WorldWideScience

Sample records for source containers included

  1. A revised dosimetric characterization of the model S700 electronic brachytherapy source containing an anode-centering plastic insert and other components not included in the 2006 model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiatt, Jessica R.; Davis, Stephen D.; Rivard, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The model S700 Axxent electronic brachytherapy source by Xoft, Inc., was characterized by Rivard et al. in 2006. Since then, the source design was modified to include a new insert at the source tip. Current study objectives were to establish an accurate source model for simulation purposes, dosimetrically characterize the new source and obtain its TG-43 brachytherapy dosimetry parameters, and determine dose differences between the original simulation model and the current model S700 source design. Methods: Design information from measurements of dissected model S700 sources and from vendor-supplied CAD drawings was used to aid establishment of an updated Monte Carlo source model, which included the complex-shaped plastic source-centering insert intended to promote water flow for cooling the source anode. These data were used to create a model for subsequent radiation transport simulations in a water phantom. Compared to the 2006 simulation geometry, the influence of volume averaging close to the source was substantially reduced. A track-length estimator was used to evaluate collision kerma as a function of radial distance and polar angle for determination of TG-43 dosimetry parameters. Results for the 50 kV source were determined every 0.1 cm from 0.3 to 15 cm and every 1° from 0° to 180°. Photon spectra in water with 0.1 keV resolution were also obtained from 0.5 to 15 cm and polar angles from 0° to 165°. Simulations were run for 10 10 histories, resulting in statistical uncertainties on the transverse plane of 0.04% at r = 1 cm and 0.06% at r = 5 cm. Results: The dose-rate distribution ratio for the model S700 source as compared to the 2006 model exceeded unity by more than 5% for roughly one quarter of the solid angle surrounding the source, i.e., θ ≥ 120°. The radial dose function diminished in a similar manner as for an 125 I seed, with values of 1.434, 0.636, 0.283, and 0.0975 at 0.5, 2, 5, and 10 cm, respectively. The radial dose function

  2. A revised dosimetric characterization of the model S700 electronic brachytherapy source containing an anode-centering plastic insert and other components not included in the 2006 model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiatt, Jessica R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02903 (United States); Davis, Stephen D. [Department of Medical Physics, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada); Rivard, Mark J., E-mail: mark.j.rivard@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The model S700 Axxent electronic brachytherapy source by Xoft, Inc., was characterized by Rivard et al. in 2006. Since then, the source design was modified to include a new insert at the source tip. Current study objectives were to establish an accurate source model for simulation purposes, dosimetrically characterize the new source and obtain its TG-43 brachytherapy dosimetry parameters, and determine dose differences between the original simulation model and the current model S700 source design. Methods: Design information from measurements of dissected model S700 sources and from vendor-supplied CAD drawings was used to aid establishment of an updated Monte Carlo source model, which included the complex-shaped plastic source-centering insert intended to promote water flow for cooling the source anode. These data were used to create a model for subsequent radiation transport simulations in a water phantom. Compared to the 2006 simulation geometry, the influence of volume averaging close to the source was substantially reduced. A track-length estimator was used to evaluate collision kerma as a function of radial distance and polar angle for determination of TG-43 dosimetry parameters. Results for the 50 kV source were determined every 0.1 cm from 0.3 to 15 cm and every 1° from 0° to 180°. Photon spectra in water with 0.1 keV resolution were also obtained from 0.5 to 15 cm and polar angles from 0° to 165°. Simulations were run for 10{sup 10} histories, resulting in statistical uncertainties on the transverse plane of 0.04% at r = 1 cm and 0.06% at r = 5 cm. Results: The dose-rate distribution ratio for the model S700 source as compared to the 2006 model exceeded unity by more than 5% for roughly one quarter of the solid angle surrounding the source, i.e., θ ≥ 120°. The radial dose function diminished in a similar manner as for an {sup 125}I seed, with values of 1.434, 0.636, 0.283, and 0.0975 at 0.5, 2, 5, and 10 cm, respectively. The radial dose

  3. A revised dosimetric characterization of the model S700 electronic brachytherapy source containing an anode-centering plastic insert and other components not included in the 2006 model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiatt, Jessica R; Davis, Stephen D; Rivard, Mark J

    2015-06-01

    The model S700 Axxent electronic brachytherapy source by Xoft, Inc., was characterized by Rivard et al. in 2006. Since then, the source design was modified to include a new insert at the source tip. Current study objectives were to establish an accurate source model for simulation purposes, dosimetrically characterize the new source and obtain its TG-43 brachytherapy dosimetry parameters, and determine dose differences between the original simulation model and the current model S700 source design. Design information from measurements of dissected model S700 sources and from vendor-supplied CAD drawings was used to aid establishment of an updated Monte Carlo source model, which included the complex-shaped plastic source-centering insert intended to promote water flow for cooling the source anode. These data were used to create a model for subsequent radiation transport simulations in a water phantom. Compared to the 2006 simulation geometry, the influence of volume averaging close to the source was substantially reduced. A track-length estimator was used to evaluate collision kerma as a function of radial distance and polar angle for determination of TG-43 dosimetry parameters. Results for the 50 kV source were determined every 0.1 cm from 0.3 to 15 cm and every 1° from 0° to 180°. Photon spectra in water with 0.1 keV resolution were also obtained from 0.5 to 15 cm and polar angles from 0° to 165°. Simulations were run for 10(10) histories, resulting in statistical uncertainties on the transverse plane of 0.04% at r = 1 cm and 0.06% at r = 5 cm. The dose-rate distribution ratio for the model S700 source as compared to the 2006 model exceeded unity by more than 5% for roughly one quarter of the solid angle surrounding the source, i.e., θ ≥ 120°. The radial dose function diminished in a similar manner as for an (125)I seed, with values of 1.434, 0.636, 0.283, and 0.0975 at 0.5, 2, 5, and 10 cm, respectively. The radial dose function ratio between the current

  4. Reliability evaluation of containments including soil-structure interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, J.; Hwang, H.; Reich, M.

    1985-12-01

    Soil-structure interaction effects on the reliability assessment of containment structures are examined. The probability-based method for reliability evaluation of nuclear structures developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory is extended to include soil-structure interaction effects. In this method, reliability of structures is expressed in terms of limit state probabilities. Furthermore, random vibration theory is utilized to calculate limit state probabilities under random seismic loads. Earthquake ground motion is modeled by a segment of a zero-mean, stationary, filtered Gaussian white noise random process, represented by its power spectrum. All possible seismic hazards at a site, represented by a hazard curve, are also included in the analysis. The soil-foundation system is represented by a rigid surface foundation on an elastic halfspace. Random and other uncertainties in the strength properties of the structure, in the stiffness and internal damping of the soil, are also included in the analysis. Finally, a realistic reinforced concrete containment is analyzed to demonstrate the application of the method. For this containment, the soil-structure interaction effects on; (1) limit state probabilities, (2) structural fragility curves, (3) floor response spectra with probabilistic content, and (4) correlation coefficients for total acceleration response at specified structural locations, are examined in detail. 25 refs., 21 figs., 12 tabs

  5. Safe management of smoke detectors containing radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgado, M.; Benitez, J.C.; Castillo, R.A.; Berdellans, A.; Hernandez, J.M.; Pirez, C.J.; Soto, P.G.

    2013-01-01

    Ionic smoke detectors contain radioactive sources that could be Am-241, Pu-238, Pu-239, Kr-85, etc. According to Cuban regulations (Resolution 96 /2003 of the Minister of Science Technology and Environment), smoke detectors, once become disused, should be managed as radioactive waste. For this reason, disused smoke detectors should be transferred to the Centre for Radiation Protection and Hygiene, the organization responsible for radioactive waste management in the country. More than 20 000 smoke detectors have been collected by the CPHR and stored at the Centralized Waste Management Facility. There are 28 different models of smoke detectors of different origin. They contain between 18 - 37 kBq of Am-241 or between 0.37 - 37 MBq of Plutonium or around 37 MBq of Kr-85. The safe management of ionic smoke detectors consists in dismantling the devices, recovering the radioactive sources and conditioning them for long term storage and disposal. The rest of non-radioactive materials should be segregated (plastic, metal and electronic components) for recycling. A technical manual was developed with specific instructions for dismantling each model of smoke detector and recovering the radioactive sources. Instructions for segregation of non-radioactive components are also included in the manual. Most of smoke detectors contain long lived radioactive sources (Am-241, Pu-238, Pu-239), so especial attention was given to the management of these sources. A methodology was developed for conditioning of radioactive sources, consisting in encapsulating them for long term storage. The retrievability of the sources (sealed capsules with radioactive sources) for future disposal was also considered. A documented procedure was elaborated for these operations. (author)

  6. Do the enigmatic ``Infrared-Faint Radio Sources'' include pulsars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, George; Middelberg, Enno; Norris, Ray; Keith, Michael; Mao, Minnie; Champion, David

    2009-04-01

    The Australia Telescope Large Area Survey (ATLAS) team have surveyed seven square degrees of sky at 1.4GHz. During processing some unexpected infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS sources) were discovered. The nature of these sources is not understood, but it is possible that some of these sources may be pulsars within our own galaxy. We propose to observe the IFRS sources with steep spectral indices using standard search techniques to determine whether or not they are pulsars. A pulsar detection would 1) remove a subset of the IFRS sources from the ATLAS sample so they would not need to be observed with large optical/IR telescopes to find their hosts and 2) be intrinsically interesting as the pulsar would be a millisecond pulsar and/or have an extreme spatial velocity.

  7. 75 FR 49524 - In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... the United States after importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets, and products containing... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-709] In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including Televisions, Media Players, and Cameras; Notice...

  8. Passivation of quartz for halogen-containing light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenstein, Zoran

    1999-01-01

    Lifetime of halogen containing VUV, UV, visible or IR light sources can be extended by passivating the quartz or glass gas containers with halogens prior to filling the quartz with the halogen and rare gas mixtures used to produce the light.

  9. Source term reduction at DAEC (including stellite ball recycling)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.; Schebler, D.

    1995-01-01

    The Duane Arnold Energy Center was seeking methods to reduce dose rates from the drywell due to Co-60. Duane Arnold is known in the industry to have one of the highest drywell dose rates from the industry standardized 'BRAC' point survey. A prime method to reduce dose rates due to Co-60 is the accelerated replacement of stellite pins and rollers in control rod blades due to their high stellite (cobalt) content. Usually the cobalt content in alloys of stellite is greater than 60% cobalt by weight. During the RFO-12 refueling outage at Duane Arnold, all of the remaining cobalt bearing control rod blades were replaced and new stellite free control rod blades were installed in the core. This left Duane Arnold with the disposal of highly radioactive stellite pins and rollers. The processing of control rod blades for disposal is a very difficult evolution. First, the velocity limiter (a bottom portion of the component) and the highly radioactive upper stellite control rod blade ins and rollers are separated from the control rod blade. Next, the remainder of the control rod blade is processed (chopped and/or crushed) to aid packaging the waste for disposal. The stellite bearings are then often carefully placed in with the rest of the waste in a burial liner to provide shielding for disposal or more often are left as 'orphans' in the spent fuel pool because their high specific activity create shipping and packaging problems. Further investigation by the utility showed that the stellite balls and pins could be recycled to a source manufacturer rather than disposed of in a low-level burial site. The cost savings to the utility was on the order of $200,000 with a gross savings of $400,000 in savings in burial site charges. A second advantage of the recycling of the stellite pins and rollers was a reduction in control in radioactive waste shipments

  10. Vitamin B12-Containing Plant Food Sources for Vegetarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Fumio; Yabuta, Yukinori; Bito, Tomohiro; Teng, Fei

    2014-01-01

    The usual dietary sources of Vitamin B12 are animal-derived foods, although a few plant-based foods contain substantial amounts of Vitamin B12. To prevent Vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians, it is necessary to identify plant-derived foods that contain high levels of Vitamin B12. A survey of naturally occurring plant-derived food sources with high Vitamin B12 contents suggested that dried purple laver (nori) is the most suitable Vitamin B12 source presently available for vegetarians. Furthermore, dried purple laver also contains high levels of other nutrients that are lacking in vegetarian diets, such as iron and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Dried purple laver is a natural plant product and it is suitable for most people in various vegetarian groups. PMID:24803097

  11. Vitamin B12-Containing Plant Food Sources for Vegetarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumio Watanabe

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The usual dietary sources of Vitamin B12 are animal-derived foods, although a few plant-based foods contain substantial amounts of Vitamin B12. To prevent Vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians, it is necessary to identify plant-derived foods that contain high levels of Vitamin B12. A survey of naturally occurring plant-derived food sources with high Vitamin B12 contents suggested that dried purple laver (nori is the most suitable Vitamin B12 source presently available for vegetarians. Furthermore, dried purple laver also contains high levels of other nutrients that are lacking in vegetarian diets, such as iron and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Dried purple laver is a natural plant product and it is suitable for most people in various vegetarian groups.

  12. 76 FR 34101 - In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets, and products... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-709] In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including Televisions, Media Players, and Cameras; Notice...

  13. 75 FR 65654 - In the Matter of: Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets, and products... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-709] In the Matter of: Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including Televisions, Media Players, and Cameras; Notice...

  14. Method of judging leak sources in a reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Katsuji.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To enable exact judgement for leak sources upon leak accident in a reactor container of BWR type power plants as to whether the sources are present in the steam system or coolant system. Method: If leak is resulted from the main steam system, the hydrogen density in the reactor container is about 170 times as high as the same amount of leak from the reactor water. Accordingly, it can be judged whether the leak source is present in the steam system or reactor water system based on the change in the indication of hydrogen densitometer within the reactor container, and the indication from the drain amount from the sump in the container or the indication of a drain flow meter in the container dehumidifier. Further, I-131, Na-24 and the like as the radioactive nucleides in sump water of the container are measured to determine the density ratio R = (I-131)/(Na-24), and it is judged that the leak is resulted in nuclear water if the density ratio R is equal to that of reactor water and that the leak is resulted from the main steam or like other steam system if the density ratio R is higher than by about 100 times than that of reactor water. (Horiuchi, T.)

  15. 77 FR 6463 - Revisions to Labeling Requirements for Blood and Blood Components, Including Source Plasma...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... Blood Components, Including Source Plasma; Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION..., Including Source Plasma,'' which provided incorrect publication information regarding a 60-day notice that...

  16. Shielding design of disposal container for disused sealed radioactive source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Suk Hoon; Kim, Ju Youl [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Disused Sealed Radioactive Sources (DSRSs), which are stored temporally in the centralized storage facility of Korea Radioactive Waste Agency (KORAD), will be disposed of in the low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility located in Wolsong. Accordingly, the future plan on DSRS disposal should be established as soon as possible in connection with the construction and operation plan of disposal facility. In this study, as part of developing the systematic management plan, the radiation shielding analysis for three types of disposal container was performed for all kinds of radionuclides (excluding mixed sources) contained in DSRSs generated from domestic area using MicroShield and MCNP5 codes in consideration of the preliminary post-closure safety assessment result for disposal options, source-specific characteristics, and etc. In accordance with the analysis result, thickness of inner container for general disposal container and dimensions (i.e. diameter and height) of inner capsule for two types of special disposal container were determined as 3 mm, OD40×H120 mm (for type 1), and OD100× H240 mm (for type 2), respectively. These values were reflected in the conceptual design of DSRS disposal container, and the structural integrity of each container was confrmed through the structural analysis carried out separately from this study. Given the shielding and structural analysis results, the conceptual design derived from this study sufficiently fulfills the technical standards in force and the design performance level. And consequently, it is judged that the safe management for DSRSs to be disposed of is achieved by utilizing the disposal container with the conceptual design devised.

  17. Shielding design of disposal container for disused sealed radioactive source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Suk Hoon; Kim, Ju Youl

    2017-01-01

    Disused Sealed Radioactive Sources (DSRSs), which are stored temporally in the centralized storage facility of Korea Radioactive Waste Agency (KORAD), will be disposed of in the low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility located in Wolsong. Accordingly, the future plan on DSRS disposal should be established as soon as possible in connection with the construction and operation plan of disposal facility. In this study, as part of developing the systematic management plan, the radiation shielding analysis for three types of disposal container was performed for all kinds of radionuclides (excluding mixed sources) contained in DSRSs generated from domestic area using MicroShield and MCNP5 codes in consideration of the preliminary post-closure safety assessment result for disposal options, source-specific characteristics, and etc. In accordance with the analysis result, thickness of inner container for general disposal container and dimensions (i.e. diameter and height) of inner capsule for two types of special disposal container were determined as 3 mm, OD40×H120 mm (for type 1), and OD100× H240 mm (for type 2), respectively. These values were reflected in the conceptual design of DSRS disposal container, and the structural integrity of each container was confrmed through the structural analysis carried out separately from this study. Given the shielding and structural analysis results, the conceptual design derived from this study sufficiently fulfills the technical standards in force and the design performance level. And consequently, it is judged that the safe management for DSRSs to be disposed of is achieved by utilizing the disposal container with the conceptual design devised

  18. Radiation protection with consumer products containing gaseous tritium light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahders, Erio; Haeusler, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Consumer products containing gaseous tritium light sources (GTLS) were examined with respect to their radiological safety potential regarding leak tightness or accidents. The maximum tritium leakage rate of 2.7 Bq/d determined from experimental testing is well below the criterion for leak tightness of sealed radioactive sources in DIN 25426-4. In order to investigate the incorporation of tritium due to contact with consumer products, 2 scenarios were reviewed; the correct use of a tritium watch and the accident scenario with a keyring.

  19. Radiation safety of sealed sources and equipment containing them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The guide gives information and requirements concerning the technical construction, installation, use and licensing of devices containing sealed radioactive sources in order to ensure the operational safety. The requirements are in accordance with the international standards ISO 1677, ISO 2919, ISO 7205 and Nordic Recommendations on radiation protection for radionuclide gauges in permanent installation. The guide explains also the practical measures that must be taken into account when a radiation device is repaired, maintained or removed from the use. (8 refs.)

  20. 76 FR 41521 - In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-786] In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits... sale within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets, and products... after importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets, and products containing same including...

  1. 75 FR 16837 - In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-709] In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits... importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets, and products containing same including televisions... importation, or the sale within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets...

  2. 76 FR 76434 - Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including Televisions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ...Notice is hereby given that the U.S. International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled In Re Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, And Products Containing Same including Televisions, DN 2860; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised by the complaint.

  3. 77 FR 42764 - Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, & Products Containing Same Including Televisions; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ...Notice is hereby given that the presiding administrative law judge has issued a Final Initial Determination and Recommended Determination on Remedy and Bonding in the above-captioned investigation. The Commission is soliciting comments on public interest issues raised by the recommended relief, specifically a limited exclusion order against certain integrated circuits, chipsets, and products containing the same including televisions, imported by respondents MediaTek Inc. of Hsinchu City, Taiwan and Zoran Corporation of Sunnyvale, California.

  4. STACE: Source Term Analyses for Containment Evaluations of transport casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seager, K.D.; Gianoulakis, S.E.; Barrett, P.R.; Rashid, Y.R.; Reardon, P.C.

    1992-01-01

    Following the guidance of ANSI N14.5, the STACE methodology provides a technically defensible means for estimating maximum permissible leakage rates. These containment criteria attempt to reflect the true radiological hazard by performing a detailed examination of the spent fuel, CRUD, and residual contamination contributions to the releasable source term. The evaluation of the spent fuel contribution to the source term has been modeled fairly accurately using the STACE methodology. The structural model predicts the cask drop load history, the mechanical response of the fuel assembly, and the probability of cladding breach. These data are then used to predict the amount of fission gas, volatile species, and fuel fines that are releasable from the cask. There are some areas where data are sparse or lacking (e.g., the quantity and size distribution of fuel rod breaches) in which experimental validation is planned. The CRUD spallation fraction is the major area where no quantitative data has been found; therefore, this also requires experimental validation. In the interim, STACE conservatively assumes a 100% spallation fraction for computing the releasable activity. The source term methodology also conservatively assumes that there is 1 Ci of residual contamination available for release in the transport cask. However, residual contamination is still by far the smallest contributor to the source term activity

  5. 77 FR 1505 - Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including Televisions; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ...Notice is hereby given that a complaint was filed with the U.S. International Trade Commission on November 30, 2011, under section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, 19 U.S.C. 1337, on behalf of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. of Austin, Texas. The complaint alleges violations of section 337 based upon the importation into the United States, the sale for importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets, and products containing same including televisions by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent No. 5,467,455 (``the `455 patent''). The complaint further alleges that an industry in the United States exists as required by subsection (a)(2) of section 337. The complainant requests that the Commission institute an investigation and, after the investigation, issue an exclusion order and cease and desist orders.

  6. The European source-term evaluation code ASTEC: status and applications, including CANDU plant applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dorsselaere, J.P.; Giordano, P.; Kissane, M.P.; Montanelli, T.; Schwinges, B.; Ganju, S.; Dickson, L.

    2004-01-01

    Research on light-water reactor severe accidents (SA) is still required in a limited number of areas in order to confirm accident-management plans. Thus, 49 European organizations have linked their SA research in a durable way through SARNET (Severe Accident Research and management NETwork), part of the European 6th Framework Programme. One goal of SARNET is to consolidate the integral code ASTEC (Accident Source Term Evaluation Code, developed by IRSN and GRS) as the European reference tool for safety studies; SARNET efforts include extending the application scope to reactor types other than PWR (including VVER) such as BWR and CANDU. ASTEC is used in IRSN's Probabilistic Safety Analysis level 2 of 900 MWe French PWRs. An earlier version of ASTEC's SOPHAEROS module, including improvements by AECL, is being validated as the Canadian Industry Standard Toolset code for FP-transport analysis in the CANDU Heat Transport System. Work with ASTEC has also been performed by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, on IPHWR containment thermal hydraulics. (author)

  7. Beverages obtained from soda fountain machines in the U.S. contain microorganisms, including coliform bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Amy S; Godard, Renee D; Belling, Carolyn; Kasza, Victoria; Beach, Rebecca L

    2010-01-31

    Ninety beverages of three types (sugar sodas, diet sodas and water) were obtained from 20 self-service and 10 personnel-dispensed soda fountains, analyzed for microbial contamination, and evaluated with respect to U.S. drinking water regulations. A follow-up study compared the concentration and composition of microbial populations in 27 beverages collected from 9 soda fountain machines in the morning as well as in the afternoon. Ice dispensed from these machines was also examined for microbial contamination. While none of the ice samples exceeded U.S. drinking water standards, coliform bacteria was detected in 48% of the beverages and 20% had a heterotrophic plate count greater than 500cfu/ml. Statistical analyses revealed no difference in levels of microbial contamination between beverage types or between those dispensed from self-service and personnel-dispensed soda fountains. More than 11% of the beverages analyzed contained Escherichia coli and over 17% contained Chryseobacterium meningosepticum. Other opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms isolated from the beverages included species of Klebsiella, Staphylococcus, Stenotrophomonas, Candida, and Serratia. Most of the identified bacteria showed resistance to one or more of the 11 antibiotics tested. These findings suggest that soda fountain machines may harbor persistent communities of potentially pathogenic microorganisms which may contribute to episodic gastric distress in the general population and could pose a more significant health risk to immunocompromised individuals. These findings have important public health implications and signal the need for regulations enforcing hygienic practices associated with these beverage dispensers. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Immediate Dose Assessment for Radiation Accident in Laboratory Containing Gamma Source and/or Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important safety requirements for any place containing radiation sources is an accurate and fast way to assess the dose rate in both normal and accidental case. In normal case, the source is completely protected inside its surrounded shields in case of non use. In some cases this source may stuck outside its shield. In this case the walls of the place act as a shield. Many studies were carried for obtaining the most appropriate materials that may be used as shielding depending on their efficiency and also their cost. As concrete- with different densities- is the most available constructive material, this study presented a theoretical model using MCNP-4B code, based on Monte Carlo method to estimate the dose rate distribution in a laboratory with concrete walls in case of source stuck accident. The study dealt with Cs-137 as gamma source and Am-Be-241 as neutron source. Two different densities of concrete and also different thicknesses of walls were studied. The used model was verified by comparing the results with a practical study concerning with the effect of adding carbon powder to the concrete. The results showed good agreement

  9. Scoping Analysis of Source Term and Functional Containment Attenuation Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pete Lowry

    2012-10-01

    In order to meet future regulatory requirements, the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project must fully establish and validate the mechanistic modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) source term. This is not possible at this stage in the project, as significant uncertainties in the final design remain unresolved. In the interim, however, there is a need to establish an approximate characterization of the source term. The NGNP team developed a simplified parametric model to establish mechanistic source term estimates for a set of proposed HTGR configurations.

  10. Scoping Analysis of Source Term and Functional Containment Attenuation Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pete Lowry

    2012-02-01

    In order to meet future regulatory requirements, the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project must fully establish and validate the mechanistic modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) source term. This is not possible at this stage in the project, as significant uncertainties in the final design remain unresolved. In the interim, however, there is a need to establish an approximate characterization of the source term. The NGNP team developed a simplified parametric model to establish mechanistic source term estimates for a set of proposed HTGR configurations.

  11. Scoping Analysis of Source Term and Functional Containment Attenuation Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pete Lowry

    2012-01-01

    In order to meet future regulatory requirements, the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project must fully establish and validate the mechanistic modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) source term. This is not possible at this stage in the project, as significant uncertainties in the final design remain unresolved. In the interim, however, there is a need to establish an approximate characterization of the source term. The NGNP team developed a simplified parametric model to establish mechanistic source term estimates for a set of proposed HTGR configurations.

  12. Auralization of airborne sound insulation including the influence of source room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes a simple and acoustically accurate method for the auralization of airborne sound insulation between two rooms by means of a room acoustic simulation software (ODEON). The method makes use of a frequency independent transparency of the transmitting surface combined...... with a frequency dependent power setting of the source in the source room. The acoustic properties in terms of volume and reverberation time as well as the area of the transmitting surface are all included in the simulation. The user only has to select the position of the source in the source room and the receiver...... of the transmitting surface is used for the simulation of sound transmission. Also the reduced clarity of the auralization due to the reverberance of the source room is inherent in the method. Currently the method is restricted to transmission loss data in octave bands....

  13. Containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The primary mission of the Containment Group is to ensure that underground nuclear tests are satisfactorily contained. The main goal is the development of sound technical bases for containment-related methodology. Major areas of activity include siting, geologic description, emplacement hole stemming, and phenomenological predictions. Performance results of sanded gypsum concrete plugs on the Jefferson, Panamint, Cornucopia, Labquark, and Bodie events are given. Activities are also described in the following areas: computational capabilities site description, predictive modeling, and cavity-pressure measurement. Containment publications are listed. 8 references

  14. Containing Ebola at the Source with Ring Vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Merler

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Interim results from the Guinea Ebola ring vaccination trial suggest high efficacy of the rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine. These findings open the door to the use of ring vaccination strategies in which the contacts and contacts of contacts of each index case are promptly vaccinated to contain future Ebola virus disease outbreaks. To provide a numerical estimate of the effectiveness of ring vaccination strategies we introduce a spatially explicit agent-based model to simulate Ebola outbreaks in the Pujehun district, Sierra Leone, structurally similar to previous modelling approaches. We find that ring vaccination can successfully contain an outbreak for values of the effective reproduction number up to 1.6. Through an extensive sensitivity analysis of parameters characterising the readiness and capacity of the health care system, we identify interventions that, alongside ring vaccination, could increase the likelihood of containment. In particular, shortening the time from symptoms onset to hospitalisation to 2-3 days on average through improved contact tracing procedures, adding a 2km spatial component to the vaccination ring, and decreasing human mobility by quarantining affected areas might contribute increase our ability to contain outbreaks with effective reproduction number up to 2.6. These results have implications for future control of Ebola and other emerging infectious disease threats.

  15. 77 FR 40637 - Smurfit-Stone Container Corporation, Containerboard Mill, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... Corporation, Containerboard Mill, Including On-Site Leased Workers From KMW Enterprises and General Security... Assistance on May 6, 2010, applicable to workers of Smurfit-Stone Container Corporation, Containerboard Mill... Ontonagon, Michigan location of Smurfit-Stone Container Corporation, Containerboard Mill, Ontonagon...

  16. 75 FR 69471 - Smurfit-Stone Container Corporation, Containerboard Mill, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... Corporation, Containerboard Mill, Including On-Site Leased Workers From KMW Enterprises, Ontonagon, MI... to workers of Smurfit-Stone Container Corporation, Containerboard Mill, Ontonagon, Michigan. The... Ontonagon, Michigan location of Smurfit-Stone Container Corporation, Containerboard Mill. The Department has...

  17. 77 FR 53234 - Certain Communication Equipment, Components Thereof, and Products Containing the Same, Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... respondents, including Avaya of Basking Ridge, New Jersey; Cisco Consumer Products LLC of Irvine, California, Cisco Systems International B.V. of the Netherlands, Cisco-Linksys LLC of Irvine, California (collectively, ``Cisco''); Hewlett-Packard Co. (``HP'') of Palo Alto, California; and Extreme Networks, Inc...

  18. STACE: source term analyses for containment evaluations of transport casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seager, K.D.; Gianoulakis, S.E.; Barrett, P.R.; Rashid, Y.R.; Reardon, P.C.

    1993-01-01

    STACE evaluates the calculated fuel rod response against failure criteria based on the cladding residual ductility and fracture properties as functions of irradiation and thermal environments. The fuel rod gap inventory contains three forms of releasable RAM: (1) gaseous, e.g., 85 Kr, (2) volatiles, e.g., 134 Cs and 137 Cs, and (3) actinides associated with fuel fines. The quantities of these products are limited to that contained within the fuel-cladding gap region and associated interconnected voids. Cladding pinhole failure will also result in the ejection of about 0.003 percent of the fuel, in the form of fines, into the cask cavity. Significant attenuation of the aerosol concentration in the transport cask can occur, depending upon the residence time of the aerosol in the cask compared with its rate of escape from the cask into the environment. (J.P.N.)

  19. Nanofabrication of Plasmonic Circuits Containing Single Photon Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siampour, Hamidreza; Kumar, Shailesh; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2017-01-01

    Nanofabrication of photonic components based on dielectric loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides (DLSPPWs) excited by single nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in nanodiamonds is demonstrated. DLSPPW circuits are built around NV containing nanodiamonds, which are certified to be single-photon...... emitters, using electron-beam lithography of hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) resist on silver-coated silicon substrates. A propagation length of 20 ± 5 μm for the NV single-photon emission is measured with DLSPPWs. A 5-fold enhancement in the total decay rate, and 58% coupling efficiency to the DLSPPW mode...

  20. Incineration of urban solid waste containing radioactive sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronchin, G.P., E-mail: giulio.ronchin@mail.polimi.i [Dipartimento di Energia (Sezione nucleare - Cesnef), Politecnico di Milano, Via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Campi, F.; Porta, A.A. [Dipartimento di Energia (Sezione nucleare - Cesnef), Politecnico di Milano, Via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2011-01-15

    Incineration of urban solid waste accidentally contaminated by orphan sources or radioactive material is a potential risk for environment and public health. Moreover, production and emission of radioactive fumes can cause a heavy contamination of the plant, leading to important economic detriment. In order to prevent such a hazard, in February 2004 a radiometric portal for detection of radioactive material in incoming waste has been installed at AMSA (Azienda Milanese per i Servizi Ambientali) 'Silla 2' urban solid waste incineration plant of Milan. Radioactive detections performed from installation time up to December 2006 consist entirely of low-activity material contaminated from radiopharmaceuticals (mainly {sup 131}I). In this work an estimate of the dose that would have been committed to population, due to incineration of the radioactive material detected by the radiometric portal, has been evaluated. Furthermore, public health and environmental effects due to incineration of a high-activity source have been estimated. Incineration of the contaminated material detected appears to have negligible effects at all; the evaluated annual collective dose, almost entirely conferred by {sup 131}I, is indeed 0.1 man mSv. Otherwise, incineration of a 3.7 x 10{sup 10} Bq (1 Ci) source of {sup 137}Cs, assumed as reference accident, could result in a light environmental contamination involving a large area. Although the maximum total dose, owing to inhalation and submersion, committed to a single individual appears to be negligible (less than 10{sup -8} Sv), the environmental contamination leads to a potential important exposure due to ingestion of contaminated foods. With respect to 'Silla 2' plant and to the worst meteorological conditions, the evaluated collective dose results in 0.34 man Sv. Performed analyses have confirmed that radiometric portals, which are today mainly used in foundries, represent a valid public health and environmental

  1. Impact simulation of liquid-filled containers including fluid-structure interaction--Part 1: Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauve, R.G.; Morandin, G.D.; Nadeau, E.

    1993-01-01

    In a number of applications, the hydrodynamic effect of a fluid must be included in the structural evaluation of liquid-filled vessels undergoing transient loading. Prime examples are liquid radioactive waste transportation packages. These packages must demonstrate the ability to withstand severe accidental impact scenarios. A hydrodynamic model of the fluid is developed using a finite element discretization of the momentum equations for a three-dimensional continuum. An inviscid fluid model with an isotropic stress state is considered. A barotropic equation of state, relating volumetric strain to pressure, is used to characterize the fluid behavior. The formulation considers the continuum as a compressible medium only, so that no tension fields are permitted. The numerical technique is incorporated into the existing general-purpose three-dimensional structural computer code H3DMAP. Part 1 of the paper describes the theory and implementation along with comparisons with classical theory. Part 2 describes the experimental validations of the theoretical approach. Excellent correlation between predicted and experimental results is obtained

  2. Composting of soils/sediments and sludges containing toxic organics including high energy explosives. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, R.C.; Kitchens, J.F.

    1993-07-01

    Laboratory and pilot-scale experimentation were conducted to evaluate composting as an on-site treatment technology to remediate soils contaminated with hazardous waste at DOE`s PANTEX Plant. Suspected contaminated sites within the PANTEX Plant were sampled and analyzed for explosives, other organics, and inorganic wastes. Soils in drainage ditches and playas at PANTEX Plant were found to be contaminated with low levels of explosives (including RDX, HMX, PETN and TATB). Additional sites previously used for solvent disposal were heavily contaminated with solvents and transformation products of the solvent, as well as explosives and by-products of explosives. Laboratory studies were conducted using {sup 14}C-labeled explosives and {sup 14}C-labeled diacetone alcohol contaminated soil loaded into horse manure/hay composts at three rates: 20, 30, and 40%(W/W). The composts were incubated for six weeks at approximately 60{degree}C with continuous aeration. All explosives degraded rapidly and were reduced to below detection limits within 3 weeks in the laboratory studies. {sup 14}C-degradates from {sup 14}C-RDX, {sup 14}C-HMX and {sup 14}C-TATB were largely limited to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} and unextracted residue in the compost. Volatile and non-volatile {sup 14}C-degradates were found to result from {sup 14}C-PETN breakdown, but these compounds were not identified. {sup 14}C-diacetone alcohol concentrations were significantly reduced during composting. However, most of the radioactivity was volatilized from the compost as non-{sup 14}CO{sub 2} degradates or as {sup 14}C-diacetone alcohol. Pilot scale composts loaded with explosives contaminated soil at 30% (W/W) with intermittent aeration were monitored over six weeks. Data from the pilot-scale study generally was in agreement with the laboratory studies. However, the {sup 14}C-labeled TATB degraded much faster than the unlabeled TATB. Some formulations of TATB may be more resistant to composting activity than others.

  3. Pseudodynamic Source Characterization for Strike-Slip Faulting Including Stress Heterogeneity and Super-Shear Ruptures

    KAUST Repository

    Mena, B.

    2012-08-08

    Reliable ground‐motion prediction for future earthquakes depends on the ability to simulate realistic earthquake source models. Though dynamic rupture calculations have recently become more popular, they are still computationally demanding. An alternative is to invoke the framework of pseudodynamic (PD) source characterizations that use simple relationships between kinematic and dynamic source parameters to build physically self‐consistent kinematic models. Based on the PD approach of Guatteri et al. (2004), we propose new relationships for PD models for moderate‐to‐large strike‐slip earthquakes that include local supershear rupture speed due to stress heterogeneities. We conduct dynamic rupture simulations using stochastic initial stress distributions to generate a suite of source models in the magnitude Mw 6–8. This set of models shows that local supershear rupture speed prevails for all earthquake sizes, and that the local rise‐time distribution is not controlled by the overall fault geometry, but rather by local stress changes on the faults. Based on these findings, we derive a new set of relations for the proposed PD source characterization that accounts for earthquake size, buried and surface ruptures, and includes local rise‐time variations and supershear rupture speed. By applying the proposed PD source characterization to several well‐recorded past earthquakes, we verify that significant improvements in fitting synthetic ground motion to observed ones is achieved when comparing our new approach with the model of Guatteri et al. (2004). The proposed PD methodology can be implemented into ground‐motion simulation tools for more physically reliable prediction of shaking in future earthquakes.

  4. Source term aspects associated with future PWR containment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuczera, B.; Kebler, G.; Ehrhardt, J.; Scholtyssek, W.

    1994-01-01

    The overall objective of reactor safety is to protect the population against dangerous releases of radioactive materials from nuclear power plants. In context with a reinforcement of the defense-in-depth strategy the common safety requirements on future nuclear power plants converge in the objective that these plants should be so safe that even in case of a severe accident there will be no need of off-site emergency actions such as an evacuation or resettlement of the population from the vicinity of a nuclear power plant. It is shown by the example of a future 1400 MWe pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant that this goal can be attained in principle by providing a double containment with the annulus vented via an appropriate emergency standby filter. Within the framework of severe accident consequence mitigation a set of parameters for accident conditions and emergency filter efficiencies is elaborated under which the German lower levels of intervention for evacuation are not attained. (author). 10 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs

  5. A review of a radioactive material shipping container including design, testing, upgrading compliance program and shipping logistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celovsky, A.; Lesco, R.; Gale, B.; Sypes, J.

    2003-01-01

    Ten years ago Atomic Energy of Canada developed a Type B(U)-85 shipping container for the global transport of highly radioactive materials. This paper reviews the development of the container, including a summary of the design requirements, a review of the selected materials and key design elements, and the results of the major qualification tests (drop testing, fire test, leak tightness testing, and shielding integrity tests). As a result of the testing, improvements to the structural, thermal and containment design were made. Such improvements, and reasons thereof, are noted. Also provided is a summary of the additional analysis work required to upgrade the package from a Type B(U) to a Type B(F), i.e. essentially upgrading the container to include fissile radioisotopes to the authorized radioactive contents list. Having a certified shipping container is only one aspect governing the global shipments of radioactive material. By necessity the shipment of radioactive material is a highly regulated environment. This paper also explores the experiences with other key aspects of radioactive shipments, including the service procedures used to maintain the container certification, the associated compliance program for radioactive material shipments, and the shipping logistics involved in the transport. (author)

  6. ICECON: a computer program used to calculate containment back pressure for LOCA analysis (including ice condenser plants)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-07-01

    The ICECON computer code provides a method for conservatively calculating the long term back pressure transient in the containment resulting from a hypothetical Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) for PWR plants including ice condenser containment systems. The ICECON computer code was developed from the CONTEMPT/LT-022 code. A brief discussion of the salient features of a typical ice condenser containment is presented. Details of the ice condenser models are explained. The corrections and improvements made to CONTEMPT/LT-022 are included. The organization of the code, including the calculational procedure, is outlined. The user's manual, to be used in conjunction with the CONTEMPT/LT-022 user's manual, a sample problem, a time-step study (solution convergence) and a comparison of ICECON results with the results of the NSSS vendor are presented. In general, containment pressure calculated with the ICECON code agree with those calculated by the NSSS vendor using the same mass and energy release rates to the containment

  7. A practical algorithm for distribution state estimation including renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niknam, Taher [Electronic and Electrical Department, Shiraz University of Technology, Modares Blvd., P.O. 71555-313, Shiraz (Iran); Firouzi, Bahman Bahmani [Islamic Azad University Marvdasht Branch, Marvdasht (Iran)

    2009-11-15

    Renewable energy is energy that is in continuous supply over time. These kinds of energy sources are divided into five principal renewable sources of energy: the sun, the wind, flowing water, biomass and heat from within the earth. According to some studies carried out by the research institutes, about 25% of the new generation will be generated by Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) in the near future. Therefore, it is necessary to study the impact of RESs on the power systems, especially on the distribution networks. This paper presents a practical Distribution State Estimation (DSE) including RESs and some practical consideration. The proposed algorithm is based on the combination of Nelder-Mead simplex search and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithms, called PSO-NM. The proposed algorithm can estimate load and RES output values by Weighted Least-Square (WLS) approach. Some practical considerations are var compensators, Voltage Regulators (VRs), Under Load Tap Changer (ULTC) transformer modeling, which usually have nonlinear and discrete characteristics, and unbalanced three-phase power flow equations. The comparison results with other evolutionary optimization algorithms such as original PSO, Honey Bee Mating Optimization (HBMO), Neural Networks (NNs), Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), and Genetic Algorithm (GA) for a test system demonstrate that PSO-NM is extremely effective and efficient for the DSE problems. (author)

  8. Method for contamination control and barrier apparatus with filter for containing waste materials that include dangerous particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinson, Paul A.

    1998-01-01

    A container for hazardous waste materials that includes air or other gas carrying dangerous particulate matter has incorporated in barrier material, preferably in the form of a flexible sheet, one or more filters for the dangerous particulate matter sealably attached to such barrier material. The filter is preferably a HEPA type filter and is preferably chemically bonded to the barrier materials. The filter or filters are preferably flexibly bonded to the barrier material marginally and peripherally of the filter or marginally and peripherally of air or other gas outlet openings in the barrier material, which may be a plastic bag. The filter may be provided with a backing panel of barrier material having an opening or openings for the passage of air or other gas into the filter or filters. Such backing panel is bonded marginally and peripherally thereof to the barrier material or to both it and the filter or filters. A coupling or couplings for deflating and inflating the container may be incorporated. Confining a hazardous waste material in such a container, rapidly deflating the container and disposing of the container, constitutes one aspect of the method of the invention. The chemical bonding procedure for producing the container constitutes another aspect of the method of the invention.

  9. Method for contamination control and barrier apparatus with filter for containing waste materials that include dangerous particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinson, P.A.

    1998-01-01

    A container for hazardous waste materials that includes air or other gas carrying dangerous particulate matter has incorporated barrier material, preferably in the form of a flexible sheet, and one or more filters for the dangerous particulate matter sealably attached to such barrier material. The filter is preferably a HEPA type filter and is preferably chemically bonded to the barrier materials. The filter or filters are preferably flexibly bonded to the barrier material marginally and peripherally of the filter or marginally and peripherally of air or other gas outlet openings in the barrier material, which may be a plastic bag. The filter may be provided with a backing panel of barrier material having an opening or openings for the passage of air or other gas into the filter or filters. Such backing panel is bonded marginally and peripherally thereof to the barrier material or to both it and the filter or filters. A coupling or couplings for deflating and inflating the container may be incorporated. Confining a hazardous waste material in such a container, rapidly deflating the container and disposing of the container, constitutes one aspect of the method of the invention. The chemical bonding procedure for producing the container constitutes another aspect of the method of the invention. 3 figs

  10. Safety improvement of start-up neutron source handling work by preparing new transport containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimazaki, Yosuke; Sawahata, Hiroaki; Yanagida, Yoshinori; Shinohara, Masanori; Kawamoto, Taiki; Takada, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    The conventional transport containers that have been used in HTTR start-up neutron source replacement work are not specialized type for HTTR start-up neutron source. As the risks associated with the safe handling of neutron source holders due to the above fact, the following three risks have been confirmed: (1) exposure risk due to leakage of neutron source or gamma rays, (2) risk of erroneous fall of neutron source holders, and (3) accident due to incorrect handling of transport containers. This paper reports the risks confirmed in the handling of neutron source holders associated with transport containers and the risk reduction measures, as well as the fabrication of new transport containers. By employing the size-reduction and simple structure, new transport containers have been completed at the same level of costs compared with the continuous use of the conventional transport containers, while satisfying the criteria of Type A transport materials and serving as risk preventive measures. Thus, new transport containers aimed at the risk prevention measures for the handling work of neutron source holders have been completed, and the safety of operation has been improved. (A.O.)

  11. Subjective Response to Foot-Fall Noise, Including Localization of the Source Position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunskog, Jonas; Hwang, Ha Dong; Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2011-01-01

    annoyance, using simulated binaural room impulse responses, with sources being a moving point source or a nonmoving surface source, and rooms being a room with a reverberation time of 0.5 s or an anechoic room. The paper concludes that no strong effect of the source localization on the annoyance can...

  12. Containment performance analyses for the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.H.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Georgevich, V.

    1992-10-01

    This paper discusses salient aspects of methodology, assumptions, and modeling of various features related to estimation of source terms from two conservatively scoped severe accident scenarios in the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Various containment configurations are considered for steaming-pool-type accidents and an accident involving molten core-concrete interaction. Several design features (such as rupture disks) are examined to study containment response during postulated severe accidents. Also, thermal-hydraulic response of the containment and radionuclide transport and retention in the containment are studied. The results are described as transient variations of source terms for each scenario, which are to be used for studying off-site radiological consequences and health effects for these postulated severe accidents. Also highlighted will be a comparison of source terms estimated by two different versions of the MELCOR code

  13. 76 FR 62452 - Avon Products, Inc. Including On-Site Leased Workers From Spherion/Source Right, Springdale, OH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    .... Including On-Site Leased Workers From Spherion/Source Right, Springdale, OH; Amended Certification Regarding... workers of the subject firm. The company reports that workers leased from Spherion/Source Right were...., including on-site leased workers from Spherion/Source Right, Springdale, Ohio, who became totally or...

  14. 76 FR 62451 - Avon Products, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Spherion/Source Right, Springdale...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ...., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Spherion/Source Right, Springdale, Ohio; Amended Certification... workers of the subject firm. The company reports that workers leased from Spherion/Source Right were...., including on-site leased workers from Spherion/Source Right, Springdale, Ohio, who became totally or...

  15. Hybrid Design of Electric Power Generation Systems Including Renewable Sources of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingfeng; Singh, Chanan

    2008-01-01

    With the stricter environmental regulations and diminishing fossil-fuel reserves, there is now higher emphasis on exploiting various renewable sources of energy. These alternative sources of energy are usually environmentally friendly and emit no pollutants. However, the capital investments for those renewable sources of energy are normally high,…

  16. BioContainers: an open-source and community-driven framework for software standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Veiga Leprevost, Felipe; Grüning, Björn A.; Alves Aflitos, Saulo; Röst, Hannes L.; Uszkoreit, Julian; Barsnes, Harald; Vaudel, Marc; Moreno, Pablo; Gatto, Laurent; Weber, Jonas; Bai, Mingze; Jimenez, Rafael C.; Sachsenberg, Timo; Pfeuffer, Julianus; Vera Alvarez, Roberto; Griss, Johannes; Nesvizhskii, Alexey I.; Perez-Riverol, Yasset

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Motivation BioContainers (biocontainers.pro) is an open-source and community-driven framework which provides platform independent executable environments for bioinformatics software. BioContainers allows labs of all sizes to easily install bioinformatics software, maintain multiple versions of the same software and combine tools into powerful analysis pipelines. BioContainers is based on popular open-source projects Docker and rkt frameworks, that allow software to be installed and executed under an isolated and controlled environment. Also, it provides infrastructure and basic guidelines to create, manage and distribute bioinformatics containers with a special focus on omics technologies. These containers can be integrated into more comprehensive bioinformatics pipelines and different architectures (local desktop, cloud environments or HPC clusters). Availability and Implementation The software is freely available at github.com/BioContainers/. Contact yperez@ebi.ac.uk PMID:28379341

  17. BioContainers: an open-source and community-driven framework for software standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Veiga Leprevost, Felipe; Grüning, Björn A; Alves Aflitos, Saulo; Röst, Hannes L; Uszkoreit, Julian; Barsnes, Harald; Vaudel, Marc; Moreno, Pablo; Gatto, Laurent; Weber, Jonas; Bai, Mingze; Jimenez, Rafael C; Sachsenberg, Timo; Pfeuffer, Julianus; Vera Alvarez, Roberto; Griss, Johannes; Nesvizhskii, Alexey I; Perez-Riverol, Yasset

    2017-08-15

    BioContainers (biocontainers.pro) is an open-source and community-driven framework which provides platform independent executable environments for bioinformatics software. BioContainers allows labs of all sizes to easily install bioinformatics software, maintain multiple versions of the same software and combine tools into powerful analysis pipelines. BioContainers is based on popular open-source projects Docker and rkt frameworks, that allow software to be installed and executed under an isolated and controlled environment. Also, it provides infrastructure and basic guidelines to create, manage and distribute bioinformatics containers with a special focus on omics technologies. These containers can be integrated into more comprehensive bioinformatics pipelines and different architectures (local desktop, cloud environments or HPC clusters). The software is freely available at github.com/BioContainers/. yperez@ebi.ac.uk. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  18. Energy-Water Nexus Relevant to Baseload Electricity Source Including Mini/Micro Hydropower Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, M.; Tanabe, S.; Yamada, M.

    2014-12-01

    Water, food and energy is three sacred treasures that are necessary for human beings. However, recent factors such as population growth and rapid increase in energy consumption have generated conflicting cases between water and energy. For example, there exist conflicts caused by enhanced energy use, such as between hydropower generation and riverine ecosystems and service water, between shale gas and ground water, between geothermal and hot spring water. This study aims to provide quantitative guidelines necessary for capacity building among various stakeholders to minimize water-energy conflicts in enhancing energy use. Among various kinds of renewable energy sources, we target baseload sources, especially focusing on renewable energy of which installation is required socially not only to reduce CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions but to stimulate local economy. Such renewable energy sources include micro/mini hydropower and geothermal. Three municipalities in Japan, Beppu City, Obama City and Otsuchi Town are selected as primary sites of this study. Based on the calculated potential supply and demand of micro/mini hydropower generation in Beppu City, for example, we estimate the electricity of tens through hundreds of households is covered by installing new micro/mini hydropower generation plants along each river. However, the result is based on the existing infrastructures such as roads and electric lines. This means that more potentials are expected if the local society chooses options that enhance the infrastructures to increase micro/mini hydropower generation plants. In addition, further capacity building in the local society is necessary. In Japan, for example, regulations by the river law and irrigation right restrict new entry by actors to the river. Possible influences to riverine ecosystems in installing new micro/mini hydropower generation plants should also be well taken into account. Deregulation of the existing laws relevant to rivers and

  19. SMRT has tissue-specific isoform profiles that include a form containing one CoRNR box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short, Stephen; Malartre, Marianne; Sharpe, Colin

    2005-01-01

    SMRT acts as a corepressor for a range of transcription factors. The amino-terminal part of the protein includes domains that mainly mediate transcriptional repression whilst the carboxy-terminal part includes domains that interact with nuclear receptors using up to three motifs called CoRNR boxes. The region of the SMRT primary transcript encoding the interaction domains is subject to alternative splicing that varies the inclusion of the third CoRNR box. The profile in mice includes an abundant, novel SMRT isoform that possesses just one CoRNR box. Mouse tissues therefore express SMRT isoforms containing one, two or three CoRNR boxes. In frogs, the SMRT isoform profile is tissue-specific. The mouse also shows distinct profiles generated by differential expression levels of the SMRT transcript isoforms. The formation of multiple SMRT isoforms and their tissue-specific regulation indicates a mechanism, whereby cells can define the repertoire of transcription factors regulated by SMRT

  20. Produce of seedlings of cedar in function of types of container and fertilization sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar Henrique de Castro Pias

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of cedar seedlings according to the size of containers and nutrient sources. It was tested three types of containers (Root trainers, plastic bag and plastic vase, three sources of fertilization (Conventional, Kimcoat® and Osmocote® in seven evaluations. The cedar seedlings in root trainers, fertilized with source Osmocote® presented the greatest increments in height and stem diameter when compared to another sources of fertilization. The plastic bag and plastic vase containers promoted similar seedlings height growth. However the seedlings grown in plastic vase presented greatest growth in stem diameter when compared with the ones in plastic bag.

  1. 77 FR 7 - Revisions to Labeling Requirements for Blood and Blood Components, Including Source Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ... uniform container label for blood and blood components and recommended labels that incorporated barcode... Protein Fraction (part 640, subpart I), and Immune Globulin (part 640, subpart J)). The comment noted that...

  2. A Study on Conjugate Heat Transfer Analysis of Reactor Vessel including Irradiated Structural Heat Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Kunwoo; Cho, Hyuksu; Im, Inyoung; Kim, Eunkee [KEPCO EnC, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Though Material reliability programs (MRPs) have a purpose to provide the evaluation or management methodologies for the operating RVI, the similar evaluation methodologies can be applied to the APR1400 fleet in the design stage for the evaluation of neutron irradiation effects. The purposes of this study are: to predict the thermal behavior whether or not irradiated structure heat source; to evaluate effective thermal conductivity (ETC) in relation to isotropic and anisotropic conductivity of porous media for APR1400 Reactor Vessel. The CFD simulations are performed so as to evaluate thermal behavior whether or not irradiated structure heat source and effective thermal conductivity for APR1400 Reactor Vessel. In respective of using irradiated structure heat source, the maximum temperature of fluid and core shroud for isotropic ETC are 325.8 .deg. C, 341.5 .deg. C. The total amount of irradiated structure heat source is about 5.41 MWth and not effect to fluid temperature.

