance skills needed to blend them together. Large gamma irradiators present a high potential radiation hazard to the surrounding environment, since the amount of radioactivity is of the order of (P Bq) and a very high dose rates are produced during irradiation. Application of environmental radiation control deemed by regulatory authority and a proper quality management system by the utility would serve public health and safety

  13. Fire Source Accessibility of Water Mist Fire Suppression Improvement through Flow Method Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jun Ho; Kim, Hyeong Taek; Kim, Yun Jung; Park, Mun Hee [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Recently, nuclear power plants set CO{sub 2} fire suppression system. However it is hard to establish and to maintain and it also has difficulties performing function test. Therefore, it needs to develop a new fire suppression system to replace the existing CO{sub 2} fire suppression systems in nuclear power plant. In fact, already, there exist alternatives - gas fire suppression system or clean fire extinguishing agent, but it is hard to apply because it requires a highly complicated plan. However, water mist fire suppression system which has both water system and gas system uses small amount of water and droplet, so it is excellent at oxygen displacement and more suitable for nuclear power plant because it can avoid second damage caused by fire fighting water. This paper explains about enclosure effect of water mist fire suppression. And it suggests a study direction about water mist fire source approach improvement and enclosure effect improvement, using flow method control of ventilation system. Water mist fire suppression can be influenced by various variable. And flow and direction of ventilation system are important variable. Expectations of the plan for more fire source ventilation system is as in the following. It enhances enclosure effects of water mists, so it improves extinguish performance. Also the same effect as a inert gas injection causes can be achieved. Lastly, it is considered that combustible accessibility of water mists will increase because of descending air currents.

  14. Exemption of radiation sources and practices from regulatory control: Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This document is an interim report on progress at the IAEA on exemption principles and their application to low-level radioactive waste disposal. In the first part of the document the general principles for the exemption of radiation sources and practices from regulatory control are described. The exempt quantities of low-level radioactive wastes for disposal to municipal landfill or by incineration including methods for their derivation and generic values are contained in the second part of the document. In the appendices the individual effective dose equivalents and committed effective dose equivalents by pathway for waste concentrations of 1 Bq.g -1 and some quoted limits from the literature on dust concentrations at the outlet of municipal waste incinerators are estimated

  15. The separation of control variables in an H/sup /minus// ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowling, P.S.; Brown, S.K.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a successful methodology which was used to classify a series if waveforms taken from a 100 ma H/sup /minus// ion source at Los Alamos. The series of 260 waveforms was divided into a ''training'' set and a ''test'' set. A sequence of mathematical transformations was performed on the ''training'' waveforms data and then it was subjected to discriminant analysis. The analysis generates a set of filters which will allow classification of an unknown waveform in the ''test'' set as being either stable or unstable; if stable, whether optimal or not; if not optimal, which of the six control parameters should be adjusted to bring it to an optimal condition. We have found that the probability of successful classification using this methodology is 91.5%. 3 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Estimation of the Plant Time Constant of Current-Controlled Voltage Source Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Ana; Yepes, Alejandro G.; Malvar, Jano

    2014-01-01

    Precise knowledge of the plant time constant is essential to perform a thorough analysis of the current control loop in voltage source converters (VSCs). As the loop behavior can be significantly influenced by the VSC working conditions, the effects associated to converter losses should be included...... in the model, through an equivalent series resistance. In a recent work, an algorithm to identify this parameter was developed, considering the inductance value as known and practically constant. Nevertheless, the plant inductance can also present important uncertainties with respect to the inductance...... of the VSC interface filter measured at rated conditions. This paper extends that method so that both parameters of the plant time constant (resistance and inductance) are estimated. Such enhancement is achieved through the evaluation of the closed-loop transient responses of both axes of the synchronous...

  17. PLACE: an open-source python package for laboratory automation, control, and experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jami L; Tom Wörden, Henrik; van Wijk, Kasper

    2015-02-01

    In modern laboratories, software can drive the full experimental process from data acquisition to storage, processing, and analysis. The automation of laboratory data acquisition is an important consideration for every laboratory. When implementing a laboratory automation scheme, important parameters include its reliability, time to implement, adaptability, and compatibility with software used at other stages of experimentation. In this article, we present an open-source, flexible, and extensible Python package for Laboratory Automation, Control, and Experimentation (PLACE). The package uses modular organization and clear design principles; therefore, it can be easily customized or expanded to meet the needs of diverse laboratories. We discuss the organization of PLACE, data-handling considerations, and then present an example using PLACE for laser-ultrasound experiments. Finally, we demonstrate the seamless transition to post-processing and analysis with Python through the development of an analysis module for data produced by PLACE automation. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  18. Use of multiple water surface flow constructed wetlands for non-point source water pollution control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Zheng, Binghui; Liu, Yan; Chu, Zhaosheng; He, Yan; Huang, Minsheng

    2018-05-02

    Multiple free water surface flow constructed wetlands (multi-FWS CWs) are a variety of conventional water treatment plants for the interception of pollutants. This review encapsulated the characteristics and applications in the field of ecological non-point source water pollution control technology. The roles of in-series design and operation parameters (hydraulic residence time, hydraulic load rate, water depth and aspect ratio, composition of influent, and plant species) for performance intensification were also analyzed, which were crucial to achieve sustainable and effective contaminants removal, especially the retention of nutrient. The mechanism study of design and operation parameters for the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus was also highlighted. Conducive perspectives for further research on optimizing its design/operation parameters and advanced technologies of ecological restoration were illustrated to possibly interpret the functions of multi-FWS CWs.

  19. Skeletonized inversion of surface wave: Active source versus controlled noise comparison

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing; Hanafy, Sherif

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a skeletonized inversion method that inverts the S-wave velocity distribution from surface-wave dispersion curves. Instead of attempting to fit every wiggle in the surface waves with predicted data, it only inverts the picked dispersion curve, thereby mitigating the problem of getting stuck in a local minimum. We have applied this method to a synthetic model and seismic field data from Qademah fault, located at the western side of Saudi Arabia. For comparison, we have performed dispersion analysis for an active and controlled noise source seismic data that had some receivers in common with the passive array. The active and passive data show good agreement in the dispersive characteristics. Our results demonstrated that skeletonized inversion can obtain reliable 1D and 2D S-wave velocity models for our geologic setting. A limitation is that we need to build layered initial model to calculate the Jacobian matrix, which is time consuming.

  20. On-demand semiconductor source of 780-nm single photons with controlled temporal wave packets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béguin, Lucas; Jahn, Jan-Philipp; Wolters, Janik; Reindl, Marcus; Huo, Yongheng; Trotta, Rinaldo; Rastelli, Armando; Ding, Fei; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Treutlein, Philipp; Warburton, Richard J.

    2018-05-01

    We report on a fast, bandwidth-tunable single-photon source based on an epitaxial GaAs quantum dot. Exploiting spontaneous spin-flip Raman transitions, single photons at 780 nm are generated on demand with tailored temporal profiles of durations exceeding the intrinsic quantum dot lifetime by up to three orders of magnitude. Second-order correlation measurements show a low multiphoton emission probability [g2(0 ) ˜0.10 -0.15 ] at a generation rate up to 10 MHz. We observe Raman photons with linewidths as low as 200 MHz, which is narrow compared to the 1.1-GHz linewidth measured in resonance fluorescence. The generation of such narrow-band single photons with controlled temporal shapes at the rubidium wavelength is a crucial step towards the development of an optimized hybrid semiconductor-atom interface.