WorldWideScience

Sample records for source code documentation

  1. Health physics source document for codes of practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, G.W.; Meggitt, G.C.

    1989-05-01

    Personnel preparing codes of practice often require basic Health Physics information or advice relating to radiological protection problems and this document is written primarily to supply such information. Certain technical terms used in the text are explained in the extensive glossary. Due to the pace of change in the field of radiological protection it is difficult to produce an up-to-date document. This document was compiled during 1988 however, and therefore contains the principle changes brought about by the introduction of the Ionising Radiations Regulations (1985). The paper covers the nature of ionising radiation, its biological effects and the principles of control. It is hoped that the document will provide a useful source of information for both codes of practice and wider areas and stimulate readers to study radiological protection issues in greater depth. (author)

  2. SCATTER: Source and Transport of Emplaced Radionuclides: Code documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longsine, D.E.

    1987-03-01

    SCATTER simulated several processes leading to the release of radionuclides to the site subsystem and then simulates transport via the groundwater of the released radionuclides to the biosphere. The processes accounted for to quantify release rates to a ground-water migration path include radioactive decay and production, leaching, solubilities, and the mixing of particles with incoming uncontaminated fluid. Several decay chains of arbitrary length can be considered simultaneously. The release rates then serve as source rates to a numerical technique which solves convective-dispersive transport for each decay chain. The decay chains are allowed to have branches and each member can have a different radioactive factor. Results are cast as radionuclide discharge rates to the accessible environment

  3. Documentation for grants equal to tax model: Volume 3, Source code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boryczka, M.K.

    1986-01-01

    The GETT model is capable of forecasting the amount of tax liability associated with all property owned and all activities undertaken by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in site characterization and repository development. The GETT program is a user-friendly, menu-driven model developed using dBASE III/trademark/, a relational data base management system. The data base for GETT consists primarily of eight separate dBASE III/trademark/ files corresponding to each of the eight taxes (real property, personal property, corporate income, franchise, sales, use, severance, and excise) levied by State and local jurisdictions on business property and activity. Additional smaller files help to control model inputs and reporting options. Volume 3 of the GETT model documentation is the source code. The code is arranged primarily by the eight tax types. Other code files include those for JURISDICTION, SIMULATION, VALIDATION, TAXES, CHANGES, REPORTS, GILOT, and GETT. The code has been verified through hand calculations

  4. Documentation of Source Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-12

    the "load IC" menu option. A prompt will appear in the typescript window requesting the name of the knowledge base to be loaded. Enter...highlighted and then a prompt will appear in the typescript window. The prompt will be requesting the name of the file containing the message to be read in...the file name, the system will begin reading in the message. The listified message is echoed back in the typescript window. After that, the screen

  5. Using Primary Source Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Explores the use of primary sources when teaching about U.S. slavery. Includes primary sources from the Gilder Lehrman Documents Collection (New York Historical Society) to teach about the role of slaves in the Revolutionary War, such as a proclamation from Lord Dunmore offering freedom to slaves who joined his army. (CMK)

  6. Document image retrieval through word shape coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shijian; Li, Linlin; Tan, Chew Lim

    2008-11-01

    This paper presents a document retrieval technique that is capable of searching document images without OCR (optical character recognition). The proposed technique retrieves document images by a new word shape coding scheme, which captures the document content through annotating each word image by a word shape code. In particular, we annotate word images by using a set of topological shape features including character ascenders/descenders, character holes, and character water reservoirs. With the annotated word shape codes, document images can be retrieved by either query keywords or a query document image. Experimental results show that the proposed document image retrieval technique is fast, efficient, and tolerant to various types of document degradation.

  7. Adaptive distributed source coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varodayan, David; Lin, Yao-Chung; Girod, Bernd

    2012-05-01

    We consider distributed source coding in the presence of hidden variables that parameterize the statistical dependence among sources. We derive the Slepian-Wolf bound and devise coding algorithms for a block-candidate model of this problem. The encoder sends, in addition to syndrome bits, a portion of the source to the decoder uncoded as doping bits. The decoder uses the sum-product algorithm to simultaneously recover the source symbols and the hidden statistical dependence variables. We also develop novel techniques based on density evolution (DE) to analyze the coding algorithms. We experimentally confirm that our DE analysis closely approximates practical performance. This result allows us to efficiently optimize parameters of the algorithms. In particular, we show that the system performs close to the Slepian-Wolf bound when an appropriate doping rate is selected. We then apply our coding and analysis techniques to a reduced-reference video quality monitoring system and show a bit rate saving of about 75% compared with fixed-length coding.

  8. MINET [momentum integral network] code documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.; Nepsee, T.C.; Guppy, J.G.

    1989-12-01

    The MINET computer code, developed for the transient analysis of fluid flow and heat transfer, is documented in this four-part reference. In Part 1, the MINET models, which are based on a momentum integral network method, are described. The various aspects of utilizing the MINET code are discussed in Part 2, The User's Manual. The third part is a code description, detailing the basic code structure and the various subroutines and functions that make up MINET. In Part 4, example input decks, as well as recent validation studies and applications of MINET are summarized. 32 refs., 36 figs., 47 tabs

  9. Review of SKB's Code Documentation and Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, T.W.

    2005-01-01

    SKB is in the process of developing the SR-Can safety assessment for a KBS 3 repository. The assessment will be based on quantitative analyses using a range of computational codes aimed at developing an understanding of how the repository system will evolve. Clear and comprehensive code documentation and testing will engender confidence in the results of the safety assessment calculations. This report presents the results of a review undertaken on behalf of SKI aimed at providing an understanding of how codes used in the SR 97 safety assessment and those planned for use in the SR-Can safety assessment have been documented and tested. Having identified the codes us ed by SKB, several codes were selected for review. Consideration was given to codes used directly in SKB's safety assessment calculations as well as to some of the less visible codes that are important in quantifying the different repository barrier safety functions. SKB's documentation and testing of the following codes were reviewed: COMP23 - a near-field radionuclide transport model developed by SKB for use in safety assessment calculations. FARF31 - a far-field radionuclide transport model developed by SKB for use in safety assessment calculations. PROPER - SKB's harness for executing probabilistic radionuclide transport calculations using COMP23 and FARF31. The integrated analytical radionuclide transport model that SKB has developed to run in parallel with COMP23 and FARF31. CONNECTFLOW - a discrete fracture network model/continuum model developed by Serco Assurance (based on the coupling of NAMMU and NAPSAC), which SKB is using to combine hydrogeological modelling on the site and regional scales in place of the HYDRASTAR code. DarcyTools - a discrete fracture network model coupled to a continuum model, recently developed by SKB for hydrogeological modelling, also in place of HYDRASTAR. ABAQUS - a finite element material model developed by ABAQUS, Inc, which is used by SKB to model repository buffer

  10. Software requirements specification document for the AREST code development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, D.W.; McGrail, B.P.; Whitney, P.D.; Gray, W.J.; Williford, R.E.; White, M.D.; Eslinger, P.W.; Altenhofen, M.K.

    1993-11-01

    The Analysis of the Repository Source Term (AREST) computer code was selected in 1992 by the U.S. Department of Energy. The AREST code will be used to analyze the performance of an underground high level nuclear waste repository. The AREST code is being modified by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in order to evaluate the engineered barrier and waste package designs, model regulatory compliance, analyze sensitivities, and support total systems performance assessment modeling. The current version of the AREST code was developed to be a very useful tool for analyzing model uncertainties and sensitivities to input parameters. The code has also been used successfully in supplying source-terms that were used in a total systems performance assessment. The current version, however, has been found to be inadequate for the comparison and selection of a design for the waste package. This is due to the assumptions and simplifications made in the selection of the process and system models. Thus, the new version of the AREST code will be designed to focus on the details of the individual processes and implementation of more realistic models. This document describes the requirements of the new models that will be implemented. Included in this document is a section describing the near-field environmental conditions for this waste package modeling, description of the new process models that will be implemented, and a description of the computer requirements for the new version of the AREST code

  11. Distributed source coding of video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Van Luong, Huynh

    2015-01-01

    A foundation for distributed source coding was established in the classic papers of Slepian-Wolf (SW) [1] and Wyner-Ziv (WZ) [2]. This has provided a starting point for work on Distributed Video Coding (DVC), which exploits the source statistics at the decoder side offering shifting processing...... steps, conventionally performed at the video encoder side, to the decoder side. Emerging applications such as wireless visual sensor networks and wireless video surveillance all require lightweight video encoding with high coding efficiency and error-resilience. The video data of DVC schemes differ from...... the assumptions of SW and WZ distributed coding, e.g. by being correlated in time and nonstationary. Improving the efficiency of DVC coding is challenging. This paper presents some selected techniques to address the DVC challenges. Focus is put on pin-pointing how the decoder steps are modified to provide...

  12. Present state of the SOURCES computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shores, Erik F.

    2002-01-01

    In various stages of development for over two decades, the SOURCES computer code continues to calculate neutron production rates and spectra from four types of problems: homogeneous media, two-region interfaces, three-region interfaces and that of a monoenergetic alpha particle beam incident on a slab of target material. Graduate work at the University of Missouri - Rolla, in addition to user feedback from a tutorial course, provided the impetus for a variety of code improvements. Recently upgraded to version 4B, initial modifications to SOURCES focused on updates to the 'tape5' decay data library. Shortly thereafter, efforts focused on development of a graphical user interface for the code. This paper documents the Los Alamos SOURCES Tape1 Creator and Library Link (LASTCALL) and describes additional library modifications in more detail. Minor improvements and planned enhancements are discussed.

  13. Documentation of the heat conduction code TRANCO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, G.D.

    1975-01-01

    A transient heat conduction code used for thermal, thermoelastic, thermoelastic/plastic, and thermo/viscoelastic analyses is presented. The code can solve two-dimensional X-Y and axially symmetric R-theta-z thermal problems with the following conditions: constant temperature, constant flux, convective, or adiabatic boundary conditions; time-dependent or constant internal heat generation; and anisotropic thermal conductivities

  14. Gaz de France. Source document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document was issued by Gaz de France, the French gas utility, at the occasion of the opening of the capital of the company. It is intended to shareholders and presents some informations relative to the stocks admitted to Euronext's Eurolist, some general informations about the company and its capital, some informations about the activities of Gaz de France group, about its financial situation and results, about its management, and about its recent evolution and future perspectives. (J.S.)

  15. Documentation and verification of the SHAFT code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St John, C.M.

    1991-12-01

    The SHAFT code incorporates equations to compute stresses in a shaft liner when the rock through which a shaft passes is subject to known three-dimensional states of stress or strain. The deformation modes considered are hoop deformation, axial deformation, and shear on a plane normal to the shaft axis. Interaction between the liner and the soil and rock is considered, and it is assumed that the liner is in place before loading is applied. This code is intended to be used interactively but creates a permanent record complete with necessary quality assurance information. The code has been carefully verified for the case of generalized plane strain, in which an arbitrary axial strain can be defined. It may also be used for plane stress analysis. Output is given in the form of stresses at selected sample points in the linear and the rock and a simple graphical representation of the distribution of stress through the liner. 12 figs., 13 tabs

  16. City Reach Code Technical Support Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chen, Yan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhang, Jian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Bing [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Frankel, Mark [New Buildings Inst., Portland, OR (United States); Lyles, Mark [New Buildings Inst., Portland, OR (United States)

    2017-10-31

    This report describes and analyzes a set of energy efficiency measures that will save 20% energy over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013. The measures will be used to formulate a Reach Code for cities aiming to go beyond national model energy codes. A coalition of U.S. cities together with other stakeholders wanted to facilitate the development of voluntary guidelines and standards that can be implemented in stages at the city level to improve building energy efficiency. The coalition's efforts are being supported by the U.S. Department of Energy via Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and in collaboration with the New Buildings Institute.

  17. LDGM Codes for Channel Coding and Joint Source-Channel Coding of Correlated Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Garcia-Frias

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose a coding scheme based on the use of systematic linear codes with low-density generator matrix (LDGM codes for channel coding and joint source-channel coding of multiterminal correlated binary sources. In both cases, the structures of the LDGM encoder and decoder are shown, and a concatenated scheme aimed at reducing the error floor is proposed. Several decoding possibilities are investigated, compared, and evaluated. For different types of noisy channels and correlation models, the resulting performance is very close to the theoretical limits.

  18. Supplemental Information Source Document Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Craig [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Halpern, Jonathan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wrons, Ralph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reiser, Anita [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mond, Michael du [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shain, Matthew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This Supplemental Information Source Document for Waste Management was prepared in support of future analyses including those that may be performed as part of the Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement. This document presents information about waste management practices at SNL/NM, including definitions, inventory data, and an overview of current activities.

  19. Rate-adaptive BCH codes for distributed source coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salmistraro, Matteo; Larsen, Knud J.; Forchhammer, Søren

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) codes for distributed source coding. A feedback channel is employed to adapt the rate of the code during the decoding process. The focus is on codes with short block lengths for independently coding a binary source X and decoding it given its...... strategies for improving the reliability of the decoded result are analyzed, and methods for estimating the performance are proposed. In the analysis, noiseless feedback and noiseless communication are assumed. Simulation results show that rate-adaptive BCH codes achieve better performance than low...... correlated side information Y. The proposed codes have been analyzed in a high-correlation scenario, where the marginal probability of each symbol, Xi in X, given Y is highly skewed (unbalanced). Rate-adaptive BCH codes are presented and applied to distributed source coding. Adaptive and fixed checking...

  20. Codes and standards and other guidance cited in regulatory documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickolaus, J.R.; Bohlander, K.L.

    1996-08-01

    As part of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Standard Review Plan Update and Development Program (SRP-UDP), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed a listing of industry consensus codes and standards and other government and industry guidance referred to in regulatory documents. The SRP-UDP has been completed and the SRP-Maintenance Program (SRP-MP) is now maintaining this listing. Besides updating previous information, Revision 3 adds approximately 80 citations. This listing identifies the version of the code or standard cited in the regulatory document, the regulatory document, and the current version of the code or standard. It also provides a summary characterization of the nature of the citation. This listing was developed from electronic searches of the Code of Federal Regulations and the NRC's Bulletins, Information Notices, Circulars, Enforcement Manual, Generic Letters, Inspection Manual, Policy Statements, Regulatory Guides, Standard Technical Specifications and the Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800)

  1. Codes and standards and other guidance cited in regulatory documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickolaus, J.R.; Bohlander, K.L.

    1996-08-01

    As part of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Standard Review Plan Update and Development Program (SRP-UDP), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed a listing of industry consensus codes and standards and other government and industry guidance referred to in regulatory documents. The SRP-UDP has been completed and the SRP-Maintenance Program (SRP-MP) is now maintaining this listing. Besides updating previous information, Revision 3 adds approximately 80 citations. This listing identifies the version of the code or standard cited in the regulatory document, the regulatory document, and the current version of the code or standard. It also provides a summary characterization of the nature of the citation. This listing was developed from electronic searches of the Code of Federal Regulations and the NRC`s Bulletins, Information Notices, Circulars, Enforcement Manual, Generic Letters, Inspection Manual, Policy Statements, Regulatory Guides, Standard Technical Specifications and the Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800).

  2. TWRS configuration management requirement source document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vann, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The TWRS Configuration Management (CM) Requirement Source document prescribes CM as a basic product life-cycle function by which work and activities are conducted or accomplished. This document serves as the requirements basis for the TWRS CM program. The objective of the TWRS CM program is to establish consistency among requirements, physical/functional configuration, information, and documentation for TWRS and TWRS products, and to maintain this consistency throughout the life-cycle of TWRS and the product, particularly as changes are being made

  3. Multiple LDPC decoding for distributed source coding and video coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Luong, Huynh Van; Huang, Xin

    2011-01-01

    Distributed source coding (DSC) is a coding paradigm for systems which fully or partly exploit the source statistics at the decoder to reduce the computational burden at the encoder. Distributed video coding (DVC) is one example. This paper considers the use of Low Density Parity Check Accumulate...... (LDPCA) codes in a DSC scheme with feed-back. To improve the LDPC coding performance in the context of DSC and DVC, while retaining short encoder blocks, this paper proposes multiple parallel LDPC decoding. The proposed scheme passes soft information between decoders to enhance performance. Experimental...

  4. Joint source-channel coding using variable length codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balakirsky, V.B.

    2001-01-01

    We address the problem of joint source-channel coding when variable-length codes are used for information transmission over a discrete memoryless channel. Data transmitted over the channel are interpreted as pairs (m k ,t k ), where m k is a message generated by the source and t k is a time instant

  5. 2D arc-PIC code description: methods and documentation

    CERN Document Server

    Timko, Helga

    2011-01-01

    Vacuum discharges are one of the main limiting factors for future linear collider designs such as that of the Compact LInear Collider. To optimize machine efficiency, maintaining the highest feasible accelerating gradient below a certain breakdown rate is desirable; understanding breakdowns can therefore help us to achieve this goal. As a part of ongoing theoretical research on vacuum discharges at the Helsinki Institute of Physics, the build-up of plasma can be investigated through the particle-in-cell method. For this purpose, we have developed the 2D Arc-PIC code introduced here. We present an exhaustive description of the 2D Arc-PIC code in two parts. In the first part, we introduce the particle-in-cell method in general and detail the techniques used in the code. In the second part, we provide a documentation and derivation of the key equations occurring in the code. The code is original work of the author, written in 2010, and is therefore under the copyright of the author. The development of the code h...

  6. 1995 building energy codes and standards workshops: Summary and documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandahl, L.J.; Shankle, D.L.

    1996-02-01

    During the spring of 1995, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted four two-day Regional Building Energy Codes and Standards workshops across the US. Workshops were held in Chicago, Denver, Rhode Island, and Atlanta. The workshops were designed to benefit state-level officials including staff of building code commissions, energy offices, public utility commissions, and others involved with adopting/updating, implementing, and enforcing building energy codes in their states. The workshops provided an opportunity for state and other officials to learn more about residential and commercial building energy codes and standards, the role of the US Department of Energy and the Building Standards and Guidelines Program at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Home Energy Rating Systems (HERS), Energy Efficient Mortgages (EEM), training issues, and other topics related to the development, adoption, implementation, and enforcement of building energy codes. Participants heard success stories, got tips on enforcement training, and received technical support materials. In addition to receiving information on the above topics, workshop participants had an opportunity to provide input on code adoption issues, building industry training issues, building design issues, and exemplary programs across the US. This paper documents the workshop planning, findings, and follow-up processes.

  7. Transmission imaging with a coded source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoner, W.W.; Sage, J.P.; Braun, M.; Wilson, D.T.; Barrett, H.H.

    1976-01-01

    The conventional approach to transmission imaging is to use a rotating anode x-ray tube, which provides the small, brilliant x-ray source needed to cast sharp images of acceptable intensity. Stationary anode sources, although inherently less brilliant, are more compatible with the use of large area anodes, and so they can be made more powerful than rotating anode sources. Spatial modulation of the source distribution provides a way to introduce detailed structure in the transmission images cast by large area sources, and this permits the recovery of high resolution images, in spite of the source diameter. The spatial modulation is deliberately chosen to optimize recovery of image structure; the modulation pattern is therefore called a ''code.'' A variety of codes may be used; the essential mathematical property is that the code possess a sharply peaked autocorrelation function, because this property permits the decoding of the raw image cast by th coded source. Random point arrays, non-redundant point arrays, and the Fresnel zone pattern are examples of suitable codes. This paper is restricted to the case of the Fresnel zone pattern code, which has the unique additional property of generating raw images analogous to Fresnel holograms. Because the spatial frequency of these raw images are extremely coarse compared with actual holograms, a photoreduction step onto a holographic plate is necessary before the decoded image may be displayed with the aid of coherent illumination

  8. Software Design Document for the AMP Nuclear Fuel Performance Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philip, Bobby; Clarno, Kevin T.; Cochran, Bill

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the design of the AMP nuclear fuel performance code. It provides an overview of the decomposition into separable components, an overview of what those components will do, and the strategic basis for the design. The primary components of a computational physics code include a user interface, physics packages, material properties, mathematics solvers, and computational infrastructure. Some capability from established off-the-shelf (OTS) packages will be leveraged in the development of AMP, but the primary physics components will be entirely new. The material properties required by these physics operators include many highly non-linear properties, which will be replicated from FRAPCON and LIFE where applicable, as well as some computationally-intensive operations, such as gap conductance, which depends upon the plenum pressure. Because there is extensive capability in off-the-shelf leadership class computational solvers, AMP will leverage the Trilinos, PETSc, and SUNDIALS packages. The computational infrastructure includes a build system, mesh database, and other building blocks of a computational physics package. The user interface will be developed through a collaborative effort with the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Capability Transfer program element as much as possible and will be discussed in detail in a future document.

  9. Image authentication using distributed source coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yao-Chung; Varodayan, David; Girod, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel approach using distributed source coding for image authentication. The key idea is to provide a Slepian-Wolf encoded quantized image projection as authentication data. This version can be correctly decoded with the help of an authentic image as side information. Distributed source coding provides the desired robustness against legitimate variations while detecting illegitimate modification. The decoder incorporating expectation maximization algorithms can authenticate images which have undergone contrast, brightness, and affine warping adjustments. Our authentication system also offers tampering localization by using the sum-product algorithm.

  10. Measuring Modularity in Open Source Code Bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Milev

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Modularity of an open source software code base has been associated with growth of the software development community, the incentives for voluntary code contribution, and a reduction in the number of users who take code without contributing back to the community. As a theoretical construct, modularity links OSS to other domains of research, including organization theory, the economics of industry structure, and new product development. However, measuring the modularity of an OSS design has proven difficult, especially for large and complex systems. In this article, we describe some preliminary results of recent research at Carleton University that examines the evolving modularity of large-scale software systems. We describe a measurement method and a new modularity metric for comparing code bases of different size, introduce an open source toolkit that implements this method and metric, and provide an analysis of the evolution of the Apache Tomcat application server as an illustrative example of the insights gained from this approach. Although these results are preliminary, they open the door to further cross-discipline research that quantitatively links the concerns of business managers, entrepreneurs, policy-makers, and open source software developers.

  11. Code Forking, Governance, and Sustainability in Open Source Software

    OpenAIRE

    Juho Lindman; Linus Nyman

    2013-01-01

    The right to fork open source code is at the core of open source licensing. All open source licenses grant the right to fork their code, that is to start a new development effort using an existing code as its base. Thus, code forking represents the single greatest tool available for guaranteeing sustainability in open source software. In addition to bolstering program sustainability, code forking directly affects the governance of open source initiatives. Forking, and even the mere possibilit...

  12. Final technical position on documentation of computer codes for high-level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silling, S.A.

    1983-06-01

    Guidance is given for the content of documentation of computer codes which are used in support of a license application for high-level waste disposal. The guidelines cover theoretical basis, programming, and instructions for use of the code

  13. Syndrome-source-coding and its universal generalization. [error correcting codes for data compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancheta, T. C., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A method of using error-correcting codes to obtain data compression, called syndrome-source-coding, is described in which the source sequence is treated as an error pattern whose syndrome forms the compressed data. It is shown that syndrome-source-coding can achieve arbitrarily small distortion with the number of compressed digits per source digit arbitrarily close to the entropy of a binary memoryless source. A 'universal' generalization of syndrome-source-coding is formulated which provides robustly effective distortionless coding of source ensembles. Two examples are given, comparing the performance of noiseless universal syndrome-source-coding to (1) run-length coding and (2) Lynch-Davisson-Schalkwijk-Cover universal coding for an ensemble of binary memoryless sources.

  14. On the Combination of Multi-Layer Source Coding and Network Coding for Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Jeppe; Fitzek, Frank; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk

    2013-01-01

    quality is developed. A linear coding structure designed to gracefully encapsulate layered source coding provides both low complexity of the utilised linear coding while enabling robust erasure correction in the form of fountain coding capabilities. The proposed linear coding structure advocates efficient...

  15. Code-Switching in Judaeo-Arabic Documents from the Cairo Geniza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Esther-Miriam; Connolly, Magdalen

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates code-switching and script-switching in medieval documents from the Cairo Geniza, written in Judaeo-Arabic (Arabic in Hebrew script), Hebrew, Arabic and Aramaic. Legal documents regularly show a macaronic style of Judaeo-Arabic, Aramaic and Hebrew, while in letters code-switching from Judaeo-Arabic to Hebrew is tied in with…

  16. Documentation for TRACE: an interactive beam-transport code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, K.R.; Rusthoi, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    TRACE is an interactive, first-order, beam-dynamics computer program. TRACE includes space-charge forces and mathematical models for a number of beamline elements not commonly found in beam-transport codes, such as permanent-magnet quadrupoles, rf quadrupoles, rf gaps, accelerator columns, and accelerator tanks. TRACE provides an immediate graphic display of calculative results, has a powerful and easy-to-use command procedure, includes eight different types of beam-matching or -fitting capabilities, and contains its own internal HELP package. This report describes the models and equations used for each of the transport elements, the fitting procedures, and the space-charge/emittance calculations, and provides detailed instruction for using the code

  17. UNSAT-H, an unsaturated soil water flow code for use at the Hanford site: code documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayer, M.J.; Gee, G.W.

    1985-10-01

    The unsaturated soil moisture flow code, UNSAT-H, which was developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory for assessing water movement at waste sites on the Hanford site, is documented in this report. This code is used in simulating the water dynamics of arid sites under consideration for waste disposal. The results of an example simulation of constant infiltration show excellent agreement with an analytical solution and another numerical solution, thus providing some verification of the UNSAT-H code. Areas of the code are identified for future work and include runoff, snowmelt, long-term climate and plant models, and parameter measurement. 29 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Research on Primary Shielding Calculation Source Generation Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zheng; Mei, Qiliang; Li, Hui; Shangguan, Danhua; Zhang, Guangchun

    2017-09-01

    Primary Shielding Calculation (PSC) plays an important role in reactor shielding design and analysis. In order to facilitate PSC, a source generation code is developed to generate cumulative distribution functions (CDF) for the source particle sample code of the J Monte Carlo Transport (JMCT) code, and a source particle sample code is deveoped to sample source particle directions, types, coordinates, energy and weights from the CDFs. A source generation code is developed to transform three dimensional (3D) power distributions in xyz geometry to source distributions in r θ z geometry for the J Discrete Ordinate Transport (JSNT) code. Validation on PSC model of Qinshan No.1 nuclear power plant (NPP), CAP1400 and CAP1700 reactors are performed. Numerical results show that the theoretical model and the codes are both correct.

  19. The Visual Code Navigator : An Interactive Toolset for Source Code Investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lommerse, Gerard; Nossin, Freek; Voinea, Lucian; Telea, Alexandru

    2005-01-01

    We present the Visual Code Navigator, a set of three interrelated visual tools that we developed for exploring large source code software projects from three different perspectives, or views: The syntactic view shows the syntactic constructs in the source code. The symbol view shows the objects a

  20. Source Code Stylometry Improvements in Python

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-14

    grant (Caliskan-Islam et al. 2015) ............. 1 Fig. 2 Corresponding abstract syntax tree from de-anonymizing programmers’ paper (Caliskan-Islam et...person can be identified via their handwriting or an author identified by their style or prose, programmers can be identified by their code...Provided a labelled training set of code samples (example in Fig. 1), the techniques used in stylometry can identify the author of a piece of code or even

  1. Bit rates in audio source coding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    1992-01-01

    The goal is to introduce and solve the audio coding optimization problem. Psychoacoustic results such as masking and excitation pattern models are combined with results from rate distortion theory to formulate the audio coding optimization problem. The solution of the audio optimization problem is a

  2. Rate-adaptive BCH coding for Slepian-Wolf coding of highly correlated sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Salmistraro, Matteo; Larsen, Knud J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers using BCH codes for distributed source coding using feedback. The focus is on coding using short block lengths for a binary source, X, having a high correlation between each symbol to be coded and a side information, Y, such that the marginal probability of each symbol, Xi in X......, given Y is highly skewed. In the analysis, noiseless feedback and noiseless communication are assumed. A rate-adaptive BCH code is presented and applied to distributed source coding. Simulation results for a fixed error probability show that rate-adaptive BCH achieves better performance than LDPCA (Low......-Density Parity-Check Accumulate) codes for high correlation between source symbols and the side information....

  3. Codes and standards and other guidance cited in regulatory documents. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ankrum, A.; Nickolaus, J.; Vinther, R.; Maguire-Moffitt, N.; Hammer, J.; Sherfey, L.; Warner, R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    As part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Standard Review Plan Update and Development Program, Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed a listing of industry consensus codes and standards and other government and industry guidance referred to in regulatory documents. In addition to updating previous information, Revision 1 adds citations from the NRC Inspection Manual and the Improved Standard Technical Specifications. This listing identifies the version of the code or standard cited in the regulatory document, the regulatory document, and the current version of the code or standard. It also provides a summary characterization of the nature of the citation. This listing was developed from electronic searches of the Code of Federal Regulations and the NRC`s Bulletins, Information Notices, Circulars, Generic Letters, Policy Statements, Regulatory Guides, and the Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800).

  4. Codes and standards and other guidance cited in regulatory documents. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankrum, A.; Nickolaus, J.; Vinther, R.; Maguire-Moffitt, N.; Hammer, J.; Sherfey, L.; Warner, R.

    1994-08-01

    As part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Standard Review Plan Update and Development Program, Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed a listing of industry consensus codes and standards and other government and industry guidance referred to in regulatory documents. In addition to updating previous information, Revision 1 adds citations from the NRC Inspection Manual and the Improved Standard Technical Specifications. This listing identifies the version of the code or standard cited in the regulatory document, the regulatory document, and the current version of the code or standard. It also provides a summary characterization of the nature of the citation. This listing was developed from electronic searches of the Code of Federal Regulations and the NRC's Bulletins, Information Notices, Circulars, Generic Letters, Policy Statements, Regulatory Guides, and the Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800)

  5. Data processing with microcode designed with source coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, James A; Morrison, Steven E

    2013-05-07

    Programming for a data processor to execute a data processing application is provided using microcode source code. The microcode source code is assembled to produce microcode that includes digital microcode instructions with which to signal the data processor to execute the data processing application.

  6. Repairing business process models as retrieved from source code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández-Ropero, M.; Reijers, H.A.; Pérez-Castillo, R.; Piattini, M.; Nurcan, S.; Proper, H.A.; Soffer, P.; Krogstie, J.; Schmidt, R.; Halpin, T.; Bider, I.

    2013-01-01

    The static analysis of source code has become a feasible solution to obtain underlying business process models from existing information systems. Due to the fact that not all information can be automatically derived from source code (e.g., consider manual activities), such business process models

  7. Iterative List Decoding of Concatenated Source-Channel Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedayat Ahmadreza

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Whenever variable-length entropy codes are used in the presence of a noisy channel, any channel errors will propagate and cause significant harm. Despite using channel codes, some residual errors always remain, whose effect will get magnified by error propagation. Mitigating this undesirable effect is of great practical interest. One approach is to use the residual redundancy of variable length codes for joint source-channel decoding. In this paper, we improve the performance of residual redundancy source-channel decoding via an iterative list decoder made possible by a nonbinary outer CRC code. We show that the list decoding of VLC's is beneficial for entropy codes that contain redundancy. Such codes are used in state-of-the-art video coders, for example. The proposed list decoder improves the overall performance significantly in AWGN and fully interleaved Rayleigh fading channels.

  8. The Astrophysics Source Code Library by the numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Alice; Teuben, Peter; Berriman, G. Bruce; DuPrie, Kimberly; Mink, Jessica; Nemiroff, Robert; Ryan, PW; Schmidt, Judy; Shamir, Lior; Shortridge, Keith; Wallin, John; Warmels, Rein

    2018-01-01

    The Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL, ascl.net) was founded in 1999 by Robert Nemiroff and John Wallin. ASCL editors seek both new and old peer-reviewed papers that describe methods or experiments that involve the development or use of source code, and add entries for the found codes to the library. Software authors can submit their codes to the ASCL as well. This ensures a comprehensive listing covering a significant number of the astrophysics source codes used in peer-reviewed studies. The ASCL is indexed by both NASA’s Astrophysics Data System (ADS) and Web of Science, making software used in research more discoverable. This presentation covers the growth in the ASCL’s number of entries, the number of citations to its entries, and in which journals those citations appear. It also discusses what changes have been made to the ASCL recently, and what its plans are for the future.

  9. Human Rights Texts: Converting Human Rights Primary Source Documents into Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariss, Christopher J; Linder, Fridolin J; Jones, Zachary M; Crabtree, Charles D; Biek, Megan A; Ross, Ana-Sophia M; Kaur, Taranamol; Tsai, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We introduce and make publicly available a large corpus of digitized primary source human rights documents which are published annually by monitoring agencies that include Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, the Lawyers Committee for Human Rights, and the United States Department of State. In addition to the digitized text, we also make available and describe document-term matrices, which are datasets that systematically organize the word counts from each unique document by each unique term within the corpus of human rights documents. To contextualize the importance of this corpus, we describe the development of coding procedures in the human rights community and several existing categorical indicators that have been created by human coding of the human rights documents contained in the corpus. We then discuss how the new human rights corpus and the existing human rights datasets can be used with a variety of statistical analyses and machine learning algorithms to help scholars understand how human rights practices and reporting have evolved over time. We close with a discussion of our plans for dataset maintenance, updating, and availability.

  10. Code Forking, Governance, and Sustainability in Open Source Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juho Lindman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The right to fork open source code is at the core of open source licensing. All open source licenses grant the right to fork their code, that is to start a new development effort using an existing code as its base. Thus, code forking represents the single greatest tool available for guaranteeing sustainability in open source software. In addition to bolstering program sustainability, code forking directly affects the governance of open source initiatives. Forking, and even the mere possibility of forking code, affects the governance and sustainability of open source initiatives on three distinct levels: software, community, and ecosystem. On the software level, the right to fork makes planned obsolescence, versioning, vendor lock-in, end-of-support issues, and similar initiatives all but impossible to implement. On the community level, forking impacts both sustainability and governance through the power it grants the community to safeguard against unfavourable actions by corporations or project leaders. On the business-ecosystem level forking can serve as a catalyst for innovation while simultaneously promoting better quality software through natural selection. Thus, forking helps keep open source initiatives relevant and presents opportunities for the development and commercialization of current and abandoned programs.

  11. Implementation of QR Code and Digital Signature to Determine the Validity of KRS and KHS Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatich Fazlur Rochman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Universitas Airlangga students often find it difficult to verify the mark that came out in the Kartu Hasil Studi (KHS is called Study Result Card or courses taken in the Kartu Rencana Studi (KRS is called Study Plan Card, if there are changes to the data on the system used Universitas Airlangga. This complicated KRS and KHS verification process happened because the KRS and KHS documents that owned by student is easier to counterfeit than the data in the system. Implementation digital signature and QR Code technology as a solution that can prove the validity of KRS or KHS. The KRS and KHS validation system developed by Digital Signature and QR Code. QR Code is a type of matrix code that was developed as a code that allows its contents to be decoded at high speed while the Digital Signature has a function as a marker on the data to ensure that the data is the original data. The verification process was divided into two types are reading the Digital Signature and printing document that works by scanning the data from QR Code. The application of the system is carried out were the addition of the QR Code on KRS and KHS, required a readiness of human resources. 

  12. Distributed Remote Vector Gaussian Source Coding with Covariance Distortion Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahedi, Adel; Østergaard, Jan; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a distributed remote source coding problem, where a sequence of observations of source vectors is available at the encoder. The problem is to specify the optimal rate for encoding the observations subject to a covariance matrix distortion constraint and in the presence...

  13. Blahut-Arimoto algorithm and code design for action-dependent source coding problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trillingsgaard, Kasper Fløe; Simeone, Osvaldo; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    The source coding problem with action-dependent side information at the decoder has recently been introduced to model data acquisition in resource-constrained systems. In this paper, an efficient Blahut-Arimoto-type algorithm for the numerical computation of the rate-distortion-cost function...... for this problem is proposed. Moreover, a simplified two-stage code structure based on multiplexing is put forth, whereby the first stage encodes the actions and the second stage is composed of an array of classical Wyner-Ziv codes, one for each action. Leveraging this structure, specific coding/decoding...... strategies are designed based on LDGM codes and message passing. Through numerical examples, the proposed code design is shown to achieve performance close to the rate-distortion-cost function....

  14. Distributed coding of multiview sparse sources with joint recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luong, Huynh Van; Deligiannis, Nikos; Forchhammer, Søren

    2016-01-01

    In support of applications involving multiview sources in distributed object recognition using lightweight cameras, we propose a new method for the distributed coding of sparse sources as visual descriptor histograms extracted from multiview images. The problem is challenging due to the computati...... transform (SIFT) descriptors extracted from multiview images shows that our method leads to bit-rate saving of up to 43% compared to the state-of-the-art distributed compressed sensing method with independent encoding of the sources....

  15. Writing in the workplace: Constructing documents using multiple digital sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariëlle Leijten

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In today’s workplaces professional communication often involves constructing documents from multiple digital sources—integrating one’s own texts/graphics with ideas based on others’ text/graphics. This article presents a case study of a professional communication designer as he constructs a proposal over several days. Drawing on keystroke and interview data, we map the professional’s overall process, plot the time course of his writing/design, illustrate how he searches for content and switches among optional digital sources, and show how he modifies and reuses others’ content. The case study reveals not only that the professional (1 searches extensively through multiple sources for content and ideas but that he also (2 constructs visual content (charts, graphs, photographs as well as verbal content, and (3 manages his attention and motivation over this extended task. Since these three activities are not represented in current models of writing, we propose their addition not just to models of communication design, but also to models of writing in general.

  16. Development of in-vessel source term analysis code, tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyagi, K.; Miyahara, S.

    1996-01-01

    Analyses of radionuclide transport in fuel failure accidents (generally referred to source terms) are considered to be important especially in the severe accident evaluation. The TRACER code has been developed to realistically predict the time dependent behavior of FPs and aerosols within the primary cooling system for wide range of fuel failure events. This paper presents the model description, results of validation study, the recent model advancement status of the code, and results of check out calculations under reactor conditions. (author)

  17. [Quality management and strategic consequences of assessing documentation and coding under the German Diagnostic Related Groups system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabel, M; Mann, D; Efe, T; Schrappe, M; V Garrel, T; Gotzen, L; Schaeg, M

    2004-10-01

    The introduction of the German Diagnostic Related Groups (D-DRG) system requires redesigning administrative patient management strategies. Wrong coding leads to inaccurate grouping and endangers the reimbursement of treatment costs. This situation emphasizes the roles of documentation and coding as factors of economical success. The aims of this study were to assess the quantity and quality of initial documentation and coding (ICD-10 and OPS-301) and find operative strategies to improve efficiency and strategic means to ensure optimal documentation and coding quality. In a prospective study, documentation and coding quality were evaluated in a standardized way by weekly assessment. Clinical data from 1385 inpatients were processed for initial correctness and quality of documentation and coding. Principal diagnoses were found to be accurate in 82.7% of cases, inexact in 7.1%, and wrong in 10.1%. Effects on financial returns occurred in 16%. Based on these findings, an optimized, interdisciplinary, and multiprofessional workflow on medical documentation, coding, and data control was developed. Workflow incorporating regular assessment of documentation and coding quality is required by the DRG system to ensure efficient accounting of hospital services. Interdisciplinary and multiprofessional cooperation is recognized to be an important factor in establishing an efficient workflow in medical documentation and coding.

  18. Application programming interface document for the modernized Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC-M)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahaffy, J.; Boyack, B.E.; Steinke, R.G.

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this document is to ease the task of adding new system components to the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) or altering old ones. Sufficient information is provided to permit replacement or modification of physical models and correlations. Within TRAC, information is passed at two levels. At the upper level, information is passed by system-wide and component-specific data modules at and above the level of component subroutines. At the lower level, information is passed through a combination of module-based data structures and argument lists. This document describes the basic mechanics involved in the flow of information within the code. The discussion of interfaces in the body of this document has been kept to a general level to highlight key considerations. The appendices cover instructions for obtaining a detailed list of variables used to communicate in each subprogram, definitions and locations of key variables, and proposed improvements to intercomponent interfaces that are not available in the first level of code modernization

  19. Java Source Code Analysis for API Migration to Embedded Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, Victor [Univ. of Nebraska, Omaha, NE (United States); McCoy, James A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Guerrero, Jonathan [Univ. of Nebraska, Omaha, NE (United States); Reinke, Carl Werner [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Perry, James Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Embedded systems form an integral part of our technological infrastructure and oftentimes play a complex and critical role within larger systems. From the perspective of reliability, security, and safety, strong arguments can be made favoring the use of Java over C in such systems. In part, this argument is based on the assumption that suitable subsets of Java’s APIs and extension libraries are available to embedded software developers. In practice, a number of Java-based embedded processors do not support the full features of the JVM. For such processors, source code migration is a mechanism by which key abstractions offered by APIs and extension libraries can made available to embedded software developers. The analysis required for Java source code-level library migration is based on the ability to correctly resolve element references to their corresponding element declarations. A key challenge in this setting is how to perform analysis for incomplete source-code bases (e.g., subsets of libraries) from which types and packages have been omitted. This article formalizes an approach that can be used to extend code bases targeted for migration in such a manner that the threats associated the analysis of incomplete code bases are eliminated.

  20. Source Coding for Wireless Distributed Microphones in Reverberant Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahedi, Adel

    2016-01-01

    . However, it comes with the price of several challenges, including the limited power and bandwidth resources for wireless transmission of audio recordings. In such a setup, we study the problem of source coding for the compression of the audio recordings before the transmission in order to reduce the power...... consumption and/or transmission bandwidth by reduction in the transmission rates. Source coding for wireless microphones in reverberant environments has several special characteristics which make it more challenging in comparison with regular audio coding. The signals which are acquired by the microphones......Modern multimedia systems are more and more shifting toward distributed and networked structures. This includes audio systems, where networks of wireless distributed microphones are replacing the traditional microphone arrays. This allows for flexibility of placement and high spatial diversity...

  1. Plagiarism Detection Algorithm for Source Code in Computer Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Xu, Chan; Ouyang, Boyu

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, computer programming is getting more necessary in the course of program design in college education. However, the trick of plagiarizing plus a little modification exists among some students' home works. It's not easy for teachers to judge if there's plagiarizing in source code or not. Traditional detection algorithms cannot fit this…

  2. Automating RPM Creation from a Source Code Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    apps/usr --with- libpq=/apps/ postgres make rm -rf $RPM_BUILD_ROOT umask 0077 mkdir -p $RPM_BUILD_ROOT/usr/local/bin mkdir -p $RPM_BUILD_ROOT...from a source code repository. %pre %prep %setup %build ./autogen.sh ; ./configure --with-db=/apps/db --with-libpq=/apps/ postgres make

  3. Source Coding in Networks with Covariance Distortion Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahedi, Adel; Østergaard, Jan; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2016-01-01

    results to a joint source coding and denoising problem. We consider a network with a centralized topology and a given weighted sum-rate constraint, where the received signals at the center are to be fused to maximize the output SNR while enforcing no linear distortion. We show that one can design...

  4. Rotor Wake/Stator Interaction Noise Prediction Code Technical Documentation and User's Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topol, David A.; Mathews, Douglas C.

    2010-01-01

    This report documents the improvements and enhancements made by Pratt & Whitney to two NASA programs which together will calculate noise from a rotor wake/stator interaction. The code is a combination of subroutines from two NASA programs with many new features added by Pratt & Whitney. To do a calculation V072 first uses a semi-empirical wake prediction to calculate the rotor wake characteristics at the stator leading edge. Results from the wake model are then automatically input into a rotor wake/stator interaction analytical noise prediction routine which calculates inlet aft sound power levels for the blade-passage-frequency tones and their harmonics, along with the complex radial mode amplitudes. The code allows for a noise calculation to be performed for a compressor rotor wake/stator interaction, a fan wake/FEGV interaction, or a fan wake/core stator interaction. This report is split into two parts, the first part discusses the technical documentation of the program as improved by Pratt & Whitney. The second part is a user's manual which describes how input files are created and how the code is run.

  5. WASTK: A Weighted Abstract Syntax Tree Kernel Method for Source Code Plagiarism Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deqiang Fu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a source code plagiarism detection method, named WASTK (Weighted Abstract Syntax Tree Kernel, for computer science education. Different from other plagiarism detection methods, WASTK takes some aspects other than the similarity between programs into account. WASTK firstly transfers the source code of a program to an abstract syntax tree and then gets the similarity by calculating the tree kernel of two abstract syntax trees. To avoid misjudgment caused by trivial code snippets or frameworks given by instructors, an idea similar to TF-IDF (Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency in the field of information retrieval is applied. Each node in an abstract syntax tree is assigned a weight by TF-IDF. WASTK is evaluated on different datasets and, as a result, performs much better than other popular methods like Sim and JPlag.

  6. Coded aperture imaging of alpha source spatial distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talebitaher, Alireza; Shutler, Paul M.E.; Springham, Stuart V.; Rawat, Rajdeep S.; Lee, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The Coded Aperture Imaging (CAI) technique has been applied with CR-39 nuclear track detectors to image alpha particle source spatial distributions. The experimental setup comprised: a 226 Ra source of alpha particles, a laser-machined CAI mask, and CR-39 detectors, arranged inside a vacuum enclosure. Three different alpha particle source shapes were synthesized by using a linear translator to move the 226 Ra source within the vacuum enclosure. The coded mask pattern used is based on a Singer Cyclic Difference Set, with 400 pixels and 57 open square holes (representing ρ = 1/7 = 14.3% open fraction). After etching of the CR-39 detectors, the area, circularity, mean optical density and positions of all candidate tracks were measured by an automated scanning system. Appropriate criteria were used to select alpha particle tracks, and a decoding algorithm applied to the (x, y) data produced the de-coded image of the source. Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) values obtained for alpha particle CAI images were found to be substantially better than those for corresponding pinhole images, although the CAI-SNR values were below the predictions of theoretical formulae. Monte Carlo simulations of CAI and pinhole imaging were performed in order to validate the theoretical SNR formulae and also our CAI decoding algorithm. There was found to be good agreement between the theoretical formulae and SNR values obtained from simulations. Possible reasons for the lower SNR obtained for the experimental CAI study are discussed.