  3. Disposal of TRU Waste from the PFP in pipe overpack containers to WIPP Including New Security Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HOPKINS, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    The Department of Energy is responsible for the safe management and cleanup of the DOE complex. As part of the cleanup and closure of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) located on the Hanford site, the nuclear material inventory was reviewed to determine the appropriate disposition path. Based on the nuclear material characteristics, the material was designated for stabilization and packaging for long term storage and transfer to the Savannah River Site, or a decision for discard was made. The discarded material was designated as waste material and slated for disposal to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Prior to preparing any residue wastes for disposal at the WIPP, several major activities need to be completed. As detailed a processing history as possible of the material including origin of the waste must be researched and documented. A technical basis for termination of safeguards on the material must be prepared and approved. Utilizing process knowledge and processing history, the material must be characterized, sampling requirements determined, acceptable knowledge package and waste designation completed prior to disposal. All of these activities involve several organizations including the contractor, DOE, state representatives and other regulators such as EPA. At PFP, a process has been developed for meeting the many, varied requirements and successfully used to prepare several residue waste streams including Rocky Flats incinerator ash, hanford incinerator ash and Sand, Slag and Crucible (SS and C) material for disposal. These waste residues are packed into Pipe Overpack Containers for shipment to the WIPP

  4. Calculations of radiation damage in target, container and window materials for spallation neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wechsler, M.S.; Mansur, L.K.

    1996-01-01

    Radiation damage in target, container, and window materials for spallation neutron sources is am important factor in the design of target stations for accelerator-driver transmutation technologies. Calculations are described that use the LAHET and SPECTER codes to obtain displacement and helium production rates in tungsten, 316 stainless steel, and Inconel 718, which are major target, container, and window materials, respectively. Results are compared for the three materials, based on neutron spectra for NSNS and ATW spallation neutron sources, where the neutron fluxes are normalized to give the same flux of neutrons of all energies

  5. Sucrose Fermentation by Brazilian Ethanol Production Yeasts in Media Containing Structurally Complex Nitrogen Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda Junior, Messias [UNESP; Batistote, Margareth [UNESP; Cilli, Eduardo Maffud [UNESP; Ernandes, Jose Roberto [UNESP

    2009-01-01

    Four Saccharomyces cerevisiae Brazilian industrial ethanol production strains were grown, under shaken and static conditions, in media containing 22% (w/v) sucrose supplemented with nitrogen sources varying from a single ammonium salt (ammonium sulfate) to free amino acids (casamino acids) and peptides (peptone). Sucrose fermentations by Brazilian industrial ethanol production yeasts strains were strongly affected by both the structural complexity of the nitrogen source and the availability o...

  6. Container construction for the Pu-Be source at the Atominstitut Wien

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatlisu Halit

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study was to construct a neutron source container as small as possible. For this purpose an aluminum container was ordered to reserve the Pu-Be neutron source of the TRIGA Mark-II research reactor at the Atominstitute of Austrian Universities, Vienna. The important point is the shielding of the neutrons according to the radiation protection policy at ATI. Fast neutrons, which emitted from the source, cannot be shielded directly. They have to be moderated by a suitable moderator material and then they can be absorbed using a strong neutron absorber material. The most effective moderators are elements with low atomic number; therefore hydrogen-containing materials are the major component of neutron shielding. As a moderator and absorber material together we have chosen borated polyethylene among the various materials considering its properties. It contains H and C, which are suitable moderator materials and B for neutron absorption. It is important to quickly moderate the neutron to low energy, where it can be absorbed with boron owing to the high absorption cross section. The constructed shielding, which consists of borated polyethylene, was placed into the ordered A1 container. At the end we measured the emitted radiation dose using a neutron counter at different distances from the container. (author)

  7. 13 CFR 120.102 - Funds not available from alternative sources, including personal resources of principals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... source) when that owner's liquid assets exceed the amounts specified in paragraphs (a) (1) through (3) of... applicant must inject any personal liquid assets which are in excess of two times the total financing... the applicant must inject any personal liquid assets which are in excess of one and one-half times the...

  8. Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, L.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the sources of radiation in the narrow perspective of radioactivity and the even narrow perspective of those sources that concern environmental management and restoration activities at DOE facilities, as well as a few related sources. Sources of irritation, Sources of inflammatory jingoism, and Sources of information. First, the sources of irritation fall into three categories: No reliable scientific ombudsman to speak without bias and prejudice for the public good, Technical jargon with unclear definitions exists within the radioactive nomenclature, and Scientific community keeps a low-profile with regard to public information. The next area of personal concern are the sources of inflammation. This include such things as: Plutonium being described as the most dangerous substance known to man, The amount of plutonium required to make a bomb, Talk of transuranic waste containing plutonium and its health affects, TMI-2 and Chernobyl being described as Siamese twins, Inadequate information on low-level disposal sites and current regulatory requirements under 10 CFR 61, Enhanced engineered waste disposal not being presented to the public accurately. Numerous sources of disinformation regarding low level radiation high-level radiation, Elusive nature of the scientific community, The Federal and State Health Agencies resources to address comparative risk, and Regulatory agencies speaking out without the support of the scientific community

  9. Nutrition in pregnancy: the argument for including a source of choline

    OpenAIRE

    Zeisel, Steven H

    2013-01-01

    Steven H Zeisel Nutrition Research Institute at Kannapolis, Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Kannapolis, NC, USA Abstract: Women, during pregnancy and lactation, should eat foods that contain adequate amounts of choline. A mother delivers large amounts of choline across the placenta to the fetus, and after birth she delivers large amounts of choline in milk to the infant; this greatly increases the demand on the choline stores of the mother. Adequate inta...

  10. Sensitivity of a search for cosmic ray sources including magnetic field effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, Martin; Erdmann, Martin; Mueller, Gero [III. Physikalisches Institut A, RWTH Aachen University (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    We analyze the sensitivity of a new method investigating correlations between ultra-high energy cosmic rays and extragalactic sources taking into account deflections in the galactic magnetic field. In comparisons of expected and simulated arrival directions of cosmic rays we evaluate the directional characteristics and magnitude of the field. We show that our method is capable of detecting anisotropy in data sets with a low signal fraction.

  11. Controlled Carbon Source Addition to an Alternating Nitrification-Denitrification Wastewater Treatment Process Including Biological P Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaacs, Steven Howard; Henze, Mogens

    1995-01-01

    The paper investigates the effect of adding an external carbon source on the rate of denitrification in an alternating activated sludge process including biological P removal. Two carbon sources were examined, acetate and hydrolysate derived from biologically hydrolyzed sludge. Preliminary batch ...

  12. Projects of SR sources including research and development for insertion devices in the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulipanov, G.

    1990-01-01

    Some technical information on the electron and positron storage rings - SR sources that are being constructed, used or developed at the Novosibirsk Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP), is given. The parameters and construction of wigglers and undulators (electromagnetic, superconducting, and based on permanent magnets) that are intended to be used at such storage rings are described. Various schemes of installation of wigglers, undulators and FEL at storage rings is considered. The ways of minimizing the influence of their magnetic fields on particle motion in storage rings are treated. (author)

  13. Pseudodynamic Source Characterization for Strike-Slip Faulting Including Stress Heterogeneity and Super-Shear Ruptures

    KAUST Repository

    Mena, B.; Dalguer, L. A.; Mai, Paul Martin

    2012-01-01

    . (2004), we propose new relationships for PD models for moderate‐to‐large strike‐slip earthquakes that include local supershear rupture speed due to stress heterogeneities. We conduct dynamic rupture simulations using stochastic initial stress

  14. Flows and Stratification of an Enclosure Containing Both Localised and Vertically Distributed Sources of Buoyancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Jamie; Linden, Paul

    2013-11-01

    We examine the flows and stratification established in a naturally ventilated enclosure containing both a localised and vertically distributed source of buoyancy. The enclosure is ventilated through upper and lower openings which connect the space to an external ambient. Small scale laboratory experiments were carried out with water as the working medium and buoyancy being driven directly by temperature differences. A point source plume gave localised heating while the distributed source was driven by a controllable heater mat located in the side wall of the enclosure. The transient temperatures, as well as steady state temperature profiles, were recorded and are reported here. The temperature profiles inside the enclosure were found to be dependent on the effective opening area A*, a combination of the upper and lower openings, and the ratio of buoyancy fluxes from the distributed and localised source Ψ =Bw/Bp . Industrial CASE award with ARUP.

  15. Occurance of Staphylococcus nepalensis strains in different sources including human clinical material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nováková, Dana; Pantůcek, Roman; Petrás, Petr; Koukalová, Dagmar; Sedlácek, Ivo

    2006-10-01

    Five isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci were obtained from human urine, the gastrointestinal tract of squirrel monkeys, pig skin and from the environment. All key biochemical characteristics of the tested strains corresponded with the description of Staphylococcus xylosus species. However, partial 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained from analysed strains corresponded with those of Staphylococcus nepalensis reference strains, except for two strains which differed in one residue. Ribotyping with EcoRI and HindIII restriction enzymes, whole cell protein profile analysis performed by SDS-PAGE and SmaI macrorestriction analysis were used for more precise characterization and identification of the analysed strains. Obtained results showed that EcoRI and HindIII ribotyping and whole cell protein fingerprinting are suitable and reliable methods for the differentiation of S. nepalensis strains from the other novobiocin resistant staphylococci, whereas macrorestriction analysis was found to be a good tool for strain typing. The isolation of S. nepalensis is sporadic, and according to our best knowledge this study is the first report of the occurrence of this species in human clinical material as well as in other sources.

  16. Transition to chaos in a square enclosure containing internal heat sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baytas, A.C. [Institute For Nuclear Energy, Istanbul (Turkey)

    1995-09-01

    A numerical investigation is performed to study the transition from steady to chaotic flow of a fluid confined in a two-dimensional square cavity. The cavity has rigid walls of constant temperature containing uniformly distributed internal heat source. Effects of the Rayleigh number of flow and heat transfer rates are studied. In addition to, same problem is solved for sinusoidally changing internal heat source to show its effect on the flow model and heat transfer of the enclosures. Details of oscillatory solutions and flow bifurcations are presented.

  17. Radiation dose evaluation for hypothetical accident with transport package containing Iridium-192 source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trontl, K.; Bace, M.; Pevec, D.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate dose rates for a hypothetical accident with transport package containing Iridium-192 source and to design additional shielding necessary for the safe unloading of the container, assuming that during the unloading process the whole contents of a radioactive source is unshielded and that the operation is going to take place at the site where a working area exists in the vicinity of the unloading location. Based on the calculated radiation dose rates, a single arrangement of the additional concrete shields necessary for reduction of the gamma dose rates to the permitted level is proposed. The proposed solution is optimal considering safety on one hand and costs on the other.(author)

  18. Nitrogen Metabolism in Lactating Goats Fed with Diets Containing Different Protein Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Santos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate urea excretion, nitrogen balance and microbial protein synthesis in lactating goats fed with diets containing different protein sources in the concentrate (soybean meal, cottonseed meal, aerial part of cassava hay and leucaena hay. Four Alpine goats whose mean body weight was 42.6±6.1 kg at the beginning of the experiment, a mean lactation period of 94.0±9.0 days and a production of 1.7±0.4 kg of milk were distributed in a 4×4 Latin square with four periods of 15 days. Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous, containing 103.0 g/kg of CP, 400 g/kg of Tifton 85 hay and 600 g/kg of concentrate. Diet containing cottonseed meal provided (p<0.05 increased excretion of urea and urea nitrogen in the urine (g/d and mg/kg of BW when compared with leucaena hay. The diets affected the concentrations of urea nitrogen in plasma (p<0.05 and excretion of urea nitrogen in milk, being that soybean meal and cottonseed meal showed (p<0.05 higher than the average aerial part of the cassava hay. The use of diets with cottonseed meal as protein source in the concentrate in feeding of lactating goats provides greater nitrogen excretion in urine and negative nitrogen balance, while the concentrate with leucaena hay as a source of protein, provides greater ruminal microbial protein synthesis.

  19. In vitro ruminal fermentation kinetic of diets containing forage cactus with urea and different starch sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann dos Santos Luz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate fermentation kinetic of diets based on cactus forage enriched with urea and Tifton 85 hay, containing different starch sources, using semi-automated in vitro gas production technique. Treatments were disposed in a randomized block design, with four replications, where concentrates were formulated as follows: cassava roots (FSMa, semi flint corn grains (FSMiSD, dent corn grains (FSMiD and wheat bran (FTMa. All diets were formulated to obtain 15% of crude protein. Gas pressure were measured 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 30, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h after inoculation. For fast phase maximum gas volume (Vf1, both treatments containing corn did not differ (P>0.05. FTMa differed (P<0.05 from diets composed with corn, as main starch source. Specific degradation rate of fast fraction (Kd1 was higher (P<0.05 on FSMa and FTMa diets, compared with corn diets. Colonization time (L showed lower values (P<0.05 for FTMa diet. The lowest total gas production was observed on FTMa and the highest for FSMiD, varying from 225.49 to 268.31 mL/g, respectively. Cassava roots as starch source contributes to a faster fermentation, compared to both corns, allowing a better synchronization with faster degradation nitrogen sources.

  20. Practical biosafety in the tuberculosis laboratory: containment at the source is what truly counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Soolingen, D; Wisselink, H J; Lumb, R; Anthony, R; van der Zanden, A; Gilpin, C

    2014-08-01

    In industrialised countries, sufficient resources for establishing and maintaining fully equipped biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) laboratories according to international standards are generally available. BSL-3 laboratories are designed to provide several layers of containment to protect the laboratory worker as well as the outside environment and community from risk of exposure in case of local contamination. However, such facilities are scarce in high-burden settings, primarily due to the high financial burden and complexity of the initial construction and/or regular maintenance. Measures to prevent unintended exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis during laboratory manipulation of specimens and cultures is the first, and by far the most important, aspect of containment. This paper focuses on the need for risk containment at source. Assuming that in many settings the establishment of BSL-3 laboratories with all the required features is not achievable, this paper also discusses the minimum requirements necessary to mitigate risks associated with particular laboratory procedures. The term 'TB containment laboratory' is used throughout this paper to describe the minimum requirements for a laboratory suitable for high-risk procedures. The TB containment laboratory has many, but not all, of the features of a BSL-3 laboratory.

  1. Modeling and analysis of hydrogen detonation events in the advanced neutron source reactor containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Georgevich, V.; Kim, S.H.; Valenti, S.; Simpson, D.B.; Sawruk, W.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes salient aspects of the modeling, analyses, and evaluations for hydrogen detonation in selected regions of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) containment during hypothetical severe accident conditions. Shock wave generation and transport modeling and analyses were conducted for two stratified configurations in the dome region of the high bay. Principal tools utilized for these purposes were the CTH and CET89 computer codes. Dynamic pressure loading functions were generated for key locations and used for evaluating structural response behavior for which a finite-element model was developed using the ANSYS code. For the range of conditions analyzed in the two critical dome regions, it was revealed that the ANS containment would be able to withstand detonation loads without failure. (author)

  2. Modeling and analysis of hydrogen detonation events in the Advanced Neutron Source reactor containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Georgevich, V.; Kim, S.H.; Valenti, S.N.; Simpson, D.B.; Sawruk, W.

    1994-07-01

    This paper describes salient aspects of the modeling, analyses, and evaluations for hydrogen detonation in selected regions of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) containment during hypothetical severe accident conditions. Shock wave generation and transport modeling and analyses were conducted for two stratified configurations in the dome region of the high bay. Principal tools utilized for these purposes were the CTH and CET89 computer codes. Dynamic pressure loading functions were generated for key locations and used for evaluating structural response behavior for which a finite-element model was developed using the ANSYS code. For the range of conditions analyzed in the two critical dome regions, it was revealed that the ANS containment would be able to withstand detonation loads without failure

  3. An examination of source material requirements contained in 10 CFR Part 40

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussbaumer, D.; Smith, D.A.; Wiblin, C.

    1992-10-01

    This report identifies issues for consideration for rule-making to update the requirements for source material in 10 CFR Part 40 and examines options for resolving these issues. The contemplated rulemaking is intended to update 10 CFR Part 40 to reflect current radiation protection principles and regulatory practices. It is expected that such an update would make requirements for the control of source material more comparable to those pertaining to byproduct material contained in 10 CFR Part 30. The newer biological data and dose calculation methodology reflected in revised 10 CFR Part 20 will be used in analyses of potential regulatory amendments. This report presents historical background information and discussion on the various issues identified and makes preliminary recommendations concerning needed regulatory changes and approaches to rulemaking

  4. Boron-Containing Red Light-Emitting Phosphors And Light Sources Incorporating The Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Alok Mani; Comanzo, Holly Ann; Manivannan, Venkatesan

    2006-03-28

    A boron-containing phosphor comprises a material having a formula of AD1-xEuxB9O16, wherein A is an element selected from the group consisting of Ba, Sr, Ca, Mg, and combinations thereof; D is at least an element selected from the group consisting of rare-earth metals other than europium; and x is in the range from about 0.005 to about 0.5. The phosphor is used in a blend with other phosphors in a light source for generating visible light with a high color rendering index.

  5. Wool-waste as organic nutrient source for container-grown plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D. [Mississippi State University, North Mississippi Research and Extension Center, Verona, MS 38879 (United States)], E-mail: vj40@pss.msstate.edu; Stratton, Glenn W [Department of Plant and Animal Sciences and Department of Environmental Sciences, Nova Scotia Agricultural College, Truro, NS, B2N 5E3 (Canada); Pincock, James [Department of Chemistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, B3H 4J3 (Canada); Butler, Stephanie [Department of Plant and Animal Sciences and Department of Environmental Sciences, Nova Scotia Agricultural College, Truro, NS, B2N 5E3 (Canada); Jeliazkova, Ekaterina A [Mississippi State University, Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States); Nedkov, Nedko K [Research Institute for Roses and Aromatic Crops, 49 Osvobojdenie Blv., Kazanluk (Bulgaria); Gerard, Patrick D [Department of Applied Economics and Statistics, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    A container experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that uncomposted wool wastes could be used as nutrient source and growth medium constituent for container-grown plants. The treatments were: (1) rate of wool-waste application (0 or unamended control, 20, 40, 80, and 120 g of wool per 8-in. pot), (2) growth medium constituents [(2.1) wool plus perlite, (2.2) wool plus peat, and (2.3) wool plus peat plus perlite], and (3) plant species (basil and Swiss chard). A single addition of 20, 40, 80, or 120 g of wool-waste to Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L.) and basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) in pots with growth medium provided four harvests of Swiss chard and five harvests of basil. Total basil yield from the five harvests was 1.6-5 times greater than the total yield from the unamended control, while total Swiss chard yield from the four harvests was 2-5 times greater relative to the respective unamended control. The addition of wool-waste to the growth medium increased Swiss chard and basil tissue N, and NO{sub 3}-N and NH{sub 4}-N in growth medium relative to the unamended control. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis of wool fibers sampled at the end of the experiments indicated various levels of decomposition, with some fibers retaining their original surface structure. Furthermore, most of the wool fibers' surfaces contained significant concentrations of S and much less N, P, or K. SEM/EDX revealed that some plant roots grow directly on wool-waste fibers suggesting either (1) root directional growth towards sites with greater nutrient concentration and/or (2) a possible role for roots or root exudates in wool decomposition. Results from this study suggest that uncomposted wool wastes can be used as soil amendment, growth medium constituent, and nutrient source for container-grown plants.

  6. Wool-waste as organic nutrient source for container-grown plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D.; Stratton, Glenn W.; Pincock, James; Butler, Stephanie; Jeliazkova, Ekaterina A.; Nedkov, Nedko K.; Gerard, Patrick D.

    2009-01-01

    A container experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that uncomposted wool wastes could be used as nutrient source and growth medium constituent for container-grown plants. The treatments were: (1) rate of wool-waste application (0 or unamended control, 20, 40, 80, and 120 g of wool per 8-in. pot), (2) growth medium constituents [(2.1) wool plus perlite, (2.2) wool plus peat, and (2.3) wool plus peat plus perlite], and (3) plant species (basil and Swiss chard). A single addition of 20, 40, 80, or 120 g of wool-waste to Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L.) and basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) in pots with growth medium provided four harvests of Swiss chard and five harvests of basil. Total basil yield from the five harvests was 1.6-5 times greater than the total yield from the unamended control, while total Swiss chard yield from the four harvests was 2-5 times greater relative to the respective unamended control. The addition of wool-waste to the growth medium increased Swiss chard and basil tissue N, and NO 3 -N and NH 4 -N in growth medium relative to the unamended control. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis of wool fibers sampled at the end of the experiments indicated various levels of decomposition, with some fibers retaining their original surface structure. Furthermore, most of the wool fibers' surfaces contained significant concentrations of S and much less N, P, or K. SEM/EDX revealed that some plant roots grow directly on wool-waste fibers suggesting either (1) root directional growth towards sites with greater nutrient concentration and/or (2) a possible role for roots or root exudates in wool decomposition. Results from this study suggest that uncomposted wool wastes can be used as soil amendment, growth medium constituent, and nutrient source for container-grown plants.

  7. 10 CFR 34.67 - Records of leak testing of sealed sources and devices containing depleted uranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of leak testing of sealed sources and devices containing depleted uranium. 34.67 Section 34.67 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL... Requirements § 34.67 Records of leak testing of sealed sources and devices containing depleted uranium. Each...

  8. 10 CFR 32.74 - Manufacture and distribution of sources or devices containing byproduct material for medical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manufacture and distribution of sources or devices... SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES TO MANUFACTURE OR TRANSFER CERTAIN ITEMS CONTAINING BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Generally Licensed Items § 32.74 Manufacture and distribution of sources or devices containing byproduct material for...

  9. Safety-analysis report for packaging (SARP) general-purpose heat-source module 750-Watt shipping container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitney, M.A.; Burgan, C.E.; Blauvelt, R.K.; Zocher, R.W.; Bronisz, S.E.

    1981-01-01

    The SARP includes discussions of structural integrity, thermal resistance, radiation shielding and radiological safety, nuclear criticality safety, and quality control. Extensive tests and evaluations were performed to show that the container will function effectively with respect to all required standards and when subjected to normal transportation conditions and the sequence of four hypothetical accident conditions (free drop, puncture, thermal, and water immersion). In addition, a steady state temperature profile and radiation profile were measured using two heat sources that very closely resemble the GPHS. This gave an excellent representation of the GPHS temperature and radiation profile. A nuclear criticality safety analysis determined that all safety requirements are met

  10. Free software, Open source software, licenses. A short presentation including a procedure for research software and data dissemination

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-Diaz , Teresa

    2014-01-01

    4 pages. Spanish version: Software libre, software de código abierto, licencias. Donde se propone un procedimiento de distribución de software y datos de investigación; The main goal of this document is to help the research community to understand the basic concepts of software distribution: Free software, Open source software, licenses. This document also includes a procedure for research software and data dissemination.

  11. Quantification of uncertainties in source term estimates for a BWR with Mark I containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatib-Rahbar, M.; Cazzoli, E.; Davis, R.; Ishigami, T.; Lee, M.; Nourbakhsh, H.; Schmidt, E.; Unwin, S.

    1988-01-01

    A methodology for quantification and uncertainty analysis of source terms for severe accident in light water reactors (QUASAR) has been developed. The objectives of the QUASAR program are (1) to develop a framework for performing an uncertainty evaluation of the input parameters of the phenomenological models used in the Source Term Code Package (STCP), and (2) to quantify the uncertainties in certain phenomenological aspects of source terms (that are not modeled by STCP) using state-of-the-art methods. The QUASAR methodology consists of (1) screening sensitivity analysis, where the most sensitive input variables are selected for detailed uncertainty analysis, (2) uncertainty analysis, where probability density functions (PDFs) are established for the parameters identified by the screening stage and propagated through the codes to obtain PDFs for the outputs (i.e., release fractions to the environment), and (3) distribution sensitivity analysis, which is performed to determine the sensitivity of the output PDFs to the input PDFs. In this paper attention is limited to a single accident progression sequence, namely; a station blackout accident in a BWR with a Mark I containment buildings. Identified as an important accident in the draft NUREG-1150 a station blackout involves loss of both off-site power and DC power resulting in failure of the diesels to start and in the unavailability of the high pressure injection and core isolation coding systems

  12. Impact simulation of liquid-filled containers including fluid-structure interaction--Part 2: Experimental verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauve, R.G.; Morandin, G.D.; Nadeau, E.

    1993-01-01

    In a number of applications, the hydrodynamic effect of a fluid must be included in the structural evaluation of liquid-filled vessels undergoing transient loading. Prime examples are liquid radioactive waste transportation packages. These packages must demonstrate the ability to withstand severe accidental impact scenarios. A hydrodynamic model of the fluid is developed using a finite element discretization of the momentum equations for a three-dimensional continuum. An inviscid fluid model with an isotropic stress state is considered. A barotropic equation of state, relating volumetric strain to pressure, is used to characterize the fluid behavior. The formulation considers the continuum as a compressible medium only, so that no tension fields are permitted. The numerical technique is incorporated into the existing general-purpose three-dimensional structural computer code H3DMAP. Part 1 of the paper describes the theory and implementation along with comparisons with classical theory. Part 2 describes the experimental validation of the theoretical approach. Excellent correlation between predicted and experimental results is obtained

  13. The Minister Council decree about conditions for to bring into the Polish customs area, to take away from the Polish customs area, and to transit through this area nuclear materials, radioactive sources and device including such sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.

    2002-01-01

    The decree refers to conditions for to bring into the Polish customs area, to take away from the Polish customs area, and to transit through this area nuclear materials, radioactive sources and devices containing such sources

  14. Laser-produced plasma EUV source using a colloidal microjet target containing tin dioxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Dojyo, Naoto; Sasaki, Wataru; Kubodera, Shoichi

    2006-10-01

    We realized a low-debris laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source by use of a colloidal microjet target, which contained low-concentration (6 wt%) tin-dioxide nanoparticles. An Nd:YAG laser was used to produce a plasma at the intensity on the order of 10^11 W/cm^2. The use of low concentration nanoparticles in a microjet target with a diameter of 50 μm regulated the neutral debris emission from a target, which was monitored by a silicon witness plate placed 30 cm apart from the source in a vacuum chamber. No XPS signals of tin and/or oxygen atoms were observed on the plate after ten thousand laser exposures. The low concentration nature of the target was compensated and the conversion efficiency (CE) was improved by introducing double pulses of two Nd:YAG lasers operated at 532 and 1064 nm as a result of controlling the micro-plasma characteristics. The EUV CE reached its maximum of 1.2% at the delay time of approximately 100 ns with the main laser intensiy of 2 x10^11 W/cm^2. The CE value was comparable to that of a tin bulk target, which, however, produced a significant amount of neutral debris.

  15. PDZ-containing proteins: alternative splicing as a source of functional diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierralta, Jimena; Mendoza, Carolina

    2004-12-01

    Scaffold proteins allow specific protein complexes to be assembled in particular regions of the cell at which they organize subcellular structures and signal transduction complexes. This characteristic is especially important for neurons, which are highly polarized cells. Among the domains contained by scaffold proteins, the PSD-95, Discs-large, ZO-1 (PDZ) domains are of particular relevance in signal transduction processes and maintenance of neuronal and epithelial polarity. These domains are specialized in the binding of the carboxyl termini of proteins allowing membrane proteins to be localized by the anchoring to the cytoskeleton mediated by PDZ-containing scaffold proteins. In vivo studies carried out in Drosophila have taught that the role of many scaffold proteins is not limited to a single process; thus, in many cases the same genes are expressed in different tissues and participate in apparently very diverse processes. In addition to the differential expression of interactors of scaffold proteins, the expression of variants of these molecular scaffolds as the result of the alternative processing of the genes that encode them is proving to be a very important source of variability and complexity on a main theme. Alternative splicing in the nervous system is well documented, where specific isoforms play roles in neurotransmission, ion channel function, neuronal cell recognition, and are developmentally regulated making it a major mechanism of functional diversity. Here we review the current state of knowledge about the diversity and the known function of PDZ-containing proteins in Drosophila with emphasis in the role played by alternatively processed forms in the diversity of functions attributed to this family of proteins.

  16. STEPS: source term estimation based on plant status phase 0 - the technical specifications of the containment module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vamanu, D.V.

    1998-01-01

    In the framework of Project RODOS (Real-Time On-Line Decision Support System for Nuclear Emergencies in Europe), the European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC) of the Commission of the European Communities has commissioned the development of a unified concept, body of knowledge, models and software package meant to assist the evaluation of the source term of severe nuclear accidents in light water reactors of the types prevailing on the Continent. Code-named STEPS, for 'Source Term Estimation based on Plant Status', the project has evolved as Contract RODOS D (FI4P-CT96-0048), between EAEC and consortium of expert European centres including Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, (CEA-DPI-SEAC) as Coordinator and Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (FZK-INR), the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, (STUK-NSD), the Technical Research Centre of Finland, Energy, Nuclear Energy (VTT-ET-NE), and Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule - ETH Zurich, Centre of Excellence (ETH-CERS) as Contractors. For the Phase 0 of the project, an IFIN-HH expert has been assigned by ETH-CERS to develop the Technical Specifications of the delivery component of the intended STEPS package, the CONTAINMENT Module. Sponsored by ETH-CERS headquarters in Zurich, the work was done on the premises and with the logistic support of CEA D PI-SEAC at Fontenay-aux-Roses, with the feedback processing and computer code development subsequently performed in Bucharest. The Technical Specifications of the STEPS CONTAINMENT Module were guided by specific terms of reference, including: (i) the capability of the software to function as a source term interface between targeted nuclear power plants and the RODOS System; (ii) the comparable capability of the system to be operated as a stand-alone assessment and decision support tool for a comprehensive variety of plants, nuclear emergency classes. On the technical side, the specifications had to focus on the possible

  17. Arsenic-containing soil from geogenic source in Hong Kong: Leaching characteristics and stabilization/solidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang-Shan; Beiyuan, Jingzi; Tsang, Daniel C W; Wang, Lei; Poon, Chi Sun; Li, Xiang-Dong; Fendorf, Scott

    2017-09-01

    Geogenic sources of arsenic (As) have aroused extensive environmental concerns in many countries. This study evaluated the vertical profiles, leaching characteristics, and surface characteristics of As-containing soils in Hong Kong. The results indicated that elevated levels of As (486-1985 mg kg -1 ) were mostly encountered in deeper layer (15-20 m below ground). Despite high concentrations, geogenic As displayed a high degree of chemical stability in the natural geochemical conditions, and there was minimal leaching of As in various leaching tests representing leachability, mobility, phytoavailability, and bioaccessibility. Microscopic/spectroscopic investigations suggested that As in the soils was predominantly present as As(V) in a coordination environment with Fe oxides. Sequential extraction indicated that the majority of As were strongly bound with crystalline Fe/Al oxides and residual phase. Yet, uncertainties may remain with potential As exposure through accidental ingestion and abiotic/biotic transformation due to changes in geochemical conditions. Hence, the effectiveness of stabilization/solidification (S/S) treatment was evaluated. Although the leached concentrations of As from the S/S treated soils increased to varying extent in different batch leaching tests due to the increase in alkalinity, the mobility of As was considered very low based on semi-dynamic leaching test. This suggested that As immobilization in the S/S treated soils was predominantly dependent on physical encapsulation by interlocking framework of hydration products, which could also prevent potential exposure and allow controlled utilization of S/S treated soils as monolithic materials. These results illustrate the importance of holistic assessment and treatment/management of As-containing soils for enabling flexible future land use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. EEGLAB: an open source toolbox for analysis of single-trial EEG dynamics including independent component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorme, Arnaud; Makeig, Scott

    2004-03-15

    We have developed a toolbox and graphic user interface, EEGLAB, running under the crossplatform MATLAB environment (The Mathworks, Inc.) for processing collections of single-trial and/or averaged EEG data of any number of channels. Available functions include EEG data, channel and event information importing, data visualization (scrolling, scalp map and dipole model plotting, plus multi-trial ERP-image plots), preprocessing (including artifact rejection, filtering, epoch selection, and averaging), independent component analysis (ICA) and time/frequency decompositions including channel and component cross-coherence supported by bootstrap statistical methods based on data resampling. EEGLAB functions are organized into three layers. Top-layer functions allow users to interact with the data through the graphic interface without needing to use MATLAB syntax. Menu options allow users to tune the behavior of EEGLAB to available memory. Middle-layer functions allow users to customize data processing using command history and interactive 'pop' functions. Experienced MATLAB users can use EEGLAB data structures and stand-alone signal processing functions to write custom and/or batch analysis scripts. Extensive function help and tutorial information are included. A 'plug-in' facility allows easy incorporation of new EEG modules into the main menu. EEGLAB is freely available (http://www.sccn.ucsd.edu/eeglab/) under the GNU public license for noncommercial use and open source development, together with sample data, user tutorial and extensive documentation.

  19. Separation of mycotoxin-containing sources in grain dust and determination of their mycotoxin potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmgren, M S; Lee, L S

    1986-01-01

    Two distinct reservoirs of mycotoxins exist in fungal-infected cereal grains--the fungal spores and the spore-free mycelium-substrate matrix. Many fungal spores are of respirable size and the mycelium-substrate matrix can be pulverized to form particles of respirable size during routine handling of grain. In order to determine the contribution of each source to the level of mycotoxin contamination of dust, we developed techniques to harvest and separate mycelium-substrate matrices from spores of fungi. Conventional quantitative chromatographic analyses of separated materials indicated that aflatoxin from Aspergillus parasiticus, norsolorinic acid from a mutant of A. parasiticus, and secalonic acid D from Penicillium oxalicum were concentrated in the mycelium-substrate matrices and not in the spores. In contrast, spores of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigatus contained significant concentrations of aurasperone C and fumigaclavine C, respectively; only negligible amounts of the toxins were detected in the mycelium-substrate matrices of these two fungi. PMID:3709472

  20. Chlorination of cooling water: a source of chlorine-containing organic compounds with possible environmental significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolley, R.L.; Gehrs, C.W.; Pitt, W.W. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Chlorination of cooling waters may be a source of environmentally significant pollutants. Many water-soluble chlorine-containing organic compounds of low volatility were found in a sample of cooling water chlorinated to a 2-mg/l chlorine concentration in the laboratory. The compounds were separated and detected using a coupled 36 Cl-tracer--high-resolution liquid chromatographic technique developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for determination of chlorinated organics in process effluents. For a chlorination contact time of 75 min at 25 0 C, the yield of chlorine in the form of chloro-organics amounted to 0.78% of the chlorine dosage. It is estimated that the yield is about 0.5% under typical reaction conditions in the electric power plant cooling system chosen for study. Because chlorine is commonly used to remove slime films from the cooling systems of electric power plants, as a means of maintaining high operational efficiency, it is estimated that several hundred tons of chlorinated organics are produced annually in the nation by this antifoulant process. The chromatographic elution positions of some of the separated constituents correspond to those of compounds separated and partially identified from chlorinated sewage treatment plant effluents. The results of this study indicate the formation of chloro-organics during the chlorination of cooling waters should be thoroughly examined, particularly with respect to their identification and determination of possible toxicological properties

  1. Geologic sources and concentrations of selenium in the West-Central Denver Basin, including the Toll Gate Creek watershed, Aurora, Colorado, 2003-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, Suzanne S.; Walton-Day, Katherine; Beck, Jennifer A.; Webbers, Ank; Dupree, Jean A.

    2014-01-01

    concentrations were greatest in samples containing indications of reducing conditions and organic matter (dark gray to black claystones and lignite horizons). The Toll Gate Creek watershed is situated in a unique hydrogeologic setting in the west-central part of the Denver Basin such that weathering of Cretaceous- to Tertiary-aged, non-marine, selenium-bearing rocks releases selenium to groundwater and surface water under present-day semi-arid environmental conditions. The Denver Formation contains several known and suspected geologic sources of selenium including: (1) lignite deposits; (2) tonstein partings; (3) organic-rich bentonite claystones; (4) salts formed as secondary weathering products; and possibly (5) the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Organically complexed selenium and/or selenium-bearing pyrite in the enclosing claystones are likely the primary mineral sources of selenium in the Denver Formation, and correlations between concentration of dissolved selenium and dissolved organic carbon in groundwater indicate weathering and dissolution of organically complexed selenium from organic-rich claystone is a primary process mobilizing selenium. Secondary salts accumulated along fractures and bedding planes in the weathered zone are another potential geologic source of selenium, although their composition was not specifically addressed by the solids analyses. Results from this and previous work indicate that shallow groundwater and streams similarly positioned over Denver Formation claystone units at other locations in the Denver Basin also may contain concentrations of dissolved selenium greater than the Colorado aquatic-life standard or the drinking- water standard.

  2. Thermal convection around a heat source embedded in a box containing a saturated porous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himasekhar, K.; Bau, H.H. (Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (USA))

    1988-08-01

    A study of the thermal convection around a uniform flux cylinder embedded in a box containing a saturated porous medium is carried out experimentally and theoretically. The experimental work includes heat transfer and temperature field measurements. It is observed that for low Rayleigh numbers, the flow is two dimensional and time independent. Once a critical Rayleigh number is exceeded, the flow undergoes a Hopf bifurcation and becomes three dimensional and time dependent. The theoretical study involves the numerical solution of the two-dimensional Darcy-Oberbeck-Boussinesq equations. The complicated geometry is conveniently handled by mapping the physical domain onto a rectangle via the use of boundary-fitted coordinates. The numerical code can easily be extended to handle diverse geometric configurations. For low Rayleigh numbers, the theoretical results agree favorably with the experimental observations. However, the appearance of three-dimensional flow phenomena limits the range of utility of the numerical code.

  3. Storage container of radium source newly manufactured for trial for intracavitary irradiation of cancer of the uterine cervix, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Chiaki; Sasaki, Tsuneo; Tanaka, Yoshiaki

    1977-01-01

    To decrease exposure dose from radium source to operators during the treatment of cancer of the uterine cervix, new-type storage container was manufactured and its usefullness was discussed. The new-type container manufactured for trial houses radium source, for intracavitary irradiation of cancer of the cervix, connecting with TAO-type applicator for afterloading. TLD 1200 Type was used for measurement of radiation dose, and radium 50 mCi was used per one case. The obtained results were as follows: Using the new-type container, 45-60% decrease of exposure dose in the hands and fingers and 44% decrease in the body were obtained. The exposure dose of persons engaged in work of radiotherapy for one week was only 2.2% of the maximum permissible exposure dose, The time treating radium source was shortened to 50% by using the new-type container, and the shortening of that time was a great factor of countermeasures for decreasing exposure dose to operators. From above-mentioned results, the new-type storage container can be put sufficiently to practical use as a storage container of radium source for intracavitary irradiation of cancer of the cervix (when using TAO type afterloading method). (Tsunoda, M.)

  4. On material and energy sources of formation of fuel-containing materials during Chernobyl NPP UNIT 4 accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Mikhailov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of detailed analysis of material substance of lava-like fuel-containing materials sources (FCM and clusters with high uranium concentration were presented. Material and energy balance are aggregated in a process model for optimal composition of sacrificial materials and FCM. Quantitative estimate is given for spent nuclear fuel’ afterheat in a number of other heat energy sources in reactor vault. Conclusion was made that upon condition of 50 % heat loss, remained amount of “useful” heat would be sufficient for proceeding of blast furnace version of fuel-containing materials.

  5. Source identification of uranium-containing materials at mine legacy sites in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keatley, A C; Martin, P G; Hallam, K R; Payton, O D; Awbery, R; Carvalho, F P; Oliveira, J M; Silva, L; Malta, M; Scott, T B

    2018-03-01

    Whilst prior nuclear forensic studies have focused on identifying signatures to distinguish between different uranium deposit types, this paper focuses on providing a scientific basis for source identification of materials from different uranium mine sites within a single region, which can then be potentially used within nuclear forensics. A number of different tools, including gamma spectrometry, alpha spectrometry, mineralogy and major and minor elemental analysis, have been utilised to determine the provenance of uranium mineral samples collected at eight mine sites, located within three different uranium provinces, in Portugal. A radiation survey was initially conducted by foot and/or unmanned aerial vehicle at each site to assist sample collection. The results from each mine site were then compared to determine if individual mine sites could be distinguished based on characteristic elemental and isotopic signatures. Gamma and alpha spectrometry were used to differentiate between samples from different sites and also give an indication of past milling and mining activities. Ore samples from the different mine sites were found to be very similar in terms of gangue and uranium mineralogy. However, rarer minerals or specific impurity elements, such as calcium and copper, did permit some separation of the sites examined. In addition, classification rates using linear discriminant analysis were comparable to those in the literature. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Use of open source software in estimating the effects of a severe accident on the Mark II containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sainz, E.; Arguelles, R.

    2015-09-01

    Because the spectrum of scenarios of severe accident before which must verify the integrity of the containment can be very broad, it arises here a calculation methodology to estimate the structural response of the containment without incurring in high costs for commercial software licenses, or in times and calculation excessive requirements. The capabilities of computer programs with license of open source, OpenFOAM for CFD calculations and Salome-Meca for thermal and mechanical calculations were tested. The methodology begins of the venting of mass and energy that are postulated inside the container and the values of the thermal and mechanical fields are obtained through the walls. (Author)

  7. Design, fabrication, installation and shielding integrity testing of source storage container for automatic source movement system used in TLD calibration facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, V.; Baskar, S.; Annalakshmi, O.; Jose, M.T.; Jayshree, C.P.; Choudry, Shreelatha

    2012-01-01

    A state-of-art TLD laboratory has been commissioned in January 2000 at Radiological Safety Division of Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR). The laboratory provides personnel monitoring service to 2000 occupational workers from Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research and Bhabha Atomic Research Centre facilities. The laboratory has been accredited by the Radiation Safety Systems Division (RSSD), Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) since year 2002. The laboratory has exclusive facility for the calibration of the TLD cards. As apart of accreditation procedure and taking into account of geometry effect, the dose rate at the card position is determined by the accreditation authorities by using graphite chamber (secondary or national standard instrument) and often re estimated by a condenser R meter (M/s Victoreen, Germany) by our laboratory. As per the regulatory requirement, the exposure protocols should be automated. Towards this an automatic source movement system has been augmented in the calibration facility. By using the system, the source will be brought to the irradiation position by pneumatically and exposures will be terminated by counter, timer and triggering system. To accomplish this task a lead container has been designed, fabricated and mounted at the beneath of the calibration table for the storage of source. As per the automation process, a lead container for the source storage has been designed and installed beneath to the Calibration Table. The container was designed to hold a 3Ci 137 Cs source, but present activity of the source is 1.2Ci. Hence, the shielding integrity was tested with higher active source (1.7Ci 60 Co). The dose rate measured outside on the circumference of the container at the middle of the source is found to be the same as calculated using QAD CGGP calculations. The top plug is so designed to avoid inadvertent upward movement of the source. Though, the shielding was not adequate on top of the top plug, however it does

  8. Practical biosafety in the tuberculosis laboratory: containment at the source is what truly counts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soolingen, D.; Wisselink, H.J.; Lumb, R.; Anthony, R.; Zanden, van der A.; Gilpin, C.

    2014-01-01

    In industrialised countries, sufficient resources for establishing and maintaining fully equipped biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) laboratories according to international standards are generally available. BSL-3 laboratories are designed to provide several layers of containment to protect the laboratory

  9. Novel Method To Identify Source-Associated Phylogenetic Clustering Shows that Listeria monocytogenes Includes Niche-Adapted Clonal Groups with Distinct Ecological Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nightingale, K. K.; Lyles, K.; Ayodele, M.

    2006-01-01

    population are identified (TreeStats test). Analysis of sequence data for 120 L. monocytogenes isolates revealed evidence of clustering between isolates from the same source, based on the phylogenies inferred from actA and inlA (P = 0.02 and P = 0.07, respectively; SourceCluster test). Overall, the Tree...... are biologically valid. Overall, our data show that (i) the SourceCluster and TreeStats tests can identify biologically meaningful source-associated phylogenetic clusters and (ii) L. monocytogenes includes clonal groups that have adapted to infect specific host species or colonize nonhost environments......., including humans, animals, and food. If the null hypothesis that the genetic distances for isolates within and between source populations are identical can be rejected (SourceCluster test), then particular clades in the phylogenetic tree with significant overrepresentation of sequences from a given source...

  10. Evaluation of dry-solids-blend material source for grouts containing 106-AN waste: September 1990 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilliam, T.M.; Osborne, S.C.; Francis, C.L.; Scott, T.C.

    1993-09-01

    Stabilization/solidification (S/S) is the most widely used technology for the treatment and ultimate disposal of both radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes. Such technology is being utilized in a Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for the disposal of various wastes, including 106-AN wastes, located on the Hanford Reservation. The WHC personnel have developed a grout formula for 106-AN disposal that is designed to meet stringent performance requirements. This formula consists of a dry-solids blend containing 40 wt % limestone, 28 wt % granulated blast furnace slag (BFS), 28 wt % ASTM Class F fly ash, and 4 wt % Type I-II-LA Portland cement. The blend is mixed with 106-AN waste at a ratio of 9 lb of dry-solids blend per gallon of waste. This report documents progress made to date on efforts at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in support of WHC's Grout Technology Program to assess the effects of the source of the dry-solids-blend materials on the resulting grout formula

  11. Assessing the Applicability of Currently Available Methods for Attributing Foodborne Disease to Sources, Including Food and Food Commodities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Sara Monteiro

    2013-01-01

    on the public health question being addressed, on the data requirements, on advantages and limitations of the method, and on the data availability of the country or region in question. Previous articles have described available methods for source attribution, but have focused only on foodborne microbiological...

  12. Effect of dietary calcium level and source on mineral utilisation by piglets fed diets containing exogenous phytase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, P; Gutzwiller, A

    2017-10-01

    Calcium and phosphorus are essential minerals, closely linked in digestive processes and metabolism. With widespread use of low P diets containing exogenous phytase, the optimal dietary Ca level was verified. The 40-day study evaluated the effects of Ca level (4, 7 and 10 g/kg diet) and Ca source (Ca from CaCO 3 and from Lithothamnium calcareum) on mineral utilisation in 72 piglets (7.9 ± 1.0 kg BW) fed an exogenous phytase containing diet with 2.9 g digestible P/kg. Measured parameters were growth performance, stomach mineral solubility, bone breaking strength and urinary, serum and bone mineral concentration. The apparent total tract digestibility of minerals was also assessed in the two diets with 7 g Ca/kg, using 12 additional pigs. Regardless of Ca source, increasing dietary Ca impaired feed conversion ratio, increased urinary pH, increased serum and urinary Ca, decreased serum and urinary P, decreased serum Mg and increased urinary Mg, increased serum AP activity, decreased bone Mg increased bone Zn. Bone breaking strength was improved with 7 compared to 4 g Ca/kg. Compared to CaCO 3 , Ca from Lithothamnium calcareum increased serum Mg and with, 10 g Ca/kg, it limited body weight gain. The dose response of Ca in a diet with 2.9 g digestible P/kg and including exogenous phytase indicated that: (i) a low dietary Ca was beneficial for piglet growth, but was limiting the metabolic use of P; (ii) a high dietary Ca level impaired P utilisation; (iii) the optimal P utilisation and bone breaking strength was obtained with a dietary Ca-to-digestible P ratio of 2.1 to 2.4:1; (iv). Increasing dietary Ca reduced Mg utilisation, but not Zn status, when fed at adequate level. Finally, Ca from Lithothamnium calcareum had similar effects on Ca and P metabolism as CaCO 3 , but impaired growth when fed at the highest inclusion level. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Measurement of disintegration rates of small [60Co]Co sources in lead containers by the sum-peak method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Takao; Ebihara, Hiroshi

    1991-01-01

    The sum-peak method has been applied to determine the disintegration rates of two small [ 60 Co]Co sources (30 and 350 kBq) in lead containers with several thickness by using a NaI(Tl) detector. The experimental results showed that the sum-peak method was perfectly effective for the determination of the disintegration rates (unrelated to the thicknesses of the containers) of the 350 kBq source. The sum-peak method was also absolutely effective for the 30 kBq source in the case of containers with thicknesses of 15 mm and less, but in the cases of those with thicknesses of 21, 27 and 33 mm, the disintegration rates were under-estimated and the deviations from the true disintegration rate increased rapidly with increasing thicknesses of the containers. We presume that the under-estimation of the disintegration rates was the result of the over-estimation of the areas under the sum peaks, caused by the interference of the γ-ray (2614 keV) emitted from the naturally occurring radionuclide 208 Tl. (author)

  14. Evaluating the Open Source Data Containers for Handling Big Geospatial Raster Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Hu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Big geospatial raster data pose a grand challenge to data management technologies for effective big data query and processing. To address these challenges, various big data container solutions have been developed or enhanced to facilitate data storage, retrieval, and analysis. Data containers were also developed or enhanced to handle geospatial data. For example, Rasdaman was developed to handle raster data and GeoSpark/SpatialHadoop were enhanced from Spark/Hadoop to handle vector data. However, there are few studies to systematically compare and evaluate the features and performances of these popular data containers. This paper provides a comprehensive evaluation of six popular data containers (i.e., Rasdaman, SciDB, Spark, ClimateSpark, Hive, and MongoDB for handling multi-dimensional, array-based geospatial raster datasets. Their architectures, technologies, capabilities, and performance are compared and evaluated from two perspectives: (a system design and architecture (distributed architecture, logical data model, physical data model, and data operations; and (b practical use experience and performance (data preprocessing, data uploading, query speed, and resource consumption. Four major conclusions are offered: (1 no data containers, except ClimateSpark, have good support for the HDF data format used in this paper, requiring time- and resource-consuming data preprocessing to load data; (2 SciDB, Rasdaman, and MongoDB handle small/mediate volumes of data query well, whereas Spark and ClimateSpark can handle large volumes of data with stable resource consumption; (3 SciDB and Rasdaman provide mature array-based data operation and analytical functions, while the others lack these functions for users; and (4 SciDB, Spark, and Hive have better support of user defined functions (UDFs to extend the system capability.

  15. Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) from the Magnetic Bubble Source as a Discriminator of Underground Nuclear Explosions, Including Cavity Decoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    planned shock physics experiments (SPE) 4. Design/develop a very low frequency (VLF)/ELF pulsar to serve as an underground calibration source 5...Carry out underground (in tunnels, etc.) pulsar calibration experiments  A-1 APPENDIX A. ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS CORRTEX Continuous Reflectometry...Site Office P.O. Box 98521 M/S NLV 101 Las Vegas, NV 89193-8521 ATTN: Ping Lee 1 Los Alamos National Laboratory PO Box 1663 Los Alamos, NM 87545

  16. Radiation protection with consumer products containing gaseous tritium light sources; Strahlenschutz bei Konsumguetern mit Tritium-Gaslichtquellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahders, Erio; Haeusler, Uwe [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Berlin (Germany)

    2017-08-01

    Consumer products containing gaseous tritium light sources (GTLS) were examined with respect to their radiological safety potential regarding leak tightness or accidents. The maximum tritium leakage rate of 2.7 Bq/d determined from experimental testing is well below the criterion for leak tightness of sealed radioactive sources in DIN 25426-4. In order to investigate the incorporation of tritium due to contact with consumer products, 2 scenarios were reviewed; the correct use of a tritium watch and the accident scenario with a keyring.

  17. Use of computational fluid dynamics codes for safety analysis of nuclear reactor systems, including containment. Summary report of a technical meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-11-01

    Safety analysis is an important tool for justifying the safety of nuclear power plants. Typically, this type of analysis is performed by means of system computer codes with one dimensional approximation for modelling real plant systems. However, in the nuclear area there are issues for which traditional treatment using one dimensional system codes is considered inadequate for modelling local flow and heat transfer phenomena. There is therefore increasing interest in the application of three dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes as a supplement to or in combination with system codes. There are a number of both commercial (general purpose) CFD codes as well as special codes for nuclear safety applications available. With further progress in safety analysis techniques, the increasing use of CFD codes for nuclear applications is expected. At present, the main objective with respect to CFD codes is generally to improve confidence in the available analysis tools and to achieve a more reliable approach to safety relevant issues. An exchange of views and experience can facilitate and speed up progress in the implementation of this objective. Both the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD/NEA) believed that it would be advantageous to provide a forum for such an exchange. Therefore, within the framework of the Working Group on the Analysis and Management of Accidents of the NEA's Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations, the IAEA and the NEA agreed to jointly organize the Technical Meeting on the Use of Computational Fluid Dynamics Codes for Safety Analysis of Reactor Systems, including Containment. The meeting was held in Pisa, Italy, from 11 to 14 November 2002. The publication constitutes the report of the Technical Meeting. It includes short summaries of the presentations that were made and of the discussions as well as conclusions and

  18. Potential containment materials for liquid-lead and lead-bismuth eutectic spallation neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.J.; Butt, D.P.; Beard, C.A.

    1997-11-01

    Lead (Pb) and lead-bismuth eutectic (44Pb-56Bi) have been the two primary candidate liquid-metal target materials for the production of spallation neutrons. Selection of a container material for the liquid-metal target will greatly affect the lifetime and safety of the target subsystem. For the lead target, niobium-1 (wt%) zirconium (Nb-1Zr) is a candidate containment material for liquid lead, but its poor oxidation resistance has been a major concern. The oxidation rate of Nb-1Zr was studied based on the calculations of thickness loss due to oxidation. According to these calculations, it appeared that uncoated Nb-1Zr may be used for a one-year operation at 900 C at P O 2 = 1 x 10 -6 torr, but the same material may not be used in argon with 5-ppm oxygen. Coating technologies to reduce the oxidation of Nb-1Zr are reviewed, as are other candidate refractory metals such as molybdenum, tantalum, and tungsten. For the Pb-Bi target, three candidate containment materials are suggested based on a literature survey of the materials compatibility and proton irradiation tests: Croloy 2-1/4, modified 9Cr-1Mo, and 12Cr-1Mo (HT-9) steel. These materials seem to be used only if the lead-bismuth is thoroughly deoxidized and treated with zirconium and magnesium

  19. Adaptation of the perfect linear model for ion beam formation to the case of plasma sources with electron electrostatic containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coste, Ph.; Aubert, J.; Lejeune, C.

    1991-01-01

    The extensive development of ion beam technologies in the last years, in particular for thin film deposition and etching, poses the problem of predicting the behaviour of the ion beam from convenient models. One of the existing models, the 'perfect linear model', is easy to use and provides information about the geometrical parameters of the ion beam envelope. In this model, however, the plasma potential must be close to the plasma electrode potential. Now, ion sources with electrostatic containment of the ionizing electrons -very attractive because of their improved ionization efficiency - have a plasma potential higher than the plasma electrode potential. Thus, a space-charge sheath with a non-negligible thickness exists, which modifies the equilibrium conditions of the plasma meniscus and, therefore, the initial divergence of the ion beam. In this paper an adaptation of the perfect linear model for ion beam formation to the case of plasma sources with electron electrostatic containment is presented. (author)

  20. Hydrogen distribution in a containment with a high-velocity hydrogen-steam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, G.R.; Muhlestein, L.D.; Postma, A.K.; Claybrook, S.W.

    1982-09-01

    Hydrogen mixing and distribution tests are reported for a modeled high velocity hydrogen-steam release from a postulated small pipe break or release from a pressurizer relief tank rupture disk into the lower compartment of an Ice Condenser Plant. The tests, which in most cases used helium as a simulant for hydrogen, demonstrated that the lower compartment gas was well mixed for both hydrogen release conditions used. The gas concentration differences between any spatial locations were less than 3 volume percent during the hydrogen/steam release period and were reduced to less than 0.5 volume percent within 20 minutes after termination of the hydrogen source. The high velocity hydrogen/steam jet provided the dominant mixing mechanism; however, natural convection and forced air recirculation played important roles in providing a well mixed atmosphere following termination of the hydrogen source. 5 figures, 4 tables

  1. The action of physical power sources on the membranes are containing of ionic channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qasimov, X.M.; Qurbanov, O.Q.

    2002-01-01

    The biological membranes are the primary target at the action different kinds of irradiation, such as ionizing and ultra-violet (UV), which one result in damage of membrane structure and full loss of their biological functions. It is necessary to mark, that the molecular mechanism the action of radioactive and UV-irradiation on the transport processes which are flowing past in biological membranes, in particularly, on native Na + , K + , Ca ++ channels of muscle membranes remain till now obscure. It is supposed, that the function of transport systems can change under the action of an ionizing radiation by a direct action on a lipid matrix of membranes, inducing in them peroxide oxidation of lipids. As a test - system was used a bilayer lipid membranes with including in their modifying channel forming compounds with known chemical structure. The conductance of lipid membranes can be increase or decrease in the depending on doses of acting irradiation on the membranes with modifying agent. It was showed at the presence of a carrier cations of valinomycin the conductance of membranes at acting ionizing irradiation is inactivated. The observed inactivation can be connected to chemical transformation of free radicals, resulting a radiolysis of water. After achievement of fixed membrane conductance were irradiated with ionizing radiation and UV - irradiation. At the action an ionizing radiation in a dose 40 kV in during of time 1 min on membranes by the area 0,5 cm 2 , are containing cation selective of ion channels formed in lipid bilayers in the presence of levorin is studied. The membranes was formed in solution of 10 m M KCl at ph = 7,0. The concentration of levorin in solution made value 0,5 μgr/ml. Before the action of irradiation the conductance of membranes with modifying agent was peer 10 -3 -10 -2 ohm -1 ·cm -2 . For registration of integral conductance of the membranes on a membrane was applied a potential by value 100 mv. It was discovered, that under the

  2. Characteristics of water obtained by dewatering cyanobacteria-containing sludge formed during drinking water treatment, including C-, N-disinfection byproduct formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hangzhou; Pei, Haiyan; Jin, Yan; Xiao, Hongdi; Ma, Chunxia; Sun, Jiongming; Li, Hongmin

    2017-03-15

    This is the first study to systematically investigate the characteristics of the water obtained by dewatering cyanobacteria-containing sludge generated in the drinking water treatment plant, including formation of C- and N-disinfection by-products (DBPs). Results showed that this 'dewatering water' (DW) had different properties when the sludge was stored at different times. The content of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and microcystins (MCs) in the DW were low when the sludge was treated or disposed of within 4 days; correspondingly, the C-, N-DBP production was also low. However, due to the damage of algal cells to some extent, the DOM and MC levels increased significantly for storage time longer than 4 days; the production of C-, N-DBPs also increased. There were also obvious differences in the characteristics of the DW from sludges generated with different coagulant species. Due to the better protective effect of FeCl 3 and polymeric aluminium ferric chloride (PAFC) flocs, the DOM and MC levels and the production of C-, N-DBPs in the DW with FeCl 3 and PAFC coagulation were lower than those with AlCl 3 coagulation, even though the sludges were stored for the same amount of time. Furthermore, because of the formation of Al and Fe hydroxides, precipitated onto the surface of flocs, the soluble Al and Fe in the DW decreased with increased storage time, especially in the first four days. Overall, this study revealed the trends in variation of DW quality for cyanobacteria-containing sludges formed with different coagulants, then FeCl 3 and PAFC coagulants are recommended and sludge should be treated or disposed of within 4 days. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Importance of Including the Acoustic Medium in Rooms on the Transmission Path between Source and Receiver Rooms within a Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Dickow, Kristoffer Ahrens

    2011-01-01

    Low-frequency noise is a potential nuisance to inhabitants in lightweight building structures. Hence, development of efficient and accurat methods for prediction of noice in such buildings is important. The aim of this paper is to assess the necessity of including the acoustic medium in rooms along...

  4. Binary PVA bio-nanocomposites containing cellulose nanocrystals extracted from different natural sources: part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunati, E; Puglia, D; Luzi, F; Santulli, C; Kenny, J M; Torre, L

    2013-09-12

    PVA bio-nanocomposites reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) extracted from commercial microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and from two types of natural fibres, Phormium tenax and Flax of the Belinka variety, were produced by solvent casting in water. Morphological, thermal, mechanical and transparency properties were studied while the respective efficiency of the extraction process of CNC from the three sources was evaluated. The effect of CNC types and content on PVA properties and water absorption capacity were also evaluated. Natural fibres offered higher levels of extraction efficiency when compared with MCC hydrolysis yield. Thermal analysis proved that CNC promotes the crystallization of the PVA matrix, while improving its plastic response. It was also clarified that all PVA/CNC systems remain transparent due to CNC dispersion at the nanoscale, while being all saturated after the first 18-24h of water absorption. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Wetland Biomass Production: emergent aquatic management options and evaluations. A final subcontract report. [Includes a bibliography containing 686 references on Typha from biological abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, D.C.; Dubbe, D.R.; Garver, E.G.; Linton, P.J.

    1984-07-01

    The high yield potential and attractive chemical composition of Typha make it a particularly viable energy crop. The Minnesota research effort has demonstrated that total annual biomass yields equivalent to 30 dry tonnes/ha (13 tons/acre) are possible in planted stands. This compares with yields of total plant material between 9 and 16 dry tonnes/ha (4 to 7 tons/acre) in a typical Minnesota corn field. At least 50% of the Typha plant is comprised of a belowground rhizome system containing 40% starch and sugar. This high level of easily fermentable carbohydrate makes rhizomes an attractive feedstock for alcohol production. The aboveground portion of the plant is largely cellulose, and although it is not easily fermentable, it can be gasified or burned. This report is organized in a manner that focuses on the evaluation of the management options task. Results from stand management research performed at the University of Minnesota during 1982 and 1983 are integrated with findings from an extensive survey of relevant emergent aquatic plant research and utilization. These results and findings are then arranged in sections dealing with key steps and issues that need to be dealt with in the development of a managed emergent aquatic bio-energy system. A brief section evaluating the current status of rhizome harvesting is also included along with an indexed bibliography of the biology, ecology, and utilization of Typha which was completed with support from this SERI subcontract. 686 references, 11 figures, 17 tables.

  6. Shear bond strengths of tooth coating materials including the experimental materials contained various amounts of multi-ion releasing fillers and their effects for preventing dentin demineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, Shoko; Suzuki, Masaya; Kazama-Koide, Miku; Shinkai, Koichi

    2017-10-01

    We examined shear bond strengths (SBSs) of various tooth-coating-materials including the experimental materials to dentin and demineralization resistance of a fractured adhesive surface after the SBS testing. Three resin-type tooth-coating-materials (BC, PRG Barrier Coat; HC, Hybrid Coat II; and SF, Shield force plus) and two glass-ionomer-type tooth-coating-materials (CV, Clinpro XT Varnish; and FJ, Fuji VII) were selected. The experimental PRG Barrier Coat containing 0, 17, and 33 wt% S-PRG filler (BC0, BC17, and BC33, respectively) were developed. Each tooth-coating-material was applied to flattened dentin surfaces of extracted human teeth for SBS testing. After storing in water for 32 days with 4000 thermal cycling, the specimens were subjected to the SBS test. Specimens after SBS testing were subjected to a pH cycling test, and then, demineralization depths were measured using a polarized-light microscope. ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test were used for statistical analysis. The SBS value of FJ and CV was significantly lower than those of other materials except for BC (p coating-materials demonstrated significantly higher SBS for dentin than the glass-ionomer-type tooth-coating-materials; however, they were inferior to the glass ionomer-type tooth-coating-materials in regards to the acid resistance of the fractured adhesion surface.

  7. Synaptic vesicles contain small ribonucleic acids (sRNAs) including transfer RNA fragments (trfRNA) and microRNAs (miRNA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huinan; Wu, Cheng; Aramayo, Rodolfo; Sachs, Matthew S; Harlow, Mark L

    2015-10-08

    Synaptic vesicles (SVs) are neuronal presynaptic organelles that load and release neurotransmitter at chemical synapses. In addition to classic neurotransmitters, we have found that synaptic vesicles isolated from the electric organ of Torpedo californica, a model cholinergic synapse, contain small ribonucleic acids (sRNAs), primarily the 5' ends of transfer RNAs (tRNAs) termed tRNA fragments (trfRNAs). To test the evolutionary conservation of SV sRNAs we examined isolated SVs from the mouse central nervous system (CNS). We found abundant levels of sRNAs in mouse SVs, including trfRNAs and micro RNAs (miRNAs) known to be involved in transcriptional and translational regulation. This discovery suggests that, in addition to inducing changes in local dendritic excitability through the release of neurotransmitters, SVs may, through the release of specific trfRNAs and miRNAs, directly regulate local protein synthesis. We believe these findings have broad implications for the study of chemical synaptic transmission.

  8. Reproducibility and Practical Adoption of GEOBIA with Open-Source Software in Docker Containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Knoth

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA mostly uses proprietary software,but the interest in Free and Open-Source Software (FOSS for GEOBIA is growing. This interest stems not only from cost savings, but also from benefits concerning reproducibility and collaboration. Technical challenges hamper practical reproducibility, especially when multiple software packages are required to conduct an analysis. In this study, we use containerization to package a GEOBIA workflow in a well-defined FOSS environment. We explore the approach using two software stacks to perform an exemplary analysis detecting destruction of buildings in bi-temporal images of a conflict area. The analysis combines feature extraction techniques with segmentation and object-based analysis to detect changes using automatically-defined local reference values and to distinguish disappeared buildings from non-target structures. The resulting workflow is published as FOSS comprising both the model and data in a ready to use Docker image and a user interface for interaction with the containerized workflow. The presented solution advances GEOBIA in the following aspects: higher transparency of methodology; easier reuse and adaption of workflows; better transferability between operating systems; complete description of the software environment; and easy application of workflows by image analysis experts and non-experts. As a result, it promotes not only the reproducibility of GEOBIA, but also its practical adoption.

  9. Estimate of the Sources of Plutonium-Containing Wastes Generated from MOX Fuel Production in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudinov, K. G.; Tretyakov, A. A.; Sorokin, Yu. P.; Bondin, V. V.; Manakova, L. F.; Jardine, L. J.

    2002-02-26

    of MOX-fuel production waste is incineration or calcination, alkali sintering, and dissolution of sintered products in nitric acid. Insoluble residues are then mixed with vitrifying components and Pu sludges, vitrified, and sent for storage and disposal. Implementation of the intergovernmental agreement between Russia and the United States (US) regarding the utilization of 34 tons of weapons plutonium will also require treatment of Pu containing MOX fabrication wastes at the MCC radiochemical production plant.

  10. Estimate of the Sources of Plutonium-Containing Wastes Generated from MOX Fuel Production in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudinov, K. G.; Tretyakov, A. A.; Sorokin, Yu. P.; Bondin, V. V.; Manakova, L. F.; Jardine, L. J.

    2002-01-01

    incineration or calcination, alkali sintering, and dissolution of sintered products in nitric acid. Insoluble residues are then mixed with vitrifying components and Pu sludges, vitrified, and sent for storage and disposal. Implementation of the intergovernmental agreement between Russia and the United States (US) regarding the utilization of 34 tons of weapons plutonium will also require treatment of Pu containing MOX fabrication wastes at the MCC radiochemical production plant

  11. Review and evaluation of the Millstone Unit 3 probabilistic safety study. Containment failure modes, radiological source - terms and offsite consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatib-Rahbar, M.; Pratt, W.; Ludewig, H.

    1985-09-01

    A technical review and evaluation of the Millstone Unit 3 probabilistic safety study has been performed. It was determined that; (1) long-term damage indices (latent fatalities, person-rem, etc.) are dominated by late failure of the containment, (2) short-term damage indices (early fatalities, etc.) are dominated by bypass sequences for internally initiated events, while severe seismic sequences can also contribute significantly to early damage indices. These overall estimates of severe accident risk are extremely low compared with other societal sources of risk. Furthermore, the risks for Millstone-3 are comparable to risks from other nuclear plants at high population sites. Seismically induced accidents dominate the severe accident risks at Millstone-3. Potential mitigative features were shown not to be cost-effective for internal events. Value-impact analysis for seismic events showed that a manually actuated containment spray system might be cost-effective

  12. Standard operational radiation protection instructions for process instrumentation and control engineering applying radiometric equipment containing sealed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    According to article 16(3) of the Ordinance on the Implementation of Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection of 11 October 1984, operational radiation protection instructions have to be worked out for each type of nuclear energy application. Based on the valid legal provisions of the GDR and on experience and knowledge gained in practice, the most important operational instructions and procedures for the operation of radiometric equipment containing sealed sources were compiled. The example should enable the management to make the instructions directly applicable and, if necessary, to modify or supplement them

  13. Characterization and storage of liquid wastes containing 125Iodine in the laboratory for production of brachytherapy sources - IPEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Vitória S.; Souza, Daiane C.B. de; Barbosa, Nayane K.O.; Rodrigues, Bruna T.; Nogueira, Beatriz R.; Costa, Osvaldo L. da; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Vicente, Roberto; Rostelato, Maria E.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Radioactive sources of Iodine-125 for medical applications have been developed at the Institute for Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN) to meet the growing demand for medical applications such as brachytherapy. A dedicated laboratory is already being implemented at IPEN. Part of the processes involved in the production of sealed sources generate radioactive wastes that despite the short half-life (<100 days) have radioactive activity above the levels of exemption established by the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission. Therefore, these wastes should receive appropriate treatment and storage until they reach the levels of release into the environment. This work aims to determine the volumes of the liquid wastes generated during the production stages of the sources, as well as to propose a temporary storage system for such wastes. The applied methodology consisted in determining the volumes of wastes generated in each production cell according to the manufacturing steps. After that, activities and activity concentrations were calculated for each container used for temporary storage inside the production laboratory. The total volume stored for one year in the temporary storage, as well as the rate of entry and exit of the liquid wastes were calculated according to the source production demand and the decay time of the radionuclide, respectively. The main results showed that the time required to reach sanitary sewage disposal values is within the period of operation of the facility. The total volume generated is also within the facility's temporary storage capacity

  14. Locating single-point sources from arrival times containing large picking errors (LPEs): the virtual field optimization method (VFOM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi-Bing; Wang, Ze-Wei; Dong, Long-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Microseismic monitoring systems using local location techniques tend to be timely, automatic and stable. One basic requirement of these systems is the automatic picking of arrival times. However, arrival times generated by automated techniques always contain large picking errors (LPEs), which may make the location solution unreliable and cause the integrated system to be unstable. To overcome the LPE issue, we propose the virtual field optimization method (VFOM) for locating single-point sources. In contrast to existing approaches, the VFOM optimizes a continuous and virtually established objective function to search the space for the common intersection of the hyperboloids, which is determined by sensor pairs other than the least residual between the model-calculated and measured arrivals. The results of numerical examples and in-site blasts show that the VFOM can obtain more precise and stable solutions than traditional methods when the input data contain LPEs. Furthermore, we discuss the impact of LPEs on objective functions to determine the LPE-tolerant mechanism, velocity sensitivity and stopping criteria of the VFOM. The proposed method is also capable of locating acoustic sources using passive techniques such as passive sonar detection and acoustic emission.

  15. Muscle and liver protein synthesis in growing rats fed diets containing raw legumes as the main source of protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goena, M.; Santidrian, S.; Cuevillas, F.; Larralde, J.

    1986-01-01

    Although legumes are widely used as protein sources, their effects on protein metabolism remain quite unexplored. The authors have measured the rates of gastrocnemius muscle and liver protein synthesis in growing rats fed ad libitum over periods of 12 days on diets containing raw field bean (Vicia faba L.), raw kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), and raw bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia L.) as the major sources of protein. Diets were isocaloric and contained about 12% protein. Protein synthesis was evaluated by the constant-intravenous-infusion method, using L-/ 14 C/-tyrosine, as well as by the determination of the RNA-activity (g of newly synthesized protein/day/g RNA). Results showed that, as compared to well-fed control animals, those fed the raw legume diets exhibited a marked reduction in the rate of growth with no changes in the amount of food intake (per 100 g b.wt.). These changes were accompanied by a significant reduction in the rate of muscle protein synthesis in all legume-treated rats, being this reduction greater in the animals fed the Ph. vulgaris and V. ervilia diets. Liver protein synthesis was slightly higher in the rats fed the V. faba and V. ervilia diets, and smaller in the Ph. vulgaris-fed rats. It is suggested that both sulfur amino acid deficiency and the presence of different anti-nutritive factors in raw legumes may account for these effects

  16. Determination of the in-containment source term for a Large-Break Loss of Coolant Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    This is the report of a project that focused on one of the most important design basis accidents: the Large Break Loss Of Coolant Accident (LBLOCA) (for pressurised water reactors). The first step in the calculation of the radiological consequences of this accident is the determination of the source term inside the containment. This work deals with this part of the calculation of the LBLOCA radiological consequences for which a previous benchmark (1988) has shown wide variations in the licensing practices adopted by European countries. The calculation of this source term may naturally be split in several steps (see chapter II), corresponding to several physical stages in the release of fission products: fraction of core failure, release from the damaged fuel, airborne part of the release and the release into the reactor coolant system and the sumps, chemical behaviour of iodine in the aqueous and gas phases, natural and spray removal in the containment atmosphere. A chapter is devoted to each of these topics. In addition, two other chapters deal with the basic assumptions to define the accidental sequence and the nuclides to be considered when computing doses associated with the LBLOCA. The report describes where there is agreement between the partner organisations and where there are still differences in approach. For example, there is agreement concerning the percentage of failed fuel which could be used in future licensing assessments (however this subject is still under discussion in France, a lower value is thinkable). For existing plants, AVN (Belgium) wishes to keep the initial licensing assumptions. For the release from damaged fuel, there is not complete agreement: AVN (Belgium) wishes to maintain its present approach. IPSN (France), GRS (Germany) and NNC (UK) prefer to use their own methodologies that result in slightly different values to the proposed values for a common position. There are presently no recommendations of the release of fuel particulates

  17. Test source with container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    This standard is intended to specifiy materials, designs, identification and supply data for a frequently used line of types that serve for checking the display of radiation measuring equipment and dosemeters and may also be applied for calibration purposes. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Field Measurements of Trace Gases and Aerosols Emitted by Undersampled Combustion Sources Including Wood and Dung Cooking Fires, Garbage and Crop Residue Burning, and Indonesian Peat Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, C.; Jayarathne, T. S.; Goetz, D.; Simpson, I. J.; Selimovic, V.; Bhave, P.; Blake, D. R.; Cochrane, M. A.; Ryan, K. C.; Putra, E. I.; Saharjo, B.; Stone, E. A.; DeCarlo, P. F.; Yokelson, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Field measurements were conducted in Nepal and in the Indonesian province of Central Kalimantan to improve characterization of trace gases and aerosols emitted by undersampled combustion sources. The sources targeted included cooking with a variety of stoves, garbage burning, crop residue burning, and authentic peat fires. Trace gas and aerosol emissions were studied using a land-based Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, whole air sampling, photoacoustic extinctiometers (405 and 870nm), and filter samples that were analyzed off-line. These measurements were used to calculate fuel-based emission factors (EFs) for up to 90 gases, PM2.5, and PM2.5 constituents. The aerosol optical data measured included EFs for the scattering and absorption coefficients, the single scattering albedo (at 870 and 405 nm), as well as the absorption Ångström exponent. The emissions varied significantly by source, although light absorption by both brown and black carbon (BrC and BC, respectively) was important for all non-peat sources. For authentic peat combustion, the emissions of BC were negligible and absorption was dominated by organic aerosol. The field results from peat burning were in reasonable agreement with recent lab measurements of smoldering Kalimantan peat and compare well to the limited data available from other field studies. The EFs can be used with estimates of fuel consumption to improve regional emissions inventories and assessments of the climate and health impacts of these undersampled sources.

  19. Consumption of Dairy Yogurt Containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis and Heat-Treated Lactobacillus plantarum Improves Immune Function Including Natural Killer Cell Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ayoung; Lee, Young Ju; Yoo, Hye Jin; Kim, Minkyung; Chang, Yeeun; Lee, Dong Seog; Lee, Jong Ho

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of consuming dairy yogurt containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei (L. paracasei), Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis (B. lactis) and heat-treated Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) on immune function. A randomized, open-label, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 200 nondiabetic subjects. Over a twelve-week period, the test group consumed dairy yogurt containing probiotics each day, whereas the placebo group consumed milk. Natural killer (NK) cell activity, interleukin (IL)-12 and immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 levels were significantly increased in the test group at twelve weeks compared to baseline. Additionally, the test group had significantly greater increases in serum NK cell activity and interferon (IFN)-γ and IgG1 than placebo group. Daily consumption of dairy yogurt containing L. paracasei, B. lactis and heat-treated L. plantarum could be an effective option to improve immune function by enhancing NK cell function and IFN-γ concentration (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03051425). PMID:28561762

  20. Consumption of Dairy Yogurt Containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis and Heat-Treated Lactobacillus plantarum Improves Immune Function Including Natural Killer Cell Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoung Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of consuming dairy yogurt containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei (L. paracasei, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis (B. lactis and heat-treated Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum on immune function. A randomized, open-label, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 200 nondiabetic subjects. Over a twelve-week period, the test group consumed dairy yogurt containing probiotics each day, whereas the placebo group consumed milk. Natural killer (NK cell activity, interleukin (IL-12 and immunoglobulin (Ig G1 levels were significantly increased in the test group at twelve weeks compared to baseline. Additionally, the test group had significantly greater increases in serum NK cell activity and interferon (IFN-γ and IgG1 than placebo group. Daily consumption of dairy yogurt containing L. paracasei, B. lactis and heat-treated L. plantarum could be an effective option to improve immune function by enhancing NK cell function and IFN-γ concentration (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03051425.

  1. Consumption of Dairy Yogurt Containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis and Heat-Treated Lactobacillus plantarum Improves Immune Function Including Natural Killer Cell Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ayoung; Lee, Young Ju; Yoo, Hye Jin; Kim, Minkyung; Chang, Yeeun; Lee, Dong Seog; Lee, Jong Ho

    2017-05-31

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of consuming dairy yogurt containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei ( L. paracasei ), Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis ( B. lactis ) and heat-treated Lactobacillus plantarum ( L. plantarum ) on immune function. A randomized, open-label, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 200 nondiabetic subjects. Over a twelve-week period, the test group consumed dairy yogurt containing probiotics each day, whereas the placebo group consumed milk. Natural killer (NK) cell activity, interleukin (IL)-12 and immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 levels were significantly increased in the test group at twelve weeks compared to baseline. Additionally, the test group had significantly greater increases in serum NK cell activity and interferon (IFN)-γ and IgG1 than placebo group. Daily consumption of dairy yogurt containing L. paracasei , B. lactis and heat-treated L. plantarum could be an effective option to improve immune function by enhancing NK cell function and IFN-γ concentration (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03051425).

  2. Parenteral nutrition including an omega-3 fatty-acid-containing lipid emulsion for intensive care patients in China: a pharmacoeconomic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Y

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Yufei Feng,1 Chao Li,1 Tian Zhang,1 Lorenzo Pradelli2 1Department of Pharmacy, Beijing Hospital, National Center of Gerontology, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2AdRes Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Piazza Carlo Emanuele II, Torino, Italy Background/objectives: Parenteral nutrition (PN incorporating omega-3 fatty-acid-enriched lipid emulsions has been shown to be cost effective in Western populations. A pharmacoeconomic evaluation was performed within the Chinese intensive care unit (ICU setting. This assessed whether the additional acquisition cost of PN with omega-3 fatty-acid-enriched lipid emulsion (SMOFlipid vs standard PN was offset by improved clinical outcomes that can reduce subsequent costs. Materials and methods: A pharmacoeconomic discrete event simulation model was developed, based on an update to efficacy data from a previous international meta-analysis, with China-specific clinical and economic input parameters. Sensitivity analyses were undertaken to assess the effects of uncertainty around input parameters. Results: The model predicted that PN with an omega-3 fatty-acid-enriched lipid emulsion was more effective and less costly than PN with standard lipid emulsions for Chinese ICU patients, as follows: reduced length of overall hospital length of stay (19.48 vs 21.35 days, respectively, reduced length of ICU stay (5.03 vs 6.18 days, respectively, and prevention of 35.6% of nosocomial infections leading to a lower total cost per patient (¥47 189 [US $6937] vs ¥54 783 [US $8053], respectively. Additional treatment costs were offset by savings in overall hospital and ICU stay cost, and antibiotic cost, resulting in a mean cost saving of ¥7594 (US $1116 per patient. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of these findings. Conclusions: PN enriched with an omega-3 fatty-acid-containing lipid emulsion vs standard PN may be effective in reducing length of hospital and ICU stay and infectious complications in

  3. DHA-Containing Oilseed: A Timely Solution for the Sustainability Issues Surrounding Fish Oil Sources of the Health-Benefitting Long-Chain Omega-3 Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitessa, Soressa M.; Abeywardena, Mahinda; Wijesundera, Chakra; Nichols, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Benefits of long-chain (≥C20) omega-3 oils (LC omega-3 oils) for reduction of the risk of a range of disorders are well documented. The benefits result from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); optimal intake levels of these bioactive fatty acids for maintenance of normal health and prevention of diseases have been developed and adopted by national and international health agencies and science bodies. These developments have led to increased consumer demand for LC omega-3 oils and, coupled with increasing global population, will impact on future sustainable supply of fish. Seafood supply from aquaculture has risen over the past decades and it relies on harvest of wild catch fisheries also for its fish oil needs. Alternate sources of LC omega-3 oils are being pursued, including genetically modified soybean rich in shorter-chain stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4ω3). However, neither oils from traditional oilseeds such as linseed, nor the SDA soybean oil have shown efficient conversion to DHA. A recent breakthrough has seen the demonstration of a land plant-based oil enriched in DHA, and with omega-6 PUFA levels close to that occurring in marine sources of EPA and DHA. We review alternative sources of DHA supply with emphasis on the need for land plant oils containing EPA and DHA. PMID:24858407

  4. DHA-Containing Oilseed: A Timely Solution for the Sustainability Issues Surrounding Fish Oil Sources of the Health-Benefitting Long-Chain Omega-3 Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soressa M. Kitessa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Benefits of long-chain (≥C20 omega-3 oils (LC omega-3 oils for reduction of the risk of a range of disorders are well documented. The benefits result from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; optimal intake levels of these bioactive fatty acids for maintenance of normal health and prevention of diseases have been developed and adopted by national and international health agencies and science bodies. These developments have led to increased consumer demand for LC omega-3 oils and, coupled with increasing global population, will impact on future sustainable supply of fish. Seafood supply from aquaculture has risen over the past decades and it relies on harvest of wild catch fisheries also for its fish oil needs. Alternate sources of LC omega-3 oils are being pursued, including genetically modified soybean rich in shorter-chain stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4ω3. However, neither oils from traditional oilseeds such as linseed, nor the SDA soybean oil have shown efficient conversion to DHA. A recent breakthrough has seen the demonstration of a land plant-based oil enriched in DHA, and with omega-6 PUFA levels close to that occurring in marine sources of EPA and DHA. We review alternative sources of DHA supply with emphasis on the need for land plant oils containing EPA and DHA.

  5. DHA-containing oilseed: a timely solution for the sustainability issues surrounding fish oil sources of the health-benefitting long-chain omega-3 oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitessa, Soressa M; Abeywardena, Mahinda; Wijesundera, Chakra; Nichols, Peter D

    2014-05-22

    Benefits of long-chain (≥C20) omega-3 oils (LC omega-3 oils) for reduction of the risk of a range of disorders are well documented. The benefits result from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); optimal intake levels of these bioactive fatty acids for maintenance of normal health and prevention of diseases have been developed and adopted by national and international health agencies and science bodies. These developments have led to increased consumer demand for LC omega-3 oils and, coupled with increasing global population, will impact on future sustainable supply of fish. Seafood supply from aquaculture has risen over the past decades and it relies on harvest of wild catch fisheries also for its fish oil needs. Alternate sources of LC omega-3 oils are being pursued, including genetically modified soybean rich in shorter-chain stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4ω3). However, neither oils from traditional oilseeds such as linseed, nor the SDA soybean oil have shown efficient conversion to DHA. A recent breakthrough has seen the demonstration of a land plant-based oil enriched in DHA, and with omega-6 PUFA levels close to that occurring in marine sources of EPA and DHA. We review alternative sources of DHA supply with emphasis on the need for land plant oils containing EPA and DHA.

  6. Evaluation of severe accident risks: Methodology for the containment, source term, consequence, and risk integration analyses. Volume 1, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorham, E.D.; Breeding, R.J.; Brown, T.D.; Harper, F.T.; Helton, J.C.; Murfin, W.B.; Hora, S.C.

    1993-12-01

    NUREG-1150 examines the risk to the public from five nuclear power plants. The NUREG-1150 plant studies are Level III probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) and, as such, they consist of four analysis components: accident frequency analysis, accident progression analysis, source term analysis, and consequence analysis. This volume summarizes the methods utilized in performing the last three components and the assembly of these analyses into an overall risk assessment. The NUREG-1150 analysis approach is based on the following ideas: (1) general and relatively fast-running models for the individual analysis components, (2) well-defined interfaces between the individual analysis components, (3) use of Monte Carlo techniques together with an efficient sampling procedure to propagate uncertainties, (4) use of expert panels to develop distributions for important phenomenological issues, and (5) automation of the overall analysis. Many features of the new analysis procedures were adopted to facilitate a comprehensive treatment of uncertainty in the complete risk analysis. Uncertainties in the accident frequency, accident progression and source term analyses were included in the overall uncertainty assessment. The uncertainties in the consequence analysis were not included in this assessment. A large effort was devoted to the development of procedures for obtaining expert opinion and the execution of these procedures to quantify parameters and phenomena for which there is large uncertainty and divergent opinions in the reactor safety community

  7. batman Interacts with polycomb and trithorax group genes and encodes a BTB/POZ protein that is included in a complex containing GAGA factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucheux, M; Roignant, J-Y; Netter, S; Charollais, J; Antoniewski, C; Théodore, L

    2003-02-01

    Polycomb and trithorax group genes maintain the appropriate repressed or activated state of homeotic gene expression throughout Drosophila melanogaster development. We have previously identified the batman gene as a Polycomb group candidate since its function is necessary for the repression of Sex combs reduced. However, our present genetic analysis indicates functions of batman in both activation and repression of homeotic genes. The 127-amino-acid Batman protein is almost reduced to a BTB/POZ domain, an evolutionary conserved protein-protein interaction domain found in a large protein family. We show that this domain is involved in the interaction between Batman and the DNA binding GAGA factor encoded by the Trithorax-like gene. The GAGA factor and Batman codistribute on polytene chromosomes, coimmunoprecipitate from nuclear embryonic and larval extracts, and interact in the yeast two-hybrid assay. Batman, together with the GAGA factor, binds to MHS-70, a 70-bp fragment of the bithoraxoid Polycomb response element. This binding, like that of the GAGA factor, requires the presence of d(GA)n sequences. Together, our results suggest that batman belongs to a subset of the Polycomb/trithorax group of genes that includes Trithorax-like, whose products are involved in both activation and repression of homeotic genes.

  8. Amino acids 16-275 of minute virus of mice NS1 include a domain that specifically binds (ACCA)2-3-containing DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouw, M; Pintel, D J

    1998-11-10

    GST-NS1 purified from Escherichia coli and insect cells binds double-strand DNA in an (ACCA)2-3-dependent fashion under similar ionic conditions, independent of the presence of anti-NS1 antisera or exogenously supplied ATP and interacts with single-strand DNA and RNA in a sequence-independent manner. An amino-terminal domain (amino acids 1-275) of NS1 [GST-NS1(1-275)], representing 41% of the full-length NS1 molecule, includes a domain that binds double-strand DNA in a sequence-specific manner at levels comparable to full-length GST-NS1, as well as single-strand DNA and RNA in a sequence-independent manner. The deletion of 15 additional amino-terminal amino acids yielded a molecule [GST-NS1(1-275)] that maintained (ACCA)2-3-specific double-strand DNA binding; however, this molecule was more sensitive to increasing ionic conditions than full-length GST-NS1 and GST-NS1(1-275) and could not be demonstrated to bind single-strand nucleic acids. A quantitative filter binding assay showed that E. coli- and baculovirus-expressed GST-NS1 and E. coli GST-NS1(1-275) specifically bound double-strand DNA with similar equilibrium kinetics [as measured by their apparent equilibrium DNA binding constants (KD)], whereas GST-NS1(16-275) bound 4- to 8-fold less well. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  9. Shielding container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darling, K.A.M.

    1981-01-01

    A shielding container incorporates a dense shield, for example of depleted uranium, cast around a tubular member of curvilinear configuration for accommodating a radiation source capsule. A lining for the tubular member, in the form of a close-coiled flexible guide, provides easy replaceability to counter wear while the container is in service. Container life is extended, and maintenance costs are reduced. (author)

  10. Health risk assessment of drinking arsenic-containing groundwater in Hasilpur, Pakistan: effect of sampling area, depth, and source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Riaz Ahmad; Shahid, Muhammad; Dumat, Camille; Niazi, Nabeel Khan; Khalid, Sana; Shah, Noor Samad; Imran, Muhammad; Khalid, Samina

    2018-02-10

    Currently, several news channels and research publications have highlighted the dilemma of arsenic (As)-contaminated groundwater in Pakistan. However, there is lack of data regarding groundwater As content of various areas in Pakistan. The present study evaluated As contamination and associated health risks in previously unexplored groundwater of Hasilpur-Pakistan. Total of 61 groundwater samples were collected from different areas (rural and urban), sources (electric pump, hand pump, and tubewell) and depths (35-430 ft or 11-131 m). The water samples were analyzed for As level and other parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, cations, and anions. It was found that 41% (25 out of 61) water samples contained As (≥ 5 μg/L). Out of 25 As-contaminated water samples, 13 water samples exceeded the permissible level of WHO (10 μg/L). High As contents have been found in tubewell samples and at high sampling depths (> 300 ft). The major As-contaminated groundwater in Hasilpur is found in urban areas. Furthermore, health risk and cancer risk due to As contamination were also assessed with respect to average daily dose (ADD), hazard quotient (HQ), and carcinogenic risk (CR). The values of HQ and CR of As in Hasilpur were up to 58 and 0.00231, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed a positive correlation between groundwater As contents, pH, and depth in Hasilpur. The current study proposed the proper monitoring and management of well water in Hasilpur to minimize the As-associated health hazards.

  11. PCB-containing wood floor finish is a likely source of elevated PCBs in residents' blood, household air and dust: a case study of exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seryak Liesel M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are persistent pollutants identified worldwide as human blood and breast milk contaminants. Because they bioaccumulate, consumption of meat, fish, and dairy products predicts human blood concentrations. PCBs were also used widely in building materials, including caulks and paints, but few studies have evaluated the contribution of these exposures to body burden. Methods In an earlier study, we detected PCBs in indoor air in 31% of 120 homes on Cape Cod, MA. Two of the homes had much higher concentrations than the rest, so we retested to verify the initial finding, evaluate blood PCB concentrations of residents, and identify the PCB source. Results Air and dust concentrations remained elevated over 5 years between initial and follow-up sampling. Blood serum concentrations of PCBs in residents of the homes were generally elevated above the 95th percentile of a representative sample of the US population. Serum concentrations in residents and air and dust concentrations were especially high in a home where a resident reported use of PCB-containing floor finish in the past, and where the floor of one room was sanded and refinished just prior to sample collection. Conclusion This case-study suggests that PCB residues in homes may be more significant contributors to overall exposure than diet for some people, and that use of a commercially-available PCB-containing wood floor finish in residences during the 1950s and 1960s is an overlooked but potentially important source of current PCB exposure in the general population.

  12. Source term assessment, containment atmosphere control systems, and accident consequences. Report to CSNI by an OECD/NEA Group of experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    CSNI Report 135 summarizes the results of the work performed by CSNI's Principal Working Group No. 4 on the Source Term and Environmental Consequences (PWG4) during the period extending from 1983 to 1986. This document contains the latest information on some important topics relating to source terms, accident consequence assessment, and containment atmospheric control systems. It consists of five parts: (1) a Foreword and Executive Summary prepared by PWG4's Chairman; (2) a Report on the Technical Status of the Source Term; (3) a Report on the Technical Status of Filtration and Containment Atmosphere Control Systems for Nuclear Reactors in the Event of a Severe Accident; (4) a Report on the Technical Status of Reactor Accident Consequence Assessment; (5) a list of members of PWG4

  13. Genotypic and phenotypic diversity of Ralstonia pickettii and Ralstonia insidiosa isolates from clinical and environmental sources including High-purity Water.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Michael P

    2011-08-30

    Abstract Background Ralstonia pickettii is a nosocomial infectious agent and a significant industrial contaminant. It has been found in many different environments including clinical situations, soil and industrial High Purity Water. This study compares the phenotypic and genotypic diversity of a selection of strains of Ralstonia collected from a variety of sources. Results Ralstonia isolates (fifty-nine) from clinical, industrial and environmental origins were compared genotypically using i) Species-specific-PCR, ii) PCR and sequencing of the 16S-23S rRNA Interspatial region (ISR) iii) the fliC gene genes, iv) RAPD and BOX-PCR and v) phenotypically using biochemical testing. The species specific-PCR identified fifteen out of fifty-nine designated R. pickettii isolates as actually being the closely related species R. insidiosa. PCR-ribotyping of the 16S-23S rRNA ISR indicated few major differences between the isolates. Analysis of all isolates demonstrated different banding patterns for both the RAPD and BOX primers however these were found not to vary significantly. Conclusions R. pickettii species isolated from wide geographic and environmental sources appear to be reasonably homogenous based on genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. R. insidiosa can at present only be distinguished from R. pickettii using species specific PCR. R. pickettii and R. insidiosa isolates do not differ significantly phenotypically or genotypically based on environmental or geographical origin.

  14. High-performance control of a three-phase voltage-source converter including feedforward compensation of the estimated load current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, Andres E.; Solsona, Jorge A.; Busada, Claudio; Chiacchiarini, Hector; Valla, Maria Ines

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a new control strategy for voltage-source converters (VSC) is introduced. The proposed strategy consists of a nonlinear feedback controller based on feedback linearization plus a feedforward compensation of the estimated load current. In our proposal an energy function and the direct-axis current are considered as outputs, in order to avoid the internal dynamics. In this way, a full linearization is obtained via nonlinear transformation and feedback. An estimate of the load current is feedforwarded to improve the performance of the whole system and to diminish the capacitor size. This estimation allows to obtain a more rugged and cheaper implementation. The estimate is calculated by using a nonlinear reduced-order observer. The proposal is validated through different tests. These tests include performance in presence of switching frequency, measurement filters delays, parameters uncertainties and disturbances in the input voltage.

  15. Guide for the preparation of applications for licenses for the use of self-contained dry source-storage irradiators. Second proposed Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassin, N.

    1984-10-01

    The purpose of this regulatory guide is to provide assistance to applicants and licensees in preparing applications for new licenses, license amendments, and license renewals for the use of self-contained dry source-storage irradiators. These irradiators are constructed so that the sealed sources and the material being irradiated are contained in a shielded volume and there is no external radiation beam during the use of the irradiator. The radioisotopes most commonly used for these irradiators are cobalt-60 and cesium-137

  16. Radionuclide mass transfer rates from a pinhole in a waste container for an inventory-limited and a constant concentration source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeNeveu, D.M.

    1996-03-01

    Analytical solutions for transient and steady state diffusive mass transfer rates from a pinhole in a waste container are developed for constant concentration and inventory-limited source conditions. Mass transport in three media are considered, inside the pinhole (medium 2), outside the container (medium 3) and inside the container (medium 1). Simple equations are developed for radionuclide mass transfer rates from a pinhole. It is shown that the medium with the largest mass transfer resistance need only be considered to provide a conservative estimate of mass transfer rates. (author) 11 refs., 3 figs

  17. Improved Automotive NO (x) Aftertreatment System: Metal Ammine Complexes as NH3 Source for SCR Using Fe-Containing Zeolite Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Tue; Schmidt, Henning; Frey, Anne Mette

    2009-01-01

    Ammonia storage is a challenge in the selective catalytic reduction of NO (x) in vehicles. We propose a new system, based on metal ammines as the ammonia source. In combination with iron containing zeolites as the SCR catalyst it should be possible to obtain a low temperature system for NO (x...

  18. Low-debris, efficient laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet source by use of a regenerative liquid microjet target containing tin dioxide (SnO2) nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Dojyo, Naoto; Hamada, Masaya; Sasaki, Wataru; Kubodera, Shoichi

    2006-05-01

    We demonstrated a low-debris, efficient laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source by use of a regenerative liquid microjet target containing tin-dioxide (SnO2) nanoparticles. By using a low SnO2 concentration (6%) solution and dual laser pulses for the plasma control, we observed the EUV conversion efficiency of 1.2% with undetectable debris.

  19. Low-debris, efficient laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet source by use of a regenerative liquid microjet target containing tin dioxide (SnO2) nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Dojyo, Naoto; Hamada, Masaya; Sasaki, Wataru; Kubodera, Shoichi

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrated a low-debris, efficient laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source by use of a regenerative liquid microjet target containing tin-dioxide (SnO 2 ) nanoparticles. By using a low SnO 2 concentration (6%) solution and dual laser pulses for the plasma control, we observed the EUV conversion efficiency of 1.2% with undetectable debris

  20. sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yin Chiang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the simplified models of the ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode multiplexer network with Bernoulli random traffic sources. Based on the model, the performance measures are analyzed by the different output service schemes.

  1. Optimization of Waste Collection System Using Underground Containers with Source Separation Plan (Case Study: Zone 3 of Yazd Municipality, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Morakabatchian

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: Optimization of urban waste collection system using underground containers for wet waste and the use of temporary stations of dry wastes, considering the significant economic, environmental and aesthetic advantages can be considered as an appropriate option in Iranian cities especially in areas with hot and humid weather such as Yazd.

  2. Discharge of water containing waste emanating from land to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    containing waste (wastewater), which emanates from land-based sources and which directly impact on the marine environment. These sources include sea outfalls, storm water drains, canals, rivers and diffuse sources of pollution. To date ...

  3. Shielded container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fries, B.A.

    1978-01-01

    A shielded container for transportation of radioactive materials is disclosed in which leakage from the container is minimized due to constructional features including, inter alia, forming the container of a series of telescoping members having sliding fits between adjacent side walls and having at least two of the members including machine sealed lids and at least two of the elements including hand-tightenable caps

  4. The Flooding Water Source Analysis following the Feed Line Break at the Compartment outside Containment for Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Dong Soo [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Chan [ACT, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    The Periodic Safety Review(PSR) has been performing for the operating nuclear power plant in Korea. One of the PSR evaluation items is environmental qualification. Flooding issue for nuclear power plants designed and built in 1970 is extremely severe for main steam header compartment and main feed water line region of intermediate building and lower floor. This study presents to analyze flood level of feed water line breaks for the Westinghouse nuclear power plant. This analyses provides the mass and energy releases using the developed methodology for a break outside containment. For the analyses RETRAN-3D computer program is used.

  5. Containment at the Source during Waste Volume Reduction of Large Radioactive Components Using Oxylance High-Temperature Cutting Equipment - 13595

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeney, G. Neil

    2013-01-01

    As a waste-volume reduction and management technique, highly contaminated Control Element Drive Mechanism (CEDM) housings were severed from the Reactor Pressure Vessel Head (RPVH) inside the San Onofre Unit 2 primary containment utilizing Oxylance high-temperature cutting equipment and techniques. Presented are relevant data concerning: - Radiological profiles of the RPVH and individual CEDMs; - Design overviews of the engineering controls and the specialized confinement housings; - Utilization of specialized shielding; - Observations of apparent metallurgical-contamination coalescence phenomena at high temperatures resulting in positive control over loose-surface contamination conditions; - General results of radiological and industrial hygiene air sampling and monitoring; - Collective dose and personnel contamination event statistics; - Lessons learned. (author)

  6. Point-Source and Area-Wide Field Studies of Pyriproxyfen Autodissemination Against Urban Container-Inhabiting Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-05

    in 50 L trash cans. Oak leaves of Quercus alba (L.) and Q. rubra (L.) were used because this infusion elicits oviposition responses from container...105 ha in area (Fig. 2), whereas, the control site was in Union Beach , NJ (40.2650 lat., - 74.71026 long.) and spanned 181 ha. Both the treatment and...people/km2) than Union Beach (1384.7 people/km2). We initially intended to assess pyriproxyfen-based area-wide autodissemination by treating 25% of an

  7. Containment at the Source during Waste Volume Reduction of Large Radioactive Components Using Oxylance High-Temperature Cutting Equipment - 13595

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keeney, G. Neil [Health Physicist, HazMat CATS, LLC (United States)

    2013-07-01

    As a waste-volume reduction and management technique, highly contaminated Control Element Drive Mechanism (CEDM) housings were severed from the Reactor Pressure Vessel Head (RPVH) inside the San Onofre Unit 2 primary containment utilizing Oxylance high-temperature cutting equipment and techniques. Presented are relevant data concerning: - Radiological profiles of the RPVH and individual CEDMs; - Design overviews of the engineering controls and the specialized confinement housings; - Utilization of specialized shielding; - Observations of apparent metallurgical-contamination coalescence phenomena at high temperatures resulting in positive control over loose-surface contamination conditions; - General results of radiological and industrial hygiene air sampling and monitoring; - Collective dose and personnel contamination event statistics; - Lessons learned. (author)

  8. Radioisotopic heat source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G.J.; Selle, J.E.; Teaney, P.E.

    1975-09-30

    Disclosed is a radioisotopic heat source and method for a long life electrical generator. The source includes plutonium dioxide shards and yttrium or hafnium in a container of tantalum-tungsten-hafnium alloy, all being in a nickel alloy outer container, and subjected to heat treatment of from about 1570$sup 0$F to about 1720$sup 0$F for about one h. (auth)

  9. Developing open source, self-contained disease surveillance software applications for use in resource-limited settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Timothy C

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emerging public health threats often originate in resource-limited countries. In recognition of this fact, the World Health Organization issued revised International Health Regulations in 2005, which call for significantly increased reporting and response capabilities for all signatory nations. Electronic biosurveillance systems can improve the timeliness of public health data collection, aid in the early detection of and response to disease outbreaks, and enhance situational awareness. Methods As components of its Suite for Automated Global bioSurveillance (SAGES program, The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory developed two open-source, electronic biosurveillance systems for use in resource-limited settings. OpenESSENCE provides web-based data entry, analysis, and reporting. ESSENCE Desktop Edition provides similar capabilities for settings without internet access. Both systems may be configured to collect data using locally available cell phone technologies. Results ESSENCE Desktop Edition has been deployed for two years in the Republic of the Philippines. Local health clinics have rapidly adopted the new technology to provide daily reporting, thus eliminating the two-to-three week data lag of the previous paper-based system. Conclusions OpenESSENCE and ESSENCE Desktop Edition are two open-source software products with the capability of significantly improving disease surveillance in a wide range of resource-limited settings. These products, and other emerging surveillance technologies, can assist resource-limited countries compliance with the revised International Health Regulations.

  10. Self-assembled films containing crude extract of avocado as a source of tyrosinase for monophenol detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Nirton C.S., E-mail: nirtoncristi@gmail.com [Instituto de Física de São Carlos/Universidade de São Paulo, CP 369, 13560-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Ferreira, Reginaldo A. [Centro de Estudos e Inovação em Materiais Biofuncionais Avançados/Universidade Federal de Itajubá, CP 50, 37500-903 Itajubá, MG (Brazil); Cruz Rodrigues, Valquiria da; Guimarães, Francisco E.G. [Instituto de Física de São Carlos/Universidade de São Paulo, CP 369, 13560-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Queiroz, Alvaro A.A. de [Centro de Estudos e Inovação em Materiais Biofuncionais Avançados/Universidade Federal de Itajubá, CP 50, 37500-903 Itajubá, MG (Brazil)

    2013-10-15

    This paper reports on the use of the crude extract of avocado (CEA) fruit (Persea americana) as a source of tyrosinase enzyme. CEA was immobilized via layer by layer (LbL) technique onto indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates and applied in the detection of monophenol using a potentiometric biosensor. Poly(propylene imine) dendrimer of generation 3 (PPI-G3) was used as a counter ion in the layer by layer process due to its highly porous structure and functional groups suitable for enzyme linkage. After the immobilization of the crude CEA as multilayered films, standard samples of monophenol were detected in the 0.25–4.00 mM linear range with approximately 28 mV mM{sup −1} of sensitivity. This sensitivity is 14 times higher than the values found in the literature for a similar system. The results show that it is possible to obtain efficient and low-cost biosensors for monophenol detection using potentiometric transducers and alternative sources of enzymes without purification. - Highlights: • ITO films were functionalized with multilayers of PPI dendrimer and crude extract of avocado. • The films were applied as potentiometric biosensor for the detection of monophenol. • The proposed system presented an excellent sensitivity to monophenol (27 mV mM{sup −1})

  11. Self-assembled films containing crude extract of avocado as a source of tyrosinase for monophenol detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Nirton C.S.; Ferreira, Reginaldo A.; Cruz Rodrigues, Valquiria da; Guimarães, Francisco E.G.; Queiroz, Alvaro A.A. de

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the use of the crude extract of avocado (CEA) fruit (Persea americana) as a source of tyrosinase enzyme. CEA was immobilized via layer by layer (LbL) technique onto indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates and applied in the detection of monophenol using a potentiometric biosensor. Poly(propylene imine) dendrimer of generation 3 (PPI-G3) was used as a counter ion in the layer by layer process due to its highly porous structure and functional groups suitable for enzyme linkage. After the immobilization of the crude CEA as multilayered films, standard samples of monophenol were detected in the 0.25–4.00 mM linear range with approximately 28 mV mM −1 of sensitivity. This sensitivity is 14 times higher than the values found in the literature for a similar system. The results show that it is possible to obtain efficient and low-cost biosensors for monophenol detection using potentiometric transducers and alternative sources of enzymes without purification. - Highlights: • ITO films were functionalized with multilayers of PPI dendrimer and crude extract of avocado. • The films were applied as potentiometric biosensor for the detection of monophenol. • The proposed system presented an excellent sensitivity to monophenol (27 mV mM −1 )

  12. Container contamination as a possible source of a diarrhoea outbreak in Abou Shouk camp, Darfur province, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden, Vivien Margaret; Lamond, Elizabeth-Anne; Field, Sally A

    2005-09-01

    Diarrhoea is one of the five major causes of death in an emergency setting and one of the three main causes of death in children (Curtis and Cairncross, 2003). In June 2004, an outbreak of shigellosis was confirmed in Abou Shouk camp in the Northern Darfur province of Sudan. As water testing showed no contamination, it was assumed that post-collection contamination was happening. The decision was taken to launch a programme of mass disinfection of all water containers in order to break the contamination cycle. Diarrhoea figures from the clinics showed a fall in cases following the cleaning campaign. It is extremely difficult to obtain good and statistically rigorous data in an emergency setting, the priority being to intervene rapidly to prevent further cases of diarrhoea. However, the results do appear to indicate that the disinfection programme has had an impact on the prevalence of bloody and watery diarrhoea.