  7. Distributed Source Coding Techniques for Lossless Compression of Hyperspectral Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barni Mauro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the application of distributed source coding (DSC theory to remote sensing image compression. Although DSC exhibits a significant potential in many application fields, up till now the results obtained on real signals fall short of the theoretical bounds, and often impose additional system-level constraints. The objective of this paper is to assess the potential of DSC for lossless image compression carried out onboard a remote platform. We first provide a brief overview of DSC of correlated information sources. We then focus on onboard lossless image compression, and apply DSC techniques in order to reduce the complexity of the onboard encoder, at the expense of the decoder's, by exploiting the correlation of different bands of a hyperspectral dataset. Specifically, we propose two different compression schemes, one based on powerful binary error-correcting codes employed as source codes, and one based on simpler multilevel coset codes. The performance of both schemes is evaluated on a few AVIRIS scenes, and is compared with other state-of-the-art 2D and 3D coders. Both schemes turn out to achieve competitive compression performance, and one of them also has reduced complexity. Based on these results, we highlight the main issues that are still to be solved to further improve the performance of DSC-based remote sensing systems.

  8. Building guide : how to build Xyce from source code.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiter, Eric Richard; Russo, Thomas V.; Schiek, Richard Louis; Sholander, Peter E.; Thornquist, Heidi K.; Mei, Ting; Verley, Jason C.

    2013-08-01

    While Xyce uses the Autoconf and Automake system to configure builds, it is often necessary to perform more than the customary %E2%80%9C./configure%E2%80%9D builds many open source users have come to expect. This document describes the steps needed to get Xyce built on a number of common platforms.

  9. Skyline: an open source document editor for creating and analyzing targeted proteomics experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Brendan; Tomazela, Daniela M; Shulman, Nicholas; Chambers, Matthew; Finney, Gregory L; Frewen, Barbara; Kern, Randall; Tabb, David L; Liebler, Daniel C; MacCoss, Michael J

    2010-04-01

    Skyline is a Windows client application for targeted proteomics method creation and quantitative data analysis. It is open source and freely available for academic and commercial use. The Skyline user interface simplifies the development of mass spectrometer methods and the analysis of data from targeted proteomics experiments performed using selected reaction monitoring (SRM). Skyline supports using and creating MS/MS spectral libraries from a wide variety of sources to choose SRM filters and verify results based on previously observed ion trap data. Skyline exports transition lists to and imports the native output files from Agilent, Applied Biosystems, Thermo Fisher Scientific and Waters triple quadrupole instruments, seamlessly connecting mass spectrometer output back to the experimental design document. The fast and compact Skyline file format is easily shared, even for experiments requiring many sample injections. A rich array of graphs displays results and provides powerful tools for inspecting data integrity as data are acquired, helping instrument operators to identify problems early. The Skyline dynamic report designer exports tabular data from the Skyline document model for in-depth analysis with common statistical tools. Single-click, self-updating web installation is available at http://proteome.gs.washington.edu/software/skyline. This web site also provides access to instructional videos, a support board, an issues list and a link to the source code project.

  10. Segmentation-driven compound document coding based on H.264/AVC-INTRA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghetto, Alexandre; de Queiroz, Ricardo L

    2007-07-01

    In this paper, we explore H.264/AVC operating in intraframe mode to compress a mixed image, i.e., composed of text, graphics, and pictures. Even though mixed contents (compound) documents usually require the use of multiple compressors, we apply a single compressor for both text and pictures. For that, distortion is taken into account differently between text and picture regions. Our approach is to use a segmentation-driven adaptation strategy to change the H.264/AVC quantization parameter on a macroblock by macroblock basis, i.e., we deviate bits from pictorial regions to text in order to keep text edges sharp. We show results of a segmentation driven quantizer adaptation method applied to compress documents. Our reconstructed images have better text sharpness compared to straight unadapted coding, at negligible visual losses on pictorial regions. Our results also highlight the fact that H.264/AVC-INTRA outperforms coders such as JPEG-2000 as a single coder for compound images.

  11. Joint Source-Channel Coding by Means of an Oversampled Filter Bank Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinkovic Slavica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantized frame expansions based on block transforms and oversampled filter banks (OFBs have been considered recently as joint source-channel codes (JSCCs for erasure and error-resilient signal transmission over noisy channels. In this paper, we consider a coding chain involving an OFB-based signal decomposition followed by scalar quantization and a variable-length code (VLC or a fixed-length code (FLC. This paper first examines the problem of channel error localization and correction in quantized OFB signal expansions. The error localization problem is treated as an -ary hypothesis testing problem. The likelihood values are derived from the joint pdf of the syndrome vectors under various hypotheses of impulse noise positions, and in a number of consecutive windows of the received samples. The error amplitudes are then estimated by solving the syndrome equations in the least-square sense. The message signal is reconstructed from the corrected received signal by a pseudoinverse receiver. We then improve the error localization procedure by introducing a per-symbol reliability information in the hypothesis testing procedure of the OFB syndrome decoder. The per-symbol reliability information is produced by the soft-input soft-output (SISO VLC/FLC decoders. This leads to the design of an iterative algorithm for joint decoding of an FLC and an OFB code. The performance of the algorithms developed is evaluated in a wavelet-based image coding system.

  12. Documenting open source migration processes for re-use

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gerber, A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available There are several sources that indicate a remarkable increase in the adoption of open source software (OSS) into the technology infrastructure of organizations. In fact, the number of medium to large organizations without some OSS installations...

  13. The Astrophysics Source Code Library: Supporting software publication and citation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Alice; Teuben, Peter

    2018-01-01

    The Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL, ascl.net), established in 1999, is a free online registry for source codes used in research that has appeared in, or been submitted to, peer-reviewed publications. The ASCL is indexed by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) and Web of Science and is citable by using the unique ascl ID assigned to each code. In addition to registering codes, the ASCL can house archive files for download and assign them DOIs. The ASCL advocations for software citation on par with article citation, participates in multidiscipinary events such as Force11, OpenCon, and the annual Workshop on Sustainable Software for Science, works with journal publishers, and organizes Special Sessions and Birds of a Feather meetings at national and international conferences such as Astronomical Data Analysis Software and Systems (ADASS), European Week of Astronomy and Space Science, and AAS meetings. In this presentation, I will discuss some of the challenges of gathering credit for publishing software and ideas and efforts from other disciplines that may be useful to astronomy.

  14. Source Code Vulnerabilities in IoT Software Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Mohamed Alnaeli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available An empirical study that examines the usage of known vulnerable statements in software systems developed in C/C++ and used for IoT is presented. The study is conducted on 18 open source systems comprised of millions of lines of code and containing thousands of files. Static analysis methods are applied to each system to determine the number of unsafe commands (e.g., strcpy, strcmp, and strlen that are well-known among research communities to cause potential risks and security concerns, thereby decreasing a system’s robustness and quality. These unsafe statements are banned by many companies (e.g., Microsoft. The use of these commands should be avoided from the start when writing code and should be removed from legacy code over time as recommended by new C/C++ language standards. Each system is analyzed and the distribution of the known unsafe commands is presented. Historical trends in the usage of the unsafe commands of 7 of the systems are presented to show how the studied systems evolved over time with respect to the vulnerable code. The results show that the most prevalent unsafe command used for most systems is memcpy, followed by strlen. These results can be used to help train software developers on secure coding practices so that they can write higher quality software systems.

  15. Verification test calculations for the Source Term Code Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denning, R.S.; Wooton, R.O.; Alexander, C.A.; Curtis, L.A.; Cybulskis, P.; Gieseke, J.A.; Jordan, H.; Lee, K.W.; Nicolosi, S.L.

    1986-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to demonstrate the reasonableness of the Source Term Code Package (STCP) results. Hand calculations have been performed spanning a wide variety of phenomena within the context of a single accident sequence, a loss of all ac power with late containment failure, in the Peach Bottom (BWR) plant, and compared with STCP results. The report identifies some of the limitations of the hand calculation effort. The processes involved in a core meltdown accident are complex and coupled. Hand calculations by their nature must deal with gross simplifications of these processes. Their greatest strength is as an indicator that a computer code contains an error, for example that it doesn't satisfy basic conservation laws, rather than in showing the analysis accurately represents reality. Hand calculations are an important element of verification but they do not satisfy the need for code validation. The code validation program for the STCP is a separate effort. In general the hand calculation results show that models used in the STCP codes (e.g., MARCH, TRAP-MELT, VANESA) obey basic conservation laws and produce reasonable results. The degree of agreement and significance of the comparisons differ among the models evaluated. 20 figs., 26 tabs

  16. Tangent: Automatic Differentiation Using Source Code Transformation in Python

    OpenAIRE

    van Merriënboer, Bart; Wiltschko, Alexander B.; Moldovan, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Automatic differentiation (AD) is an essential primitive for machine learning programming systems. Tangent is a new library that performs AD using source code transformation (SCT) in Python. It takes numeric functions written in a syntactic subset of Python and NumPy as input, and generates new Python functions which calculate a derivative. This approach to automatic differentiation is different from existing packages popular in machine learning, such as TensorFlow and Autograd. Advantages ar...

  17. Gaz de France. Source document; Gaz de France. Document de base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document was issued by Gaz de France, the French gas utility, at the occasion of the opening of the capital of the company. It is intended to shareholders and presents some informations relative to the stocks admitted to Euronext's Eurolist, some general informations about the company and its capital, some informations about the activities of Gaz de France group, about its financial situation and results, about its management, and about its recent evolution and future perspectives. (J.S.)

  18. Impact of documentation errors on accuracy of cause of death coding in an educational hospital in Southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighi, Mohammad Hosein Hayavi; Dehghani, Mohammad; Teshnizi, Saeid Hoseini; Mahmoodi, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Accurate cause of death coding leads to organised and usable death information but there are some factors that influence documentation on death certificates and therefore affect the coding. We reviewed the role of documentation errors on the accuracy of death coding at Shahid Mohammadi Hospital (SMH), Bandar Abbas, Iran. We studied the death certificates of all deceased patients in SMH from October 2010 to March 2011. Researchers determined and coded the underlying cause of death on the death certificates according to the guidelines issued by the World Health Organization in Volume 2 of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Health Related Problems-10th revision (ICD-10). Necessary ICD coding rules (such as the General Principle, Rules 1-3, the modification rules and other instructions about death coding) were applied to select the underlying cause of death on each certificate. Demographic details and documentation errors were then extracted. Data were analysed with descriptive statistics and chi square tests. The accuracy rate of causes of death coding was 51.7%, demonstrating a statistically significant relationship (p=.001) with major errors but not such a relationship with minor errors. Factors that result in poor quality of Cause of Death coding in SMH are lack of coder training, documentation errors and the undesirable structure of death certificates.

  19. Asymmetric Joint Source-Channel Coding for Correlated Sources with Blind HMM Estimation at the Receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ser Javier Del

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the case of two correlated sources, and . The correlation between them has memory, and it is modelled by a hidden Markov chain. The paper studies the problem of reliable communication of the information sent by the source over an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN channel when the output of the other source is available as side information at the receiver. We assume that the receiver has no a priori knowledge of the correlation statistics between the sources. In particular, we propose the use of a turbo code for joint source-channel coding of the source . The joint decoder uses an iterative scheme where the unknown parameters of the correlation model are estimated jointly within the decoding process. It is shown that reliable communication is possible at signal-to-noise ratios close to the theoretical limits set by the combination of Shannon and Slepian-Wolf theorems.

  20. Towards Holography via Quantum Source-Channel Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastawski, Fernando; Eisert, Jens; Wilming, Henrik

    2017-07-01

    While originally motivated by quantum computation, quantum error correction (QEC) is currently providing valuable insights into many-body quantum physics, such as topological phases of matter. Furthermore, mounting evidence originating from holography research (AdS/CFT) indicates that QEC should also be pertinent for conformal field theories. With this motivation in mind, we introduce quantum source-channel codes, which combine features of lossy compression and approximate quantum error correction, both of which are predicted in holography. Through a recent construction for approximate recovery maps, we derive guarantees on its erasure decoding performance from calculations of an entropic quantity called conditional mutual information. As an example, we consider Gibbs states of the transverse field Ising model at criticality and provide evidence that they exhibit nontrivial protection from local erasure. This gives rise to the first concrete interpretation of a bona fide conformal field theory as a quantum error correcting code. We argue that quantum source-channel codes are of independent interest beyond holography.

  1. Running the source term code package in Elebra MX-850

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, A.C.F.; Goes, A.G.A.

    1988-01-01

    The source term package (STCP) is one of the main tools applied in calculations of behavior of fission products from nuclear power plants. It is a set of computer codes to assist the calculations of the radioactive materials leaving from the metallic containment of power reactors to the environment during a severe reactor accident. The original version of STCP runs in SDC computer systems, but as it has been written in FORTRAN 77, is possible run it in others systems such as IBM, Burroughs, Elebra, etc. The Elebra MX-8500 version of STCP contains 5 codes:March 3, Trapmelt, Tcca, Vanessa and Nava. The example presented in this report has taken into consideration a small LOCA accident into a PWR type reactor. (M.I.)

  2. Microdosimetry computation code of internal sources - MICRODOSE 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Weibo; Zheng Wenzhong; Ye Changqing

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a microdosimetry computation code, MICRODOSE 1, on the basis of the following described methods: (1) the method of calculating f 1 (z) for charged particle in the unit density tissues; (2) the method of calculating f(z) for a point source; (3) the method of applying the Fourier transform theory to the calculation of the compound Poisson process; (4) the method of using fast Fourier transform technique to determine f(z) and, giving some computed examples based on the code, MICRODOSE 1, including alpha particles emitted from 239 Pu in the alveolar lung tissues and from radon progeny RaA and RAC in the human respiratory tract. (author). 13 refs., 6 figs

  3. COMPASS: A source term code for investigating capillary barrier performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Wei; Apted, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    A computer code COMPASS based on compartment model approach is developed to calculate the near-field source term of the High-Level-Waste repository under unsaturated conditions. COMPASS is applied to evaluate the expected performance of Richard's (capillary) barriers as backfills to divert infiltrating groundwater at Yucca Mountain. Comparing the release rates of four typical nuclides with and without the Richard's barrier, it is shown that the Richard's barrier significantly decreases the peak release rates from the Engineered-Barrier-System (EBS) into the host rock

  4. 2011 Addendum to the SNL/NM SWEIS Supplemental Information Source Documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimmick, Ross [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This document contains updates to the Supplemental Information Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement Source Documents that were developed in 2010. In general, this addendum provides calendar year 2010 data, along with changes or additions to text in the original documents.

  5. Cost Analysis Sources and Documents Data Base Reference Manual (Update)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    M: Refcrence Manual PRICE H: Training Course Workbook 11. Use in Cost Analysis. Important source of cost estimates for electronic and mechanical...Nature of Data. Contains many microeconomic time series by month or quarter. 5. Level of Detail. Very detailed. 6. Normalization Processes Required...Reference Manual. Moorestown, N.J,: GE Corporation, September 1986. 64. PRICE Training Course Workbook . Moorestown, N.J.: GE Corporation, February 1986

  6. From Symbolic to Substantive Documents: When Business Codes of Ethics Impact Unethical Behavior in the Workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Kaptein, S.P.

    2009-01-01

    textabstractA business code of ethics is widely regarded as an important instrument to curb unethical behavior in the workplace. However, little is empirically known about the factors that determine the impact of a code on unethical behavior. Besides the existence of a code, this study proposes five determining factors: the content of the code, the frequency of communication activities surrounding the code, the quality of the communication activities, and the embedment of the code in the orga...

  7. Source document for waste area groupings at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, P.L.; Kuhaida, A.J., Jr.

    1996-09-01

    This document serves as a source document for Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and other types of documents developed for and pertaining to Environmental Restoration (ER) Program activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). It contains descriptions of the (1) regulatory requirements for the ORR ER Program, (2) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) ER Program, (3) ORNL site history and characterization, and (4) history and characterization of Waste Area Groupings (WAGS) 1-20. This document was created to save time, effort, and money for persons and organizations drafting documents for the ER Program and to improve consistency in the documents prepared for the program. By eliminating the repetitious use of selected information about the program, this document will help reduce the time and costs associated with producing program documents. By serving as a benchmark for selected information about the ER Program, this reference will help ensure that information presented in future documents is accurate and complete

  8. Optimization of Coding of AR Sources for Transmission Across Channels with Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arildsen, Thomas

    Source coding concerns the representation of information in a source signal using as few bits as possible. In the case of lossy source coding, it is the encoding of a source signal using the fewest possible bits at a given distortion or, at the lowest possible distortion given a specified bit rate....... Channel coding is usually applied in combination with source coding to ensure reliable transmission of the (source coded) information at the maximal rate across a channel given the properties of this channel. In this thesis, we consider the coding of auto-regressive (AR) sources which are sources that can...... compared to the case where the encoder is unaware of channel loss. We finally provide an extensive overview of cross-layer communication issues which are important to consider due to the fact that the proposed algorithm interacts with the source coding and exploits channel-related information typically...

  9. Pinon Pine Tree Study, Los Alamos National Laboratory: Source document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, G.J.; Fresquez, P.R.; Mullen, M.A.; Naranjo, L. Jr.

    2000-01-01

    One of the dominant tree species growing within and around Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM, lands is the pinon pine (Pinus edulis) tree. Pinon pine is used for firewood, fence posts, and building materials and is a source of nuts for food--the seeds are consumed by a wide variety of animals and are also gathered by people in the area and eaten raw or roasted. This study investigated the (1) concentration of 3 H, 137 Cs, 90 Sr, tot U, 238 Pu, 239,240 Pu, and 241 Am in soils (0- to 12-in. [31 cm] depth underneath the tree), pinon pine shoots (PPS), and pinon pine nuts (PPN) collected from LANL lands and regional background (BG) locations, (2) concentrations of radionuclides in PPN collected in 1977 to present data, (3) committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) from the ingestion of nuts, and (4) soil to PPS to PPN concentration ratios (CRs). Most radionuclides, with the exception of 3 H in soils, were not significantly higher (p < 0.10) in soils, PPS, and PPN collected from LANL as compared to BG locations, and concentrations of most radionuclides in PPN from LANL have decreased over time. The maximum net CEDE (the CEDE plus two sigma minus BG) at the most conservative ingestion rate (10 lb [4.5 kg]) was 0.0018 mrem (0.018 microSv). Soil-to-nut CRs for most radionuclides were within the range of default values in the literature for common fruits and vegetables

  10. A Comparison of Source Code Plagiarism Detection Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Thomas; Culwin, Fintan

    2004-06-01

    Automated techniques for finding plagiarism in student source code submissions have been in use for over 20 years and there are many available engines and services. This paper reviews the literature on the major modern detection engines, providing a comparison of them based upon the metrics and techniques they deploy. Generally the most common and effective techniques are seen to involve tokenising student submissions then searching pairs of submissions for long common substrings, an example of what is defined to be a paired structural metric. Computing academics are recommended to use one of the two Web-based detection engines, MOSS and JPlag. It is shown that whilst detection is well established there are still places where further research would be useful, particularly where visual support of the investigation process is possible.

  11. Source Code Verification for Embedded Systems using Prolog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Flederer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available System relevant embedded software needs to be reliable and, therefore, well tested, especially for aerospace systems. A common technique to verify programs is the analysis of their abstract syntax tree (AST. Tree structures can be elegantly analyzed with the logic programming language Prolog. Moreover, Prolog offers further advantages for a thorough analysis: On the one hand, it natively provides versatile options to efficiently process tree or graph data structures. On the other hand, Prolog's non-determinism and backtracking eases tests of different variations of the program flow without big effort. A rule-based approach with Prolog allows to characterize the verification goals in a concise and declarative way. In this paper, we describe our approach to verify the source code of a flash file system with the help of Prolog. The flash file system is written in C++ and has been developed particularly for the use in satellites. We transform a given abstract syntax tree of C++ source code into Prolog facts and derive the call graph and the execution sequence (tree, which then are further tested against verification goals. The different program flow branching due to control structures is derived by backtracking as subtrees of the full execution sequence. Finally, these subtrees are verified in Prolog. We illustrate our approach with a case study, where we search for incorrect applications of semaphores in embedded software using the real-time operating system RODOS. We rely on computation tree logic (CTL and have designed an embedded domain specific language (DSL in Prolog to express the verification goals.

  12. From Symbolic to Substantive Documents: When Business Codes of Ethics Impact Unethical Behavior in the Workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.P. Kaptein (Muel)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractA business code of ethics is widely regarded as an important instrument to curb unethical behavior in the workplace. However, little is empirically known about the factors that determine the impact of a code on unethical behavior. Besides the existence of a code, this study proposes five

  13. How Do Open Source Communities Document Software Architecture: An Exploratory Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ding, W.; Liang, P.; Tang, A.; Van Vliet, H.; Shahin, M.

    2014-01-01

    Software architecture (SA) documentation provides a blueprint of a software-intensive system for the communication between stakeholders about the high-level design of the system. In open source software (OSS) development, a lack of SA documentation may hinder the use and further development of OSS,

  14. New Source Term Model for the RESRAD-OFFSITE Code Version 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Charley [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gnanapragasam, Emmanuel [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cheng, Jing-Jy [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kamboj, Sunita [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chen, Shih-Yew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This report documents the new source term model developed and implemented in Version 3 of the RESRAD-OFFSITE code. This new source term model includes: (1) "first order release with transport" option, in which the release of the radionuclide is proportional to the inventory in the primary contamination and the user-specified leach rate is the proportionality constant, (2) "equilibrium desorption release" option, in which the user specifies the distribution coefficient which quantifies the partitioning of the radionuclide between the solid and aqueous phases, and (3) "uniform release" option, in which the radionuclides are released from a constant fraction of the initially contaminated material during each time interval and the user specifies the duration over which the radionuclides are released.

  15. Modelling RF sources using 2-D PIC codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eppley, K.R.

    1993-03-01

    In recent years, many types of RF sources have been successfully modelled using 2-D PIC codes. Both cross field devices (magnetrons, cross field amplifiers, etc.) and pencil beam devices (klystrons, gyrotrons, TWT'S, lasertrons, etc.) have been simulated. All these devices involve the interaction of an electron beam with an RF circuit. For many applications, the RF structure may be approximated by an equivalent circuit, which appears in the simulation as a boundary condition on the electric field ( port approximation''). The drive term for the circuit is calculated from the energy transfer between beam and field in the drift space. For some applications it may be necessary to model the actual geometry of the structure, although this is more expensive. One problem not entirely solved is how to accurately model in 2-D the coupling to an external waveguide. Frequently this is approximated by a radial transmission line, but this sometimes yields incorrect results. We also discuss issues in modelling the cathode and injecting the beam into the PIC simulation.

  16. Modelling RF sources using 2-D PIC codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eppley, K.R.

    1993-03-01

    In recent years, many types of RF sources have been successfully modelled using 2-D PIC codes. Both cross field devices (magnetrons, cross field amplifiers, etc.) and pencil beam devices (klystrons, gyrotrons, TWT`S, lasertrons, etc.) have been simulated. All these devices involve the interaction of an electron beam with an RF circuit. For many applications, the RF structure may be approximated by an equivalent circuit, which appears in the simulation as a boundary condition on the electric field (``port approximation``). The drive term for the circuit is calculated from the energy transfer between beam and field in the drift space. For some applications it may be necessary to model the actual geometry of the structure, although this is more expensive. One problem not entirely solved is how to accurately model in 2-D the coupling to an external waveguide. Frequently this is approximated by a radial transmission line, but this sometimes yields incorrect results. We also discuss issues in modelling the cathode and injecting the beam into the PIC simulation.

  17. Modelling RF sources using 2-D PIC codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eppley, K.R.

    1993-03-01

    In recent years, many types of RF sources have been successfully modelled using 2-D PIC codes. Both cross field devices (magnetrons, cross field amplifiers, etc.) and pencil beam devices (klystrons, gyrotrons, TWT'S, lasertrons, etc.) have been simulated. All these devices involve the interaction of an electron beam with an RF circuit. For many applications, the RF structure may be approximated by an equivalent circuit, which appears in the simulation as a boundary condition on the electric field (''port approximation''). The drive term for the circuit is calculated from the energy transfer between beam and field in the drift space. For some applications it may be necessary to model the actual geometry of the structure, although this is more expensive. One problem not entirely solved is how to accurately model in 2-D the coupling to an external waveguide. Frequently this is approximated by a radial transmission line, but this sometimes yields incorrect results. We also discuss issues in modelling the cathode and injecting the beam into the PIC simulation

  18. Advanced Photon Source experimental beamline Safety Assessment Document: Addendum to the Advanced Photon Source Accelerator Systems Safety Assessment Document (APS-3.2.2.1.0)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This Safety Assessment Document (SAD) addresses commissioning and operation of the experimental beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Purpose of this document is to identify and describe the hazards associated with commissioning and operation of these beamlines and to document the measures taken to minimize these hazards and mitigate the hazard consequences. The potential hazards associated with the commissioning and operation of the APS facility have been identified and analyzed. Physical and administrative controls mitigate identified hazards. No hazard exists in this facility that has not been previously encountered and successfully mitigated in other accelerator and synchrotron radiation research facilities. This document is an updated version of the APS Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR). During the review of the PSAR in February 1990, the APS was determined to be a Low Hazard Facility. On June 14, 1993, the Acting Director of the Office of Energy Research endorsed the designation of the APS as a Low Hazard Facility, and this Safety Assessment Document supports that designation

  19. Schroedinger’s Code: A Preliminary Study on Research Source Code Availability and Link Persistence in Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Alice; Teuben, Peter J.; Ryan, P. Wesley

    2018-05-01

    We examined software usage in a sample set of astrophysics research articles published in 2015 and searched for the source codes for the software mentioned in these research papers. We categorized the software to indicate whether the source code is available for download and whether there are restrictions to accessing it, and if the source code is not available, whether some other form of the software, such as a binary, is. We also extracted hyperlinks from one journal’s 2015 research articles, as links in articles can serve as an acknowledgment of software use and lead to the data used in the research, and tested them to determine which of these URLs are still accessible. For our sample of 715 software instances in the 166 articles we examined, we were able to categorize 418 records as according to whether source code was available and found that 285 unique codes were used, 58% of which offered the source code for download. Of the 2558 hyperlinks extracted from 1669 research articles, at best, 90% of them were available over our testing period.

  20. OSSMETER D3.4 – Language-Specific Source Code Quality Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Vinju (Jurgen); A. Shahi (Ashim); H.J.S. Basten (Bas)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractThis deliverable is part of WP3: Source Code Quality and Activity Analysis. It provides descriptions and prototypes of the tools that are needed for source code quality analysis in open source software projects. It builds upon the results of: • Deliverable 3.1 where infra-structure and

  1. Quantifying the improvement in sepsis diagnosis, documentation, and coding: the marginal causal effect of year of hospitalization on sepsis diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarzadeh, S Reza; Thomas, Benjamin S; Marschall, Jonas; Fraser, Victoria J; Gill, Jeff; Warren, David K

    2016-01-01

    To quantify the coinciding improvement in the clinical diagnosis of sepsis, its documentation in the electronic health records, and subsequent medical coding of sepsis for billing purposes in recent years. We examined 98,267 hospitalizations in 66,208 patients who met systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria at a tertiary care center from 2008 to 2012. We used g-computation to estimate the causal effect of the year of hospitalization on receiving an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification discharge diagnosis code for sepsis by estimating changes in the probability of getting diagnosed and coded for sepsis during the study period. When adjusted for demographics, Charlson-Deyo comorbidity index, blood culture frequency per hospitalization, and intensive care unit admission, the causal risk difference for receiving a discharge code for sepsis per 100 hospitalizations with systemic inflammatory response syndrome, had the hospitalization occurred in 2012, was estimated to be 3.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.8%-4.0%), 3.4% (95% CI, 3.3%-3.5%), 2.2% (95% CI, 2.1%-2.3%), and 0.9% (95% CI, 0.8%-1.1%) from 2008 to 2011, respectively. Patients with similar characteristics and risk factors had a higher of probability of getting diagnosed, documented, and coded for sepsis in 2012 than in previous years, which contributed to an apparent increase in sepsis incidence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Using National Drug Codes and drug knowledge bases to organize prescription records from multiple sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonaitis, Linas; McDonald, Clement J

    2009-10-01

    The utility of National Drug Codes (NDCs) and drug knowledge bases (DKBs) in the organization of prescription records from multiple sources was studied. The master files of most pharmacy systems include NDCs and local codes to identify the products they dispense. We obtained a large sample of prescription records from seven different sources. These records carried a national product code or a local code that could be translated into a national product code via their formulary master. We obtained mapping tables from five DKBs. We measured the degree to which the DKB mapping tables covered the national product codes carried in or associated with the sample of prescription records. Considering the total prescription volume, DKBs covered 93.0-99.8% of the product codes from three outpatient sources and 77.4-97.0% of the product codes from four inpatient sources. Among the in-patient sources, invented codes explained 36-94% of the noncoverage. Outpatient pharmacy sources rarely invented codes, which comprised only 0.11-0.21% of their total prescription volume, compared with inpatient pharmacy sources for which invented codes comprised 1.7-7.4% of their prescription volume. The distribution of prescribed products was highly skewed, with 1.4-4.4% of codes accounting for 50% of the message volume and 10.7-34.5% accounting for 90% of the message volume. DKBs cover the product codes used by outpatient sources sufficiently well to permit automatic mapping. Changes in policies and standards could increase coverage of product codes used by inpatient sources.

  3. Compilation of documented computer codes applicable to environmental assessment of radioactivity releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, F.O.; Miller, C.W.; Shaeffer, D.L.; Garten, C.T. Jr.; Shor, R.W.; Ensminger, J.T.

    1977-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a compilation of computer codes for the assessment of accidental or routine releases of radioactivity to the environment from nuclear power facilities. The capabilities of 83 computer codes in the areas of environmental transport and radiation dosimetry are summarized in tabular form. This preliminary analysis clearly indicates that the initial efforts in assessment methodology development have concentrated on atmospheric dispersion, external dosimetry, and internal dosimetry via inhalation. The incorporation of terrestrial and aquatic food chain pathways has been a more recent development and reflects the current requirements of environmental legislation and the needs of regulatory agencies. The characteristics of the conceptual models employed by these codes are reviewed. The appendixes include abstracts of the codes and indexes by author, key words, publication description, and title

  4. PRIMUS: a computer code for the preparation of radionuclide ingrowth matrices from user-specified sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, O.W.; Baes, C.F. III; Miller, C.W.; Begovich, C.L.; Sjoreen, A.L.

    1984-10-01

    The computer program, PRIMUS, reads a library of radionuclide branching fractions and half-lives and constructs a decay-chain data library and a problem-specific decay-chain data file. PRIMUS reads the decay data compiled for 496 nuclides from the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF). The ease of adding radionuclides to the input library allows the CRRIS system to further expand its comprehensive data base. The decay-chain library produced is input to the ANEMOS code. Also, PRIMUS produces a data set reduced to only the decay chains required in a particular problem, for input to the SUMIT, TERRA, MLSOIL, and ANDROS codes. Air concentrations and deposition rates from the PRIMUS decay-chain data file. Source term data may be entered directly to PRIMUS to be read by MLSOIL, TERRA, and ANDROS. The decay-chain data prepared by PRIMUS is needed for a matrix-operator method that computes either time-dependent decay products from an initial concentration generated from a constant input source. This document describes the input requirements and the output obtained. Also, sections are included on methods, applications, subroutines, and sample cases. A short appendix indicates a method of utilizing PRIMUS and the associated decay subroutines from TERRA or ANDROS for applications to other decay problems. 18 references

  5. Advisory Committee on human radiation experiments. Supplemental Volume 2a, Sources and documentation appendices. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This large document provides a catalog of the location of large numbers of reports pertaining to the charge of the Presidential Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Research and is arranged as a series of appendices. Titles of the appendices are Appendix A- Records at the Washington National Records Center Reviewed in Whole or Part by DoD Personnel or Advisory Committee Staff; Appendix B- Brief Descriptions of Records Accessions in the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments (ACHRE) Research Document Collection; Appendix C- Bibliography of Secondary Sources Used by ACHRE; Appendix D- Brief Descriptions of Human Radiation Experiments Identified by ACHRE, and Indexes; Appendix E- Documents Cited in the ACHRE Final Report and other Separately Described Materials from the ACHRE Document Collection; Appendix F- Schedule of Advisory Committee Meetings and Meeting Documentation; and Appendix G- Technology Note

  6. Advisory Committee on human radiation experiments. Supplemental Volume 2a, Sources and documentation appendices. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    This large document provides a catalog of the location of large numbers of reports pertaining to the charge of the Presidential Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Research and is arranged as a series of appendices. Titles of the appendices are Appendix A- Records at the Washington National Records Center Reviewed in Whole or Part by DoD Personnel or Advisory Committee Staff; Appendix B- Brief Descriptions of Records Accessions in the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments (ACHRE) Research Document Collection; Appendix C- Bibliography of Secondary Sources Used by ACHRE; Appendix D- Brief Descriptions of Human Radiation Experiments Identified by ACHRE, and Indexes; Appendix E- Documents Cited in the ACHRE Final Report and other Separately Described Materials from the ACHRE Document Collection; Appendix F- Schedule of Advisory Committee Meetings and Meeting Documentation; and Appendix G- Technology Note.

  7. Neutron spallation source and the Dubna cascade code

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, V; Goel, U; Barashenkov, V S

    2003-01-01

    Neutron multiplicity per incident proton, n/p, in collision of high energy proton beam with voluminous Pb and W targets has been estimated from the Dubna cascade code and compared with the available experimental data for the purpose of benchmarking of the code. Contributions of various atomic and nuclear processes for heat production and isotopic yield of secondary nuclei are also estimated to assess the heat and radioactivity conditions of the targets. Results obtained from the code show excellent agreement with the experimental data at beam energy, E < 1.2 GeV and differ maximum up to 25% at higher energy. (author)

  8. Code requirements document: MODFLOW 2.1: A program for predicting moderator flow patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, P.F.

    1992-03-01

    Sudden changes in the temperature of flowing liquids can result in transient buoyancy forces which strongly impact the flow hydrodynamics via flow stratification. These effects have been studied for the case of potential flow of stratified liquids to line sinks, but not for moderator flow in SRS reactors. Standard codes, such as TRAC and COMMIX, do not have the capability to capture the stratification effect, due to strong numerical diffusion which smears away the hot/cold fluid interface. A related problem with standard codes is the inability to track plumes injected into the liquid flow, again due to numerical diffusion. The combined effects of buoyant stratification and plume dispersion have been identified as being important in operation of the Supplementary Safety System which injects neutron-poison ink into SRS reactors to provide safe shutdown in the event of safety rod failure. The MODFLOW code discussed here provides transient moderator flow pattern information with stratification effects, and tracks the location of ink plumes in the reactor. The code, written in Fortran, is compiled for Macintosh II computers, and includes subroutines for interactive control and graphical output. Removing the graphics capabilities, the code can also be compiled on other computers. With graphics, in addition to the capability to perform safety related computations, MODFLOW also provides an easy tool for becoming familiar with flow distributions in SRS reactors

  9. Stars with shell energy sources. Part 1. Special evolutionary code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozyczka, M.

    1977-01-01

    A new version of the Henyey-type stellar evolution code is described and tested. It is shown, as a by-product of the tests, that the thermal time scale of the core of a red giant approaching the helium flash is of the order of the evolutionary time scale. The code itself appears to be a very efficient tool for investigations of the helium flash, carbon flash and the evolution of a white dwarf accreting mass. (author)

  10. Documentation and verification of the SHAFT code; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St.John, C.M. [Agapito (J.F.T.) and Associates, Inc., Grand Junction, CO (United States)

    1991-12-01

    The SHAFT code incorporates equations to compute stresses in a shaft liner when the rock through which a shaft passes is subject to known three-dimensional states of stress or strain. The deformation modes considered are hoop deformation, axial deformation, and shear on a plane normal to the shaft axis. Interaction between the liner and the soil and rock is considered, and it is assumed that the liner is in place before loading is applied. This code is intended to be used interactively but creates a permanent record complete with necessary quality assurance information. The code has been carefully verified for the case of generalized plane strain, in which an arbitrary axial strain can be defined. It may also be used for plane stress analysis. Output is given in the form of stresses at selected sample points in the linear and the rock and a simple graphical representation of the distribution of stress through the liner. 12 figs., 13 tabs.

  11. Process Model Improvement for Source Code Plagiarism Detection in Student Programming Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermek, Dragutin; Novak, Matija

    2016-01-01

    In programming courses there are various ways in which students attempt to cheat. The most commonly used method is copying source code from other students and making minimal changes in it, like renaming variable names. Several tools like Sherlock, JPlag and Moss have been devised to detect source code plagiarism. However, for larger student…

  12. OSSMETER D3.2 – Report on Source Code Activity Metrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Vinju (Jurgen); A. Shahi (Ashim)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractThis deliverable is part of WP3: Source Code Quality and Activity Analysis. It provides descriptions and initial prototypes of the tools that are needed for source code activity analysis. It builds upon the Deliverable 3.1 where infra-structure and a domain analysis have been

  13. Review of the status of validation of the computer codes used in the severe accident source term reassessment study (BMI-2104)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kress, T.S.

    1985-04-01

    The determination of severe accident source terms must, by necessity it seems, rely heavily on the use of complex computer codes. Source term acceptability, therefore, rests on the assessed validity of such codes. Consequently, one element of NRC's recent efforts to reassess LWR severe accident source terms is to provide a review of the status of validation of the computer codes used in the reassessment. The results of this review is the subject of this document. The separate review documents compiled in this report were used as a resource along with the results of the BMI-2104 study by BCL and the QUEST study by SNL to arrive at a more-or-less independent appraisal of the status of source term modeling at this time

  14. 76 FR 1173 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Electronic Source Documentation in Clinical Investigations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... Web page at http://www.fda.gov/RegulatoryInformation/Guidances/default.htm . FDA guidances are issued and updated regularly. We recommend you check the Web site to ensure that you have the most up-to-date... electronic diaries provided by study subjects. When paper source documents are available for review, tracing...

  15. Beyond the Ancestral Code: Towards a Model for Sociolinguistic Language Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Tucker; Good, Jeff; Mitchell, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Most language documentation efforts focus on capturing lexico-grammatical information on individual languages. Comparatively little effort has been devoted to considering a language's sociolinguistic contexts. In parts of the world characterized by high degrees of multilingualism, questions surrounding the factors involved in language choice and…

  16. Preparation of computer codes for analyzing sensitivity coefficients of burnup characteristics (2) (Contract research, translated document)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanaki, Hiroshi; Sanda, Toshio; Ohashi, Masahisa

    2008-10-01

    To develop nuclear design of LMFBR cores, they are important subjects of research and development to improve the accuracy in nuclear design of large LMFBR cores and to design highly efficient core more rationally. The adjusted nuclear cross-sections library has been made by being reflected the result of critical experiment of the JUPITER, etc. effectively as much as possible. And the distinct improvement of the accuracy in nuclear design of large LMFBR cores has been achieved. In the design of large LMFBR cores, however, it is important to accurately estimate not only nuclear characteristics, for example, reaction rate distribution and control rod worth but also burnup characteristics, for example, burnup reactivity loss, breeding ratio and so on. Therefore, it is thought to improve the prediction accuracy for burnup characteristics using many burnup data of 'Joyo' effectively. It is thought the best way to adjust cross sections using sensitivity coefficients of burnup characteristics to utilize burnup data of 'Joyo'. It is able to know the accuracy quantitatively for burnup characteristics of large LMFBR by analyzing the sensitivity coefficients. Therefore in this work computer codes for analyzing sensitivity coefficients of burnup characteristics had been prepared since 1992. In 1992 cross-section adjustment was done by using the data of 'Joyo' and the effect was studied. In this year the adequacy of the codes was studied with a view of applying of design of large LMFBR cores. The results are as follows: (1) The computer codes which could analyze sensitivity coefficients of burnup characteristics taking into consideration plural cycles and refueling were prepared, therefore it came of be able to adjust cross sections using burnup data and to estimate the accuracy for design of large LMFBR cores. The characteristics are not only burnup reactivity loss, breeding ratio but also number density, criticality, reactivity worth, reaction rate ratio, and reaction rate

  17. Transparent ICD and DRG coding using information technology: linking and associating information sources with the eXtensible Markup Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelzer, Simon; Schweiger, Ralf K; Dudeck, Joachim

    2003-01-01

    With the introduction of ICD-10 as the standard for diagnostics, it becomes necessary to develop an electronic representation of its complete content, inherent semantics, and coding rules. The authors' design relates to the current efforts by the CEN/TC 251 to establish a European standard for hierarchical classification systems in health care. The authors have developed an electronic representation of ICD-10 with the eXtensible Markup Language (XML) that facilitates integration into current information systems and coding software, taking different languages and versions into account. In this context, XML provides a complete processing framework of related technologies and standard tools that helps develop interoperable applications. XML provides semantic markup. It allows domain-specific definition of tags and hierarchical document structure. The idea of linking and thus combining information from different sources is a valuable feature of XML. In addition, XML topic maps are used to describe relationships between different sources, or "semantically associated" parts of these sources. The issue of achieving a standardized medical vocabulary becomes more and more important with the stepwise implementation of diagnostically related groups, for example. The aim of the authors' work is to provide a transparent and open infrastructure that can be used to support clinical coding and to develop further software applications. The authors are assuming that a comprehensive representation of the content, structure, inherent semantics, and layout of medical classification systems can be achieved through a document-oriented approach.

  18. Open Genetic Code: on open source in the life sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Deibel, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of open source in the life sciences is increasingly being suggested as an alternative to patenting. This is an alternative, however, that takes its shape at the intersection of the life sciences and informatics. Numerous examples can be identified wherein open source in the life sciences refers to access, sharing and collaboration as informatic practices. This includes open source as an experimental model and as a more sophisticated approach of genetic engineering. The first ...

  19. Source Code Analysis Laboratory (SCALe) for Energy Delivery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    technical competence for the type of tests and calibrations SCALe undertakes. Testing and calibration laboratories that comply with ISO / IEC 17025 ...and exec t [ ISO / IEC 2005]. f a software system indicates that the SCALe analysis di by a CERT secure coding standard. Successful conforma antees that...to be more secure than non- systems. However, no study has yet been performed to p t ssment in accordance with ISO / IEC 17000: “a demonstr g to a

  20. Open Genetic Code : On open source in the life sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deibel, E.

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of open source in the life sciences is increasingly being suggested as an alternative to patenting. This is an alternative, however, that takes its shape at the intersection of the life sciences and informatics. Numerous examples can be identified wherein open source in the life

  1. Open Genetic Code: on open source in the life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deibel, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of open source in the life sciences is increasingly being suggested as an alternative to patenting. This is an alternative, however, that takes its shape at the intersection of the life sciences and informatics. Numerous examples can be identified wherein open source in the life sciences refers to access, sharing and collaboration as informatic practices. This includes open source as an experimental model and as a more sophisticated approach of genetic engineering. The first section discusses the greater flexibly in regard of patenting and the relationship to the introduction of open source in the life sciences. The main argument is that the ownership of knowledge in the life sciences should be reconsidered in the context of the centrality of DNA in informatic formats. This is illustrated by discussing a range of examples of open source models. The second part focuses on open source in synthetic biology as exemplary for the re-materialization of information into food, energy, medicine and so forth. The paper ends by raising the question whether another kind of alternative might be possible: one that looks at open source as a model for an alternative to the commodification of life that is understood as an attempt to comprehensively remove the restrictions from the usage of DNA in any of its formats.

  2. Model-Based Least Squares Reconstruction of Coded Source Neutron Radiographs: Integrating the ORNL HFIR CG1D Source Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL; Gregor, Jens [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Bingham, Philip R [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    At the present, neutron sources cannot be fabricated small and powerful enough in order to achieve high resolution radiography while maintaining an adequate flux. One solution is to employ computational imaging techniques such as a Magnified Coded Source Imaging (CSI) system. A coded-mask is placed between the neutron source and the object. The system resolution is increased by reducing the size of the mask holes and the flux is increased by increasing the size of the coded-mask and/or the number of holes. One limitation of such system is that the resolution of current state-of-the-art scintillator-based detectors caps around 50um. To overcome this challenge, the coded-mask and object are magnified by making the distance from the coded-mask to the object much smaller than the distance from object to detector. In previous work, we have shown via synthetic experiments that our least squares method outperforms other methods in image quality and reconstruction precision because of the modeling of the CSI system components. However, the validation experiments were limited to simplistic neutron sources. In this work, we aim to model the flux distribution of a real neutron source and incorporate such a model in our least squares computational system. We provide a full description of the methodology used to characterize the neutron source and validate the method with synthetic experiments.

  3. Source Authentication for Code Dissemination Supporting Dynamic Packet Size in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daehee; Kim, Dongwan; An, Sunshin

    2016-07-09

    Code dissemination in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is a procedure for distributing a new code image over the air in order to update programs. Due to the fact that WSNs are mostly deployed in unattended and hostile environments, secure code dissemination ensuring authenticity and integrity is essential. Recent works on dynamic packet size control in WSNs allow enhancing the energy efficiency of code dissemination by dynamically changing the packet size on the basis of link quality. However, the authentication tokens attached by the base station become useless in the next hop where the packet size can vary according to the link quality of the next hop. In this paper, we propose three source authentication schemes for code dissemination supporting dynamic packet size. Compared to traditional source authentication schemes such as μTESLA and digital signatures, our schemes provide secure source authentication under the environment, where the packet size changes in each hop, with smaller energy consumption.

  4. Source Authentication for Code Dissemination Supporting Dynamic Packet Size in Wireless Sensor Networks †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daehee; Kim, Dongwan; An, Sunshin

    2016-01-01

    Code dissemination in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is a procedure for distributing a new code image over the air in order to update programs. Due to the fact that WSNs are mostly deployed in unattended and hostile environments, secure code dissemination ensuring authenticity and integrity is essential. Recent works on dynamic packet size control in WSNs allow enhancing the energy efficiency of code dissemination by dynamically changing the packet size on the basis of link quality. However, the authentication tokens attached by the base station become useless in the next hop where the packet size can vary according to the link quality of the next hop. In this paper, we propose three source authentication schemes for code dissemination supporting dynamic packet size. Compared to traditional source authentication schemes such as μTESLA and digital signatures, our schemes provide secure source authentication under the environment, where the packet size changes in each hop, with smaller energy consumption. PMID:27409616

  5. FINANCIAL REPORTING AND SOURCE DOCUMENTS OF UKRAINIAN ENTERPRISES WHEN APPLYING THE IFRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Golubnicha

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical, methodological and practical aspects of changes in financial reporting and source documents specific to Ukrainian enterprises in the new conditions resulting from the application of International Financial Reporting Standards have been analyzed. Also, a conceptual approach of defining the patterns of changes in financial reporting and elements of accounting method has been proposed. The issue of internal quality control of analytical accounting information at various stages of its formation has been researched.

  6. Renewable energy sources. European Commission papers; Energies renouvelables. Documents de la Commission Europeenne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The ''Directive on the Promotion of Electricity from Renewable Sources of Energy in the Internal Electricity Market'' was adopted in September 2001. Its purpose is to promote an increase in the contribution of renewable energy sources to electricity production in the internal market for electricity and to create a basis for a future Community framework. Energie-Cites provides in this document a summary of its opinion on the Green Paper and on Alterner II and gives a proposal for an Action Plan concerning the White Paper. (A.L.B.)

  7. Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources and the Supplementary Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    published texts of the revised IAEA Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources and the Supplementary Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources are reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Member States. As of 1 December 2005, 77 States have written to the Director General with respect to the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources in line with operative paragraph 4 of resolution GC(47)/RES/7.B; and 13 States have notified the Director General of their intentions with regard to the Supplementary Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources, as encouraged by operative paragraph 8 of resolution GC(48)/RES/10.D. In accordance with paragraph 5 of resolution GC(47)/RES/7.B, the list of States that have made a political commitment with respect to the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources is given below. For completeness, the list also indicates those States that have notified the Director General of their intentions with respect to the Supplementary Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources. In accordance with operative paragraph 6 of GC(47)/RES/7.B, this list has no legal force and is reproduced in this document only for the information of all Member States. The list will be updated to reflect any additional commitments received by the Director General

  8. Low complexity source and channel coding for mm-wave hybrid fiber-wireless links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebedev, Alexander; Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Pang, Xiaodan

    2014-01-01

    We report on the performance of channel and source coding applied for an experimentally realized hybrid fiber-wireless W-band link. Error control coding performance is presented for a wireless propagation distance of 3 m and 20 km fiber transmission. We report on peak signal-to-noise ratio perfor...

  9. Code of conduct on the safety and security of radioactive sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The objective of this Code is to achieve and maintain a high level of safety and security of radioactive sources through the development, harmonization and enforcement of national policies, laws and regulations, and through tile fostering of international co-operation. In particular, this Code addresses the establishment of an adequate system of regulatory control from the production of radioactive sources to their final disposal, and a system for the restoration of such control if it has been lost.

  10. Automated Source Code Analysis to Identify and Remove Software Security Vulnerabilities: Case Studies on Java Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Natarajan Meghanathan

    2013-01-01

    The high-level contribution of this paper is to illustrate the development of generic solution strategies to remove software security vulnerabilities that could be identified using automated tools for source code analysis on software programs (developed in Java). We use the Source Code Analyzer and Audit Workbench automated tools, developed by HP Fortify Inc., for our testing purposes. We present case studies involving a file writer program embedded with features for password validation, and ...

  11. Code of conduct on the safety and security of radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    The objective of this Code is to achieve and maintain a high level of safety and security of radioactive sources through the development, harmonization and enforcement of national policies, laws and regulations, and through tile fostering of international co-operation. In particular, this Code addresses the establishment of an adequate system of regulatory control from the production of radioactive sources to their final disposal, and a system for the restoration of such control if it has been lost

  12. Open-Source Development of the Petascale Reactive Flow and Transport Code PFLOTRAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, G. E.; Andre, B.; Bisht, G.; Johnson, T.; Karra, S.; Lichtner, P. C.; Mills, R. T.

    2013-12-01

    Open-source software development has become increasingly popular in recent years. Open-source encourages collaborative and transparent software development and promotes unlimited free redistribution of source code to the public. Open-source development is good for science as it reveals implementation details that are critical to scientific reproducibility, but generally excluded from journal publications. In addition, research funds that would have been spent on licensing fees can be redirected to code development that benefits more scientists. In 2006, the developers of PFLOTRAN open-sourced their code under the U.S. Department of Energy SciDAC-II program. Since that time, the code has gained popularity among code developers and users from around the world seeking to employ PFLOTRAN to simulate thermal, hydraulic, mechanical and biogeochemical processes in the Earth's surface/subsurface environment. PFLOTRAN is a massively-parallel subsurface reactive multiphase flow and transport simulator designed from the ground up to run efficiently on computing platforms ranging from the laptop to leadership-class supercomputers, all from a single code base. The code employs domain decomposition for parallelism and is founded upon the well-established and open-source parallel PETSc and HDF5 frameworks. PFLOTRAN leverages modern Fortran (i.e. Fortran 2003-2008) in its extensible object-oriented design. The use of this progressive, yet domain-friendly programming language has greatly facilitated collaboration in the code's software development. Over the past year, PFLOTRAN's top-level data structures were refactored as Fortran classes (i.e. extendible derived types) to improve the flexibility of the code, ease the addition of new process models, and enable coupling to external simulators. For instance, PFLOTRAN has been coupled to the parallel electrical resistivity tomography code E4D to enable hydrogeophysical inversion while the same code base can be used as a third

  13. Distributed Remote Vector Gaussian Source Coding for Wireless Acoustic Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahedi, Adel; Østergaard, Jan; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of remote vector Gaussian source coding for a wireless acoustic sensor network. Each node receives messages from multiple nodes in the network and decodes these messages using its own measurement of the sound field as side information. The node’s measurement...... and the estimates of the source resulting from decoding the received messages are then jointly encoded and transmitted to a neighboring node in the network. We show that for this distributed source coding scenario, one can encode a so-called conditional sufficient statistic of the sources instead of jointly...

  14. Test of Effective Solid Angle code for the efficiency calculation of volume source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, M. Y.; Kim, J. H.; Choi, H. D. [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sun, G. M. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    It is hard to determine a full energy (FE) absorption peak efficiency curve for an arbitrary volume source by experiment. That's why the simulation and semi-empirical methods have been preferred so far, and many works have progressed in various ways. Moens et al. determined the concept of effective solid angle by considering an attenuation effect of γ-rays in source, media and detector. This concept is based on a semi-empirical method. An Effective Solid Angle code (ESA code) has been developed for years by the Applied Nuclear Physics Group in Seoul National University. ESA code converts an experimental FE efficiency curve determined by using a standard point source to that for a volume source. To test the performance of ESA Code, we measured the point standard sources and voluminous certified reference material (CRM) sources of γ-ray, and compared with efficiency curves obtained in this study. 200∼1500 KeV energy region is fitted well. NIST X-ray mass attenuation coefficient data is used currently to check for the effect of linear attenuation only. We will use the interaction cross-section data obtained from XCOM code to check the each contributing factor like photoelectric effect, incoherent scattering and coherent scattering in the future. In order to minimize the calculation time and code simplification, optimization of algorithm is needed.

  15. RETRANS - A tool to verify the functional equivalence of automatically generated source code with its specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miedl, H.

    1998-01-01

    Following the competent technical standards (e.g. IEC 880) it is necessary to verify each step in the development process of safety critical software. This holds also for the verification of automatically generated source code. To avoid human errors during this verification step and to limit the cost effort a tool should be used which is developed independently from the development of the code generator. For this purpose ISTec has developed the tool RETRANS which demonstrates the functional equivalence of automatically generated source code with its underlying specification. (author)

  16. Use of source term code package in the ELEBRA MX-850 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, A.C.F.; Goes, A.G.A.

    1988-12-01

    The implantation of source term code package in the ELEBRA-MX850 system is presented. The source term is formed when radioactive materials generated in nuclear fuel leakage toward containment and the external environment to reactor containment. The implantated version in the ELEBRA system are composed of five codes: MARCH 3, TRAPMELT 3, THCCA, VANESA and NAVA. The original example case was used. The example consists of a small loca accident in a PWR type reactor. A sensitivity study for the TRAPMELT 3 code was carried out, modifying the 'TIME STEP' to estimate the processing time of CPU for executing the original example case. (M.C.K.) [pt

  17. Eu-NORSEWInD - Assessment of Viability of Open Source CFD Code for the Wind Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stickland, Matt; Scanlon, Tom; Fabre, Sylvie

    2009-01-01

    Part of the overall NORSEWInD project is the use of LiDAR remote sensing (RS) systems mounted on offshore platforms to measure wind velocity profiles at a number of locations offshore. The data acquired from the offshore RS measurements will be fed into a large and novel wind speed dataset suitab...... between the results of simulations created by the commercial code FLUENT and the open source code OpenFOAM. An assessment of the ease with which the open source code can be used is also included....

  18. An Efficient SF-ISF Approach for the Slepian-Wolf Source Coding Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu Zhenyu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple but powerful scheme exploiting the binning concept for asymmetric lossless distributed source coding is proposed. The novelty in the proposed scheme is the introduction of a syndrome former (SF in the source encoder and an inverse syndrome former (ISF in the source decoder to efficiently exploit an existing linear channel code without the need to modify the code structure or the decoding strategy. For most channel codes, the construction of SF-ISF pairs is a light task. For parallelly and serially concatenated codes and particularly parallel and serial turbo codes where this appear less obvious, an efficient way for constructing linear complexity SF-ISF pairs is demonstrated. It is shown that the proposed SF-ISF approach is simple, provenly optimal, and generally applicable to any linear channel code. Simulation using conventional and asymmetric turbo codes demonstrates a compression rate that is only 0.06 bit/symbol from the theoretical limit, which is among the best results reported so far.

  19. Evaluating Open-Source Full-Text Search Engines for Matching ICD-10 Codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurcău, Daniel-Alexandru; Stoicu-Tivadar, Vasile

    2016-01-01

    This research presents the results of evaluating multiple free, open-source engines on matching ICD-10 diagnostic codes via full-text searches. The study investigates what it takes to get an accurate match when searching for a specific diagnostic code. For each code the evaluation starts by extracting the words that make up its text and continues with building full-text search queries from the combinations of these words. The queries are then run against all the ICD-10 codes until a match indicates the code in question as a match with the highest relative score. This method identifies the minimum number of words that must be provided in order for the search engines choose the desired entry. The engines analyzed include a popular Java-based full-text search engine, a lightweight engine written in JavaScript which can even execute on the user's browser, and two popular open-source relational database management systems.

  20. Code of conduct on the safety and security of radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of the Code of Conduct are, through the development, harmonization and implementation of national policies, laws and regulations, and through the fostering of international co-operation, to: (i) achieve and maintain a high level of safety and security of radioactive sources; (ii) prevent unauthorized access or damage to, and loss, theft or unauthorized transfer of, radioactive sources, so as to reduce the likelihood of accidental harmful exposure to such sources or the malicious use of such sources to cause harm to individuals, society or the environment; and (iii) mitigate or minimize the radiological consequences of any accident or malicious act involving a radioactive source. These objectives should be achieved through the establishment of an adequate system of regulatory control of radioactive sources, applicable from the stage of initial production to their final disposal, and a system for the restoration of such control if it has been lost. This Code relies on existing international standards relating to nuclear, radiation, radioactive waste and transport safety and to the control of radioactive sources. It is intended to complement existing international standards in these areas. The Code of Conduct serves as guidance in general issues, legislation and regulations, regulatory bodies as well as import and export of radioactive sources. A list of radioactive sources covered by the code is provided which includes activities corresponding to thresholds of categories

  1. Code of conduct on the safety and security of radioactive sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of the Code of Conduct are, through the development, harmonization and implementation of national policies, laws and regulations, and through the fostering of international co-operation, to: (i) achieve and maintain a high level of safety and security of radioactive sources; (ii) prevent unauthorized access or damage to, and loss, theft or unauthorized transfer of, radioactive sources, so as to reduce the likelihood of accidental harmful exposure to such sources or the malicious use of such sources to cause harm to individuals, society or the environment; and (iii) mitigate or minimize the radiological consequences of any accident or malicious act involving a radioactive source. These objectives should be achieved through the establishment of an adequate system of regulatory control of radioactive sources, applicable from the stage of initial production to their final disposal, and a system for the restoration of such control if it has been lost. This Code relies on existing international standards relating to nuclear, radiation, radioactive waste and transport safety and to the control of radioactive sources. It is intended to complement existing international standards in these areas. The Code of Conduct serves as guidance in general issues, legislation and regulations, regulatory bodies as well as import and export of radioactive sources. A list of radioactive sources covered by the code is provided which includes activities corresponding to thresholds of categories.

  2. Lysimeter data as input to performance assessment source term codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Rogers, R.D.; Sullivan, T.

    1992-01-01

    The Field Lysimeter Investigation: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program is obtaining information on the performance of radioactive waste in a disposal environment. Waste forms fabricated using ion-exchange resins from EPICOR-II c prefilters employed in the cleanup of the Three Mile Island (TMI) Nuclear Power Station are being tested to develop a low-level waste data base and to obtain information on survivability of waste forms in a disposal environment. In this paper, radionuclide releases from waste forms in the first seven years of sampling are presented and discussed. Application of lysimeter data to be used in performance assessment source term models is presented. Initial results from use of data in two models are discussed

  3. An efficient chaotic source coding scheme with variable-length blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Qiu-Zhen; Wong Kwok-Wo; Chen Jian-Yong

    2011-01-01

    An efficient chaotic source coding scheme operating on variable-length blocks is proposed. With the source message represented by a trajectory in the state space of a chaotic system, data compression is achieved when the dynamical system is adapted to the probability distribution of the source symbols. For infinite-precision computation, the theoretical compression performance of this chaotic coding approach attains that of optimal entropy coding. In finite-precision implementation, it can be realized by encoding variable-length blocks using a piecewise linear chaotic map within the precision of register length. In the decoding process, the bit shift in the register can track the synchronization of the initial value and the corresponding block. Therefore, all the variable-length blocks are decoded correctly. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme performs well with high efficiency and minor compression loss when compared with traditional entropy coding. (general)

  4. Authorship attribution of source code by using back propagation neural network based on particle swarm optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinyu; Xu, Guoai; Li, Qi; Guo, Yanhui; Zhang, Miao

    2017-01-01

    Authorship attribution is to identify the most likely author of a given sample among a set of candidate known authors. It can be not only applied to discover the original author of plain text, such as novels, blogs, emails, posts etc., but also used to identify source code programmers. Authorship attribution of source code is required in diverse applications, ranging from malicious code tracking to solving authorship dispute or software plagiarism detection. This paper aims to propose a new method to identify the programmer of Java source code samples with a higher accuracy. To this end, it first introduces back propagation (BP) neural network based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) into authorship attribution of source code. It begins by computing a set of defined feature metrics, including lexical and layout metrics, structure and syntax metrics, totally 19 dimensions. Then these metrics are input to neural network for supervised learning, the weights of which are output by PSO and BP hybrid algorithm. The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated on a collected dataset with 3,022 Java files belong to 40 authors. Experiment results show that the proposed method achieves 91.060% accuracy. And a comparison with previous work on authorship attribution of source code for Java language illustrates that this proposed method outperforms others overall, also with an acceptable overhead.

  5. Joint Source-Channel Decoding of Variable-Length Codes with Soft Information: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Siohan

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia transmission over time-varying wireless channels presents a number of challenges beyond existing capabilities conceived so far for third-generation networks. Efficient quality-of-service (QoS provisioning for multimedia on these channels may in particular require a loosening and a rethinking of the layer separation principle. In that context, joint source-channel decoding (JSCD strategies have gained attention as viable alternatives to separate decoding of source and channel codes. A statistical framework based on hidden Markov models (HMM capturing dependencies between the source and channel coding components sets the foundation for optimal design of techniques of joint decoding of source and channel codes. The problem has been largely addressed in the research community, by considering both fixed-length codes (FLC and variable-length source codes (VLC widely used in compression standards. Joint source-channel decoding of VLC raises specific difficulties due to the fact that the segmentation of the received bitstream into source symbols is random. This paper makes a survey of recent theoretical and practical advances in the area of JSCD with soft information of VLC-encoded sources. It first describes the main paths followed for designing efficient estimators for VLC-encoded sources, the key component of the JSCD iterative structure. It then presents the main issues involved in the application of the turbo principle to JSCD of VLC-encoded sources as well as the main approaches to source-controlled channel decoding. This survey terminates by performance illustrations with real image and video decoding systems.

  6. Joint Source-Channel Decoding of Variable-Length Codes with Soft Information: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemot, Christine; Siohan, Pierre

    2005-12-01

    Multimedia transmission over time-varying wireless channels presents a number of challenges beyond existing capabilities conceived so far for third-generation networks. Efficient quality-of-service (QoS) provisioning for multimedia on these channels may in particular require a loosening and a rethinking of the layer separation principle. In that context, joint source-channel decoding (JSCD) strategies have gained attention as viable alternatives to separate decoding of source and channel codes. A statistical framework based on hidden Markov models (HMM) capturing dependencies between the source and channel coding components sets the foundation for optimal design of techniques of joint decoding of source and channel codes. The problem has been largely addressed in the research community, by considering both fixed-length codes (FLC) and variable-length source codes (VLC) widely used in compression standards. Joint source-channel decoding of VLC raises specific difficulties due to the fact that the segmentation of the received bitstream into source symbols is random. This paper makes a survey of recent theoretical and practical advances in the area of JSCD with soft information of VLC-encoded sources. It first describes the main paths followed for designing efficient estimators for VLC-encoded sources, the key component of the JSCD iterative structure. It then presents the main issues involved in the application of the turbo principle to JSCD of VLC-encoded sources as well as the main approaches to source-controlled channel decoding. This survey terminates by performance illustrations with real image and video decoding systems.

  7. Fine-Grained Energy Modeling for the Source Code of a Mobile Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xueliang; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The goal of an energy model for source code is to lay a foundation for the application of energy-aware programming techniques. State of the art solutions are based on source-line energy information. In this paper, we present an approach to constructing a fine-grained energy model which is able...

  8. Comparison of DT neutron production codes MCUNED, ENEA-JSI source subroutine and DDT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Čufar, Aljaž, E-mail: aljaz.cufar@ijs.si [Reactor Physics Department, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Lengar, Igor; Kodeli, Ivan [Reactor Physics Department, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Milocco, Alberto [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Sauvan, Patrick [Departamento de Ingeniería Energética, E.T.S. Ingenieros Industriales, UNED, C/Juan del Rosal 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Conroy, Sean [VR Association, Uppsala University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, PO Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Snoj, Luka [Reactor Physics Department, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Results of three codes capable of simulating the accelerator based DT neutron generators were compared on a simple model where only a thin target made of mixture of titanium and tritium is present. Two typical deuteron beam energies, 100 keV and 250 keV, were used in the comparison. • Comparisons of the angular dependence of the total neutron flux and spectrum as well as the neutron spectrum of all the neutrons emitted from the target show general agreement of the results but also some noticeable differences. • A comparison of figures of merit of the calculations using different codes showed that the computational time necessary to achieve the same statistical uncertainty can vary for more than 30× when different codes for the simulation of the DT neutron generator are used. - Abstract: As the DT fusion reaction produces neutrons with energies significantly higher than in fission reactors, special fusion-relevant benchmark experiments are often performed using DT neutron generators. However, commonly used Monte Carlo particle transport codes such as MCNP or TRIPOLI cannot be directly used to analyze these experiments since they do not have the capabilities to model the production of DT neutrons. Three of the available approaches to model the DT neutron generator source are the MCUNED code, the ENEA-JSI DT source subroutine and the DDT code. The MCUNED code is an extension of the well-established and validated MCNPX Monte Carlo code. The ENEA-JSI source subroutine was originally prepared for the modelling of the FNG experiments using different versions of the MCNP code (−4, −5, −X) and was later extended to allow the modelling of both DT and DD neutron sources. The DDT code prepares the DT source definition file (SDEF card in MCNP) which can then be used in different versions of the MCNP code. In the paper the methods for the simulation of the DT neutron production used in the codes are briefly described and compared for the case of a

  9. IllinoisGRMHD: an open-source, user-friendly GRMHD code for dynamical spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etienne, Zachariah B; Paschalidis, Vasileios; Haas, Roland; Mösta, Philipp; Shapiro, Stuart L

    2015-01-01

    In the extreme violence of merger and mass accretion, compact objects like black holes and neutron stars are thought to launch some of the most luminous outbursts of electromagnetic and gravitational wave energy in the Universe. Modeling these systems realistically is a central problem in theoretical astrophysics, but has proven extremely challenging, requiring the development of numerical relativity codes that solve Einstein's equations for the spacetime, coupled to the equations of general relativistic (ideal) magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD) for the magnetized fluids. Over the past decade, the Illinois numerical relativity (ILNR) group's dynamical spacetime GRMHD code has proven itself as a robust and reliable tool for theoretical modeling of such GRMHD phenomena. However, the code was written ‘by experts and for experts’ of the code, with a steep learning curve that would severely hinder community adoption if it were open-sourced. Here we present IllinoisGRMHD, which is an open-source, highly extensible rewrite of the original closed-source GRMHD code of the ILNR group. Reducing the learning curve was the primary focus of this rewrite, with the goal of facilitating community involvement in the code's use and development, as well as the minimization of human effort in generating new science. IllinoisGRMHD also saves computer time, generating roundoff-precision identical output to the original code on adaptive-mesh grids, but nearly twice as fast at scales of hundreds to thousands of cores. (paper)

  10. Combined Source-Channel Coding of Images under Power and Bandwidth Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fossorier Marc

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a framework for combined source-channel coding for a power and bandwidth constrained noisy channel. The framework is applied to progressive image transmission using constant envelope -ary phase shift key ( -PSK signaling over an additive white Gaussian noise channel. First, the framework is developed for uncoded -PSK signaling (with . Then, it is extended to include coded -PSK modulation using trellis coded modulation (TCM. An adaptive TCM system is also presented. Simulation results show that, depending on the constellation size, coded -PSK signaling performs 3.1 to 5.2 dB better than uncoded -PSK signaling. Finally, the performance of our combined source-channel coding scheme is investigated from the channel capacity point of view. Our framework is further extended to include powerful channel codes like turbo and low-density parity-check (LDPC codes. With these powerful codes, our proposed scheme performs about one dB away from the capacity-achieving SNR value of the QPSK channel.

  11. Combined Source-Channel Coding of Images under Power and Bandwidth Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Fossorier

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a framework for combined source-channel coding for a power and bandwidth constrained noisy channel. The framework is applied to progressive image transmission using constant envelope M-ary phase shift key (M-PSK signaling over an additive white Gaussian noise channel. First, the framework is developed for uncoded M-PSK signaling (with M=2k. Then, it is extended to include coded M-PSK modulation using trellis coded modulation (TCM. An adaptive TCM system is also presented. Simulation results show that, depending on the constellation size, coded M-PSK signaling performs 3.1 to 5.2 dB better than uncoded M-PSK signaling. Finally, the performance of our combined source-channel coding scheme is investigated from the channel capacity point of view. Our framework is further extended to include powerful channel codes like turbo and low-density parity-check (LDPC codes. With these powerful codes, our proposed scheme performs about one dB away from the capacity-achieving SNR value of the QPSK channel.

  12. Omega documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howerton, R.J.; Dye, R.E.; Giles, P.C.; Kimlinger, J.R.; Perkins, S.T.; Plechaty, E.F.

    1983-08-01

    OMEGA is a CRAY I computer program that controls nine codes used by LLNL Physical Data Group for: 1) updating the libraries of evaluated data maintained by the group (UPDATE); 2) calculating average values of energy deposited in secondary particles and residual nuclei (ENDEP); 3) checking the libraries for internal consistency, especially for energy conservation (GAMCHK); 4) producing listings, indexes and plots of the library data (UTILITY); 5) producing calculational constants such as group averaged cross sections and transfer matrices for diffusion and Sn transport codes (CLYDE); 6) producing and updating standard files of the calculational constants used by LLNL Sn and diffusion transport codes (NDFL); 7) producing calculational constants for Monte Carlo transport codes that use group-averaged cross sections and continuous energy for particles (CTART); 8) producing and updating standard files used by the LLNL Monte Carlo transport codes (TRTL); and 9) producing standard files used by the LANL pointwise Monte Carlo transport code MCNP (MCPOINT). The first four of these functions and codes deal with the libraries of evaluated data and the last five with various aspects of producing calculational constants for use by transport codes. In 1970 a series, called PD memos, of internal and informal memoranda was begun. These were intended to be circulated among the group for comment and then to provide documentation for later reference whenever questions arose about the subject matter of the memos. They have served this purpose and now will be drawn upon as source material for this more comprehensive report that deals with most of the matters covered in those memos.

  13. Omega documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howerton, R.J.; Dye, R.E.; Giles, P.C.; Kimlinger, J.R.; Perkins, S.T.; Plechaty, E.F.

    1983-08-01

    OMEGA is a CRAY I computer program that controls nine codes used by LLNL Physical Data Group for: 1) updating the libraries of evaluated data maintained by the group (UPDATE); 2) calculating average values of energy deposited in secondary particles and residual nuclei (ENDEP); 3) checking the libraries for internal consistency, especially for energy conservation (GAMCHK); 4) producing listings, indexes and plots of the library data (UTILITY); 5) producing calculational constants such as group averaged cross sections and transfer matrices for diffusion and Sn transport codes (CLYDE); 6) producing and updating standard files of the calculational constants used by LLNL Sn and diffusion transport codes (NDFL); 7) producing calculational constants for Monte Carlo transport codes that use group-averaged cross sections and continuous energy for particles (CTART); 8) producing and updating standard files used by the LLNL Monte Carlo transport codes (TRTL); and 9) producing standard files used by the LANL pointwise Monte Carlo transport code MCNP (MCPOINT). The first four of these functions and codes deal with the libraries of evaluated data and the last five with various aspects of producing calculational constants for use by transport codes. In 1970 a series, called PD memos, of internal and informal memoranda was begun. These were intended to be circulated among the group for comment and then to provide documentation for later reference whenever questions arose about the subject matter of the memos. They have served this purpose and now will be drawn upon as source material for this more comprehensive report that deals with most of the matters covered in those memos

  14. [Prospective DRG coding : Improvement in cost-effectiveness and documentation quality of in-patient hospital care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geuss, S; Jungmeister, A; Baumgart, A; Seelos, R; Ockert, S

    2018-02-01

    In prospective reimbursement schemes a diagnosis-related group (DRG) is assigned to each case according to all coded diagnoses and procedures. This process can be conducted retrospectively after (DC) or prospectively during the hospitalization (PC). The use of PC offers advantages in terms of cost-effectiveness and documentation quality without impairing patient safety. A retrospective analysis including all DRG records and billing data from 2012 to 2015 of a surgical department was carried out. The use of PC was introduced into the vascular surgery unit (VS) in September 2013, while the remaining surgical units (RS) stayed with DC. Analysis focused on differences between VS and RS before and after introduction of PC. Characteristics of cost-effectiveness were earnings (EBIT-DA), length of stay (LOS), the case mix index (CMI) and the productivity in relation to the DRG benchmark (productivity index, PI). The number of recorded diagnoses/procedures (ND/NP) was an indicator for documentation quality. A total of 1703 cases with VS and 27,679 cases with RS were analyzed. After introduction of PC the EBIT-DA per case increased in VS but not in RS (+3342 Swiss francs vs. +84, respectively, p  0.05) and the LOS was more reduced in VS than in RS (-0.36 days vs. -0.03 days, p > 0.005). The PI increased in VS but decreased in RS (+0.131 vs. -0.032, p DRG benchmark, i. e. increasing the PI. The increasing ND indicates an improvement in documentation quality.

  15. Advisory Committee on human radiation experiments. Final report, Supplemental Volume 2. Sources and documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This volume and its appendixes supplement the Advisory Committee's final report by reporting how we went about looking for information concerning human radiation experiments and intentional releases, a description of what we found and where we found it, and a finding aid for the information that we collected. This volume begins with an overview of federal records, including general descriptions of the types of records that have been useful and how the federal government handles these records. This is followed by an agency-by-agency account of the discovery process and descriptions of the records reviewed, together with instructions on how to obtain further information from those agencies. There is also a description of other sources of information that have been important, including institutional records, print resources, and nonprint media and interviews. The third part contains brief accounts of ACHRE's two major contemporary survey projects (these are described in greater detail in the final report and another supplemental volume) and other research activities. The final section describes how the ACHRE information-nation collections were managed and the records that ACHRE created in the course of its work; this constitutes a general finding aid for the materials deposited with the National Archives. The appendices provide brief references to federal records reviewed, descriptions of the accessions that comprise the ACHRE Research Document Collection, and descriptions of the documents selected for individual treatment. Also included are an account of the documentation available for ACHRE meetings, brief abstracts of the almost 4,000 experiments individually described by ACHRE staff, a full bibliography of secondary sources used, and other information

  16. Advisory Committee on human radiation experiments. Final report, Supplemental Volume 2. Sources and documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    This volume and its appendixes supplement the Advisory Committee`s final report by reporting how we went about looking for information concerning human radiation experiments and intentional releases, a description of what we found and where we found it, and a finding aid for the information that we collected. This volume begins with an overview of federal records, including general descriptions of the types of records that have been useful and how the federal government handles these records. This is followed by an agency-by-agency account of the discovery process and descriptions of the records reviewed, together with instructions on how to obtain further information from those agencies. There is also a description of other sources of information that have been important, including institutional records, print resources, and nonprint media and interviews. The third part contains brief accounts of ACHRE`s two major contemporary survey projects (these are described in greater detail in the final report and another supplemental volume) and other research activities. The final section describes how the ACHRE information-nation collections were managed and the records that ACHRE created in the course of its work; this constitutes a general finding aid for the materials deposited with the National Archives. The appendices provide brief references to federal records reviewed, descriptions of the accessions that comprise the ACHRE Research Document Collection, and descriptions of the documents selected for individual treatment. Also included are an account of the documentation available for ACHRE meetings, brief abstracts of the almost 4,000 experiments individually described by ACHRE staff, a full bibliography of secondary sources used, and other information.

  17. Revised IAEA Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheatley, J. S.

    2004-01-01

    The revised Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources is aimed primarily at Governments, with the objective of achieving and maintaining a high level of safety and security of radioactive sources through the development, harmonization and enforcement of national policies, laws and regulations; and through the fostering of international co-operation. It focuses on sealed radioactive sources and provides guidance on legislation, regulations and the regulatory body, and import/export controls. Nuclear materials (except for sources containing 239Pu), as defined in the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials, are not covered by the revised Code, nor are radioactive sources within military or defence programmes. An earlier version of the Code was published by IAEA in 2001. At that time, agreement was not reached on a number of issues, notably those relating to the creation of comprehensive national registries for radioactive sources, obligations of States exporting radioactive sources, and the possibility of unilateral declarations of support. The need to further consider these and other issues was highlighted by the events of 11th September 2001. Since then, the IAEA's Secretariat has been working closely with Member States and relevant International Organizations to achieve consensus. The text of the revised Code was finalized at a meeting of technical and legal experts in August 2003, and it was submitted to IAEA's Board of Governors for approval in September 2003, with a recommendation that the IAEA General Conference adopt it and encourage its wide implementation. The IAEA General Conference, in September 2003, endorsed the revised Code and urged States to work towards following the guidance contained within it. This paper summarizes the history behind the revised Code, its content and the outcome of the discussions within the IAEA Board of Governors and General Conference. (Author) 8 refs

  18. Development of Coupled Interface System between the FADAS Code and a Source-term Evaluation Code XSOR for CANDU Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Han Seong; Song, Deok Yong; Kim, Ma Woong; Shin, Hyeong Ki; Lee, Sang Kyu; Kim, Hyun Koon

    2006-01-01

    An accident prevention system is essential to the industrial security of nuclear industry. Thus, the more effective accident prevention system will be helpful to promote safety culture as well as to acquire public acceptance for nuclear power industry. The FADAS(Following Accident Dose Assessment System) which is a part of the Computerized Advisory System for a Radiological Emergency (CARE) system in KINS is used for the prevention against nuclear accident. In order to enhance the FADAS system more effective for CANDU reactors, it is necessary to develop the various accident scenarios and reliable database of source terms. This study introduces the construction of the coupled interface system between the FADAS and the source-term evaluation code aimed to improve the applicability of the CANDU Integrated Safety Analysis System (CISAS) for CANDU reactors

  19. Joint source/channel coding of scalable video over noisy channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, G.; Zakhor, A. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences University of California Berkeley, California94720 (United States)

    1997-01-01

    We propose an optimal bit allocation strategy for a joint source/channel video codec over noisy channel when the channel state is assumed to be known. Our approach is to partition source and channel coding bits in such a way that the expected distortion is minimized. The particular source coding algorithm we use is rate scalable and is based on 3D subband coding with multi-rate quantization. We show that using this strategy, transmission of video over very noisy channels still renders acceptable visual quality, and outperforms schemes that use equal error protection only. The flexibility of the algorithm also permits the bit allocation to be selected optimally when the channel state is in the form of a probability distribution instead of a deterministic state. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Remodularizing Java Programs for Improved Locality of Feature Implementations in Source Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olszak, Andrzej; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2011-01-01

    Explicit traceability between features and source code is known to help programmers to understand and modify programs during maintenance tasks. However, the complex relations between features and their implementations are not evident from the source code of object-oriented Java programs....... Consequently, the implementations of individual features are difficult to locate, comprehend, and modify in isolation. In this paper, we present a novel remodularization approach that improves the representation of features in the source code of Java programs. Both forward- and reverse restructurings...... are supported through on-demand bidirectional restructuring between feature-oriented and object-oriented decompositions. The approach includes a feature location phase based of tracing program execution, a feature representation phase that reallocates classes into a new package structure based on single...

  1. The Einstein Observatory catalog of IPC x ray sources. Volume 1E: Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D. E.; Forman, W.; Gioia, I. M.; Hale, J. A.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Jones, C.; Karakashian, T.; Maccacaro, T.; Mcsweeney, J. D.; Primini, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2, launched November 13, 1978) achieved radically improved sensitivity over previous x-ray missions through the use of focusing optics, which simultaneously afforded greatly reduced background and produced true images. During its 2.5-yr mission, the Einstein X-Ray Telescope was pointed toward some 5,000 celestial targets, most of which were detected, and discovered several thousand additional 'serendipitous' sources in the observed fields. This catalog contains contour diagrams and source data, obtained with the imaging proportional counter in the 0.16 to 3.5 keV energy band, and describes methods for recovering upper limits for any sky position within the observed images. The main catalog consists of six volumes (numbered 2 through 7) of right ascension ordered pages, each containing data for one observation. Along with the primary documentation describing how the catalog was constructed, volume 1 contains a complete source list, results for merged fields, a reference system to published papers, and data useful for calculating upper limits and fluxes.

  2. Code of conduct on the safety and security of radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the code of conduct is to achieve and maintain a high level of safety and security of radioactive sources through the development, harmonization and enforcement of national policies, laws and regulations, and through the fostering of international co-operation. In particular, this code addresses the establishment of an adequate system of regulatory control from the production of radioactive sources to their final disposal, and a system for the restoration of such control if it has been lost. (N.C.)

  3. Market Analysis and Consumer Impacts Source Document. Part III. Consumer Behavior and Attitudes Toward Fuel Efficient Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    This source document on motor vehicle market analysis and consumer impacts consists of three parts. Part III consists of studies and reviews on: consumer awareness of fuel efficiency issues; consumer acceptance of fuel efficient vehicles; car size ch...

  4. Sources of patient uncertainty when reviewing medical disclosure and consent documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan-Kicken, Erin; Mackert, Michael; Guinn, Trey D; Tollison, Andrew C; Breckinridge, Barbara

    2013-02-01

    Despite evidence that medical disclosure and consent forms are ineffective at communicating the risks and hazards of treatment and diagnostic procedures, little is known about exactly why they are difficult for patients to understand. The objective of this research was to examine what features of the forms increase people's uncertainty. Interviews were conducted with 254 individuals. After reading a sample consent form, participants described what they found confusing in the document. With uncertainty management as a theoretical framework, interview responses were analyzed for prominent themes. Four distinct sources of uncertainty emerged from participants' responses: (a) language, (b) risks and hazards, (c) the nature of the procedure, and (d) document composition and format. Findings indicate the value of simplifying medico-legal jargon, signposting definitions of terms, removing language that addresses multiple readers simultaneously, reorganizing bulleted lists of risks, and adding section breaks or negative space. These findings offer suggestions for providing more straightforward details about risks and hazards to patients, not necessarily through greater amounts of information but rather through more clear and sufficient material and better formatting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Analytical Repository Source-Term (AREST) model: Description and documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebetrau, A.M.; Apted, M.J.; Engel, D.W.; Altenhofen, M.K.; Strachan, D.M.; Reid, C.R.; Windisch, C.F.; Erikson, R.L.; Johnson, K.I.

    1987-10-01

    The geologic repository system consists of several components, one of which is the engineered barrier system. The engineered barrier system interfaces with natural barriers that constitute the setting of the repository. A model that simulates the releases from the engineered barrier system into the natural barriers of the geosphere, called a source-term model, is an important component of any model for assessing the overall performance of the geologic repository system. The Analytical Repository Source-Term (AREST) model being developed is one such model. This report describes the current state of development of the AREST model and the code in which the model is implemented. The AREST model consists of three component models and five process models that describe the post-emplacement environment of a waste package. All of these components are combined within a probabilistic framework. The component models are a waste package containment (WPC) model that simulates the corrosion and degradation processes which eventually result in waste package containment failure; a waste package release (WPR) model that calculates the rates of radionuclide release from the failed waste package; and an engineered system release (ESR) model that controls the flow of information among all AREST components and process models and combines release output from the WPR model with failure times from the WPC model to produce estimates of total release. 167 refs., 40 figs., 12 tabs

  6. Rascal: A domain specific language for source code analysis and manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Klint (Paul); T. van der Storm (Tijs); J.J. Vinju (Jurgen); A. Walenstein; S. Schuppe

    2009-01-01

    htmlabstractMany automated software engineering tools require tight integration of techniques for source code analysis and manipulation. State-of-the-art tools exist for both, but the domains have remained notoriously separate because different computational paradigms fit each domain best. This

  7. RASCAL : a domain specific language for source code analysis and manipulationa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klint, P.; Storm, van der T.; Vinju, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Many automated software engineering tools require tight integration of techniques for source code analysis and manipulation. State-of-the-art tools exist for both, but the domains have remained notoriously separate because different computational paradigms fit each domain best. This impedance

  8. From system requirements to source code: transitions in UML and RUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Wrycza

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available There are many manuals explaining language specification among UML-related books. Only some of books mentioned concentrate on practical aspects of using the UML language in effective way using CASE tools and RUP. The current paper presents transitions from system requirements specification to structural source code, useful while developing an information system.

  9. Analysis and classification of oncology activities on the way to workflow based single source documentation in clinical information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Stefan; Beckmann, Matthias W; Wullich, Bernd; Seggewies, Christof; Ries, Markus; Bürkle, Thomas; Prokosch, Hans-Ulrich

    2015-12-22

    Today, cancer documentation is still a tedious task involving many different information systems even within a single institution and it is rarely supported by appropriate documentation workflows. In a comprehensive 14 step analysis we compiled diagnostic and therapeutic pathways for 13 cancer entities using a mixed approach of document analysis, workflow analysis, expert interviews, workflow modelling and feedback loops. These pathways were stepwise classified and categorized to create a final set of grouped pathways and workflows including electronic documentation forms. A total of 73 workflows for the 13 entities based on 82 paper documentation forms additionally to computer based documentation systems were compiled in a 724 page document comprising 130 figures, 94 tables and 23 tumour classifications as well as 12 follow-up tables. Stepwise classification made it possible to derive grouped diagnostic and therapeutic pathways for the three major classes - solid entities with surgical therapy - solid entities with surgical and additional therapeutic activities and - non-solid entities. For these classes it was possible to deduct common documentation workflows to support workflow-guided single-source documentation. Clinical documentation activities within a Comprehensive Cancer Center can likely be realized in a set of three documentation workflows with conditional branching in a modern workflow supporting clinical information system.

  10. The LIDES Coding Manual: A Document for Preparing and Analyzing Language Interaction Data Version 1.1--July 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Ruthanna; Codo, Eva; Eppler, Eva; Forcadell, Montse; Gardner-Chloros, Penelope; van Hout, Roeland; Moyer, Melissa; Torras, Maria Carme; Turell, Maria Teresa; Sebba, Mark; Starren, Marianne; Wensing, Sietse

    2000-01-01

    This manual is designed to help researchers new to the work of transcription and coding bilingual data or for individuals who have done familiar work but have a new set of data waiting to be transcribed and coded. Describes step-by-step a way of carrying out the transcription and coding that provides many useful facilities and makes it possible to…

  11. Phase 1 Validation Testing and Simulation for the WEC-Sim Open Source Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruehl, K.; Michelen, C.; Gunawan, B.; Bosma, B.; Simmons, A.; Lomonaco, P.

    2015-12-01

    WEC-Sim is an open source code to model wave energy converters performance in operational waves, developed by Sandia and NREL and funded by the US DOE. The code is a time-domain modeling tool developed in MATLAB/SIMULINK using the multibody dynamics solver SimMechanics, and solves the WEC's governing equations of motion using the Cummins time-domain impulse response formulation in 6 degrees of freedom. The WEC-Sim code has undergone verification through code-to-code comparisons; however validation of the code has been limited to publicly available experimental data sets. While these data sets provide preliminary code validation, the experimental tests were not explicitly designed for code validation, and as a result are limited in their ability to validate the full functionality of the WEC-Sim code. Therefore, dedicated physical model tests for WEC-Sim validation have been performed. This presentation provides an overview of the WEC-Sim validation experimental wave tank tests performed at the Oregon State University's Directional Wave Basin at Hinsdale Wave Research Laboratory. Phase 1 of experimental testing was focused on device characterization and completed in Fall 2015. Phase 2 is focused on WEC performance and scheduled for Winter 2015/2016. These experimental tests were designed explicitly to validate the performance of WEC-Sim code, and its new feature additions. Upon completion, the WEC-Sim validation data set will be made publicly available to the wave energy community. For the physical model test, a controllable model of a floating wave energy converter has been designed and constructed. The instrumentation includes state-of-the-art devices to measure pressure fields, motions in 6 DOF, multi-axial load cells, torque transducers, position transducers, and encoders. The model also incorporates a fully programmable Power-Take-Off system which can be used to generate or absorb wave energy. Numerical simulations of the experiments using WEC-Sim will be

  12. Time-dependent anisotropic external sources in transient 3-D transport code TORT-TD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seubert, A.; Pautz, A.; Becker, M.; Dagan, R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a time-dependent distributed external source in TORT-TD by explicitly considering the external source in the ''fixed-source'' term of the implicitly time-discretised 3-D discrete ordinates transport equation. Anisotropy of the external source is represented by a spherical harmonics series expansion similar to the angular fluxes. The YALINA-Thermal subcritical assembly serves as a test case. The configuration with 280 fuel rods has been analysed with TORT-TD using cross sections in 18 energy groups and P1 scattering order generated by the KAPROS code system. Good agreement is achieved concerning the multiplication factor. The response of the system to an artificial time-dependent source consisting of two square-wave pulses demonstrates the time-dependent external source capability of TORT-TD. The result is physically plausible as judged from validation calculations. (orig.)