  13. Uncertainties in source term estimates for a station blackout accident in a BWR with Mark I containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.; Cazzoli, E.; Liu, Y.; Davis, R.; Nourbakhsh, H.; Schmidt, E.; Unwin, S.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, attention is limited to a single accident progression sequence, namly a station blackout accident in a BWR with a Mark I containment building. Identified as an important accident in the draft version of NUREG-1150 a station blackout involves loss of both off-site power and dc power resulting in failure of the diesels to start and in the unavailability of the high pressure injection and core isolation cooling systems. This paper illustrates the calculated uncertainties (Probability Density Functions) associated with the radiological releases into the environment for the nine fission product groups at 10 hours following the initiation of core-concrete interactions. Also shown are the results ofthe STCP base case simulation. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  14. Using mushroom farm and anaerobic digestion wastewaters as supplemental fertilizer sources for growing container nursery stock in a closed system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, C; Purvis, P; Lumis, G; Holbein, B E; Voroney, R P; Zhou, H; Liu, H-W; Alam, M Z

    2008-04-01

    Wastewaters from farm and composting operations are often rich in select nutrients that potentially can be reutilized in crop production. Liners of silverleaf dogwood (Cornus alba L. 'Argenteo-marginata'), common ninebark [Physocarpus opulifolius (L.) Maxim.], and Anthony Waterer spirea (Spiraeaxbumalda Burvénich 'Anthony Waterer') were grown in 6L containers filled with a bark-based commercial mix. Plants were fertigated daily via a computer-controlled multi-fertilizer injector with three recirculated fertilizer treatments: (1) a stock (control) solution with complete macro- and micro-nutrients, electrical conductivity (EC) 2.2 dS m(-1); (2) wastewater from a mushroom farm; and (3) process wastewater from anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste. The wastewaters used in both treatments 2 and 3 were diluted with tap water, and the computer was programmed to amend, dispense and recirculate nutrients based on the same target EC as in treatment 1. For comparison, there was a traditional controlled-release fertilizer treatment [Nutryon 17-5-12 (17N-2P-10K) plus micro-nutrients topdressed at a rate of 39 g/plant, nutrients not recirculated]. All three species responded similarly to the three recirculated fertilizer treatments. Growth with the recirculated treatments was similar and significantly higher than that obtained with controlled-release fertilizer. Throughout the study, the EC measured in wastewater-derived nutrient solutions, and also in the container substrate, were similar or close to those of the control treatment, although there were small to large differences among individual major nutrients. There was no sign of nutrient deficiency or toxicity symptoms to the plants. Small to moderate excesses in concentrations of SO(4), Na, and/or Cl were physiologically tolerable to the species.

  15. 252Cf-source-driven neutron noise measurements of subcriticality for a slab tank containing aqueous Pu-U nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalczo, J.T.; Blakeman, E.D.; Ragan, G.E.; Kryter, R.C.; Robinson, R.C.; Seino, H.

    1987-08-01

    In order to study nuclear criticality safety related to the development of fast breeder technology, 252 Cf-source-driven neutron noise analysis measurements were performed with a Pu-U nitrate solution in a slab tank of various heights and thickness varying 11.43 cm to 19.05 cm. The results and conclusions of these experiments are (1) a capability to measure the subcriticality of a multiplying system of slab geometry to a k/sub eff/ as low as 0.7 was demonstrated, (2) calculated neutron multiplication factors agreed with those from the experiments within ∼0.02, and (3) the applicability of the method for plutonium solution systems was demonstrated. This paper describes measurements in which the height of the slab was varied for a fixed thickness and the thickness varied for a fixed height, which are the first applications of this measurement method to slab geometry

  16. The occurrence and removal of algae (including cyanobacteria) and their related organic compounds from source water in Vaalkop Dam with conventional and advanced drinking water treatment processes

    OpenAIRE

    Swanepoel, A; Du Preez, HH; Cloete, N

    2017-01-01

    Cyanobacterial bloom formation in freshwaters, such as rivers, lakes and dams, is known to occur throughout the world. The Vaalkop Dam, which serves as source to the Vaalkop drinking water treatment works (DWTW), is no exception. Blooms of cyanobacteria occur annually in Vaalkop Dam as well as in dams from which Vaalkop is replenished during low-rainfall periods. These blooms during the summer months are associated with the production of cyanotoxins and taste and odour compounds such as geosm...

  17. Improvement of gamma-ray Sn transport calculations including coherent and incoherent scatterings and secondary sources of bremsstrahlung and fluorescence: Determination of gamma-ray buildup factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitsos, S.; Diop, C.M.; Assad, A.; Nimal, J.C.; Ridoux, P.

    1996-01-01

    Improvements of gamma-ray transport calculations in S n codes aim at taking into account the bound-electron effect of Compton scattering (incoherent), coherent scattering (Rayleigh), and secondary sources of bremsstrahlung and fluorescence. A computation scheme was developed to take into account these phenomena by modifying the angular and energy transfer matrices, and no modification in the transport code has been made. The incoherent and coherent scatterings as well as the fluorescence sources can be strictly treated by the transfer matrix change. For bremsstrahlung sources, this is possible if one can neglect the charged particles path as they pass through the matter (electrons and positrons) and is applicable for the energy range of interest for us (below 10 MeV). These improvements have been reported on the kernel attenuation codes by the calculation of new buildup factors. The gamma-ray buildup factors have been carried out for 25 natural elements up to 30 mean free paths in the energy range between 15 keV and 10 MeV

  18. Deposition and properties of Al-containing diamond-like carbon films by a hybrid ion beam sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Wei; Wang Aiying

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Weak carbide former, Al element, was incorporated into DLC films using a hybrid ion beams system comprising an anode-layer ion source and a magnetron sputtering unit. → The structure disorder of the films tended to decrease with Al atoms doping, which resulted in the distinct reduction of the film internal stress and hardness, but the internal stress dropped faster than the hardness. → The DLC films with low internal stress and high hardness can be acquired by Al incorporation. - Abstract: Metal incorporation is one of the most effective methods for relaxing internal stress in diamond-like carbon (DLC) films. It was reported that the chemical state of the incorporated metal atoms has a significant influence on the film internal stress. The doped atoms embedding in the DLC matrix without bonding with C atoms can reduce the structure disorder of the DLC films through bond angle distortion and thus relax the internal stress of the films. In present paper, Al atoms, which are inert to carbon, were incorporated into the DLC films deposited by a hybrid ion beams system comprising an anode-layer ion source and a magnetron sputtering unit. The film composition, microstructure and atomic bond structure were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The internal stress, mechanical properties and tribogoical behavior were studied as a function of Al concentration using a stress-tester, nanoindentation and ball-on-disc tribo-tester, respectively. The results indicated that the incorporated Al atoms were dissolved in the DLC matrix without bonding with C atoms and the films exhibited the feature of amorphous carbon. The structure disorder of the films tended to decrease with Al atoms incorporation. This resulted in the distinct reduction of the internal stress in the films. All Al-DLC films exhibited a lower friction coefficient compared with pure DLC film. The formation of the

  19. Single-source-precursor Synthesis and High-temperature Behavior of SiC Ceramics Containing Boron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Miaomiao; Fang, Yunhui; Yu, Zhaoju

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, a hyperbranched polyborocarbosilane (HPBCS) was prepared by a one-pot synthesis with Cl2Si(CH3)CH2Cl, Cl3SiCH2Cl and BCl3 as the starting materials. The obtained HPBCS was characterized by GPC, FT-IR and NMR, and was confirmed to have hyperbranched structures. The thermal property of the resulting HPBCS was investigated by TGA. The ceramic yield of the HPBCS is about 84% and that of the counterpart hyperbranched hydridopolycarbosilane is only 45%, indicating that the introduction of boron into the preceramic polymer significantly improved the ceramic yield. With the polymer-derived ceramic route, the final ceramics were annealed at 1800 °C in argon atmosphere for 2 h in order to characterize the microstructure and to evaluate the high-temperature behavior. The final ceramic microstructure was studied by XRD and SEM, indicating that the introduction of boron dramatically inhibits SiC crystallization. The boron-containing SiC ceramic shows excellent high-temperature behavior against decomposition and crystallization at 1800 °C.

  20. Cyanobacteria from Terrestrial and Marine Sources Contain Apoptogens Able to Overcome Chemoresistance in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liwei; Herfindal, Lars; Jokela, Jouni; Shishido, Tania Keiko; Wahlsten, Matti; Døskeland, Stein Ove; Sivonen, Kaarina

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated forty cyanobacterial isolates from biofilms, gastropods, brackish water and symbiotic lichen habitats. Their aqueous and organic extracts were used to screen for apoptosis-inducing activity against acute myeloid leukemia cells. A total of 28 extracts showed cytotoxicity against rat acute myeloid leukemia (IPC-81) cells. The design of the screen made it possible to eliminate known toxins, such as microcystins and nodularin, or known metabolites with anti-leukemic activity, such as adenosine and its analogs. A cytotoxicity test on human embryonic kidney (HEK293T) fibroblasts indicated that 21 of the 28 extracts containing anti-acute myeloid leukemia (AML) activity showed selectivity in favor of leukemia cells. Extracts L26-O and L30-O were able to partly overcome the chemotherapy resistance induced by the oncogenic protein Bcl-2, whereas extract L1-O overcame protection from the deletion of the tumor suppressor protein p53. In conclusion, cyanobacteria are a prolific resource for anti-leukemia compounds that have potential for pharmaceutical applications. Based on the variety of cellular responses, we also conclude that the different anti-leukemic compounds in the cyanobacterial extracts target different elements of the death machinery of mammalian cells. PMID:24705501

  1. Cyanobacteria from Terrestrial and Marine Sources Contain Apoptogens Able to Overcome Chemoresistance in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwei Liu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated forty cyanobacterial isolates from biofilms, gastropods, brackish water and symbiotic lichen habitats. Their aqueous and organic extracts were used to screen for apoptosis-inducing activity against acute myeloid leukemia cells. A total of 28 extracts showed cytotoxicity against rat acute myeloid leukemia (IPC-81 cells. The design of the screen made it possible to eliminate known toxins, such as microcystins and nodularin, or known metabolites with anti-leukemic activity, such as adenosine and its analogs. A cytotoxicity test on human embryonic kidney (HEK293T fibroblasts indicated that 21 of the 28 extracts containing anti-acute myeloid leukemia (AML activity showed selectivity in favor of leukemia cells. Extracts L26-O and L30-O were able to partly overcome the chemotherapy resistance induced by the oncogenic protein Bcl-2, whereas extract L1-O overcame protection from the deletion of the tumor suppressor protein p53. In conclusion, cyanobacteria are a prolific resource for anti-leukemia compounds that have potential for pharmaceutical applications. Based on the variety of cellular responses, we also conclude that the different anti-leukemic compounds in the cyanobacterial extracts target different elements of the death machinery of mammalian cells.

  2. CONTAIN code calculations of the effects on the source term of CsI to I/sub 2/ conversion due to severe hydrogen burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdez, G.D.; Williams, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    In experiments conducted at Sandia National Laboratories large amounts of elemental iodine were produced when CsI-Al 2 O 3 aerosol was exposed to hydrogen/air combustion. To evaluate some of the implications of the iodide conversion (observed to occur with up to 75% efficiency) for the severe accident source term, computational simulations of representative accident sequences were conducted with the CONTAIN code. The following conclusions can be drawn from this preliminary source term assessment: (1) If the containment sprays are inoperative during the accident, or failed by the hydrogen burn, the late-time source term is almost tripled when the iodide is converted to I 2 . (2) With the sprays active, the amount released without conversion of the CsI aerosol is 63% higher than for the case when conversion occurs. (3) For the case where CsI is converted to I 2 continued operation of the sprays reduces the release by a factor of 40, relative to the case in which the sprays fail at the time of the hydrogen burn. When there is no conversion, the reduction factor for continued spray operation is about a factor of 9, relative to the failed spray case

  3. Wavelet-Transform-Based Power Management of Hybrid Vehicles with Multiple On-board Energy Sources Including Fuel Cell, Battery and Ultracapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-12

    considered to be promising for application as distributed generation sources due to high efficiency and compactness [1-2], [21-24]. The PEMFC is...also a primary candidate for environment-friendly vehicles. The nomenclatures of the PEMFC are as follows: B , C : Constants to calculate the...0 O H H-O H-O 1 2 N I q q r r FU = (10) The block diagram of the PEMFC model based on the above equations is shown in Fig

  4. Development of a Distributed Source Containment Transport, Transformation, and Fate (CTT&F) Sub-Model for Military Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    includes soil erodibility terms from the Universal Soil Lass Equation ( USLE ) for estimating the overland sediment transport capacity (for both the x and y...q = unit flow rate of water = va h [L2/T] vc = critical velocity for erosion overland [L/T] K = USLE soil erodibility factor C = USLE soil ...cover factor P = USLE soil management practice factor Be = width of eroding surface in flow direction [L]. In channels, sediment particles can be

  5. Cellular Phone Towers, Cell tower locations as derived from various sources including the Department of Licenses and Inspections and the Department of Planning and Zoning., Published in 2010, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Howard County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Cellular Phone Towers dataset current as of 2010. Cell tower locations as derived from various sources including the Department of Licenses and Inspections and the...

  6. Radiation-resistant device with tubes for the introduction of a liquid, e.g., blood into a container holding a radioactive source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, I.

    1978-01-01

    The invention concerns a radiation-resistant device with tubing for the introduction/removal of a liquid (e.g. blood to and from a patient) via an at least partly curved channel into and out of a container holding a radioactive source. A break is made with the idea that it is necessary to use a circular-cylindrical tube as introduction device for the material to be irradiated. If made of materials suitable for the purpose, such tubing is safe and compressible in the longitudinal direction. The disadvantages and limitations of earlier constructions can be ascribed to this circumstance. A characteristic of the present invention is an elongated, pressure-resistant insertion ''cage'', flexible in at least one direction, used for the introduction of a minimum of one tubing into the container through the channel. The tubing enters and leaves at the same end of the insert cage. (BP)

  7. Production of Extra-Cellular Proteases from Marine Bacillus Sp. Cultured in Media Containing Ammonium Sulfate as the Sole Nitrogen Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seri Intan, M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Useful bacterial strains can be used to increase mineralize activity of an aquatic system. These bacteria can specifically degrade targeted compound by producing extra-cellular enzymes. Three species of Bacillus i.e. B. subtilis, B. pumilus and B. licheniformis acquired from shrimp ponds were tested for their ability to utilize ammonia and produce extracellular enzymes. These bacteria were grown in artificial seawater (30 ppt salinity and pH 7.6 supplemented with decreasing yeast extract concentration but increasing ammonium sulfate concentration. All three bacteria grew in artificial seawater containing only 0.01% yeast extract and 1% ammonium sulfate. However, only B. pumilus and B. licheniformis were able to grow in the medium containing only 1% ammonium sulfate as a sole energy source. Bacterialgrowth reduced when alkaline proteases activities was maximum from culture filtrates of all three bacterial cultures during 24 hour culturing in artificial seawater containing 0.01% yeast extract and 1% ammonium sulfate at 30 C when assayed at pH 9. Bacterial growth increased when acid proteases activities was maximum from culture filtrates of all three bacterial cultures during 48 hour culturing in artificial seawater containing 0.01% yeast extract and 1% ammoniumsulfate at 30 C when assayed at pH 5.

  8. Modular design of processing and storage facilities for small volumes of low and intermediate level radioactive waste including disused sealed sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-06-15

    A number of IAEA Member States generate relatively small quantities of radioactive waste and/or disused sealed sources in research or in the application of nuclear techniques in medicine and industry. This publication presents a modular approach to the design of waste processing and storage facilities to address the needs of such Member States with a cost effective and flexible solution that allows easy adjustment to changing needs in terms of capacity and variety of waste streams. The key feature of the publication is the provision of practical guidance to enable the users to determine their waste processing and storage requirements, specify those requirements to allow the procurement of the appropriate processing and storage modules and to install and eventually operate those modules.

  9. An Online Q-learning Based Multi-Agent LFC for a Multi-Area Multi-Source Power System Including Distributed Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Shayeghi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an online two-stage Q-learning based multi-agent (MA controller for load frequency control (LFC in an interconnected multi-area multi-source power system integrated with distributed energy resources (DERs. The proposed control strategy consists of two stages. The first stage is employed a PID controller which its parameters are designed using sine cosine optimization (SCO algorithm and are fixed. The second one is a reinforcement learning (RL based supplementary controller that has a flexible structure and improves the output of the first stage adaptively based on the system dynamical behavior. Due to the use of RL paradigm integrated with PID controller in this strategy, it is called RL-PID controller. The primary motivation for the integration of RL technique with PID controller is to make the existing local controllers in the industry compatible to reduce the control efforts and system costs. This novel control strategy combines the advantages of the PID controller with adaptive behavior of MA to achieve the desired level of robust performance under different kind of uncertainties caused by stochastically power generation of DERs, plant operational condition changes, and physical nonlinearities of the system. The suggested decentralized controller is composed of the autonomous intelligent agents, who learn the optimal control policy from interaction with the system. These agents update their knowledge about the system dynamics continuously to achieve a good frequency oscillation damping under various severe disturbances without any knowledge of them. It leads to an adaptive control structure to solve LFC problem in the multi-source power system with stochastic DERs. The results of RL-PID controller in comparison to the traditional PID and fuzzy-PID controllers is verified in a multi-area power system integrated with DERs through some performance indices.

  10. Integrating and rationalizing public healthcare services as a source of cost containment in times of economic crises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettoello-Mantovani, Massimo; Namazova-Baranova, Leyla; Ehrich, Jochen

    2016-02-24

    Serious concern has been raised about the sustainability of public health care systems of European Nations and ultimately about the health of European citizens, as a result of the economic crisis that has distressed Europe since 2008. The severe economic crisis of the Euro zone, which is still afflicting Europe in 2016, has in fact threatened to equally impact public health services of nations presenting either a weak or a strong domestic growth. On behalf of the European Paediatric Association, the Union of National European Societies and Associations, the authors of the Commentary debates the relationship between the effects of economic instability and health, through the report on an article recently published in the Italian Journal of Pediatrics, which emphasized the importance of integrating existing public health care services, otherwise independently provided by public hospitals, and Primary Care Paediatric networks. The interconnections between the effects of economic instability and health are briefly commented, following the observation that these two factors are not yet fully understood, and that the definition of proper solutions to be applied in circumstances, where health is negatively impacted by periods of economic distress, is still open for discussion. Furthermore it is noted that the pressure to "deliver more for less" often seems to be the driving force forging the political strategic decisions in the area of pediatric healthcare, rather than social, cultural, and economic sensitivity and competences. Thus, the delivery of appropriate pediatric healthcare seems not to be related exclusively to motivations aimed to the benefit of children, but more often to other intervening factors, including economic, and political rationales. The conclusions emphasize that local European experiences suggest that positive and cost effective healthcare programs are possible, and they could serve as a model in the development of effective cross-border regional

  11. The choice of primary energy source including PV installation for providing electric energy to a public utility building - a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radomski, Bartosz; Ćwiek, Barbara; Mróz, Tomasz M.

    2017-11-01

    The paper presents multicriteria decision aid analysis of the choice of PV installation providing electric energy to a public utility building. From the energy management point of view electricity obtained by solar radiation has become crucial renewable energy source. Application of PV installations may occur a profitable solution from energy, economic and ecologic point of view for both existing and newly erected buildings. Featured variants of PV installations have been assessed by multicriteria analysis based on ANP (Analytic Network Process) method. Technical, economical, energy and environmental criteria have been identified as main decision criteria. Defined set of decision criteria has an open character and can be modified in the dialog process between the decision-maker and the expert - in the present case, an expert in planning of development of energy supply systems. The proposed approach has been used to evaluate three variants of PV installation acceptable for existing educational building located in Poznań, Poland - the building of Faculty of Chemical Technology, Poznań University of Technology. Multi-criteria analysis based on ANP method and the calculation software Super Decisions has proven to be an effective tool for energy planning, leading to the indication of the recommended variant of PV installation in existing and newly erected public buildings. Achieved results show prospects and possibilities of rational renewable energy usage as complex solution to public utility buildings.

  12. Health effects of an increased protein intake on kidney function and colorectal cancer risk factors, including the role of animal and plant protein sources – the PREVIEW project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Grith

    intake, including the role of animal and plant protein in pre-diabetic, overweight or obese individuals on health outcomes: markers of kidney function and putative risk factors for colorectal cancer as well as insulin sensitivity and kidney function in healthy individuals. The thesis is based on PREVIEW......, especially plant protein, on insulin sensitivity and kidney function. In paper II, the aim of the study was to assess the effect after one year of a higher protein intake on kidney function, measured by in creatinine clearance. This was investigated in pre-diabetic older adults based on a sub-group of 310...... pre-diabetic individuals included in the PREVIEW RCT. We found that a higher protein intake was associated with a significant increase in urea to creatinine ratio and serum urea after one year. There were no associations between increased protein intake and creatinine clearance, estimated glomerular...

  13. CONTAIN independent peer review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyack, B.E.; Corradini, M.L.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.; Loyalka, S.K.; Smith, P.N.

    1995-01-01

    The CONTAIN code was developed by Sandia National Laboratories under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide integrated analyses of containment phenomena. It is used to predict nuclear reactor containment loads, radiological source terms, and associated physical phenomena for a range of accident conditions encompassing both design-basis and severe accidents. The code's targeted applications include support for containment-related experimental programs, light water and advanced light water reactor plant analysis, and analytical support for resolution of specific technical issues such as direct containment heating. The NRC decided that a broad technical review of the code should be performed by technical experts to determine its overall technical adequacy. For this purpose, a six-member CONTAIN Peer Review Committee was organized and a peer review as conducted. While the review was in progress, the NRC issued a draft ''Revised Severe Accident Code Strategy'' that incorporated revised design objectives and targeted applications for the CONTAIN code. The committee continued its effort to develop findings relative to the original NRC statement of design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications were considered by the Committee in assigning priorities to the Committee's recommendations. The Committee determined some improvements are warranted and provided recommendations in five code-related areas: (1) documentation, (2) user guidance, (3) modeling capability, (4) code assessment, and (5) technical assessment

  14. CONTAIN independent peer review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyack, B.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Corradini, M.L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Nuclear Engineering Dept.; Denning, R.S. [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Khatib-Rahbar, M. [Energy Research Inc., Rockville, MD (United States); Loyalka, S.K. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Smith, P.N. [AEA Technology, Dorchester (United Kingdom). Winfrith Technology Center

    1995-01-01

    The CONTAIN code was developed by Sandia National Laboratories under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide integrated analyses of containment phenomena. It is used to predict nuclear reactor containment loads, radiological source terms, and associated physical phenomena for a range of accident conditions encompassing both design-basis and severe accidents. The code`s targeted applications include support for containment-related experimental programs, light water and advanced light water reactor plant analysis, and analytical support for resolution of specific technical issues such as direct containment heating. The NRC decided that a broad technical review of the code should be performed by technical experts to determine its overall technical adequacy. For this purpose, a six-member CONTAIN Peer Review Committee was organized and a peer review as conducted. While the review was in progress, the NRC issued a draft ``Revised Severe Accident Code Strategy`` that incorporated revised design objectives and targeted applications for the CONTAIN code. The committee continued its effort to develop findings relative to the original NRC statement of design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications were considered by the Committee in assigning priorities to the Committee`s recommendations. The Committee determined some improvements are warranted and provided recommendations in five code-related areas: (1) documentation, (2) user guidance, (3) modeling capability, (4) code assessment, and (5) technical assessment.

  15. Neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cason, J.L. Jr.; Shaw, C.B.

    1975-01-01

    A neutron source which is particularly useful for neutron radiography consists of a vessel containing a moderating media of relatively low moderating ratio, a flux trap including a moderating media of relatively high moderating ratio at the center of the vessel, a shell of depleted uranium dioxide surrounding the moderating media of relatively high moderating ratio, a plurality of guide tubes each containing a movable source of neutrons surrounding the flux trap, a neutron shield surrounding one part of each guide tube, and at least one collimator extending from the flux trap to the exterior of the neutron source. The shell of depleted uranium dioxide has a window provided with depleted uranium dioxide shutters for each collimator. Reflectors are provided above and below the flux trap and on the guide tubes away from the flux trap

  16. Preparation of Ag-containing diamond-like carbon films on the interior surface of tubes by a combined method of plasma source ion implantation and DC sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatada, R.; Flege, S.; Bobrich, A.; Ensinger, W.; Dietz, C.; Baba, K.; Sawase, T.; Watamoto, T.; Matsutani, T.

    2014-08-01

    Adhesive diamond-like carbon (DLC) films can be prepared by plasma source ion implantation (PSII), which is also suitable for the treatment of the inner surface of a tube. Incorporation of a metal into the DLC film provides a possibility to change the characteristics of the DLC film. One source for the metal is DC sputtering. In this study PSII and DC sputtering were combined to prepare DLC films containing low concentrations of Ag on the interior surfaces of stainless steel tubes. A DLC film was deposited using a C2H4 plasma with the help of an auxiliary electrode inside of the tube. This electrode was then used as a target for the DC sputtering. A mixture of the gases Ar and C2H4 was used to sputter the silver. By changing the gas flow ratios and process time, the resulting Ag content of the films could be varied. Sample characterizations were performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Additionally, a ball-on-disk test was performed to investigate the tribological properties of the films. The antibacterial activity was determined using Staphylococcus aureus bacteria.

  17. Calibration of an advanced photon source linac beam position monitor used for positron position measurement of a beam containing both positrons and electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sereno, Nicholas S.

    1998-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) linac beam position monitors can be used to monitor the position of a beam containing both positrons and electrons. To accomplish this task, both the signal at the bunching frequency of 2856 MHz and the signal at 2x2856 MHz are acquired and processed for each stripline. The positron beam position is obtained by forming a linear combination of both 2856 and 5712 MHz signals for each stripline and then performing the standard difference over sum computation. The required linear combination of the 2856 and 5712 MHz signals depends on the electrical calibration of each stripline/cable combination. In this paper, the calibration constants for both 2856 MHz and 5712 MHz signals for each stripline are determined using a pure beam of electrons. The calibration constants are obtained by measuring the 2856 and 5712 MHz stripline signals at various electron beam currents and positions. Finally, the calibration constants measured using electrons are used to determine positron beam position for the mixed beam case

  18. Oil from transgenic Camelina sativa containing over 25 % n-3 long-chain PUFA as the major lipid source in feed for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancor, Mónica B; Li, Keshuai; Bucerzan, Valentin S; Sprague, Matthew; Sayanova, Olga; Usher, Sarah; Han, Lihua; Norambuena, Fernando; Torrissen, Ole; Napier, Johnathan A; Tocher, Douglas R; Olsen, Rolf E

    2018-06-01

    Facing a bottleneck in the growth of aquaculture, and a gap in the supply and demand of the highly beneficial n-3 long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA), sustainable alternatives to traditional marine-based feeds are required. Therefore, in the present trial, a novel oil obtained from a genetically engineered oilseed crop, Camelina sativa, that supplied over 25 % n-3 LC-PUFA was tested as a sole dietary-added lipid source in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) feed. Three groups of fish were fed three experimental diets for 12 weeks with the same basal composition and containing 20 % added oil supplied by either a blend of fish oil and rapeseed oil (1:3) (COM) reflecting current commercial formulations, wild-type Camelina oil (WCO) or the novel transgenic Camelina oil (TCO). There were no negative effects on the growth, survival rate or health of the fish. The whole fish and flesh n-3 LC-PUFA levels were highest in fish fed TCO, with levels more than 2-fold higher compared with those of fish fed the COM and WCO diets, respectively. Diet TCO had no negative impacts on the evaluated immune and physiological parameters of head kidney monocytes. The transcriptomic responses of liver and mid-intestine showed only mild effects on metabolism genes. Overall, the results clearly indicated that the oil from transgenic Camelina was highly efficient in supplying n-3 LC-PUFA providing levels double that obtained with a current commercial standard, and similar to those a decade ago before substantial dietary fishmeal and oil replacement.

  19. FORMATION OF S-BEARING SPECIES BY VUV/EUV IRRADIATION OF H{sub 2}S-CONTAINING ICE MIXTURES: PHOTON ENERGY AND CARBON SOURCE EFFECTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y.-J.; Juang, K.-J.; Qiu, J.-M.; Chu, C.-C.; Yih, T.-S. [Department of Physics, National Central University, Jhongli City, Taoyuan County 32054, Taiwan (China); Nuevo, M. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Jiménez-Escobar, A.; Muñoz Caro, G. M. [Centro de Astrobiología, INTA-CSIC, Torrejón de Ardoz, E-28850 Madrid (Spain); Wu, C.-Y. R. [Space Sciences Center and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1341 (United States); Fung, H.-S. [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Ip, W.-H. [Graduate Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Jhongli City, Taoyuan County 32049, Taiwan (China)

    2015-01-10

    Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) is a key molecule in astrobiology that acts as a catalyst in peptide synthesis by coupling amino acids. Experimental studies suggest that hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), a precursor of OCS, could be present in astrophysical environments. In the present study, we used a microwave-discharge hydrogen-flow lamp, simulating the interstellar UV field, and a monochromatic synchrotron light beam to irradiate CO:H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2}:H{sub 2}S ice mixtures at 14 K with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) or extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photons in order to study the effect of the photon energy and carbon source on the formation mechanisms and production yields of S-containing products (CS{sub 2}, OCS, SO{sub 2}, etc.). Results show that (1) the photo-induced OCS production efficiency in CO:H{sub 2}S ice mixtures is higher than that of CO{sub 2}:H{sub 2}S ice mixtures; (2) a lower concentration of H{sub 2}S enhances the production efficiency of OCS in both ice mixtures; and (3) the formation pathways of CS{sub 2} differ significantly upon VUV and EUV irradiations. Furthermore, CS{sub 2} was produced only after VUV photoprocessing of CO:H{sub 2}S ices, while the VUV-induced production of SO{sub 2} occurred only in CO{sub 2}:H{sub 2}S ice mixtures. More generally, the production yields of OCS, H{sub 2}S{sub 2}, and CS{sub 2} were studied as a function of the irradiation photon energy. Heavy S-bearing compounds were also observed using mass spectrometry during the warm-up of VUV/EUV-irradiated CO:H{sub 2}S ice mixtures. The presence of S-polymers in dust grains may account for the missing sulfur in dense clouds and circumstellar environments.

  20. FORMATION OF S-BEARING SPECIES BY VUV/EUV IRRADIATION OF H2S-CONTAINING ICE MIXTURES: PHOTON ENERGY AND CARBON SOURCE EFFECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.-J.; Juang, K.-J.; Qiu, J.-M.; Chu, C.-C.; Yih, T.-S.; Nuevo, M.; Jiménez-Escobar, A.; Muñoz Caro, G. M.; Wu, C.-Y. R.; Fung, H.-S.; Ip, W.-H.

    2015-01-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) is a key molecule in astrobiology that acts as a catalyst in peptide synthesis by coupling amino acids. Experimental studies suggest that hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), a precursor of OCS, could be present in astrophysical environments. In the present study, we used a microwave-discharge hydrogen-flow lamp, simulating the interstellar UV field, and a monochromatic synchrotron light beam to irradiate CO:H 2 S and CO 2 :H 2 S ice mixtures at 14 K with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) or extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photons in order to study the effect of the photon energy and carbon source on the formation mechanisms and production yields of S-containing products (CS 2 , OCS, SO 2 , etc.). Results show that (1) the photo-induced OCS production efficiency in CO:H 2 S ice mixtures is higher than that of CO 2 :H 2 S ice mixtures; (2) a lower concentration of H 2 S enhances the production efficiency of OCS in both ice mixtures; and (3) the formation pathways of CS 2 differ significantly upon VUV and EUV irradiations. Furthermore, CS 2 was produced only after VUV photoprocessing of CO:H 2 S ices, while the VUV-induced production of SO 2 occurred only in CO 2 :H 2 S ice mixtures. More generally, the production yields of OCS, H 2 S 2 , and CS 2 were studied as a function of the irradiation photon energy. Heavy S-bearing compounds were also observed using mass spectrometry during the warm-up of VUV/EUV-irradiated CO:H 2 S ice mixtures. The presence of S-polymers in dust grains may account for the missing sulfur in dense clouds and circumstellar environments

  1. Suitability of containers from different sources as breeding sites of Aedes aegypti (L. in a cemetery of Buenos Aires City, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Vezzani

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Cemeteries are ideal urban areas to study the importance of different types of containers as breeding sites of Aedes aegypti (L.. In the present study, the suitability of plastic, glass, ceramic and metal containers was evaluated in four patches within a cemetery of Buenos Aires City, Argentina. Between October 1998 and May 2000, we found 215 breeding sites of Ae. aegypti out of 13,022 water-filled containers examined. In two patches containing microenvironments sheltered from the sun, the use of the different types of containers was proportional to the offer (correlation coefficient = 0.99, P < 0.05 in both cases. In the remaining patches, plastic and metal containers were the most and less frequent breeding sites, respectively (P < 0.001 in both cases. The number of immatures per breeding site (median = 4.5 did not show significant differences among the four types of containers examined (H3, 215 = 1.216, P = 0.749. Differences found in patches from a same cemetery suggest that different microenvironmental conditions affect the suitability of each type of container for Ae. aegypti breeding. Plastic containers appeared as key breeding sites that should be removed to reduce the Ae. aegypti population in the study area.

  2. Anoxic and Oxic Oxidation of Rocks Containing Fe(II)Mg-Silicates and Fe(II)-Monosulfides as Source of Fe(III)-Minerals and Hydrogen. Geobiotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassez, Marie-Paule

    2017-12-01

    In this article, anoxic and oxic hydrolyses of rocks containing Fe (II) Mg-silicates and Fe (II)-monosulfides are analyzed at 25 °C and 250-350 °C. A table of the products is drawn. It is shown that magnetite and hydrogen can be produced during low-temperature (25 °C) anoxic hydrolysis/oxidation of ferrous silicates and during high-temperature (250 °C) anoxic hydrolysis/oxidation of ferrous monosulfides. The high-T (350 °C) anoxic hydrolysis of ferrous silicates leads mainly to ferric oxides/hydroxides such as the hydroxide ferric trihydroxide, the oxide hydroxide goethite/lepidocrocite and the oxide hematite, and to Fe(III)-phyllosilicates. Magnetite is not a primary product. While the low-T (25 °C) anoxic hydrolysis of ferrous monosulfides leads to pyrite. Thermodynamic functions are calculated for elementary reactions of hydrolysis and carbonation of olivine and pyroxene and E-pH diagrams are analyzed. It is shown that the hydrolysis of the iron endmember is endothermic and can proceed within the exothermic hydrolysis of the magnesium endmember and also within the exothermic reactions of carbonations. The distinction between three products of the iron hydrolysis, magnetite, goethite and hematite is determined with E-pH diagrams. The hydrolysis/oxidation of the sulfides mackinawite/troilite/pyrrhotite is highly endothermic but can proceed within the heat produced by the exothermic hydrolyses and carbonations of ferromagnesian silicates and also by other sources such as magma, hydrothermal sources, impacts. These theoretical results are confirmed by the products observed in several related laboratory experiments. The case of radiolyzed water is studied. It is shown that magnetite and ferric oxides/hydroxides such as ferric trihydroxide, goethite/lepidocrocite and hematite are formed in oxic hydrolysis of ferromagnesian silicates at 25 °C and 350 °C. Oxic oxidation of ferrous monosulfides at 25 °C leads mainly to pyrite and ferric oxides/hydroxides such as

  3. Identification of hardly biodegradable residuals (sulfur- and nitrogen-containing substances) during waste water treatment, including the development of analytical methods; Identifizierung von schwer abbaubaren Reststoffen (stickstoff- und schwefelhaltigen Verbindungen) bei der Abwasserbehandlung, einschliesslich analytischer Methodenentwicklung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moehle, E; Huber, A; Metzger, J W

    1999-07-01

    Organic residuals in sewage, which are not removed completely by waste water treatment may be relevant in environmental toxicology and may disturb drinking water treatment processes. The organic residuals must be identified before new techniques to eliminate these substances from waste water can be developed and steps can be taken to prevent them from polluting waste waters. In the research project sum parameters of sulfur- and nitrogen-containing substances in municipal waste water were determined. A new method was developed to determine the organic sulfur in compounds absorbed on activated carbon (AOS). The determination of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) was calculated as the difference between total nitrogen and the sum of NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N, NO{sub 3}{sup -}-N and NO{sub 2}{sup -}N. The removal of organic substances from the inorganic matrix was only possible for standard solutions, but not for real samples. More than 60 substances contributing to the sum parameters could be identified with GC-MS and GC-AED, an most of them could be quantified. 30-70% of the sulfur-containing substances detected with GC-AED could be identified. With the GC-MS screening method 21 drugs or drug metabolites could be identified and partly quantified. Hydrophilic organic residuals were identified and quantified with high performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV- and fluorescence detectors and also with a mass detector (ESI-MS-MS). With the methods described only a small percentage of the sum of AOS and DON could be detected, although new materials for the solid phase enrichment and new analytical methods, such as HPLC-MS-MS were used. In order to get information about the degree of elimination (absorption or degradation) of different drugs in a municipal sewage plant, laboratory-scale tests under aerobic conditions were performed. A batch reactor containing drugs in environmentally relevant concentrations and a suspension of activated sludge was coupled online with HPLC

  4. Use of open source software in estimating the effects of a severe accident on the Mark II containment; Uso de software de fuente abierta en la estimacion de los efectos de un accidente severo sobre la contencion Mark II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sainz, E.; Arguelles, R., E-mail: eduardo.sainz@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    Because the spectrum of scenarios of severe accident before which must verify the integrity of the containment can be very broad, it arises here a calculation methodology to estimate the structural response of the containment without incurring in high costs for commercial software licenses, or in times and calculation excessive requirements. The capabilities of computer programs with license of open source, OpenFOAM for CFD calculations and Salome-Meca for thermal and mechanical calculations were tested. The methodology begins of the venting of mass and energy that are postulated inside the container and the values of the thermal and mechanical fields are obtained through the walls. (Author)

  5. Monitoring the Effectiveness of Measures to Contain the Primary Sources of Mercury Pollution on the Site of a Former Chlor-Akali Plant in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    An extensive sampling campaign was conducted in 2005-2007 to monitor the effectiveness of remedial measures to contain mercury pollution at the site of a former mercury cell chlor-alkali plant in Pavlodar, Kazakhstan. Containment measures consisted of cutoff walls and capping of ...

  6. Analysis and radiological assessment of residues containing NORM materials resulting from earlier activities including modelling of typical industrial residues. Pt. 1. Historical investigation of the radiological relevance of NORM residues and concepts for site identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, Andreas; Niedermayer, Matthias; Sitte, Beate; Hamel, Peter Michael

    2007-01-01

    Natural radionuclides are part of the human environment and of the raw materials used. Technical processes may cause their accumulation in residues, and the result will be so-called NORM materials (Naturally occurring radioactive material). The amended Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV 2001) specifies how the public should be protected, but there are also residues dating back before the issuing of the StrlSchV 2001, the so-called NORM residues. The project intended to assess the risks resulting from these residues. It comprises four parts. Part 1 was for clarification of the radiological relevance of NORM residues and for the development of concepts to detect them. The criterion for their radiological relevance was their activity per mass unit and the material volume accumulated through the centuries. The former was calculated from a wide bibliographic search in the relevant literature on radiation protection, while the mass volume was obtained by a detailed historical search of the consumption of materials that may leave NORM residues. These are, in particular, residues from coal and ore mining and processing. To identify concrete sites, relevant data sources were identified, and a concept for identification of concrete NORM residues was developed on this basis. (orig.) [de

  7. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidaka, Masataka; Hatamiya, Shigeo; Kawasaki, Terufumi; Fukui, Toru; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Kataoka, Yoshiyuki; Kawabe, Ryuhei; Murase, Michio; Naito, Masanori.

    1990-01-01

    In order to suppress the pressure elevation in a reactor container due to high temperature and high pressure steams jetted out upon pipeway rupture accidents in the reactor container, the steams are introduced to a pressure suppression chamber for condensating them in stored coolants. However, the ability for suppressing the pressure elevation and steam coagulation are deteriorated due to the presence of inactive incondensible gases. Then, there are disposed a vent channel for introducing the steams in a dry well to a pressure suppression chamber in the reactor pressure vessel, a closed space disposed at the position lower than a usual liquid level, a first channel having an inlet in the pressure suppression chamber and an exit in the closed space and a second means connected by way of a backflow checking means for preventing the flow directing to the closed space. The first paths are present by plurality, a portion of which constitutes a syphon. The incondensible gases and the steams are discharged to the dry well at high pressure by using the difference of the water head for a long cooling time after the pipeway rupture accident. Then, safety can be improved without using dynamic equipments as driving source. (N.H.)

  8. Parcels and Land Ownership, This data set consists of digital map files containing parcel-level cadastral information obtained from property descriptions. Cadastral features contained in the data set include real property boundary lines, rights-of-way boundaries, property dimensions, Published in Not Provided, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Racine County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Parcels and Land Ownership dataset current as of unknown. This data set consists of digital map files containing parcel-level cadastral information obtained from...

  9. Catalytic generation of methane at 60-100 °C and 0.1-300 MPa from source rocks containing kerogen Types I, II, and III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lin; Schimmelmann, Arndt; Mastalerz, Maria; Lahann, Richard W.; Sauer, Peter E.; Drobniak, Agnieszka; Strąpoć, Dariusz; Mango, Frank D.

    2018-06-01

    Low temperature (60 and 100 °C) and long-term (6 months to 5 years) heating of pre-evacuated and sterilized shales and coals containing kerogen Types I (Mahogany Shale), II (Mowry Shale and New Albany Shale), and III (Springfield Coal and Wilcox Lignite) with low initial maturities (vitrinite reflectance Ro 0.39-0.62%) demonstrates that catalytically generated hydrocarbons may explain the occurrence of some non-biogenic natural gas accumulations where insufficient thermal maturity contradicts the conventional thermal cracking paradigm. Extrapolation of the observed rate of catalytic methanogenesis in the laboratory suggests that significant amounts of sedimentary organic carbon can be converted to relatively dry natural gas over tens of thousands of years in sedimentary basins at temperatures as low as 60 °C. Our laboratory experiments utilized source rock (shale and coal) chips sealed in gold and Pyrex® glass tubes in the presence of hydrogen-isotopically contrasting waters. Parallel heating experiments applied hydrostatic pressures from 0.1 to 300 MPa. Control experiments constrained the influence of pre-existing and residual methane in closed pores of rock chips that was unrelated to newly generated methane. This study's experimental methane yields at 60 and 100 °C are 5-11 orders of magnitude higher than the theoretically predicted yields from kinetic models of thermogenic methane generation, which strongly suggests a contribution of catalytic methanogenesis. Higher temperature, longer heating time, and lower hydrostatic pressure enhanced catalytic methanogenesis. No clear relationships were observed between kerogen type or total organic carbon content and methane yields via catalysis. Catalytic methanogenesis was strongest in Mowry Shale where methane yields at 60 °C amounted to ∼2.5 μmol per gram of organic carbon after one year of hydrous heating at ambient pressure. In stark contrast to the earlier findings of hydrogen isotopic exchange between

  10. Effectiveness of containment sprays in containment management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nourbakhsh, H.P.; Perez, S.E.; Lehner, J.R.

    1993-05-01

    A limited study has been performed assessing the effectiveness of containment sprays-to mitigate particular challenges which may occur during a severe accident. Certain aspects of three specific topics related to using sprays under severe accident conditions were investigated. The first was the effectiveness of sprays connected to an alternate water supple and pumping source because the actual containment spray pumps are inoperable. This situation could occur during a station blackout. The second topic concerned the adverse as well as beneficial effects of using containment sprays during severe accident scenario where the containment atmosphere contains substantial quantities of hydrogen along with steam. The third topic was the feasibility of using containment sprays to moderate the consequences of DCH

  11. Single Particulate SEM-EDX Analysis of Iron-Containing Coarse Particulate Matter in an Urban Environment: Sources and Distribution of Iron within Cleveland, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    The physicochemical properties of coarse-mode, iron-containing particles, and their temporal and spatial distributions are poorly understood. Single particle analysis combining x-ray elemental mapping and computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy (CCSEM-EDX) of passively ...

  12. Background study on increasing recycling of end-of-life mercury-containing lamps from residential and commercial sources in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilkene, C. [Hilkene International Policy, Toronto, ON (Canada); Friesen, K. [Pollution Probe, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2005-10-31

    The state of recycling of mercury-containing lamps in Canada was studied. Developing an efficient recovery and recycling infrastructure for mercury-containing lamps offers several benefits such as environmental protection from releases of mercury; displacing virgin materials required for production of new lamps; and increasing the sustainability associated with the use of these energy efficient products. This study summarized international experience with respect to recovery and recycling of mercury-containing lamps. It also summarized the material composition of these lamps, and provided an inventory of Canadian fluorescent lamp recycling and recovery initiatives. It provided estimates of quantities of end-of-life bulbs and tubes being disposed of in Canada; quantities of metals and other materials recovered through lamp recycling; the tonnage of metals and other materials being lost to disposal systems and energy savings and associated greenhouse gas emission reductions from substitution of recycled fluorescent lamp materials for virgin materials in manufacturing operations. The report also identified other environmental benefits arising from current or potential recycling and recovery initiatives as well as recovery opportunities and barriers to fluorescent lamp recovery and recycling initiatives. Last, the report presented options for stimulating greater recovery and recycling of mercury-containing lamps and presented critical factors for a meaningful cost benefit analysis on enhanced recovery. 76 refs., 16 tabs., 2 figs., 6 appendices.

  13. Continuous containment monitoring with containment pressure fluctuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dick, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    The monitoring of the integrity of containments particularly but not exclusively for nuclear plants is dealt with in this invention. While this application is primarily concerned with containment monitoring in the context of the single unit design, it is expected that the concepts presented will be universally applicable to any containment design, including containments for non-nuclear applications such as biological laboratories. The nuclear industry has long been interested in a means of monitoring containment integrity on a continuous basis, that is, while the reactor is operating normally. 12 refs., 2 figs

  14. The Minister Council decree about conditions for to bring on the territory of Poland, to take away from the territory of Poland, and to transit through this territory nuclear materials, radioactive sources and devices containing such sources of 27 April 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.

    2004-01-01

    The decree refers to conditions for to bring on the territory of Poland, to take away from the territory of Poland, and to transit through this territory nuclear materials, radioactive sources and devices containing such sources. They be bring to, take away and transit through Poland with documents and procedures determined in regulations. The decree replaces the decree of 5 November 2002 (Dz.U. no. 207, item 1754)

  15. Microwave and particle beam sources and directed energy concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, H.E.

    1989-01-01

    This book containing the proceedings of the SPIE on microwave and particle beam sources and directed energy concepts. Topics covered include: High power microwave sources, Direct energy concepts, Advanced accelerators, and Particle beams

  16. Airborne microorganisms from waste containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlicka, Sabrina S; Stravitz, David M; Lyman, Charles E

    2012-01-01

    In physician's offices and biomedical labs, biological waste is handled every day. This waste is disposed of in waste containers designed for holding red autoclave bags. The containers used in these environments are closed hands-free containers, often with a step pedal. While these containers protect the user from surface-borne microorganisms, the containers may allow airborne microorganisms to escape via the open/close mechanism because of the air current produced upon open/close cycles. In this study, the air current was shown to be sufficient to allow airborne escape of microorganisms held in the container, including Aspergillus niger. However, bacterial cultures, such as Escherichia coli and Lactococcus lactis did not escape. This may be due to the choice of bacterial cultures and the absence of solid waste, such as dust or other particulate matter in the waste containers, that such strains of bacteria could travel on during aerosolization. We compared these results to those obtained using a re-designed receptacle, which mimimizes air currents, and detected no escaping microorganisms. This study highlights one potential source of airborne contamination in labs, hospitals, and other environments that dispose of biological waste.

  17. Erosion-corrosion entrainment of iron-containing compounds as a source of deposits in steam generators used at nuclear power plants equipped with VVER reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.

    2011-03-01

    The main stages and processes through which deposits are generated, migrate, and precipitate in the metal-secondary coolant system of power units at nuclear power plants are analyzed and determined. It is shown that substances produced by the mechanism of general erosion-corrosion are the main source of the ionic-colloid form of iron, which is the main component of deposits in a steam generator. Ways for controlling the formation of deposits in a nuclear power plant's steam generator are proposed together with methods for estimating their efficiency.

  18. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiki, Tadaharu; Saba, Kazuhisa.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the earthquake resistance as well as reduce the size of a container for a nuclear reactor with no adverse effects on the decrease of impact shock to the container and shortening of construction step. Constitution: Reinforcing profile steel materials are welded longitudinally and transversely to the inner surface of a container, and inner steel plates are secured to the above profile steel materials while keeping a gap between the materials and the container. Reactor shielding wall planted to the base concrete of the container is mounted to the pressure vessel, and main steam pipeways secured by the transverse beams and led to the outside of container is connected. This can improve the rigidity earthquake strength and the safetiness against the increase in the inside pressure upon failures of the container. (Yoshino, Y.)

  19. Containment performance improvement program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckner, W.; Mitchell, J.; Soffer, L.; Chow, E.; Lane, J.; Ridgely, J.

    1990-01-01

    The Containment Performance Improvement (CPI) program has been one of the main elements in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) integrated approach to closure of severe accident issues for US nuclear power plants. During the course of the program, results from various probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) studies and from severe accident research programs for the five US containment types have been examined to identify significant containment challenges and to evaluate potential improvements. The five containment types considered are: the boiling water reactor (BMR) Mark I containment, the BWR Mark II containment, the BWR Mark III containment, the pressurized water reactor (PWR) ice condenser containment, and the PWR dry containments (including both subatmospheric and large subtypes). The focus of the CPI program has been containment performance and accident mitigation, however, insights are also being obtained in the areas of accident prevention and accident management

  20. Integrated severe accident containment analysis with the CONTAIN computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, K.D.; Williams, D.C.; Rexroth, P.E.; Tills, J.L.

    1985-12-01

    Analysis of physical and radiological conditions iunside the containment building during a severe (core-melt) nuclear reactor accident requires quantitative evaluation of numerous highly disparate yet coupled phenomenologies. These include two-phase thermodynamics and thermal-hydraulics, aerosol physics, fission product phenomena, core-concrete interactions, the formation and combustion of flammable gases, and performance of engineered safety features. In the past, this complexity has meant that a complete containment analysis would require application of suites of separate computer codes each of which would treat only a narrower subset of these phenomena, e.g., a thermal-hydraulics code, an aerosol code, a core-concrete interaction code, etc. In this paper, we describe the development and some recent applications of the CONTAIN code, which offers an integrated treatment of the dominant containment phenomena and the interactions among them. We describe the results of a series of containment phenomenology studies, based upon realistic accident sequence analyses in actual plants. These calculations highlight various phenomenological effects that have potentially important implications for source term and/or containment loading issues, and which are difficult or impossible to treat using a less integrated code suite

  1. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naruse, Yoshihiro.

    1990-01-01

    The thickness of steel shell plates in a reactor container embedded in sand cussions is monitored to recognize the corrosion of the steel shell plates. That is, the reactor pressure vessel is contained in a reactor container shell and the sand cussions are disposed on the lower outside of the reactor container shell to elastically support the shell. A pit is disposed at a position opposing to the sand cussions for measuring the thickness of the reactor container shell plates. The pit is usually closed by a closing member. In the reactor container thus constituted, the closing member can be removed upon periodical inspection to measure the thickness of the shell plates. Accordingly, the corrosion of the steel shell plates can be recognized by the change of the plate thickness. (I.S.)

  2. A container

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    A container assembly for the containment of fluids or solids under a pressure different from the ambient pressure comprising a container (2) comprising an opening and an annular sealing, a lid (3) comprising a central portion (5) and engagement means (7) for engaging the annular flange, and sealing...... means (10) wherein the engagement means (7) is adapted, via the sealing means, to seal the opening when the pressure of the container assembly differs from the ambient pressure in such a way that the central portion (5) flexes in the axial direction which leads to a radial tightening of the engagement...... means (7) to the container, wherein the container further comprises locking means (12) that can be positioned so that the central portion is hindered from flexing in at least one direction....

  3. Comparison of Maize Silage-based Diets for Dairy Cows Containing Extruded Rapeseed Cake or Extruded Full-fat Soybean as Major Protein Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Třináctý

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The trial was carried out on four Holstein cows with initial milk yield of 27.3 ± 1.7 kg.day−1. Cows were divided into two groups – the first was fed a diet based on extruded rapeseed cake (D-ERC, the second one was fed a diet based on extruded full-fat soybean (D-EFFS, both diets contained maize silage and meadow hay. The experiment was divided into 4 periods of 42 days. Intake of dry matter, crude protein and NEL was not affected by the treatment (P > 0.05 while the intake of PDIA, PDIN and PDIE was lower in D-ERC than in D-EFFS (P < 0.05. Milk yield in D-ERC (22.6 kg.d−1 was lower than in D-EFFS (24.7 kg.d−1, P < 0.001 while concentration of milk fat and protein were reverse (P < 0.05. Smaller portion of essential AADI in crude protein intake (CPI in D-ERC resulted in lower efficiency of CPI utilization for milk protein synthesis in comparison to D-EFFS being 313 and 327 g.kg−1, respectively (P < 0.01. Concentration of AA in blood plasma was not affected by the type of diet except of His and Ile that were higher in D-EFFS (P < 0.01.

  4. Quantification of the fluorine containing drug 5-fluorouracil in cancer cells by GaF molecular absorption via high-resolution continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Magnus; Huang, Mao-Dong; Becker-Roß, Helmut; Florek, Stefan; Ott, Ingo; Gust, Ronald

    The development of high-resolution continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry made the quantification of fluorine feasible by measuring the molecular absorption as gallium monofluoride (GaF). Using this new technique, we developed on the example of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) a graphite furnace method to quantify fluorine in organic molecules. The effect of 5-FU on the generation of the diatomic GaF molecule was investigated. The experimental conditions such as gallium nitrate amount, temperature program, interfering anions (represented as corresponding acids) and calibration for the determination of 5-FU in standard solution and in cellular matrix samples were investigated and optimized. The sample matrix showed no effect on the sensitivity of GaF molecular absorption. A simple calibration curve using an inorganic sodium fluoride solution can conveniently be used for the calibration. The described method is sensitive and the achievable limit of detection is 0.23 ng of 5-FU. In order to establish the concept of "fluorine as a probe in medicinal chemistry" an exemplary application was selected, in which the developed method was successfully demonstrated by performing cellular uptake studies of the 5-FU in human colon carcinoma cells.

  5. Quantification of the fluorine containing drug 5-fluorouracil in cancer cells by GaF molecular absorption via high-resolution continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krüger, Magnus; Huang, Mao-Dong; Becker-Roß, Helmut; Florek, Stefan; Ott, Ingo; Gust, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    The development of high-resolution continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry made the quantification of fluorine feasible by measuring the molecular absorption as gallium monofluoride (GaF). Using this new technique, we developed on the example of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) a graphite furnace method to quantify fluorine in organic molecules. The effect of 5-FU on the generation of the diatomic GaF molecule was investigated. The experimental conditions such as gallium nitrate amount, temperature program, interfering anions (represented as corresponding acids) and calibration for the determination of 5-FU in standard solution and in cellular matrix samples were investigated and optimized. The sample matrix showed no effect on the sensitivity of GaF molecular absorption. A simple calibration curve using an inorganic sodium fluoride solution can conveniently be used for the calibration. The described method is sensitive and the achievable limit of detection is 0.23 ng of 5-FU. In order to establish the concept of “fluorine as a probe in medicinal chemistry” an exemplary application was selected, in which the developed method was successfully demonstrated by performing cellular uptake studies of the 5-FU in human colon carcinoma cells. - Highlights: ► Development of HR-CS MAS for quantification of fluorine bound to organic molecules ► Measuring as molecular absorption of gallium monofluoride ► Quantification of organic-bound fluorine in biological material ► The concept of “fluorine as a probe in medicinal chemistry” could be established

  6. Quantification of the fluorine containing drug 5-fluorouracil in cancer cells by GaF molecular absorption via high-resolution continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, Magnus [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Institut fuer Pharmazie, Pharmazeutische Chemie, Koenigin-Luise-Str. 2-4, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Huang, Mao-Dong; Becker-Ross, Helmut; Florek, Stefan [Leibniz Institut fuer Analytische Wissenschaften, ISAS-e.V., Department Berlin, Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Ott, Ingo [Technische Universitaet Carolo Wilhelmina zu Braunschweig, Institut fuer Medizinische und Pharmazeutische Chemie, Beethovenstr. 55, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Gust, Ronald, E-mail: ronald.gust@uibk.ac.at [Universitaet Innsbruck, Institut fuer Pharmazie, Pharmazeutische Chemie, Innrain 80/82, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2012-03-15

    The development of high-resolution continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry made the quantification of fluorine feasible by measuring the molecular absorption as gallium monofluoride (GaF). Using this new technique, we developed on the example of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) a graphite furnace method to quantify fluorine in organic molecules. The effect of 5-FU on the generation of the diatomic GaF molecule was investigated. The experimental conditions such as gallium nitrate amount, temperature program, interfering anions (represented as corresponding acids) and calibration for the determination of 5-FU in standard solution and in cellular matrix samples were investigated and optimized. The sample matrix showed no effect on the sensitivity of GaF molecular absorption. A simple calibration curve using an inorganic sodium fluoride solution can conveniently be used for the calibration. The described method is sensitive and the achievable limit of detection is 0.23 ng of 5-FU. In order to establish the concept of 'fluorine as a probe in medicinal chemistry' an exemplary application was selected, in which the developed method was successfully demonstrated by performing cellular uptake studies of the 5-FU in human colon carcinoma cells. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Development of HR-CS MAS for quantification of fluorine bound to organic molecules Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Measuring as molecular absorption of gallium monofluoride Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantification of organic-bound fluorine in biological material Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The concept of 'fluorine as a probe in medicinal chemistry' could be established.

  7. Assessment of nonpoint source chemical loading potential to watersheds containing uranium waste dumps associated with uranium exploration and mining, Browns Hole, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Thomas M.; Beisner, Kimberly R.; Naftz, David L.; Snyder, Terry

    2012-01-01

    During August of 2008, 35 solid-phase samples were collected from abandoned uranium waste dumps, undisturbed geologic background sites, and adjacent streambeds in Browns Hole in southeastern Utah. The objectives of this sampling program were (1) to assess impacts on human health due to exposure to radium, uranium, and thorium during recreational activities on and around uranium waste dumps on Bureau of Land Management lands; (2) to compare concentrations of trace elements associated with mine waste dumps to natural background concentrations; (3) to assess the nonpoint source chemical loading potential to ephemeral and perennial watersheds from uranium waste dumps; and (4) to assess contamination from waste dumps to the local perennial stream water in Muleshoe Creek. Uranium waste dump samples were collected using solid-phase sampling protocols. Solid samples were digested and analyzed for major and trace elements. Analytical values for radium and uranium in digested samples were compared to multiple soil screening levels developed from annual dosage calculations in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act's minimum cleanup guidelines for uranium waste sites. Three occupancy durations for sites were considered: 4.6 days per year, 7.0 days per year, and 14.0 days per year. None of the sites exceeded the radium soil screening level of 96 picocuries per gram, corresponding to a 4.6 days per year exposure. Two sites exceeded the radium soil screening level of 66 picocuries per gram, corresponding to a 7.0 days per year exposure. Seven sites exceeded the radium soil screening level of 33 picocuries per gram, corresponding to a 14.0 days per year exposure. A perennial stream that flows next to the toe of a uranium waste dump was sampled, analyzed for major and trace elements, and compared with existing aquatic-life and drinking-water-quality standards. None of the water-quality standards were exceeded in the stream samples.

  8. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukazawa, Masanori.

    1991-01-01

    A system for controlling combustible gases, it has been constituted at present such that the combustible gases are controlled by exhausting them to the wet well of a reactor container. In this system, however, there has been a problem, in a reactor container having plenums in addition to the wet well and the dry well, that the combustible gases in such plenums can not be controlled. In view of the above, in the present invention, suction ports or exhaust ports of the combustible gas control system are disposed to the wet well, the dry well and the plenums to control the combustible gases in the reactor container. Since this can control the combustible gases in the entire reactor container, the integrity of the reactor container can be ensured. (T.M.)

  9. Metodologias para determinação da digestibilidade de dietas contendo fontes proteicas vegetal ou animal em cães Methodology for determination of digestibility of diets containing vegetable or animal protein sources in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Pedro Zanatta

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar diferentes metodologias de determinação da digestibilidade em cães, alimentados com duas dietas contendo fontes proteicas animal (farinha de vísceras de aves - FVA e vegetal (farelo de soja - FS. As metodologias avaliadas foram: colheita total de fezes (CTF e os indicadores cinza insolúvel em ácido (CIA, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA e fibra bruta (FB. Foram utilizados 8 cães adultos, em delineamento Cross over, em parcela subdividida no tempo (parcela: fontes proteicas; e subparcela: metodologias de digestibilidade. O período experimental foi constituído por cinco dias de adaptação, com cinco dias de colheita total de fezes. A dieta contendo FS apresentou maior CDA da PB, enquanto a dieta contendo FVA apresentou maior CDA dos demais nutrientes e energia metabolizável (EM. Os CDA e EM determinados pela CTF e pelos indicadores não diferiram entre si, podendo ser determinados pelos indicadores FB, FDA e CIA, independentemente da fonte proteica da dieta.The objective was to evaluate different methods of measuring digestibility in dogs fed two diets containing animal (poultry by products - PBP and vegetable (soybean meal - SBM protein sources. The methods evaluated were: total fecal collection (TFC and indicators: acid insoluble ash (AIA, acid detergent fiber (ADF and crude fiber (CF. Eight dogs were distributed in Cross Over in split plots (plot: sources of protein; subplot: methods for digestibility, fed by five days of adaptation and five days of total fecal collection. The diet containing SBM had a higher ADC of CP, while the diet containing POM showed higher ADC of all nutrients and metabolizable energy (ME. The ADC and ME determined by the TFC and the indicators did not differ. Thus, the ADC of diets in dogs can be determined by TFC and CF, ADF and AIA indicators, regardless of source of dietary protein.

  10. Neutron sources and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, D.L. [ed.] [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Rush, J.J. [ed.] [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Review of Neutron Sources and Applications was held at Oak Brook, Illinois, during September 8--10, 1992. This review involved some 70 national and international experts in different areas of neutron research, sources, and applications. Separate working groups were asked to (1) review the current status of advanced research reactors and spallation sources; and (2) provide an update on scientific, technological, and medical applications, including neutron scattering research in a number of disciplines, isotope production, materials irradiation, and other important uses of neutron sources such as materials analysis and fundamental neutron physics. This report summarizes the findings and conclusions of the different working groups involved in the review, and contains some of the best current expertise on neutron sources and applications.

  11. Neutron sources and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, D.L.; Rush, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    Review of Neutron Sources and Applications was held at Oak Brook, Illinois, during September 8--10, 1992. This review involved some 70 national and international experts in different areas of neutron research, sources, and applications. Separate working groups were asked to (1) review the current status of advanced research reactors and spallation sources; and (2) provide an update on scientific, technological, and medical applications, including neutron scattering research in a number of disciplines, isotope production, materials irradiation, and other important uses of neutron sources such as materials analysis and fundamental neutron physics. This report summarizes the findings and conclusions of the different working groups involved in the review, and contains some of the best current expertise on neutron sources and applications

  12. Reactor containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabe, Ryuhei; Yamaki, Rika.

    1990-01-01

    A water vessel is disposed and the gas phase portion of the water vessel is connected to a reactor container by a pipeline having a valve disposed at the midway thereof. A pipe in communication with external air is extended upwardly from the liquid phase portion to a considerable height so as to resist against the back pressure by a waterhead in the pipeline. Accordingly, when the pressure in the container is reduced to a negative level, air passes through the pipeline and uprises through the liquid phase portion in the water vessel in the form of bubbles and then flows into the reactor container. When the pressure inside of the reactor goes higher, since the liquid surface in the water vessel is forced down, water is pushed up into the pipeline. Since the waterhead pressure of a column of water in the pipeline and the pressure of the reactor container are well-balanced, gases in the reactor container are not leaked to the outside. Further, in a case if a great positive pressure is formed in the reactor container, the inner pressure overcomes the waterhead of the column of water, so that the gases containing radioactive aerosol uprise in the pipeline. Since water and the gases flow being in contact with each other, this can provide the effect of removing aerosol. (T.M.)

  13. Sharps container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Angelene M. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    This invention relates to a system for use in disposing of potentially hazardous items and more particularly a Sharps receptacle for used hypodermic needles and the like. A Sharps container is constructed from lightweight alodined nonmagnetic metal material with a cup member having an elongated tapered shape and length greater than its transverse dimensions. A magnet in the cup member provides for metal retention in the container. A nonmagnetic lid member has an opening and spring biased closure flap member. The flap member is constructed from stainless steel. A Velcro patch on the container permits selective attachment at desired locations.

  14. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Yoshihiro; Hosomi, Kenji; Otonari, Jun-ichiro.

    1997-01-01

    In the present invention, a catalyst for oxidizing hydrogen to be disposed in a reactor container upon rupture of pipelines of a reactor primary coolant system is prevented from deposition of water droplets formed from a reactor container spray to suppress elevation of hydrogen concentration in the reactor container. Namely, a catalytic combustion gas concentration control system comprises a catalyst for oxidizing hydrogen and a support thereof. In addition, there is also disposed a water droplet deposition-preventing means for preventing deposition of water droplets in a reactor pressure vessel on the catalyst. Then, the effect of the catalyst upon catalytic oxidation reaction of hydrogen can be kept high. The local elevation of hydrogen concentration can be prevented even upon occurrence of such a phenomenon that various kinds of mobile forces in the container such as dry well cooling system are lost. (I.S.)

  15. [Origin of sennosides in health teas including Malva leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, T; Kishi, M; Sekita, S; Satake, M

    2001-06-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify whether sennosides are contained in the leaf of Malva verticillata L., and then to clarify the source of sennosides in health teas including malva leaves. The identification and determination of sennosides were performed with thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. The leaf of Malva verticillata L. did not contain sennosides A or B and could be easily distinguished from senna leaf. Our previous report showed that sennosides are contained in weight-reducing herbal teas including malva leaves, and that senna leaf is a herbal component in some teas. Furthermore, in 10 samples of health tea including malva leaves that were bought last year, the smallest amount of sennosides was 6.1 mg/bag, and all health teas including malva leaves contained the leaf and midrib of senna. We suggest that sennosides A and B are not contained in the leaf of Malva verticillata L., and that the sennosides in health teas including malva leaves are not derived from malva leaf but from senna leaf.

  16. A simplified approach to evaluating severe accident source term for PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Gaofeng; Tong, Lili; Cao, Xuewu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Traditional source term evaluation approaches have been studied. • A simplified approach of source term evaluation for 600 MW PWR is studied. • Five release categories are established. - Abstract: For early design of NPPs, no specific severe accident source term evaluation was considered. Some general source terms have been used for some NPPs. In order to implement a best estimate, a special source term evaluation should be implemented for an NPP. Traditional source term evaluation approaches (mechanism approach and parametric approach) have some difficulties associated with their implementation. The traditional approaches are not consistent with cost-benefit assessment. A simplified approach for evaluating severe accident source term for PWR is studied. For the simplified approach, a simplified containment event tree is established. According to representative cases selection, weighted coefficient evaluation, computation of representative source term cases and weighted computation, five containment release categories are established, including containment bypass, containment isolation failure, containment early failure, containment late failure and intact containment

  17. Containment and surveillance devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.W.; Johnson, C.S.; Stieff, L.R.

    The growing acceptance of containment and surveillance as a means to increase safeguards effectiveness has provided impetus to the development of improved surveillance and containment devices. Five recently developed devices are described. The devices include one photographic and two television surveillance systems and two high security seals that can be verified while installed

  18. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Hideyasu; Oyamada, Osamu; Uozumi, Hiroto.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a container for a reactor provided with a pressure suppressing chamber pool which can prevent bubble vibrating load, particularly negative pressure generated at the time of starting to release exhaust from a main steam escape-safety valve from being transmitted to a lower liner plate of the container. Constitution: This arrangement is characterized in that a safety valve exhaust pool for main steam escape, in which a pressure suppressing chamber pool is separated and intercepted from pool water in the pressure suppressing chamber pool, a safety valve exhaust pipe is open into said safety valve exhaust pool, and an isolator member, which isolates the bottom liner plate in the pressure suppressing chamber pool from the pool water, is disposed on the bottom of the safety valve exhaust pool. (Nakamura, S.)

  19. Group 4. Containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, V.S.; Keiser, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the findings of the Containment Working Group which met at the Workshop on Radioactive, Hazardous, and/or Mixed Waste Sludge Management. The Containment Working Group (CWG) examined the problems associated with providing adequate containment of waste forms from both short- and long-term storage. By its nature, containment encompasses a wide variety of waste forms, storage conditions, container types, containment schemes, and handling activities. A containment system can be anything from a 55-gal drum to a 100-ft-long underground vault. Because of the diverse nature of containment systems, the CWG chose to focus its limited time on broad issues that are applicable to the design of any containment system, rather than attempting to address problems specific to a particular containment system or waste-form type. Four major issues were identified by the CWG. They relate to: (1) service conditions and required system performance; (2) ultimate disposition; (3) cost and schedule; and (4) acceptance criteria, including quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) concerns. All of the issues raised by the group are similar in that they all help to define containment system requirements

  20. CONTAIN calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholtyssek, W.

    1995-01-01

    In the first phase of a benchmark comparison, the CONTAIN code was used to calculate an assumed EPR accident 'medium-sized leak in the cold leg', especially for the first two days after initiation of the accident. The results for global characteristics compare well with those of FIPLOC, MELCOR and WAVCO calculations, if the same materials data are used as input. However, significant differences show up for local quantities such as flows through leakages. (orig.)

  1. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Masami; Nishio, Masahide.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the rupture of the dry well even when the melted reactor core drops into a reactor pedestal cavity. Constitution: In a reactor container in which a dry well disposed above the reactor pedestal cavity for containing the reactor pressure vessel and a torus type suppression chamber for containing pressure suppression water are connected with each other, the pedestal cavity and the suppression chamber are disposed such that the flow level of the pedestal cavity is lower than the level of the pressure suppression water. Further, a pressure suppression water introduction pipeway for introducing the pressure suppression water into the reactor pedestal cavity is disposed by way of an ON-OFF valve. In case if the melted reactor core should fall into the pedestal cavity, the ON-OFF valve for the pressure suppression water introduction pipeway is opened to introduce the pressure suppression water in the suppression chamber into the pedestal cavity to cool the melted reactor core. (Ikeda, J.)

  2. Plasma container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebisawa, Katsuyuki.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to easily detect that the thickness of material to be abraded is reduced to an allowable limit from the outerside of the plasma container even during usual operation in a plasma vessel for a thermonuclear device. Constitution: A labelled material is disposed to the inside or rear face of constituent members of a plasma container undergoing the irradiation of plasma particles. A limiter plate to be abraded in the plasma container is composed of an armour member and heat removing plate, in which the armour member is made of graphite and heat-removing plate is made of copper. If the armour member is continuously abraded under the effect of sputtering due to plasma particles, silicon nitride embedded so far in the graphite at last appears on the surface of the limiter plate to undergo the impact shocks of the plasma particles. Accordingly, abrasion of the limiter material can be detected by a detector comprising gas chromatography and it can easily be detected from the outside of the plasma content even during normal operation. (Horiuchi, T.)

  3. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Satoru; Kawashima, Hiroaki

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To optimize the temperature distribution of the reactor container so as to moderate the thermal stress distribution on the reactor wall of LMFBR type reactor. Constitution: A good heat conductor (made of Al or Cu) is appended on the outer side of the reactor container wall from below the liquid level to the lower face of a deck plate. Further, heat insulators are disposed to the outside of the good heat conductor. Furthermore, a gas-cooling duct is circumferentially disposed at the contact portion between the good heat conductor and the deck plate around the reactor container. This enables to flow the cold heat from the liquid metal rapidly through the good heat conductor to the cooling duct and allows to maintain the temperature distribution on the reactor wall substantially linear even with the abrupt temperature change in the liquid metal. Further, by appending the good heat conductor covered with inactive metals not only on the outer side but also on the inside of the reactor wall to introduce the heat near the liquid level to the upper portion and escape the same to the cooling layer below the roof slab, the effect can be improved further. (Ikeda, J.)

  4. Archaeology: A Guide to Reference Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Doreen, Comp.

    This bibliographic guide lists reference sources available at McGill University for research in prehistory and non-classical archaeology. No exclusively biographical sources have been included, but many of the encyclopedias and handbooks contain biographical information and are annotated accordingly. Titles are listed in the following categories:…

  5. Holophonic synthesis of musical sources

    OpenAIRE

    Menzies, Dylan

    2007-01-01

    The composition of a soundfield containing complex nearfield sources has interesting musical applications. A method is presented here using freefield expansions about exterior points of a harmonic multipole field. A derivation and verification are included. Binaural rendering is the natural method for displaying such soundfields. Some possible musical applications are discussed.

  6. Ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The specifications of a set of point-shape electrodes of non-corrodable material that can hold a film of liquid material of equal thickness is described. Contained in a jacket, this set forms an ion source. The electrode is made of tungsten with a glassy carbon layer for insulation and an outer layer of aluminium-oxide ceramic material

  7. CONTAIN calculations; CONTAIN-Rechnungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholtyssek, W.

    1995-08-01

    In the first phase of a benchmark comparison, the CONTAIN code was used to calculate an assumed EPR accident `medium-sized leak in the cold leg`, especially for the first two days after initiation of the accident. The results for global characteristics compare well with those of FIPLOC, MELCOR and WAVCO calculations, if the same materials data are used as input. However, significant differences show up for local quantities such as flows through leakages. (orig.)

  8. New seismograph includes filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-02

    The new Nimbus ES-1210 multichannel signal enhancement seismograph from EG and G geometrics has recently been redesigned to include multimode signal fillers on each amplifier. The ES-1210F is a shallow exploration seismograph for near subsurface exploration such as in depth-to-bedrock, geological hazard location, mineral exploration, and landslide investigations.

  9. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyamada, Osamu; Furukawa, Hideyasu; Uozumi, Hiroto.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To lower the position of an intermediate slab within a reactor container and fitting a heat insulating material to the inner wall of said intermediate slab, whereby a space for a control rod exchanging device and thermal stresses of the inner peripheral wall are lowered. Constitution: In the pedestal at the lower part of a reactor pressure vessel there is formed an intermediate slab at a position lower than diaphragm floor slab of the outer periphery of the pedestal thereby to secure a space for providing automatic exchanging device of a control rod driving device. Futhermore, a heat insulating material is fitted to the inner peripheral wall at the upper side of the intermediate slab part, and the temperature gradient in the wall thickness direction at the time of a piping rupture trouble is made gentle, and thermal stresses at the inner peripheral wall are lowered. (Sekiya, K.)

  10. Containment vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zbirohowski-Koscia, K.F.; Roberts, A.C.

    1980-01-01

    A concrete containment vessel for nuclear reactors is disclosed that is spherical and that has prestressing tendons disposed in first, second and third sets, the tendons of each set being all substantially concentric and centred around a respective one of the three orthogonal axes of the sphere; the tendons of the first set being anchored at each end at a first anchor rib running around a circumference of the vessel, the tendons of the second set being anchored at each end at a second anchor rib running around a circumference of the sphere and disposed at 90 0 to the first rib, and the tendons of the third set being anchored some to the first rib and the remainder to the second rib. (author)

  11. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Fratalocchi, Andrea; Totero Gongora, Juan Sebastian; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Candeloro, Patrizio; Cuda, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  12. Saskatchewan resources. [including uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    The production of chemicals and minerals for the chemical industry in Saskatchewan are featured, with some discussion of resource taxation. The commodities mentioned include potash, fatty amines, uranium, heavy oil, sodium sulfate, chlorine, sodium hydroxide, sodium chlorate and bentonite. Following the successful outcome of the Cluff Lake inquiry, the uranium industry is booming. Some developments and production figures for Gulf Minerals, Amok, Cenex and Eldorado are mentioned.

  13. Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Bright Source List

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina, Roger F.; Marshall, Herman L.; Antia, Behram; Christian, Carol A.; Dobson, Carl A.; Finley, David S.; Fruscione, Antonella; Girouard, Forrest R.; Hawkins, Isabel; Jelinsky, Patrick

    1994-01-01

    Initial results from the analysis of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) all-sky survey (58-740 A) and deep survey (67-364 A) are presented through the EUVE Bright Source List (BSL). The BSL contains 356 confirmed extreme ultraviolet (EUV) point sources with supporting information, including positions, observed EUV count rates, and the identification of possible optical counterparts. One-hundred twenty-six sources have been detected longward of 200 A.

  14. Blind source separation dependent component analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Xiang, Yong; Yang, Zuyuan

    2015-01-01

    This book provides readers a complete and self-contained set of knowledge about dependent source separation, including the latest development in this field. The book gives an overview on blind source separation where three promising blind separation techniques that can tackle mutually correlated sources are presented. The book further focuses on the non-negativity based methods, the time-frequency analysis based methods, and the pre-coding based methods, respectively.

  15. Radiation attenuation gauge with magnetically coupled source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, S.A.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is a radiation attenuation gauge for measuring thickness and density of a material which includes, in combination, a source of gamma radiation contained within a housing of magnetic or ferromagnetic material, and a means for measuring the intensity of gamma radiation. The measuring means has an aperture and magnetic means disposed adjacent to the aperture for attracting and holding the housed source in position before the aperture. The material to be measured is placed between the source and the measuring means

  16. Being Included and Excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzenevica, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Following the civil war of 1996–2006, there was a dramatic increase in the labor mobility of young men and the inclusion of young women in formal education, which led to the transformation of the political landscape of rural Nepal. Mobility and schooling represent a level of prestige that rural...... politics. It analyzes how formal education and mobility either challenge or reinforce traditional gendered norms which dictate a lowly position for young married women in the household and their absence from community politics. The article concludes that women are simultaneously excluded and included from...... community politics. On the one hand, their mobility and decision-making powers decrease with the increase in the labor mobility of men and their newly gained education is politically devalued when compared to the informal education that men gain through mobility, but on the other hand, schooling strengthens...

  17. Pressurization of Containment Vessels from Plutonium Oxide Contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensel, S.

    2012-01-01

    Transportation and storage of plutonium oxide is typically done using a convenience container to hold the oxide powder which is then placed inside a containment vessel. Intermediate containers which act as uncredited confinement barriers may also be used. The containment vessel is subject to an internal pressure due to several sources including; (1) plutonium oxide provides a heat source which raises the temperature of the gas space, (2) helium generation due to alpha decay of the plutonium, (3) hydrogen generation due to radiolysis of the water which has been adsorbed onto the plutonium oxide, and (4) degradation of plastic bags which may be used to bag out the convenience can from a glove box. The contributions of these sources are evaluated in a reasonably conservative manner.

  18. Containment vessel drain system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Scott G.

    2018-01-30

    A system for draining a containment vessel may include a drain inlet located in a lower portion of the containment vessel. The containment vessel may be at least partially filled with a liquid, and the drain inlet may be located below a surface of the liquid. The system may further comprise an inlet located in an upper portion of the containment vessel. The inlet may be configured to insert pressurized gas into the containment vessel to form a pressurized region above the surface of the liquid, and the pressurized region may operate to apply a surface pressure that forces the liquid into the drain inlet. Additionally, a fluid separation device may be operatively connected to the drain inlet. The fluid separation device may be configured to separate the liquid from the pressurized gas that enters the drain inlet after the surface of the liquid falls below the drain inlet.

  19. Characterization and source regions of 51 high-CO events observed during Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container (CARIBIC) flights between south China and the Philippines, 2005-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, S. C.; Baker, A. K.; Schuck, T. J.; Slemr, F.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; van Velthoven, P.; Oram, D. E.; Zahn, A.; Ziereis, H.

    2011-10-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) and other atmospheric trace constituents were measured from onboard an Airbus 340-600 passenger aircraft in the upper troposphere (UT) between south China and the Philippines during Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container (CARIBIC) flights from May 2005 until March 2008. A total of 132 events having CO enhancements were observed in the UT over the region during the 81 CARIBIC flights from Frankfurt, Germany, to Manila, Philippines, with a stopover in Guangzhou, China. Among these, 51 high-CO events with enhancements more than 50 ppb above background were observed. For these events enhancements ranged from 52.7 to 221.3 ppb and persisted for 3 to 78 min (˜40 to 1200 km), indicating an influence of strong pollution from biomass/biofuel/fossil fuel burning on the trace gas composition of the UT. Back trajectory analysis shows that south China, the Indochinese Peninsula, and the Philippines/Indonesia are the main source regions of the high-CO events. The composition of air parcels originating from south China was found to be primarily influenced by anthropogenic urban/industrial emissions, while emissions from biomass/biofuel burning contributed substantially to CO enhancements from the Indochinese Peninsula. During the Philippines/Indonesia events, air parcel composition suggests contributions from both biomass/biofuel burning and urban/industrial sources. Long-range transport of air parcels from northeast Asia and India also contributed to CO enhancements in the UT over the region. The general features of regional influence, typical cases, and the contributions of biomass/biofuel burning and anthropogenic emissions are presented and discussed to characterize the air parcels during the observed high-CO events.

  20. Steel containment buckling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, T.A.; Baker, W.E.

    1987-01-01

    Two aspects of buckling of a free-standing nuclear containment building were investigated in a combined experimental and analytical program. In the first part of the study, the response of a scale model of a containment building to dynamic base excitation is investigated. A simple harmonic signal was used for preliminary studies followed by experiments with scaled earthquake signals as the excitation source. The experiments and accompanying analyses indicate that the scale model response to earthquake-type excitations is very complex and that current analytical methods may require that a dynamic capacity reduction factor be incorporated. The second part of the study quantified the effects of framing at large penetrations on the static buckling capacity of scale model containments. Results show little effect from the framing for the scale models constructed from the polycarbonate, Lexan. However, additional studies with a model constructed of the prototypic steel material are recommended. (orig.)

  1. Steel containment buckling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, T.A.; Baker, W.E.

    1986-01-01

    Two aspects of buckling of a free-standing nuclear steel containment building were investigated in a combined experimental and analytical program. In the first part of the study, the response of a scale model of a containment building to dynamic base excitation is investigated. A simple harmonic signal was used for preliminary studies followed by experiments with scaled earthquake signals as the excitation source. The experiments and accompanying analyses indicate that the scale model response to earthquake-type excitations is very complex and that current analytical methods may require a dynamic capacity reduction factor to be incorporated. The second part of the study quantified the effects of framing at large penetrations on the static buckling capacity of scale model containments. Results show little effect from the framing for the scale models constructed from the polycarbonate, Lexan. However, additional studies with a model constructed of the prototypic steel material are suggested

  2. Source Term Inversion Method Based on Containment Short-range Detection Data%基于安全壳近程探测数据的事故源项反演方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈竟宇; 马元巍; 王德忠; 张继革; 范海民

    2016-01-01

    在发生核电厂严重事故时,为更加快速准确地估算释放至环境的气载放射性核素泄漏速率,提出了一种新的源项反演方法。该方法基于在安全壳附近主动布设的移动探测点所获取的γ能谱数据反演源项,研究了合适探测距离的选择、移动探测点的有效布设及准确反演单个核素泄漏速率的方法。根据研究结果,选择气载放射性核素中泄漏量及特征γ射线能量均相对高的88 Kr 作为特征核素进行能谱分析;确定合适的探测距离范围为距离安全壳100 m 以内;建立γ能谱数据与特征核素泄漏速率的关系,在数值上准确反演放射性核素的泄漏速率。%A new source term inversion method was presented to accurately estimate leak rate of airborne radionuclides released into the environment under the circumstance of nuclear power plant severe accidents.The method is based on containment short-range gamma-ray spectrum data obtained by mobile detection points arranged near the containment.The choice of appropriate detection range,effective arrangement of mobile detection points,and accurate estimate of leak rate for a single radionuclide were stud-ied.As a result,88 Kr is selected as the characteristic nuclide among all airborne radio-nuclides due to its relatively high first characteristic gamma-ray energy and high leak rate.The detection range is determined as within 100 m from the containment.The relation between gamma-ray spectrum data and leak rate of characteristic radionuclide is established to obtain inversion result numerically.

  3. Separation and preconcentration of platinum-group metals from spent autocatalysts solutions using a hetero-polymeric S, N-containing sorbent and determination by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskina, Vasilina V; Dalnova, Olga A; Filatova, Daria G; Baranovskaya, Vasilisa B; Karpov, Yuri A

    2016-10-01

    This paper describes the potential of high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for determination of Pt, Pd and Rh after separation and concentration by original in-house developed heterochain polymer S, N-containing sorbent. The methods of sample preparation of spent ceramic-based autocatalysts were considered, two of which were used: autoclave decomposition in mixture of acids HCl:HNO3 (3:1) and high-temperature melting with K2S2O7. Both methods anyway limit the direct determination of analytes by HR CS GFAAS. Using the first method it is an incomplete digestion of spent autocatalysts samples, since the precipitate is Si, and the rhodium metal dissolves with difficulty and partially passes into solution. In contrast to the first method, the second method allow to completely transfer analytes into solution, however, the background signal produced by the chemical composition of the flux, overlaps the analytical zone. It was found, that Pt, Pd and Rh contained in the spent ceramic automotive catalysts could be effectively separated and concentrated by heterochain polymer S, N-containing sorbent, which has high sorption capacity, selectivity and resistant to dilute acids. The chosen HR CS GFAAS analysis conditions enable us to determine Pt, Pd and Rh with good metrological characteristics. The concentrations of Pt, Pd and Rh in two samples of automobile exhaust catalysts were found in range of 0.00015-0.00050; 0.170-0.189; 0.0180-0.0210wt%, respectively. The relative standard deviation obtained by HR CS GFAAS was not more than 5%. Limits of detection by HR CS GFAAS achieved were 6.2·10(-6)wt% for Pt, 1.8·10(-6)wt% for Pd, and 3.4·10(-6)wt% for Rh. Limits of determination achieved by HR CS GFAAS were 1.1·10(-5)wt% for Pt, 6.9·10(-5)wt% for Pd, and 8.3·10(-5)wt% for Rh. To control the accuracy of PGM in sorption concentrates by HR CS GFAAS method, it was appropriate to conduct an inter-method comparative experiment. The

  4. Source Reference File

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This file contains a national set of names and contact information for doctors, hospitals, clinics, and other facilities (known collectively as sources) from which...

  5. MELCOR/CONTAIN LMR Implementation Report. FY14 Progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphries, Larry L; Louie, David L.Y.

    2014-10-01

    This report describes the preliminary implementation of the sodium thermophysical properties and the design documentation for the sodium models of CONTAIN-LMR to be implemented into MELCOR 2.1. In the past year, the implementation included two separate sodium properties from two different sources. The first source is based on the previous work done by Idaho National Laboratory by modifying MELCOR to include liquid lithium equation of state as a working fluid to model the nuclear fusion safety research. To minimize the impact to MELCOR, the implementation of the fusion safety database (FSD) was done by utilizing the detection of the data input file as a way to invoking the FSD. The FSD methodology has been adapted currently for this work, but it may subject modification as the project continues. The second source uses properties generated for the SIMMER code. Preliminary testing and results from this implementation of sodium properties are given. In this year, the design document for the CONTAIN-LMR sodium models, such as the two condensable option, sodium spray fire, and sodium pool fire is being developed. This design document is intended to serve as a guide for the MELCOR implementation. In addition, CONTAIN-LMR code used was based on the earlier version of CONTAIN code. Many physical models that were developed since this early version of CONTAIN may not be captured by the code. Although CONTAIN 2, which represents the latest development of CONTAIN, contains some sodium specific models, which are not complete, the utilizing CONTAIN 2 with all sodium models implemented from CONTAIN-LMR as a comparison code for MELCOR should be done. This implementation should be completed in early next year, while sodium models from CONTAIN-LMR are being integrated into MELCOR. For testing, CONTAIN decks have been developed for verification and validation use.

  6. Environmental protection law of the European Community (EU). Source index and content index including the jurisdiction of the European Court of Justice with actual jurisdiction service and special literature according to the individual legal regulations. 34. ed.; Umweltschutzrecht der Europaeischen Union (EU). Fundstellen- und Inhaltsnachweis, einschliesslich der Rechtsprechung des Europaeischen Gerichtshofes - EuGH; mit aktuellem Rechtsprechungsdienst und Spezialliteratur zu den einzelnen Rechtsvorschriften

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Bernd

    2009-07-01

    The 34th edition of the source index of the environment law of the European Union contains the documentary evidence of the total jurisdiction of the European Court of Justice (Luxemburg) with respect to the following topics: (a) General infrastructure / integral environment law; (b) Nature protection, landscape protection as well as protection of species; (c) Dangerous materials and preparations; (d) Waste management law; (e) Water legislation; (f) environmental traffic law; (g) law of air pollution control of climate protection; (h) noise control; (i) environmental commercial law; (j) environmental law of energy.

  7. Radionuclide containment in soil by phosphate treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.; Francis, C.W.; Timpson, M.E.; Elless, M.P.

    1995-01-01

    Radionuclide transport from a contaminant source to groundwater and surface water is a common problem faced by most US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Containment of the radionuclide plume, including strontium-90 and uranium, is possible using phosphate treatment as a chemical stabilizer. Such a chemical process occurs in soils under natural environmental conditions. Therefore, the concept of phosphate amendment for radiostrontium and uranium immobilization is already a proven principle. In this presentation, results of bench-scale experiments and the concept of a field-scale demonstration are discussed. The phosphate treatment is possible at the source or near the advancing contaminant plume. Cleanup is still the ideal concept; however, containment through stabilization is a more practical and costeffective concept that should be examined by DOE Environmental Restoration programs

  8. Secondary Containers and Service Containers for Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secondary containers and service containers are used by pesticide applicators in the process of applying a pesticide. EPA does not require secondary containers or service containers to be labeled or to meet particular construction standards. Learn more.

  9. Incidents with hazardous radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenhacker, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Incidents with hazardous radiation sources can occur in any country, even those without nuclear facilities. Preparedness for such incidents is supposed to fulfill globally agreed minimum standards. Incidents are categorized in incidents with licensed handling of radiation sources as for material testing, transport accidents of hazardous radiation sources, incidents with radionuclide batteries, incidents with satellites containing radioactive inventory, incidents wit not licensed handling of illegally acquired hazardous radiation sources. The emergency planning in Austria includes a differentiation according to the consequences: incidents with release of radioactive materials resulting in restricted contamination, incidents with release of radioactive materials resulting in local contamination, and incidents with the hazard of e@nhanced exposure due to the radiation source.

  10. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  11. Containment heat removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, G.E.; Barbanti, G.; Gou, P.F.; Rao, A.S.; Hsu, L.C.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear system of a type including a containment having a nuclear reactor therein, the nuclear reactor including a pressure vessel and a core in the pressure vessel, the system. It comprises a gravity pool of coolant disposed at an elevation sufficient to permit a flow of coolant into the nuclear reactor pressure vessel against a predetermined pressure within the nuclear reactor pressure vessel; means for reducing a pressure of steam in the nuclear reactor pressure vessel to a value less than the predetermined pressure in the event of a nuclear accident, the means including a depressurization valve connected to the pressure vessel, the means further including steam heat dissipating means such dissipating means including a suppression pool; a supply of water in the suppression pool, there being a headspace in the suppression pool above the water supply; a substantial amount of air in the head space; means for feeding pressurized steam from the nuclear reactor pressure vessel to a location under a surface of the supply of water, the supply of water being effective to absorb heat sufficient to reduce steam pressure below the predetermined pressure; and a check valve for communicating the headspace with the containment, the check valve being oriented to vent air in the headspace to the containment when a pressure in the headspace exceeds a pressure in the containment by a predetermined pressure differential

  12. DCH analyses using the CONTAIN code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Sung Wan; Kim, Hee Dong

    1996-08-01

    This report describes CONTAIN analyses performed during participation in the project of 'DCH issue resolution for ice condenser plants' which is sponsored by NRC at SNL. Even though the calculations were performed for the Ice Condenser plant, CONTAIN code has been used for analyses of many phenomena in the PWR containment and the DCH module can be commonly applied to any plant types. The present ice condenser issue resolution effort intended to provide guidance as to what might be needed to resolve DCH for ice condenser plants. It includes both a screening analysis and a scoping study if the screening analysis cannot provide an complete resolution. The followings are the results concerning DCH loads in descending order. 1. Availability of ignition sources prior to vessel breach 2. availability and effectiveness of ice in the ice condenser 3. Loads modeling uncertainties related to co-ejected RPV water 4. Other loads modeling uncertainties 10 tabs., 3 figs., 14 refs. (Author)

  13. DCH analyses using the CONTAIN code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Wan; Kim, Hee Dong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-08-01

    This report describes CONTAIN analyses performed during participation in the project of `DCH issue resolution for ice condenser plants` which is sponsored by NRC at SNL. Even though the calculations were performed for the Ice Condenser plant, CONTAIN code has been used for analyses of many phenomena in the PWR containment and the DCH module can be commonly applied to any plant types. The present ice condenser issue resolution effort intended to provide guidance as to what might be needed to resolve DCH for ice condenser plants. It includes both a screening analysis and a scoping study if the screening analysis cannot provide an complete resolution. The followings are the results concerning DCH loads in descending order. 1. Availability of ignition sources prior to vessel breach 2. availability and effectiveness of ice in the ice condenser 3. Loads modeling uncertainties related to co-ejected RPV water 4. Other loads modeling uncertainties 10 tabs., 3 figs., 14 refs. (Author).

  14. GPC Single Source Letter

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  15. Glove boxes and similar containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    According to the present invention a glove box or similar containment is provided with an exhaust system including a vortex amplifier venting into the system, the vortex amplifier also having its main inlet in fluid flow connection with the containment and a control inlet in fluid flow connection with the atmosphere outside the containment. (U.S.)

  16. Sources of polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, L.

    1983-01-01

    Various sources of polarized neutrons are reviewed. Monoenergetic source produced with unpolarized or polarized beams, white sources of polarized neutrons, production by transmissions through polarized hydrogen targets and polarized thermal neutronsare discussed, with appropriate applications included. (U.K.)

  17. Pacemakers lower sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greatbatch, W.

    1984-01-01

    Energy sources for cardiac facing are considered including radioisotope sources, in a broad conceptual and historical framework.The main guidelines for future development of energy sources are assessed

  18. Sealed source peer review plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, Alexander; Leonard, Lee; Burns, Ron

    2009-01-01

    Sealed sources are known quantities of radioactive materials that have been encapsulated in quantities that produce known radiation fields. Sealed sources have multiple uses ranging from instrument calibration sources to sources that produce radiation fields for experimental applications. The Off-Site Source Recovery (OSR) Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), created in 1999, under the direction of the Waste Management Division of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque has been assigned the responsibility to recover and manage excess and unwanted radioactive sealed sources from the public and private sector. LANL intends to ship drums containing qualified sealed sources to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal. Prior to shipping, these drums must be characterized with respect to radiological content and other parameters. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires that ten radionulcides be quantified and reported for every container of waste to be disposed in the WIPP. The methods traditionally approved by the EPA include non-destructive assay (NDA) in accordance with Appendix A of the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (DOE, 2002) (CH WAC). However, because of the nature and pedigree of historical records for sealed sources and the technical infeasibility of performing NDA on these sources, LANL proposes to characterize the content of these waste drums using qualified existing radiological data in lieu of direct measurement. This plan describes the process and documentation requirements for the use of the peer review process to qualify existing data for sealed radiological sources in lieu of perfonning radioassay. The peer review process will be performed in accordance with criteria provided in 40 CFR (section) 194.22 which specifies the use of the NUREG 1297 guidelines. The plan defines the management approach, resources, schedule, and technical requirements

  19. COMPORTAMENTO DO FUNGO Colletotrichum gossypii South. var. cephalosporoides Costa EM SUBSTRATO COM DIFERENTES FONTES DE NITROGÊNIO THE BEHAVIOR OF THE FUNGUS Colletotrichum gossypii South Var. cephalosporoides Costa IN SUBSTRATE CONTAINING DIFFERENT SOURCES OF NITROGEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvo de Carvalho

    2007-09-01

    and the sporulation of the fungus. For the production of inocule, over a short period of time, the use of peptone as source of nitrogen is recommended. Differences in the pigmentation, edges, and density of the colonies were observed. Sporulation, though abundant in the substrate containing peptone and asparagine, ocurred in the form of localized masses of conidia in the first and as dispersed conidia in the second.

  20. Address Points, The Address Point layer contains an address point for almost every structure over 200 square feet and for some vacant properties. Attributes include addresses, sub-units, address use, LAT/LONG, 10-digit SDAT taxpins, political areas and more., Published in 2013, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Baltimore County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Address Points dataset current as of 2013. The Address Point layer contains an address point for almost every structure over 200 square feet and for some vacant...

  1. Investigating Primary Source Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Joanne; Hanlon, Ann M.; Levine, Jennie A.

    2009-01-01

    Primary source research requires students to acquire specialized research skills. This paper presents results from a user study testing the effectiveness of a Web guide designed to convey the concepts behind "primary source literacy". The study also evaluated students' strengths and weaknesses when conducting primary source research. (Contains 3…

  2. CONTAIN code analyses of direct containment heating experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.C.; Griffith, R.O.; Tadios, E.L.; Washington, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    In some nuclear reactor core-melt accidents, a potential exists for molten core-debris to be dispersed into the containment under high pressure. Resulting energy transfer to the containment atmosphere can pressurize the containment. This process, known as direct containment heating (DCH), has been the subject of extensive experimental and analytical programs sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The DCH modeling has been an important focus for the development of the CONTAIN code. Results of a detailed independent peer review of the CONTAIN code were published recently. This paper summarizes work performed in support of the peer review in which the CONTAIN code was applied to analyze DCH experiments. Goals of this work were comparison of calculated and experimental results, CONTAIN DCH model assessment, and development of guidance for code users, including development of a standardized input prescription for DCH analysis

  3. Subatmospheric double containment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gans, D. Jr.; Noble, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    A reinforced concrete double wall nuclear containment structure with each wall including an essentially impervious membrane or liner and porous concrete filling the annulus between the two walls is described. The interior of the structure is maintained at subatmospheric pressure, and the annulus between the two walls is maintained at a subatmospheric pressure intermediate between that of the interior and the surrounding atmospheric pressure, during normal operation. In the event of an accident within the containment structure the interior pressure may exceed atmospheric pressure, but leakage from the interior to the annulus between the double walls will not result in the pressure of the annulus exceeding atmospheric pressure so that there is no net outleakage from the containment structure

  4. Mechanistic facility safety and source term analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PLYS, M.G.

    1999-01-01

    A PC-based computer program was created for facility safety and source term analysis at Hanford The program has been successfully applied to mechanistic prediction of source terms from chemical reactions in underground storage tanks, hydrogen combustion in double contained receiver tanks, and proccss evaluation including the potential for runaway reactions in spent nuclear fuel processing. Model features include user-defined facility room, flow path geometry, and heat conductors, user-defined non-ideal vapor and aerosol species, pressure- and density-driven gas flows, aerosol transport and deposition, and structure to accommodate facility-specific source terms. Example applications are presented here

  5. Containment structure tendon investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulton, J.F.; Murray, K.H.

    1983-01-01

    The paper describes an investigation into the possible causes of lower-than-predicted tendon forces which were measured during past tendon surveillances for a concrete containment. The containment is post tensioned by vertical tendons which are anchored into a rock foundation. The tendons were originally stressed in 1969, and lift-off tests were performed on six occasions subsequent to this date over a period of 11 years. The tendon forces measured in these tests were generally lower than predicted, and by 1979 the prestress level in the containment was only marginally above the design requirement. The tendons were retensioned in 1980, and by this time an investigation into the possible causes was underway. Potential causes investigated include the rock anchors and surrounding rock, elastomeric pad creep, wire stresses, thermal effects, stressing equipment and lift-off procedures, and wire stress relaxation. The investigation activities included stress relaxation testing of wires pulled from actual tendons. The stress relaxation test program included wire specimens at several different temperature and initial stress levels and the effect of a varying temperature history on the stress relaxation property of the wires. For purpose of future force predictions of the retensioned tendons, the test program included tests to determine the effect on stress relaxation due to restressing the wires after they had relaxed for 1000 hours and 10,000 hours. (orig./GL)

  6. Code manual for CONTAIN 2.0: A computer code for nuclear reactor containment analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, K.K.; Williams, D.C.; Griffith, R.O.; Gido, R.G.; Tadios, E.L.; Davis, F.J.; Martinez, G.M.; Washington, K.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tills, J. [J. Tills and Associates, Inc., Sandia Park, NM (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The CONTAIN 2.0 computer code is an integrated analysis tool used for predicting the physical conditions, chemical compositions, and distributions of radiological materials inside a containment building following the release of material from the primary system in a light-water reactor accident. It can also predict the source term to the environment. CONTAIN 2.0 is intended to replace the earlier CONTAIN 1.12, which was released in 1991. The purpose of this Code Manual is to provide full documentation of the features and models in CONTAIN 2.0. Besides complete descriptions of the models, this Code Manual provides a complete description of the input and output from the code. CONTAIN 2.0 is a highly flexible and modular code that can run problems that are either quite simple or highly complex. An important aspect of CONTAIN is that the interactions among thermal-hydraulic phenomena, aerosol behavior, and fission product behavior are taken into account. The code includes atmospheric models for steam/air thermodynamics, intercell flows, condensation/evaporation on structures and aerosols, aerosol behavior, and gas combustion. It also includes models for reactor cavity phenomena such as core-concrete interactions and coolant pool boiling. Heat conduction in structures, fission product decay and transport, radioactive decay heating, and the thermal-hydraulic and fission product decontamination effects of engineered safety features are also modeled. To the extent possible, the best available models for severe accident phenomena have been incorporated into CONTAIN, but it is intrinsic to the nature of accident analysis that significant uncertainty exists regarding numerous phenomena. In those cases, sensitivity studies can be performed with CONTAIN by means of user-specified input parameters. Thus, the code can be viewed as a tool designed to assist the knowledge reactor safety analyst in evaluating the consequences of specific modeling assumptions.

  7. Code manual for CONTAIN 2.0: A computer code for nuclear reactor containment analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, K.K.; Williams, D.C.; Griffith, R.O.; Gido, R.G.; Tadios, E.L.; Davis, F.J.; Martinez, G.M.; Washington, K.E.; Tills, J.

    1997-12-01

    The CONTAIN 2.0 computer code is an integrated analysis tool used for predicting the physical conditions, chemical compositions, and distributions of radiological materials inside a containment building following the release of material from the primary system in a light-water reactor accident. It can also predict the source term to the environment. CONTAIN 2.0 is intended to replace the earlier CONTAIN 1.12, which was released in 1991. The purpose of this Code Manual is to provide full documentation of the features and models in CONTAIN 2.0. Besides complete descriptions of the models, this Code Manual provides a complete description of the input and output from the code. CONTAIN 2.0 is a highly flexible and modular code that can run problems that are either quite simple or highly complex. An important aspect of CONTAIN is that the interactions among thermal-hydraulic phenomena, aerosol behavior, and fission product behavior are taken into account. The code includes atmospheric models for steam/air thermodynamics, intercell flows, condensation/evaporation on structures and aerosols, aerosol behavior, and gas combustion. It also includes models for reactor cavity phenomena such as core-concrete interactions and coolant pool boiling. Heat conduction in structures, fission product decay and transport, radioactive decay heating, and the thermal-hydraulic and fission product decontamination effects of engineered safety features are also modeled. To the extent possible, the best available models for severe accident phenomena have been incorporated into CONTAIN, but it is intrinsic to the nature of accident analysis that significant uncertainty exists regarding numerous phenomena. In those cases, sensitivity studies can be performed with CONTAIN by means of user-specified input parameters. Thus, the code can be viewed as a tool designed to assist the knowledge reactor safety analyst in evaluating the consequences of specific modeling assumptions

  8. Protected isotope heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, R.K.; Shure, L.I.; Katzen, E.D.

    1975-01-01

    A radioactive isotope capsule is disposed in a container (heat shield) which will have a single stable trim attitude when reentering the earth's atmosphere and while falling to earth. The center of gravity of the heat source is located forward of the midpoint between the front face and the rear face of the container. The capsule is insulated from the front face of the container but not from the rear surface of the container. (auth)

  9. Port Security: Container Cargo Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladivoj Vlaković

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available illicittrafficking of threat materials, especially explosives, chemicalsubstances and radioactive or nuclear material. The transportof the threat materials by using sea routes is an advantageto te"orists especially because of the possible use of ship containers.The container is the basis of world trade. It is assumed thatthe world total movement in containers is about 200 millionTEUs ("20-foot equivalent units" per year. The list of materialstransported by containers which should be subject to inspectionwith the aim of reducing the acts of te"orism includes explosives,narcotics, chemical weapons, hazardous chemicalsand radioactive materials.Of special interest is nuclear te"orism. The risk of nuclearte"orism carried out by sub-national groups should be considerednot only in the construction and/or use of nuclear device,but also in possible radioactive contamination of large urbanareas.The system of ship containers control is an essential componentof «smart border» concept. Modem personnel, parcel,vehicle and cargo inspection systems are non-invasive imagingtechniques based on the use of nuclear analytical techniques.The inspection systems use penetrating radiations: hard x-rays(300 keV or more or gamma-rays from radioactive sources(137Cs and 60Co with energies from 600 to 1300 keV that producea high resolution radiograph of the load. Unfortunately,this information is "non-specific" in that it gives no informationon the nature of objects that do not match_ the travel documentsand are not recognized by a visual analysis of the radiographicpicture. Moreover, there are regions of the containerwherex and gamma-ray systems are "blind" due to the high averageatomic number of the objects i"adiated that appear asblack spots in the radiographic image.The systems being developed are based on the use of fast, 14Me V, neutrons with detection of associated a-particle from nuclearreactionbywhichneutrons are produced (d+t>a+n.Jnsuch a way the possibility to

  10. Sidewall containment of liquid metal with horizontal alternating magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pareg, W.F.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes an apparatus for confining molten metal. It comprises: containment means having an open side; a magnet capable of generating a mainly horizontal alternating magnetic field. The the magnet is located adjacent to the open side of the containment means whereby the field generated by the magnet is capable of inducing eddy currents in a thin layer at the surface of the molten metal which interact with the magnetic field producing a force that can contain the molten metal within the containment means; wherein the magnet includes: magnetic poles located adjacent to the open side of the confinement means; a core connecting the poles; a coil encircling the core, the coil capable of being responsive to a current source; whereby an alternating magnetic field can be generated between the poles and parallel to the open side of the containment means so that a molten metal can be confined within the confinement means

  11. Elements of a thermic method of preparing beta-sources with fused carriers, including strontium-90; Elements d'une methode thermique de preparation de sources beta avec des entraineurs fondus, y compris le strontium-90; Osnovy termicheskogo metoda prigotovleniya beta-istochnikov s plavlennymi nositelyami, vklyuchayushchimi strontsij-90; Bases de un metodo termico de preparacion de fuentes beta con portadores fundidos, incluido el estroncio-90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanov, N I; Zakharova, K P; Zimakov, P V; Kulichenko, V V

    1962-01-15

    Sources of ionizing radiation based on the radioisotope Sr{sup 90} are widely used in apparatus and systems of automatic control and regulation of industrial processes. The technology of the preparation of sources is based on dehydration of a mixture of a radioactive solution of strontium nitrate with components such as boric anhydride, silica, and alumina. Thermic treatment of the dehydrated mixture at a high temperature produces a very mobile melt. This cools to a vitreous mass containing the required quantity of the radioisotope Sr{sup 90}. The paper gives data and discusses the results of dehydration of the system SrO - B{sub 2}O{sub 3} - SiO{sub 2} within a temperature range of 100 - 1000{sup o}C and justifies the choice of the main parameters of the technological process. It summarizes a method of mounting a vitreous preparation containing the required quantity of the radioisotope Sr{sup 90} on bases of various shapes and sizes made of steel, ceramic and other materials. The authors discuss the main parameters, ensuring that various types of sources shall be reliable and safe in operation, and give data of Sr{sup 90} sources prepared by the thermic method. (author) [French] Les sources de rayonnements ionisants a base de strontium-90 trouvent une large application dans les appareils et les systemes de controle et de reglage automatique des procedes de production. Le procede de preparation des sources se fonde sur la deshydratation d'un melange compose d'une solution radioactive de nitrate de strontium et d'elements comme l'anhydride borique, la silice, l'alumine, etc. Le traitement thermique du melange deshydrate a haute temperature donne lieu a la formation d'une masse fondue tres mobile, dont le refroidissement fournit une masse vitreuse contenant la quantite requise du radioisotope {sup 59}Sr. Les auteurs citent les donnees et examinent Jes resultats d'une etude sur la deshydratation du systeme SrO - B{sub 2}O{sub 3} - SiO{sub 2} a des temperatures

  12. Waste container and method for containing waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Akira; Matsushita, Mitsuhiro; Doi, Makoto; Nakatani, Seiichi.