  13. Coded moderator approach for fast neutron source detection and localization at standoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Littell, Jennifer [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, 305 Pasqua Engineering Building, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Lukosi, Eric, E-mail: elukosi@utk.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, 305 Pasqua Engineering Building, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Institute for Nuclear Security, University of Tennessee, 1640 Cumberland Avenue, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Hayward, Jason; Milburn, Robert; Rowan, Allen [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, 305 Pasqua Engineering Building, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Considering the need for directional sensing at standoff for some security applications and scenarios where a neutron source may be shielded by high Z material that nearly eliminates the source gamma flux, this work focuses on investigating the feasibility of using thermal neutron sensitive boron straw detectors for fast neutron source detection and localization. We utilized MCNPX simulations to demonstrate that, through surrounding the boron straw detectors by a HDPE coded moderator, a source-detector orientation-specific response enables potential 1D source localization in a high neutron detection efficiency design. An initial test algorithm has been developed in order to confirm the viability of this detector system's localization capabilities which resulted in identification of a 1 MeV neutron source with a strength equivalent to 8 kg WGPu at 50 m standoff within ±11°.

  14. Uncertainties in source term calculations generated by the ORIGEN2 computer code for Hanford Production Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heeb, C.M.

    1991-03-01

    The ORIGEN2 computer code is the primary calculational tool for computing isotopic source terms for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The ORIGEN2 code computes the amounts of radionuclides that are created or remain in spent nuclear fuel after neutron irradiation and radioactive decay have occurred as a result of nuclear reactor operation. ORIGEN2 was chosen as the primary code for these calculations because it is widely used and accepted by the nuclear industry, both in the United States and the rest of the world. Its comprehensive library of over 1,600 nuclides includes any possible isotope of interest to the HEDR Project. It is important to evaluate the uncertainties expected from use of ORIGEN2 in the HEDR Project because these uncertainties may have a pivotal impact on the final accuracy and credibility of the results of the project. There are three primary sources of uncertainty in an ORIGEN2 calculation: basic nuclear data uncertainty in neutron cross sections, radioactive decay constants, energy per fission, and fission product yields; calculational uncertainty due to input data; and code uncertainties (i.e., numerical approximations, and neutron spectrum-averaged cross-section values from the code library). 15 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  15. Code of practice for the use of sealed radioactive sources in borehole logging (1998)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    The purpose of this code is to establish working practices, procedures and protective measures which will aid in keeping doses, arising from the use of borehole logging equipment containing sealed radioactive sources, to as low as reasonably achievable and to ensure that the dose-equivalent limits specified in the National Health and Medical Research Council s radiation protection standards, are not exceeded. This code applies to all situations and practices where a sealed radioactive source or sources are used through wireline logging for investigating the physical properties of the geological sequence, or any fluids contained in the geological sequence, or the properties of the borehole itself, whether casing, mudcake or borehole fluids. The radiation protection standards specify dose-equivalent limits for two categories: radiation workers and members of the public. 3 refs., tabs., ills

  16. Program EPICSHOW. A computer code to allow interactive viewing of the EPIC data libraries (Version 98-1). Summary documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pronyaev, V.G.; McLaughlin, P.K.

    1999-01-01

    EPICSHOW (Electron Photon Interactive Code - Show Data) is an interactive graphics code that allows users to view and interact with neutron, photon, electron and light charged particle data. Besides on screen graphics the code provides hard copy in the form of tabulated listings and Postscript output files. The code has been implemented on UNIX, IBM-PC, Power MAC, and even Laptop computers. It should be relatively easy to use it on almost any computer. All of the data included in this system is based on the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Databases and the neutron and photon data is used in the TART97 Monte Carlo transport code system. (author)

  17. Experimental benchmark of the NINJA code for application to the Linac4 H- ion source plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briefi, S.; Mattei, S.; Rauner, D.; Lettry, J.; Tran, M. Q.; Fantz, U.

    2017-10-01

    For a dedicated performance optimization of negative hydrogen ion sources applied at particle accelerators, a detailed assessment of the plasma processes is required. Due to the compact design of these sources, diagnostic access is typically limited to optical emission spectroscopy yielding only line-of-sight integrated results. In order to allow for a spatially resolved investigation, the electromagnetic particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision code NINJA has been developed for the Linac4 ion source at CERN. This code considers the RF field generated by the ICP coil as well as the external static magnetic fields and calculates self-consistently the resulting discharge properties. NINJA is benchmarked at the diagnostically well accessible lab experiment CHARLIE (Concept studies for Helicon Assisted RF Low pressure Ion sourcEs) at varying RF power and gas pressure. A good general agreement is observed between experiment and simulation although the simulated electron density trends for varying pressure and power as well as the absolute electron temperature values deviate slightly from the measured ones. This can be explained by the assumption of strong inductive coupling in NINJA, whereas the CHARLIE discharges show the characteristics of loosely coupled plasmas. For the Linac4 plasma, this assumption is valid. Accordingly, both the absolute values of the accessible plasma parameters and their trends for varying RF power agree well in measurement and simulation. At varying RF power, the H- current extracted from the Linac4 source peaks at 40 kW. For volume operation, this is perfectly reflected by assessing the processes in front of the extraction aperture based on the simulation results where the highest H- density is obtained for the same power level. In surface operation, the production of negative hydrogen ions at the converter surface can only be considered by specialized beam formation codes, which require plasma parameters as input. It has been demonstrated that

  18. Identification of Sparse Audio Tampering Using Distributed Source Coding and Compressive Sensing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valenzise G

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, a large amount of techniques have been proposed to identify whether a multimedia content has been illegally tampered or not. Nevertheless, very few efforts have been devoted to identifying which kind of attack has been carried out, especially due to the large data required for this task. We propose a novel hashing scheme which exploits the paradigms of compressive sensing and distributed source coding to generate a compact hash signature, and we apply it to the case of audio content protection. The audio content provider produces a small hash signature by computing a limited number of random projections of a perceptual, time-frequency representation of the original audio stream; the audio hash is given by the syndrome bits of an LDPC code applied to the projections. At the content user side, the hash is decoded using distributed source coding tools. If the tampering is sparsifiable or compressible in some orthonormal basis or redundant dictionary, it is possible to identify the time-frequency position of the attack, with a hash size as small as 200 bits/second; the bit saving obtained by introducing distributed source coding ranges between 20% to 70%.

  19. Optimal source coding, removable noise elimination, and natural coordinate system construction for general vector sources using replicator neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht-Nielsen, Robert

    1997-04-01

    A new universal one-chart smooth manifold model for vector information sources is introduced. Natural coordinates (a particular type of chart) for such data manifolds are then defined. Uniformly quantized natural coordinates form an optimal vector quantization code for a general vector source. Replicator neural networks (a specialized type of multilayer perceptron with three hidden layers) are the introduced. As properly configured examples of replicator networks approach minimum mean squared error (e.g., via training and architecture adjustment using randomly chosen vectors from the source), these networks automatically develop a mapping which, in the limit, produces natural coordinates for arbitrary source vectors. The new concept of removable noise (a noise model applicable to a wide variety of real-world noise processes) is then discussed. Replicator neural networks, when configured to approach minimum mean squared reconstruction error (e.g., via training and architecture adjustment on randomly chosen examples from a vector source, each with randomly chosen additive removable noise contamination), in the limit eliminate removable noise and produce natural coordinates for the data vector portions of the noise-corrupted source vectors. Consideration regarding selection of the dimension of a data manifold source model and the training/configuration of replicator neural networks are discussed.

  20. Getting more out of biomedical documents with GATE's full lifecycle open source text analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Hamish; Tablan, Valentin; Roberts, Angus; Bontcheva, Kalina

    2013-01-01

    This software article describes the GATE family of open source text analysis tools and processes. GATE is one of the most widely used systems of its type with yearly download rates of tens of thousands and many active users in both academic and industrial contexts. In this paper we report three examples of GATE-based systems operating in the life sciences and in medicine. First, in genome-wide association studies which have contributed to discovery of a head and neck cancer mutation association. Second, medical records analysis which has significantly increased the statistical power of treatment/outcome models in the UK's largest psychiatric patient cohort. Third, richer constructs in drug-related searching. We also explore the ways in which the GATE family supports the various stages of the lifecycle present in our examples. We conclude that the deployment of text mining for document abstraction or rich search and navigation is best thought of as a process, and that with the right computational tools and data collection strategies this process can be made defined and repeatable. The GATE research programme is now 20 years old and has grown from its roots as a specialist development tool for text processing to become a rather comprehensive ecosystem, bringing together software developers, language engineers and research staff from diverse fields. GATE now has a strong claim to cover a uniquely wide range of the lifecycle of text analysis systems. It forms a focal point for the integration and reuse of advances that have been made by many people (the majority outside of the authors' own group) who work in text processing for biomedicine and other areas. GATE is available online under GNU open source licences and runs on all major operating systems. Support is available from an active user and developer community and also on a commercial basis.

  1. Getting more out of biomedical documents with GATE's full lifecycle open source text analytics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamish Cunningham

    Full Text Available This software article describes the GATE family of open source text analysis tools and processes. GATE is one of the most widely used systems of its type with yearly download rates of tens of thousands and many active users in both academic and industrial contexts. In this paper we report three examples of GATE-based systems operating in the life sciences and in medicine. First, in genome-wide association studies which have contributed to discovery of a head and neck cancer mutation association. Second, medical records analysis which has significantly increased the statistical power of treatment/outcome models in the UK's largest psychiatric patient cohort. Third, richer constructs in drug-related searching. We also explore the ways in which the GATE family supports the various stages of the lifecycle present in our examples. We conclude that the deployment of text mining for document abstraction or rich search and navigation is best thought of as a process, and that with the right computational tools and data collection strategies this process can be made defined and repeatable. The GATE research programme is now 20 years old and has grown from its roots as a specialist development tool for text processing to become a rather comprehensive ecosystem, bringing together software developers, language engineers and research staff from diverse fields. GATE now has a strong claim to cover a uniquely wide range of the lifecycle of text analysis systems. It forms a focal point for the integration and reuse of advances that have been made by many people (the majority outside of the authors' own group who work in text processing for biomedicine and other areas. GATE is available online under GNU open source licences and runs on all major operating systems. Support is available from an active user and developer community and also on a commercial basis.

  2. SOURCES-3A: A code for calculating (α, n), spontaneous fission, and delayed neutron sources and spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, R.T.; Wilson, W.B.; Charlton, W.S.

    1998-04-01

    In many systems, it is imperative to have accurate knowledge of all significant sources of neutrons due to the decay of radionuclides. These sources can include neutrons resulting from the spontaneous fission of actinides, the interaction of actinide decay α-particles in (α,n) reactions with low- or medium-Z nuclides, and/or delayed neutrons from the fission products of actinides. Numerous systems exist in which these neutron sources could be important. These include, but are not limited to, clean and spent nuclear fuel (UO 2 , ThO 2 , MOX, etc.), enrichment plant operations (UF 6 , PuF 4 , etc.), waste tank studies, waste products in borosilicate glass or glass-ceramic mixtures, and weapons-grade plutonium in storage containers. SOURCES-3A is a computer code that determines neutron production rates and spectra from (α,n) reactions, spontaneous fission, and delayed neutron emission due to the decay of radionuclides in homogeneous media (i.e., a mixture of α-emitting source material and low-Z target material) and in interface problems (i.e., a slab of α-emitting source material in contact with a slab of low-Z target material). The code is also capable of calculating the neutron production rates due to (α,n) reactions induced by a monoenergetic beam of α-particles incident on a slab of target material. Spontaneous fission spectra are calculated with evaluated half-life, spontaneous fission branching, and Watt spectrum parameters for 43 actinides. The (α,n) spectra are calculated using an assumed isotropic angular distribution in the center-of-mass system with a library of 89 nuclide decay α-particle spectra, 24 sets of measured and/or evaluated (α,n) cross sections and product nuclide level branching fractions, and functional α-particle stopping cross sections for Z < 106. The delayed neutron spectra are taken from an evaluated library of 105 precursors. The code outputs the magnitude and spectra of the resultant neutron source. It also provides an

  3. Time-dependent anisotropic distributed source capability in transient 3-d transport code tort-TD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seubert, A.; Pautz, A.; Becker, M.; Dagan, R.

    2009-01-01

    The transient 3-D discrete ordinates transport code TORT-TD has been extended to account for time-dependent anisotropic distributed external sources. The extension aims at the simulation of the pulsed neutron source in the YALINA-Thermal subcritical assembly. Since feedback effects are not relevant in this zero-power configuration, this offers a unique opportunity to validate the time-dependent neutron kinetics of TORT-TD with experimental data. The extensions made in TORT-TD to incorporate a time-dependent anisotropic external source are described. The steady state of the YALINA-Thermal assembly and its response to an artificial square-wave source pulse sequence have been analysed with TORT-TD using pin-wise homogenised cross sections in 18 prompt energy groups with P 1 scattering order and 8 delayed neutron groups. The results demonstrate the applicability of TORT-TD to subcritical problems with a time-dependent external source. (authors)

  4. Imaging x-ray sources at a finite distance in coded-mask instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnarumma, Immacolata; Pacciani, Luigi; Lapshov, Igor; Evangelista, Yuri

    2008-01-01

    We present a method for the correction of beam divergence in finite distance sources imaging through coded-mask instruments. We discuss the defocusing artifacts induced by the finite distance showing two different approaches to remove such spurious effects. We applied our method to one-dimensional (1D) coded-mask systems, although it is also applicable in two-dimensional systems. We provide a detailed mathematical description of the adopted method and of the systematics introduced in the reconstructed image (e.g., the fraction of source flux collected in the reconstructed peak counts). The accuracy of this method was tested by simulating pointlike and extended sources at a finite distance with the instrumental setup of the SuperAGILE experiment, the 1D coded-mask x-ray imager onboard the AGILE (Astro-rivelatore Gamma a Immagini Leggero) mission. We obtained reconstructed images of good quality and high source location accuracy. Finally we show the results obtained by applying this method to real data collected during the calibration campaign of SuperAGILE. Our method was demonstrated to be a powerful tool to investigate the imaging response of the experiment, particularly the absorption due to the materials intercepting the line of sight of the instrument and the conversion between detector pixel and sky direction

  5. Hybrid digital-analog coding with bandwidth expansion for correlated Gaussian sources under Rayleigh fading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahampath, Pradeepa

    2017-12-01

    Consider communicating a correlated Gaussian source over a Rayleigh fading channel with no knowledge of the channel signal-to-noise ratio (CSNR) at the transmitter. In this case, a digital system cannot be optimal for a range of CSNRs. Analog transmission however is optimal at all CSNRs, if the source and channel are memoryless and bandwidth matched. This paper presents new hybrid digital-analog (HDA) systems for sources with memory and channels with bandwidth expansion, which outperform both digital-only and analog-only systems over a wide range of CSNRs. The digital part is either a predictive quantizer or a transform code, used to achieve a coding gain. Analog part uses linear encoding to transmit the quantization error which improves the performance under CSNR variations. The hybrid encoder is optimized to achieve the minimum AMMSE (average minimum mean square error) over the CSNR distribution. To this end, analytical expressions are derived for the AMMSE of asymptotically optimal systems. It is shown that the outage CSNR of the channel code and the analog-digital power allocation must be jointly optimized to achieve the minimum AMMSE. In the case of HDA predictive quantization, a simple algorithm is presented to solve the optimization problem. Experimental results are presented for both Gauss-Markov sources and speech signals.

  6. A plug-in to Eclipse for VHDL source codes: functionalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niton, B.; Poźniak, K. T.; Romaniuk, R. S.

    The paper presents an original application, written by authors, which supports writing and edition of source codes in VHDL language. It is a step towards fully automatic, augmented code writing for photonic and electronic systems, also systems based on FPGA and/or DSP processors. An implementation is described, based on VEditor. VEditor is a free license program. Thus, the work presented in this paper supplements and extends this free license. The introduction characterizes shortly available tools on the market which serve for aiding the design processes of electronic systems in VHDL. Particular attention was put on plug-ins to the Eclipse environment and Emacs program. There are presented detailed properties of the written plug-in such as: programming extension conception, and the results of the activities of formatter, re-factorizer, code hider, and other new additions to the VEditor program.

  7. Beyond the Business Model: Incentives for Organizations to Publish Software Source Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindman, Juho; Juutilainen, Juha-Pekka; Rossi, Matti

    The software stack opened under Open Source Software (OSS) licenses is growing rapidly. Commercial actors have released considerable amounts of previously proprietary source code. These actions beg the question why companies choose a strategy based on giving away software assets? Research on outbound OSS approach has tried to answer this question with the concept of the “OSS business model”. When studying the reasons for code release, we have observed that the business model concept is too generic to capture the many incentives organizations have. Conversely, in this paper we investigate empirically what the companies’ incentives are by means of an exploratory case study of three organizations in different stages of their code release. Our results indicate that the companies aim to promote standardization, obtain development resources, gain cost savings, improve the quality of software, increase the trustworthiness of software, or steer OSS communities. We conclude that future research on outbound OSS could benefit from focusing on the heterogeneous incentives for code release rather than on revenue models.

  8. Neurophysiological analytics for all! Free open-source software tools for documenting, analyzing, visualizing, and sharing using electronic notebooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, David M; Horn, Charles C

    2016-08-01

    Neurophysiology requires an extensive workflow of information analysis routines, which often includes incompatible proprietary software, introducing limitations based on financial costs, transfer of data between platforms, and the ability to share. An ecosystem of free open-source software exists to fill these gaps, including thousands of analysis and plotting packages written in Python and R, which can be implemented in a sharable and reproducible format, such as the Jupyter electronic notebook. This tool chain can largely replace current routines by importing data, producing analyses, and generating publication-quality graphics. An electronic notebook like Jupyter allows these analyses, along with documentation of procedures, to display locally or remotely in an internet browser, which can be saved as an HTML, PDF, or other file format for sharing with team members and the scientific community. The present report illustrates these methods using data from electrophysiological recordings of the musk shrew vagus-a model system to investigate gut-brain communication, for example, in cancer chemotherapy-induced emesis. We show methods for spike sorting (including statistical validation), spike train analysis, and analysis of compound action potentials in notebooks. Raw data and code are available from notebooks in data supplements or from an executable online version, which replicates all analyses without installing software-an implementation of reproducible research. This demonstrates the promise of combining disparate analyses into one platform, along with the ease of sharing this work. In an age of diverse, high-throughput computational workflows, this methodology can increase efficiency, transparency, and the collaborative potential of neurophysiological research. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  9. CACTI: free, open-source software for the sequential coding of behavioral interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Lisa H; Hallgren, Kevin A; Houck, Jon M; Moyers, Theresa B

    2012-01-01

    The sequential analysis of client and clinician speech in psychotherapy sessions can help to identify and characterize potential mechanisms of treatment and behavior change. Previous studies required coding systems that were time-consuming, expensive, and error-prone. Existing software can be expensive and inflexible, and furthermore, no single package allows for pre-parsing, sequential coding, and assignment of global ratings. We developed a free, open-source, and adaptable program to meet these needs: The CASAA Application for Coding Treatment Interactions (CACTI). Without transcripts, CACTI facilitates the real-time sequential coding of behavioral interactions using WAV-format audio files. Most elements of the interface are user-modifiable through a simple XML file, and can be further adapted using Java through the terms of the GNU Public License. Coding with this software yields interrater reliabilities comparable to previous methods, but at greatly reduced time and expense. CACTI is a flexible research tool that can simplify psychotherapy process research, and has the potential to contribute to the improvement of treatment content and delivery.

  10. Survey of source code metrics for evaluating testability of object oriented systems

    OpenAIRE

    Shaheen , Muhammad Rabee; Du Bousquet , Lydie

    2010-01-01

    Software testing is costly in terms of time and funds. Testability is a software characteristic that aims at producing systems easy to test. Several metrics have been proposed to identify the testability weaknesses. But it is sometimes difficult to be convinced that those metrics are really related with testability. This article is a critical survey of the source-code based metrics proposed in the literature for object-oriented software testability. It underlines the necessity to provide test...

  11. NEACRP comparison of source term codes for the radiation protection assessment of transportation packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadhead, B.L.; Locke, H.F.; Avery, A.F.

    1994-01-01

    The results for Problems 5 and 6 of the NEACRP code comparison as submitted by six participating countries are presented in summary. These problems concentrate on the prediction of the neutron and gamma-ray sources arising in fuel after a specified irradiation, the fuel being uranium oxide for problem 5 and a mixture of uranium and plutonium oxides for problem 6. In both problems the predicted neutron sources are in good agreement for all participants. For gamma rays, however, there are differences, largely due to the omission of bremsstrahlung in some calculations

  12. Multi-rate control over AWGN channels via analog joint source-channel coding

    KAUST Repository

    Khina, Anatoly; Pettersson, Gustav M.; Kostina, Victoria; Hassibi, Babak

    2017-01-01

    We consider the problem of controlling an unstable plant over an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel with a transmit power constraint, where the signaling rate of communication is larger than the sampling rate (for generating observations and applying control inputs) of the underlying plant. Such a situation is quite common since sampling is done at a rate that captures the dynamics of the plant and which is often much lower than the rate that can be communicated. This setting offers the opportunity of improving the system performance by employing multiple channel uses to convey a single message (output plant observation or control input). Common ways of doing so are through either repeating the message, or by quantizing it to a number of bits and then transmitting a channel coded version of the bits whose length is commensurate with the number of channel uses per sampled message. We argue that such “separated source and channel coding” can be suboptimal and propose to perform joint source-channel coding. Since the block length is short we obviate the need to go to the digital domain altogether and instead consider analog joint source-channel coding. For the case where the communication signaling rate is twice the sampling rate, we employ the Archimedean bi-spiral-based Shannon-Kotel'nikov analog maps to show significant improvement in stability margins and linear-quadratic Gaussian (LQG) costs over simple schemes that employ repetition.

  13. Multi-rate control over AWGN channels via analog joint source-channel coding

    KAUST Repository

    Khina, Anatoly

    2017-01-05

    We consider the problem of controlling an unstable plant over an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel with a transmit power constraint, where the signaling rate of communication is larger than the sampling rate (for generating observations and applying control inputs) of the underlying plant. Such a situation is quite common since sampling is done at a rate that captures the dynamics of the plant and which is often much lower than the rate that can be communicated. This setting offers the opportunity of improving the system performance by employing multiple channel uses to convey a single message (output plant observation or control input). Common ways of doing so are through either repeating the message, or by quantizing it to a number of bits and then transmitting a channel coded version of the bits whose length is commensurate with the number of channel uses per sampled message. We argue that such “separated source and channel coding” can be suboptimal and propose to perform joint source-channel coding. Since the block length is short we obviate the need to go to the digital domain altogether and instead consider analog joint source-channel coding. For the case where the communication signaling rate is twice the sampling rate, we employ the Archimedean bi-spiral-based Shannon-Kotel\\'nikov analog maps to show significant improvement in stability margins and linear-quadratic Gaussian (LQG) costs over simple schemes that employ repetition.

  14. Source-term model for the SYVAC3-NSURE performance assessment code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowat, J.H.; Rattan, D.S.; Dolinar, G.M.

    1996-11-01

    Radionuclide contaminants in wastes emplaced in disposal facilities will not remain in those facilities indefinitely. Engineered barriers will eventually degrade, allowing radioactivity to escape from the vault. The radionuclide release rate from a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facility, the source term, is a key component in the performance assessment of the disposal system. This report describes the source-term model that has been implemented in Ver. 1.03 of the SYVAC3-NSURE (Systems Variability Analysis Code generation 3-Near Surface Repository) code. NSURE is a performance assessment code that evaluates the impact of near-surface disposal of LLRW through the groundwater pathway. The source-term model described here was developed for the Intrusion Resistant Underground Structure (IRUS) disposal facility, which is a vault that is to be located in the unsaturated overburden at AECL's Chalk River Laboratories. The processes included in the vault model are roof and waste package performance, and diffusion, advection and sorption of radionuclides in the vault backfill. The model presented here was developed for the IRUS vault; however, it is applicable to other near-surface disposal facilities. (author). 40 refs., 6 figs

  15. D-DSC: Decoding Delay-based Distributed Source Coding for Internet of Sensing Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Metin; Kuscu, Murat; Dinc, Ergin; Akan, Ozgur B

    2018-01-01

    Spatial correlation between densely deployed sensor nodes in a wireless sensor network (WSN) can be exploited to reduce the power consumption through a proper source coding mechanism such as distributed source coding (DSC). In this paper, we propose the Decoding Delay-based Distributed Source Coding (D-DSC) to improve the energy efficiency of the classical DSC by employing the decoding delay concept which enables the use of the maximum correlated portion of sensor samples during the event estimation. In D-DSC, network is partitioned into clusters, where the clusterheads communicate their uncompressed samples carrying the side information, and the cluster members send their compressed samples. Sink performs joint decoding of the compressed and uncompressed samples and then reconstructs the event signal using the decoded sensor readings. Based on the observed degree of the correlation among sensor samples, the sink dynamically updates and broadcasts the varying compression rates back to the sensor nodes. Simulation results for the performance evaluation reveal that D-DSC can achieve reliable and energy-efficient event communication and estimation for practical signal detection/estimation applications having massive number of sensors towards the realization of Internet of Sensing Things (IoST).

  16. Application of the source term code package to obtain a specific source term for the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souto, F.J.

    1991-06-01

    The main objective of the project was to use the Source Term Code Package (STCP) to obtain a specific source term for those accident sequences deemed dominant as a result of probabilistic safety analyses (PSA) for the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant (CNLV). The following programme has been carried out to meet this objective: (a) implementation of the STCP, (b) acquisition of specific data for CNLV to execute the STCP, and (c) calculations of specific source terms for accident sequences at CNLV. The STCP has been implemented and validated on CDC 170/815 and CDC 180/860 main frames as well as on a Micro VAX 3800 system. In order to get a plant-specific source term, data on the CNLV including initial core inventory, burn-up, primary containment structures, and materials used for the calculations have been obtained. Because STCP does not explicitly model containment failure, dry well failure in the form of a catastrophic rupture has been assumed. One of the most significant sequences from the point of view of possible off-site risk is the loss of off-site power with failure of the diesel generators and simultaneous loss of high pressure core spray and reactor core isolation cooling systems. The probability for that event is approximately 4.5 x 10 -6 . This sequence has been analysed in detail and the release fractions of radioisotope groups are given in the full report. 18 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  17. The European source term code ESTER - basic ideas and tools for coupling of ATHLET and ESTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, F.; Schuch, A.; Hinkelmann, M.

    1993-04-01

    The French software house CISI and IKE of the University of Stuttgart have developed during 1990 and 1991 in the frame of the Shared Cost Action Reactor Safety the informatic structure of the European Source TERm Evaluation System (ESTER). Due to this work tools became available which allow to unify on an European basis both code development and code application in the area of severe core accident research. The behaviour of reactor cores is determined by thermal hydraulic conditions. Therefore for the development of ESTER it was important to investigate how to integrate thermal hydraulic code systems with ESTER applications. This report describes the basic ideas of ESTER and improvements of ESTER tools in view of a possible coupling of the thermal hydraulic code system ATHLET and ESTER. Due to the work performed during this project the ESTER tools became the most modern informatic tools presently available in the area of severe accident research. A sample application is given which demonstrates the use of the new tools. (orig.) [de

  18. GRHydro: a new open-source general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamics code for the Einstein toolkit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mösta, Philipp; Haas, Roland; Ott, Christian D; Reisswig, Christian; Mundim, Bruno C; Faber, Joshua A; Noble, Scott C; Bode, Tanja; Löffler, Frank; Schnetter, Erik

    2014-01-01

    We present the new general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD) capabilities of the Einstein toolkit, an open-source community-driven numerical relativity and computational relativistic astrophysics code. The GRMHD extension of the toolkit builds upon previous releases and implements the evolution of relativistic magnetized fluids in the ideal MHD limit in fully dynamical spacetimes using the same shock-capturing techniques previously applied to hydrodynamical evolution. In order to maintain the divergence-free character of the magnetic field, the code implements both constrained transport and hyperbolic divergence cleaning schemes. We present test results for a number of MHD tests in Minkowski and curved spacetimes. Minkowski tests include aligned and oblique planar shocks, cylindrical explosions, magnetic rotors, Alfvén waves and advected loops, as well as a set of tests designed to study the response of the divergence cleaning scheme to numerically generated monopoles. We study the code’s performance in curved spacetimes with spherical accretion onto a black hole on a fixed background spacetime and in fully dynamical spacetimes by evolutions of a magnetized polytropic neutron star and of the collapse of a magnetized stellar core. Our results agree well with exact solutions where these are available and we demonstrate convergence. All code and input files used to generate the results are available on http://einsteintoolkit.org. This makes our work fully reproducible and provides new users with an introduction to applications of the code. (paper)

  19. Sensitivity analysis and benchmarking of the BLT low-level waste source term code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suen, C.J.; Sullivan, T.M.

    1993-07-01

    To evaluate the source term for low-level waste disposal, a comprehensive model had been developed and incorporated into a computer code, called BLT (Breach-Leach-Transport) Since the release of the original version, many new features and improvements had also been added to the Leach model of the code. This report consists of two different studies based on the new version of the BLT code: (1) a series of verification/sensitivity tests; and (2) benchmarking of the BLT code using field data. Based on the results of the verification/sensitivity tests, the authors concluded that the new version represents a significant improvement and it is capable of providing more realistic simulations of the leaching process. Benchmarking work was carried out to provide a reasonable level of confidence in the model predictions. In this study, the experimentally measured release curves for nitrate, technetium-99 and tritium from the saltstone lysimeters operated by Savannah River Laboratory were used. The model results are observed to be in general agreement with the experimental data, within the acceptable limits of uncertainty

  20. Market Analysis and Consumer Impacts Source Document. Part I. The Motor Vehicle Market in the Late 1970's

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    The source document on motor vehicle market analysis and consumer impact consists of three parts. Part I is an integrated overview of the motor vehicle market in the late 1970's, with sections on the structure of the market, motor vehicle trends, con...

  1. Remote source document verification in two national clinical trials networks: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Mealer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Barriers to executing large-scale randomized controlled trials include costs, complexity, and regulatory requirements. We hypothesized that source document verification (SDV via remote electronic monitoring is feasible. METHODS: Five hospitals from two NIH sponsored networks provided remote electronic access to study monitors. We evaluated pre-visit remote SDV compared to traditional on-site SDV using a randomized convenience sample of all study subjects due for a monitoring visit. The number of data values verified and the time to perform remote and on-site SDV was collected. RESULTS: Thirty-two study subjects were randomized to either remote SDV (N=16 or traditional on-site SDV (N=16. Technical capabilities, remote access policies and regulatory requirements varied widely across sites. In the adult network, only 14 of 2965 data values (0.47% could not be located remotely. In the traditional on-site SDV arm, 3 of 2608 data values (0.12% required coordinator help. In the pediatric network, all 198 data values in the remote SDV arm and all 183 data values in the on-site SDV arm were located. Although not statistically significant there was a consistent trend for more time consumed per data value (minutes +/- SD: Adult 0.50 +/- 0.17 min vs. 0.39 +/- 0.10 min (two-tailed t-test p=0.11; Pediatric 0.99 +/- 1.07 min vs. 0.56 +/- 0.61 min (p=0.37 and time per case report form: Adult: 4.60 +/- 1.42 min vs. 3.60 +/- 0.96 min (p=0.10; Pediatric: 11.64 +/- 7.54 min vs. 6.07 +/- 3.18 min (p=0.10 using remote SDV. CONCLUSIONS: Because each site had different policies, requirements, and technologies, a common approach to assimilating monitors into the access management system could not be implemented. Despite substantial technology differences, more than 99% of data values were successfully monitored remotely. This pilot study demonstrates the feasibility of remote monitoring and the need to develop consistent access policies for remote study

  2. Interim report for documentation of computer programs for crude oil profile analysis. [Codes, CV, CRULE, CPR, CIMPACT, ENT ADJ, REF VOLS, CIMP PRT, C MODEL, C PRINT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    This report is summarizing the findings and documenting the programs developed by Economic Regulatory Administration (ERA) for the Crude Oil Profile Analysis. Based on a variety of estimates and assumptions from different sources, ERA developed a series of computer programs which generate a 24-month projection of the crude oil production in each of the price categories. AVANTE International Systems Corporation is contracted to provide an organized documentation for all of these data base, assumptions, estimation rationale and computing procedures.

  3. UNSAT-H Version 1.0: unsaturated flow code documentation and applications for the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayer, M.J.; Gee, G.W.; Jones, T.L.

    1986-08-01

    Waste mangement practices at the Hanford Site have relied havily on near-surface burial. Predicting the future performance of any burial site in terms of the migration of buried contaminants requires a model capable of simulating water flow in the unsaturated soils above the buried waste. The model currently being developed to meet this need is UNSAT-H, which was developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory for assessing the water dynamics of near-surface waste-disposal sites at the Hanfrod Site. The code will primarily be used to predict deep drainage (i.e., recharge) as a function of environmental conditions such as climate, soil type, and vegetation. UNSAT-H will also simulate various waste-management practices such as placing surface barriers over waste sites. UNSAT-H is a one-dimensional model that simulates the dynamics processes of infiltration, drainage, redistribution, surface evaporation, and uptake of water from soil by plants. UNSAT-H is designed to utilize two auxiliary codes. These codes are DATAINH, which is used to process the input data, and DATAOUT, which is used to process the UNSAT-H output. Operation of the code requires three separate steps. First, the problem to be simulated must be conceptualized in terms of boundary conditions, available data, and soil properties. Next, the data must be correctly formatted for input. Finally, the unput data must be processed, UNSAT-H run, and the output data processed for analysis. This report includes three examples of code use. In the first example, a benchmark test case is run in which the results of UNSAT-H simulations of infiltration are compared with an analytical solution and a numerical solution. The comparisons show excellent agreement for the specific test case, and this agreement provides vertification of the infiltration portion of the UNSAT-H code. The other two examples of code use are a simulation of a layered soil and one of plant transpiration

  4. OpenSWPC: an open-source integrated parallel simulation code for modeling seismic wave propagation in 3D heterogeneous viscoelastic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Takuto; Takemura, Shunsuke; Furumura, Takashi

    2017-07-01

    We have developed an open-source software package, Open-source Seismic Wave Propagation Code (OpenSWPC), for parallel numerical simulations of seismic wave propagation in 3D and 2D (P-SV and SH) viscoelastic media based on the finite difference method in local-to-regional scales. This code is equipped with a frequency-independent attenuation model based on the generalized Zener body and an efficient perfectly matched layer for absorbing boundary condition. A hybrid-style programming using OpenMP and the Message Passing Interface (MPI) is adopted for efficient parallel computation. OpenSWPC has wide applicability for seismological studies and great portability to allowing excellent performance from PC clusters to supercomputers. Without modifying the code, users can conduct seismic wave propagation simulations using their own velocity structure models and the necessary source representations by specifying them in an input parameter file. The code has various modes for different types of velocity structure model input and different source representations such as single force, moment tensor and plane-wave incidence, which can easily be selected via the input parameters. Widely used binary data formats, the Network Common Data Form (NetCDF) and the Seismic Analysis Code (SAC) are adopted for the input of the heterogeneous structure model and the outputs of the simulation results, so users can easily handle the input/output datasets. All codes are written in Fortran 2003 and are available with detailed documents in a public repository.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. Optimal power allocation and joint source-channel coding for wireless DS-CDMA visual sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandremmenou, Katerina; Kondi, Lisimachos P.; Parsopoulos, Konstantinos E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a scheme for the optimal allocation of power, source coding rate, and channel coding rate for each of the nodes of a wireless Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (DS-CDMA) visual sensor network. The optimization is quality-driven, i.e. the received quality of the video that is transmitted by the nodes is optimized. The scheme takes into account the fact that the sensor nodes may be imaging scenes with varying levels of motion. Nodes that image low-motion scenes will require a lower source coding rate, so they will be able to allocate a greater portion of the total available bit rate to channel coding. Stronger channel coding will mean that such nodes will be able to transmit at lower power. This will both increase battery life and reduce interference to other nodes. Two optimization criteria are considered. One that minimizes the average video distortion of the nodes and one that minimizes the maximum distortion among the nodes. The transmission powers are allowed to take continuous values, whereas the source and channel coding rates can assume only discrete values. Thus, the resulting optimization problem lies in the field of mixed-integer optimization tasks and is solved using Particle Swarm Optimization. Our experimental results show the importance of considering the characteristics of the video sequences when determining the transmission power, source coding rate and channel coding rate for the nodes of the visual sensor network.

  6. Experimental determination of chosen document elements parameters from raster graphics sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Rybička

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Visual appearance of documents and their formal quality is considered to be as important as the content quality. Formal and typographical quality of documents can be evaluated by an automated system that processes raster images of documents. A document is described by a formal model that treats a page as an object and also as a set of elements, whereas page elements include text and graphic object. All elements are described by their parameters depending on elements’ type. For future evaluation, mainly text objects are important. This paper describes the experimental determination of chosen document elements parameters from raster images. Techniques for image processing are used, where an image is represented as a matrix of dots and parameter values are extracted. Algorithms for parameter extraction from raster images were designed and were aimed mainly at typographical parameters like indentation, alignment, font size or spacing. Algorithms were tested on a set of 100 images of paragraphs or pages and provide very good results. Extracted parameters can be directly used for typographical quality evaluation.

  7. Chronos sickness: digital reality in Duncan Jones’s Source Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Tiemy Morita Kawamoto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2017v70n1p249 The advent of the digital technologies unquestionably affected the cinema. The indexical relation and realistic effect with the photographed world much praised by André Bazin and Roland Barthes is just one of the affected aspects. This article discusses cinema in light of the new digital possibilities, reflecting on Steven Shaviro’s consideration of “how a nonindexical realism might be possible” (63 and how in fact a new kind of reality, a digital one, might emerge in the science fiction film Source Code (2013 by Duncan Jones.

  8. Orbitmpi Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, Lisa L.

    2000-01-01

    Orbitmpi is a parallelized version of Roscoe White's Orbit code. The code has been parallelized using MPI, which makes it portable to many types of machines. The guidelines used for the parallelization were to increase code performance with minimal changes to the code's original structure. This document gives a general description of how the parallel sections of the code run. It discusses the changes made to the original code and comments on the general procedure for future additions to Orbitmpi, as well as describing the effects of a parallelized random number generator on the code's output. Finally, the scaling results from Hecate and from Puffin are presented. Hecate is a 64-processor Origin 2000 machine, with MIPS R12000 processors and 16GB of memory, and Puffin is a PC cluster with 9 dual-processor 450 MHz Pentium III (18 processors max.), with 100Mbits ethernet communication

  9. Understanding Richard Wright's "Black Boy": A Student Casebook to Issues, Sources, and Historical Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felgar, Robert

    In "Black Boy," Richard Wright triumphs over an ugly, racist world by fashioning an inspiring, powerful, beautiful, and fictionalized autobiography. To help students understand and appreciate his story in the cultural, political, racial, social, and literary contexts of its time, this casebook provides primary historical documents,…

  10. Understanding "Animal Farm": A Student Casebook to Issues, Sources, and Historical Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodden, John

    "Animal Farm" is a political allegory of the USSR written in the form of a fable. Its stinging moral warning against the abuse of power is demonstrated in this casebook through a wide variety of historical, political, and literary documents that are directly applicable to George Orwell's novel. Included in the casebook are passages from…

  11. Understanding "The Catcher in the Rye": A Student Casebook to Issues, Sources, and Historical Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsker, Sanford; Pinsker, Ann

    The social, cultural, and historical documents and commentary in this casebook illuminate the reading of "The Catcher in the Rye," a novel that has become an important rite of passage for many young adults. In addition to a literary analysis, the casebook acquaints students with the larger world in which Holden Caulfield, the…

  12. Domain-Specific Acceleration and Auto-Parallelization of Legacy Scientific Code in FORTRAN 77 using Source-to-Source Compilation

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderbauwhede, Wim; Davidson, Gavin

    2017-01-01

    Massively parallel accelerators such as GPGPUs, manycores and FPGAs represent a powerful and affordable tool for scientists who look to speed up simulations of complex systems. However, porting code to such devices requires a detailed understanding of heterogeneous programming tools and effective strategies for parallelization. In this paper we present a source to source compilation approach with whole-program analysis to automatically transform single-threaded FORTRAN 77 legacy code into Ope...

  13. The European source-term evaluation code ASTEC: status and applications, including CANDU plant applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dorsselaere, J.P.; Giordano, P.; Kissane, M.P.; Montanelli, T.; Schwinges, B.; Ganju, S.; Dickson, L.

    2004-01-01

    Research on light-water reactor severe accidents (SA) is still required in a limited number of areas in order to confirm accident-management plans. Thus, 49 European organizations have linked their SA research in a durable way through SARNET (Severe Accident Research and management NETwork), part of the European 6th Framework Programme. One goal of SARNET is to consolidate the integral code ASTEC (Accident Source Term Evaluation Code, developed by IRSN and GRS) as the European reference tool for safety studies; SARNET efforts include extending the application scope to reactor types other than PWR (including VVER) such as BWR and CANDU. ASTEC is used in IRSN's Probabilistic Safety Analysis level 2 of 900 MWe French PWRs. An earlier version of ASTEC's SOPHAEROS module, including improvements by AECL, is being validated as the Canadian Industry Standard Toolset code for FP-transport analysis in the CANDU Heat Transport System. Work with ASTEC has also been performed by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, on IPHWR containment thermal hydraulics. (author)

  14. A statistical–mechanical view on source coding: physical compression and data compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merhav, Neri

    2011-01-01

    We draw a certain analogy between the classical information-theoretic problem of lossy data compression (source coding) of memoryless information sources and the statistical–mechanical behavior of a certain model of a chain of connected particles (e.g. a polymer) that is subjected to a contracting force. The free energy difference pertaining to such a contraction turns out to be proportional to the rate-distortion function in the analogous data compression model, and the contracting force is proportional to the derivative of this function. Beyond the fact that this analogy may be interesting in its own right, it may provide a physical perspective on the behavior of optimum schemes for lossy data compression (and perhaps also an information-theoretic perspective on certain physical system models). Moreover, it triggers the derivation of lossy compression performance for systems with memory, using analysis tools and insights from statistical mechanics

  15. Coded aperture detector for high precision gamma-ray burst source locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmken, H.; Gorenstein, P.

    1977-01-01

    Coded aperture collimators in conjunction with position-sensitive detectors are very useful in the study of transient phenomenon because they combine broad field of view, high sensitivity, and an ability for precise source locations. Since the preceeding conference, a series of computer simulations of various detector designs have been carried out with the aid of a CDC 6400. Particular emphasis was placed on the development of a unit consisting of a one-dimensional random or periodic collimator in conjunction with a two-dimensional position-sensitive Xenon proportional counter. A configuration involving four of these units has been incorporated into the preliminary design study of the Transient Explorer (ATREX) satellite and are applicable to any SAS or HEAO type satellite mission. Results of this study, including detector response, fields of view, and source location precision, will be presented

  16. OFF, Open source Finite volume Fluid dynamics code: A free, high-order solver based on parallel, modular, object-oriented Fortran API

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghi, S.

    2014-07-01

    OFF, an open source (free software) code for performing fluid dynamics simulations, is presented. The aim of OFF is to solve, numerically, the unsteady (and steady) compressible Navier-Stokes equations of fluid dynamics by means of finite volume techniques: the research background is mainly focused on high-order (WENO) schemes for multi-fluids, multi-phase flows over complex geometries. To this purpose a highly modular, object-oriented application program interface (API) has been developed. In particular, the concepts of data encapsulation and inheritance available within Fortran language (from standard 2003) have been stressed in order to represent each fluid dynamics "entity" (e.g. the conservative variables of a finite volume, its geometry, etc…) by a single object so that a large variety of computational libraries can be easily (and efficiently) developed upon these objects. The main features of OFF can be summarized as follows: Programming LanguageOFF is written in standard (compliant) Fortran 2003; its design is highly modular in order to enhance simplicity of use and maintenance without compromising the efficiency; Parallel Frameworks Supported the development of OFF has been also targeted to maximize the computational efficiency: the code is designed to run on shared-memory multi-cores workstations and distributed-memory clusters of shared-memory nodes (supercomputers); the code's parallelization is based on Open Multiprocessing (OpenMP) and Message Passing Interface (MPI) paradigms; Usability, Maintenance and Enhancement in order to improve the usability, maintenance and enhancement of the code also the documentation has been carefully taken into account; the documentation is built upon comprehensive comments placed directly into the source files (no external documentation files needed): these comments are parsed by means of doxygen free software producing high quality html and latex documentation pages; the distributed versioning system referred as git

  17. Giving Women the Vote: Using Primary Source Documents to Teach about the Fight for Women's Suffrage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Margaret

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson in which students use primary sources to learn about the organizing strategies used in the fight for women's suffrage. These sources will provide insights into the past and help students develop appreciation for the hardships suffragists endured. Includes objectives, procedures, and suggestions for activities. (LS)

  18. Note related to the elaboration of a coding by key sentences for the programming of a document automatic selection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, A.; Braffort, P.

    1959-01-01

    This note deals with the providing of CEA documentalists with a tool for coding studies. The authors first discuss issues related to code selection criteria (author classification, topic classification, and so on), and propose an overview and a discussion of linguistic models. They also comment how diagrams illustrating relationships between words are built up, and propose a diagram representation example which includes different concepts such as conditions, properties, object, tools or processes (for example hardness for a steel, batch processing for a condition, or sintering for a process), and also the introduction of negation. Then, the authors address how basic concepts can be highlighted, describe how key sentences can be built up, and propose an example analysis in the case of a published article dealing with nuclear reactors (in this case, the study of a liquid-metal neutron absorber for the control of a gas-cooled power reactor). Perspectives of evolution are finally discussed

  19. Federal Logistics Information System (FLIS) Procedures Manual. Volume 8. Document Identifier Code Input/Output Formats (Fixed Length)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-07-01

    REQUIRED MIX OF SEGMENTS OR INDIVIDUAL DATA ELEMENTS TO BE EXTRACTED. IN SEGMENT R ON AN INTERROGATION TRANSACTION (LTI), DATA RECORD NUMBER (DRN 0950) ONLY...and zation and Marketing input DICs. insert the Continuation Indicator Code (DRN 8555) in position 80 of this record. Maximum of OF The assigned NSN...for Procurement KFR, File Data Minus Security Classified Characteristics Data KFC 8.5-2 DoD 4100.39-M Volume 8 CHAPTER 5 ALPHABETIC INDEX OF DIC

  20. RMG An Open Source Electronic Structure Code for Multi-Petaflops Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Emil; Lu, Wenchang; Hodak, Miroslav; Bernholc, Jerzy

    RMG (Real-space Multigrid) is an open source, density functional theory code for quantum simulations of materials. It solves the Kohn-Sham equations on real-space grids, which allows for natural parallelization via domain decomposition. Either subspace or Davidson diagonalization, coupled with multigrid methods, are used to accelerate convergence. RMG is a cross platform open source package which has been used in the study of a wide range of systems, including semiconductors, biomolecules, and nanoscale electronic devices. It can optionally use GPU accelerators to improve performance on systems where they are available. The recently released versions (>2.0) support multiple GPU's per compute node, have improved performance and scalability, enhanced accuracy and support for additional hardware platforms. New versions of the code are regularly released at http://www.rmgdft.org. The releases include binaries for Linux, Windows and MacIntosh systems, automated builds for clusters using cmake, as well as versions adapted to the major supercomputing installations and platforms. Several recent, large-scale applications of RMG will be discussed.

  1. Fast space-varying convolution using matrix source coding with applications to camera stray light reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jianing; Bouman, Charles A; Allebach, Jan P

    2014-05-01

    Many imaging applications require the implementation of space-varying convolution for accurate restoration and reconstruction of images. Here, we use the term space-varying convolution to refer to linear operators whose impulse response has slow spatial variation. In addition, these space-varying convolution operators are often dense, so direct implementation of the convolution operator is typically computationally impractical. One such example is the problem of stray light reduction in digital cameras, which requires the implementation of a dense space-varying deconvolution operator. However, other inverse problems, such as iterative tomographic reconstruction, can also depend on the implementation of dense space-varying convolution. While space-invariant convolution can be efficiently implemented with the fast Fourier transform, this approach does not work for space-varying operators. So direct convolution is often the only option for implementing space-varying convolution. In this paper, we develop a general approach to the efficient implementation of space-varying convolution, and demonstrate its use in the application of stray light reduction. Our approach, which we call matrix source coding, is based on lossy source coding of the dense space-varying convolution matrix. Importantly, by coding the transformation matrix, we not only reduce the memory required to store it; we also dramatically reduce the computation required to implement matrix-vector products. Our algorithm is able to reduce computation by approximately factoring the dense space-varying convolution operator into a product of sparse transforms. Experimental results show that our method can dramatically reduce the computation required for stray light reduction while maintaining high accuracy.

  2. The Application Of Open-Source And Free Photogrammetric Software For The Purposes Of Cultural Heritage Documentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartoš Karol

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The documentation of cultural heritage is an essential part of appropriate care of historical monuments, representing a part of our history. At present, it represents the current issue, for which considerable funds are being spent, as well as for the documentation of immovable historical monuments in a form of castle ruins, among the others. Non-contact surveying technologies - terrestrial laser scanning and digital photogrammetry belong to the most commonly used technologies, by which suitable documentation can be obtained, however their use may be very costly. In recent years, various types of software products and web services based on the SfM (or MVS method and developed as open-source software, or as a freely available and free service, relying on the basic principles of photogrammetry and computer vision, have started to get into the spotlight. By using the services and software, acquired digital images of a given object can be processed into a point cloud, serving directly as a final output or as a basis for further processing. The aim of this paper, based on images of various objects of the Slanec castle ruins obtained by the DSLR Pentax K5, is to assess the suitability of different types of open-source and free software and free web services and their reliability in terms of surface reconstruction and photo-texture quality for the purposes of castle ruins documentation.

  3. General Electromagnetic Model for the Analysis of Complex Systems (GEMACS) Computer Code Documentation (Version 3). Volume 3. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    F.P. PX /AMPZIJ/ REFH /AMPZIJ/ REFV /AI4PZIJ/ * RHOX /AI4PZIJ/ RHOY /At4PZIJ/ RHOZ /AI4PZIJ/ S A-ZJ SA /AMPZIJ/ SALP /AMPZIJ/ 6. CALLING ROUTINE: FLDDRV...US3NG ALGORITHM 72 COMPUTE P- YES .~:*:.~~ USING* *. 1. NAME: PLAINT (GTD) ] 2. PURPOSE: To determine if a ray traveling from a given source loca...determine if a source ray reflection from plate MP occurs. If a ray traveling from the source image location in the reflected ray direction passes through

  4. Documentation of probabilistic fracture mechanics codes used for reactor pressure vessels subjected to pressurized thermal shock loading: Parts 1 and 2. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balkey, K.; Witt, F.J.; Bishop, B.A.

    1995-06-01

    Significant attention has been focused on the issue of reactor vessel pressurized thermal shock (PTS) for many years. Pressurized thermal shock transient events are characterized by a rapid cooldown at potentially high pressure levels that could lead to a reactor vessel integrity concern for some pressurized water reactors. As a result of regulatory and industry efforts in the early 1980's, a probabilistic risk assessment methodology has been established to address this concern. Probabilistic fracture mechanics analyses are performed as part of this methodology to determine conditional probability of significant flaw extension for given pressurized thermal shock events. While recent industry efforts are underway to benchmark probabilistic fracture mechanics computer codes that are currently used by the nuclear industry, Part I of this report describes the comparison of two independent computer codes used at the time of the development of the original U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) pressurized thermal shock rule. The work that was originally performed in 1982 and 1983 to compare the U.S. NRC - VISA and Westinghouse (W) - PFM computer codes has been documented and is provided in Part I of this report. Part II of this report describes the results of more recent industry efforts to benchmark PFM computer codes used by the nuclear industry. This study was conducted as part of the USNRC-EPRI Coordinated Research Program for reviewing the technical basis for pressurized thermal shock (PTS) analyses of the reactor pressure vessel. The work focused on the probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) analysis codes and methods used to perform the PTS calculations. An in-depth review of the methodologies was performed to verify the accuracy and adequacy of the various different codes. The review was structured around a series of benchmark sample problems to provide a specific context for discussion and examination of the fracture mechanics methodology

  5. Code of practice for the control and safe handling of radioactive sources used for therapeutic purposes (1988)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This Code is intended as a guide to safe practices in the use of sealed and unsealed radioactive sources and in the management of patients being treated with them. It covers the procedures for the handling, preparation and use of radioactive sources, precautions to be taken for patients undergoing treatment, storage and transport of radioactive sources within a hospital or clinic, and routine testing of sealed sources [fr

  6. A Source Term Calculation for the APR1400 NSSS Auxiliary System Components Using the Modified SHIELD Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hong Sik; Kim, Min; Park, Seong Chan; Seo, Jong Tae; Kim, Eun Kee

    2005-01-01

    The SHIELD code has been used to calculate the source terms of NSSS Auxiliary System (comprising CVCS, SIS, and SCS) components of the OPR1000. Because the code had been developed based upon the SYSTEM80 design and the APR1400 NSSS Auxiliary System design is considerably changed from that of SYSTEM80 or OPR1000, the SHIELD code cannot be used directly for APR1400 radiation design. Thus the hand-calculation is needed for the portion of design changes using the results of the SHIELD code calculation. In this study, the SHIELD code is modified to incorporate the APR1400 design changes and the source term calculation is performed for the APR1400 NSSS Auxiliary System components

  7. Detecting Source Code Plagiarism on .NET Programming Languages using Low-level Representation and Adaptive Local Alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Karnalim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though there are various source code plagiarism detection approaches, only a few works which are focused on low-level representation for deducting similarity. Most of them are only focused on lexical token sequence extracted from source code. In our point of view, low-level representation is more beneficial than lexical token since its form is more compact than the source code itself. It only considers semantic-preserving instructions and ignores many source code delimiter tokens. This paper proposes a source code plagiarism detection which rely on low-level representation. For a case study, we focus our work on .NET programming languages with Common Intermediate Language as its low-level representation. In addition, we also incorporate Adaptive Local Alignment for detecting similarity. According to Lim et al, this algorithm outperforms code similarity state-of-the-art algorithm (i.e. Greedy String Tiling in term of effectiveness. According to our evaluation which involves various plagiarism attacks, our approach is more effective and efficient when compared with standard lexical-token approach.

  8. Living Up to the Code's Exhortations? Social Workers' Political Knowledge Sources, Expectations, and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felderhoff, Brandi Jean; Hoefer, Richard; Watson, Larry Dan

    2016-01-01

    The National Association of Social Workers' (NASW's) Code of Ethics urges social workers to engage in political action. However, little recent research has been conducted to examine whether social workers support this admonition and the extent to which they actually engage in politics. The authors gathered data from a survey of social workers in Austin, Texas, to address three questions. First, because keeping informed about government and political news is an important basis for action, the authors asked what sources of knowledge social workers use. Second, they asked what the respondents believe are appropriate political behaviors for other social workers and NASW. Third, they asked for self-reports regarding respondents' own political behaviors. Results indicate that social workers use the Internet and traditional media services to stay informed; expect other social workers and NASW to be active; and are, overall, more active than the general public in many types of political activities. The comparisons made between expectations for others and their own behaviors are interesting in their complex outcomes. Social workers should strive for higher levels of adherence to the code's urgings on political activity. Implications for future work are discussed.

  9. BIM Open Source Software (OSS for the documentation of cultural heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiris Logothetis

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a review of some recent research on the topic. We review the recent developments focusing on the OSS that can be used at various stages of BIM process in the digital documentation of cultural heritage. The results show that there is more preference in the commercial software due to the fact that the OSS is not yet complete and covers all stages of the BIM process. However, lately we have the Edificius in architectural BIM design and “BIM Vision” as Industry Foundation Classes (IFC model viewer that try to attract as many users as possible. These tools are free and they could well be used for the digital reconstruction of cultural heritage.

  10. RIES - Rijnland Internet Election System: A Cursory Study of Published Source Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonggrijp, Rop; Hengeveld, Willem-Jan; Hotting, Eelco; Schmidt, Sebastian; Weidemann, Frederik

    The Rijnland Internet Election System (RIES) is a system designed for voting in public elections over the internet. A rather cursory scan of the source code to RIES showed a significant lack of security-awareness among the programmers which - among other things - appears to have left RIES vulnerable to near-trivial attacks. If it had not been for independent studies finding problems, RIES would have been used in the 2008 Water Board elections, possibly handling a million votes or more. While RIES was more extensively studied to find cryptographic shortcomings, our work shows that more down-to-earth secure design practices can be at least as important, and the aspects need to be examined much sooner than right before an election.

  11. Low-Complexity Compression Algorithm for Hyperspectral Images Based on Distributed Source Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjian Nian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A low-complexity compression algorithm for hyperspectral images based on distributed source coding (DSC is proposed in this paper. The proposed distributed compression algorithm can realize both lossless and lossy compression, which is implemented by performing scalar quantization strategy on the original hyperspectral images followed by distributed lossless compression. Multilinear regression model is introduced for distributed lossless compression in order to improve the quality of side information. Optimal quantized step is determined according to the restriction of the correct DSC decoding, which makes the proposed algorithm achieve near lossless compression. Moreover, an effective rate distortion algorithm is introduced for the proposed algorithm to achieve low bit rate. Experimental results show that the compression performance of the proposed algorithm is competitive with that of the state-of-the-art compression algorithms for hyperspectral images.

  12. MARE2DEM: a 2-D inversion code for controlled-source electromagnetic and magnetotelluric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Kerry

    2016-10-01

    This work presents MARE2DEM, a freely available code for 2-D anisotropic inversion of magnetotelluric (MT) data and frequency-domain controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) data from onshore and offshore surveys. MARE2DEM parametrizes the inverse model using a grid of arbitrarily shaped polygons, where unstructured triangular or quadrilateral grids are typically used due to their ease of construction. Unstructured grids provide significantly more geometric flexibility and parameter efficiency than the structured rectangular grids commonly used by most other inversion codes. Transmitter and receiver components located on topographic slopes can be tilted parallel to the boundary so that the simulated electromagnetic fields accurately reproduce the real survey geometry. The forward solution is implemented with a goal-oriented adaptive finite-element method that automatically generates and refines unstructured triangular element grids that conform to the inversion parameter grid, ensuring accurate responses as the model conductivity changes. This dual-grid approach is significantly more efficient than the conventional use of a single grid for both the forward and inverse meshes since the more detailed finite-element meshes required for accurate responses do not increase the memory requirements of the inverse problem. Forward solutions are computed in parallel with a highly efficient scaling by partitioning the data into smaller independent modeling tasks consisting of subsets of the input frequencies, transmitters and receivers. Non-linear inversion is carried out with a new Occam inversion approach that requires fewer forward calls. Dense matrix operations are optimized for memory and parallel scalability using the ScaLAPACK parallel library. Free parameters can be bounded using a new non-linear transformation that leaves the transformed parameters nearly the same as the original parameters within the bounds, thereby reducing non-linear smoothing effects. Data

  13. CodeRAnts: A recommendation method based on collaborative searching and ant colonies, applied to reusing of open source code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Caicedo-Castro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents CodeRAnts, a new recommendation method based on a collaborative searching technique and inspired on the ant colony metaphor. This method aims to fill the gap in the current state of the matter regarding recommender systems for software reuse, for which prior works present two problems. The first is that, recommender systems based on these works cannot learn from the collaboration of programmers and second, outcomes of assessments carried out on these systems present low precision measures and recall and in some of these systems, these metrics have not been evaluated. The work presented in this paper contributes a recommendation method, which solves these problems.

  14. Family physicians' suggestions to improve the documentation, coding, and billing system: a study from the residency research network of Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Richard A; Bayles, Bryan; Hill, Jason H; Kumar, Kaparabonya A; Burge, Sandra

    2014-06-01

    The study's aim was to ascertain family physicians' suggestions on how to improve the commonly used US evaluation and management (E/M) rules for primary care. A companion paper published in Family Medicine's May 2014 journal describes our study methods (Fam Med 2014;46(5):378-84). Study subjects supported preserving the overall SOAP note structure. They especially suggested eliminating bullet counting in the E/M rules. For payment reform, respondents stated that brief or simple work should be paid less than long or complex work, and that family physicians should be paid for important tasks they currently are not, such as spending extra time with patients, phone and email clinical encounters, and extra paperwork. Subjects wanted shared savings when their decisions and actions created system efficiencies and savings. Some supported recent payment reforms such as monthly retainer fees and pay-for-performance bonuses. Others expressed skepticism about the negative consequences of each. Aligned incentives among all stakeholders was another common theme. Family physicians wanted less burdensome documentation requirements. They wanted to be paid more for complex work and work that does not include traditional face-to-face clinic visits, and they wanted the incentives of other stakeholders in the health care systems to be aligned with their priorities.

  15. Beyond the "Code": A Guide to the Description and Documentation of Biodiversity in Ciliated Protists (Alveolata, Ciliophora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Alan; Patterson, David J; Dunthorn, Micah; Clamp, John C; Achilles-Day, Undine E M; Aescht, Erna; Al-Farraj, Saleh A; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Al-Rasheid, Khaled; Carr, Martin; Day, John G; Dellinger, Marc; El-Serehy, Hamed A; Fan, Yangbo; Gao, Feng; Gao, Shan; Gong, Jun; Gupta, Renu; Hu, Xiaozhong; Kamra, Komal; Langlois, Gaytha; Lin, Xiaofeng; Lipscomb, Diana; Lobban, Christopher S; Luporini, Pierangelo; Lynn, Denis H; Ma, Honggang; Macek, Miroslav; Mackenzie-Dodds, Jacqueline; Makhija, Seema; Mansergh, Robert I; Martín-Cereceda, Mercedes; McMiller, Nettie; Montagnes, David J S; Nikolaeva, Svetlana; Ong'ondo, Geoffrey Odhiambo; Pérez-Uz, Blanca; Purushothaman, Jasmine; Quintela-Alonso, Pablo; Rotterová, Johana; Santoferrara, Luciana; Shao, Chen; Shen, Zhuo; Shi, Xinlu; Song, Weibo; Stoeck, Thorsten; La Terza, Antonietta; Vallesi, Adriana; Wang, Mei; Weisse, Thomas; Wiackowski, Krzysztof; Wu, Lei; Xu, Kuidong; Yi, Zhenzhen; Zufall, Rebecca; Agatha, Sabine

    2017-07-01

    Recent advances in molecular technology have revolutionized research on all aspects of the biology of organisms, including ciliates, and created unprecedented opportunities for pursuing a more integrative approach to investigations of biodiversity. However, this goal is complicated by large gaps and inconsistencies that still exist in the foundation of basic information about biodiversity of ciliates. The present paper reviews issues relating to the taxonomy of ciliates and presents specific recommendations for best practice in the observation and documentation of their biodiversity. This effort stems from a workshop that explored ways to implement six Grand Challenges proposed by the International Research Coordination Network for Biodiversity of Ciliates (IRCN-BC). As part of its commitment to strengthening the knowledge base that supports research on biodiversity of ciliates, the IRCN-BC proposes to populate The Ciliate Guide, an online database, with biodiversity-related data and metadata to create a resource that will facilitate accurate taxonomic identifications and promote sharing of data. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society of Protistologists.

  16. Neutrons Flux Distributions of the Pu-Be Source and its Simulation by the MCNP-4B Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, F.; Mehdizadeh, S.; Hadad, K.

    Neutron Fluence rate of a low intense Pu-Be source is measured by Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) of 197Au foils. Also, the neutron fluence rate distribution versus energy is calculated using the MCNP-4B code based on ENDF/B-V library. Theoretical simulation as well as our experimental performance are a new experience for Iranians to make reliability with the code for further researches. In our theoretical investigation, an isotropic Pu-Be source with cylindrical volume distribution is simulated and relative neutron fluence rate versus energy is calculated using MCNP-4B code. Variation of the fast and also thermal neutrons fluence rate, which are measured by NAA method and MCNP code, are compared.

  17. Calculation Of Fuel Burnup And Radionuclide Inventory In The Syrian Miniature Neutron Source Reactor Using The GETERA Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, K.; Dawahra, S.

    2011-01-01

    Calculations of the fuel burnup and radionuclide inventory in the Syrian Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR) after 10 years (the reactor core expected life) of the reactor operation time are presented in this paper using the GETERA code. The code is used to calculate the fuel group constants and the infinite multiplication factor versus the reactor operating time for 10, 20, and 30 kW operating power levels. The amounts of uranium burnup and plutonium produced in the reactor core, the concentrations and radionuclides of the most important fission product and actinide radionuclides accumulated in the reactor core, and the total radioactivity of the reactor core were calculated using the GETERA code as well. It is found that the GETERA code is better than the WIMSD4 code for the fuel burnup calculation in the MNSR reactor since it is newer and has a bigger library of isotopes and more accurate. (author)

  18. Elk and Deer Study, Material Disposal Area G, Technical Area 54: Source document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. K. Ferenbaugh; P. R. Fresquez; M. H. Ebinger; G. J. Gonzales; P. A. Jordan

    1999-09-01

    As nuclear research has become more prevalent, environmental contamination from the disposal of radioactive waste has become a prominent issue. At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in northern New Mexico, radioactive contamination from disposal operations has raised some very specific concerns. Material Disposal Area G (Area G) is the primary low-level radioactive waste disposal site at LANL and occupies an area adjacent to land belonging to the Native American community of the Pueblo of San Ildefonso. Analyses of soil and vegetation collected from the perimeter of Area G have shown concentrations of radionuclides greater than background concentrations established for northern New Mexico. As a result, Pueblo residents had become concerned that contaminants from Area G could enter tribal lands through various ecological pathways. The residents specifically questioned the safety of consuming meat from elk and deer that forage near Area G and then migrate onto tribal lands. Consequently, this study addresses the uptake of {sup 3}H, {sup 90}Sr, {sup tot}U, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 241}Am, and {sup 137}Cs by elk (Cervus elaphus) and deer (Odocoileus hemionus) that forage around the perimeter of Area G and the associated doses to the animals and to humans who consume these animals. Radionuclide uptake by and internal dose to animals was estimated using equations modified from National Council on Radiological Protection Report 76. The Residual Radiation computer code was used to estimate the external dose to animals and the dose to humans consuming meat. Soil and water concentrations from the perimeter of Area G and from background regions in northern New Mexico were averaged over 4 years (1993--1996) and used as input data for the models. Concentration estimates generated by the model correspond to the concentration range measured in actual tissue samples from elk and deer collected at LANL. The highest dose estimates for both animals (0.028 mrad/d) and humans

  19. Elk and Deer Study, Material Disposal Area G, Technical Area 54: Source document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferenbaugh, J.K.; Fresquez, P.R.; Ebinger, M.H.; Gonzales, G.J.; Jordan, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    As nuclear research has become more prevalent, environmental contamination from the disposal of radioactive waste has become a prominent issue. At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in northern New Mexico, radioactive contamination from disposal operations has raised some very specific concerns. Material Disposal Area G (Area G) is the primary low-level radioactive waste disposal site at LANL and occupies an area adjacent to land belonging to the Native American community of the Pueblo of San Ildefonso. Analyses of soil and vegetation collected from the perimeter of Area G have shown concentrations of radionuclides greater than background concentrations established for northern New Mexico. As a result, Pueblo residents had become concerned that contaminants from Area G could enter tribal lands through various ecological pathways. The residents specifically questioned the safety of consuming meat from elk and deer that forage near Area G and then migrate onto tribal lands. Consequently, this study addresses the uptake of 3 H, 90 Sr, tot U, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 241 Am, and 137 Cs by elk (Cervus elaphus) and deer (Odocoileus hemionus) that forage around the perimeter of Area G and the associated doses to the animals and to humans who consume these animals. Radionuclide uptake by and internal dose to animals was estimated using equations modified from National Council on Radiological Protection Report 76. The Residual Radiation computer code was used to estimate the external dose to animals and the dose to humans consuming meat. Soil and water concentrations from the perimeter of Area G and from background regions in northern New Mexico were averaged over 4 years (1993--1996) and used as input data for the models. Concentration estimates generated by the model correspond to the concentration range measured in actual tissue samples from elk and deer collected at LANL. The highest dose estimates for both animals (0.028 mrad/d) and humans (0.072 mrem/y) were well below

  20. A proposed metamodel for the implementation of object oriented software through the automatic generation of source code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARVALHO, J. S. C.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available During the development of software one of the most visible risks and perhaps the biggest implementation obstacle relates to the time management. All delivery deadlines software versions must be followed, but it is not always possible, sometimes due to delay in coding. This paper presents a metamodel for software implementation, which will rise to a development tool for automatic generation of source code, in order to make any development pattern transparent to the programmer, significantly reducing the time spent in coding artifacts that make up the software.

  1. Uncertainty analysis methods for quantification of source terms using a large computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Seok Jung

    1997-02-01

    Quantification of uncertainties in the source term estimations by a large computer code, such as MELCOR and MAAP, is an essential process of the current probabilistic safety assessments (PSAs). The main objectives of the present study are (1) to investigate the applicability of a combined procedure of the response surface method (RSM) based on input determined from a statistical design and the Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) technique for the uncertainty analysis of CsI release fractions under a hypothetical severe accident sequence of a station blackout at Young-Gwang nuclear power plant using MAAP3.0B code as a benchmark problem; and (2) to propose a new measure of uncertainty importance based on the distributional sensitivity analysis. On the basis of the results obtained in the present work, the RSM is recommended to be used as a principal tool for an overall uncertainty analysis in source term quantifications, while using the LHS in the calculations of standardized regression coefficients (SRC) and standardized rank regression coefficients (SRRC) to determine the subset of the most important input parameters in the final screening step and to check the cumulative distribution functions (cdfs) obtained by RSM. Verification of the response surface model for its sufficient accuracy is a prerequisite for the reliability of the final results obtained by the combined procedure proposed in the present work. In the present study a new measure has been developed to utilize the metric distance obtained from cumulative distribution functions (cdfs). The measure has been evaluated for three different cases of distributions in order to assess the characteristics of the measure: The first case and the second are when the distribution is known as analytical distributions and the other case is when the distribution is unknown. The first case is given by symmetry analytical distributions. The second case consists of two asymmetry distributions of which the skewness is non zero

  2. Comparison of TG‐43 dosimetric parameters of brachytherapy sources obtained by three different versions of MCNP codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaker, Neda; Sina, Sedigheh; Koontz, Craig; Meigooni1, Ali S.

    2016-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are widely used for calculation of the dosimetric parameters of brachytherapy sources. MCNP4C2, MCNP5, MCNPX, EGS4, EGSnrc, PTRAN, and GEANT4 are among the most commonly used codes in this field. Each of these codes utilizes a cross‐sectional library for the purpose of simulating different elements and materials with complex chemical compositions. The accuracies of the final outcomes of these simulations are very sensitive to the accuracies of the cross‐sectional libraries. Several investigators have shown that inaccuracies of some of the cross section files have led to errors in  125I and  103Pd parameters. The purpose of this study is to compare the dosimetric parameters of sample brachytherapy sources, calculated with three different versions of the MCNP code — MCNP4C, MCNP5, and MCNPX. In these simulations for each source type, the source and phantom geometries, as well as the number of the photons, were kept identical, thus eliminating the possible uncertainties. The results of these investigations indicate that for low‐energy sources such as  125I and  103Pd there are discrepancies in gL(r) values. Discrepancies up to 21.7% and 28% are observed between MCNP4C and other codes at a distance of 6 cm for  103Pd and 10 cm for  125I from the source, respectively. However, for higher energy sources, the discrepancies in gL(r) values are less than 1.1% for  192Ir and less than 1.2% for  137Cs between the three codes. PACS number(s): 87.56.bg PMID:27074460

  3. Comparison of TG-43 dosimetric parameters of brachytherapy sources obtained by three different versions of MCNP codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaker, Neda; Zehtabian, Mehdi; Sina, Sedigheh; Koontz, Craig; Meigooni, Ali S

    2016-03-08

    Monte Carlo simulations are widely used for calculation of the dosimetric parameters of brachytherapy sources. MCNP4C2, MCNP5, MCNPX, EGS4, EGSnrc, PTRAN, and GEANT4 are among the most commonly used codes in this field. Each of these codes utilizes a cross-sectional library for the purpose of simulating different elements and materials with complex chemical compositions. The accuracies of the final outcomes of these simulations are very sensitive to the accuracies of the cross-sectional libraries. Several investigators have shown that inaccuracies of some of the cross section files have led to errors in 125I and 103Pd parameters. The purpose of this study is to compare the dosimetric parameters of sample brachytherapy sources, calculated with three different versions of the MCNP code - MCNP4C, MCNP5, and MCNPX. In these simulations for each source type, the source and phantom geometries, as well as the number of the photons, were kept identical, thus eliminating the possible uncertainties. The results of these investigations indicate that for low-energy sources such as 125I and 103Pd there are discrepancies in gL(r) values. Discrepancies up to 21.7% and 28% are observed between MCNP4C and other codes at a distance of 6 cm for 103Pd and 10 cm for 125I from the source, respectively. However, for higher energy sources, the discrepancies in gL(r) values are less than 1.1% for 192Ir and less than 1.2% for 137Cs between the three codes.

  4. Using 137Cs and 210Pbex and other sediment source fingerprints to document suspended sediment sources in small forested catchments in south-central Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuller, P.; Walling, D.E.; Iroumé, A.; Quilodrán, C.; Castillo, A.; Navas, A.

    2013-01-01

    A study of the impact of forest harvesting operations on sediment mobilization from forested catchments has been undertaken in south-central Chile. The study focused on two sets of small paired catchments (treatment and control), with similar soil type, but contrasting mean annual rainfall, located about 400 km apart at Nacimiento (1200 mm yr −1 ) and Los Ulmos (2500 mm yr −1 ). The objective was to study the changes in the relative contribution of the primary sources of fine sediment caused by forestry operations. Attention focused on the pre-harvest and post-harvest periods and the post-replanting period was included for the Nacimiento treatment catchment. The sediment source fingerprinting technique was used to document the contributions of the potential sources. Emphasis was placed on discriminating between the forest slopes, forest roads and channel erosion as potential sources of fine sediment and on assessing the relative contributions of these three sources to the sediment yield from the catchments. The fallout radionuclides (FRNs) 137 Cs and excess lead-210, the environmental radionuclides 226 Ra and 40 K and soil organic matter (SOM) were tested as possible fingerprints for discriminating between potential sediment sources. The Kruskal–Wallis test and discriminant function analysis were used to guide the selection of the optimum fingerprint set for each catchment and observation period. Either one or both of the FRNs were selected for inclusion in the optimum fingerprint for all datasets. The relative contribution of each sediment source to the target sediment load was estimated using the selected fingerprint properties, and a mixing model coupled with a Monte Carlo simulation technique that takes account of uncertainty in characterizing sediment source properties. The goodness of fit of the mixing model was tested by comparing the measured and simulated fingerprint properties for the target sediment samples. In the Nacimiento treatment catchment

  5. Source coherence impairments in a direct detection direct sequence optical code-division multiple-access system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fsaifes, Ihsan; Lepers, Catherine; Lourdiane, Mounia; Gallion, Philippe; Beugin, Vincent; Guignard, Philippe

    2007-02-01

    We demonstrate that direct sequence optical code- division multiple-access (DS-OCDMA) encoders and decoders using sampled fiber Bragg gratings (S-FBGs) behave as multipath interferometers. In that case, chip pulses of the prime sequence codes generated by spreading in time-coherent data pulses can result from multiple reflections in the interferometers that can superimpose within a chip time duration. We show that the autocorrelation function has to be considered as the sum of complex amplitudes of the combined chip as the laser source coherence time is much greater than the integration time of the photodetector. To reduce the sensitivity of the DS-OCDMA system to the coherence time of the laser source, we analyze the use of sparse and nonperiodic quadratic congruence and extended quadratic congruence codes.

  6. Source coherence impairments in a direct detection direct sequence optical code-division multiple-access system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fsaifes, Ihsan; Lepers, Catherine; Lourdiane, Mounia; Gallion, Philippe; Beugin, Vincent; Guignard, Philippe

    2007-02-01

    We demonstrate that direct sequence optical code- division multiple-access (DS-OCDMA) encoders and decoders using sampled fiber Bragg gratings (S-FBGs) behave as multipath interferometers. In that case, chip pulses of the prime sequence codes generated by spreading in time-coherent data pulses can result from multiple reflections in the interferometers that can superimpose within a chip time duration. We show that the autocorrelation function has to be considered as the sum of complex amplitudes of the combined chip as the laser source coherence time is much greater than the integration time of the photodetector. To reduce the sensitivity of the DS-OCDMA system to the coherence time of the laser source, we analyze the use of sparse and nonperiodic quadratic congruence and extended quadratic congruence codes.

  7. Gaze strategies can reveal the impact of source code features on the cognitive load of novice programmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff-Jensen, Andreas; Ruder, Kevin Vignola; Triantafyllou, Evangelia

    2018-01-01

    As shown by several studies, programmers’ readability of source code is influenced by its structural and the textual features. In order to assess the importance of these features, we conducted an eye-tracking experiment with programming students. To assess the readability and comprehensibility of...

  8. Use of WIMS-E lattice code for prediction of the transuranic source term for spent fuel dose estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwinkendorf, K.N.

    1996-01-01

    A recent source term analysis has shown a discrepancy between ORIGEN2 transuranic isotopic production estimates and those produced with the WIMS-E lattice physics code. Excellent agreement between relevant experimental measurements and WIMS-E was shown, thus exposing an error in the cross section library used by ORIGEN2

  9. Gravity inversion code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhard, N.R.

    1979-01-01

    The gravity inversion code applies stabilized linear inverse theory to determine the topography of a subsurface density anomaly from Bouguer gravity data. The gravity inversion program consists of four source codes: SEARCH, TREND, INVERT, and AVERAGE. TREND and INVERT are used iteratively to converge on a solution. SEARCH forms the input gravity data files for Nevada Test Site data. AVERAGE performs a covariance analysis on the solution. This document describes the necessary input files and the proper operation of the code. 2 figures, 2 tables

  10. Market Analysis and Consumer Impacts Source Document. Part II. Review of Motor Vehicle Market and Consumer Expenditures on Motor Vehicle Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    This source document on motor vehicle market analysis and consumer impacts consists of three parts. Part II consists of studies and review on: motor vehicle sales trends; motor vehicle fleet life and fleet composition; car buying patterns of the busi...

  11. A Novel Code System for Revealing Sources of Students' Difficulties with Stoichiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulacar, Ozcan; Overton, Tina L.; Bowman, Charles R.; Fynewever, Herb

    2013-01-01

    A coding scheme is presented and used to evaluate solutions of seventeen students working on twenty five stoichiometry problems in a think-aloud protocol. The stoichiometry problems are evaluated as a series of sub-problems (e.g., empirical formulas, mass percent, or balancing chemical equations), and the coding scheme was used to categorize each…

  12. VULCAN: An Open-source, Validated Chemical Kinetics Python Code for Exoplanetary Atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Shang-Min; Grosheintz, Luc; Kitzmann, Daniel; Heng, Kevin [University of Bern, Center for Space and Habitability, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012, Bern (Switzerland); Lyons, James R. [Arizona State University, School of Earth and Space Exploration, Bateman Physical Sciences, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Rimmer, Paul B., E-mail: shang-min.tsai@space.unibe.ch, E-mail: kevin.heng@csh.unibe.ch, E-mail: jimlyons@asu.edu [University of St. Andrews, School of Physics and Astronomy, St. Andrews, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-01

    We present an open-source and validated chemical kinetics code for studying hot exoplanetary atmospheres, which we name VULCAN. It is constructed for gaseous chemistry from 500 to 2500 K, using a reduced C–H–O chemical network with about 300 reactions. It uses eddy diffusion to mimic atmospheric dynamics and excludes photochemistry. We have provided a full description of the rate coefficients and thermodynamic data used. We validate VULCAN by reproducing chemical equilibrium and by comparing its output versus the disequilibrium-chemistry calculations of Moses et al. and Rimmer and Helling. It reproduces the models of HD 189733b and HD 209458b by Moses et al., which employ a network with nearly 1600 reactions. We also use VULCAN to examine the theoretical trends produced when the temperature–pressure profile and carbon-to-oxygen ratio are varied. Assisted by a sensitivity test designed to identify the key reactions responsible for producing a specific molecule, we revisit the quenching approximation and find that it is accurate for methane but breaks down for acetylene, because the disequilibrium abundance of acetylene is not directly determined by transport-induced quenching, but is rather indirectly controlled by the disequilibrium abundance of methane. Therefore we suggest that the quenching approximation should be used with caution and must always be checked against a chemical kinetics calculation. A one-dimensional model atmosphere with 100 layers, computed using VULCAN, typically takes several minutes to complete. VULCAN is part of the Exoclimes Simulation Platform (ESP; exoclime.net) and publicly available at https://github.com/exoclime/VULCAN.

  13. ANEMOS: A computer code to estimate air concentrations and ground deposition rates for atmospheric nuclides emitted from multiple operating sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.W.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Begovich, C.L.; Hermann, O.W.

    1986-11-01

    This code estimates concentrations in air and ground deposition rates for Atmospheric Nuclides Emitted from Multiple Operating Sources. ANEMOS is one component of an integrated Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System (CRRIS) developed for the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use in performing radiological assessments and in developing radiation standards. The concentrations and deposition rates calculated by ANEMOS are used in subsequent portions of the CRRIS for estimating doses and risks to man. The calculations made in ANEMOS are based on the use of a straight-line Gaussian plume atmospheric dispersion model with both dry and wet deposition parameter options. The code will accommodate a ground-level or elevated point and area source or windblown source. Adjustments may be made during the calculations for surface roughness, building wake effects, terrain height, wind speed at the height of release, the variation in plume rise as a function of downwind distance, and the in-growth and decay of daughter products in the plume as it travels downwind. ANEMOS can also accommodate multiple particle sizes and clearance classes, and it may be used to calculate the dose from a finite plume of gamma-ray-emitting radionuclides passing overhead. The output of this code is presented for 16 sectors of a circular grid. ANEMOS can calculate both the sector-average concentrations and deposition rates at a given set of downwind distances in each sector and the average of these quantities over an area within each sector bounded by two successive downwind distances. ANEMOS is designed to be used primarily for continuous, long-term radionuclide releases. This report describes the models used in the code, their computer implementation, the uncertainty associated with their use, and the use of ANEMOS in conjunction with other codes in the CRRIS. A listing of the code is included in Appendix C

  14. ANEMOS: A computer code to estimate air concentrations and ground deposition rates for atmospheric nuclides emitted from multiple operating sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, C.W.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Begovich, C.L.; Hermann, O.W.

    1986-11-01

    This code estimates concentrations in air and ground deposition rates for Atmospheric Nuclides Emitted from Multiple Operating Sources. ANEMOS is one component of an integrated Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System (CRRIS) developed for the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use in performing radiological assessments and in developing radiation standards. The concentrations and deposition rates calculated by ANEMOS are used in subsequent portions of the CRRIS for estimating doses and risks to man. The calculations made in ANEMOS are based on the use of a straight-line Gaussian plume atmospheric dispersion model with both dry and wet deposition parameter options. The code will accommodate a ground-level or elevated point and area source or windblown source. Adjustments may be made during the calculations for surface roughness, building wake effects, terrain height, wind speed at the height of release, the variation in plume rise as a function of downwind distance, and the in-growth and decay of daughter products in the plume as it travels downwind. ANEMOS can also accommodate multiple particle sizes and clearance classes, and it may be used to calculate the dose from a finite plume of gamma-ray-emitting radionuclides passing overhead. The output of this code is presented for 16 sectors of a circular grid. ANEMOS can calculate both the sector-average concentrations and deposition rates at a given set of downwind distances in each sector and the average of these quantities over an area within each sector bounded by two successive downwind distances. ANEMOS is designed to be used primarily for continuous, long-term radionuclide releases. This report describes the models used in the code, their computer implementation, the uncertainty associated with their use, and the use of ANEMOS in conjunction with other codes in the CRRIS. A listing of the code is included in Appendix C.

  15. Analysis of source term aspects in the experiment Phebus FPT1 with the MELCOR and CFX codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Fuertes, F. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, UPM, Nuclear Engineering Department, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: francisco.martinfuertes@upm.es; Barbero, R. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, UPM, Nuclear Engineering Department, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Martin-Valdepenas, J.M. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, UPM, Nuclear Engineering Department, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Jimenez, M.A. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, UPM, Nuclear Engineering Department, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-03-15

    Several aspects related to the source term in the Phebus FPT1 experiment have been analyzed with the help of MELCOR 1.8.5 and CFX 5.7 codes. Integral aspects covering circuit thermalhydraulics, fission product and structural material release, vapours and aerosol retention in the circuit and containment were studied with MELCOR, and the strong and weak points after comparison to experimental results are stated. Then, sensitivity calculations dealing with chemical speciation upon release, vertical line aerosol deposition and steam generator aerosol deposition were performed. Finally, detailed calculations concerning aerosol deposition in the steam generator tube are presented. They were obtained by means of an in-house code application, named COCOA, as well as with CFX computational fluid dynamics code, in which several models for aerosol deposition were implemented and tested, while the models themselves are discussed.

  16. Open-source tool for automatic import of coded surveying data to multiple vector layers in GIS environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Stopková

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a tool that enables import of the coded data in a singletext file to more than one vector layers (including attribute tables, together withautomatic drawing of line and polygon objects and with optional conversion toCAD. Python script v.in.survey is available as an add-on for open-source softwareGRASS GIS (GRASS Development Team. The paper describes a case study basedon surveying at the archaeological mission at Tell-el Retaba (Egypt. Advantagesof the tool (e.g. significant optimization of surveying work and its limits (demandson keeping conventions for the points’ names coding are discussed here as well.Possibilities of future development are suggested (e.g. generalization of points’names coding or more complex attribute table creation.

  17. BLT [Breach, Leach, and Transport]: A source term computer code for low-level waste shallow land burial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suen, C.J.; Sullivan, T.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of a source term model for low-level waste shallow land burial facilities and separates the problem into four individual compartments. These are water flow, corrosion and subsequent breaching of containers, leaching of the waste forms, and solute transport. For the first and the last compartments, we adopted the existing codes, FEMWATER and FEMWASTE, respectively. We wrote two new modules for the other two compartments in the form of two separate Fortran subroutines -- BREACH and LEACH. They were incorporated into a modified version of the transport code FEMWASTE. The resultant code, which contains all three modules of container breaching, waste form leaching, and solute transport, was renamed BLT (for Breach, Leach, and Transport). This paper summarizes the overall program structure and logistics, and presents two examples from the results of verification and sensitivity tests. 6 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  18. SCRIC: a code dedicated to the detailed emission and absorption of heterogeneous NLTE plasmas; application to xenon EUV sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaufridy de Dortan, F. de

    2006-01-01

    Nearly all spectral opacity codes for LTE and NLTE plasmas rely on configurations approximate modelling or even supra-configurations modelling for mid Z plasmas. But in some cases, configurations interaction (either relativistic and non relativistic) induces dramatic changes in spectral shapes. We propose here a new detailed emissivity code with configuration mixing to allow for a realistic description of complex mid Z plasmas. A collisional radiative calculation. based on HULLAC precise energies and cross sections. determines the populations. Detailed emissivities and opacities are then calculated and radiative transfer equation is resolved for wide inhomogeneous plasmas. This code is able to cope rapidly with very large amount of atomic data. It is therefore possible to use complex hydrodynamic files even on personal computers in a very limited time. We used this code for comparison with Xenon EUV sources within the framework of nano-lithography developments. It appears that configurations mixing strongly shifts satellite lines and must be included in the description of these sources to enhance their efficiency. (author)

  19. Use of CITATION code for flux calculation in neutron activation analysis with voluminous sample using an Am-Be source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khelifi, R.; Idiri, Z.; Bode, P.

    2002-01-01

    The CITATION code based on neutron diffusion theory was used for flux calculations inside voluminous samples in prompt gamma activation analysis with an isotopic neutron source (Am-Be). The code uses specific parameters related to the energy spectrum source and irradiation system materials (shielding, reflector). The flux distribution (thermal and fast) was calculated in the three-dimensional geometry for the system: air, polyethylene and water cuboidal sample (50x50x50 cm). Thermal flux was calculated in a series of points inside the sample. The results agreed reasonably well with observed values. The maximum thermal flux was observed at a distance of 3.2 cm while CITATION gave 3.7 cm. Beyond a depth of 7.2 cm, the thermal flux to fast flux ratio increases up to twice and allows us to optimise the detection system position in the scope of in-situ PGAA

  20. Recycling source terms for edge plasma fluid models and impact on convergence behaviour of the BRAAMS 'B2' code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddison, G.P.; Reiter, D.

    1994-02-01

    Predictive simulations of tokamak edge plasmas require the most authentic description of neutral particle recycling sources, not merely the most expedient numerically. Employing a prototypical ITER divertor arrangement under conditions of high recycling, trial calculations with the 'B2' steady-state edge plasma transport code, plus varying approximations or recycling, reveal marked sensitivity of both results and its convergence behaviour to details of sources incorporated. Comprehensive EIRENE Monte Carlo resolution of recycling is implemented by full and so-called 'shot' intermediate cycles between the plasma fluid and statistical neutral particle models. As generally for coupled differencing and stochastic procedures, though, overall convergence properties become more difficult to assess. A pragmatic criterion for the 'B2'/EIRENE code system is proposed to determine its success, proceeding from a stricter condition previously identified for one particular analytic approximation of recycling in 'B2'. Certain procedures are also inferred potentially to improve their convergence further. (orig.)

  1. EchoSeed Model 6733 Iodine-125 brachytherapy source: Improved dosimetric characterization using the MCNP5 Monte Carlo code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosleh-Shirazi, M. A.; Hadad, K.; Faghihi, R.; Baradaran-Ghahfarokhi, M.; Naghshnezhad, Z.; Meigooni, A. S. [Center for Research in Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering and Physics Unit, Radiotherapy Department, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz 71936-13311 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Radiation Research Center and Medical Radiation Department, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71936-13311 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Comprehensive Cancer Center of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada 89169 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    This study primarily aimed to obtain the dosimetric characteristics of the Model 6733 {sup 125}I seed (EchoSeed) with improved precision and accuracy using a more up-to-date Monte-Carlo code and data (MCNP5) compared to previously published results, including an uncertainty analysis. Its secondary aim was to compare the results obtained using the MCNP5, MCNP4c2, and PTRAN codes for simulation of this low-energy photon-emitting source. The EchoSeed geometry and chemical compositions together with a published {sup 125}I spectrum were used to perform dosimetric characterization of this source as per the updated AAPM TG-43 protocol. These simulations were performed in liquid water material in order to obtain the clinically applicable dosimetric parameters for this source model. Dose rate constants in liquid water, derived from MCNP4c2 and MCNP5 simulations, were found to be 0.993 cGyh{sup -1} U{sup -1} ({+-}1.73%) and 0.965 cGyh{sup -1} U{sup -1} ({+-}1.68%), respectively. Overall, the MCNP5 derived radial dose and 2D anisotropy functions results were generally closer to the measured data (within {+-}4%) than MCNP4c and the published data for PTRAN code (Version 7.43), while the opposite was seen for dose rate constant. The generally improved MCNP5 Monte Carlo simulation may be attributed to a more recent and accurate cross-section library. However, some of the data points in the results obtained from the above-mentioned Monte Carlo codes showed no statistically significant differences. Derived dosimetric characteristics in liquid water are provided for clinical applications of this source model.