    1990-01-01

    In a waste container, water-proof membranes and rare earth element layers are formed on the inner surface of a steel plate concrete container in which steel plates are embedded. Further, rear earth element detectors are disposed each from the inner side of the steel plate concrete container by way of a pressure pipe to the outer side of the container. As a method for actually containing wastes, when a plurality of vessels in which wastes are fixed are collectively enhoused to the waste container, cussioning materials are attached to the inner surface of the container and wastes fixing containers are stacked successively in a plurality of rows in a bag made of elastic materials. Subsequently, fixing materials are filled and tightly sealed in the waste container. When the waste container thus constituted is buried underground, even if it should be deformed to cause intrusion of rain water to the inside of the container, the rare earth elements in the container dissolved in the rain water can be detected by the detectors, the containers are exchanged before the rain water intruding to the inner side is leached to the surrounding ground, to previously prevent the leakage of radioactive nuclides. (K.M.)

  13. Crowd Sourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Neil

    2016-01-01

    The Internet has contributed new words and slang to our daily vernacular. A few terms, such as tweeting, texting, sexting, blogging, and googling, have become common in most vocabularies and in many languages, and are now included in the dictionary. A new buzzword making the rounds in industry is crowd sourcing, which involves outsourcing an activity, task, or problem by sending it to people or groups outside a business or a practice. Crowd sourcing allows doctors and practices to tap the wisdom of many instead of relying only on the few members of their close-knit group. This article defines "crowd sourcing," offers examples, and explains how to get started with this approach that can increase your ability to finish a task or solve problems that you don't have the time or expertise to accomplish.

  14. Standardized analyses of nuclear shipping containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, C.V.; Hermann, O.W.; Petrie, L.M.; Hoffman, T.J.; Tang, J.S.; Landers, N.F.; Turner, W.D.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes improved capabilities for analyses of nuclear fuel shipping containers within SCALE -- a modular code system for Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation. Criticality analysis improvements include the new KENO V, a code which contains an enhanced geometry package and a new control module which uses KENO V and allows a criticality search on optimum pitch (maximum k-effective) to be performed. The SAS2 sequence is a new shielding analysis module which couples fuel burnup, source term generation, and radial cask shielding. The SAS5 shielding sequence allows a multidimensional Monte Carlo analysis of a shipping cask with code generated biasing of the particle histories. The thermal analysis sequence (HTAS1) provides an easy-to-use tool for evaluating a shipping cask response to the accident capability of the SCALE system to provide the cask designer or evaluator with a computational system that provides the automated procedures and easy-to-understand input that leads to standarization

  15. Direct containment heating models in the CONTAIN code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington, K.E.; Williams, D.C.

    1995-08-01

    The potential exists in a nuclear reactor core melt severe accident for molten core debris to be dispersed under high pressure into the containment building. If this occurs, the set of phenomena that result in the transfer of energy to the containment atmosphere and its surroundings is referred to as direct containment heating (DCH). Because of the potential for DCH to lead to early containment failure, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) has sponsored an extensive research program consisting of experimental, analytical, and risk integration components. An important element of the analytical research has been the development and assessment of direct containment heating models in the CONTAIN code. This report documents the DCH models in the CONTAIN code. DCH models in CONTAIN for representing debris transport, trapping, chemical reactions, and heat transfer from debris to the containment atmosphere and surroundings are described. The descriptions include the governing equations and input instructions in CONTAIN unique to performing DCH calculations. Modifications made to the combustion models in CONTAIN for representing the combustion of DCH-produced and pre-existing hydrogen under DCH conditions are also described. Input table options for representing the discharge of debris from the RPV and the entrainment phase of the DCH process are also described. A sample calculation is presented to demonstrate the functionality of the models. The results show that reasonable behavior is obtained when the models are used to predict the sixth Zion geometry integral effects test at 1/10th scale

  16. Direct containment heating models in the CONTAIN code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington, K.E.; Williams, D.C.

    1995-08-01

    The potential exists in a nuclear reactor core melt severe accident for molten core debris to be dispersed under high pressure into the containment building. If this occurs, the set of phenomena that result in the transfer of energy to the containment atmosphere and its surroundings is referred to as direct containment heating (DCH). Because of the potential for DCH to lead to early containment failure, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) has sponsored an extensive research program consisting of experimental, analytical, and risk integration components. An important element of the analytical research has been the development and assessment of direct containment heating models in the CONTAIN code. This report documents the DCH models in the CONTAIN code. DCH models in CONTAIN for representing debris transport, trapping, chemical reactions, and heat transfer from debris to the containment atmosphere and surroundings are described. The descriptions include the governing equations and input instructions in CONTAIN unique to performing DCH calculations. Modifications made to the combustion models in CONTAIN for representing the combustion of DCH-produced and pre-existing hydrogen under DCH conditions are also described. Input table options for representing the discharge of debris from the RPV and the entrainment phase of the DCH process are also described. A sample calculation is presented to demonstrate the functionality of the models. The results show that reasonable behavior is obtained when the models are used to predict the sixth Zion geometry integral effects test at 1/10th scale.

  17. Container crane for sea freight containers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttekes, E.; Rijsenbrij, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    The invention relates to a container crane for loading and unloading seaborne containers. The container crane comprises a bridge girder (7), a jib (8), at least two crabs (11, 12) which can travel along the said bridge girder and/or jib and are provided with hoist means for lifting and lowering the

  18. The Chandra Source Catalog: Statistical Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primini, Francis A.; Nowak, M. A.; Houck, J. C.; Davis, J. E.; Glotfelty, K. J.; Karovska, M.; Anderson, C. S.; Bonaventura, N. R.; Chen, J. C.; Doe, S. M.; Evans, I. N.; Evans, J. D.; Fabbiano, G.; Galle, E. C.; Gibbs, D. G., II; Grier, J. D.; Hain, R.; Hall, D. M.; Harbo, P. N.; He, X.; Lauer, J.; McCollough, M. L.; McDowell, J. C.; Miller, J. B.; Mitschang, A. W.; Morgan, D. L.; Nichols, J. S.; Plummer, D. A.; Refsdal, B. L.; Rots, A. H.; Siemiginowska, A. L.; Sundheim, B. A.; Tibbetts, M. S.; van Stone, D. W.; Winkelman, S. L.; Zografou, P.

    2009-09-01

    The Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) will ultimately contain more than ˜250000 x-ray sources in a total area of ˜1% of the entire sky, using data from ˜10000 separate ACIS and HRC observations of a multitude of different types of x-ray sources (see Evans et al. this conference). In order to maximize the scientific benefit of such a large, heterogeneous dataset, careful characterization of the statistical properties of the catalog, i.e., completeness, sensitivity, false source rate, and accuracy of source properties, is required. Our Characterization efforts include both extensive simulations of blank-sky and point source datasets, and detailed comparisons of CSC results with those of other x-ray and optical catalogs. We present here a summary of our characterization results for CSC Release 1 and preliminary plans for future releases. This work is supported by NASA contract NAS8-03060 (CXC).

  19. BIOLOGIC AND ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF INCLUDING DIFFERENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biologic and economic effects of including three agro-industrial by-products as ingredients in turkey poult diets were investigated using 48 turkey poults in a completely randomised design experiment. Diets were formulated to contain the three by-products – wheat offal, rice husk and palm kernel meal, each at 20% level ...

  20. Nuclear steam system containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.

    1980-01-01

    An improved containment used for radiation shielding and pressure suppression comprising a dry well includes a pressure vessel, a plurality of concentric wall means, said plurality of concentric wall means defining at least three annular regions about said dry well. A first annular region provides the containment used for radiation shielding, a second annular region is substantially dry, a third annular region provides a wet well for relieving fluid pressure released from the pressure vessel into the dry well. Pipe connection means extend in the wet well from the dry well, a pool of liquid is disposed to partially fill said third annular region, the upper end portion of the second and third annular regions having an enclosure, and a plurality of baffle plates extending vertically downward from said enclosure in said third annular region into said pool of liquid so as to circumferentially divide the upper portion of said third annular region into a plurality of circumferential upper portions

  1. Diversity employment and recruitment sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    Effective human resources management has been identified as one of four critical success factors in the Department of Energy Strategic Plan. The Plan states relative to this factor: ``The Department seeks greater alignment of resources with agency priorities and increased diversification of the workforce, including gender, ethnicity, age, and skills. This diversification will bring new thinking and perspectives that heretofore have not had a voice in departmental decision-making.`` This Guide has been developed as a key tool to assist Department of Energy management and administrative staff in achieving Goal 2 of this critical success factor, which is to ``Ensure a diverse and talented workforce.`` There are numerous sources from which to recruit minorities, women and persons with disabilities. Applying creativity and proactive effort, using traditional and non-traditional approaches, and reaching out to various professional, academic and social communities will increase the reservoir of qualified candidates from which to make selections. In addition, outreach initiatives will undoubtedly yield further benefits such as a richer cultural understanding and diversity awareness. The resource listings presented in this Guide are offered to encourage active participation in the diversity recruitment process. This Guide contains resource listings by state for organizations in the following categories: (1) African American Recruitment Sources; (2) Asian American/Pacific Islander Recruitment Sources; (3) Hispanic Recruitment Sources; (4) Native American/Alaskan Native Recruitment Sources; (5) Persons with Disabilities Recruitment Sources; and (6) Women Recruitment Sources.

  2. Histidine-Containing Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    Peptide nucleic acids containing histidine moieties are provided. These compounds have applications including diagnostics, research and potential therapeutics.......Peptide nucleic acids containing histidine moieties are provided. These compounds have applications including diagnostics, research and potential therapeutics....

  3. National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulbert, S.L.; Lazarz, N.M.

    1991-04-01

    This report discussion research being conducted at the National Synchrotron light source. In particular, this report contains operations summaries; symposia, workshops, and projects; NSLS highlights; and abstracts of science at the NSLS

  4. Miniature radioactive light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caffarella, T.E.; Radda, G.J.; Dooley, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    A miniature radioactive light source for illuminating digital watches is described consisting of a glass tube with improved laser sealing and strength containing tritium gas and a transducer responsive to the gas. (U.K.)

  5. Nuclear reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shioiri, Akio.

    1992-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor container, a vent tube communication port is disposed to a pressure suppression pool at a position higher than the pool water therein for communication with an upper dry well, and the upper end opening of a dry well communication pipe is disposed at a position higher than the communication port. When condensate return pipeline is ruptured in the upper dry well, water in a water source pool is injected to the pressure vessel and partially discharged out of the ruptured port and a depressurization valve connected to the pressure vessel to the inside of the upper dry well. The discharged water stays in the upper dry well and, when the water level reaches the height of the vent tube communication port, it flows into the pressure suppression pool. Even in a state that the entire amount of water in the water source pool is supplied, since water does not reach the upper opening port of the dry well communication pipe, water does not flow into a lower dry well. Accordingly, the motor of a control rod drives disposed in the lower dry well can be prevented from submerging. The reactor core can be cooled more reliably, to improve the reliability of the pressure suppression function. (N.H.)

  6. Containment severe accident thermohydraulic phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frid, W.

    1991-08-01

    This report describes and discusses the containment accident progression and the important severe accident containment thermohydraulic phenomena. The overall objective of the report is to provide a rather detailed presentation of the present status of phenomenological knowledge, including an account of relevant experimental investigations and to discuss, to some extent, the modelling approach used in the MAAP 3.0 computer code. The MAAP code has been used in Sweden as the main tool in the analysis of severe accidents. The dependence of the containment accident progression and containment phenomena on the initial conditions, which in turn are heavily dependent on the in-vessel accident progression and phenomena as well as associated uncertainties, is emphasized. The report is in three parts dealing with: * Swedish reactor containments, the severe accident mitigation programme in Sweden and containment accident progression in Swedish PWRs and BWRs as predicted by the MAAP 3.0 code. * Key non-energetic ex-vessel phenomena (melt fragmentation in water, melt quenching and coolability, core-concrete interaction and high temperature in containment). * Early containment threats due to energetic events (hydrogen combustion, high pressure melt ejection and direct containment heating, and ex-vessel steam explosions). The report concludes that our understanding of the containment severe accident progression and phenomena has improved very significantly over the parts ten years and, thereby, our ability to assess containment threats, to quantify uncertainties, and to interpret the results of experiments and computer code calculations have also increased. (au)

  7. The Chandra Source Catalog: Spectral Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doe, Stephen; Siemiginowska, Aneta L.; Refsdal, Brian L.; Evans, Ian N.; Anderson, Craig S.; Bonaventura, Nina R.; Chen, Judy C.; Davis, John E.; Evans, Janet D.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Galle, Elizabeth C.; Gibbs, Danny G., II; Glotfelty, Kenny J.; Grier, John D.; Hain, Roger; Hall, Diane M.; Harbo, Peter N.; He, Xiang Qun (Helen); Houck, John C.; Karovska, Margarita; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Lauer, Jennifer; McCollough, Michael L.; McDowell, Jonathan C.; Miller, Joseph B.; Mitschang, Arik W.; Morgan, Douglas L.; Mossman, Amy E.; Nichols, Joy S.; Nowak, Michael A.; Plummer, David A.; Primini, Francis A.; Rots, Arnold H.; Sundheim, Beth A.; Tibbetts, Michael S.; van Stone, David W.; Winkelman, Sherry L.; Zografou, Panagoula

    2009-09-01

    The first release of the Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) contains all sources identified from eight years' worth of publicly accessible observations. The vast majority of these sources have been observed with the ACIS detector and have spectral information in 0.5-7 keV energy range. Here we describe the methods used to automatically derive spectral properties for each source detected by the standard processing pipeline and included in the final CSC. Hardness ratios were calculated for each source between pairs of energy bands (soft, medium and hard) using the Bayesian algorithm (BEHR, Park et al. 2006). The sources with high signal to noise ratio (exceeding 150 net counts) were fit in Sherpa (the modeling and fitting application from the Chandra Interactive Analysis of Observations package, developed by the Chandra X-ray Center; see Freeman et al. 2001). Two models were fit to each source: an absorbed power law and a blackbody emission. The fitted parameter values for the power-law and blackbody models were included in the catalog with the calculated flux for each model. The CSC also provides the source energy flux computed from the normalizations of predefined power-law and black-body models needed to match the observed net X-ray counts. In addition, we provide access to data products for each source: a file with source spectrum, the background spectrum, and the spectral response of the detector. This work is supported by NASA contract NAS8-03060 (CXC).

  8. Guidelines for the implementation of an open source information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doak, J.; Howell, J.A.

    1995-08-01

    This work was initially performed for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to help with the Open Source Task of the 93 + 2 Initiative; however, the information should be of interest to anyone working with open sources. The authors cover all aspects of an open source information system (OSIS) including, for example, identifying relevant sources, understanding copyright issues, and making information available to analysts. They foresee this document as a reference point that implementors of a system could augment for their particular needs. The primary organization of this document focuses on specific aspects, or components, of an OSIS; they describe each component and often make specific recommendations for its implementation. This document also contains a section discussing the process of collecting open source data and a section containing miscellaneous information. The appendix contains a listing of various providers, producers, and databases that the authors have come across in their research.

  9. APR1400 Containment Simulation with CONTAIN code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Moon Kyu; Chung, Bub Dong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    The more realistic containment pressure variation predicted by the CONTAIN code through the coupled analysis during a large break loss of coolant accident in the nuclear power plant is expected to provide more accurate prediction for the plant behavior than a standalone MARS-KS calculation. The input deck has been generated based on the already available ARP- 1400 input for CONTEMPT code. Similarly to the CONTEMPT input deck, a simple two-cell model was adopted to model the containment behavior, one cell for the containment inner volume and another cell for the environment condition. The developed input for the CONTAIN code is to be eventually applied for the coupled code calculation of MARS-KS/CONTAIN

  10. APR1400 Containment Simulation with CONTAIN code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Moon Kyu; Chung, Bub Dong

    2010-01-01

    The more realistic containment pressure variation predicted by the CONTAIN code through the coupled analysis during a large break loss of coolant accident in the nuclear power plant is expected to provide more accurate prediction for the plant behavior than a standalone MARS-KS calculation. The input deck has been generated based on the already available ARP- 1400 input for CONTEMPT code. Similarly to the CONTEMPT input deck, a simple two-cell model was adopted to model the containment behavior, one cell for the containment inner volume and another cell for the environment condition. The developed input for the CONTAIN code is to be eventually applied for the coupled code calculation of MARS-KS/CONTAIN

  11. Sources of Gluten

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... based may contain a wheat-based ingredient Salad dressings and marinades – may contain malt vinegar, soy sauce, flour Starch or dextrin if found on a meat or poultry product could be from any grain, including wheat ...

  12. EV-GHG Mobile Source

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EV-GHG Mobile Source Data asset contains measured mobile source GHG emissions summary compliance information on light-duty vehicles, by model, for certification...

  13. On possibility of degradation of lava-like fuel-containing materials of the 4-th block of Chernobyl NPP under internal self-irradiation by alpha-particle sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazukhin, Eh. M.; Borovoj, A.A.; Rudya, K.G.

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that internal self-irradiation by alpha-particle beam cannot be a cause of change of strength characteristics of silicate matrix and so a cause of degradation of Chernobyl lava-like materials. A new method is proposed for management with lava-like fuel-containing materials of the 4-th block: vitrification in smelter unit situated in bubbler-basin and storage of prepared immobilized compacts in corresponding depositories [ru

  14. Containment Code Validation Matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, Yu-Shan; Mathew, P.M.; Glowa, Glenn; Dickson, Ray; Liang, Zhe; Leitch, Brian; Barber, Duncan; Vasic, Aleks; Bentaib, Ahmed; Journeau, Christophe; Malet, Jeanne; Studer, Etienne; Meynet, Nicolas; Piluso, Pascal; Gelain, Thomas; Michielsen, Nathalie; Peillon, Samuel; Porcheron, Emmanuel; Albiol, Thierry; Clement, Bernard; Sonnenkalb, Martin; Klein-Hessling, Walter; Arndt, Siegfried; Weber, Gunter; Yanez, Jorge; Kotchourko, Alexei; Kuznetsov, Mike; Sangiorgi, Marco; Fontanet, Joan; Herranz, Luis; Garcia De La Rua, Carmen; Santiago, Aleza Enciso; Andreani, Michele; Paladino, Domenico; Dreier, Joerg; Lee, Richard; Amri, Abdallah

    2014-01-01

    The Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) formed the CCVM (Containment Code Validation Matrix) task group in 2002. The objective of this group was to define a basic set of available experiments for code validation, covering the range of containment (ex-vessel) phenomena expected in the course of light and heavy water reactor design basis accidents and beyond design basis accidents/severe accidents. It was to consider phenomena relevant to pressurised heavy water reactor (PHWR), pressurised water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) designs of Western origin as well as of Eastern European VVER types. This work would complement the two existing CSNI validation matrices for thermal hydraulic code validation (NEA/CSNI/R(1993)14) and In-vessel core degradation (NEA/CSNI/R(2001)21). The report initially provides a brief overview of the main features of a PWR, BWR, CANDU and VVER reactors. It also provides an overview of the ex-vessel corium retention (core catcher). It then provides a general overview of the accident progression for light water and heavy water reactors. The main focus is to capture most of the phenomena and safety systems employed in these reactor types and to highlight the differences. This CCVM contains a description of 127 phenomena, broken down into 6 categories: - Containment Thermal-hydraulics Phenomena; - Hydrogen Behaviour (Combustion, Mitigation and Generation) Phenomena; - Aerosol and Fission Product Behaviour Phenomena; - Iodine Chemistry Phenomena; - Core Melt Distribution and Behaviour in Containment Phenomena; - Systems Phenomena. A synopsis is provided for each phenomenon, including a description, references for further information, significance for DBA and SA/BDBA and a list of experiments that may be used for code validation. The report identified 213 experiments, broken down into the same six categories (as done for the phenomena). An experiment synopsis is provided for each test. Along with a test description

  15. THE CHANDRA SOURCE CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Ian N.; Primini, Francis A.; Glotfelty, Kenny J.; Anderson, Craig S.; Bonaventura, Nina R.; Chen, Judy C.; Doe, Stephen M.; Evans, Janet D.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Galle, Elizabeth C.; Gibbs, Danny G.; Grier, John D.; Hain, Roger M.; Harbo, Peter N.; He Xiangqun; Karovska, Margarita; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Davis, John E.; Houck, John C.; Hall, Diane M.

    2010-01-01

    The Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is a general purpose virtual X-ray astrophysics facility that provides access to a carefully selected set of generally useful quantities for individual X-ray sources, and is designed to satisfy the needs of a broad-based group of scientists, including those who may be less familiar with astronomical data analysis in the X-ray regime. The first release of the CSC includes information about 94,676 distinct X-ray sources detected in a subset of public Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer imaging observations from roughly the first eight years of the Chandra mission. This release of the catalog includes point and compact sources with observed spatial extents ∼<30''. The catalog (1) provides access to the best estimates of the X-ray source properties for detected sources, with good scientific fidelity, and directly supports scientific analysis using the individual source data; (2) facilitates analysis of a wide range of statistical properties for classes of X-ray sources; and (3) provides efficient access to calibrated observational data and ancillary data products for individual X-ray sources, so that users can perform detailed further analysis using existing tools. The catalog includes real X-ray sources detected with flux estimates that are at least 3 times their estimated 1σ uncertainties in at least one energy band, while maintaining the number of spurious sources at a level of ∼<1 false source per field for a 100 ks observation. For each detected source, the CSC provides commonly tabulated quantities, including source position, extent, multi-band fluxes, hardness ratios, and variability statistics, derived from the observations in which the source is detected. In addition to these traditional catalog elements, for each X-ray source the CSC includes an extensive set of file-based data products that can be manipulated interactively, including source images, event lists, light curves, and spectra from each observation in which a

  16. The Chandra Source Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ian N.; Primini, Francis A.; Glotfelty, Kenny J.; Anderson, Craig S.; Bonaventura, Nina R.; Chen, Judy C.; Davis, John E.; Doe, Stephen M.; Evans, Janet D.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Galle, Elizabeth C.; Gibbs, Danny G., II; Grier, John D.; Hain, Roger M.; Hall, Diane M.; Harbo, Peter N.; He, Xiangqun Helen; Houck, John C.; Karovska, Margarita; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Lauer, Jennifer; McCollough, Michael L.; McDowell, Jonathan C.; Miller, Joseph B.; Mitschang, Arik W.; Morgan, Douglas L.; Mossman, Amy E.; Nichols, Joy S.; Nowak, Michael A.; Plummer, David A.; Refsdal, Brian L.; Rots, Arnold H.; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Sundheim, Beth A.; Tibbetts, Michael S.; Van Stone, David W.; Winkelman, Sherry L.; Zografou, Panagoula

    2010-07-01

    The Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is a general purpose virtual X-ray astrophysics facility that provides access to a carefully selected set of generally useful quantities for individual X-ray sources, and is designed to satisfy the needs of a broad-based group of scientists, including those who may be less familiar with astronomical data analysis in the X-ray regime. The first release of the CSC includes information about 94,676 distinct X-ray sources detected in a subset of public Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer imaging observations from roughly the first eight years of the Chandra mission. This release of the catalog includes point and compact sources with observed spatial extents lsim30''. The catalog (1) provides access to the best estimates of the X-ray source properties for detected sources, with good scientific fidelity, and directly supports scientific analysis using the individual source data; (2) facilitates analysis of a wide range of statistical properties for classes of X-ray sources; and (3) provides efficient access to calibrated observational data and ancillary data products for individual X-ray sources, so that users can perform detailed further analysis using existing tools. The catalog includes real X-ray sources detected with flux estimates that are at least 3 times their estimated 1σ uncertainties in at least one energy band, while maintaining the number of spurious sources at a level of lsim1 false source per field for a 100 ks observation. For each detected source, the CSC provides commonly tabulated quantities, including source position, extent, multi-band fluxes, hardness ratios, and variability statistics, derived from the observations in which the source is detected. In addition to these traditional catalog elements, for each X-ray source the CSC includes an extensive set of file-based data products that can be manipulated interactively, including source images, event lists, light curves, and spectra from each observation in which a

  17. Transport containers for radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doroszlai, P.; Ferroni, F.

    1984-01-01

    A cylindrical container for the transportation of radioactive reactor elements includes a top end, a bottom end and a pair of removable outwardly curved shock absorbers, each including a double-shelled construction having an internal shell with a convex intrados configuration and an external shell with a convex extrados configuration, the shock absorbers being filled with a low density energy-absorbing material and mounted at the top end and the bottom end of the container, respectively, and each of the shock absorbers having a toroidal configuration, and deformable tubes disposed within the shock absorbers and extending in the axial direction of the container

  18. Water Distribution Lines, Includes water pipes (not connections to structures, fire hydrants and other features. Capture in Microstation and does not contain attribution. Has annotation and is converted to GIS semi-anually. Only available upon permission., Published in 2011, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Howard County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Water Distribution Lines dataset current as of 2011. Includes water pipes (not connections to structures, fire hydrants and other features. Capture in Microstation...

  19. Empty Container Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakov Karmelić

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Within the whole world container traffic, the largest share of containers is in the status of repositioning. Container repositioning results from the need for harmonization between the point of empty container accumulation and the point of demand, and waiting time for the availability of the first next transport of cargo. This status of containers on the container market is the consequence of imbalances in the worldwide trade distribution on most important shipping routes. The need for fast and effective reallocation of empty containers causes high costs and often represents an obstacle affecting the efficiency of port container terminals and inland carriers.In accordance with the above issue, this paper is mainly focused on the analysis of the data concerning global container capacities and the roots of container equipment imbalances, with the aim of determining the importance of empty container management and the need for empty container micro-logistic planning at the spread port area.

  20. 10 CFR 39.77 - Notification of incidents and lost sources; abandonment procedures for irretrievable sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Security, Records, Notifications § 39.77 Notification of... of the drilling operation. The report must contain the following information: (1) Date of occurrence; (2) A description of the irretrievable well logging source involved including the radionuclide and...

  1. Empty Container Logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Jakov Karmelić; Čedomir Dundović; Ines Kolanović

    2012-01-01

    Within the whole world container traffic, the largest share of containers is in the status of repositioning. Container repositioning results from the need for harmonization between the point of empty container accumulation and the point of demand, and waiting time for the availability of the first next transport of cargo. This status of containers on the container market is the consequence of imbalances in the worldwide trade distribution on most important shipping routes. The need for fast a...

  2. 2011 NATA - Emissions Sources

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset includes all emissions sources that were modeled in the 2011 National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA), inlcluding point, nonpoint, and mobile sources, and...

  3. FAUST/CONTAIN; FAUST/CONTAIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherdron, W.; Minges, J.; Sauter, H.; Schuetz, W.

    1995-08-01

    The FAUNA facility has been restructured after completion of the sodium fire experiments. It is now serving LWR research, cf. report II on program no. 32.21.02 concerning steam explosions. The CONTAIN code system for computing the thermodynamic, aerosol and radiological phenomena in a containment under severe accident conditions is being developed with a new to fission product release and transport. (orig.)

  4. Investigations on passive containment cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knebel, J.U.; Cheng, X.; Neitzel, H.J.; Erbacher, F.J.; Hofmann, F.

    1997-01-01

    The composite containment design for advanced LWRs that has been examined under the PASCO project is a promising design concept for purely passive decay heat removal after a severe accident. The passive cooling processes applied are natural convection and radiative heat transfer. Heat transfer through the latter process removes at an emission coefficient of 0.9 about 50% of the total heat removed via the steel containment, and thus is an essential factor. The heat transferring surfaces must have a high emission coefficient. The sump cooling concept examined under the SUCO project achieves a steady, natural convection-driven flow from the heat source to the heat sink. (orig./CB) [de

  5. Nuclear reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiyama, Takenori.

    1989-01-01

    This invention concerns a nuclear reactor container in which heat is removed from a container by external water injection. Heat is removed from the container by immersing the lower portion of the container into water and scattering spary water from above. Thus, the container can be cooled by the spray water falling down along the outer wall of the container to condensate and cool vapors filled in the container upon occurrence of accidents. Further, since the inside of the container can be cooled also during usual operation, it can also serve as a dry well cooler. Accordingly, heat is removed from the reactor container upon occurrence of accidents by the automatic operation of a spray device corresponding to the change of the internal temperature and the pressure in the reactor container. Further, since all of these devices are disposed out of container, maintenance is also facilitated. (I.S.)

  6. High integrity container evaluation for solid waste disposal burial containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josephson, W.S.

    1996-01-01

    In order to provide radioactive waste disposal practices with the greatest measure of public protection, Solid Waste Disposal (SWD) adopted the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirement to stabilize high specific activity radioactive waste prior to disposal. Under NRC guidelines, stability may be provided by several mechanisms, one of which is by placing the waste in a high integrity container (HIC). During the implementation process, SWD found that commercially-available HICs could not accommodate the varied nature of weapons complex waste, and in response developed a number of disposal containers to function as HICs. This document summarizes the evaluation of various containers that can be used for the disposal of Category 3 waste in the Low Level Burial Grounds. These containers include the VECTRA reinforced concrete HIC, reinforced concrete culvert, and the reinforced concrete vault. This evaluation provides justification for the use of these containers and identifies the conditions for use of each

  7. Storage and transport containers for radioactive medical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suthanthiran, K.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a storage and transport container for small-diameter ribbon-like lengths of material including radioactive substances for use in medical treatments, comprising: an exterior shell for radiation shielding metal having top and bottom members of radiation shielding metal integral therewith; radiation shielding metal extending downward from the top of the container and forming a central cavity, the central cavity being separate from the exterior shell material of the container and extending downwardly a distance less than the height of the container; a plurality of small diameter carrier tubes located within the interior of the container and having one end of each tube opening through one side of the container and the other end of such tube opening through the opposite lateral side of the container with the central portion of each tube passing under the central cavity; and a plug of radiation shielding metal removably located in the top the central cavity for shielding the radiation from radiation sources located within the container

  8. SOURCE TERMS FOR HLW GLASS CANISTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.S. Tang

    2000-01-01

    This calculation is prepared by the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) Waste Package Design Section. The objective of this calculation is to determine the source terms that include radionuclide inventory, decay heat, and radiation sources due to gamma rays and neutrons for the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from the, West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), Savannah River Site (SRS), Hanford Site (HS), and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). This calculation also determines the source terms of the canister containing the SRS HLW glass and immobilized plutonium. The scope of this calculation is limited to source terms for a time period out to one million years. The results of this calculation may be used to carry out performance assessment of the potential repository and to evaluate radiation environments surrounding the waste packages (WPs). This calculation was performed in accordance with the Development Plan ''Source Terms for HLW Glass Canisters'' (Ref. 7.24)

  9. MELCOR/CONTAIN LMR Implementation Report - FY16 Progress.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louie, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Humphries, Larry L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This report describes the progress of the CONTAIN - LMR sodium physics and chemistry models to be implemented in MELCOR 2.1. In the past three years , the implementation included the addition of sodium equations of state and sodium properties from two different sources. The first source is based on the previous work done by Idaho National Laboratory by modifying MELCOR to include liquid lithium equation of state as a working fluid to model the nuclear fusion safety research. The second source uses properties generated for the SIMMER code. The implemented modeling has been tested and results are reported in this document. In addition, the CONTAIN - LMR code was derived from an early version of the CONTAIN code, and many physical models that were developed since this early version of CONTAIN are not available in this early code version. Therefore, CONTAIN 2 has been updated with the sodium models in CONTAIN - LMR as CONTAIN2 - LMR, which may be used to provide code-to-code comparison with CONTAIN - LMR and MELCOR when the sodium chemistry models from CONTAIN - LMR have been completed. Both the spray fire and pool fire chemistry routines from CONTAIN - LMR have been integrated into MELCOR 2.1, and debugging and testing are in progress. Because MELCOR only models the equation of state for liquid and gas phases of the coolant, a modeling gap still exists when dealing with experiments or accident conditions that take place when the ambient temperature is below the freezing point of sodium. An alternative method is under investigation to overcome this gap . We are no longer working on the separate branch from the main branch of MELCOR 2.1 since the major modeling of MELCOR 2.1 has been completed. At the current stage, the newly implemented sodium chemistry models will be a part of the main MELCOR release version (MELCOR 2.2). This report will discuss the accomplishments and issues relating to the implementation. Also, we will report on the planned completion of all

  10. MELCOR/CONTAIN LMR Implementation Report-Progress FY15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphries, Larry L.; Louie, David

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the progress of the CONTAIN-LMR sodium physics and chemistry models to be implemented in to MELCOR 2.1. It also describes the progress to implement these models into CONT AIN 2 as well. In the past two years, the implementation included the addition of sodium equations of state and sodium properties from two different sources. The first source is based on the previous work done by Idaho National Laborat ory by modifying MELCOR to include liquid lithium equation of state as a working fluid to mode l the nuclear fusion safety research. The second source uses properties generated for the SIMMER code. Testing and results from this implementation of sodium pr operties are given. In addition, the CONTAIN-LMR code was derived from an early version of C ONTAIN code. Many physical models that were developed sin ce this early version of CONTAIN are not captured by this early code version. Therefore, CONTAIN 2 is being updated with the sodium models in CONTAIN-LMR in or der to facilitate verification of these models with the MELCOR code. Although CONTAIN 2, which represents the latest development of CONTAIN, now contains ma ny of the sodium specific models, this work is not complete due to challenges from the lower cell architecture in CONTAIN 2, which is different from CONTAIN- LMR. This implementation should be completed in the coming year, while sodi um models from C ONTAIN-LMR are being integrated into MELCOR. For testing, CONTAIN decks have been developed for verification and validation use. In terms of implementing the sodium m odels into MELCOR, a separate sodium model branch was created for this document . Because of massive development in the main stream MELCOR 2.1 code and the require ment to merge the latest code version into this branch, the integration of the s odium models were re-directed to implement the sodium chemistry models first. This change led to delays of the actual implementation. For aid in the future implementation of sodium

  11. CONTAIN 2.0 code release and the transition to licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, K.K.; Griffith, R.O.; Bergeron, K.D.; Tills, J.

    1997-10-01

    CONTAIN is a reactor accident simulation code developed by Sandia National Laboratories under US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) sponsorship to provide integrated analysis of containment phenomena, including those related to nuclear reactor containment loads and radiological source terms. The recently released CONTAIN 2.0 code version represents a significant advance in CONTAIN modeling capabilities over the last major code release (CONTAIN 1.12V). The new modeling capabilities are discussed here. The principal motivation for many of the recent model improvements has been to allow CONTAIN to model the special features in advanced light water reactor (ALWR) designs. The work done in this area is also summarized. In addition to the ALWR work, the USNRC is currently engaged in an effort to qualify CONTAIN for more general use in licensing, with the intent of supplementing or possibly replacing traditional licensing codes. To qualify the CONTAIN code for licensing applications, studies utilizing CONTAIN 2.0 are in progress. A number of results from this effort are presented in this paper to illustrate the code capabilities. In particular, CONTAIN calculations of the NUPEC M-8-1 and ISP-23 experiments and CVTR test number-sign 3 are presented to illustrate (1) the ability of CONTAIN to model non-uniform gas density and/or temperature distributions, and (2) the relationship between such gas distributions and containment loads. CONTAIN and CONTEMPT predictions for a large break loss of coolant accident scenario in the San Onofre plant are also compared

  12. Electric Power Monthly, August 1990. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-29

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data includes generation by energy source (coal, oil, gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear); generation by region; consumption of fossil fuels for power generation; sales of electric power, cost data; and unusual occurrences. A glossary is included.

  13. Source rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakr F. Makky

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available West Beni Suef Concession is located at the western part of Beni Suef Basin which is a relatively under-explored basin and lies about 150 km south of Cairo. The major goal of this study is to evaluate the source rock by using different techniques as Rock-Eval pyrolysis, Vitrinite reflectance (%Ro, and well log data of some Cretaceous sequences including Abu Roash (E, F and G members, Kharita and Betty formations. The BasinMod 1D program is used in this study to construct the burial history and calculate the levels of thermal maturity of the Fayoum-1X well based on calibration of measured %Ro and Tmax against calculated %Ro model. The calculated Total Organic Carbon (TOC content from well log data compared with the measured TOC from the Rock-Eval pyrolysis in Fayoum-1X well is shown to match against the shale source rock but gives high values against the limestone source rock. For that, a new model is derived from well log data to calculate accurately the TOC content against the limestone source rock in the study area. The organic matter existing in Abu Roash (F member is fair to excellent and capable of generating a significant amount of hydrocarbons (oil prone produced from (mixed type I/II kerogen. The generation potential of kerogen in Abu Roash (E and G members and Betty formations is ranging from poor to fair, and generating hydrocarbons of oil and gas prone (mixed type II/III kerogen. Eventually, kerogen (type III of Kharita Formation has poor to very good generation potential and mainly produces gas. Thermal maturation of the measured %Ro, calculated %Ro model, Tmax and Production index (PI indicates that Abu Roash (F member exciting in the onset of oil generation, whereas Abu Roash (E and G members, Kharita and Betty formations entered the peak of oil generation.

  14. LIQUID METAL COMPOSITIONS CONTAINING URANIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitel, R.J.

    1959-04-21

    Liquid metal compositions containing a solid uranium compound dispersed therein is described. Uranium combines with tin to form the intermetallic compound USn/sub 3/. It has been found that this compound may be incorporated into a liquid bath containing bismuth and lead-bismuth components, if a relatively small percentage of tin is also included in the bath. The composition has a low thermal neutron cross section which makes it suitable for use in a liquid metal fueled nuclear reactor.

  15. Containment leakage rate testing requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, E.G.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the status of several documents under revision or development that provide requirements and guidance for testing nuclear power plant containment systems for leakage rates. These documents include the general revision to 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix J; the regulatory guide affiliated with the revision to Appendix J; the national standard that the regulatory guide endorses, ANSI/ANS-56.8, 'Containment System Leakage Rate Testing Requirements'; and the draft industry Licensing Topical Report, 'Standardized Program for Primary Containment Integrity Testing'. The actual or potential relationships between these documents are also explored

  16. The Chandra Source Catalog: Source Properties and Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rots, Arnold; Evans, Ian N.; Glotfelty, Kenny J.; Primini, Francis A.; Zografou, Panagoula; Anderson, Craig S.; Bonaventura, Nina R.; Chen, Judy C.; Davis, John E.; Doe, Stephen M.; Evans, Janet D.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Galle, Elizabeth C.; Gibbs, Danny G., II; Grier, John D.; Hain, Roger; Hall, Diane M.; Harbo, Peter N.; He, Xiang Qun (Helen); Houck, John C.; Karovska, Margarita; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Lauer, Jennifer; McCollough, Michael L.; McDowell, Jonathan C.; Miller, Joseph B.; Mitschang, Arik W.; Morgan, Douglas L.; Mossman, Amy E.; Nichols, Joy S.; Nowak, Michael A.; Plummer, David A.; Refsdal, Brian L.; Siemiginowska, Aneta L.; Sundheim, Beth A.; Tibbetts, Michael S.; van Stone, David W.; Winkelman, Sherry L.

    2009-09-01

    The Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is breaking new ground in several areas. There are two aspects that are of particular interest to the users: its evolution and its contents. The CSC will be a living catalog that becomes richer, bigger, and better in time while still remembering its state at each point in time. This means that users will be able to take full advantage of new additions to the catalog, while retaining the ability to back-track and return to what was extracted in the past. The CSC sheds the limitations of flat-table catalogs. Its sources will be characterized by a large number of properties, as usual, but each source will also be associated with its own specific data products, allowing users to perform mini custom analysis on the sources. Source properties fall in the spatial (position, extent), photometric (fluxes, count rates), spectral (hardness ratios, standard spectral fits), and temporal (variability probabilities) domains, and are all accompanied by error estimates. Data products cover the same coordinate space and include event lists, images, spectra, and light curves. In addition, the catalog contains data products covering complete observations: event lists, background images, exposure maps, etc. This work is supported by NASA contract NAS8-03060 (CXC).

  17. Weapon container catalog. Volumes 1 & 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.A.; Higuera, M.C.

    1998-02-01

    The Weapon Container Catalog describes H-gear (shipping and storage containers, bomb hand trucks and the ancillary equipment required for loading) used for weapon programs and for special use containers. When completed, the catalog will contain five volumes. Volume 1 for enduring stockpile programs (B53, B61, B83, W62, W76, W78, W80, W84, W87, and W88) and Volume 2, Special Use Containers, are being released. The catalog is intended as a source of information for weapon program engineers and also provides historical information. The catalog also will be published on the SNL Internal Web and will undergo periodic updates.

  18. Containers and Packaging: Product-Specific Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    This web page provide numbers on the different containers and packaging products in our municipal solid waste. These include containers of all types, such as glass, steel, plastic, aluminum, wood, and other types of packaging

  19. Localization of a sound source in in a guided medium and reverberating field. Contribution to a study on leak localization in the internal wall of containment of a nuclear reactor in the case of a severe reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomann, F.

    1996-01-01

    Basic data necessary for the localization of a leak in the internal wall of the containment are presented by studying the sound generated by gas jets coming out of (leaking fissures) as well as propagation in a guided medium. The results acquired have led us to choose the simple intercorrelation method and the matched filed processing method, both of which are likely to adequately handle our problems. Whereas the intercorrelation method appears to be limited in scope when dealing in the guided medium, the matched field processing is suited to leak localization over a surface of approximately 1000 m 2 (for a total surface of 10 000 m 2 ). Preliminary studies on the leak signal and on replicated signals have led us to limit the frequency band to 2600 - 3000 Hz. We have succeeded in locating a leak situated in an ordinary position with a minimum amount of replicated signals and basic data. We have improved on the estimation of Bartlett and MVDE (minimum variance distortion less filter) rendering them even more effective. Afterwards, we considered the severe accident situation and showed that the system can be installed in situ. (author)

  20. EPA Region 1 Sole Source Aquifers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This coverage contains boundaries of EPA-approved sole source aquifers. Sole source aquifers are defined as an aquifer designated as the sole or principal source of...

  1. Performance of particulate containment at nanotechnology workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, Li-Ming; Tsai, Candace S.-J.; Dunn, Kevin H.; Hammond, Duane; Marlow, David; Topmiller, Jennifer; Ellenbecker, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation of engineering controls for the production or use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was investigated at two facilities. These control assessments are necessary to evaluate the current status of control performance and to develop proper control strategies for these workplaces. The control systems evaluated in these studies included ventilated enclosures, exterior hoods, and exhaust filtration systems. Activity-based monitoring with direct-reading instruments and filter sampling for microscopy analysis were used to evaluate the effectiveness of control measures at study sites. Our study results showed that weighing CNTs inside the biological safety cabinet can have a 37 % reduction on the particle concentration in the worker’s breathing zone, and produce a 42 % lower area concentration outside the enclosure. The ventilated enclosures used to reduce fugitive emissions from the production furnaces exhibited good containment characteristics when closed, but they failed to contain emissions effectively when opened during product removal/harvesting. The exhaust filtration systems employed for exhausting these ventilated enclosures did not provide promised collection efficiencies for removing engineered nanomaterials from furnace exhaust. The exterior hoods were found to be a challenge for controlling emissions from machining nanocomposites: the downdraft hood effectively contained and removed particles released from the manual cutting process, but using the canopy hood for powered cutting of nanocomposites created 15–20 % higher ultrafine (<500 nm) particle concentrations at the source and at the worker’s breathing zone. The microscopy analysis showed that CNTs can only be found at production sources but not at the worker breathing zones during the tasks monitored

  2. Performance of particulate containment at nanotechnology workplaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Li-Ming, E-mail: LLo@cdc.gov [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (United States); Tsai, Candace S.-J. [Purdue University (United States); Dunn, Kevin H.; Hammond, Duane; Marlow, David; Topmiller, Jennifer [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (United States); Ellenbecker, Michael [University of Massachusetts Lowell (United States)

    2015-11-15

    The evaluation of engineering controls for the production or use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was investigated at two facilities. These control assessments are necessary to evaluate the current status of control performance and to develop proper control strategies for these workplaces. The control systems evaluated in these studies included ventilated enclosures, exterior hoods, and exhaust filtration systems. Activity-based monitoring with direct-reading instruments and filter sampling for microscopy analysis were used to evaluate the effectiveness of control measures at study sites. Our study results showed that weighing CNTs inside the biological safety cabinet can have a 37 % reduction on the particle concentration in the worker’s breathing zone, and produce a 42 % lower area concentration outside the enclosure. The ventilated enclosures used to reduce fugitive emissions from the production furnaces exhibited good containment characteristics when closed, but they failed to contain emissions effectively when opened during product removal/harvesting. The exhaust filtration systems employed for exhausting these ventilated enclosures did not provide promised collection efficiencies for removing engineered nanomaterials from furnace exhaust. The exterior hoods were found to be a challenge for controlling emissions from machining nanocomposites: the downdraft hood effectively contained and removed particles released from the manual cutting process, but using the canopy hood for powered cutting of nanocomposites created 15–20 % higher ultrafine (<500 nm) particle concentrations at the source and at the worker’s breathing zone. The microscopy analysis showed that CNTs can only be found at production sources but not at the worker breathing zones during the tasks monitored.

  3. Container corporation: The financial, management, and operating implications of a universal beverage container recovery system: Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This report contains an overview of the system. It discusses containers and container materials, elements of the system, and the container recovery cost structure. It includes a financial evaluation and addresses issues of implementation.

  4. Intakes and sources of isoflavones, lignans, enterolignans, coumestrol and soya-containing foods in the Norfolk arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Norfolk), from 7 d food diaries, using a newly updated database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Angela A; Kuhnle, Gunter G C; Lentjes, Marleen A H; van Scheltinga, Veronica; Powell, Natasha A; McTaggart, Alison; Bhaniani, Amit; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2013-08-01

    A diet rich in phyto-oestrogens has been suggested to protect against a variety of common diseases but UK intake data on phyto-oestrogens or their food sources are sparse. The present study estimates the average intakes of isoflavones, lignans, enterolignans and coumestrol from 7 d food diaries and provides data on total isoflavone, lignan and phyto-oestrogen consumption by food group. Development of a food composition database for twelve phyto-oestrogens and analysis of soya food and phyto-oestrogen consumption in a populationbased study. Men and women, aged 40–79 years, from the general population participating in the Norfolk arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Norfolk) between 1993 and 1997, with nutrient and food data from 7 d food diaries. A subset of 20 437 participants. The median daily phyto-oestrogen intake for all men was 1199 mg (interquartile range 934–1537mg; mean 1504mg, SD 1502mg) and 888mg for all women (interquartile range 710–1135 mg; mean 1205 mg, SD 1701mg). In soya consumers, median daily intakes were higher: 2861 mg in men (interquartile range 1304–7269mg; mean 5051mg, SD 5031mg) and 3142 mg in women (interquartile range 1089–7327mg; mean 5396 mg, SD 6092 mg). In both men and women, bread made the greatest contribution to phyto-oestrogen intake – 40?8% and 35?6%, respectively. In soya consumers, vegetable dishes and soya/goat’s/sheep’s milks were the main contributors – 45?7% and 21?3% in men and 38?4% and 33?7% in women, respectively. The ability to estimate phyto-oestrogen intake in Western populations more accurately will aid investigations into their suggested effects on health.

  5. Hydrolytic Amino Acids Employed as a Novel Organic Nitrogen Source for the Preparation of PGPF-Containing Bio-Organic Fertilizer for Plant Growth Promotion and Characterization of Substance Transformation during BOF Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chenglong; Ran, Wei; Yu, Guanghui; Zhang, Yingjun; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    Opportunity costs seriously limit the large-scale production of bio-organic fertilizers (BOFs) both in China and internationally. This study addresses the utilization of amino acids resulting from the acidic hydrolysis of pig corpses as organic nitrogen sources to increase the density of TrichodermaharzianumT-E5 (a typical plant growth-promoting fungi, PGPF). This results in a novel, economical, highly efficient and environmentally friendly BOF product. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy combined with fluorescence regional integration (FRI) was employed to monitor compost maturity levels, while pot experiments were utilized to test the effects of this novel BOF on plant growth. An optimization experiment, based on response surface methodologies (RSMs), showed that a maximum T-E5 population (3.72 × 108 ITS copies g−1) was obtained from a mixture of 65.17% cattle manure compost (W/W), 19.33% maggot manure (W/W), 15.50% (V/W)hydrolytic amino acid solution and 4.69% (V/W) inoculum at 28.7°C after a 14 day secondary solid fermentation. Spectroscopy analysis revealed that the compost transformation process involved the degradation of protein-like substances and the formation of fulvic-like and humic-like substances. FRI parameters (PI, n, PII, n, PIII, n and PV, n) were used to characterize the degree of compost maturity. The BOF resulted in significantly higher increased chlorophyll content, shoot length, and shoot and root dry weights of three vegetables (cucumber, tomato and pepper) by 9.9%~22.4%, 22.9%~58.5%, 31.0%~84.9%, and 24.2%~34.1%, respectively. In summary, this study presents an operational means of increasing PGPF T-E5 populations in BOF to promote plant growth with a concomitant reduction in production cost. In addition, a BOF compost maturity assessment using fluorescence EEM spectroscopy and FRI ensured its safe field application. PMID:26974549

  6. Accident resistant transport container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J.A.; Cole, K.K.

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  7. Nuclear reactor containment device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiki, Tadaharu.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the volume of a containment shell and decrease the size of a containment equipment for BWR type reactors by connecting the containment shell and a suppression pool with slanted vent tubes to thereby shorten the vent tubes. Constitution: A pressure vessel containing a reactor core is installed at the center of a building and a containment vessel for the nuclear reactor that contains the pressure vessel forms a cabin. To a building situated below the containment shell, is provided a suppression chamber in which cooling water is charged to form a suppression pool. The suppression pool is communicated with vent tubes that pass through the partition wall of the containment vessel. The vent tubes are slanted and their lower openings are immersed in coolants. Therefore, if accident is resulted and fluid at high temperature and high pressure is jetted from the pressure vessel, the jetting fluid is injected and condensated in the cooling water. (Moriyama, K.)

  8. Accident resistant transport container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.A.; Cole, J.K.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident

  9. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  10. The function of single containment and double containment of PWR nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Weijing.

    1985-01-01

    The function and structures of single containment and double containment of PWR nuclear power plant were described briefiy. The dissimilarites of diffent type of containments, which effects the impact of environment are discused. The impact of environment, effected by 'source term', containment gas leak rate and diffusion pattern of the released gas, under different operating condition is analysed. Especially, the impact of environment under LOCA accident is fully analysed

  11. AMS at the ANU including biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fifield, L K; Allan, G L; Cresswell, R G; Ophel, T R [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia); King, S J; Day, J P [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry

    1994-12-31

    An extensive accelerator mass spectrometry program has been conducted on the 14UD accelerator at the Australian National University since 1986. In the two years since the previous conference, the research program has expanded significantly to include biomedical applications of {sup 26}Al and studies of landform evolution using isotopes produced in situ in surface rocks by cosmic ray bombardment. The system is now used for the measurement of {sup 10}Be, {sup 14}C, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 59}Ni and {sup 129}I, and research is being undertaken in hydrology, environmental geochemistry, archaeology and biomedicine. On the technical side, a new test system has permitted the successful off-line development of a high-intensity ion source. A new injection line to the 14UD has been established and the new source is now in position and providing beams to the accelerator. 4 refs.

  12. AMS at the ANU including biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fifield, L.K.; Allan, G.L.; Cresswell, R.G.; Ophel, T.R. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia); King, S.J.; Day, J.P. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry

    1993-12-31

    An extensive accelerator mass spectrometry program has been conducted on the 14UD accelerator at the Australian National University since 1986. In the two years since the previous conference, the research program has expanded significantly to include biomedical applications of {sup 26}Al and studies of landform evolution using isotopes produced in situ in surface rocks by cosmic ray bombardment. The system is now used for the measurement of {sup 10}Be, {sup 14}C, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 59}Ni and {sup 129}I, and research is being undertaken in hydrology, environmental geochemistry, archaeology and biomedicine. On the technical side, a new test system has permitted the successful off-line development of a high-intensity ion source. A new injection line to the 14UD has been established and the new source is now in position and providing beams to the accelerator. 4 refs.

  13. Partiality and Container Monads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uustalu, Tarmo; Veltri, Niccolò

    2017-01-01

    the relationship between containers and lifting monads. We show that the lifting monads usually employed in type theory can be specified in terms of containers. Moreover, we give a precise characterization of containers whose interpretations carry a lifting monad structure. We show that these conditions...

  14. Digital intelligence sources transporter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhen; Wang Renbo

    2011-01-01

    It presents from the collection of particle-ray counting, infrared data communication, real-time monitoring and alarming, GPRS and other issues start to realize the digital management of radioactive sources, complete the real-time monitoring of all aspects, include the storing of radioactive sources, transporting and using, framing intelligent radioactive sources transporter, as a result, achieving reliable security supervision of radioactive sources. (authors)

  15. Stowing the Right Containers on Container Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rune Møller

    2014-01-01

    ’s largest container vessels using standard mathematical programming techniques and off-the-shelf solvers. The presentation will provide basic insight into the domain, with pointers to further information that enable you to join in this promising new path of operations research and business....

  16. Containing Unusual Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... used infection control and contact precautions, such as gloves and gowns, to help stop spread. No further spread found during follow-up assessments. SOURCE: CDC Vital Signs, April 2018. Top of Page Infographic SOURCE: AR Investment Map: www. ...

  17. Assessment of nonpoint source chemical loading potential to watersheds containing uranium waste dumps and human health hazards associated with uranium exploration and mining, Red, White, and Fry Canyons, southeastern Utah, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisner, Kimberly R.; Marston, Thomas M.; Naftz, David L.; Snyder, Terry; Freeman, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    During May, June, and July 2007, 58 solid-phase samples were collected from abandoned uranium mine waste dumps, background sites, and adjacent streambeds in Red, White, and Fry Canyons in southeastern Utah. The objectives of this sampling program were to (1) assess the nonpoint-source chemical loading potential to ephemeral and perennial drainage basins from uranium waste dumps and (2) assess potential effects on human health due to recreational activities on and around uranium waste dumps on Bureau of Land Management property. Uranium waste-dump samples were collected using solid-phase sampling protocols. After collection, solid-phase samples were homogenized and extracted in the laboratory using a leaching procedure. Filtered (0.45 micron) water samples were obtained from the field leaching procedure and were analyzed for major and trace elements at the Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry Metals Analysis Laboratory at the University of Utah. A subset of the solid-phase samples also were digested with strong acids and analyzed for major ions and trace elements at the U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Division Laboratory in Denver, Colorado. For the initial ranking of chemical loading potential for uranium waste dumps, results of leachate analyses were compared with existing aquatic-life and drinking-water-quality standards. To assess potential effects on human health, solid-phase digestion values for uranium were compared to soil screening levels (SSL) computed using the computer model RESRAD 6.5 for a probable concentration of radium. One or more chemical constituents exceeded aquatic life and drinking-water-quality standards in approximately 64 percent (29/45) of the leachate samples extracted from uranium waste dumps. Most of the uranium waste dump sites with elevated trace-element concentrations in leachates were located in Red Canyon. Approximately 69 percent (31/45) of the strong acid digestible soil concentration values were greater than a calculated

  18. Theory including future not excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagao, K.; Nielsen, H.B.

    2013-01-01

    We study a complex action theory (CAT) whose path runs over not only past but also future. We show that, if we regard a matrix element defined in terms of the future state at time T and the past state at time TA as an expectation value in the CAT, then we are allowed to have the Heisenberg equation......, Ehrenfest's theorem, and the conserved probability current density. In addition,we showthat the expectation value at the present time t of a future-included theory for large T - t and large t - T corresponds to that of a future-not-included theory with a proper inner product for large t - T. Hence, the CAT...

  19. Passive heat removal from containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gou, P.F.; Townsend, H.E.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a heat removal system for removing heat from a containment of a nuclear reactor. It comprises: a sealed suppression chamber in the containment; means for venting steam from the nuclear reactor into the suppression chamber upon occurrence of an event requiring dissipation of heat from the nuclear reactor. The suppression chamber containing a quantity of water; the suppression chamber having a gas-containing space above the water; a heat exchanger disposed within the gas-containing space of the suppression chamber; the heat exchanger including an enclosed structure for holding a heat-exchange fluid; means for metering a supply of heat-exchange fluid to the heat exchanger to maintain a predetermined level thereof in the enclosed structure. The heat-exchange fluid boiling in the heat exchanger in consequence of heat transfer thereto from steam present in the suppression chamber; means for separating a heat-exchange fluid vapor in the heat exchanger from the heat-exchange fluid; and means for discharging the vapor immediately following its separation from heat-exchange fluid directly from the heat exchanger to a location exterior of the containment, whereby heat is discharged from the suppression chamber, and the containment is maintained at a temperature and pressure below its design value

  20. Rapid Sampling from Sealed Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, R.G.; Garcia, A.R.E.; Martinez, R.K.; Baca, E.T.

    1999-01-01

    The authors have developed several different types of tools for sampling from sealed containers. These tools allow the user to rapidly drill into a closed container, extract a sample of its contents (gas, liquid, or free-flowing powder), and permanently reseal the point of entry. This is accomplished without exposing the user or the environment to the container contents, even while drilling. The entire process is completed in less than 15 seconds for a 55 gallon drum. Almost any kind of container can be sampled (regardless of the materials) with wall thicknesses up to 1.3 cm and internal pressures up to 8 atm. Samples can be taken from the top, sides, or bottom of a container. The sampling tools are inexpensive, small, and easy to use. They work with any battery-powered hand drill. This allows considerable safety, speed, flexibility, and maneuverability. The tools also permit the user to rapidly attach plumbing, a pressure relief valve, alarms, or other instrumentation to a container. Possible applications include drum venting, liquid transfer, container flushing, waste characterization, monitoring, sampling for archival or quality control purposes, emergency sampling by rapid response teams, counter-terrorism, non-proliferation and treaty verification, and use by law enforcement personnel during drug or environmental raids

  1. Passive containment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleimola, F.W.

    1977-01-01

    Disclosed is a containment system that provides complete protection entirely by passive means for the loss of coolant accident in a nuclear power plant and wherein all stored energy released in the coolant blowdown is contained and absorbed while the nuclear fuel is prevented from over-heating by a high containment back-pressure and a reactor vessel refill system. The primary containment vessel is restored to a high sub-atmospheric pressure within a few minutes after accident initiation and the decay heat is safely transferred to the environment while radiolytic hydrogen is contained by passive means. 20 claims, 14 figures

  2. Characterization and storage of liquid wastes containing {sup 125}Iodine in the laboratory for production of brachytherapy sources - IPEN; Caracterização e armazenamento de rejeitos líquidos contendo Iodo-125 no Laboratório de Produção de fontes para braquiterapia - IPEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Vitória S.; Souza, Daiane C.B. de; Barbosa, Nayane K.O.; Rodrigues, Bruna T.; Nogueira, Beatriz R.; Costa, Osvaldo L. da; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Vicente, Roberto; Rostelato, Maria E.C.M., E-mail: vitoria.carvalho@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Radioactive sources of Iodine-125 for medical applications have been developed at the Institute for Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN) to meet the growing demand for medical applications such as brachytherapy. A dedicated laboratory is already being implemented at IPEN. Part of the processes involved in the production of sealed sources generate radioactive wastes that despite the short half-life (<100 days) have radioactive activity above the levels of exemption established by the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission. Therefore, these wastes should receive appropriate treatment and storage until they reach the levels of release into the environment. This work aims to determine the volumes of the liquid wastes generated during the production stages of the sources, as well as to propose a temporary storage system for such wastes. The applied methodology consisted in determining the volumes of wastes generated in each production cell according to the manufacturing steps. After that, activities and activity concentrations were calculated for each container used for temporary storage inside the production laboratory. The total volume stored for one year in the temporary storage, as well as the rate of entry and exit of the liquid wastes were calculated according to the source production demand and the decay time of the radionuclide, respectively. The main results showed that the time required to reach sanitary sewage disposal values is within the period of operation of the facility. The total volume generated is also within the facility's temporary storage capacity.

  3. Fibre-concrete container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In this leaflet the fibre-concrete container for radioactive wastes is described. The fibre container is made of fibre-concrete that contains cement, aggregate, sand, filter, flame-silica, super-plastificator, water and scattered metal fibres. The fibre-concrete container has a dice shape with outer dimension 1.7 x 1.7 x 1.7 m. It is mounted of a container body, a container cover and two caps. Total weight of container is 4,240 kg, maximum weight of loaded container do not must exceed 15,000 kg. The physical and mechanical properties of the fibre-concrete container are described in detail. The fibre-concrete container manufactured for storing of low and intermediate radioactive wastes. A fibre-concrete container utilization to store of radioactive wastes solves these problems: increase of stability of stored packages of radioactive waste; watertightness within 300 years at least; static stability of bearing space; better utilization of bearing spaces; insulation of radioactive waste in a case of seismic and geological event; increase of fire resistance; and transport of radioactive waste

  4. The regulatory control of ionizing radiation sources in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastauskas, A.; Ziliukas, J.; Morkunas, G.

    1998-01-01

    The Radiation Protection Centre of the Ministry of Health is the regulatory authority responsible for radiation protection of the public and of workers using sources of ionizing radiation in Lithuania. One of its responsibilities is the control of radioactive sources, which includes keeping the registry, investigating persons arrested while illegally carrying or in possession of radioactive material, decision making and control of users of radioactive sources. The computer based registry contains a directory of more than 24,000 sources and some 800 users in research, medicine and industry. Most of these sources are found in smoke detectors and X ray equipment. The potentially most dangerous sources for therapy and industry (sealed and unsealed) are also listed in this registry. Problems connected with the regulatory control of radioactive sources in Lithuania are presented and their solution is discussed. (author)

  5. The History of Cartographic Sources Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Volkotrub

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cartographic sources are the variety of descriptive sources. They include historical and geographical maps and circuits maps. The image maps are a special kind of modeling the real phenomenon, that broadcasts their quantitative and qualitative characteristics, structure, interconnections and dynamic in a graphic form. The prototypes of maps appeared as a way of transmitting information around the world. People began to use this way of communication long before the appearance of writing. The quality of mapping images matched with the evolution of techniques and methods of mapping and publishing. The general development of cartographic sources is determined primarily by three factors: the development of science and technology, the needs of society in different cartographic works, political and economic situation of country. Given this, map is an all-sufficient phenomenon, its sources expert study is based on understanding of invariance of its perception. Modern theoretical concepts show us the invariance of maps. Specifially, map is viewed in the following aspects: 1 it is one of the universal models of land and existing natural and social processes.2 it is one of the tools of researching and forecasting. 3 it is a specific language formation. 4 it is a method of transferring information. As a source map may contain important information about physical geography, geology, hydrology, political-administrative division, population, flora and fauna of a particular area in a particular period. Mostly, cartographic sources are complex, because they contain a lot of cognitive and historical information.

  6. Device including a contact detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    arms (12) may extend from the supporting body in co-planar relationship with the first surface. The plurality of cantilever arms (12) may extend substantially parallel to each other and each of the plurality of cantilever arms (12) may include an electrical conductive tip for contacting the area......The present invention relates to a probe for determining an electrical property of an area of a surface of a test sample, the probe is intended to be in a specific orientation relative to the test sample. The probe may comprise a supporting body defining a first surface. A plurality of cantilever...... of the test sample by movement of the probe relative to the surface of the test sample into the specific orientation.; The probe may further comprise a contact detector (14) extending from the supporting body arranged so as to contact the surface of the test sample prior to any one of the plurality...

  7. Neoclassical transport including collisional nonlinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candy, J; Belli, E A

    2011-06-10

    In the standard δf theory of neoclassical transport, the zeroth-order (Maxwellian) solution is obtained analytically via the solution of a nonlinear equation. The first-order correction δf is subsequently computed as the solution of a linear, inhomogeneous equation that includes the linearized Fokker-Planck collision operator. This equation admits analytic solutions only in extreme asymptotic limits (banana, plateau, Pfirsch-Schlüter), and so must be solved numerically for realistic plasma parameters. Recently, numerical codes have appeared which attempt to compute the total distribution f more accurately than in the standard ordering by retaining some nonlinear terms related to finite-orbit width, while simultaneously reusing some form of the linearized collision operator. In this work we show that higher-order corrections to the distribution function may be unphysical if collisional nonlinearities are ignored.

  8. 77 FR 66481 - Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including Televisions; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ...Notice is hereby given that the U.S. International Trade Commission has determined not to review the presiding administrative law judge's (``ALJ'') initial determination (``ID'') (Order No. 18) granting a motion of respondents to terminate the investigation in its entirety. The investigation is terminated.

  9. 77 FR 57589 - Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including Televisions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ...Notice is hereby given that the U.S. International Trade Commission has determined to review in part the presiding administrative law judge's (``ALJ'') final initial determination (``ID'') issued on July 12, 2012, finding no violation of section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930, 19 U.S.C. 1337 in the above-captioned investigation. On review, the Commission affirms the ID's finding of no violation, and terminates the investigation.

  10. 76 FR 68785 - Certain Communications Equipment, Components Thereof, and Products Containing the Same, Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... complaint names as respondents Cisco Systems, Inc. of San Jose, CA; Cisco Consumer Products LLC of Irvine, CA; Cisco Systems International B.V. of Amsterdam, Netherlands; Cisco-Linksys LLC of Irvine, CA...

  11. 76 FR 76436 - Certain Communication Equipment, Components Thereof, and Products Containing the Same, Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that a...: Cisco Systems, Inc., 170 West Tasman Drive, San Jose, CA 95134. Cisco Consumer Products LLC, 120 Theory... CH, Amsterdam, Netherlands. Cisco-Linksys LLC, 121 Theory Drive, Irvine, CA 92617. Hewlett-Packard Co...

  12. Transition processes in solid-phase electrochemical systems including sulfur-containing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipova, N.V.; Mikhajlova, A.M.; Seryanov, Yu.V.

    2005-01-01

    Transition processes in direct-contact systems Li/Sb 2 S 3 and Li/Sb 2 S 5 are studied. As shown by potentiodynamic voltammetry, an Li 3 SbS 3 interphase is the most probable product of the cathodic reduction at direct-contact interfaces. At certain polarizations and current densities, under potentiodynamic and galvanostatic conditions, the main current-producing processes that lead to the formation of the Li 3 SbS 3 interphase compete with passivating cathodic reactions which occur via the mechanism of monolayer adsorption and result in the formation of an Li 2 S product which blocks grains of the lithium thiostibnite interphase. Effective transfer coefficients of passivating reactions are twice those of the main current-producing cathodic reactions [ru

  13. Medicinal herbs as possible sources of anti-inflammatory products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Corciovă

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants constitute an inexhaustible source of bioactive compounds that can be valuable for research in the chemistry field of anti-inflammatory compounds. This review describes several plants from international and national flora that have been shown to have anti-inflammatory activity in various clinical trials. The paper includes: general aspects regarding the vegetal source, compounds responsible for anti-inflammatory activity, mechanism of action and clinical trials carried out with extracts or products containing standardized extracts.

  14. Aerosol in the containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanza, S.; Mariotti, P.

    1986-01-01

    The US program LACE (LWR Aerosol Containment Experiments), in which Italy participates together with several European countries, Canada and Japan, aims at evaluating by means of a large scale experimental activity at HEDL the retention in the pipings and primary container of the radioactive aerosol released following severe accidents in light water reactors. At the same time these experiences will make available data through which the codes used to analyse the behaviour of the aerosol in the containment and to verify whether by means of the codes of thermohydraulic computation it is possible to evaluate with sufficient accuracy variable influencing the aerosol behaviour, can be validated. This report shows and compares the results obtained by the participants in the LACE program with the aerosol containment codes NAVA 5 and CONTAIN for the pre-test computations of the test LA 1, in which an accident called containment by pass is simulated

  15. Sulfur-Containing Agrochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendar, Ponnam; Yang, Guang-Fu

    2017-10-09

    Modern agricultural chemistry has to support farmers by providing innovative agrochemicals. In this context, the introduction of sulfur atoms into an active ingredient is still an important tool in modulating the properties of new crop-protection compounds. More than 30% of today's agrochemicals contain at least one sulfur atom, mainly in fungicides, herbicides and insecticides. A number of recently developed sulfur-containing agrochemical candidates represent a novel class of chemical compounds with new modes of action, so we intend to highlight the emerging interest in commercially active sulfur-containing compounds. This chapter gives a comprehensive overview of selected leading sulfur-containing pesticidal chemical families namely: sulfonylureas, sulfonamides, sulfur-containing heterocyclics, thioureas, sulfides, sulfones, sulfoxides and sulfoximines. Also, the most suitable large-scale synthetic methods of the recently launched or provisionally approved sulfur-containing agrochemicals from respective chemical families have been highlighted.

  16. Reactor container structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yoshimi; Fukuda, Yoshio.

    1993-01-01

    A main container of an FBR type reactor using liquid sodium as coolants is attached to a roof slug. The main container contains, as coolants, lower temperature sodium, and high temperature sodium above a reactor core and a partitioning plate. The main container has a structure comprising only longitudinal welded joints in parallel with axial direction in the vicinity of the liquid surface of high temperature sodium where a temperature gradient is steep and great thermal stresses are caused without disposing lateral welded joints in perpendicular to axial direction. Only the longitudinal welded joints having a great fatigue strength are thus disposed in the vicinity of the liquid surface of the high temperature sodium where axial thermal stresses are caused. This can improve reliability of strength at the welded portions of the main container against repeating thermal stresses caused in vicinity of the liquid surface of the main container from a view point of welding method. (I.N.)

  17. High security container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, P.J.-M.; Monsterleet, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    This invention concerns containments, vessels or tanks for containing and protecting products or installations of various kinds, to be called by the general denomination 'containers'. Such products can be, inter alia, liquids such as natural gas, ammonia, vinyle chloride and hydrocarbons. Far from just forming simple means of storage, the containers used for this must now be capable of withstanding fire, sabotage for instance rocket fire, even impacts from aircraft, earthquakes and other aggressions of the same kind. The particular object of this invention is to create a container withstanding all these various agressions. It must also be considered that this container can not only be used for storing products or materials but also for enclosing particularly dangerous or delicate installations, such as nuclear or chemical reactors [fr

  18. Definition of containment failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cybulskis, P.

    1982-01-01

    Core meltdown accidents of the types considered in probabilistic risk assessments (PRA's) have been predicted to lead to pressures that will challenge the integrity of containment structures. Review of a number of PRA's indicates considerable variation in the predicted probability of containment failure as a function of pressure. Since the results of PRA's are sensitive to the prediction of the occurrence and the timing of containment failure, better understanding of realistic containment capabilities and a more consistent approach to the definition of containment failure pressures are required. Additionally, since the size and location of the failure can also significantly influence the prediction of reactor accident risk, further understanding of likely failure modes is required. The thresholds and modes of containment failure may not be independent

  19. 7 CFR 2902.21 - Disposable containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposable containers. 2902.21 Section 2902.21... Items § 2902.21 Disposable containers. (a) Definition. Products designed to be used for temporary... paragraph (d): Disposable containers can include boxes and packaging made from paper. Under the Resource...

  20. Radiological containment handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to be used as a reference text. It is meant to be used by the working personnel as a guide for using temporary radiological containments. The installing group and health physics group may vary among organizations but responsibilities and duties will not change. It covers installation and inspection containments; working and operating guidelines; operating requirement; emergency procedures; and removal of containments

  1. Pituitary tumors containing cholecystokinin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, J F; Lindholm, J; Andersen, B N

    1987-01-01

    We found small amounts of cholecystokinin in the normal human adenohypophysis and therefore examined pituitary tumors from 87 patients with acromegaly, Cushing's disease, Nelson's syndrome, prolactinoma, or inactive pituitary adenomas. Five adenomas associated with Nelson's syndrome contained......'s disease and 7 acromegaly with adenomas containing ACTH. The cholecystokinin peptides from the tumors were smaller and less sulfated than cholecystokinin from normal pituitary glands. We conclude that ACTH-producing pituitary cells may also produce an altered form of cholecystokinin....

  2. Containment safety margins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Riesemann, W.A.

    1980-01-01

    Objective of the Containment Safety Margins program is the development and verification of methodologies which are capable of reliably predicting the ultimate load-carrying capability of light water reactor containment structures under accident and severe environments. The program was initiated in June 1980 at Sandia and this paper addresses the first phase of the program which is essentially a planning effort. Brief comments are made about the second phase, which will involve testing of containment models

  3. Multicusp plasma containment apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limpaecher, R.

    1980-01-01

    It has been discovered that plasma containment by a chamber having multi-pole magnetic cusp reflecting walls in combination with electronic injection for electrostatic containment provides the means for generating magnetic field free quiescent plasmas for practical application in ion-pumps, electronic switches, and the like. 1250 ''alnico v'' magnets 1/2 '' X 1/2 '' X 1 1/2 '' provide containment in one embodiment. Electromagnets embodying toroidal funneling extend the principle to fusion apparatus

  4. Radioactive material transporting container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Yukio.

    1990-01-01

    As a supporting member of a sealing container for containing spent fuels, etc., a straight pipe or a cylinder has been used. However, upon dropping test, the supporting member is buckled toward the central axis of a transporting container and a shock absorber is crushed in the axial direction to prevent its pushing force to the outer side, which may possibly hinder normal shock moderating function. Then, at least more than one-half of the supporting member is protruded radially to the outer side of the sealing container beyond the fixed portion with the sealed container, so that the member has a portion extended in the radial outside of the transporting container with an angle greater than the angle formed between a line connecting the outer circumference at the bottom of an outer cylinder with the gravitational center of the transporting container and the central axis of the transporting container. As a result, buckling of the supporting member toward the central axis of the transporting container upon dropping test can be prevented and the deformation of the shock absorber is neither not prevented to exhibit normal shock absorbing effect. This can improve the reliability and reduce the amount of shock absorbers. (N.H.)

  5. Reactor container cooling device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Koji; Kinoshita, Shoichiro

    1995-11-10

    The device of the present invention efficiently lowers pressure and temperature in a reactor container upon occurrence of a severe accident in a BWR-type reactor and can cool the inside of the container for a long period of time. That is, (1) pipelines on the side of an exhaustion tower of a filter portion in a filter bent device of the reactor container are in communication with pipelines on the side of a steam inlet of a static container cooling device by way of horizontal pipelines, (2) a back flow check valve is disposed to horizontal pipelines, (3) a steam discharge valve for a pressure vessel is disposed closer to the reactor container than the joint portion between the pipelines on the side of the steam inlet and the horizontal pipelines. Upon occurrence of a severe accident, when the pressure vessel should be ruptured and steams containing aerosol in the reactor core should be filled in the reactor container, the inlet valve of the static container cooling device is closed. Steams are flown into the filter bent device of the reactor container, where the aerosols can be removed. (I.S.).

  6. The cobalt-60 container scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jigang, A.; Liye, Z.; Yisi, L.; Haifeng, W.; Zhifang, W.; Liqiang, W.; Yuanshi, Z.; Xincheng, X.; Furong, L.; Baozeng, G.; Chunfa, S.

    1997-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology (INET) has successfully designed and constructed a container (cargo) scanner, which uses cobalt-60 of 100-300 Ci as radiation source. The following performances of the Cobalt-60 container scanner have been achieved at INET: a) IQI (Image Quality Indicator) - 2.5% behind 100 mm of steel; b) CI (Contrast Indicator) - 0.7% behind 100 mm of steel; c) SP (Steel Penetration) - 240 mm of steel; d) Maximum Dose per Scanning - 0.02mGy; e) Throughput - twenty 40-foot containers per hour. These performances are equal or similar to those of the accelerator scanners. Besides these nice enough inspection properties, the Cobalt-60 scanner possesses many other special features which are better than accelerator scanners: a) cheap price - it will be only or two tenths of the accelerator scanner's; b) low radiation intensity - the radiation protection problem is much easier to solve and a lot of money can be saved on the radiation shielding building; c) much smaller area for installation and operation; d) simple operation and convenient maintenance; e) high reliability and stability. The Cobalt-60 container (or cargo) scanner is satisfied for boundary customs, seaports, airports and railway stations etc. Because of the nice special features said above, it is more suitable to be applied widely. Its high properties and low price will make it have much better application prospects

  7. The Chandra Source Catalog: Source Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Michael; Rots, A. H.; McCollough, M. L.; Primini, F. A.; Glotfelty, K. J.; Bonaventura, N. R.; Chen, J. C.; Davis, J. E.; Doe, S. M.; Evans, J. D.; Evans, I.; Fabbiano, G.; Galle, E. C.; Gibbs, D. G., II; Grier, J. D.; Hain, R.; Hall, D. M.; Harbo, P. N.; He, X.; Houck, J. C.; Karovska, M.; Lauer, J.; McDowell, J. C.; Miller, J. B.; Mitschang, A. W.; Morgan, D. L.; Nichols, J. S.; Plummer, D. A.; Refsdal, B. L.; Siemiginowska, A. L.; Sundheim, B. A.; Tibbetts, M. S.; van Stone, D. W.; Winkelman, S. L.; Zografou, P.

    2009-09-01

    The Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) contains fields of view that have been studied with individual, uninterrupted observations that span integration times ranging from 1 ksec to 160 ksec, and a large number of which have received (multiple) repeat observations days to years later. The CSC thus offers an unprecedented look at the variability of the X-ray sky over a broad range of time scales, and across a wide diversity of variable X-ray sources: stars in the local galactic neighborhood, galactic and extragalactic X-ray binaries, Active Galactic Nuclei, etc. Here we describe the methods used to identify and quantify source variability within a single observation, and the methods used to assess the variability of a source when detected in multiple, individual observations. Three tests are used to detect source variability within a single observation: the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and its variant, the Kuiper test, and a Bayesian approach originally suggested by Gregory and Loredo. The latter test not only provides an indicator of variability, but is also used to create a best estimate of the variable lightcurve shape. We assess the performance of these tests via simulation of statistically stationary, variable processes with arbitrary input power spectral densities (here we concentrate on results of red noise simulations) at variety of mean count rates and fractional root mean square variabilities relevant to CSC sources. We also assess the false positive rate via simulations of constant sources whose sole source of fluctuation is Poisson noise. We compare these simulations to an assessment of the variability found in real CSC sources, and estimate the variability sensitivities of the CSC.

  8. FAUST/CONTAIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherdron, W.; Minges, J.; Sauter, H.; Schuetz, W.

    1995-01-01

    The FAUNA facility has been restructured after completion of the sodium fire experiments. It is now serving LWR research, cf. report II on program no. 32.21.02 concerning steam explosions. The CONTAIN code system for computing the thermodynamic, aerosol and radiological phenomena in a containment under severe accident conditions is being developed with a new to fission product release and transport. (orig.)

  9. Explosive composition containing water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cattermole, G.R.; Lyerly, W.M.; Cummings, A.M.

    1971-11-26

    This addition to Fr. 1,583,223, issued 31 May 1968, describes an explosive composition containing a water in oil emulsion. The composition contains an oxidizing mineral salt, a nitrate base salt as sensitizer, water, an organic fuel, a lipophilic emulsifier, and incorporates gas bubbles. The composition has a performance which is improved over and above the original patent.

  10. Tougher containment design goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Farrelly, C.

    1978-01-01

    Present day LWR containment design goals are reviewed, together with their potential failure modes. Rasmussen's estimates of failure probabilities are discussed and the concept of ''delayed failure'' is seen to be a valuable safety goal for hypothetical accidents. The paper investigates the inherent coremelt resistance capability of various containment designs and suggests improvements, with special emphasis on increasing the failure delay times. (author)

  11. CONTAINER TERMINALS IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart W. WIEGMANS

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to address the linkage between logistics (in particular, the management of marketing channel flows and transport markets, while also the interaction between these two markets and intermodal container terminals is analysed. The marketing channel theory is used to describe all relevant actors and flows that run through marketing channels, starting with customer needs and ending with customer satisfaction. Porter's theory of competitive advantages is used to review competitive forces in both markets. Finally, a competitor analysis is performed for the logistics and transport market. These theories are applied so as to be able to determine the competitive position of intermodal container terminals with a view to the management of marketing channel flows and the physical transport of freight flows. Hence, the central question of this paper is: Which markets are served by intermodal container terminals and with whom are they competing? At present, neither the maritime container terminals nor the continental container terminals appear to have a significant influence in the logistics service market; they concentrate mainly on the physical movement of containers (transshipment. Furthermore, maritime container terminals and continental container terminals are not dominant players in the transport service market. Our conclusion is that continental terminals are predominantly competing with unimodal road transport, with neighbouring continental terminals and with barge transport companies.

  12. CONTAINER FOR USED TEXTILES

    CERN Multimedia

    Relation with the Host States

    2001-01-01

    We should like to remind you that a special container for textiles for the Association 'Réalise/Rapid Service' of Geneva is located in the car park outside the Meyrin site. The Association has informed us that 3 306 kg of textiles were deposited in the container in 2000 and wishes to convey its warm gratitude to all donors.

  13. Annual Reports: Preserving and Disseminating a Source for Business History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin-Kardon, Cynthia L.; Halperin, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Lippincott Library's Historical Corporate Annual Reports Collection contains useful primary sources of information for several disciplines, including applied accounting and business history. They also are reflections of the societal and cultural mores of the times. Unfortunately, these reports are fragile, difficult to locate, and hard to access.…

  14. Selenium-containing indolyl compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casaril, Angela M; Ignasiak, Marta T; Chuang, Christine Y

    2017-01-01

    materials, including extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, within the artery wall. Here we investigated the potential of selenium-containing indoles to afford protection against these oxidants, by determining rate constants (k) for their reaction, and quantifying the extent of damage on isolated ECM proteins......Tyr on HCAEC-ECM were also reduced. These data demonstrate that the novel selenium-containing compounds show high reactivity with oxidants and may modulate oxidative and nitrosative damage at sites of inflammation, contributing to a reduction in tissue dysfunction and atherogenesis....

  15. Nuclear reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaki, Rika; Kawabe, Ryuhei.

    1989-01-01

    A venturi scrubber is connected to a nuclear reactor container. Gases containing radioactive aerosols in the container are introduced into the venturi scrubber in the form of a high speed stream under the pressure of the container. The radioactive aerosols are captured by inertia collision due to the velocity difference between the high speed gas stream and water droplets. In the case of the present invention, since the high pressure of the reactor container generated upon accident is utilized, compressor, etc. is no more required, thereby enabling to reduce the size of the aerosol removing device. Further, since no external power is used, the radioactive aerosols can be removed with no starting failure upon accidents. (T.M.)

  16. Data format standard for sharing light source measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, G. Groot; Ashdown, Ian; Brandenburg, Willi; Chabaud, Dominique; Dross, Oliver; Gangadhara, Sanjay; Garcia, Kevin; Gauvin, Michael; Hansen, Dirk; Haraguchi, Kei; Hasna, Günther; Jiao, Jianzhong; Kelley, Ryan; Koshel, John; Muschaweck, Julius

    2013-09-01

    Optical design requires accurate characterization of light sources for computer aided design (CAD) software. Various methods have been used to model sources, from accurate physical models to measurement of light output. It has become common practice for designers to include measured source data for design simulations. Typically, a measured source will contain rays which sample the output distribution of the source. The ray data must then be exported to various formats suitable for import into optical analysis or design software. Source manufacturers are also making measurements of their products and supplying CAD models along with ray data sets for designers. The increasing availability of data has been beneficial to the design community but has caused a large expansion in storage needs for the source manufacturers since each software program uses a unique format to describe the source distribution. In 2012, the Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) formed a working group to understand the data requirements for ray data and recommend a standard file format. The working group included representatives from software companies supplying the analysis and design tools, source measurement companies providing metrology, source manufacturers creating the data and users from the design community. Within one year the working group proposed a file format which was recently approved by the IES for publication as TM-25. This paper will discuss the process used to define the proposed format, highlight some of the significant decisions leading to the format and list the data to be included in the first version of the standard.

  17. GANIL Workshop on Ion Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, Renan

    1999-01-01

    The proceedings of the GANIL Workshop on Ion Sources held at GANIL - Caen on 18-19 March 1999 contains 13 papers aiming at improving the old source operation and developing new types of sources for nuclear research and studies of ion physics. A number of reports are devoted to applications like surface treatment, ion implantation or fusion injection. The 1+→n+ transformation, charged particle transport in ECR sources, addition of cesium and xenon in negative ion sources and other basic issues in ion sources are also addressed

  18. Source Water Protection Contaminant Sources

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Simplified aggregation of potential contaminant sources used for Source Water Assessment and Protection. The data is derived from IDNR, IDALS, and US EPA program...

  19. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE FIRST SOURCE CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Antolini, E.; Bonamente, E.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bisello, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Belli, F.

    2010-01-01

    We present a catalog of high-energy gamma-ray sources detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), the primary science instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi), during the first 11 months of the science phase of the mission, which began on 2008 August 4. The First Fermi-LAT catalog (1FGL) contains 1451 sources detected and characterized in the 100 MeV to 100 GeV range. Source detection was based on the average flux over the 11 month period, and the threshold likelihood Test Statistic is 25, corresponding to a significance of just over 4σ. The 1FGL catalog includes source location regions, defined in terms of elliptical fits to the 95% confidence regions and power-law spectral fits as well as flux measurements in five energy bands for each source. In addition, monthly light curves are provided. Using a protocol defined before launch we have tested for several populations of gamma-ray sources among the sources in the catalog. For individual LAT-detected sources we provide firm identifications or plausible associations with sources in other astronomical catalogs. Identifications are based on correlated variability with counterparts at other wavelengths, or on spin or orbital periodicity. For the catalogs and association criteria that we have selected, 630 of the sources are unassociated. Care was taken to characterize the sensitivity of the results to the model of interstellar diffuse gamma-ray emission used to model the bright foreground, with the result that 161 sources at low Galactic latitudes and toward bright local interstellar clouds are flagged as having properties that are strongly dependent on the model or as potentially being due to incorrectly modeled structure in the Galactic diffuse emission.

  20. The Chandra Source Catalog 2.0: Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Abrusco, Raffaele; Zografou, Panagoula; Tibbetts, Michael; Allen, Christopher E.; Anderson, Craig S.; Budynkiewicz, Jamie A.; Burke, Douglas; Chen, Judy C.; Civano, Francesca Maria; Doe, Stephen M.; Evans, Ian N.; Evans, Janet D.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Gibbs, Danny G., II; Glotfelty, Kenny J.; Graessle, Dale E.; Grier, John D.; Hain, Roger; Hall, Diane M.; Harbo, Peter N.; Houck, John C.; Lauer, Jennifer L.; Laurino, Omar; Lee, Nicholas P.; Martínez-Galarza, Rafael; McCollough, Michael L.; McDowell, Jonathan C.; Miller, Joseph; McLaughlin, Warren; Morgan, Douglas L.; Mossman, Amy E.; Nguyen, Dan T.; Nichols, Joy S.; Nowak, Michael A.; Paxson, Charles; Plummer, David A.; Primini, Francis Anthony; Rots, Arnold H.; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Sundheim, Beth A.; Van Stone, David W.

    2018-01-01

    Easy-to-use, powerful public interfaces to access the wealth of information contained in any modern, complex astronomical catalog are fundamental to encourage its usage. In this poster,I present the public interfaces of the second Chandra Source Catalog (CSC2). CSC2 is the most comprehensive catalog of X-ray sources detected by Chandra, thanks to the inclusion of Chandra observations public through the end of 2014 and to methodological advancements. CSC2 provides measured properties for a large number of sources that sample the X-ray sky at fainter levels than the previous versions of the CSC, thanks to the stacking of single overlapping observations within 1’ before source detection. Sources from stacks are then crossmatched, if multiple stacks cover the same area of the sky, to create a list of unique, optimal CSC2 sources. The properties of sources detected in each single stack and each single observation are also measured. The layered structure of the CSC2 catalog is mirrored in the organization of the CSC2 database, consisting of three tables containing all properties for the unique stacked sources (“Master Source”), single stack sources (“Stack Source”) and sources in any single observation (“Observation Source”). These tables contain estimates of the position, flags, extent, significances, fluxes, spectral properties and variability (and associated errors) for all classes of sources. The CSC2 also includes source region and full-field data products for all master sources, stack sources and observation sources: images, photon event lists, light curves and spectra.CSCview, the main interface to the CSC2 source properties and data products, is a GUI tool that allows to build queries based on the values of all properties contained in CSC2 tables, query the catalog, inspect the returned table of source properties, browse and download the associated data products. I will also introduce the suite of command-line interfaces to CSC2 that can be used in

  1. Container for hydrogen isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-12

    A container is described for storage, shipping and and dispensing of hydrogen isotopes such as hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, or mixtures of the same. The container is compact, safe against fracture or accident, and is reusable. It consists of an outer housing with suitable inlet and outlet openings and electrical feed elements, the housing containing an activated sorber material in the form, for example of titanium sponge or an activated zirconium aluminate cartridge. The gas to be stored is introduced into the chamber under conditions of heat and vacuum and is retained in the sorber material. Subsequently, it may be released by heating the unit to drive off the stored gas at desired rates.

  2. Improvements in containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guy, R.

    1977-01-01

    An improved container is described for transporting radioactive materials, such as irradiated Magnox fuel elements. It has a lid fixed to the container body and at the corners of the lid has shock absorbers that project from the corners and have part-spheroidal shape. The centre of curvature of the surface of the spheroid is positioned within the lid, so that impact loads on a shock absorber tend to hold it to the container rather than dislodge it. The shock absorbers may be Al-Si alloy castings. (U.K.)

  3. The Container Stowage Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janstrup, Kira; Rose, Trine Høyer; Andersen, Kent Høj

    The main purpose of this project is to use integer programming to create a model that minimizes the costs for container transportation by ship. To make the model as realistic as possible it will be based on information from a large shipping company about the vessel layout and container types....... In addition to our project two other projects are made where an optimal solution to the container stowage problem also is tried to be found, but by using constraint programming and local search instead respectively. We will therefore in the end compare these three methods and the achieved results on fastness...

  4. The Container Stowage Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janstrup, Kira

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this project is to use integer programming to create a model that minimizes the costs for container transportation by ship. To make the model as realistic as possible it will be based on information from a large shipping company about the vessel layout and container types....... In addition to our project two other projects are made where an optimal solution to the container stowage problem also is tried to be found, but by using constraint programming and local search instead respectively. We will therefore in the end compare these three methods and the achieved results on fastness...

  5. Container for hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A container is described for storage, shipping and and dispensing of hydrogen isotopes such as hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, or mixtures of the same. The container is compact, safe against fracture or accident, and is reusable. It consists of an outer housing with suitable inlet and outlet openings and electrical feed elements, the housing containing an activated sorber material in the form, for example of titanium sponge or an activated zirconium aluminate cartridge. The gas to be stored is introduced into the chamber under conditions of heat and vacuum and is retained in the sorber material. Subsequently, it may be released by heating the unit to drive off the stored gas at desired rates

  6. Sealed radioactive source management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Sealed radioactive sources have been used in a wide range of application in medicine, agriculture, geology, industry and other fields. Since its utilization many sources have become out of use and became waste but no proper management. This has lead to many accidents causing deaths and serious radiation injuries worldwide. Spent sources application is expanding but their management has seen little improvements. Sealed radioactive sources have become a security risk calling for prompt action. Source management helps to maintain sources in a good physical status and provide means of source tracking and control. It also provides a well documented process of the sources making any future management options safe, secure and cost effective. Last but not least good source management substantially reduces the risk of accidents and eliminates the risk of malicious use. The International Atomic Energy Agency assists Member States to build the infrastructure to properly manage sealed radioactive sources. The assistance includes training of national experts to handle, condition and properly store the sources. For Member States that do not have proper facilities, we provide the technical assistance to design a proper facility to properly manage the radioactive sources and provide for their proper storage. For Member States that need to condition their sources properly but don't have the required infrastructure we provide direct assistance to physically help them with source recovery and provide an international expert team to properly condition their sources and render them safe and secure. We offer software (Radioactive Waste Management Registry) to properly keep a complete record on the sources and provide for efficient tracking. This also helps with proper planning and decision making for long term management

  7. Power source with spark-safe outlet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsesarenko, N P; Alekhin, A V

    1982-01-01

    The invention refers to the technique of electrical monitoring and control in systems operating in a spark-safe medium (for example, in coal mines). A more accurate area of application is mobile objects with autonomous source of electricity (mine diesel locomotives, battery electric locomotives etc.). The purpose of the invention is to simplify and to improve the reliability of the planned device, and also to expand the area of application for conditions when it is powered from an autonomous generator of direct voltage. This goal is achieved because the power source with spark-safe outlet (the source contains a thyristor of advance disconnection, connected by anode to the delimiting throttle, one outlet of which is connected to the capacitor included between the controlling electrode and the anode of the thyristor, and the capacitor is connected through the resistor parallel to the outlet clamps of the source, while the thyristor of emergency protection connected parallel to the inlet clamps of the power source) is additionally equipped with a current sensor, hercon, transistor key (included in series in the power circuit) and optron, whose emitter is connected parallel to the current sensor connected in series to the inlet of the power source, while the receiver of the optron is connected in a circuit for controlling the thyristor of emergency protection. Hercon is built into the core of the delimiting throttle and is connected to the circuit for controlling the transistor key.

  8. FREIGHT CONTAINER LIFTING STANDARD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    POWERS DJ; SCOTT MA; MACKEY TC

    2010-01-13

    This standard details the correct methods of lifting and handling Series 1 freight containers following ISO-3874 and ISO-1496. The changes within RPP-40736 will allow better reading comprehension, as well as correcting editorial errors.

  9. Helical type vacuum container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owada, Kimio.

    1989-01-01

    Helical type vacuum containers in the prior art lack in considerations for thermal expansion stresses to helical coils, and there is a possibility of coil ruptures. The object of the present invention is to avoid the rupture of helical coils wound around the outer surface of a vacuum container against heat expansion if any. That is, bellows or heat expansion absorbing means are disposed to a cross section of a helical type vacuum container. With such a constitution, thermal expansion of helical coils per se due to temperature elevation of the coils during electric supply can be absorbed by expansion of the bellows or absorption of the heat expansion absorbing means. Further, this can be attained by arranging shear pins in the direction perpendicular to the bellows axis so that the bellows are not distorted when the helical coils are wound around the helical type vacuum container. (I.S.)

  10. Regular expression containment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henglein, Fritz; Nielsen, Lasse

    2011-01-01

    We present a new sound and complete axiomatization of regular expression containment. It consists of the conventional axiomatiza- tion of concatenation, alternation, empty set and (the singleton set containing) the empty string as an idempotent semiring, the fixed- point rule E* = 1 + E × E......* for Kleene-star, and a general coin- duction rule as the only additional rule. Our axiomatization gives rise to a natural computational inter- pretation of regular expressions as simple types that represent parse trees, and of containment proofs as coercions. This gives the axiom- atization a Curry......-Howard-style constructive interpretation: Con- tainment proofs do not only certify a language-theoretic contain- ment, but, under our computational interpretation, constructively transform a membership proof of a string in one regular expres- sion into a membership proof of the same string in another regular expression. We...

  11. Radioactive Material Containment Bags

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    The audit was requested by Senator Joseph I. Lieberman based on allegations made by a contractor, Defense Apparel Services, about the Navy's actions on three contracts for radioactive material containment bags...

  12. Containment structure optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putman, S.; Walser, A.

    1979-01-01

    The major design features investigated are: dome shape, the prestress level provided to counteract accident pressure, the effect of diameter variation, and the design pressure used to size the containment. The optimum dome shape and optimum prestress level are used to investigate the effect of variations in diameter and design pressure on containment cost. The containment internal diameter is fixed at 150 feet for investigation of dome shape, prestress level and design prestress. A hemispherical dome containment with a prestress level of 1.25 P/sub a/ is recommended regardless of design pressure selected. A design pressure of 60 psi is recommended. No significant cost penalty is associated with diameter variation in the range of 145 to 155 feet

  13. Radioactive waste sealing container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tozawa, S.; Kitamura, T.; Sugimoto, S.

    1984-01-01

    A low- to medium-level radioactive waste sealing container is constructed by depositing a foundation coating consisting essentially of zinc, cadmium or a zinc-aluminum alloy over a steel base, then coating an organic synthetic resin paint containing a metal phosphate over the foundation coating, and thereafter coating an acryl resin, epoxy resin, and/or polyurethane paint. The sealing container can consist of a main container body, a lid placed over the main body, and fixing members for clamping and fixing the lid to the main body. Each fixing member may consist of a material obtained by depositing a coating consisting essentially of cadmium or a zinc-aluminum alloy over a steel base

  14. Lightweight flywheel containment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James R.

    2004-06-29

    A lightweight flywheel containment composed of a combination of layers of various material which absorb the energy of a flywheel structural failure. The various layers of material act as a vacuum barrier, momentum spreader, energy absorber, and reaction plate. The flywheel containment structure has been experimentally demonstrated to contain carbon fiber fragments with a velocity of 1,000 m/s and has an aerial density of less than 6.5 g/square centimeters. The flywheel containment, may for example, be composed of an inner high toughness structural layer, and energy absorbing layer, and an outer support layer. Optionally, a layer of impedance matching material may be utilized intermediate the flywheel rotor and the inner high toughness layer.

  15. STATISTICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE CHANDRA SOURCE CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primini, Francis A.; Evans, Ian N.; Glotfelty, Kenny J.; Anderson, Craig S.; Bonaventura, Nina R.; Chen, Judy C.; Doe, Stephen M.; Evans, Janet D.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Galle, Elizabeth C.; Gibbs, Danny G.; Grier, John D.; Hain, Roger M.; Harbo, Peter N.; He Xiangqun; Karovska, Margarita; Houck, John C.; Davis, John E.; Nowak, Michael A.; Hall, Diane M.

    2011-01-01

    The first release of the Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) contains ∼95,000 X-ray sources in a total area of 0.75% of the entire sky, using data from ∼3900 separate ACIS observations of a multitude of different types of X-ray sources. In order to maximize the scientific benefit of such a large, heterogeneous data set, careful characterization of the statistical properties of the catalog, i.e., completeness, sensitivity, false source rate, and accuracy of source properties, is required. Characterization efforts of other large Chandra catalogs, such as the ChaMP Point Source Catalog or the 2 Mega-second Deep Field Surveys, while informative, cannot serve this purpose, since the CSC analysis procedures are significantly different and the range of allowable data is much less restrictive. We describe here the characterization process for the CSC. This process includes both a comparison of real CSC results with those of other, deeper Chandra catalogs of the same targets and extensive simulations of blank-sky and point-source populations.

  16. Statistical Characterization of the Chandra Source Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primini, Francis A.; Houck, John C.; Davis, John E.; Nowak, Michael A.; Evans, Ian N.; Glotfelty, Kenny J.; Anderson, Craig S.; Bonaventura, Nina R.; Chen, Judy C.; Doe, Stephen M.; Evans, Janet D.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Galle, Elizabeth C.; Gibbs, Danny G.; Grier, John D.; Hain, Roger M.; Hall, Diane M.; Harbo, Peter N.; He, Xiangqun Helen; Karovska, Margarita; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Lauer, Jennifer; McCollough, Michael L.; McDowell, Jonathan C.; Miller, Joseph B.; Mitschang, Arik W.; Morgan, Douglas L.; Mossman, Amy E.; Nichols, Joy S.; Plummer, David A.; Refsdal, Brian L.; Rots, Arnold H.; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Sundheim, Beth A.; Tibbetts, Michael S.; Van Stone, David W.; Winkelman, Sherry L.; Zografou, Panagoula

    2011-06-01

    The first release of the Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) contains ~95,000 X-ray sources in a total area of 0.75% of the entire sky, using data from ~3900 separate ACIS observations of a multitude of different types of X-ray sources. In order to maximize the scientific benefit of such a large, heterogeneous data set, careful characterization of the statistical properties of the catalog, i.e., completeness, sensitivity, false source rate, and accuracy of source properties, is required. Characterization efforts of other large Chandra catalogs, such as the ChaMP Point Source Catalog or the 2 Mega-second Deep Field Surveys, while informative, cannot serve this purpose, since the CSC analysis procedures are significantly different and the range of allowable data is much less restrictive. We describe here the characterization process for the CSC. This process includes both a comparison of real CSC results with those of other, deeper Chandra catalogs of the same targets and extensive simulations of blank-sky and point-source populations.

  17. CONTAINER FOR USED TEXTILES

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations avec les Pays hôtes

    2000-01-01

    We should like to remind you that a special container for textiles for the Association 'Réalise/Rapid Service' of Geneva is located in the car park outside the Meyrin site.The Association has informed us that 2 530 kg of textiles were deposited in the container in 1998 and wishes to convey its warm gratitude to all donors.Relations with the Host StatesTel. 75152

  18. Fusion impulse containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohachevsky, I.O.

    1979-01-01

    The characteristics of impact fusion energy releases are not known sufficiently well to examine in detail specific containment vessel concepts or designs. Therefore it appears appropriate to formulate the impulse containment problem in general and to derive results in the form of explicit expressions from which magnitude estimates and parametric dependencies (trends) can be inferred conveniently and rapidly. In the following presentation we carry out this task using assumptions and approximations that are required to perform the analysis

  19. Positron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chehab, R.

    1994-01-01

    A tentative survey of positron sources is given. Physical processes on which positron generation is based are indicated and analyzed. Explanation of the general features of electromagnetic interactions and nuclear β + decay makes it possible to predict the yield and emittance for a given optical matching system between the positron source and the accelerator. Some kinds of matching systems commonly used - mainly working with solenoidal field - are studied and the acceptance volume calculated. Such knowledge is helpful in comparing different matching systems. Since for large machines, a significant distance exists between the positron source and the experimental facility, positron emittance has to be preserved during beam transfer over large distances and methods used for that purpose are indicated. Comparison of existing positron sources leads to extrapolation to sources for future linear colliders. Some new ideas associated with these sources are also presented. (orig.)

  20. Cooling device for reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Kenji.

    1996-01-01

    Upon assembling a static container cooling system to an emergency reactor core cooling system using dynamic pumps in a power plant, the present invention provides a cooling device of lowered center of gravity and having a good cooling effect by lowering the position of a cooling water pool of the static container cooling system. Namely, the emergency reactor core cooling system injects water to the inside of a pressure vessel using emergency cooling water stored in a suppression pool as at least one water source upon loss of reactor coolant accident. In addition, a cooling water pool incorporating a heat exchanger is disposed at the circumference of the suppression pool at the outside of the container. A dry well and the heat exchanger are connected by way of steam supply pipes, and the heat exchanger is connected with the suppression pool by way of a gas exhaustion pipe and a condensate returning pipeline. With such a constitution, the position of the heat exchanger is made higher than an ordinary water level of the suppression pool. As a result, the emergency cooling water of the suppression pool water is injected to the pressure vessel by the operation of the reactor cooling pumps upon loss of coolant accident to cool the reactor core. (I.S.)

  1. Radiological testing of products containing radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.W.; Knight, A.

    1980-01-01

    Consumer products containing radioactive substances are tested by NRPB to determine how much radioactive material is likely to be released from a product if it is misused or accidentally damaged. Such testing is briefly described with particular reference to ionisation chamber smoke detectors, liquid crystal display watches illuminated with gaseous tritium light sources and anti-static brushes containing polonium-210 in the form of ceramic microspheres. (U.K.)

  2. Containment vessel stability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harstead, G.A.; Morris, N.F.; Unsal, A.I.

    1983-01-01

    The stability analysis for a steel containment shell is presented herein. The containment is a freestanding shell consisting of a vertical cylinder with a hemispherical dome. It is stiffened by large ring stiffeners and relatively small longitudinal stiffeners. The containment vessel is subjected to both static and dynamic loads which can cause buckling. These loads must be combined prior to their use in a stability analysis. The buckling loads were computed with the aid of the ASME Code case N-284 used in conjunction with general purpose computer codes and in-house programs. The equations contained in the Code case were used to compute the knockdown factors due to shell imperfections. After these knockdown factors were applied to the critical stress states determined by freezing the maximum dynamic stresses and combining them with other static stresses, a linear bifurcation analysis was carried out with the aid of the BOSOR4 program. Since the containment shell contained large penetrations, the Code case had to be supplemented by a local buckling analysis of the shell area surrounding the largest penetration. This analysis was carried out with the aid of the NASTRAN program. Although the factor of safety against buckling obtained in this analysis was satisfactory, it is claimed that the use of the Code case knockdown factors are unduly conservative when applied to the analysis of buckling around penetrations. (orig.)

  3. Radiation sources and process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honious, H.B.; Janzow, E.F.; Malson, H.A.; Moyer, S.E.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to radiation sources comprising a substrate having an electrically-conductive non-radioactive metal surface, a layer of a metal radioactive isotope of the scandium group, which in addition to scandium, yttrium, lanthanum and actinium, includes all the lanthanide and actinide series of elements, with the actinide series usually being preferred because of the nature of the radioactive isotopes therein, particularly americium-241, curium-244, plutonium-238, californium-252 and promethium-147, and a non-radioactive bonding metal codeposited on the surface by electroplating the isotope and bonding metal from an electrolytic solution, the isotope being present in the layer in minor amount as compared to the bonding metal, and with or without a non-radioactive protective metal coating covering the isotoype and bonding metal on the surface, the coating being sufficiently thin to permit radiation to pass through the coating. The invention also relates to a process for providing radiation sources comprising codepositing a layer of the metal radioactive isotope with a non-radioactive bonding metal from an electrolytic solution in which the isotope is present in minor molar amount as compared to the bonding metal such that the codeposited layer contains a minor molar amount of the isotope compared to the bonding metal by electroplating on an electrically-conductive non-radioactive metal surface of a cathode substrate, and with or without depositing a nonradioactive protective metal coating over the isotope and bonding metal on the surface, the coating being sufficiently thin to permit radiation to pass through the coating

  4. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Includes: Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Button NCHS Home Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Includes: Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema Recommend on Facebook ... Percent of visits to office-based physicians with COPD indicated on the medical record: 3.2% Source: ...