  2. Methodology and Toolset for Model Verification, Hardware/Software co-simulation, Performance Optimisation and Customisable Source-code generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Michael Stübert; Soler, José; Yu, Hao

    2013-01-01

    The MODUS project aims to provide a pragmatic and viable solution that will allow SMEs to substantially improve their positioning in the embedded-systems development market. The MODUS tool will provide a model verification and Hardware/Software co-simulation tool (TRIAL) and a performance...... optimisation and customisable source-code generation tool (TUNE). The concept is depicted in automated modelling and optimisation of embedded-systems development. The tool will enable model verification by guiding the selection of existing open-source model verification engines, based on the automated analysis...

  3. Study of the source term of radiation of the CDTN GE-PET trace 8 cyclotron with the MCNPX code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benavente C, J. A.; Lacerda, M. A. S.; Fonseca, T. C. F.; Da Silva, T. A. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear / CNEN, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Vega C, H. R., E-mail: jhonnybenavente@gmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: The knowledge of the neutron spectra in a PET cyclotron is important for the optimization of radiation protection of the workers and individuals of the public. The main objective of this work is to study the source term of radiation of the GE-PET trace 8 cyclotron of the Development Center of Nuclear Technology (CDTN/CNEN) using computer simulation by the Monte Carlo method. The MCNPX version 2.7 code was used to calculate the flux of neutrons produced from the interaction of the primary proton beam with the target body and other cyclotron components, during 18F production. The estimate of the source term and the corresponding radiation field was performed from the bombardment of a H{sub 2}{sup 18}O target with protons of 75 μA current and 16.5 MeV of energy. The values of the simulated fluxes were compared with those reported by the accelerator manufacturer (GE Health care Company). Results showed that the fluxes estimated with the MCNPX codes were about 70% lower than the reported by the manufacturer. The mean energies of the neutrons were also different of that reported by GE Health Care. It is recommended to investigate other cross sections data and the use of physical models of the code itself for a complete characterization of the source term of radiation. (Author)

  4. Supporting the Cybercrime Investigation Process: Effective Discrimination of Source Code Authors Based on Byte-Level Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantzeskou, Georgia; Stamatatos, Efstathios; Gritzalis, Stefanos

    Source code authorship analysis is the particular field that attempts to identify the author of a computer program by treating each program as a linguistically analyzable entity. This is usually based on other undisputed program samples from the same author. There are several cases where the application of such a method could be of a major benefit, such as tracing the source of code left in the system after a cyber attack, authorship disputes, proof of authorship in court, etc. In this paper, we present our approach which is based on byte-level n-gram profiles and is an extension of a method that has been successfully applied to natural language text authorship attribution. We propose a simplified profile and a new similarity measure which is less complicated than the algorithm followed in text authorship attribution and it seems more suitable for source code identification since is better able to deal with very small training sets. Experiments were performed on two different data sets, one with programs written in C++ and the second with programs written in Java. Unlike the traditional language-dependent metrics used by previous studies, our approach can be applied to any programming language with no additional cost. The presented accuracy rates are much better than the best reported results for the same data sets.

  5. Performance Analysis for Bit Error Rate of DS- CDMA Sensor Network Systems with Source Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider M. AlSabbagh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The minimum energy (ME coding combined with DS-CDMA wireless sensor network is analyzed in order to reduce energy consumed and multiple access interference (MAI with related to number of user(receiver. Also, the minimum energy coding which exploits redundant bits for saving power with utilizing RF link and On-Off-Keying modulation. The relations are presented and discussed for several levels of errors expected in the employed channel via amount of bit error rates and amount of the SNR for number of users (receivers.

  6. Numerical modeling of the Linac4 negative ion source extraction region by 3D PIC-MCC code ONIX

    CERN Document Server

    Mochalskyy, S; Minea, T; Lifschitz, AF; Schmitzer, C; Midttun, O; Steyaert, D

    2013-01-01

    At CERN, a high performance negative ion (NI) source is required for the 160 MeV H- linear accelerator Linac4. The source is planned to produce 80 mA of H- with an emittance of 0.25 mm mradN-RMS which is technically and scientifically very challenging. The optimization of the NI source requires a deep understanding of the underling physics concerning the production and extraction of the negative ions. The extraction mechanism from the negative ion source is complex involving a magnetic filter in order to cool down electrons’ temperature. The ONIX (Orsay Negative Ion eXtraction) code is used to address this problem. The ONIX is a selfconsistent 3D electrostatic code using Particles-in-Cell Monte Carlo Collisions (PIC-MCC) approach. It was written to handle the complex boundary conditions between plasma, source walls, and beam formation at the extraction hole. Both, the positive extraction potential (25kV) and the magnetic field map are taken from the experimental set-up, in construction at CERN. This contrib...

  7. Active Fault Near-Source Zones Within and Bordering the State of California for the 1997 Uniform Building Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, M.D.; Toppozada, Tousson R.; Cao, T.; Cramer, C.H.; Reichle, M.S.; Bryant, W.A.

    2000-01-01

    The fault sources in the Project 97 probabilistic seismic hazard maps for the state of California were used to construct maps for defining near-source seismic coefficients, Na and Nv, incorporated in the 1997 Uniform Building Code (ICBO 1997). The near-source factors are based on the distance from a known active fault that is classified as either Type A or Type B. To determine the near-source factor, four pieces of geologic information are required: (1) recognizing a fault and determining whether or not the fault has been active during the Holocene, (2) identifying the location of the fault at or beneath the ground surface, (3) estimating the slip rate of the fault, and (4) estimating the maximum earthquake magnitude for each fault segment. This paper describes the information used to produce the fault classifications and distances.

  8. The systematic profiling of false identity documents: method validation and performance evaluation using seizures known to originate from common and different sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baechler, Simon; Terrasse, Vincent; Pujol, Jean-Philippe; Fritz, Thibaud; Ribaux, Olivier; Margot, Pierre

    2013-10-10

    False identity documents constitute a potential powerful source of forensic intelligence because they are essential elements of transnational crime and provide cover for organized crime. In previous work, a systematic profiling method using false documents' visual features has been built within a forensic intelligence model. In the current study, the comparison process and metrics lying at the heart of this profiling method are described and evaluated. This evaluation takes advantage of 347 false identity documents of four different types seized in two countries whose sources were known to be common or different (following police investigations and dismantling of counterfeit factories). Intra-source and inter-sources variations were evaluated through the computation of more than 7500 similarity scores. The profiling method could thus be validated and its performance assessed using two complementary approaches to measuring type I and type II error rates: a binary classification and the computation of likelihood ratios. Very low error rates were measured across the four document types, demonstrating the validity and robustness of the method to link documents to a common source or to differentiate them. These results pave the way for an operational implementation of a systematic profiling process integrated in a developed forensic intelligence model. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Large-eddy simulation of convective boundary layer generated by highly heated source with open source code, OpenFOAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Yasuo; Suto, Hitoshi; Eguchi, Yuzuru; Sano, Tadashi; Shirai, Koji; Ishihara, Shuji

    2011-01-01

    Spatial- and temporal-characteristics of turbulence structures in the close vicinity of a heat source, which is a horizontal upward-facing round plate heated at high temperature, are examined by using well resolved large-eddy simulations. The verification is carried out through the comparison with experiments: the predicted statistics, including the PDF distribution of temperature fluctuations, agree well with measurements, indicating that the present simulations have a capability to appropriately reproduce turbulence structures near the heat source. The reproduced three-dimensional thermal- and fluid-fields in the close vicinity of the heat source reveals developing processes of coherence structures along the surface: the stationary- and streaky-flow patterns appear near the edge, and such patterns randomly shift to cell-like patterns with incursion into the center region, resulting in thermal-plume meandering. Both the patterns have very thin structures, but the depth of streaky structure is considerably small compared with that of cell-like patterns; this discrepancy causes the layered structures. The structure is the source of peculiar turbulence characteristics, the prediction of which is quite difficult with RANS-type turbulence models. The understanding such structures obtained in present study must be helpful to improve the turbulence model used in nuclear engineering. (author)

  10. Limiting precision in differential equation solvers. II Sources of trouble and starting a code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shampine, L.F.

    1978-01-01

    The reasons a class of codes for solving ordinary differential equations might want to use an extremely small step size are investigated. For this class the likelihood of precision difficulties is evaluated and remedies examined. The investigations suggests a way of selecting automatically an initial step size which should be reliably on scale

  11. Beacon- and Schema-Based Method for Recognizing Algorithms from Students' Source Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherkhani, Ahmad; Malmi, Lauri

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method for recognizing algorithms from students programming submissions coded in Java. The method is based on the concept of "programming schemas" and "beacons". Schemas are high-level programming knowledge with detailed knowledge abstracted out, and beacons are statements that imply specific…

  12. SPIDERMAN: an open-source code to model phase curves and secondary eclipses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louden, Tom; Kreidberg, Laura

    2018-03-01

    We present SPIDERMAN (Secondary eclipse and Phase curve Integrator for 2D tempERature MAppiNg), a fast code for calculating exoplanet phase curves and secondary eclipses with arbitrary surface brightness distributions in two dimensions. Using a geometrical algorithm, the code solves exactly the area of sections of the disc of the planet that are occulted by the star. The code is written in C with a user-friendly Python interface, and is optimised to run quickly, with no loss in numerical precision. Approximately 1000 models can be generated per second in typical use, making Markov Chain Monte Carlo analyses practicable. The modular nature of the code allows easy comparison of the effect of multiple different brightness distributions for the dataset. As a test case we apply the code to archival data on the phase curve of WASP-43b using a physically motivated analytical model for the two dimensional brightness map. The model provides a good fit to the data; however, it overpredicts the temperature of the nightside. We speculate that this could be due to the presence of clouds on the nightside of the planet, or additional reflected light from the dayside. When testing a simple cloud model we find that the best fitting model has a geometric albedo of 0.32 ± 0.02 and does not require a hot nightside. We also test for variation of the map parameters as a function of wavelength and find no statistically significant correlations. SPIDERMAN is available for download at https://github.com/tomlouden/spiderman.

  13. SPIDERMAN: an open-source code to model phase curves and secondary eclipses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louden, Tom; Kreidberg, Laura

    2018-06-01

    We present SPIDERMAN (Secondary eclipse and Phase curve Integrator for 2D tempERature MAppiNg), a fast code for calculating exoplanet phase curves and secondary eclipses with arbitrary surface brightness distributions in two dimensions. Using a geometrical algorithm, the code solves exactly the area of sections of the disc of the planet that are occulted by the star. The code is written in C with a user-friendly Python interface, and is optimized to run quickly, with no loss in numerical precision. Approximately 1000 models can be generated per second in typical use, making Markov Chain Monte Carlo analyses practicable. The modular nature of the code allows easy comparison of the effect of multiple different brightness distributions for the data set. As a test case, we apply the code to archival data on the phase curve of WASP-43b using a physically motivated analytical model for the two-dimensional brightness map. The model provides a good fit to the data; however, it overpredicts the temperature of the nightside. We speculate that this could be due to the presence of clouds on the nightside of the planet, or additional reflected light from the dayside. When testing a simple cloud model, we find that the best-fitting model has a geometric albedo of 0.32 ± 0.02 and does not require a hot nightside. We also test for variation of the map parameters as a function of wavelength and find no statistically significant correlations. SPIDERMAN is available for download at https://github.com/tomlouden/spiderman.

  14. Pre-coding method and apparatus for multiple source or time-shifted single source data and corresponding inverse post-decoding method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Pen-Shu (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A pre-coding method and device for improving data compression performance by removing correlation between a first original data set and a second original data set, each having M members, respectively. The pre-coding method produces a compression-efficiency-enhancing double-difference data set. The method and device produce a double-difference data set, i.e., an adjacent-delta calculation performed on a cross-delta data set or a cross-delta calculation performed on two adjacent-delta data sets, from either one of (1) two adjacent spectral bands coming from two discrete sources, respectively, or (2) two time-shifted data sets coming from a single source. The resulting double-difference data set is then coded using either a distortionless data encoding scheme (entropy encoding) or a lossy data compression scheme. Also, a post-decoding method and device for recovering a second original data set having been represented by such a double-difference data set.

  15. SFACTOR: a computer code for calculating dose equivalent to a target organ per microcurie-day residence of a radionuclide in a source organ - supplementary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunning, Jr, D E; Pleasant, J C; Killough, G G

    1980-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe revisions in the SFACTOR computer code and to provide useful documentation for that program. The SFACTOR computer code has been developed to implement current methodologies for computing the average dose equivalent rate S(X reverse arrow Y) to specified target organs in man due to 1 ..mu..Ci of a given radionuclide uniformly distributed in designated source orrgans. The SFACTOR methodology is largely based upon that of Snyder, however, it has been expanded to include components of S from alpha and spontaneous fission decay, in addition to electron and photon radiations. With this methodology, S-factors can be computed for any radionuclide for which decay data are available. The tabulations in Appendix II provide a reference compilation of S-factors for several dosimetrically important radionuclides which are not available elsewhere in the literature. These S-factors are calculated for an adult with characteristics similar to those of the International Commission on Radiological Protection's Reference Man. Corrections to tabulations from Dunning are presented in Appendix III, based upon the methods described in Section 2.3. 10 refs.

  16. Pre-Test Analysis of the MEGAPIE Spallation Source Target Cooling Loop Using the TRAC/AAA Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubelis, Evaldas; Coddington, Paul; Leung, Waihung

    2006-01-01

    A pilot project is being undertaken at the Paul Scherrer Institute in Switzerland to test the feasibility of installing a Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) spallation target in the SINQ facility. Efforts are coordinated under the MEGAPIE project, the main objectives of which are to design, build, operate and decommission a 1 MW spallation neutron source. The technology and experience of building and operating a high power spallation target are of general interest in the design of an Accelerator Driven System (ADS) and in this context MEGAPIE is one of the key experiments. The target cooling is one of the important aspects of the target system design that needs to be studied in detail. Calculations were performed previously using the RELAP5/Mod 3.2.2 and ATHLET codes, but in order to verify the previous code results and to provide another capability to model LBE systems, a similar study of the MEGAPIE target cooling system has been conducted with the TRAC/AAA code. In this paper a comparison is presented for the steady-state results obtained using the above codes. Analysis of transients, such as unregulated cooling of the target, loss of heat sink, the main electro-magnetic pump trip of the LBE loop and unprotected proton beam trip, were studied with TRAC/AAA and compared to those obtained earlier using RELAP5/Mod 3.2.2. This work extends the existing validation data-base of TRAC/AAA to heavy liquid metal systems and comprises the first part of the TRAC/AAA code validation study for LBE systems based on data from the MEGAPIE test facility and corresponding inter-code comparisons. (authors)

  17. Iraqi Perspectives Project. Primary Source Materials for Saddam and Terrorism: Emerging Insights from Captured Iraqi Documents. Volume 2 (Redacted)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woods, Kevin M

    2007-01-01

    Captured Iraqi documents have uncovered evidence that links the regime of Saddam Hussein to regional and global terrorism, including a variety of revolutionary, liberation, nationalist, and Islamic...

  18. Iraqi Perspectives Project. Primary Source Materials for Saddam and Terrorism: Emerging Insights from Captured Iraqi Documents. Volume 5 (Redacted)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woods, Kevin M

    2007-01-01

    Captured Iraqi documents have uncovered evidence that links the regime of Saddam Hussein to regional and global terrorism, including a variety of revolutionary, liberation, nationalist, and Islamic...

  19. Iraqi Perspectives Project. Primary Source Materials for Saddam and Terrorism: Emerging Insights from Captured Iraqi Documents. Volume 3 (Redacted)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woods, Kevin M

    2007-01-01

    Captured Iraqi documents have uncovered evidence that links the regime of Saddam Hussein to regional and global terrorism, including a variety of revolutionary, liberation, nationalist, and Islamic...

  20. Iraqi Perspectives Project. Primary Source Materials for Saddam and Terrorism: Emerging Insights from Captured Iraqi Documents. Volume 4 (Redacted)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woods, Kevin M

    2007-01-01

    Captured Iraqi documents have uncovered evidence that links the regime of Saddam Hussein to regional and global terrorism, including a variety of revolutionary, liberation, nationalist, and Islamic...

  1. Radiation Shielding Information Center: a source of computer codes and data for fusion neutronics studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGill, B.L.; Roussin, R.W.; Trubey, D.K.; Maskewitz, B.F.

    1980-01-01

    The Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC), established in 1962 to collect, package, analyze, and disseminate information, computer codes, and data in the area of radiation transport related to fission, is now being utilized to support fusion neutronics technology. The major activities include: (1) answering technical inquiries on radiation transport problems, (2) collecting, packaging, testing, and disseminating computing technology and data libraries, and (3) reviewing literature and operating a computer-based information retrieval system containing material pertinent to radiation transport analysis. The computer codes emphasize methods for solving the Boltzmann equation such as the discrete ordinates and Monte Carlo techniques, both of which are widely used in fusion neutronics. The data packages include multigroup coupled neutron-gamma-ray cross sections and kerma coefficients, other nuclear data, and radiation transport benchmark problem results

  2. kspectrum: an open-source code for high-resolution molecular absorption spectra production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eymet, V.; Coustet, C.; Piaud, B.

    2016-01-01

    We present the kspectrum, scientific code that produces high-resolution synthetic absorption spectra from public molecular transition parameters databases. This code was originally required by the atmospheric and astrophysics communities, and its evolution is now driven by new scientific projects among the user community. Since it was designed without any optimization that would be specific to any particular application field, its use could also be extended to other domains. kspectrum produces spectral data that can subsequently be used either for high-resolution radiative transfer simulations, or for producing statistic spectral model parameters using additional tools. This is a open project that aims at providing an up-to-date tool that takes advantage of modern computational hardware and recent parallelization libraries. It is currently provided by Méso-Star (http://www.meso-star.com) under the CeCILL license, and benefits from regular updates and improvements. (paper)

  3. Managing the consistency of distributed documents

    OpenAIRE

    Nentwich, C.

    2005-01-01

    Many businesses produce documents as part of their daily activities: software engineers produce requirements specifications, design models, source code, build scripts and more; business analysts produce glossaries, use cases, organisation charts, and domain ontology models; service providers and retailers produce catalogues, customer data, purchase orders, invoices and web pages. What these examples have in common is that the content of documents is often semantically relate...

  4. Four energy group neutron flux distribution in the Syrian miniature neutron source reactor using the WIMSD4 and CITATION code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, K.; Omar, H.; Ghazi, N.

    2009-01-01

    A 3-D (R, θ , Z) neutronic model for the Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR) was developed earlier to conduct the reactor neutronic analysis. The group constants for all the reactor components were generated using the WIMSD4 code. The reactor excess reactivity and the four group neutron flux distributions were calculated using the CITATION code. This model is used in this paper to calculate the point wise four energy group neutron flux distributions in the MNSR versus the radius, angle and reactor axial directions. Good agreement is noticed between the measured and the calculated thermal neutron flux in the inner and the outer irradiation site with relative difference less than 7% and 5% respectively. (author)

  5. Code of Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, Colin; Hone, Christopher; Nowlan, N.V.

    1984-05-01

    This Code of Practice introduces accepted safety procedures associated with the use of alpha, beta, gamma and X-radiation in secondary schools (pupils aged 12 to 18) in Ireland, and summarises good practice and procedures as they apply to radiation protection. Typical dose rates at various distances from sealed sources are quoted, and simplified equations are used to demonstrate dose and shielding calculations. The regulatory aspects of radiation protection are outlined, and references to statutory documents are given

  6. Investigation of Anisotropy Caused by Cylinder Applicator on Dose Distribution around Cs-137 Brachytherapy Source using MCNP4C Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Sina

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Brachytherapy is a type of radiotherapy in which radioactive sources are used in proximity of tumors normally for treatment of malignancies in the head, prostate and cervix. Materials and Methods: The Cs-137 Selectron source is a low-dose-rate (LDR brachytherapy source used in a remote afterloading system for treatment of different cancers. This system uses active and inactive spherical sources of 2.5 mm diameter, which can be used in different configurations inside the applicator to obtain different dose distributions. In this study, first the dose distribution at different distances from the source was obtained around a single pellet inside the applicator in a water phantom using the MCNP4C Monte Carlo code. The simulations were then repeated for six active pellets in the applicator and for six point sources.  Results: The anisotropy of dose distribution due to the presence of the applicator was obtained by division of dose at each distance and angle to the dose at the same distance and angle of 90 degrees. According to the results, the doses decreased towards the applicator tips. For example, for points at the distances of 5 and 7 cm from the source and angle of 165 degrees, such discrepancies reached 5.8% and 5.1%, respectively.  By increasing the number of pellets to six, these values reached 30% for the angle of 5 degrees. Discussion and Conclusion: The results indicate that the presence of the applicator causes a significant dose decrease at the tip of the applicator compared with the dose in the transverse plane. However, the treatment planning systems consider an isotropic dose distribution around the source and this causes significant errors in treatment planning, which are not negligible, especially for a large number of sources inside the applicator.

  7. Developing open-source codes for electromagnetic geophysics using industry support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, K.

    2017-12-01

    Funding for open-source software development in academia often takes the form of grants and fellowships awarded by government bodies and foundations where there is no conflict-of-interest between the funding entity and the free dissemination of the open-source software products. Conversely, funding for open-source projects in the geophysics industry presents challenges to conventional business models where proprietary licensing offers value that is not present in open-source software. Such proprietary constraints make it easier to convince companies to fund academic software development under exclusive software distribution agreements. A major challenge for obtaining commercial funding for open-source projects is to offer a value proposition that overcomes the criticism that such funding is a give-away to the competition. This work draws upon a decade of experience developing open-source electromagnetic geophysics software for the oil, gas and minerals exploration industry, and examines various approaches that have been effective for sustaining industry sponsorship.

  8. Calculation of the effective dose from natural radioactivity sources in soil using MCNP code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krstic, D.; Nikezic, D.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Effective dose delivered by photon emitted from natural radioactivity in soil was calculated in this report. Calculations have been done for the most common natural radionuclides in soil as 238 U, 232 Th series and 40 K. A ORNL age-dependent phantom and the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP-4B were employed to calculate the energy deposited in all organs of phantom.The effective dose was calculated according to ICRP74 recommendations. Conversion coefficients of effective dose per air kerma were determined. Results obtained here were compared with other authors

  9. In-vessel source term analysis code TRACER version 2.3. User's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyohara, Daisuke; Ohno, Shuji; Hamada, Hirotsugu; Miyahara, Shinya

    2005-01-01

    A computer code TRACER (Transport Phenomena of Radionuclides for Accident Consequence Evaluation of Reactor) version 2.3 has been developed to evaluate species and quantities of fission products (FPs) released into cover gas during a fuel pin failure accident in an LMFBR. The TRACER version 2.3 includes new or modified models shown below. a) Both model: a new model for FPs release from fuel. b) Modified model for FPs transfer from fuel to bubbles or sodium coolant. c) Modified model for bubbles dynamics in coolant. Computational models, input data and output data of the TRACER version 2.3 are described in this user's manual. (author)

  10. Student-Centered Pedagogy and Real-World Research: Using Documents as Sources of Data in Teaching Social Science Skills and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrefitte, Magali; Lazar, Gillian

    2018-01-01

    This teaching note describes the design and implementation of an activity in a 90-minute teaching session that was developed to introduce a diverse cohort of first-year criminology and sociology students to the use of documents as sources of data. This approach was contextualized in real-world research through scaffolded, student-centered tasks…

  11. Effects of Federal Regulation on the Financial Structure and Performance of the Domestic Motor Vehicle Manufacturers (Source Document)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-11-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY : The increasing government regulation of automative transportation : industries in the United States has produced the need for : financial and economic studies of the effects of such policies. : The purpose of this document is t...

  12. SMILEI: A collaborative, open-source, multi-purpose PIC code for the next generation of super-computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Mickael; Derouillat, J.; Beck, A.; Chiaramello, M.; Grassi, A.; Niel, F.; Perez, F.; Vinci, T.; Fle, M.; Aunai, N.; Dargent, J.; Plotnikov, I.; Bouchard, G.; Savoini, P.; Riconda, C.

    2016-10-01

    Over the last decades, Particle-In-Cell (PIC) codes have been central tools for plasma simulations. Today, new trends in High-Performance Computing (HPC) are emerging, dramatically changing HPC-relevant software design and putting some - if not most - legacy codes far beyond the level of performance expected on the new and future massively-parallel super computers. SMILEI is a new open-source PIC code co-developed by both plasma physicists and HPC specialists, and applied to a wide range of physics-related studies: from laser-plasma interaction to astrophysical plasmas. It benefits from an innovative parallelization strategy that relies on a super-domain-decomposition allowing for enhanced cache-use and efficient dynamic load balancing. Beyond these HPC-related developments, SMILEI also benefits from additional physics modules allowing to deal with binary collisions, field and collisional ionization and radiation back-reaction. This poster presents the SMILEI project, its HPC capabilities and illustrates some of the physics problems tackled with SMILEI.

  13. Simulation of droplet impact onto a deep pool for large Froude numbers in different open-source codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korchagova, V. N.; Kraposhin, M. V.; Marchevsky, I. K.; Smirnova, E. V.

    2017-11-01

    A droplet impact on a deep pool can induce macro-scale or micro-scale effects like a crown splash, a high-speed jet, formation of secondary droplets or thin liquid films, etc. It depends on the diameter and velocity of the droplet, liquid properties, effects of external forces and other factors that a ratio of dimensionless criteria can account for. In the present research, we considered the droplet and the pool consist of the same viscous incompressible liquid. We took surface tension into account but neglected gravity forces. We used two open-source codes (OpenFOAM and Gerris) for our computations. We review the possibility of using these codes for simulation of processes in free-surface flows that may take place after a droplet impact on the pool. Both codes simulated several modes of droplet impact. We estimated the effect of liquid properties with respect to the Reynolds number and Weber number. Numerical simulation enabled us to find boundaries between different modes of droplet impact on a deep pool and to plot corresponding mode maps. The ratio of liquid density to that of the surrounding gas induces several changes in mode maps. Increasing this density ratio suppresses the crown splash.

  14. Bug-Fixing and Code-Writing: The Private Provision of Open Source Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bitzer, Jürgen; Schröder, Philipp

    2002-01-01

    Open source software (OSS) is a public good. A self-interested individual would consider providing such software, if the benefits he gained from having it justified the cost of programming. Nevertheless each agent is tempted to free ride and wait for others to develop the software instead...

  15. SETMDC: Preprocessor for CHECKR, FIZCON, INTER, etc. ENDF Utility source codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunford, Charles L.

    2002-01-01

    Description of program or function: SETMDC-6.13 is a utility program that converts the source decks of the following set of programs to different computers: CHECKR-6.13; FIZCON-6.13; GETMAT-6.13; INTER-6.13; LISTEF-6; PLOTEF-6; PSYCHE-6; STANEF-6.13

  16. ON CODE REFACTORING OF THE DIALOG SUBSYSTEM OF CDSS PLATFORM FOR THE OPEN-SOURCE MIS OPENMRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Semenets

    2016-08-01

    The open-source MIS OpenMRS developer tools and software API are reviewed. The results of code refactoring of the dialog subsystem of the CDSS platform which is made as module for the open-source MIS OpenMRS are presented. The structure of information model of database of the CDSS dialog subsystem was updated according with MIS OpenMRS requirements. The Model-View-Controller (MVC based approach to the CDSS dialog subsystem architecture was re-implemented with Java programming language using Spring and Hibernate frameworks. The MIS OpenMRS Encounter portlet form for the CDSS dialog subsystem integration is developed as an extension. The administrative module of the CDSS platform is recreated. The data exchanging formats and methods for interaction of OpenMRS CDSS dialog subsystem module and DecisionTree GAE service are re-implemented with help of AJAX technology via jQuery library

  17. 75 FR 19944 - International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... documents from ICC's Chicago District Office: International Code Council, 4051 W Flossmoor Road, Country... Energy Conservation Code. International Existing Building Code. International Fire Code. International...

  18. An alternative technique for simulating volumetric cylindrical sources in the Morse code utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, W.J.; Mendonca, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    In the solution of deep-penetration problems using the Monte Carlo method, calculation techniques and strategies are used in order to increase the particle population in the regions of interest. A common procedure is the coupling of bidimensional calculations, with (r,z) discrete ordinates transformed into source data, and tridimensional Monte Carlo calculations. An alternative technique for this procedure is presented. This alternative proved effective when applied to a sample problem. (F.E.) [pt

  19. Advanced Neutron Source Dynamic Model (ANSDM) code description and user guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    March-Leuba, J.

    1995-08-01

    A mathematical model is designed that simulates the dynamic behavior of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor. Its main objective is to model important characteristics of the ANS systems as they are being designed, updated, and employed; its primary design goal, to aid in the development of safety and control features. During the simulations the model is also found to aid in making design decisions for thermal-hydraulic systems. Model components, empirical correlations, and model parameters are discussed; sample procedures are also given. Modifications are cited, and significant development and application efforts are noted focusing on examination of instrumentation required during and after accidents to ensure adequate monitoring during transient conditions

  20. Basic design of the HANARO cold neutron source using MCNP code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yeong Jin; Lee, Kye Hong; Kim, Young Jin; Hwang, Dong Gil

    2005-01-01

    The design of the Cold Neutron Source (CNS) for the HANARO research reactor is on progress. The CNS produces neutrons in the low energy range less than 5meV using liquid hydrogen at around 21.6 K as the moderator. The primary goal for the CNS design is to maximize the cold neutron flux with wavelengths of around 2 ∼ 12 A and to minimize the nuclear heat load. In this paper, the basic design of the HANARO CNS is described

  1. Personalized reminiscence therapy M-health application for patients living with dementia: Innovating using open source code repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Melvyn W B; Ho, Roger C M

    2017-01-01

    Dementia is known to be an illness which brings forth marked disability amongst the elderly individuals. At times, patients living with dementia do also experience non-cognitive symptoms, and these symptoms include that of hallucinations, delusional beliefs as well as emotional liability, sexualized behaviours and aggression. According to the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines, non-pharmacological techniques are typically the first-line option prior to the consideration of adjuvant pharmacological options. Reminiscence and music therapy are thus viable options. Lazar et al. [3] previously performed a systematic review with regards to the utilization of technology to delivery reminiscence based therapy to individuals who are living with dementia and has highlighted that technology does have benefits in the delivery of reminiscence therapy. However, to date, there has been a paucity of M-health innovations in this area. In addition, most of the current innovations are not personalized for each of the person living with Dementia. Prior research has highlighted the utility for open source repository in bioinformatics study. The authors hoped to explain how they managed to tap upon and make use of open source repository in the development of a personalized M-health reminiscence therapy innovation for patients living with dementia. The availability of open source code repository has changed the way healthcare professionals and developers develop smartphone applications today. Conventionally, a long iterative process is needed in the development of native application, mainly because of the need for native programming and coding, especially so if the application needs to have interactive features or features that could be personalized. Such repository enables the rapid and cost effective development of application. Moreover, developers are also able to further innovate, as less time is spend in the iterative process.

  2. Self characterization of a coded aperture array for neutron source imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volegov, P. L., E-mail: volegov@lanl.gov; Danly, C. R.; Guler, N.; Merrill, F. E.; Wilde, C. H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States); Fittinghoff, D. N. [Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The neutron imaging system at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is an important diagnostic tool for measuring the two-dimensional size and shape of the neutrons produced in the burning deuterium-tritium plasma during the stagnation stage of inertial confinement fusion implosions. Since the neutron source is small (∼100 μm) and neutrons are deeply penetrating (>3 cm) in all materials, the apertures used to achieve the desired 10-μm resolution are 20-cm long, triangular tapers machined in gold foils. These gold foils are stacked to form an array of 20 apertures for pinhole imaging and three apertures for penumbral imaging. These apertures must be precisely aligned to accurately place the field of view of each aperture at the design location, or the location of the field of view for each aperture must be measured. In this paper we present a new technique that has been developed for the measurement and characterization of the precise location of each aperture in the array. We present the detailed algorithms used for this characterization and the results of reconstructed sources from inertial confinement fusion implosion experiments at NIF.

  3. Delaunay Tetrahedralization of the Heart Based on Integration of Open Source Codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavarino, E; Neves, L A; Machado, J M; Momente, J C; Zafalon, G F D; Pinto, A R; Valêncio, C R; Godoy, M F de; Shiyou, Y; Nascimento, M Z do

    2014-01-01

    The Finite Element Method (FEM) is a way of numerical solution applied in different areas, as simulations used in studies to improve cardiac ablation procedures. For this purpose, the meshes should have the same size and histological features of the focused structures. Some methods and tools used to generate tetrahedral meshes are limited mainly by the use conditions. In this paper, the integration of Open Source Softwares is presented as an alternative to solid modeling and automatic mesh generation. To demonstrate its efficiency, the cardiac structures were considered as a first application context: atriums, ventricles, valves, arteries and pericardium. The proposed method is feasible to obtain refined meshes in an acceptable time and with the required quality for simulations using FEM

  4. Summary of computational support and general documentation for computer code (GENTREE) used in Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation Pilot Salt Site Selection Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beatty, J.A.; Younker, J.L.; Rousseau, W.F.; Elayat, H.A.

    1983-01-01

    A Decision Tree Computer Model was adapted for the purposes of a Pilot Salt Site Selection Project conducted by the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI). A deterministic computer model was developed to structure the site selection problem with submodels reflecting the five major outcome categories (Cost, Safety, Delay, Environment, Community Impact) to be evaluated in the decision process. Time-saving modifications were made in the tree code as part of the effort. In addition, format changes allowed retention of information items which are valuable in directing future research and in isolation of key variabilities in the Site Selection Decision Model. The deterministic code was linked to the modified tree code and the entire program was transferred to the ONWI-VAX computer for future use by the ONWI project

  5. The Journey of a Source Line: How your Code is Translated into a Controlled Flow of Electrons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    In this series we help you understand the bits and pieces that make your code command the underlying hardware. A multitude of layers translate and optimize source code, written in compiled and interpreted programming languages such as C++, Python or Java, to machine language. We explain the role and behavior of the layers in question in a typical usage scenario. While our main focus is on compilers and interpreters, we also talk about other facilities - such as the operating system, instruction sets and instruction decoders.   Biographie: Andrzej Nowak runs TIK Services, a technology and innovation consultancy based in Geneva, Switzerland. In the recent past, he co-founded and sold an award-winning Fintech start-up focused on peer-to-peer lending. Earlier, Andrzej worked at Intel and in the CERN openlab. At openlab, he managed a lab collaborating with Intel and was part of the Chief Technology Office, which set up next-generation technology projects for CERN and the openlab partne...

  6. The Journey of a Source Line: How your Code is Translated into a Controlled Flow of Electrons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    In this series we help you understand the bits and pieces that make your code command the underlying hardware. A multitude of layers translate and optimize source code, written in compiled and interpreted programming languages such as C++, Python or Java, to machine language. We explain the role and behavior of the layers in question in a typical usage scenario. While our main focus is on compilers and interpreters, we also talk about other facilities - such as the operating system, instruction sets and instruction decoders. Biographie: Andrzej Nowak runs TIK Services, a technology and innovation consultancy based in Geneva, Switzerland. In the recent past, he co-founded and sold an award-winning Fintech start-up focused on peer-to-peer lending. Earlier, Andrzej worked at Intel and in the CERN openlab. At openlab, he managed a lab collaborating with Intel and was part of the Chief Technology Office, which set up next-generation technology projects for CERN and the openlab partners.

  7. MVP/GMVP Version 3. General purpose Monte Carlo codes for neutron and photon transport calculations based on continuous energy and multigroup methods (Translated document)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaya, Yasunobu; Okumura, Keisuke; Sakurai, Takeshi; Mori, Takamasa

    2017-03-01

    In order to realize fast and accurate Monte Carlo simulation of neutron and photon transport problems, two Monte Carlo codes MVP (continuous-energy method) and GMVP (multigroup method) have been developed at Japan Atomic Energy Agency. The codes have adopted a vectorized algorithm and have been developed for vector-type supercomputers. They also support parallel processing with a standard parallelization library MPI and thus a speed-up of Monte Carlo calculations can be achieved on general computing platforms. The first and second versions of the codes were released in 1994 and 2005, respectively. They have been extensively improved and new capabilities have been implemented. The major improvements and new capabilities are as follows: (1) perturbation calculation for effective multiplication factor, (2) exact resonant elastic scattering model, (3) calculation of reactor kinetics parameters, (4) photo-nuclear model, (5) simulation of delayed neutrons, (6) generation of group constants. This report describes the physical model, geometry description method used in the codes, new capabilities and input instructions. (author)

  8. Document Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Malykh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the concept of locally simple models is considered. Locally simple models are arbitrarily complex models built from relatively simple components. A lot of practically important domains of discourse can be described as locally simple models, for example, business models of enterprises and companies. Up to now, research in human reasoning automation has been mainly concentrated around the most intellectually intensive activities, such as automated theorem proving. On the other hand, the retailer business model is formed from ”jobs”, and each ”job” can be modelled and automated more or less easily. At the same time, the whole retailer model as an integrated system is extremely complex. In this paper, we offer a variant of the mathematical definition of a locally simple model. This definition is intended for modelling a wide range of domains. Therefore, we also must take into account the perceptual and psychological issues. Logic is elitist, and if we want to attract to our models as many people as possible, we need to hide this elitism behind some metaphor, to which ’ordinary’ people are accustomed. As such a metaphor, we use the concept of a document, so our locally simple models are called document models. Document models are built in the paradigm of semantic programming. This allows us to achieve another important goal - to make the documentary models executable. Executable models are models that can act as practical information systems in the described domain of discourse. Thus, if our model is executable, then programming becomes redundant. The direct use of a model, instead of its programming coding, brings important advantages, for example, a drastic cost reduction for development and maintenance. Moreover, since the model is well and sound, and not dissolved within programming modules, we can directly apply AI tools, in particular, machine learning. This significantly expands the possibilities for automation and

  9. PEAR code review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wit, R.; Jamieson, T.; Lord, M.; Lafortune, J.F.

    1997-07-01

    As a necessary component in the continuous improvement and refinement of methodologies employed in the nuclear industry, regulatory agencies need to periodically evaluate these processes to improve confidence in results and ensure appropriate levels of safety are being achieved. The independent and objective review of industry-standard computer codes forms an essential part of this program. To this end, this work undertakes an in-depth review of the computer code PEAR (Public Exposures from Accidental Releases), developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) to assess accidental releases from CANDU reactors. PEAR is based largely on the models contained in the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) N288.2-M91. This report presents the results of a detailed technical review of the PEAR code to identify any variations from the CSA standard and other supporting documentation, verify the source code, assess the quality of numerical models and results, and identify general strengths and weaknesses of the code. The version of the code employed in this review is the one which AECL intends to use for CANDU 9 safety analyses. (author)

  10. Validation of chlorine and oxygen isotope ratio analysis to differentiate perchlorate sources and to document perchlorate biodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul B. Hatzinger,; Böhlke, John Karl; Sturchio, Neil C.; Gu, Baohua

    2013-01-01

    Increased health concerns about perchlorate (ClO4-) during the past decade and subsequent regulatory considerations have generated appreciable interest in source identification. The key objective of the isotopic techniques described in this guidance manual is to provide evidence concerning the origin of ClO4- in soils and groundwater and, more specifically, whether that ClO4- is synthetic or natural. Chlorine and oxygen isotopic analyses of ClO4- provide the primary direct approach whereby different sources of ClO4- can be distinguished from each other. These techniques measure the relative abundances of the stable isotopes of chlorine (37Cl and 35Cl) and oxygen (18O, 17O, and 16O) in ClO4- using isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). In addition, the relative abundance of the radioactive chlorine isotope 36Cl is measured using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Taken together, these measurements provide four independent quantities that can be used to distinguish natural and synthetic ClO4- sources, to discriminate different types of natural ClO4-, and to detect ClO4- biodegradation in the environment. Other isotopic, chemical, and geochemical techniques that can be applied in conjunction with isotopic analyses of ClO4- to provide supporting data in forensic studies are also described.

  11. Applications guide to the RSIC-distributed version of the MCNP code (coupled Monte Carlo neutron-photon Code)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, S.N.

    1985-09-01

    An overview of the RSIC-distributed version of the MCNP code (a soupled Monte Carlo neutron-photon code) is presented. All general features of the code, from machine hardware requirements to theoretical details, are discussed. The current nuclide cross-section and other libraries available in the standard code package are specified, and a realistic example of the flexible geometry input is given. Standard and nonstandard source, estimator, and variance-reduction procedures are outlined. Examples of correct usage and possible misuse of certain code features are presented graphically and in standard output listings. Finally, itemized summaries of sample problems, various MCNP code documentation, and future work are given

  12. Assessment of gamma irradiation heating and damage in miniature neutron source reactor vessel using computational methods and SRIM - TRIM code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appiah-Ofori, F. F.

    2014-07-01

    The Effects of Gamma Radiation Heating and Irradiation Damage in the reactor vessel of Ghana Research Reactor 1, Miniature Neutron Source Reactor were assessed using Implicit Control Volume Finite Difference Numerical Computation and validated by SRIM - TRIM Code. It was assumed that 5.0 MeV of gamma rays from the reactor core generate heat which interact and absorbed completely by the interior surface of the MNSR vessel which affects it performance due to the induced displacement damage. This displacement damage is as result of lattice defects being created which impair the vessel through formation of point defect clusters such as vacancies and interstitiaIs which can result in dislocation loops and networks, voids and bubbles and causing changes in the layers in the thickness of the vessel. The microscopic defects produced in the vessel due to γ - radiation damage are referred to as radiation damage while the defects thus produced modify the macroscopic properties of the vessel which are also known as the radiation effects. These radiation damage effects are of major concern for materials used in nuclear energy production. In this study, the overall objective was to assess the effects of gamma radiation heating and damage in GHARR - I MNSR vessel by a well-developed Mathematical model, Analytical and Numerical solutions, simulating the radiation damage in the vessel. SRIM - TRIM Code was used as a computational tool to determine the displacement per atom (dpa) associated with radiation damage while implicit Control Volume Finite Difference Method was used to determine the temperature profile within the vessel due to γ - radiation heating respectively. The methodology adopted in assessing γ - radiation heating in the vessel involved development of the One-Dimensional Steady State Fourier Heat Conduction Equation with Volumetric Heat Generation both analytical and implicit Control Volume Finite Difference Method approach to determine the maximum temperature and

  13. HELIOS: An Open-source, GPU-accelerated Radiative Transfer Code for Self-consistent Exoplanetary Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Matej; Grosheintz, Luc; Mendonça, João M.; Grimm, Simon L.; Lavie, Baptiste; Kitzmann, Daniel; Tsai, Shang-Min; Burrows, Adam; Kreidberg, Laura; Bedell, Megan; Bean, Jacob L.; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Heng, Kevin

    2017-02-01

    We present the open-source radiative transfer code named HELIOS, which is constructed for studying exoplanetary atmospheres. In its initial version, the model atmospheres of HELIOS are one-dimensional and plane-parallel, and the equation of radiative transfer is solved in the two-stream approximation with nonisotropic scattering. A small set of the main infrared absorbers is employed, computed with the opacity calculator HELIOS-K and combined using a correlated-k approximation. The molecular abundances originate from validated analytical formulae for equilibrium chemistry. We compare HELIOS with the work of Miller-Ricci & Fortney using a model of GJ 1214b, and perform several tests, where we find: model atmospheres with single-temperature layers struggle to converge to radiative equilibrium; k-distribution tables constructed with ≳ 0.01 cm-1 resolution in the opacity function (≲ {10}3 points per wavenumber bin) may result in errors ≳ 1%-10% in the synthetic spectra; and a diffusivity factor of 2 approximates well the exact radiative transfer solution in the limit of pure absorption. We construct “null-hypothesis” models (chemical equilibrium, radiative equilibrium, and solar elemental abundances) for six hot Jupiters. We find that the dayside emission spectra of HD 189733b and WASP-43b are consistent with the null hypothesis, while the latter consistently underpredicts the observed fluxes of WASP-8b, WASP-12b, WASP-14b, and WASP-33b. We demonstrate that our results are somewhat insensitive to the choice of stellar models (blackbody, Kurucz, or PHOENIX) and metallicity, but are strongly affected by higher carbon-to-oxygen ratios. The code is publicly available as part of the Exoclimes Simulation Platform (exoclime.net).

  14. A new open-source code for spherically symmetric stellar collapse to neutron stars and black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, Evan; Ott, Christian D

    2010-01-01

    We present the new open-source spherically symmetric general-relativistic (GR) hydrodynamics code GR1D. It is based on the Eulerian formulation of GR hydrodynamics (GRHD) put forth by Romero-Ibanez-Gourgoulhon and employs radial-gauge, polar-slicing coordinates in which the 3+1 equations simplify substantially. We discretize the GRHD equations with a finite-volume scheme, employing piecewise-parabolic reconstruction and an approximate Riemann solver. GR1D is intended for the simulation of stellar collapse to neutron stars and black holes and will also serve as a testbed for modeling technology to be incorporated in multi-D GR codes. Its GRHD part is coupled to various finite-temperature microphysical equations of state in tabulated form that we make available with GR1D. An approximate deleptonization scheme for the collapse phase and a neutrino-leakage/heating scheme for the postbounce epoch are included and described. We also derive the equations for effective rotation in 1D and implement them in GR1D. We present an array of standard test calculations and also show how simple analytic equations of state in combination with presupernova models from stellar evolutionary calculations can be used to study qualitative aspects of black hole formation in failing rotating core-collapse supernovae. In addition, we present a simulation with microphysical equations of state and neutrino leakage/heating of a failing core-collapse supernova and black hole formation in a presupernova model of a 40 M o-dot zero-age main-sequence star. We find good agreement on the time of black hole formation (within 20%) and last stable protoneutron star mass (within 10%) with predictions from simulations with full Boltzmann neutrino radiation hydrodynamics.

  15. A new open-source code for spherically symmetric stellar collapse to neutron stars and black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, Evan; Ott, Christian D, E-mail: evanoc@tapir.caltech.ed, E-mail: cott@tapir.caltech.ed [TAPIR, Mail Code 350-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2010-06-07

    We present the new open-source spherically symmetric general-relativistic (GR) hydrodynamics code GR1D. It is based on the Eulerian formulation of GR hydrodynamics (GRHD) put forth by Romero-Ibanez-Gourgoulhon and employs radial-gauge, polar-slicing coordinates in which the 3+1 equations simplify substantially. We discretize the GRHD equations with a finite-volume scheme, employing piecewise-parabolic reconstruction and an approximate Riemann solver. GR1D is intended for the simulation of stellar collapse to neutron stars and black holes and will also serve as a testbed for modeling technology to be incorporated in multi-D GR codes. Its GRHD part is coupled to various finite-temperature microphysical equations of state in tabulated form that we make available with GR1D. An approximate deleptonization scheme for the collapse phase and a neutrino-leakage/heating scheme for the postbounce epoch are included and described. We also derive the equations for effective rotation in 1D and implement them in GR1D. We present an array of standard test calculations and also show how simple analytic equations of state in combination with presupernova models from stellar evolutionary calculations can be used to study qualitative aspects of black hole formation in failing rotating core-collapse supernovae. In addition, we present a simulation with microphysical equations of state and neutrino leakage/heating of a failing core-collapse supernova and black hole formation in a presupernova model of a 40 M{sub o-dot} zero-age main-sequence star. We find good agreement on the time of black hole formation (within 20%) and last stable protoneutron star mass (within 10%) with predictions from simulations with full Boltzmann neutrino radiation hydrodynamics.

  16. Applying Satellite Data Sources in the Documentation and Landscape Modelling for Graeco-Roman Fortified Sites in the TŪR Abdin Area, Eastern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, K.; Silver, M.; Törmä, M.; Okkonen, J.; Okkonen, T.

    2017-08-01

    In 2015-2016 the Finnish-Swedish Archaeological Project in Mesopotamia (FSAPM) initiated a pilot study of an unexplored area in the Tūr Abdin region in Northern Mesopotamia (present-day Mardin Province in southeastern Turkey). FSAPM is reliant on satellite image data sources for prospecting, identifying, recording, and mapping largely unknown archaeological sites as well as studying their landscapes in the region. The purpose is to record and document sites in this endangered area for saving its cultural heritage. The sites in question consist of fortified architectural remains in an ancient border zone between the Graeco-Roman/Byzantine world and Parthia/Persia. The location of the archaeological sites in the terrain and the visible archaeological remains, as well as their dimensions and sizes were determined from the ortorectified satellite images, which also provided coordinates. In addition, field documentation was carried out in situ with photographs and notes. The applicability of various satellite data sources for the archaeological documentation of the project was evaluated. Satellite photographs from three 1968 CORONA missions, i.e. the declassified US government satellite photograph archives were acquired. Furthermore, satellite images included a recent GeoEye-1 Satellite Sensor Image from 2010 with a resolution of 0.5 m. Its applicability for prospecting archaeological sites, studying the terrain and producing landscape models in 3D was confirmed. The GeoEye-1 revealed the ruins of a fortified town and a fortress for their documentation and study. Landscape models for the area of these sites were constructed fusing GeoEye-1 with EU-DEM (European Digital Elevation Model data using SRTM and ASTER GDEM data) in order to understand their locations in the terrain.

  17. APPLYING SATELLITE DATA SOURCES IN THE DOCUMENTATION AND LANDSCAPE MODELLING FOR GRAECO-ROMAN/BYZANTINE FORTIFIED SITES IN THE TŪR ABDIN AREA, EASTERN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Silver

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2015-2016 the Finnish-Swedish Archaeological Project in Mesopotamia (FSAPM initiated a pilot study of an unexplored area in the Tūr Abdin region in Northern Mesopotamia (present-day Mardin Province in southeastern Turkey. FSAPM is reliant on satellite image data sources for prospecting, identifying, recording, and mapping largely unknown archaeological sites as well as studying their landscapes in the region. The purpose is to record and document sites in this endangered area for saving its cultural heritage. The sites in question consist of fortified architectural remains in an ancient border zone between the Graeco-Roman/Byzantine world and Parthia/Persia. The location of the archaeological sites in the terrain and the visible archaeological remains, as well as their dimensions and sizes were determined from the ortorectified satellite images, which also provided coordinates. In addition, field documentation was carried out in situ with photographs and notes. The applicability of various satellite data sources for the archaeological documentation of the project was evaluated. Satellite photographs from three 1968 CORONA missions, i.e. the declassified US government satellite photograph archives were acquired. Furthermore, satellite images included a recent GeoEye-1 Satellite Sensor Image from 2010 with a resolution of 0.5 m. Its applicability for prospecting archaeological sites, studying the terrain and producing landscape models in 3D was confirmed. The GeoEye-1 revealed the ruins of a fortified town and a fortress for their documentation and study. Landscape models for the area of these sites were constructed fusing GeoEye-1 with EU-DEM (European Digital Elevation Model data using SRTM and ASTER GDEM data in order to understand their locations in the terrain.

  18. FERRET data analysis code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmittroth, F.

    1979-09-01

    A documentation of the FERRET data analysis code is given. The code provides a way to combine related measurements and calculations in a consistent evaluation. Basically a very general least-squares code, it is oriented towards problems frequently encountered in nuclear data and reactor physics. A strong emphasis is on the proper treatment of uncertainties and correlations and in providing quantitative uncertainty estimates. Documentation includes a review of the method, structure of the code, input formats, and examples

  19. Implementation of inter-unit analysis for C and C++ languages in a source-based static code analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Sidorin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of automated testing capabilities arises a need for thorough testing of large software systems, including system inter-component interfaces. The objective of this research is to build a method for inter-procedural inter-unit analysis, which allows us to analyse large and complex software systems including multi-architecture projects (like Android OS as well as to support complex assembly systems of projects. Since the selected Clang Static Analyzer uses source code directly as input data, we need to develop a special technique to enable inter-unit analysis for such analyzer. This problem is of special nature because of C and C++ language features that assume and encourage the separate compilation of project files. We describe the build and analysis system that was implemented around Clang Static Analyzer to enable inter-unit analysis and consider problems related to support of complex projects. We also consider the task of merging abstract source trees of translation units and its related problems such as handling conflicting definitions, complex build systems and complex projects support, including support for multi-architecture projects, with examples. We consider both issues related to language design and human-related mistakes (that may be intentional. We describe some heuristics that were used for this work to make the merging process faster. The developed system was tested using Android OS as the input to show it is applicable even for such complicated projects. This system does not depend on the inter-procedural analysis method and allows the arbitrary change of its algorithm.

  20. Validation of the coupling of mesh models to GEANT4 Monte Carlo code for simulation of internal sources of photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caribe, Paulo Rauli Rafeson Vasconcelos; Cassola, Vagner Ferreira; Kramer, Richard; Khoury, Helen Jamil

    2013-01-01

    The use of three-dimensional models described by polygonal meshes in numerical dosimetry enables more accurate modeling of complex objects than the use of simple solid. The objectives of this work were validate the coupling of mesh models to the Monte Carlo code GEANT4 and evaluate the influence of the number of vertices in the simulations to obtain absorbed fractions of energy (AFEs). Validation of the coupling was performed to internal sources of photons with energies between 10 keV and 1 MeV for spherical geometries described by the GEANT4 and three-dimensional models with different number of vertices and triangular or quadrilateral faces modeled using Blender program. As a result it was found that there were no significant differences between AFEs for objects described by mesh models and objects described using solid volumes of GEANT4. Since that maintained the shape and the volume the decrease in the number of vertices to describe an object does not influence so meant dosimetric data, but significantly decreases the time required to achieve the dosimetric calculations, especially for energies less than 100 keV

  1. An Open-Source Strategy for Documenting Events: The Case Study of the 42nd Canadian Federal Election on Twitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Ruest

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the tools, approaches, collaboration, and findings of the Web Archives for Historical Research Group around the capture and analysis of about 4 million tweets during the 2015 Canadian Federal Election. We hope that national libraries and other heritage institutions will find our model useful as they consider how to capture, preserve, and analyze ongoing events using Twitter. While Twitter is not a representative sample of broader society - Pew research shows in their study of US users that it skews young, college-educated, and affluent (above $50,000 household income – Twitter still represents an exponential increase in the amount of information generated, retained, and preserved from 'everyday' people. Therefore, when historians study the 2015 federal election, Twitter will be a prime source.On August 3, 2015, the team initiated both a Search API and Stream API collection with twarc, a tool developed by Ed Summers, using the hashtag #elxn42. The hashtag referred to the election being Canada's 42nd general federal election (hence 'election 42' or elxn42. Data collection ceased on November 5, 2015, the day after Justin Trudeau was sworn in as the 42nd Prime Minister of Canada. We collected for a total of 102 days, 13 hours and 50 minutes. To analyze the data set, we took advantage of a number of command line tools, utilities that are available within twarc, twarc-report, and jq. In accordance with the Twitter Developer Agreement & Policy, and after ethical deliberations discussed below, we made the tweet IDs and other derivative data available in a data repository. This allows other people to use our dataset, cite our dataset, and enhance their own research projects by drawing on #elxn42 tweets. Our analytics included: breaking tweet text down by day to track change over time; client analysis, allowing us to see how the scale of mobile devices affected medium interactions; URL analysis, comparing both to Archive

  2. Vector Network Coding Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahimi, Javad; Fragouli, Christina

    2010-01-01

    We develop new algebraic algorithms for scalar and vector network coding. In vector network coding, the source multicasts information by transmitting vectors of length L, while intermediate nodes process and combine their incoming packets by multiplying them with L x L coding matrices that play a similar role as coding c in scalar coding. Our algorithms for scalar network jointly optimize the employed field size while selecting the coding coefficients. Similarly, for vector coding, our algori...

  3. The Feasibility of Multidimensional CFD Applied to Calandria System in the Moderator of CANDU-6 PHWR Using Commercial and Open-Source Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung Tae Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The moderator system of CANDU, a prototype of PHWR (pressurized heavy-water reactor, has been modeled in multidimension for the computation based on CFD (computational fluid dynamics technique. Three CFD codes are tested in modeled hydrothermal systems of heavy-water reactors. Commercial codes, COMSOL Multiphysics and ANSYS-CFX with OpenFOAM, an open-source code, are introduced for the various simplified and practical problems. All the implemented computational codes are tested for a benchmark problem of STERN laboratory experiment with a precise modeling of tubes, compared with each other as well as the measured data and a porous model based on the experimental correlation of pressure drop. Also the effect of turbulence model is discussed for these low Reynolds number flows. As a result, they are shown to be successful for the analysis of three-dimensional numerical models related to the calandria system of CANDU reactors.

  4. Thermal-hydraulic analysis for the LBE-cooled natural circulation reactor. Development of the MSG-COPD code and application to the system analysis. Research Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Takashi; Sakai, Takaaki; Enuma, Yasuhiro; Mizuno, Tomoyasu

    2002-03-01

    Thermal-hydraulic analysis for the Lead-Bismuth eutectic (LBE)-cooled natural circulation reactor has been conducted by using a combined plant dynamics code (MSG-COPD). MSG-COPD has been developed to consider the multi-dimensional thermal-hydraulics effect on the plant dynamics during transients. Plant dynamics analyses for the LBE-cooled STAR-LM reactor, which has been designed by Argonne National Laboratory in U.S.A., have been performed to understand the basic thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the natural circulation reactor. As a result, it has been made clear that cold coolant remains in the lower plenum by the thermal stratification in case of the ULOHS condition with a severe temperature gradient at the stratified surface in the lower plenum. In addition, the flow-redistribution effect in a core channels by the buoyancy force has been evaluated for a candidate LBE-cooled FBR plant concept (LBE-FR), which has been designed by JNC. A linear evaluation method for the flow-redistribution coefficient is proposed for the LBE-FR, and compared with the multi-dimensional results by MSG-COPD. In conclusion, the method shows sufficient performance for the prediction of the flow-redistribution coefficient for typical lateral power distributions in the core. (author)

  5. Validation of the MCNP-DSP Monte Carlo code for calculating source-driven noise parameters of subcritical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentine, T.E.; Mihalczo, J.T.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes calculations performed to validate the modified version of the MCNP code, the MCNP-DSP, used for: the neutron and photon spectra of the spontaneous fission of californium 252; the representation of the detection processes for scattering detectors; the timing of the detection process; and the calculation of the frequency analysis parameters for the MCNP-DSP code

  6. A new open-source pin power reconstruction capability in DRAGON5 and DONJON5 neutronic codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambon, R., E-mail: richard-pierre.chambon@polymtl.ca; Hébert, A., E-mail: alain.hebert@polymtl.ca

    2015-08-15

    In order to better optimize the fuel energy efficiency in PWRs, the burnup distribution has to be known as accurately as possible, ideally in each pin. However, this level of detail is lost when core calculations are performed with homogenized cross-sections. The pin power reconstruction (PPR) method can be used to get back those levels of details as accurately as possible in a small additional computing time frame compared to classical core calculations. Such a de-homogenization technique for core calculations using arbitrarily homogenized fuel assembly geometries was presented originally by Fliscounakis et al. In our work, the same methodology was implemented in the open-source neutronic codes DRAGON5 and DONJON5. The new type of Selengut homogenization, called macro-calculation water gap, also proposed by Fliscounakis et al. was implemented. Some important details on the methodology were emphasized in order to get precise results. Validation tests were performed on 12 configurations of 3×3 clusters where simulations in transport theory and in diffusion theory followed by pin-power reconstruction were compared. The results shows that the pin power reconstruction and the Selengut macro-calculation water gap methods were correctly implemented. The accuracy of the simulations depends on the SPH method and on the homogenization geometry choices. Results show that the heterogeneous homogenization is highly recommended. SPH techniques were investigated with flux-volume and Selengut normalization, but the former leads to inaccurate results. Even though the new Selengut macro-calculation water gap method gives promising results regarding flux continuity at assembly interfaces, the classical Selengut approach is more reliable in terms of maximum and average errors in the whole range of configurations.

  7. A study on Prediction of Radioactive Source-term from the Decommissioning of Domestic NPPs by using CRUDTRAN Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jong Soon; Lee, Sang Heon; Cho, Hoon Jo [Department of Nuclear Engineering Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    For the study, the behavior mechanism of corrosion products in the primary system of the Kori no.1 was analyzed, and the volume of activated corrosion products in the primary system was assessed based on domestic plant data with the CRUDTRAN code used to predict the volume. It is expected that the study would be utilized in predicting radiation exposure of workers performing maintenance and repairs in high radiation areas and in selecting the process of decontaminations and decommissioning in the primary system. It is also expected that in the future it would be used as the baseline data to estimate the volume of radioactive wastes when decommissioning a nuclear plant in the future, which would be an important criterion in setting the level of radioactive wastes used to compute the quantity of radioactive wastes. The results of prediction of the radioactive nuclide inventory in the primary system performed in this study would be used as baseline data for the estimation of the volume of radioactive wastes when decommissioning NPPs in the future. It is also expected that the data would be important criteria used to classify the level of radioactive wastes to calculate the volume. In addition, it is expected that the data would be utilized in reducing radiation exposure of workers in charge of system maintenance and repairing in high radiation zones and also predicting the selection of decontaminations and decommissioning processes in the primary systems. In future researches, it is planned to conduct the source term assessment against other NPP types such as CANDU and OPR-1000, in addition to the Westinghouse type nuclear plants.

  8. NSURE code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rattan, D.S.

    1993-11-01

    NSURE stands for Near-Surface Repository code. NSURE is a performance assessment code. developed for the safety assessment of near-surface disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW). Part one of this report documents the NSURE model, governing equations and formulation of the mathematical models, and their implementation under the SYVAC3 executive. The NSURE model simulates the release of nuclides from an engineered vault, their subsequent transport via the groundwater and surface water pathways tot he biosphere, and predicts the resulting dose rate to a critical individual. Part two of this report consists of a User's manual, describing simulation procedures, input data preparation, output and example test cases

  9. SFACTOR: a computer code for calculating dose equivalent to a target organ per microcurie-day residence of a radionuclide in a source organ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunning, D.E. Jr.; Pleasant, J.C.; Killough, G.G.

    1977-11-01

    A computer code SFACTOR was developed to estimate the average dose equivalent S (rem/μCi-day) to each of a specified list of target organs per microcurie-day residence of a radionuclide in source organs in man. Source and target organs of interest are specified in the input data stream, along with the nuclear decay information. The SFACTOR code computes components of the dose equivalent rate from each type of decay present for a particular radionuclide, including alpha, electron, and gamma radiation. For those transuranic isotopes which also decay by spontaneous fission, components of S from the resulting fission fragments, neutrons, betas, and gammas are included in the tabulation. Tabulations of all components of S are provided for an array of 22 source organs and 24 target organs for 52 radionuclides in an adult

  10. SFACTOR: a computer code for calculating dose equivalent to a target organ per microcurie-day residence of a radionuclide in a source organ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunning, D.E. Jr.; Pleasant, J.C.; Killough, G.G.

    1977-11-01

    A computer code SFACTOR was developed to estimate the average dose equivalent S (rem/..mu..Ci-day) to each of a specified list of target organs per microcurie-day residence of a radionuclide in source organs in man. Source and target organs of interest are specified in the input data stream, along with the nuclear decay information. The SFACTOR code computes components of the dose equivalent rate from each type of decay present for a particular radionuclide, including alpha, electron, and gamma radiation. For those transuranic isotopes which also decay by spontaneous fission, components of S from the resulting fission fragments, neutrons, betas, and gammas are included in the tabulation. Tabulations of all components of S are provided for an array of 22 source organs and 24 target organs for 52 radionuclides in an adult.

  11. The IAEA code of conduct on the safety of radiation sources and the security of radioactive materials. A step forwards or backwards?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boustany, K.

    2001-01-01

    About the finalization of the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of radioactive Sources, it appeared that two distinct but interrelated subject areas have been identified: the prevention of accidents involving radiation sources and the prevention of theft or any other unauthorized use of radioactive materials. What analysis reveals is rather that there are gaps in both the content of the Code and the processes relating to it. Nevertheless, new standards have been introduced as a result of this exercise and have thus, as an enactment of what constitutes appropriate behaviour in the field of the safety and security of radioactive sources, emerged into the arena of international relations. (N.C.)

  12. An Assessment of Some Design Constraints on Heat Production of a 3D Conceptual EGS Model Using an Open-Source Geothermal Reservoir Simulation Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yidong Xia; Mitch Plummer; Robert Podgorney; Ahmad Ghassemi

    2016-02-01

    Performance of heat production process over a 30-year period is assessed in a conceptual EGS model with a geothermal gradient of 65K per km depth in the reservoir. Water is circulated through a pair of parallel wells connected by a set of single large wing fractures. The results indicate that the desirable output electric power rate and lifespan could be obtained under suitable material properties and system parameters. A sensitivity analysis on some design constraints and operation parameters indicates that 1) the fracture horizontal spacing has profound effect on the long-term performance of heat production, 2) the downward deviation angle for the parallel doublet wells may help overcome the difficulty of vertical drilling to reach a favorable production temperature, and 3) the thermal energy production rate and lifespan has close dependence on water mass flow rate. The results also indicate that the heat production can be improved when the horizontal fracture spacing, well deviation angle, and production flow rate are under reasonable conditions. To conduct the reservoir modeling and simulations, an open-source, finite element based, fully implicit, fully coupled hydrothermal code, namely FALCON, has been developed and used in this work. Compared with most other existing codes that are either closed-source or commercially available in this area, this new open-source code has demonstrated a code development strategy that aims to provide an unparalleled easiness for user-customization and multi-physics coupling. Test results have shown that the FALCON code is able to complete the long-term tests efficiently and accurately, thanks to the state-of-the-art nonlinear and linear solver algorithms implemented in the code.

  13. Office of Codes and Standards resource book. Section 1, Building energy codes and standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattrup, M.P.

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Codes and Standards has developed this Resource Book to provide: A discussion of DOE involvement in building codes and standards; a current and accurate set of descriptions of residential, commercial, and Federal building codes and standards; information on State contacts, State code status, State building construction unit volume, and State needs; and a list of stakeholders in the building energy codes and standards arena. The Resource Book is considered an evolving document and will be updated occasionally. Users are requested to submit additional data (e.g., more current, widely accepted, and/or documented data) and suggested changes to the address listed below. Please provide sources for all data provided.

  14. Documentation of spectrom-32

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, G.D.; Fossum, A.F.; Svalstad, D.K.

    1989-01-01

    SPECTROM-32 is a finite element program for analyzing two-dimensional and axisymmetric inelastic thermomechanical problems related to the geological disposal of nuclear waste. The code is part of the SPECTROM series of special-purpose computer programs that are being developed by RE/SPEC Inc. to address many unique rock mechanics problems encountered in analyzing radioactive wastes stored in geologic formations. This document presents the theoretical basis for the mathematical models, the finite element formulation and solution procedure of the program, a description of the input data for the program, verification problems, and details about program support and continuing documentation. The computer code documentation is intended to satisfy the requirements and guidelines outlined in the document entitled Final Technical Position on Documentation of Computer Codes for High-Level Waste Management. The principal component models used in the program involve thermoelastic, thermoviscoelastic, thermoelastic-plastic, and thermoviscoplastic types of material behavior. Special material considerations provide for the incorporation of limited-tension material behavior and consideration of jointed material behavior. Numerous program options provide the capabilities for various boundary conditions, sliding interfaces, excavation, backfill, arbitrary initial stresses, multiple material domains, load incrementation, plotting database storage and access of results, and other features unique to the geologic disposal of radioactive wastes. Numerous verification problems that exercise many of the program options and illustrate the required data input and printed results are included in the documentation

  15. Digital photography as source documentation of skin toxicity: an analysis from the Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG) 04.01 Post-Mastectomy Radiation Skin Care trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, Peter H.; Plant, Natalie A.; Graham, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated digital photographs as a method of providing auditable source documentation for radiotherapy-induced skin toxicity and the possibility therefore of centralised, blinded scoring for a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Digital photograph sets from the first five patients from each of 12 participating centres were audited. Minimum camera specifications and photograph requirements were protocol specified. Three readers rated photographs for four key quality items. They also scored skin reactions according to National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria (CTC) v3.0 acute skin score and also for the presence of any moist desquamation. Five hundred fifty-two images were available. Field of view was scored as inadequate in 1–10%, focus inadequate in 0.4–4%, lighting inadequate in 0.2–3% and dividing line marking inadequate for scoring of skin reactions within sectors in 18–23% of photographs by three readers. Reader pairwise inter-observer agreement was 83–88% for CTC acute skin scores, but the kappa value ranged from 0.58 to 0.73. The percentage of image sectors not scored by readers due to difficulty in assessing was 1–10%. Moist desquamation was scored by clinicians in 8 (medial)–13% (lateral) of patients compared with 3–5% and 5–11% by readers. Photo reader inter-observer agreement is only moderate. Photo readers tended to underscore the frequency of moist desquamation, but the trend by sector parallels the clinical scorers. Photographs are useful source documents for auditing and monitoring, but not a replacement for clinical scoring.

  16. Digital photography as source documentation of skin toxicity: an analysis from the Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG) 04.01 post-mastectomy radiation skin care trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Peter H; Plant, Natalie A; Graham, Jennifer Louise; Browne, Lois H; Borg, Martin; Capp, Anne; Delaney, Geoff P; Harvey, Jennifer; Kenny, Lizbeth; Francis, Michael; Zissiadis, Yvonne

    2012-08-01

    This study evaluated digital photographs as a method of providing auditable source documentation for radiotherapy-induced skin toxicity and the possibility therefore of centralised, blinded scoring for a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Digital photograph sets from the first five patients from each of 12 participating centres were audited. Minimum camera specifications and photograph requirements were protocol specified. Three readers rated photographs for four key quality items. They also scored skin reactions according to National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria (CTC) v3.0 acute skin score and also for the presence of any moist desquamation. Five hundred fifty-two images were available. Field of view was scored as inadequate in 1-10%, focus inadequate in 0.4-4%, lighting inadequate in 0.2-3% and dividing line marking inadequate for scoring of skin reactions within sectors in 18-23% of photographs by three readers. Reader pairwise inter-observer agreement was 83-88% for CTC acute skin scores, but the kappa value ranged from 0.58 to 0.73. The percentage of image sectors not scored by readers due to difficulty in assessing was 1-10%. Moist desquamation was scored by clinicians in 8 (medial)-13% (lateral) of patients compared with 3-5% and 5-11% by readers. Photo reader inter-observer agreement is only moderate. Photo readers tended to underscore the frequency of moist desquamation, but the trend by sector parallels the clinical scorers. Photographs are useful source documents for auditing and monitoring, but not a replacement for clinical scoring. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology © 2012 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  17. Vector Network Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahimi, Javad; Fragouli, Christina

    2010-01-01

    We develop new algebraic algorithms for scalar and vector network coding. In vector network coding, the source multicasts information by transmitting vectors of length L, while intermediate nodes process and combine their incoming packets by multiplying them with L X L coding matrices that play a similar role as coding coefficients in scalar coding. Our algorithms for scalar network jointly optimize the employed field size while selecting the coding coefficients. Similarly, for vector co...

  18. Evaluation of the methodology for dose calculation in microdosimetry with electrons sources using the MCNP5 Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cintra, Felipe Belonsi de

    2010-01-01

    This study made a comparison between some of the major transport codes that employ the Monte Carlo stochastic approach in dosimetric calculations in nuclear medicine. We analyzed in detail the various physical and numerical models used by MCNP5 code in relation with codes like EGS and Penelope. The identification of its potential and limitations for solving microdosimetry problems were highlighted. The condensed history methodology used by MCNP resulted in lower values for energy deposition calculation. This showed a known feature of the condensed stories: its underestimates both the number of collisions along the trajectory of the electron and the number of secondary particles created. The use of transport codes like MCNP and Penelope for micrometer scales received special attention in this work. Class I and class II codes were studied and their main resources were exploited in order to transport electrons, which have particular importance in dosimetry. It is expected that the evaluation of available methodologies mentioned here contribute to a better understanding of the behavior of these codes, especially for this class of problems, common in microdosimetry. (author)

  19. Version 4. 00 of the MINTEQ geochemical code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eary, L.E.; Jenne, E.A.

    1992-09-01

    The MINTEQ code is a thermodynamic model that can be used to calculate solution equilibria for geochemical applications. Included in the MINTEQ code are formulations for ionic speciation, ion exchange, adsorption, solubility, redox, gas-phase equilibria, and the dissolution of finite amounts of specified solids. Since the initial development of the MINTEQ geochemical code, a number of undocumented versions of the source code and data files have come into use at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This report documents these changes, describes source code modifications made for the Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) program, and provides comprehensive listings of the data files. A version number of 4.00 has been assigned to the MINTEQ source code and the individual data files described in this report.

  20. Version 4.00 of the MINTEQ geochemical code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eary, L.E.; Jenne, E.A.

    1992-09-01

    The MINTEQ code is a thermodynamic model that can be used to calculate solution equilibria for geochemical applications. Included in the MINTEQ code are formulations for ionic speciation, ion exchange, adsorption, solubility, redox, gas-phase equilibria, and the dissolution of finite amounts of specified solids. Since the initial development of the MINTEQ geochemical code, a number of undocumented versions of the source code and data files have come into use at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This report documents these changes, describes source code modifications made for the Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) program, and provides comprehensive listings of the data files. A version number of 4.00 has been assigned to the MINTEQ source code and the individual data files described in this report.

  1. Validation of the Open Source Code_Aster Software Used in the Modal Analysis of the Fluid-filled Cylindrical Shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B D. Kashfutdinov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a modal analysis of the elastic cylindrical shell with a clamped bottom partially filled with fluid in open source Code_Aster software using the finite element method. Natural frequencies and modes obtained in Code_Aster are compared to experimental and theoretical data. The aim of this paper is to prove that Code_Aster has all necessary tools for solving fluid structure interaction problems. Also, Code_Aster can be used in the industrial projects as an alternative to commercial software. The available free pre- and post-processors with a graphical user interface that is compatible with Code_Aster allow creating complex models and processing the results.The paper presents new validation results of open source Code_Aster software used to calculate small natural modes of the cylindrical shell partially filled with non-viscous compressible barotropic fluid under gravity field.The displacement of the middle surface of thin shell and the displacement of the fluid relative to the equilibrium position are described by coupled hydro-elasticity problem. The fluid flow is considered to be potential. The finite element method (FEM is used. The features of computational model are described. The resolution equation has symmetrical block matrices. To compare the results, is discussed the well-known modal analysis problem of cylindrical shell with flat non-deformable bottom, filled with a compressible fluid. The numerical parameters of the scheme were chosen in accordance with well-known experimental and analytical data. Three cases were taken into account: an empty, a partially filled and a full-filled cylindrical shell.The frequencies of Code_Aster are in good agreement with those, obtained in experiment, analytical solution, as well as with results obtained by FEM in other software. The difference between experiment and analytical solution in software is approximately the same. The obtained results extend a set of validation tests for

  2. MELCOR computer code manuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, R.M.; Cole, R.K. Jr.; Smith, R.C.; Stuart, D.S.; Thompson, S.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hodge, S.A.; Hyman, C.R.; Sanders, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. MELCOR is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission as a second-generation plant risk assessment tool and the successor to the Source Term Code Package. A broad spectrum of severe accident phenomena in both boiling and pressurized water reactors is treated in MELCOR in a unified framework. These include: thermal-hydraulic response in the reactor coolant system, reactor cavity, containment, and confinement buildings; core heatup, degradation, and relocation; core-concrete attack; hydrogen production, transport, and combustion; fission product release and transport; and the impact of engineered safety features on thermal-hydraulic and radionuclide behavior. Current uses of MELCOR include estimation of severe accident source terms and their sensitivities and uncertainties in a variety of applications. This publication of the MELCOR computer code manuals corresponds to MELCOR 1.8.3, released to users in August, 1994. Volume 1 contains a primer that describes MELCOR`s phenomenological scope, organization (by package), and documentation. The remainder of Volume 1 contains the MELCOR Users Guides, which provide the input instructions and guidelines for each package. Volume 2 contains the MELCOR Reference Manuals, which describe the phenomenological models that have been implemented in each package.

  3. MELCOR computer code manuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, R.M.; Cole, R.K. Jr.; Smith, R.C.; Stuart, D.S.; Thompson, S.L.; Hodge, S.A.; Hyman, C.R.; Sanders, R.L.

    1995-03-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. MELCOR is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission as a second-generation plant risk assessment tool and the successor to the Source Term Code Package. A broad spectrum of severe accident phenomena in both boiling and pressurized water reactors is treated in MELCOR in a unified framework. These include: thermal-hydraulic response in the reactor coolant system, reactor cavity, containment, and confinement buildings; core heatup, degradation, and relocation; core-concrete attack; hydrogen production, transport, and combustion; fission product release and transport; and the impact of engineered safety features on thermal-hydraulic and radionuclide behavior. Current uses of MELCOR include estimation of severe accident source terms and their sensitivities and uncertainties in a variety of applications. This publication of the MELCOR computer code manuals corresponds to MELCOR 1.8.3, released to users in August, 1994. Volume 1 contains a primer that describes MELCOR's phenomenological scope, organization (by package), and documentation. The remainder of Volume 1 contains the MELCOR Users Guides, which provide the input instructions and guidelines for each package. Volume 2 contains the MELCOR Reference Manuals, which describe the phenomenological models that have been implemented in each package

  4. Toward Documentation of Program Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestdam, Thomas; Nørmark, Kurt

    2005-01-01

    The documentation of a program often falls behind the evolution of the program source files. When this happens it may be attractive to shift the documentation mode from updating the documentation to documenting the evolution of the program. This paper describes tools that support the documentatio....... It is concluded that our approach can help revitalize older documentation, and that discovery of the fine grained program evolution steps help the programmer in documenting the evolution of the program....

  5. Space and Terrestrial Power System Integration Optimization Code BRMAPS for Gas Turbine Space Power Plants With Nuclear Reactor Heat Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Albert J.

    2007-01-01

    In view of the difficult times the US and global economies are experiencing today, funds for the development of advanced fission reactors nuclear power systems for space propulsion and planetary surface applications are currently not available. However, according to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 the U.S. needs to invest in developing fission reactor technology for ground based terrestrial power plants. Such plants would make a significant contribution toward drastic reduction of worldwide greenhouse gas emissions and associated global warming. To accomplish this goal the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project (NGNP) has been established by DOE under the Generation IV Nuclear Systems Initiative. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was designated as the lead in the development of VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor) and HTGR (High Temperature Gas Reactor) technology to be integrated with MMW (multi-megawatt) helium gas turbine driven electric power AC generators. However, the advantages of transmitting power in high voltage DC form over large distances are also explored in the seminar lecture series. As an attractive alternate heat source the Liquid Fluoride Reactor (LFR), pioneered at ORNL (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) in the mid 1960's, would offer much higher energy yields than current nuclear plants by using an inherently safe energy conversion scheme based on the Thorium --> U233 fuel cycle and a fission process with a negative temperature coefficient of reactivity. The power plants are to be sized to meet electric power demand during peak periods and also for providing thermal energy for hydrogen (H2) production during "off peak" periods. This approach will both supply electric power by using environmentally clean nuclear heat which does not generate green house gases, and also provide a clean fuel H2 for the future, when, due to increased global demand and the decline in discovering new deposits, our supply of liquid fossil fuels will have been used up. This is

  6. ITER task title - source term data, modelling, and analysis. ITER subtask no. S81TT05/5 (SEP 1-1). Global tritium source term analysis basis document. Subtask 1: operational tritium effluents and releases. Final report (1995 TASK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalyanam, K.M.

    1996-06-01

    This document represents the final report for the global tritium source term analysis task initiated in 1995. The report presents a room-by-room map/table at the subsystem level for the ITER tritium systems, identifying the major equipment, secondary containments, tritium release sources, duration/frequency of tritium releases and the release pathways. The chronic tritium releases during normal operation, as well as tritium releases due to routine maintenance of the Water Distillation Unit, Isotope Separation System and Primary and Secondary Heat Transport Systems, have been estimated for most of the subsystems, based on the IDR design, the Design Description Documents (April - Jun 1995 issues) and the design updates up to December 1995. The report also outlines the methodology and the key assumptions that are adopted in preparing the tritium release estimates. The design parameters for the ITER Basic Performance Phase (BPP) have been used in estimating the tritium releases shown in the room-by-room map/table. The tritium release calculations and the room-by-room map/table have been prepared in EXCEL, so that the estimates can be refined easily as the design evolves and more detailed information becomes available. (author). 23 refs., tabs

  7. ExactPack Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singleton, Robert Jr. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Israel, Daniel M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Doebling, Scott William [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Woods, Charles Nathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kaul, Ann [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Walter, John William Jr [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rogers, Michael Lloyd [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-05-09

    For code verification, one compares the code output against known exact solutions. There are many standard test problems used in this capacity, such as the Noh and Sedov problems. ExactPack is a utility that integrates many of these exact solution codes into a common API (application program interface), and can be used as a stand-alone code or as a python package. ExactPack consists of python driver scripts that access a library of exact solutions written in Fortran or Python. The spatial profiles of the relevant physical quantities, such as the density, fluid velocity, sound speed, or internal energy, are returned at a time specified by the user. The solution profiles can be viewed and examined by a command line interface or a graphical user interface, and a number of analysis tools and unit tests are also provided. We have documented the physics of each problem in the solution library, and provided complete documentation on how to extend the library to include additional exact solutions. ExactPack’s code architecture makes it easy to extend the solution-code library to include additional exact solutions in a robust, reliable, and maintainable manner.

  8. The HAW project. Test storage of high-level radiation sources in the Asse salt mine. Documentation and assessment of the storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, K.; Rothfuchs, T.

    1994-01-01

    The HAW project aimed primarily at studying the interaction between high-level radioactive waste moulds and rock salt as the respository medium. Another priority was the prototype development and testing of a technical system for the emplacement of high-level radioactive moulds in deep storage boreholes. To simulate real high-level radioactive wastes, special high-level radiation sources (Cs-137, Sr-90) were produced in the United States of America under a German-American cooperation contract, for carrying out the tests at the Asse salt mine. The components of the storage system are described, their position and task within the entire handling procedure explained. Questions of radiation protection and accident protection, of functioning and operating reliability, of quality assurance and examination of documents, materials, of manufacture and functioning, and of documentation are dealt with in detail. With a view to the planning of storage techniques for a mine respository, the experience of development and operation is recorded, and recommendation of further developments are given. Problems which arose during work on the HAW project were partly due to test-specific reasons and will not or not in this form occur in a mine respository. It was planned to start the test emplacement in 1987, and it could have been executed in 1993 after appropriate preparation and approval of the storage system by the mining authority and the Hanover TUEV in 1991. In December 1992, however, the Federal Government decided to give up to the project due to the uncertain licensing situation, and to immediately stop all preparatory work. (orig./HP) [de

  9. PARMILA documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merson, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory has produced a new manual for the program PARMILA. This paper is about that manual and includes only a small amount of material on the code itself. The manual is both a users and reference manual and will be of help to a programmer who needs to modify the code, though perhaps not as much help as would be desired. PARMILA has been in use for more than 20 years. It is widely used and there are many versions. The name PARMILA is an acronym for Phase And Radial Motion In Linear Accelerators, (or, more recently, ... in Ion Linear Accelerators). The code is a drift-tube linac ion beam dynamics code and does multiparticle simulations. A very good description of one version of the code was given in 1988 by G.P. Boicourt, coauthor of the manual being described. Here the author will briefly describe the codes functions, referring the reader to the earlier report for further detail. This paper provides a description of a users and reference manual for the AT-6 version of the code PARMILA

  10. Matlab Source Code for Species Transport through Nafion Membranes in Direct Ethanol, Direct Methanol, and Direct Glucose Fuel Cells

    OpenAIRE

    JH, Summerfield; MW, Manley

    2016-01-01

    A simple simulation of chemical species movement is presented. The species traverse a Nafion membrane in a fuel cell. Three cells are examined: direct methanol, direct ethanol, and direct glucose. The species are tracked using excess proton concentration, electric field strength, and voltage. The Matlab computer code is provided.

  11. Study of cold neutron sources: Implementation and validation of a complete computation scheme for research reactor using Monte Carlo codes TRIPOLI-4.4 and McStas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campioni, Guillaume; Mounier, Claude

    2006-01-01

    The main goal of the thesis about studies of cold neutrons sources (CNS) in research reactors was to create a complete set of tools to design efficiently CNS. The work raises the problem to run accurate simulations of experimental devices inside reactor reflector valid for parametric studies. On one hand, deterministic codes have reasonable computation times but introduce problems for geometrical description. On the other hand, Monte Carlo codes give the possibility to compute on precise geometry, but need computation times so important that parametric studies are impossible. To decrease this computation time, several developments were made in the Monte Carlo code TRIPOLI-4.4. An uncoupling technique is used to isolate a study zone in the complete reactor geometry. By recording boundary conditions (incoming flux), further simulations can be launched for parametric studies with a computation time reduced by a factor 60 (case of the cold neutron source of the Orphee reactor). The short response time allows to lead parametric studies using Monte Carlo code. Moreover, using biasing methods, the flux can be recorded on the surface of neutrons guides entries (low solid angle) with a further gain of running time. Finally, the implementation of a coupling module between TRIPOLI- 4.4 and the Monte Carlo code McStas for research in condensed matter field gives the possibility to obtain fluxes after transmission through neutrons guides, thus to have the neutron flux received by samples studied by scientists of condensed matter. This set of developments, involving TRIPOLI-4.4 and McStas, represent a complete computation scheme for research reactors: from nuclear core, where neutrons are created, to the exit of neutrons guides, on samples of matter. This complete calculation scheme is tested against ILL4 measurements of flux in cold neutron guides. (authors)

  12. Standardization Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Specifications and Standards; Guide Specifications; CIDs; and NGSs . Learn. Perform. Succeed. STANDARDIZATION DOCUMENTS Federal Specifications Commercial...national or international standardization document developed by a private sector association, organization, or technical society that plans ...Maintain lessons learned • Examples: Guidance for application of a technology; Lists of options Learn. Perform. Succeed. DEFENSE HANDBOOK

  13. Student Model Tools Code Release and Documentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Matthew; Bull, Susan; Masci, Drew

    of its strengths and areas of improvement (Section 6). Several key appendices are attached to this report including user manuals for teacher and students (Appendix 3). Fundamentally, all relevant information is included in the report for those wishing to do further development work with the tool...

  14. REVEAL: Software Documentation and Platform Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael A.; Veibell, Victoir T.; Freudinger, Lawrence C.

    2008-01-01

    The Research Environment for Vehicle Embedded Analysis on Linux (REVEAL) is reconfigurable data acquisition software designed for network-distributed test and measurement applications. In development since 2001, it has been successfully demonstrated in support of a number of actual missions within NASA s Suborbital Science Program. Improvements to software configuration control were needed to properly support both an ongoing transition to operational status and continued evolution of REVEAL capabilities. For this reason the project described in this report targets REVEAL software source documentation and deployment of the software on a small set of hardware platforms different from what is currently used in the baseline system implementation. This report specifically describes the actions taken over a ten week period by two undergraduate student interns and serves as a final report for that internship. The topics discussed include: the documentation of REVEAL source code; the migration of REVEAL to other platforms; and an end-to-end field test that successfully validates the efforts.

  15. Proof of Concept Coded Aperture Miniature Mass Spectrometer Using a Cycloidal Sector Mass Analyzer, a Carbon Nanotube (CNT) Field Emission Electron Ionization Source, and an Array Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsden, Jason J.; Herr, Philip J.; Landry, David M. W.; Kim, William; Vyas, Raul; Parker, Charles B.; Kirley, Matthew P.; Keil, Adam D.; Gilchrist, Kristin H.; Radauscher, Erich J.; Hall, Stephen D.; Carlson, James B.; Baldasaro, Nicholas; Stokes, David; Di Dona, Shane T.; Russell, Zachary E.; Grego, Sonia; Edwards, Steven J.; Sperline, Roger P.; Denton, M. Bonner; Stoner, Brian R.; Gehm, Michael E.; Glass, Jeffrey T.

    2018-02-01

    Despite many potential applications, miniature mass spectrometers have had limited adoption in the field due to the tradeoff between throughput and resolution that limits their performance relative to laboratory instruments. Recently, a solution to this tradeoff has been demonstrated by using spatially coded apertures in magnetic sector mass spectrometers, enabling throughput and signal-to-background improvements of greater than an order of magnitude with no loss of resolution. This paper describes a proof of concept demonstration of a cycloidal coded aperture miniature mass spectrometer (C-CAMMS) demonstrating use of spatially coded apertures in a cycloidal sector mass analyzer for the first time. C-CAMMS also incorporates a miniature carbon nanotube (CNT) field emission electron ionization source and a capacitive transimpedance amplifier (CTIA) ion array detector. Results confirm the cycloidal mass analyzer's compatibility with aperture coding. A >10× increase in throughput was achieved without loss of resolution compared with a single slit instrument. Several areas where additional improvement can be realized are identified.

  16. A Mode Propagation Database Suitable for Code Validation Utilizing the NASA Glenn Advanced Noise Control Fan and Artificial Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutliff, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center's Advanced Noise Control Fan (ANCF) was developed in the early 1990s to provide a convenient test bed to measure and understand fan-generated acoustics, duct propagation, and radiation to the farfield. A series of tests were performed primarily for the use of code validation and tool validation. Rotating Rake mode measurements were acquired for parametric sets of: (i) mode blockage, (ii) liner insertion loss, (iii) short ducts, and (iv) mode reflection.

  17. MPEG-compliant joint source/channel coding using discrete cosine transform and substream scheduling for visual communication over packet networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Whan; Suthaharan, Shan; Lee, Heung-Kyu; Rao, K. R.

    2001-01-01

    Quality of Service (QoS)-guarantee in real-time communication for multimedia applications is significantly important. An architectural framework for multimedia networks based on substreams or flows is effectively exploited for combining source and channel coding for multimedia data. But the existing frame by frame approach which includes Moving Pictures Expert Group (MPEG) cannot be neglected because it is a standard. In this paper, first, we designed an MPEG transcoder which converts an MPEG coded stream into variable rate packet sequences to be used for our joint source/channel coding (JSCC) scheme. Second, we designed a classification scheme to partition the packet stream into multiple substreams which have their own QoS requirements. Finally, we designed a management (reservation and scheduling) scheme for substreams to support better perceptual video quality such as the bound of end-to-end jitter. We have shown that our JSCC scheme is better than two other two popular techniques by simulation and real video experiments on the TCP/IP environment.