  5. Methods for forming complex oxidation reaction products including superconducting articles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapp, R.A.; Urquhart, A.W.; Nagelberg, A.S.; Newkirk, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method for producing a superconducting complex oxidation reaction product of two or more metals in an oxidized state. It comprises positioning at least one parent metal source comprising one of the metals adjacent to a permeable mass comprising at least one metal-containing compound capable of reaction to form the complex oxidation reaction product in step below, the metal component of the at least one metal-containing compound comprising at least a second of the two or more metals, and orienting the parent metal source and the permeable mass relative to each other so that formation of the complex oxidation reaction product will occur in a direction towards and into the permeable mass; and heating the parent metal source in the presence of an oxidant to a temperature region above its melting point to form a body of molten parent metal to permit infiltration and reaction of the molten parent metal into the permeable mass and with the oxidant and the at least one metal-containing compound to form the complex oxidation reaction product, and progressively drawing the molten parent metal source through the complex oxidation reaction product towards the oxidant and towards and into the adjacent permeable mass so that fresh complex oxidation reaction product continues to form within the permeable mass; and recovering the resulting complex oxidation reaction product

  6. Sources management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansoux, H.; Gourmelon; Scanff, P.; Fournet, F.; Murith, Ch.; Saint-Paul, N.; Colson, P.; Jouve, A.; Feron, F.; Haranger, D.; Mathieu, P.; Paycha, F.; Israel, S.; Auboiroux, B.; Chartier, P.

    2005-01-01

    Organized by the section of technical protection of the French society of radiation protection ( S.F.R.P.), these two days had for objective to review the evolution of the rule relative to the sources of ionising radiations 'sealed and unsealed radioactive sources, electric generators'. They addressed all the actors concerned by the implementation of the new regulatory system in the different sectors of activities ( research, medicine and industry): Authorities, manufacturers, and suppliers of sources, holders and users, bodies involved in the approval of sources, carriers. (N.C.)

  7. Using Primary Source Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Explores the use of primary sources when teaching about U.S. slavery. Includes primary sources from the Gilder Lehrman Documents Collection (New York Historical Society) to teach about the role of slaves in the Revolutionary War, such as a proclamation from Lord Dunmore offering freedom to slaves who joined his army. (CMK)

  8. Housing for a radioactive source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domnanovich, J. R.; Erwin, W. D.

    1985-01-01

    The radioactive structure comprises a radioactive source surrounded by a housing. The housing contains a first and second shielding body and a connecting device. The first shielding body has a protrusion which contains a first recess for receiving the radioactive source. The second shielding body has a second recess in one face end which accommodates the protrusion and a conical aperture communicating with the second recess in another face end. The connecting device connects the first shielding body to the second shielding body. When the radioactive source is inserted into the first recess and when the protrusion is located in the second recess, the radioactive source emits radiation primarily through the conical aperture into the environment. The source preferably contains americium which emits gamma radiation. The structure may be used as a motion correction sensor or as a marker in a nuclear diagnostic imaging

  9. Spacetimes containing slowly evolving horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavanagh, William; Booth, Ivan

    2006-01-01

    Slowly evolving horizons are trapping horizons that are ''almost'' isolated horizons. This paper reviews their definition and discusses several spacetimes containing such structures. These include certain Vaidya and Tolman-Bondi solutions as well as (perturbatively) tidally distorted black holes. Taking into account the mass scales and orders of magnitude that arise in these calculations, we conjecture that slowly evolving horizons are the norm rather than the exception in astrophysical processes that involve stellar-scale black holes

  10. Query containment in entity SQL

    OpenAIRE

    Rull Fort, Guillem; Bernstein, Philip A.; Garcia dos Santos, Ivo; Katsis, Yannis; Melnik, Sergey; Teniente López, Ernest

    2013-01-01

    We describe a software architecture we have developed for a constructive containment checker of Entity SQL queries defined over extended ER schemas expressed in Microsoft's Entity Data Model. Our application of interest is compilation of object-to-relational mappings for Microsoft's ADO.NET Entity Framework, which has been shipping since 2007. The supported language includes several features which have been individually addressed in the past but, to the best of our knowledge, they have not be...

  11. Determination of Lowest Achievable Emission Rate for Coors Container Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  12. The Advanced Neutron Source liquid deuterium cold source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, A.T.

    1995-08-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source will employ two cold sources to moderate neutrons to low energy (<10 meV). The cold neutrons produced are then passed through beam guides to various experiment stations. Each cold source moderator is a sphere of 410-mm internal diameter. The moderator material is liquid deuterium flowing at a rate of 1 kg/s and maintained at subcooled temperatures at all points of the circuit, to prevent boiling. Nuclear beat deposited within the liquid deuterium and its containment structure totals more than 30 kW. All of this heat is removed by the liquid deuterium, which raises its temperature by 5 K. The liquid prime mover is a cryogenic circulator that is situated in the return leg of the flow loop. This arrangement minimizes the heat added to the liquid between the heat exchanger and the moderator vessel, allowing the moderator to be operated at the minimum practical temperature. This report describes the latest thinking at the time of project termination. It also includes the status of various systems at that time and outlines anticipated directions in which the design would have progressed. In this regard, some detail differences between this report and official design documents reflect ideas that were not approved at the time of closure but are considered noteworthy

  13. GOTHIC MODEL OF BWR SECONDARY CONTAINMENT DRAWDOWN ANALYSES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, P.N.

    2004-01-01

    This article introduces a GOTHIC version 7.1 model of the Secondary Containment Reactor Building Post LOCA drawdown analysis for a BWR. GOTHIC is an EPRI sponsored thermal hydraulic code. This analysis is required by the Utility to demonstrate an ability to restore and maintain the Secondary Containment Reactor Building negative pressure condition. The technical and regulatory issues associated with this modeling are presented. The analysis includes the affect of wind, elevation and thermal impacts on pressure conditions. The model includes a multiple volume representation which includes the spent fuel pool. In addition, heat sources and sinks are modeled as one dimensional heat conductors. The leakage into the building is modeled to include both laminar as well as turbulent behavior as established by actual plant test data. The GOTHIC code provides components to model heat exchangers used to provide fuel pool cooling as well as area cooling via air coolers. The results of the evaluation are used to demonstrate the time that the Reactor Building is at a pressure that exceeds external conditions. This time period is established with the GOTHIC model based on the worst case pressure conditions on the building. For this time period the Utility must assume the primary containment leakage goes directly to the environment. Once the building pressure is restored below outside conditions the release to the environment can be credited as a filtered release

  14. Environmental Data Sources

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This database includes gauging stations, climatic data centers, and storet sites. The accuracy of the locations is dependent on the source data for each of the...

  15. Sourcing Excellence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeyemi, Oluseyi

    2011-01-01

    Sourcing Excellence is one of the key performance indicators (KPIs) in this world of ever changing sourcing strategies. Manufacturing companies need to access and diagnose the reliability and competencies of existing suppliers in order to coordinate and develop them. This would help in managing...

  16. Component nuclear containment structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harstead, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    The invention described is intended for use primarily as a nuclear containment structure. Such structures are required to surround the nuclear steam supply system and to contain the effects of breaks in the nuclear steam supply system, or i.e. loss of coolant accidents. Nuclear containment structures are required to withstand internal pressure and temperatures which result from loss of coolant accidents, and to provide for radiation shielding during operation and during the loss of coolant accident, as well as to resist all other applied loads, such as earthquakes. The nuclear containment structure described herein is a composite nuclear containment structure, and is one which structurally combines two previous systems; namely, a steel vessel, and a lined concrete structure. The steel vessel provides strength to resist internal pressure and accommodate temperature increases, the lined concrete structure provides resistance to internal pressure by having a liner which will prevent leakage, and which is in contact with the concrete structure which provides the strength to resist the pressure

  17. Nuclear reactor containing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidaka, Masataka; Murase, Michio.

    1994-01-01

    In a reactor containing facility, a condensation means is disposed above the water level of a cooling water pool to condensate steams of the cooling water pool, and return the condensated water to the cooling water pool. Upon occurrence of a pipeline rupture accident, steams generated by after-heat of a reactor core are caused to flow into a bent tube, blown from the exit of the bent tube into a suppression pool and condensated in a suppression pool water, thereby suppressing the pressure in the reactor container. Cooling water in the cooling water pool is boiled by heat conduction due to the condensation of steams, then the steams are exhausted to the outside of the reactor container to remove the heat of the reactor container to the outside of the reactor. In addition, since cooling water is supplied to the cooling water pool quasi-permanently by gravity as a natural force, the reactor container can be cooled by the cooling water pool for a long period of time. Since the condensation means is constituted with a closed loop and interrupted from the outside, radioactive materials are never released to the outside. (N.H.)

  18. Passive cooling containment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, J.J.; Iotti, R.C.; Wright, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    Pressure and temperature transients of nuclear reactor containment following postulated loss of coolant accident with a coincident station blackout due to total loss of all alternating current power are studied analytically and experimentally for the full scale NPR (New Production Reactor). All the reactor and containment cooling under this condition would rely on the passive cooling system which removes reactor decay heat and provides emergency core and containment cooling. Containment passive cooling for this study takes place in the annulus between containment steel shell and concrete shield building by natural convection air flow and thermal radiation. Various heat transfer coefficients inside annular air space were investigated by running the modified CONTEMPT code CONTEMPT-NPR. In order to verify proper heat transfer coefficient, temperature, heat flux, and velocity profiles were measured inside annular air space of the test facility which is a 24 foot (7.3m) high, steam heated inner cylinder of three foot (.91m) diameter and five and half foot (1.7m) diameter outer cylinder. Comparison of CONTEMPT-NPR and WGOTHIC was done for reduced scale NPR

  19. Numerical simulation of radioisotope's dependency on containment performance for large dry PWR containment under severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehboob, Khurram; Xinrong, Cao; Ahmed, Raheel; Ali, Majid

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Calculation and comparison of activity of BURN-UP code with ORIGEN2 code. • Development of SASTC computer code. • Radioisotopes dependency on containment ESFs. • Mitigation in atmospheric release with ESFs operation. • Variation in radioisotopes source term with spray flow and pH value. -- Abstract: During the core melt accidents large amount of fission products can be released into the containment building. These fission products escape into the environment to contribute in accident source term. The mitigation in environmental release is demanded for such radiological consequences. Thus, countermeasures to source term, mitigations of release of radioactivity have been studied for 1000 MWe PWR reactor. The procedure of study is divided into five steps: (1) calculation and verification of core inventory, evaluated by BURN-UP code, (2) containment modeling based on radioactivity removal factors, (3) selection of potential accidents initiates the severe accident, (4) calculation of release of radioactivity, (5) study the dependency of release of radioactivity on containment engineering safety features (ESFs) inducing mitigation. Loss of coolant accident (LOCA), small break LOCA and flow blockage accidents (FBA) are selected as initiating accidents. The mitigation effect of ESFs on source term has been studied against ESFs performance. Parametric study of release of radioactivity has been carried out by modeling and simulating the containment parameters in MATLAB, which takes BURN-UP outcomes as input along with the probabilistic data. The dependency of iodine and aerosol source term on boric and caustic acid spray has been determined. The variation in source term mitigation with the variation of containment spray flow rate and pH values have been studied. The variation in containment retention factor (CRF) has also been studied with the ESF performance. A rapid decrease in source term is observed with the increase in pH value

  20. Effective modeling of hydrogen mixing and catalytic recombination in containment atmosphere with an Eulerian Containment Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bott, E.; Frepoli, C.; Monti, R.; Notini, V.; Carcassi, M.; Fineschi, F.; Heitsch, M.

    1999-01-01

    Large amounts of hydrogen can be generated in the containment of a nuclear power plant following a postulated accident with significant fuel damage. Different strategies have been proposed and implemented to prevent violent hydrogen combustion. An attractive one aims to eliminate hydrogen without burning processes; it is based on the use of catalytic hydrogen recombiners. This paper describes a simulation methodology which is being developed by Ansaldo, to support the application of the above strategy, in the frame of two projects sponsored by the Commission of the European Communities within the IV Framework Program on Reactor Safety. Involved organizations also include the DCMN of Pisa University (Italy), Battelle Institute and GRS (Germany), Politechnical University of Madrid (Spain). The aims to make available a simulation approach, suitable for use for containment design at industrial level (i.e. with reasonable computer running time) and capable to correctly capture the relevant phenomenologies (e.g. multiflow convective flow patterns, hydrogen, air and steam distribution in the containment atmosphere as determined by containment structures and geometries as well as by heat and mass sources and sinks). Eulerian algorithms provide the capability of three dimensional modelling with a fairly accurate prediction, however lower than CFD codes with a full Navier Stokes formulation. Open linking of an Eulerian code as GOTHIC to a full Navier Stokes CFD code as CFX 4.1 allows to dynamically tune the solving strategies of the Eulerian code itself. The effort in progress is an application of this innovative methodology to detailed hydrogen recombination simulation and a validation of the approach itself by reproducing experimental data. (author)

  1. Emission sources and quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinen, B.

    1991-01-01

    The paper examines emission sources and quantities for SO 2 and NO x . Natural SO 2 is released from volcanic sources and to a much lower extent from marsh gases. In nature NO x is mainly produced in the course of the chemical and bacterial denitrification processes going on in the soil. Manmade pollutants are produced in combustion processes. The paper concentrates on manmade pollution. Aspects discussed include: mechanism of pollution development; manmade emission sources (e.g. industry, traffic, power plants and domestic sources); and emission quantities and forecasts. 11 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  2. Positron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chehab, R.

    1989-01-01

    A tentative survey of positron sources is given. Physical processes on which positron generation is based are indicated and analyzed. Explanation of the general features of electromagnetic interactions and nuclear β + decay makes it possible to predict the yield and emittance for a given optical matching system between the positron source and the accelerator. Some kinds of matching systems commonly used - mainly working with solenoidal fields - are studied and the acceptance volume calculated. Such knowledge is helpful in comparing different matching systems. Since for large machines, a significant distance exists between the positron source and the experimental facility, positron emittance has to be preserved during beam transfer over large distances and methods used for that purpose are indicated. Comparison of existing positron sources leads to extrapolation to sources for future linear colliders

  3. Containment vessel design and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangash, Y.

    1983-01-01

    The state of the art of analysis and design of the concrete containment vessels required for BWR and PWR is reviewed. A step-by-step critical appraisal of the existing work is given. Elastic, inelastic and cracking conditions under extreme loads are fully discussed. Problems associated with these structures are highlighted. A three-dimensional finite element analysis is included to cater for service, overload and dynamic cracking of such structures. Missile impact and seismic effects are included in this work. The second analysis is known as the limit state analysis, which is given to design such vessels for any kind of load. (U.K.)

  4. Container for radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Housholder, W.R.; Greer, N.L.

    1976-01-01

    The improvement of the construction of containers for the transport of nuclear fuels is proposed where above all, the insulating mass suggested is important as it acts as a safeguard in case of an accident. The container consists of a metal casing in which there is a pressure boiler and a gamma-shielding device, spacers between the metal casing and the shielding device as well as an insulation filling the space between them. The insulating material is a water-in-resin emulsion which is hardened or cross-linked by peroxide and which can furthermore contain up to 50 wt.% solid silicious material such as vermuculite or chopped glass fibre. The construction and variations of the insulating mass composition are described in great detail. (HR) [de

  5. Container for liquefied gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, A J

    1967-05-18

    Containers for liquefied gases are of double-wall construction with a vacuum between the 2 walls; the upper end of the neck contains a vapor chamber and is equipped with means for withdrawing gas from the container. According to this invention, the vapor chamber is connected to a damping chamber by means of a choke line which has an internal diameter of at least 1.6 mm and a length equal to at least 52 times the diameter. The damping chamber has a volume of at least 5 cu cm and is larger than the outer part of the chamber. The interior length of the damping chamber is at least twice the diameter of the choke line. (5 claims)

  6. Advanced Containment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Kawamura, Hideki; Richardson, John G.; Noda, Masaru

    2004-10-12

    An advanced containment system for containing buried waste and associated leachate. A trench is dug on either side of the zone of interest containing the buried waste so as to accommodate a micro tunnel boring machine. A series of small diameter tunnels are serially excavated underneath the buried waste. The tunnels are excavated by the micro tunnel boring machine at a consistent depth and are substantially parallel to each other. As tunneling progresses, steel casing sections are connected end to end in the excavated portion of the tunnel so that a steel tube is formed. Each casing section has complementary interlocking structure running its length that interlocks with complementary interlocking structure on the adjacent casing section. Thus, once the first tube is emplaced, placement of subsequent tubes is facilitated by the complementary interlocking structure on the adjacent, previously placed, casing sections.

  7. Radioactive liquid containing vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurada, Tetsuo; Kawamura, Hironobu.

    1993-01-01

    Cooling jackets are coiled around the outer circumference of a container vessel, and the outer circumference thereof is covered with a surrounding plate. A liquid of good conductivity (for example, water) is filled between the cooling jackets and the surrounding plate. A radioactive liquid is supplied to the container vessel passing through a supply pipe and discharged passing through a discharge pipe. Cooling water at high pressure is passed through the cooling water jackets in order to remove the heat generated from the radioactive liquid. Since cooling water at high pressure is thus passed through the coiled pipes, the wall thickness of the container vessel and the cooling water jackets can be reduced, thereby enabling to reduce the cost. Further, even if the radioactive liquid is leaked, there is no worry of contaminating cooling water, to prevent contamination. (I.N.)

  8. Container for hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, D.E.

    1977-01-01

    A container for the storage, shipping and dispensing of hydrogen isotopes such as hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, or mixtures of the same which has compactness, which is safe against fracture or accident, and which is reusable is described. The container consists of an outer housing with suitable inlet and outlet openings and electrical feed elements, the housing containing an activated sorber material in the form, for example, of titanium sponge or an activated zirconium aluminate cartridge. The gas to be stored is introduced into the chamber under conditions of heat and vacuum and will be retained in the sorber material. Subsequently, it may be released by heating the unit to drive off the stored gas at desired rates

  9. CONTAIN calculations of direct containment heating in the Surry plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.C.; Louie, D.L.Y.

    1988-01-01

    The draft NUREG-1150 risk analysis performed for the Surry plant identified direct containment heating (DCH) as a potentially dominant contributor to the total public risk associated with this plant. At that time, however, detailed mechanistic calculations of DCH loads were unavailable. Subsequently, a series of analyses of DCH scenarios using the CONTAIN-DCH code was performed in order to put the treatment of DCH on a firmer basis in the final draft of NUREG-1150. The present paper describes some of the results obtained for the Surry plant. A developmental model for DCH has been incorporated into CONTAIN code. This model includes mechanistic treatments of reasonably well-understood phenomena (e.g., heat and mass transfer), together with a parametric treatment of poorly understood phenomena for which mechanistic models are unavailable (e.g., debris de-entrainment from the gas stream due to debris-structure interactions). The DCH model was described in an earlier report, but the present version incorporates a number of advances, including treatment of the chemical equilibria involved in the iron-steam reaction

  10. Reliability analysis of containment isolation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelto, P.J.; Ames, K.R.; Gallucci, R.H.

    1985-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of the Reliability Analysis of Containment Isolation System Project. Work was performed in five basic areas: design review, operating experience review, related research review, generic analysis and plant specific analysis. Licensee Event Reports (LERs) and Integrated Leak Rate Test (ILRT) reports provided the major sources of containment performance information used in this study. Data extracted from LERs were assembled into a computer data base. Qualitative and quantitative information developed for containment performance under normal operating conditions and design basis accidents indicate that there is room for improvement. A rough estimate of overall containment unavailability for relatively small leaks which violate plant technical specifications is 0.3. An estimate of containment unavailability due to large leakage events is in the range of 0.001 to 0.01. These estimates are dependent on several assumptions (particularly on event duration times) which are documented in the report

  11. Analysis of electronic models for solar cells including energy resolved defect densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glitzky, Annegret

    2010-07-01

    We introduce an electronic model for solar cells including energy resolved defect densities. The resulting drift-diffusion model corresponds to a generalized van Roosbroeck system with additional source terms coupled with ODEs containing space and energy as parameters for all defect densities. The system has to be considered in heterostructures and with mixed boundary conditions from device simulation. We give a weak formulation of the problem. If the boundary data and the sources are compatible with thermodynamic equilibrium the free energy along solutions decays monotonously. In other cases it may be increasing, but we estimate its growth. We establish boundedness and uniqueness results and prove the existence of a weak solution. This is done by considering a regularized problem, showing its solvability and the boundedness of its solutions independent of the regularization level. (orig.)

  12. Arsenic pollution sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garelick, Hemda; Jones, Huw; Dybowska, Agnieszka; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic is a widely dispersed element in the Earth's crust and exists at an average concentration of approximately 5 mg/kg. There are many possible routes of human exposure to arsenic from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Arsenic occurs as a constituent in more than 200 minerals, although it primarily exists as arsenopyrite and as a constituent in several other sulfide minerals. The introduction of arsenic into drinking water can occur as a result of its natural geological presence in local bedrock. Arsenic-containing bedrock formations of this sort are known in Bangladesh, West Bengal (India), and regions of China, and many cases of endemic contamination by arsenic with serious consequences to human health are known from these areas. Significant natural contamination of surface waters and soil can arise when arsenic-rich geothermal fluids come into contact with surface waters. When humans are implicated in causing or exacerbating arsenic pollution, the cause can almost always be traced to mining or mining-related activities. Arsenic exists in many oxidation states, with arsenic (III) and (V) being the most common forms. Similar to many metalloids, the prevalence of particular species of arsenic depends greatly on the pH and redox conditions of the matrix in which it exists. Speciation is also important in determining the toxicity of arsenic. Arsenic minerals exist in the environment principally as sulfides, oxides, and phosphates. In igneous rocks, only those of volcanic origin are implicated in high aqueous arsenic concentrations. Sedimentary rocks tend not to bear high arsenic loads, and common matrices such as sands and sandstones contain lower concentrations owing to the dominance of quartz and feldspars. Groundwater contamination by arsenic arises from sources of arsenopyrite, base metal sulfides, realgar and orpiment, arsenic-rich pyrite, and iron oxyhydroxide. Mechanisms by which arsenic is released from minerals are varied and are accounted for by

  13. Westinghouse radiological containment guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitken, S.B.; Brown, R.L.; Cantrell, J.R.; Wilcox, D.P.

    1994-03-01

    This document provides uniform guidance for Westinghouse contractors on the implementation of radiological containments. This document reflects standard industry practices and is provided as a guide. The guidance presented herein is consistent with the requirements of the DOE Radiological Control Manual (DOE N 5480.6). This guidance should further serve to enable and encourage the use of containments for contamination control and to accomplish the following: Minimize personnel contamination; Prevent the spread of contamination; Minimize the required use of protective clothing and personal protective equipment; Minimize the generation of waste

  14. Bellefonte primary containment structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olyniec, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    Construction of the reactor building primary containment structure at the Bellefonte Nuclear Plant involved several specialized construction techniques. This two unit plant is one of the nine nuclear units at six different sites now under construction by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The post-Tensioned, cast-in-place interior steel lined containment structure is unique within TVA. Problems during construction were identified at weekly planning meetings, and options were discussed. Close coordination between craft supervisors and on-site engineering personnel drew together ''hands-on''experience and technical background. Details of the construction techniques, problems, and solutions are presented

  15. Livet er en container

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moestrup, Steffen Damkjær

    2008-01-01

    Med Container går Lukas Moodysson for alvor filmeksperimentets vej. Filmen har en række indholdsmæssige træk til fælles med Moodyssons tidligere værker, men den formmæssige tilgang skal især findes i den amerikanske avantgardefilm.......Med Container går Lukas Moodysson for alvor filmeksperimentets vej. Filmen har en række indholdsmæssige træk til fælles med Moodyssons tidligere værker, men den formmæssige tilgang skal især findes i den amerikanske avantgardefilm....

  16. Orimulsion containment and recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommerville, M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on the need for examination of Orimulsion fuel and its spill behaviour in the light of the anticipated increase in consumption of this fuel which comprises bitumen dispersed in water with addition of a small amount of surfactant. The behaviour and fate of Orimulsion at sea, and observations from experimental and sea trials are examined. The identification of spill control techniques, spill detection, the predictive modeling of the spill and response, sub-surface plume measurement, and containment and deflection are considered. Recovery of the bitumen produced from an Orimulsion spill, combined containment and recovery, dispersed Orimulsion, and beach cleaning are addressed. The properties of Orimulsion are tabulated. (UK)

  17. Westinghouse radiological containment guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aitken, S.B. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Brown, R.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Cantrell, J.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Wilcox, D.P. [West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc., West Valley, NY (United States)

    1994-03-01

    This document provides uniform guidance for Westinghouse contractors on the implementation of radiological containments. This document reflects standard industry practices and is provided as a guide. The guidance presented herein is consistent with the requirements of the DOE Radiological Control Manual (DOE N 5480.6). This guidance should further serve to enable and encourage the use of containments for contamination control and to accomplish the following: Minimize personnel contamination; Prevent the spread of contamination; Minimize the required use of protective clothing and personal protective equipment; Minimize the generation of waste.

  18. Radioactive waste processing container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaki, Kanjiro; Koyanagi, Naoaki; Sakamoto, Hiroyuki; Uchida, Ikuo.

    1992-01-01

    A radioactive waste processing container used for processing radioactive wastes into solidification products suitable to disposal such as underground burying or ocean discarding is constituted by using cements. As the cements, calcium sulfoaluminate clinker mainly comprising calcium sulfoaluminate compound; 3CaO 3Al 2 O 3 CaSO 4 , Portland cement and aqueous blast furnace slug is used for instance. Calciumhydroxide formed from the Portland cement is consumed for hydration of the calcium sulfoaluminate clinker. According, calcium hydroxide is substantially eliminated in the cement constituent layer of the container. With such a constitution, damages such as crackings and peelings are less caused, to improve durability and safety. (I.N.)

  19. Material containment enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, D.O.

    1993-01-01

    An isolation enclosure and a group of isolation enclosures are described which are useful when a relatively large containment area is required. The enclosure is in the form of a ring having a section removed so that a technician may enter the center area of the ring. In a preferred embodiment, an access zone is located in the transparent wall of the enclosure and extends around the inner perimeter of the ring so that a technician can insert his hands into the enclosure to reach any point within. The inventive enclosures provide more containment area per unit area of floor space than conventional material isolation enclosures. 3 figures

  20. NucleDyne's passive containment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falls, O.B. Jr.; Kleimola, F.W.

    1987-01-01

    A simple definition of the passive containment system is that it is a total safeguards system for light water reactors designed to prevent and contain any accidental release of radioactivity. Its passive features utilize the natural laws of physics and thermodynamics. The system encompasses three basic containments constructed as one integrated structure on the reactor building foundation. The primary containment encloses the reactor pressure vessel and coolant system and passive engineered safety systems and components. Auxiliary containment enclosures house auxiliary systems and components. Secondary containment (the reactor building), housing the primary and auxiliary containment structures, provides a second containment barrier as added defense-in-depth against leakage of radioactivity for all accidents assumed by the industry. The generic features of the passive containment system are applicable to both the boiling water reactors and the pressurized water reactors as standardized features for all power ranges. These features provide for a zero source term, the industry's ultimate safety goal. This paper relates to a four-loop pressurized water reactor

  1. Orphan sources in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janzekovic, H.; Cesarek, J.

    2005-01-01

    For decades the international standards and requirements postulate severe control over all lifecycle phases of radioactive sources in order to prevent risks associated with exposure of people and the environment. Despite this fact the orphan sources became a serious problem as a consequence of enlargement of economic transactions in many countries in Europe as well as in the world. The countries as well as international organisations, aware of this emerging problem, are trying to gain control over orphan sources using different approaches. These approaches include control over sources before they could become orphan sources. In addition, countries are also developing action plans in case that an orphan source could be found. The problems related to orphan sources in Slovenia is discussed based on the case studies from the last years. While in the nineties of the last century just a few cases of orphan sources were identified their number has increased substantially since 2003. The paper discusses the general reasons for the phenomena of orphan sources as well as the experience related to regaining control over orphan sources. (author)

  2. Disposal/storage container development experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrow, R.W. Jr.; Van Hoesen, S.D.; Fowler, E.; Barreira, D.G.; Emmett, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    Developmental work is currently underway at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to design and manufacture a radioactive waste container suitable for both storage and disposal of radioactive wastes. The container is designed to fulfill the Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission requirements for on-site storage, as well as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's requirements for high integrity containers. The project also involves meeting the strict design and manufacturing ANSI/ASME NQA-1 guidelines. Special provisions of the container include a double containment system, with the inner barrier being corrosion resistant, the capability to monitor the internal cavity of the container, and off-gas venting capability. Further, yet related developmental work includes evaluating the cask for other varied uses, such as a processing cask, an ALARA shield, and even the possibility of Department of Transportation approval for an over-the-road transport cask

  3. Double chamber ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uman, M.F.; Winnard, J.R.; Winters, H.F.

    1978-01-01

    The ion source is comprised of two discharge chambers one of which is provided with a filament and an aperture leading into the other chamber which in turn has an extraction orifice. A low voltage arc discharge is operated in an inert gas atmosphere in the filament chamber while an arc of higher voltage is operated in the second ionization chamber which contains a vapor which will give the desired dopant ion species. The entire source is immersed in an axial magnetic field parallel to a line connecting the filament, the aperture between the two chambers and the extraction orifice. (author)

  4. WASTE CONTAINMENT OVERVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    BSE waste is derived from diseased animals such as BSE (bovine spongiform encepilopothy, also known as Mad Cow) in cattle and CWD (chronic wasting disease) in deer and elk. Landfilling is examined as a disposal option and this presentation introduces waste containment technology...

  5. Confinement contains condensates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodsky, S. J.; Roberts, C. D.; Shrock, R.

    2012-01-01

    been viewed as constant empirical mass scales that fill all space-time, are instead wholly contained within hadrons; i.e., they are a property of hadrons themselves and expressed, e.g., in their Bethe-Salpeter or light-front wave functions. We explain that this paradigm is consistent with empirical...

  6. Containers, facilitators, innovators?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Merisalo, Maria; Inkinen, Tommi

    2018-01-01

    : are they containers, facilitators or innovators? This is investigated here through empirical material derived from 27 interviews with top departmental management in three Finnish cities (Helsinki, Espoo and Vantaa). The results show that local city governments (LCGs) consider cities as facilitators of innovation...

  7. Human gliomas contain morphine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Peter; Rasmussen, Mads; Zhu, Wei

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Morphine has been found in cancer cell lines originating from human and animal cells. Thus, it became important to demonstrate whether or not actual tumours contain this opiate alkaloid. MATERIAL/METHODS: Human glioma tissues were biochemically treated to isolate and separate endogenous...

  8. Containing contraceptive costs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    April 2015, Vol. 105, No. 4. Containing contraceptive costs. There are about 7 billion people living on our planet. In many countries resources are strained and we seek to slow down the rate of population growth. There are obviously many factors that lead to rapid population growth. Contraceptive methods are an important.

  9. CONCRETE REACTOR CONTAINMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumb, Ralph F.; Hall, William F.; Fruchtbaum, Jacob

    1963-06-15

    The results of various leak-rate tests demonstrate the practicality of concrete as primary containment for the maximum credible accident for a research reactor employing plate-type fuel and having a power in excess of one megawatt. Leak-test time was shortened substantially by measuring the relaxation time for overpressure decay, which is a function of leak rate. (auth)

  10. Reactor containing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akagawa, Katsuhiko.

    1992-01-01

    A cooling space having a predetermined capacity is formed between a reactor container and concrete walls. A circulation loop disposed to the outside of the concrete walls is connected to the top and the bottom of the cooling space. The circulation loop has a circulation pump and a heat exchanger, and a cooling water supply pipe is connected to the upstream of the circulation pump for introducing cooling water from the outside. Upon occurrence of loss of coolant accident, cooling water is introduced from the cooling water supply pipe to the cooling space between the reactor container and the concrete walls after shut-down of the reactor operation. Then, cooling water is circulated while being cooled by the heat exchanger, to cool the reactor container by cooling water flown in the cooling space. This can cool the reactor container in a short period of time upon occurrence of the loss of coolant accident. Accordingly, a repairing operation for a ruptured portion can be conducted rapidly. (I.N.)

  11. 21 CFR 606.121 - Container label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... a blood donation. (iii) Benefits, such as time off from work, membership in blood assurance programs....” (10) Where applicable, the name and volume of source material. (11) The statement: “Caution: For... Evaluation and Research, the paper of the container label shall be white and print shall be solid black, with...

  12. Photon sources for absorptiometric measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, R.M.; Sandrik, J.M.; Cameron, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    Photon absorptiometry is defined and the requirements of photon sources for these measurements are described. Both x-ray tubes and radionuclide sources are discussed, including the advantages of each in absorptiometric systems

  13. Cigarette makers pioneered many of our black arts of disinformation, including the funding of research to distract from the hazards of smoking. Ten Nobel prizes were the result. By funding distraction research, the cigarette industry became an important source of academic corruption, helping also to forge other forms of denialism on a global scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, R. N.

    2014-12-01

    Cigarette Disinformation: Origins and Global Impact Robert N. Proctor The cigarette is the deadliest artifact in the history of human civilization. And whereas "only" a hundred million people died in the 20th century from smoking, we are presently on a pace to have several times that toll in the present century. Much of that catastrophe would not be possible without a massive campaign of disinformation. The cigarette industry pioneered many of the black arts of disinformation, cleverly exploiting the inherent skepticism of science to claim that "more research" was needed to resolve a purported "cigarette controversy." Cigarette makers funded hundreds of millions of dollars worth of "distraction research," most of which was solid empirical science but off topic, focusing on basic biology and biochemistry, viral and genetic causes of disease, and other "cigarette friendly" topics. At least ten Nobel prizes were the result. Cigarette skepticism was thus more complex than we normally imagine: the tobacco industry corrupted science by funding "alternative causation," meaning anything that could be used to draw attention away from cigarettes as a source of disease. The cigarette industry by this means became the most important source of academic corruption since the Nazi era. That corruption has also helped forge other forms of denialism and corruption on a global scale.

  14. Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Anson V; Sommer, Gregory J; Singh, Anup K; Wang, Ying-Chih; Abhyankar, Vinay V

    2014-04-22

    Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths are described. Polymerization techniques may be used to generate porous polymer monoliths having pores defined by a liquid component of a fluid mixture. The fluid mixture may contain iniferters and the resulting porous polymer monolith may include surfaces terminated with iniferter species. Capture molecules may then be grafted to the monolith pores.

  15. Radioisotope Power Sources for MEMS Devices,

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) comprise a rapidly expanding research field with potential applications varying from sensors in airbags to more recent optical applications. Depending on the application, these devices often require an on-board power source for remote operation, especially in cases requiring operation for an extended period of time. Previously suggested power sources include fossil fuels and solar energy, but nuclear power sources may provide significant advantages for certain applications. Hence, the objective of this study is to establish the viability of using radioisotopes to power realistic MEMS devices. A junction-type battery was constructed using silicon and a 63 Ni liquid source. A source volume containing 64 microCi provided a power of ∼0.07 nW. A more novel application of nuclear sources for MEMS applications involves the creation of a resonator that is driven by charge collection in a cantilever beam. Preliminary results have established the feasibility of this concept, and future work will optimize the design for various applications

  16. Radioactive source recovery program responses to neutron source emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinehart, S.M.; Hatler, V.A.; Gray, D.W.; Guillen, A.D.

    1997-01-01

    Recovery of neutron sources containing Pu 239 and Be is currently taking place at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The program was initiated in 1979 by the Department of Energy (DOE) to dismantle and recover sources owned primarily by universities and the Department of Defense. Since the inception of this program, Los Alamos has dismantled and recovered more than 1000 sources. The dismantlement and recovery process involves the removal of source cladding and the chemical separation of the source materials to eliminate neutron emissions. While this program continues for the disposal of 239 Pu/Be sources, there is currently no avenue for the disposition of any sources other than those containing Pu 239 . Increasingly, there have been demands from agencies both inside and outside the Federal Government and from the public to dispose of unwanted sources containing 238 Pu/Be and 241 Am/Be. DOE is attempting to establish a formal program to recover these sources and is working closely with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on a proposed Memorandum of Understanding to formalize an Acceptance Program. In the absence of a formal program to handle 238 Pu/Be and 241 Am/Be neutron sources, Los Alamos has responded to several emergency requests to receive and recover sources that have been determined to be a threat to public health and safety. This presentation will: (1) review the established 239 Pu neutron source recovery program at Los Alamos, (2) detail plans for a more extensive neutron source disposal program, and (3) focus on recent emergency responses

  17. Schools K-12, School locations within Sedgwick County. This layer is maintained interactively by GIS staff. Primary attributes include school name, class, funding source, address, and parachial status. Published to scschoop.shp., Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Schools K-12 dataset current as of 2008. School locations within Sedgwick County. This layer is maintained interactively by GIS staff. Primary attributes include...

  18. Review of SFR In-Vessel Radiological Source Term Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suk, Soo Dong; Lee, Yong Bum

    2008-10-01

    An effort has been made in this study to search for and review the literatures in public domain on the studies of the phenomena related to the release of radionuclides and aerosols to the reactor containment of the sodium fast reactor (SFR) plants (i.e., in-vessel source term), made in Japan and Europe including France, Germany and UK over the last few decades. Review work is focused on the experimental programs to investigate the phenomena related to determining the source terms, with a brief review on supporting analytical models and computer programs. In this report, the research programs conducted to investigate the CDA (core disruptive accident) bubble behavior in the sodium pool for determining 'primary' or 'instantaneous' source term are first introduced. The studies performed to determine 'delayed source term' are then described, including the various stages of phenomena and processes: fission product (FP) release from fuel , evaporation release from the surface of the pool, iodine mass transfer from fission gas bubble, FP deposition , and aerosol release from core-concrete interaction. The research programs to investigate the release and transport of FPs and aerosols in the reactor containment (i.e., in-containment source term) are not described in this report

  19. Probabilistic production simulation including CHP plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, H.V.; Palsson, H.; Ravn, H.F.

    1997-04-01

    A probabilistic production simulation method is presented for an energy system containing combined heat and power plants. The method permits incorporation of stochastic failures (forced outages) of the plants and is well suited for analysis of the dimensioning of the system, that is, for finding the appropriate types and capacities of production plants in relation to expansion planning. The method is in the tradition of similar approaches for the analysis of power systems, based on the load duration curve. The present method extends on this by considering a two-dimensional load duration curve where the two dimensions represent heat and power. The method permits the analysis of a combined heat and power system which includes all the basic relevant types of plants, viz., condensing plants, back pressure plants, extraction plants and heat plants. The focus of the method is on the situation where the heat side has priority. This implies that on the power side there may be imbalances between demand and production. The method permits quantification of the expected power overflow, the expected unserviced power demand, and the expected unserviced heat demand. It is shown that a discretization method as well as double Fourier series may be applied in algorithms based on the method. (au) 1 tab., 28 ills., 21 refs.

  20. Containments for consolidated nuclear steam systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1978-01-01

    A containment system for a consolidated nuclear steam system incorporating a nuclear core, steam generator and reactor coolant pumps within a single pressure vessel is described which is designed to provide radiation shielding and pressure suppression. Design details, including those for the dry well and wet well of the containment, are given. (UK)

  1. Reactor container facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Takashi; Nagasaka, Hideo.

    1990-01-01

    A dry-well pool for spontaneously circulating stored pool water and a suppression pool for flooding a pressure vessel by feeding water, when required, to a flooding gap by means of spontaneous falling upto the flooding position, thereby flooding the pressure vessel are contained at the inside of a reactor container. Thus, when loss of coolant accidents such as caused by main pipe rupture accidents should happen, pool water in the suppression pool is supplied to the flooding gap by spontaneously falling. Further, if the flooding water uprises exceeding a predetermined level, the flooding gap is in communication with the dry-well pool at the upper and the lower portions respectively. Accordingly, flooding water at high temperature heated by the after-heat of the reactor core is returned again into the flooding gap to cool the reactor core repeatedly. (T.M.)

  2. Nuclear reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Kiyoshi; Kataoka, Yoshiyuki; Murase, Michio; Fujii, Tadashi; Susuki, Akira.

    1994-01-01

    A wet well space above a pressure suppression pool is divided into a first wet well on the side in contact with the pressure suppression pool and a second wet well on the side not in contact with the pool. Cooling water is contained in the second wet well and it is in communication with the first wet well by pipelines. Since steams flown into the second well are condensed in the cooling water, they continuously transfer from the first wet well to the second wet well, thereby capable of eliminating the effects of incondensible gases in the first wet well. With such procedures, the effect of the incondensible gases can be eliminated even without cooling from the outside of the reactor. Heat accumulation can be increased in a container of any material, so that thermal load on cooling circuits for removing after-heat can be mitigated. (T.M.)

  3. Human gliomas contain morphine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Peter; Rasmussen, Mads; Zhu, Wei

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Morphine has been found in cancer cell lines originating from human and animal cells. Thus, it became important to demonstrate whether or not actual tumours contain this opiate alkaloid. MATERIAL/METHODS: Human glioma tissues were biochemically treated to isolate and separate endogeno...... of the solutions used in the study nor was it present as a residual material in blank HPLC runs. CONCLUSIONS: Morphine is present in human gliomas, suggesting that it may exert an action that effects tumour physiology/pathology.......BACKGROUND: Morphine has been found in cancer cell lines originating from human and animal cells. Thus, it became important to demonstrate whether or not actual tumours contain this opiate alkaloid. MATERIAL/METHODS: Human glioma tissues were biochemically treated to isolate and separate endogenous...

  4. Steel containment buckling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, J.G.; Fly, G.W.; Baker, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    The Steel Containment Buckling program is in its fourth phase of work directed at the evaluation of the effects of the structural failure mode of steel containments when the membrane stresses are compressive. The structural failure mode for this state of stress is instability or buckling. The program to date has investigated: (1) the effect on overall buckling capacity of the ASME area replacement method for reinforcing around circular penetrations; (2) a set of benchmark experiments on ring-stiffened shells having reinforced and framed penetrations; (3) large and small scale experiments on knuckle region buckling from internal pressure and post-buckling behavior to failure for vessel heads having torispherical geometries; and (4) buckling under time-dependent loadings (dynamic buckling). The first two investigations are complete, the knuckle buckling experimental efforts are complete with data analysis and reporting in progress, and the dynamic buckling experimental and analytical work is in progress

  5. BWR steel containment corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, C.P.; Bagchi, G.

    1996-04-01

    The report describes regulatory actions taken after corrosion was discovered in the drywell at the Oyster Creek Plant and in the torus at the Nine Mile Point 1 Plant. The report describes the causes of corrosion, requirements for monitoring corrosion, and measures to mitigate the corrosive environment for the two plants. The report describes the issuances of generic letters and information notices either to collect information to determine whether the problem is generic or to alert the licensees of similar plants about the existence of such a problem. Implementation of measures to enhance the containment performance under severe accident conditions is discussed. A study by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) of the performance of a degraded containment under severe accident conditions is summarized. The details of the BNL study are in the appendix to the report.

  6. Development of a metallic high integrity container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haelsig, R.T.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear Packaging, a Pacific Nuclear Company, developed a metallic high integrity container (HIC) for the burial of low level radioactive waste. This class of container has received the most extensive review of any burial container licensed in the United States. It is also the first container that has been licensed to meet the requirements of Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulations 10CFR61. The design and subsequent review considered 300 years corrosion at a depth of 55 feet with no degradation of container structural integrity. The design also included a technical requirement that the container possess a positive vent that would exclude moisture. The alloy that was selected, allows for significant flexibility in container size and configuration which is essential to accommodating the various waste forms. This allowed the development of containers in various sizes and with a variety of closures, that accommodate the internal dimensions of various shipping shields and help minimize radiation exposure during packaging operations. The material used in the metallic container is high corrosion resistant which reduces the need for strict chemical controls at the waste generating facility. This acts to ease the operational requirements in the treatment of several waste streams. The design result is a family of metallic High Integrity Containers (HIC)s that meet all the performance criteria imposed by the regulations, as well as provide a disposable waste container with good transportation efficiency and minimum operational constraints

  7. Nuisance Source Population Modeling for Radiation Detection System Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokkappa, P; Lange, D; Nelson, K; Wheeler, R

    2009-10-05

    A major challenge facing the prospective deployment of radiation detection systems for homeland security applications is the discrimination of radiological or nuclear 'threat sources' from radioactive, but benign, 'nuisance sources'. Common examples of such nuisance sources include naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), medical patients who have received radioactive drugs for either diagnostics or treatment, and industrial sources. A sensitive detector that cannot distinguish between 'threat' and 'benign' classes will generate false positives which, if sufficiently frequent, will preclude it from being operationally deployed. In this report, we describe a first-principles physics-based modeling approach that is used to approximate the physical properties and corresponding gamma ray spectral signatures of real nuisance sources. Specific models are proposed for the three nuisance source classes - NORM, medical and industrial. The models can be validated against measured data - that is, energy spectra generated with the model can be compared to actual nuisance source data. We show by example how this is done for NORM and medical sources, using data sets obtained from spectroscopic detector deployments for cargo container screening and urban area traffic screening, respectively. In addition to capturing the range of radioactive signatures of individual nuisance sources, a nuisance source population model must generate sources with a frequency of occurrence consistent with that found in actual movement of goods and people. Measured radiation detection data can indicate these frequencies, but, at present, such data are available only for a very limited set of locations and time periods. In this report, we make more general estimates of frequencies for NORM and medical sources using a range of data sources such as shipping manifests and medical treatment statistics. We also identify potential data sources for industrial

  8. Container for centrifuging blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narra, R.K.

    1982-01-01

    A container is described for use in drawing patient's blood, centrifuging the blood and then labelling the separated red cells with sup(99m)Tc. It consists of a tube with a central chamber and a lower portion provided with an aperture in which a weir is supported and extends into the central chamber. The weir has a central channel. A resilient plug seals the aperture. (author)

  9. Hydrogen storage container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jy-An John; Feng, Zhili; Zhang, Wei

    2017-02-07

    An apparatus and system is described for storing high-pressure fluids such as hydrogen. An inner tank and pre-stressed concrete pressure vessel share the structural and/or pressure load on the inner tank. The system and apparatus provide a high performance and low cost container while mitigating hydrogen embrittlement of the metal tank. System is useful for distributing hydrogen to a power grid or to a vehicle refueling station.

  10. Nuclear reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosaka, Seiichi.

    1988-01-01

    Cables coverd with non-halogen covering material are used as electric wire cables wired for supplying electric power to a reactor recycling pump. Silicone rubber having specified molecular formula is used for the non-halogen covering material. As a result, formation of chlorine in a nuclear reactor container can be eliminated and increase in the deposited salts to SUS pipeways, etc. can be prevented, to avoid the occurrence of stress corrosion cracks. (H.T.)

  11. Materials designed for containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piehl, K.H.

    1976-01-01

    The present article points out that high-tensile fine-grained steels have been used successfully in the construction of reactor containments, spherical gasometers, and pressure vessels. It has been confirmed that their use requires safety measures concerning lay out and production. Viscosity properties of high-tensile, fine-grained steels can be improved significantly by means of electroslag remelting. The extent to which this improvement influences the heat-affected zone is being examined. (orig./RW) [de

  12. Incidents with hazardous radiation sources; Zwischenfaelle mit gefaehrlichen Strahlenquellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenhacker, Stefan [Bundesministerium fuer Inneres, Traiskirchen (Austria). Abt. 1/9 - Zivilschutzschule

    2016-07-01

    Incidents with hazardous radiation sources can occur in any country, even those without nuclear facilities. Preparedness for such incidents is supposed to fulfill globally agreed minimum standards. Incidents are categorized in incidents with licensed handling of radiation sources as for material testing, transport accidents of hazardous radiation sources, incidents with radionuclide batteries, incidents with satellites containing radioactive inventory, incidents wit not licensed handling of illegally acquired hazardous radiation sources. The emergency planning in Austria includes a differentiation according to the consequences: incidents with release of radioactive materials resulting in restricted contamination, incidents with release of radioactive materials resulting in local contamination, and incidents with the hazard of e@nhanced exposure due to the radiation source.

  13. Nuclear reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Tooru; Murase, Michio; Kataoka, Yoshiyuki; Hidaka, Masataka; Sumita, Isao; Tominaga, Kenji.

    1992-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor container, a chamber in communication with a wet well of a pressure suppression chamber is disposed and situated to such a position that the temperature is lower than a chamber containing pool water upon occurrence of loss of coolant accident. In addition, the inner surface of the pressure suppression chamber is constituted with steel walls in contact with pool water, and an outer circumferential pool is disposed at the outer circumferential surface thereof. Further, a circulation channel is disposed, and a water intake port is disposed at a position higher than an exit to the pool water, and a water discharge port is opened in the pool water at a position lower than the exit to the pool water. With such a constitution, the allowable temperature of the pressure suppression pool water can be elevated to a saturated steam temperature corresponding to the resistant pressure of the container, so that the temperature difference between the pressure suppression pool and the outer side thereof is increased by so much, to improve thermal radiation performance. Accordingly, it can be utilized as a pressure suppression means for a plant of greater power. Further, thermal conduction efficiency from the pool water region of the pressure suppression chamber to the outer circumferential pool water is improved, or thermal radiation area is enlarged due to the circulation channel, to improve the heat radiation performance. (N.H.)

  14. Container for liquid metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Yoshihito; Imazu, Takayuki; Ueda, Sabuo; Ueya, Katsumi.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To arrange a vapor trapping member of a specific structure at the inlet part of a cylindrical gap formed by the inner peripheral surface of the circular opening of a container and the outer peripheral surface of a rotary plug thereby to prevent ingress of vapor in the upper part of the cylindrical gap for a long period of time. Constitution: A sealing material receiving tray is fitted to the container side of the inlet part of a cylindrical gap, and a partition plate is fitted to the rotary plug side. The tray is filled with a sealing material consisting of a large number of steel balls, mesh wire gages and the like, and the partition plate is placed in the tray thereby to carry out sealing of the container. Liquid metal vapor evaporating from the liquid level of the liquid metal adheres to the sealing material to fill the gap, and therefore ingress of vapor to the upper part of the cylindrical gap is prevented, and there is no possibility of causing seal cutting due to the use for a long period. (Sekiya, K.)

  15. Hydrogen burn assessment with the CONTAIN code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Rij, H.M.

    1986-01-01

    The CONTAIN computer code was developed at Sandia National Laboratories, under contract to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The code is intended for calculations of containment loads during severe accidents and for prediction of the radioactive source term in the event that the containment leaks or fails. A strong point of the CONTAIN code is the continuous interaction of the thermal-hydraulics phenomena, aerosol behavior and fission product behavior. The CONTAIN code can be used for Light Water Reactors as well as Liquid Metal Reactors. In order to evaluate the CONTAIN code on its merits, comparisons between the code and experiments must be made. In this paper, CONTAIN calculations for the hydrogen burn experiments, carried out at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), are presented and compared with the experimental data. In the Large-Scale Hydrogen Combustion Facility at the NTS, 21 tests have been carried out. These tests were sponsored by the NRC and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The tests, carried out by EG and G, were performed in a spherical vessel 16 m in diameter with a design pressure of 700 kPa, substantially higher than that of most commercial nuclear containment buildings

  16. Pickering unit 1 containment leakage characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaib, G.D.

    1994-01-01

    Results of the design pressure test carried out on Pickering Reactor Building number 1 during late 1992 showed that the leakage rate of the building was close to the safety analysis value of 2.7% contained mass per hour at the design pressure of 41.4 kPa(g) and was significantly higher than that reported after the previous test conducted in the spring of 1987. This unexpected finding initiated the longest and the most comprehensive containment leakage investigation ever undertaken by Ontario Hydro. A thorough investigation of leakage behaviour by repeated testing, inspections, leak search and analysis was launched. The extensive leak search effort included items such as: leak source detection by soap solution application, use of ultrasonic detectors, fogging and tracer gas techniques, systematic systems isolation, thermal imaging of the exterior, and quantification of leak sites by flowmeter and bagging. Using a specially designed volumetric technique, the root cause of the problem was finally confirmed as being due to 'pressure dependent laminar leakage' through the hairline cracks in the dome concrete. Structural analysis indicated that the thermal gradients and pressure loading combined to cause the cracking early in the structure's operating history and that overall structural integrity has not been compromised. Leakage rate analysis using a new fluid mechanics model augmented by the effect of thermal strains indicated that the leakage could be significantly less under certain transient temperature gradient conditions. Several options for repairing the dome were considered by a multidisciplinary team and it was finally decided to apply a specially engineered multilayer elastomeric coating to the exterior concrete surface. When the unit was re-tested in October 1993, a dramatic ten-fold improvement in leakage rate (down to 0.25%/h at design pressure) was observed. This is lower than even the commissioning results and comparable to the performance of newer units

  17. Modeling and Design of Container Terminal Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Roy (Debjit); M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractDesign of container terminal operations is complex because multiple factors affect the operational perfor- mance. These factors include: topological constraints, a large number of design parameters and settings, and stochastic interactions that interplay among the quayside, vehicle

  18. Treatment of mercury containing waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalb, Paul D.; Melamed, Dan; Patel, Bhavesh R; Fuhrmann, Mark

    2002-01-01

    A process is provided for the treatment of mercury containing waste in a single reaction vessel which includes a) stabilizing the waste with sulfur polymer cement under an inert atmosphere to form a resulting mixture and b) encapsulating the resulting mixture by heating the mixture to form a molten product and casting the molten product as a monolithic final waste form. Additional sulfur polymer cement can be added in the encapsulation step if needed, and a stabilizing additive can be added in the process to improve the leaching properties of the waste form.

  19. Split ring containment attachment device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sammel, A.G.

    1996-01-01

    A containment attachment device is described for operatively connecting a glovebag to plastic sheeting covering hazardous material. The device includes an inner split ring member connected on one end to a middle ring member wherein the free end of the split ring member is inserted through a slit in the plastic sheeting to captively engage a generally circular portion of the plastic sheeting. A collar potion having an outer ring portion is provided with fastening means for securing the device together wherein the glovebag is operatively connected to the collar portion. 5 figs

  20. Passive Containment DataSet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This data is for Figures 6 and 7 in the journal article. The data also includes the two EPANET input files used for the analysis described in the paper, one for the looped system and one for the block system.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Grayman, W., R. Murray , and D. Savic. Redesign of Water Distribution Systems for Passive Containment of Contamination. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION. American Water Works Association, Denver, CO, USA, 108(7): 381-391, (2016).