  18. Investigation of some possible changes in Am-Be neutron source configuration in order to increase the thermal neutron flux using Monte Carlo code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiri, H.; Tavakoli-Anbaran, H.

    2018-01-01

    Am-Be neutrons source is based on (α, n) reaction and generates neutrons in the energy range of 0-11 MeV. Since the thermal neutrons are widely used in different fields, in this work, we investigate how to improve the source configuration in order to increase the thermal flux. These suggested changes include a spherical moderator instead of common cylindrical geometry, a reflector layer and an appropriate materials selection in order to achieve the maximum thermal flux. All calculations were done by using MCNP1 Monte Carlo code. Our final results indicated that a spherical paraffin moderator, a layer of beryllium as a reflector can efficiently increase the thermal neutron flux of Am-Be source.

  19. An improvement of estimation method of source term to the environment for interfacing system LOCA for typical PWR using MELCOR code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seok Jung; Kim, Tae Woon; Ahn, Kwang Il [Risk and Environmental Safety Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Interfacing-system loss-of-coolant-accident (ISLOCA) has been identified as the most hazardous accident scenario in the typical PWR plants. The present study as an effort to improve the knowledge of the source term to the environment during ISLOCA focuses on an improvement of the estimation method. The improvement was performed to take into account an effect of broken pipeline and auxiliary building structures relevant to ISLOCA. An estimation of the source term to the environment was for the OPR-1000 plants by MELOCR code version 1.8.6. The key features of the source term showed that the massive amount of fission products departed from the beginning of core degradation to the vessel breach. The release amount of fission products may be affected by the broken pipeline and the auxiliary building structure associated with release pathway.

  20. Maury Documentation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Supporting documentation for the Maury Collection of marine observations. Includes explanations from Maury himself, as well as guides and descriptions by the U.S....

  1. Documentation Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charnay, J.; Chosson, L.; Croize, M.; Ducloux, A.; Flores, S.; Jarroux, D.; Melka, J.; Morgue, D.; Mottin, C.

    1998-01-01

    This service assures the treatment and diffusion of the scientific information and the management of the scientific production of the institute as well as the secretariat operation for the groups and services of the institute. The report on documentation-library section mentions: the management of the documentation funds, search in international databases (INIS, Current Contents, Inspects), Pret-Inter service which allows accessing documents through DEMOCRITE network of IN2P3. As realizations also mentioned are: the setup of a video, photo database, the Web home page of the institute's library, follow-up of digitizing the document funds by integrating the CD-ROMs and diskettes, electronic archiving of the scientific production, etc

  2. Speech coding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

    1998-05-08

    coding techniques are equally applicable to any voice signal whether or not it carries any intelligible information, as the term speech implies. Other terms that are commonly used are speech compression and voice compression since the fundamental idea behind speech coding is to reduce (compress) the transmission rate (or equivalently the bandwidth) And/or reduce storage requirements In this document the terms speech and voice shall be used interchangeably.

  3. Computerising documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The nuclear power generation industry is faced with public concern and government pressures over safety, efficiency and risk. Operators throughout the industry are addressing these issues with the aid of a new technology - technical document management systems (TDMS). Used for strategic and tactical advantage, the systems enable users to scan, archive, retrieve, store, edit, distribute worldwide and manage the huge volume of documentation (paper drawings, CAD data and film-based information) generated in building, maintaining and ensuring safety in the UK's power plants. The power generation industry has recognized that the management and modification of operation critical information is vital to the safety and efficiency of its power plants. Regulatory pressure from the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) to operate within strict safety margins or lose Site Licences has prompted the need for accurate, up-to-data documentation. A document capture and management retrieval system provides a powerful cost-effective solution, giving rapid access to documentation in a tightly controlled environment. The computerisation of documents and plans is discussed in this article. (Author)

  4. A study on the application of CRUDTRAN code in primary systems of domestic pressurized heavy-water reactors for prediction of radiation source term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jong Soon; Cho, Hoon Jo; Jung, Min Young; Lee, Sang Heon [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    The importance of developing a source-term assessment technology has been emphasized owing to the decommissioning of Kori nuclear power plant (NPP) Unit 1 and the increase of deteriorated NPPs. We analyzed the behavioral mechanism of corrosion products in the primary system of a pressurized heavy-water reactor-type NPP. In addition, to check the possibility of applying the CRUDTRAN code to a Canadian Deuterium Uranium Reactor (CANDU)-type NPP, the type was assessed using collected domestic onsite data. With the assessment results, it was possible to predict trends according to operating cycles. Values estimated using the code were similar to the measured values. The results of this study are expected to be used to manage the radiation exposures of operators in high-radiation areas and to predict decommissioning processes in the primary system.

  5. Calculations of fuel burn-up and radionuclide inventory in the syrian miniature neutron source reactor using the WIMSD4 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, K.

    2005-01-01

    Calculations of the fuel burn up and radionuclide inventory in the Miniature Neutron Source Reactor after 10 years (the reactor core expected life) of the reactor operating time are presented in this paper. The WIMSD4 code is used to generate the fuel group constants and the infinite multiplication factor versus the reactor operating time for 10, 20, and 30 kW operating power levels. The amounts of uranium burnt up and plutonium produced in the reactor core, the concentrations and radioactivities of the most important fission product and actinide radionuclides accumulated in the reactor core, and the total radioactivity of the reactor core are calculated using the WIMSD4 code as well

  6. MCNP code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    The MCNP code is the major Monte Carlo coupled neutron-photon transport research tool at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and it represents the most extensive Monte Carlo development program in the United States which is available in the public domain. The present code is the direct descendent of the original Monte Carlo work of Fermi, von Neumaum, and Ulam at Los Alamos in the 1940s. Development has continued uninterrupted since that time, and the current version of MCNP (or its predecessors) has always included state-of-the-art methods in the Monte Carlo simulation of radiation transport, basic cross section data, geometry capability, variance reduction, and estimation procedures. The authors of the present code have oriented its development toward general user application. The documentation, though extensive, is presented in a clear and simple manner with many examples, illustrations, and sample problems. In addition to providing the desired results, the output listings give a a wealth of detailed information (some optional) concerning each state of the calculation. The code system is continually updated to take advantage of advances in computer hardware and software, including interactive modes of operation, diagnostic interrupts and restarts, and a variety of graphical and video aids

  7. European inter-comparison of Monte Carlo codes users for the uncertainty calculation of the kerma in air beside a caesium-137 source; Intercomparaison europeenne d'utilisateurs de codes monte carlo pour le calcul d'incertitudes sur le kerma dans l'air aupres d'une source de cesium-137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Carlan, L.; Bordy, J.M.; Gouriou, J. [CEA Saclay, LIST, Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel, Laboratoire de Metrologie de la Dose 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2010-07-01

    Within the frame of the CONRAD European project (Coordination Network for Radiation Dosimetry), and more precisely within a work group paying attention to uncertainty assessment in computational dosimetry and aiming at comparing different approaches, the authors report the simulation of an irradiator containing a caesium 137 source to calculate the kerma in air as well as its uncertainty due to different parameters. They present the problem geometry, recall the studied issues (kerma uncertainty, influence of capsule source, influence of the collimator, influence of the air volume surrounding the source). They indicate the codes which have been used (MNCP, Fluka, Penelope, etc.) and discuss the obtained results for the first issue

  8. TU-AB-BRC-10: Modeling of Radiotherapy Linac Source Terms Using ARCHER Monte Carlo Code: Performance Comparison of GPU and MIC Computing Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, T; Lin, H; Xu, X; Su, L; Shi, C; Tang, X; Bednarz, B

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: (1) To perform phase space (PS) based source modeling for Tomotherapy and Varian TrueBeam 6 MV Linacs, (2) to examine the accuracy and performance of the ARCHER Monte Carlo code on a heterogeneous computing platform with Many Integrated Core coprocessors (MIC, aka Xeon Phi) and GPUs, and (3) to explore the software micro-optimization methods. Methods: The patient-specific source of Tomotherapy and Varian TrueBeam Linacs was modeled using the PS approach. For the helical Tomotherapy case, the PS data were calculated in our previous study (Su et al. 2014 41(7) Medical Physics). For the single-view Varian TrueBeam case, we analytically derived them from the raw patient-independent PS data in IAEA’s database, partial geometry information of the jaw and MLC as well as the fluence map. The phantom was generated from DICOM images. The Monte Carlo simulation was performed by ARCHER-MIC and GPU codes, which were benchmarked against a modified parallel DPM code. Software micro-optimization was systematically conducted, and was focused on SIMD vectorization of tight for-loops and data prefetch, with the ultimate goal of increasing 512-bit register utilization and reducing memory access latency. Results: Dose calculation was performed for two clinical cases, a Tomotherapy-based prostate cancer treatment and a TrueBeam-based left breast treatment. ARCHER was verified against the DPM code. The statistical uncertainty of the dose to the PTV was less than 1%. Using double-precision, the total wall time of the multithreaded CPU code on a X5650 CPU was 339 seconds for the Tomotherapy case and 131 seconds for the TrueBeam, while on 3 5110P MICs it was reduced to 79 and 59 seconds, respectively. The single-precision GPU code on a K40 GPU took 45 seconds for the Tomotherapy dose calculation. Conclusion: We have extended ARCHER, the MIC and GPU-based Monte Carlo dose engine to Tomotherapy and Truebeam dose calculations.

  9. TU-AB-BRC-10: Modeling of Radiotherapy Linac Source Terms Using ARCHER Monte Carlo Code: Performance Comparison of GPU and MIC Computing Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, T; Lin, H; Xu, X [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States); Su, L [John Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Shi, C [Saint Vincent Medical Center, Bridgeport, CT (United States); Tang, X [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, West Harrison, NY (United States); Bednarz, B [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: (1) To perform phase space (PS) based source modeling for Tomotherapy and Varian TrueBeam 6 MV Linacs, (2) to examine the accuracy and performance of the ARCHER Monte Carlo code on a heterogeneous computing platform with Many Integrated Core coprocessors (MIC, aka Xeon Phi) and GPUs, and (3) to explore the software micro-optimization methods. Methods: The patient-specific source of Tomotherapy and Varian TrueBeam Linacs was modeled using the PS approach. For the helical Tomotherapy case, the PS data were calculated in our previous study (Su et al. 2014 41(7) Medical Physics). For the single-view Varian TrueBeam case, we analytically derived them from the raw patient-independent PS data in IAEA’s database, partial geometry information of the jaw and MLC as well as the fluence map. The phantom was generated from DICOM images. The Monte Carlo simulation was performed by ARCHER-MIC and GPU codes, which were benchmarked against a modified parallel DPM code. Software micro-optimization was systematically conducted, and was focused on SIMD vectorization of tight for-loops and data prefetch, with the ultimate goal of increasing 512-bit register utilization and reducing memory access latency. Results: Dose calculation was performed for two clinical cases, a Tomotherapy-based prostate cancer treatment and a TrueBeam-based left breast treatment. ARCHER was verified against the DPM code. The statistical uncertainty of the dose to the PTV was less than 1%. Using double-precision, the total wall time of the multithreaded CPU code on a X5650 CPU was 339 seconds for the Tomotherapy case and 131 seconds for the TrueBeam, while on 3 5110P MICs it was reduced to 79 and 59 seconds, respectively. The single-precision GPU code on a K40 GPU took 45 seconds for the Tomotherapy dose calculation. Conclusion: We have extended ARCHER, the MIC and GPU-based Monte Carlo dose engine to Tomotherapy and Truebeam dose calculations.

  10. Dosimetric comparison between the microSelectron HDR 192Ir v2 source and the BEBIG 60Co source for HDR brachytherapy using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo transport code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwarul Islam, M.; Akramuzzaman, M.M.; Zakaria, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    Manufacturing of miniaturized high activity 192 Ir sources have been made a market preference in modern brachytherapy. The smaller dimensions of the sources are flexible for smaller diameter of the applicators and it is also suitable for interstitial implants. Presently, miniaturized 60 Co HDR sources have been made available with identical dimensions to those of 192 Ir sources. 60 Co sources have an advantage of longer half life while comparing with 192 Ir source. High dose rate brachytherapy sources with longer half life are logically pragmatic solution for developing country in economic point of view. This study is aimed to compare the TG-43U1 dosimetric parameters for new BEBIG 60 Co HDR and new microSelectron 192 Ir HDR sources. Dosimetric parameters are calculated using EGSnrc-based Monte Carlo simulation code accordance with the AAPM TG-43 formalism for microSelectron HDR 192 Ir v2 and new BEBIG 60 Co HDR sources. Air-kerma strength per unit source activity, calculated in dry air are 9.698x10 -8 ± 0.55% U Bq -1 and 3.039x10 -7 ± 0.41% U Bq -1 for the above mentioned two sources, respectively. The calculated dose rate constants per unit air-kerma strength in water medium are 1.116±0.12% cGy h -1 U -1 and 1.097±0.12% cGy h -1 U -1 , respectively, for the two sources. The values of radial dose function for distances up to 1 cm and more than 22 cm for BEBIG 60 Co HDR source are higher than that of other source. The anisotropic values are sharply increased to the longitudinal sides of the BEBIG 60 Co source and the rise is comparatively sharper than that of the other source. Tissue dependence of the absorbed dose has been investigated with vacuum phantom for breast, compact bone, blood, lung, thyroid, soft tissue, testis, and muscle. No significant variation is noted at 5 cm of radial distance in this regard while comparing the two sources except for lung tissues. The true dose rates are calculated with considering photon as well as electron transport using

  11. Mobile, hybrid Compton/coded aperture imaging for detection, identification and localization of gamma-ray sources at stand-off distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornga, Shawn R.

    The Stand-off Radiation Detection System (SORDS) program is an Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD) project through the Department of Homeland Security's Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) with the goal of detection, identification and localization of weak radiological sources in the presence of large dynamic backgrounds. The Raytheon-SORDS Tri-Modal Imager (TMI) is a mobile truck-based, hybrid gamma-ray imaging system able to quickly detect, identify and localize, radiation sources at standoff distances through improved sensitivity while minimizing the false alarm rate. Reconstruction of gamma-ray sources is performed using a combination of two imaging modalities; coded aperture and Compton scatter imaging. The TMI consists of 35 sodium iodide (NaI) crystals 5x5x2 in3 each, arranged in a random coded aperture mask array (CA), followed by 30 position sensitive NaI bars each 24x2.5x3 in3 called the detection array (DA). The CA array acts as both a coded aperture mask and scattering detector for Compton events. The large-area DA array acts as a collection detector for both Compton scattered events and coded aperture events. In this thesis, developed coded aperture, Compton and hybrid imaging algorithms will be described along with their performance. It will be shown that multiple imaging modalities can be fused to improve detection sensitivity over a broader energy range than either alone. Since the TMI is a moving system, peripheral data, such as a Global Positioning System (GPS) and Inertial Navigation System (INS) must also be incorporated. A method of adapting static imaging algorithms to a moving platform has been developed. Also, algorithms were developed in parallel with detector hardware, through the use of extensive simulations performed with the Geometry and Tracking Toolkit v4 (GEANT4). Simulations have been well validated against measured data. Results of image reconstruction algorithms at various speeds and distances will be presented as well as

  12. The KFA-Version of the high-energy transport code HETC and the generalized evaluation code SIMPEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloth, P.; Filges, D.; Sterzenbach, G.; Armstrong, T.W.; Colborn, B.L.

    1983-03-01

    This document describes the updates that have been made to the high-energy transport code HETC for use in the German spallation-neutron source project SNQ. Performance and purpose of the subsidiary code SIMPEL that has been written for general analysis of the HETC output are also described. In addition means of coupling to low energy transport programs, such as the Monte-Carlo code MORSE is provided. As complete input descriptions for HETC and SIMPEL are given together with a sample problem, this document can serve as a user's manual for these two codes. The document is also an answer to the demand that has been issued by a greater community of HETC users on the ICANS-IV meeting, Oct 20-24 1980, Tsukuba-gun, Japan for a complete description of at least one single version of HETC among the many different versions that exist. (orig.)

  13. A contribution to the analysis of the activity distribution of a radioactive source trapped inside a cylindrical volume, using the M.C.N.P.X. code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portugal, L.; Oliveira, C.; Trindade, R.; Paiva, I.

    2006-01-01

    Orphan sources, activated materials or contaminated materials with natural or artificial radionuclides have been detected in scrap metal products destined to recycling. The consequences of the melting of a source during the process could result in economical, environmental and social impacts. From the point of view of the radioactive waste management, a scenario of 100 ton of contaminated steel in one piece is a major problem. So, it is of great importance to develop a methodology that would allow us to predict the activity distribution inside a volume of steel. In previous work we were able to distinguish between the cases where the source is disseminated all over the entire cylinder and the cases where it is concentrated in different volumes. Now the main goal is to distinguish between different radiuses of spherical source geometries trapped inside the cylinder. For this, a methodology was proposed based on the ratio of the counts of two regions of the gamma spectrum, obtained with a sodium iodide detector, using the M.C.N.P.X. Monte Carlo simulation code. These calculated ratios allow us to determine a function r = aR 2 + bR + c, where R is the ratio between the counts of the two regions of the gamma spectrum and r is the radius of the source. For simulation purposes six 60 Co sources were used (a point source, four spheres of 5 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm and 20 cm radius and the overall contaminated cylinder) trapped inside two types of matrix, concrete and stainless steel. The methodology applied has shown to predict and distinguish accurately the distribution of a source inside a material roughly independently of the matrix and density considered. (authors)

  14. A contribution to the analysis of the activity distribution of a radioactive source trapped inside a cylindrical volume, using the M.C.N.P.X. code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portugal, L.; Oliveira, C.; Trindade, R.; Paiva, I. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Dpto. Proteccao Radiologica e Seguranca Nuclear, Sacavem (Portugal)

    2006-07-01

    Orphan sources, activated materials or contaminated materials with natural or artificial radionuclides have been detected in scrap metal products destined to recycling. The consequences of the melting of a source during the process could result in economical, environmental and social impacts. From the point of view of the radioactive waste management, a scenario of 100 ton of contaminated steel in one piece is a major problem. So, it is of great importance to develop a methodology that would allow us to predict the activity distribution inside a volume of steel. In previous work we were able to distinguish between the cases where the source is disseminated all over the entire cylinder and the cases where it is concentrated in different volumes. Now the main goal is to distinguish between different radiuses of spherical source geometries trapped inside the cylinder. For this, a methodology was proposed based on the ratio of the counts of two regions of the gamma spectrum, obtained with a sodium iodide detector, using the M.C.N.P.X. Monte Carlo simulation code. These calculated ratios allow us to determine a function r = aR{sup 2} + bR + c, where R is the ratio between the counts of the two regions of the gamma spectrum and r is the radius of the source. For simulation purposes six {sup 60}Co sources were used (a point source, four spheres of 5 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm and 20 cm radius and the overall contaminated cylinder) trapped inside two types of matrix, concrete and stainless steel. The methodology applied has shown to predict and distinguish accurately the distribution of a source inside a material roughly independently of the matrix and density considered. (authors)

  15. Modeling of Radiotherapy Linac Source Terms Using ARCHER Monte Carlo Code: Performance Comparison for GPU and MIC Parallel Computing Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Liu, Tianyu; Su, Lin; Bednarz, Bryan; Caracappa, Peter; Xu, X. George

    2017-09-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is well recognized as the most accurate method for radiation dose calculations. For radiotherapy applications, accurate modelling of the source term, i.e. the clinical linear accelerator is critical to the simulation. The purpose of this paper is to perform source modelling and examine the accuracy and performance of the models on Intel Many Integrated Core coprocessors (aka Xeon Phi) and Nvidia GPU using ARCHER and explore the potential optimization methods. Phase Space-based source modelling for has been implemented. Good agreements were found in a tomotherapy prostate patient case and a TrueBeam breast case. From the aspect of performance, the whole simulation for prostate plan and breast plan cost about 173s and 73s with 1% statistical error.

  16. Modeling of Radiotherapy Linac Source Terms Using ARCHER Monte Carlo Code: Performance Comparison for GPU and MIC Parallel Computing Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Hui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Monte Carlo (MC simulation is well recognized as the most accurate method for radiation dose calculations. For radiotherapy applications, accurate modelling of the source term, i.e. the clinical linear accelerator is critical to the simulation. The purpose of this paper is to perform source modelling and examine the accuracy and performance of the models on Intel Many Integrated Core coprocessors (aka Xeon Phi and Nvidia GPU using ARCHER and explore the potential optimization methods. Phase Space-based source modelling for has been implemented. Good agreements were found in a tomotherapy prostate patient case and a TrueBeam breast case. From the aspect of performance, the whole simulation for prostate plan and breast plan cost about 173s and 73s with 1% statistical error.

  17. Spectrum analysis on quality requirements consideration in software design documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiya, Haruhiko; Umemura, Masahiro; Ogata, Shinpei; Kaijiri, Kenji

    2013-12-01

    Software quality requirements defined in the requirements analysis stage should be implemented in the final products, such as source codes and system deployment. To guarantee this meta-requirement, quality requirements should be considered in the intermediate stages, such as the design stage or the architectural definition stage. We propose a novel method for checking whether quality requirements are considered in the design stage. In this method, a technique called "spectrum analysis for quality requirements" is applied not only to requirements specifications but also to design documents. The technique enables us to derive the spectrum of a document, and quality requirements considerations in the document are numerically represented in the spectrum. We can thus objectively identify whether the considerations of quality requirements in a requirements document are adapted to its design document. To validate the method, we applied it to commercial software systems with the help of a supporting tool, and we confirmed that the method worked well.

  18. Parallelization of the AliRoot event reconstruction by performing a semi- automatic source-code transformation

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    side bus or processor interconnections. Parallelism can only result in performance gain, if the memory usage is optimized, memory locality improved and the communication between threads is minimized. But the domain of concurrent programming has become a field for highly skilled experts, as the implementation of multithreading is difficult, error prone and labor intensive. A full re-implementation for parallel execution of existing offline frameworks, like AliRoot in ALICE, is thus unaffordable. An alternative method, is to use a semi-automatic source-to-source transformation for getting a simple parallel design, with almost no interference between threads. This reduces the need of rewriting the develop...

  19. A study of physics of sub-critical multiplicative systems driven by sources and the utilization of deterministic codes in calculation of this systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antunes, Alberi

    2008-01-01

    This work presents the Physics of Source Driven Systems (ADS). It shows some statics and K i netics parameters of the reactor Physics and when it is sub critical, that are important in evaluation and definition of these systems. The objective is to demonstrate that there are differences in parameters when the reactor is critical. Moreover, the work shows the differences observed in the parameters for different calculation models. Two calculation methodologies are shown In this dissertation: Gandini and Salvatores and Dulla, and some parameters are calculated. The ANISN deterministic transport code is used in calculation in order to compare these parameters. In a subcritical configuration of IPEN-MB-01 Reactor driven by an external source some parameters are calculated. The conclusions about calculation realized are presented in end of work. (author)

  20. Calculation of gamma ray dose buildup factors in water for isotropic point, plane mono directional and line sources using MCNP code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atak, H.; Celikten, O. S.; Tombakoglu, M.

    2009-01-01

    Gamma ray dose buildup factors in water for isotropic point, plane mono directional and infinite/finite line sources were calculated using the MCNP code. The buildup factors are determined for gamma ray energies of 1, 2, 3 and 4 Mev and for shield thicknesses of 1, 2, 4 and 7 mean free paths. The calculated buildup factors were then fitted in the Taylor and Berger forms. For the line sources a buildup factor table was also constructed using the Sievert function and the constants in Taylor form derived in this study to compare with the Monte Carlo results. All buildup factors were compared with the tabulated data given in literature. In order to reduce the statistical errors on buildup factors, 'forced collision' option was used in the MCNP calculations.

  1. Source convergence diagnostics using Boltzmann entropy criterion application to different OECD/NEA criticality benchmarks with the 3-D Monte Carlo code Tripoli-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumonteil, E.; Le Peillet, A.; Lee, Y. K.; Petit, O.; Jouanne, C.; Mazzolo, A.

    2006-01-01

    The measurement of the stationarity of Monte Carlo fission source distributions in k eff calculations plays a central role in the ability to discriminate between fake and 'true' convergence (in the case of a high dominant ratio or in case of loosely coupled systems). Recent theoretical developments have been made in the study of source convergence diagnostics, using Shannon entropy. We will first recall those results, and we will then generalize them using the expression of Boltzmann entropy, highlighting the gain in terms of the various physical problems that we can treat. Finally we will present the results of several OECD/NEA benchmarks using the Tripoli-4 Monte Carlo code, enhanced with this new criterion. (authors)

  2. Guidance and Control Software Project Data - Volume 2: Development Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J. (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    The Guidance and Control Software (GCS) project was the last in a series of software reliability studies conducted at Langley Research Center between 1977 and 1994. The technical results of the GCS project were recorded after the experiment was completed. Some of the support documentation produced as part of the experiment, however, is serving an unexpected role far beyond its original project context. Some of the software used as part of the GCS project was developed to conform to the RTCA/DO-178B software standard, "Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification," used in the civil aviation industry. That standard requires extensive documentation throughout the software development life cycle, including plans, software requirements, design and source code, verification cases and results, and configuration management and quality control data. The project documentation that includes this information is open for public scrutiny without the legal or safety implications associated with comparable data from an avionics manufacturer. This public availability has afforded an opportunity to use the GCS project documents for DO-178B training. This report provides a brief overview of the GCS project, describes the 4-volume set of documents and the role they are playing in training, and includes the development documents from the GCS project. Volume 2 contains three appendices: A. Guidance and Control Software Development Specification; B. Design Description for the Pluto Implementation of the Guidance and Control Software; and C. Source Code for the Pluto Implementation of the Guidance and Control Software

  3. Documentation of spectrom-41

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svalstad, D.K.

    1989-01-01

    SPECTROM-41 is a finite element heat transfer computer program developed to analyze thermal problems related to nuclear waste disposal. The code is part of the SPECTROM (Special Purpose Engineering Codes for Thermal/ROck Mechanics) series of special purpose finite element programs that are continually being developed by RE/SPEC Inc. (RSI) to address the many unique formations. This document presents the theoretical basis for the mathematical model, the finite element formulation of the program, and a description of the input data for the program, along with details about program support and continuing documentation. The documentation is intended to satisfy the requirements and guidelines outlined in NUREG-0856. The principal component model used in the programs based on Fourier's law of conductance. Numerous program options provide the capability of considering various boundary conditions, material stratification and anisotropy, and time-dependent heat generation that are characteristic of problems involving the disposal of nuclear waste in geologic formation. Numerous verification problems are included in the documentation in addition to highlights of past and ongoing verification and validation efforts. A typical repository problem is solving using SPECTROM-41 to demonstrate the use of the program in addressing problems related to the disposal of nuclear waste

  4. Transmission from theory to practice: Experiences using open-source code development and a virtual short course to increase the adoption of new theoretical approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Even amongst the academic community, new theoretical tools can remain underutilized due to the investment of time and resources required to understand and implement them. This surely limits the frequency that new theory is rigorously tested against data by scientists outside the group that developed it, and limits the impact that new tools could have on the advancement of science. Reducing the barriers to adoption through online education and open-source code can bridge the gap between theory and data, forging new collaborations, and advancing science. A pilot venture aimed at increasing the adoption of a new theory of time-variable transit time distributions was begun in July 2015 as a collaboration between Johns Hopkins University and The Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science (CUAHSI). There were four main components to the venture: a public online seminar covering the theory, an open source code repository, a virtual short course designed to help participants apply the theory to their data, and an online forum to maintain discussion and build a community of users. 18 participants were selected for the non-public components based on their responses in an application, and were asked to fill out a course evaluation at the end of the short course, and again several months later. These evaluations, along with participation in the forum and on-going contact with the organizer suggest strengths and weaknesses in this combination of components to assist participants in adopting new tools.

  5. SCRIC: a code dedicated to the detailed emission and absorption of heterogeneous NLTE plasmas; application to xenon EUV sources; SCRIC: un code pour calculer l'absorption et l'emission detaillees de plasmas hors equilibre, inhomogenes et etendus; application aux sources EUV a base de xenon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaufridy de Dortan, F. de

    2006-07-01

    Nearly all spectral opacity codes for LTE and NLTE plasmas rely on configurations approximate modelling or even supra-configurations modelling for mid Z plasmas. But in some cases, configurations interaction (either relativistic and non relativistic) induces dramatic changes in spectral shapes. We propose here a new detailed emissivity code with configuration mixing to allow for a realistic description of complex mid Z plasmas. A collisional radiative calculation. based on HULLAC precise energies and cross sections. determines the populations. Detailed emissivities and opacities are then calculated and radiative transfer equation is resolved for wide inhomogeneous plasmas. This code is able to cope rapidly with very large amount of atomic data. It is therefore possible to use complex hydrodynamic files even on personal computers in a very limited time. We used this code for comparison with Xenon EUV sources within the framework of nano-lithography developments. It appears that configurations mixing strongly shifts satellite lines and must be included in the description of these sources to enhance their efficiency. (author)

  6. Code Cactus; Code Cactus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fajeau, M; Nguyen, L T; Saunier, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1966-09-01

    This code handles the following problems: -1) Analysis of thermal experiments on a water loop at high or low pressure; steady state or transient behavior; -2) Analysis of thermal and hydrodynamic behavior of water-cooled and moderated reactors, at either high or low pressure, with boiling permitted; fuel elements are assumed to be flat plates: - Flowrate in parallel channels coupled or not by conduction across plates, with conditions of pressure drops or flowrate, variable or not with respect to time is given; the power can be coupled to reactor kinetics calculation or supplied by the code user. The code, containing a schematic representation of safety rod behavior, is a one dimensional, multi-channel code, and has as its complement (FLID), a one-channel, two-dimensional code. (authors) [French] Ce code permet de traiter les problemes ci-dessous: 1. Depouillement d'essais thermiques sur boucle a eau, haute ou basse pression, en regime permanent ou transitoire; 2. Etudes thermiques et hydrauliques de reacteurs a eau, a plaques, a haute ou basse pression, ebullition permise: - repartition entre canaux paralleles, couples on non par conduction a travers plaques, pour des conditions de debit ou de pertes de charge imposees, variables ou non dans le temps; - la puissance peut etre couplee a la neutronique et une representation schematique des actions de securite est prevue. Ce code (Cactus) a une dimension d'espace et plusieurs canaux, a pour complement Flid qui traite l'etude d'un seul canal a deux dimensions. (auteurs)

  7. The materiality of Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soon, Winnie

    2014-01-01

    This essay studies the source code of an artwork from a software studies perspective. By examining code that come close to the approach of critical code studies (Marino, 2006), I trace the network artwork, Pupufu (Lin, 2009) to understand various real-time approaches to social media platforms (MSN......, Twitter and Facebook). The focus is not to investigate the functionalities and efficiencies of the code, but to study and interpret the program level of code in order to trace the use of various technological methods such as third-party libraries and platforms’ interfaces. These are important...... to understand the socio-technical side of a changing network environment. Through the study of code, including but not limited to source code, technical specifications and other materials in relation to the artwork production, I would like to explore the materiality of code that goes beyond technical...

  8. NOAA Weather Radio - EAS Event Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-Zero All Hazards Logo Emergency Alert Description Event Codes Fact Sheet FAQ Organization Search Coding Using SAME SAME Non-Zero Codes DOCUMENTS NWR Poster NWR Brochure NWR Brochure Printing Notes

  9. Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, L.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the sources of radiation in the narrow perspective of radioactivity and the even narrow perspective of those sources that concern environmental management and restoration activities at DOE facilities, as well as a few related sources. Sources of irritation, Sources of inflammatory jingoism, and Sources of information. First, the sources of irritation fall into three categories: No reliable scientific ombudsman to speak without bias and prejudice for the public good, Technical jargon with unclear definitions exists within the radioactive nomenclature, and Scientific community keeps a low-profile with regard to public information. The next area of personal concern are the sources of inflammation. This include such things as: Plutonium being described as the most dangerous substance known to man, The amount of plutonium required to make a bomb, Talk of transuranic waste containing plutonium and its health affects, TMI-2 and Chernobyl being described as Siamese twins, Inadequate information on low-level disposal sites and current regulatory requirements under 10 CFR 61, Enhanced engineered waste disposal not being presented to the public accurately. Numerous sources of disinformation regarding low level radiation high-level radiation, Elusive nature of the scientific community, The Federal and State Health Agencies resources to address comparative risk, and Regulatory agencies speaking out without the support of the scientific community

  10. CMS DOCUMENTATION

    CERN Multimedia

    CMS TALKS AT MAJOR MEETINGS The agenda and talks from major CMS meetings can now be electronically accessed from the iCMS Web site. The following items can be found on: http://cms.cern.ch/iCMS/ General - CMS Weeks (Collaboration Meetings), CMS Weeks Agendas The talks presented at the Plenary Sessions. LHC Symposiums Management - CB - MB - FB - FMC Agendas and minutes are accessible to CMS members through their AFS account (ZH). However some linked documents are restricted to the Board Members. FB documents are only accessible to FB members. LHCC The talks presented at the ‘CMS Meetings with LHCC Referees’ are available on request from the PM or MB Country Representative. Annual Reviews The talks presented at the 2006 Annual reviews are posted.   CMS DOCUMENTS It is considered useful to establish information on the first employment of CMS doctoral students upon completion of their theses. Therefore it is requested that Ph.D students inform the CMS Secretariat a...

  11. CMS DOCUMENTATION

    CERN Multimedia

    CMS TALKS AT MAJOR MEETINGS The agenda and talks from major CMS meetings can now be electronically accessed from the iCMS Web site. The following items can be found on: http://cms.cern.ch/iCMS/ General - CMS Weeks (Collaboration Meetings), CMS Weeks Agendas The talks presented at the Plenary Sessions. LHC Symposiums Management - CB - MB - FB - FMC Agendas and minutes are accessible to CMS members through their AFS account (ZH). However some linked documents are restricted to the Board Members. FB documents are only accessible to FB members. LHCC The talks presented at the ‘CMS Meetings with LHCC Referees’ are available on request from the PM or MB Country Representative. Annual Reviews The talks presented at the 2006 Annual reviews are posted. CMS DOCUMENTS It is considered useful to establish information on the first employment of CMS doctoral students upon completion of their theses. Therefore it is requested that Ph.D students inform the CMS Secretariat about the natu...

  12. CMS DOCUMENTATION

    CERN Multimedia

    CMS TALKS AT MAJOR MEETINGS The agenda and talks from major CMS meetings can now be electronically accessed from the iCMS Web site. The following items can be found on: http://cms.cern.ch/iCMS/ General - CMS Weeks (Collaboration Meetings), CMS Weeks Agendas The talks presented at the Plenary Sessions. LHC Symposiums Management - CB - MB - FB - FMC Agendas and minutes are accessible to CMS members through their AFS account (ZH). However some linked documents are restricted to the Board Members. FB documents are only accessible to FB members. LHCC The talks presented at the ‘CMS Meetings with LHCC Referees’ are available on request from the PM or MB Country Representative. Annual Reviews The talks presented at the 2006 Annual reviews are posted. CMS DOCUMENTS It is considered useful to establish information on the first employment of CMS doctoral students upon completion of their theses. Therefore it is requested that Ph.D students inform the CMS Secretariat about the natur...

  13. CMS DOCUMENTATION

    CERN Multimedia

    CMS TALKS AT MAJOR MEETINGS The agenda and talks from major CMS meetings can now be electronically accessed from the iCMS Web site. The following items can be found on: http://cms.cern.ch/iCMS/ Management- CMS Weeks (Collaboration Meetings), CMS Weeks Agendas The talks presented at the Plenary Sessions. Management - CB - MB - FB Agendas and minutes are accessible to CMS members through their AFS account (ZH). However some linked documents are restricted to the Board Members. FB documents are only accessible to FB members. LHCC The talks presented at the ‘CMS Meetings with LHCC Referees’ are available on request from the PM or MB Country Representative. Annual Reviews The talks presented at the 2007 Annual reviews are posted. CMS DOCUMENTS It is considered useful to establish information on the first employment of CMS doctoral students upon completion of their theses. Therefore it is requested that Ph.D students inform the CMS Secretariat about the nature of employment and ...

  14. CMS DOCUMENTATION

    CERN Multimedia

    CMS TALKS AT MAJOR MEETINGS The agenda and talks from major CMS meetings can now be electronically accessed from the iCMS Web site. The following items can be found on: http://cms.cern.ch/iCMS/ Management- CMS Weeks (Collaboration Meetings), CMS Weeks Agendas The talks presented at the Plenary Sessions. Management - CB - MB - FB Agendas and minutes are accessible to CMS members through their AFS account (ZH). However some linked documents are restricted to the Board Members. FB documents are only accessible to FB members. LHCC The talks presented at the ‘CMS Meetings with LHCC Referees’ are available on request from the PM or MB Country Representative. Annual Reviews The talks presented at the 2007 Annual reviews are posted. CMS DOCUMENTS It is considered useful to establish information on the first employment of CMS doctoral students upon completion of their theses. Therefore it is requested that Ph.D students inform the CMS Secretariat about the nature of em¬pl...

  15. CMS DOCUMENTATION

    CERN Multimedia

    CMS TALKS AT MAJOR MEETINGS The agenda and talks from major CMS meetings can now be electronically accessed from the iCMS Web site. The following items can be found on: http://cms.cern.ch/iCMS/ General - CMS Weeks (Collaboration Meetings), CMS Weeks Agendas The talks presented at the Plenary Sessions. LHC Symposiums Management - CB - MB - FB - FMC Agendas and minutes are accessible to CMS members through their AFS account (ZH). However some linked documents are restricted to the Board Members. FB documents are only accessible to FB members. LHCC The talks presented at the ‘CMS Meetings with LHCC Referees’ are available on request from the PM or MB Country Representative. Annual Reviews The talks presented at the 2006 Annual reviews are posted. CMS DOCUMENTS It is considered useful to establish information on the first employment of CMS doctoral students upon completion of their theses. Therefore it is requested that Ph.D students inform the CMS Secretariat about the na...

  16. Technical Support Document for Version 3.9.0 of the COMcheck Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, Rosemarie; Connell, Linda M.; Gowri, Krishnan; Halverson, Mark A.; Lucas, R. G.; Richman, Eric E.; Schultz, Ralph W.; Winiarski, David W.

    2011-09-01

    COMcheck provides an optional way to demonstrate compliance with commercial and high-rise residential building energy codes. Commercial buildings include all use groups except single family and multifamily not over three stories in height. COMcheck was originally based on ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-1989 (Standard 90.1-1989) requirements and is intended for use with various codes based on Standard 90.1, including the Codification of ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-1989 (90.1-1989 Code) (ASHRAE 1989a, 1993b) and ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999 (Standard 90.1-1999). This includes jurisdictions that have adopted the 90.1-1989 Code, Standard 90.1-1989, Standard 90.1-1999, or their own code based on one of these. We view Standard 90.1-1989 and the 90.1-1989 Code as having equivalent technical content and have used both as source documents in developing COMcheck. This technical support document (TSD) is designed to explain the technical basis for the COMcheck software as originally developed based on the ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-1989 (Standard 90.1-1989). Documentation for other national model codes and standards and specific state energy codes supported in COMcheck has been added to this report as appendices. These appendices are intended to provide technical documentation for features specific to the supported codes and for any changes made for state-specific codes that differ from the standard features that support compliance with the national model codes and standards. Beginning with COMcheck version 3.8.0, support for 90.1-1989, 90.1-1999, and the 1998 IECC are no longer included, but those sections remain in this document for reference purposes.

  17. Technical Support Document for Version 3.9.1 of the COMcheck Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, Rosemarie; Connell, Linda M.; Gowri, Krishnan; Halverson, Mark A.; Lucas, Robert G.; Richman, Eric E.; Schultz, Robert W.; Winiarski, David W.

    2012-09-01

    COMcheck provides an optional way to demonstrate compliance with commercial and high-rise residential building energy codes. Commercial buildings include all use groups except single family and multifamily not over three stories in height. COMcheck was originally based on ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-1989 (Standard 90.1-1989) requirements and is intended for use with various codes based on Standard 90.1, including the Codification of ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-1989 (90.1-1989 Code) (ASHRAE 1989a, 1993b) and ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999 (Standard 90.1-1999). This includes jurisdictions that have adopted the 90.1-1989 Code, Standard 90.1-1989, Standard 90.1-1999, or their own code based on one of these. We view Standard 90.1-1989 and the 90.1-1989 Code as having equivalent technical content and have used both as source documents in developing COMcheck. This technical support document (TSD) is designed to explain the technical basis for the COMcheck software as originally developed based on the ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-1989 (Standard 90.1-1989). Documentation for other national model codes and standards and specific state energy codes supported in COMcheck has been added to this report as appendices. These appendices are intended to provide technical documentation for features specific to the supported codes and for any changes made for state-specific codes that differ from the standard features that support compliance with the national model codes and standards. Beginning with COMcheck version 3.8.0, support for 90.1-1989, 90.1-1999, and the 1998 IECC and version 3.9.0 support for 2000 and 2001 IECC are no longer included, but those sections remain in this document for reference purposes.

  18. The IPEM code of practice for determination of the reference air kerma rate for HDR 192Ir brachytherapy sources based on the NPL air kerma standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidmead, A M; Sander, T; Nutbrown, R F; Locks, S M; Lee, C D; Aird, E G A; Flynn, A

    2010-01-01

    This paper contains the recommendations of the high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy working party of the UK Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM). The recommendations consist of a Code of Practice (COP) for the UK for measuring the reference air kerma rate (RAKR) of HDR 192 Ir brachytherapy sources. In 2004, the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) commissioned a primary standard for the realization of RAKR of HDR 192 Ir brachytherapy sources. This has meant that it is now possible to calibrate ionization chambers directly traceable to an air kerma standard using an 192 Ir source (Sander and Nutbrown 2006 NPL Report DQL-RD 004 (Teddington: NPL) http://publications.npl.co.uk). In order to use the source specification in terms of either RAKR, .K R (ICRU 1985 ICRU Report No 38 (Washington, DC: ICRU); ICRU 1997 ICRU Report No 58 (Bethesda, MD: ICRU)), or air kerma strength, S K (Nath et al 1995 Med. Phys. 22 209-34), it has been necessary to develop algorithms that can calculate the dose at any point around brachytherapy sources within the patient tissues. The AAPM TG-43 protocol (Nath et al 1995 Med. Phys. 22 209-34) and the 2004 update TG-43U1 (Rivard et al 2004 Med. Phys. 31 633-74) have been developed more fully than any other protocol and are widely used in commercial treatment planning systems. Since the TG-43 formalism uses the quantity air kerma strength, whereas this COP uses RAKR, a unit conversion from RAKR to air kerma strength was included in the appendix to this COP. It is recommended that the measured RAKR determined with a calibrated well chamber traceable to the NPL 192 Ir primary standard is used in the treatment planning system. The measurement uncertainty in the source calibration based on the system described in this COP has been reduced considerably compared to other methods based on interpolation techniques.

  19. Call document

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Marie-Isabelle Beyer

    2015-03-31

    Mar 31, 2015 ... It works with researchers as they confront contemporar y challenges .... The type of study and method of systematic review of evidence must be ... of sources valuing rigorous qualitative and quantitative research; and should be ...

  20. System Design Description for the TMAD Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finfrock, S.H.

    1995-01-01

    This document serves as the System Design Description (SDD) for the TMAD Code System, which includes the TMAD code and the LIBMAKR code. The SDD provides a detailed description of the theory behind the code, and the implementation of that theory. It is essential for anyone who is attempting to review or modify the code or who otherwise needs to understand the internal workings of the code. In addition, this document includes, in Appendix A, the System Requirements Specification for the TMAD System

  1. XSOR codes users manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jow, Hong-Nian; Murfin, W.B.; Johnson, J.D.

    1993-11-01

    This report describes the source term estimation codes, XSORs. The codes are written for three pressurized water reactors (Surry, Sequoyah, and Zion) and two boiling water reactors (Peach Bottom and Grand Gulf). The ensemble of codes has been named ''XSOR''. The purpose of XSOR codes is to estimate the source terms which would be released to the atmosphere in severe accidents. A source term includes the release fractions of several radionuclide groups, the timing and duration of releases, the rates of energy release, and the elevation of releases. The codes have been developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in support of the NUREG-1150 program. The XSOR codes are fast running parametric codes and are used as surrogates for detailed mechanistic codes. The XSOR codes also provide the capability to explore the phenomena and their uncertainty which are not currently modeled by the mechanistic codes. The uncertainty distributions of input parameters may be used by an. XSOR code to estimate the uncertainty of source terms

  2. Nuclear power plants documentation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, E.L.

    1991-01-01

    Since the amount of documents (type and quantity) necessary for the entire design of a NPP is very large, this implies that an overall and detailed identification, filling and retrieval system shall be implemented. This is even more applicable to the FINAL QUALITY DOCUMENTATION of the plant, as stipulated by IAEA Safety Codes and related guides. For such a purpose it was developed a DOCUMENTATION MANUAL, which describes in detail the before mentioned documentation system. Here we present the expected goals and results which we have to reach for Angra 2 and 3 Project. (author)

  3. Documents on Disarmament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, Washington, DC.

    This publication, latest in a series of volumes issued annually since 1960, contains primary source documents on arms control and disarmament developments during 1969. The main chronological arrangement is supplemented by both chronological and topical lists of contents. Other reference aids include a subject/author index, and lists of…

  4. SU-E-T-212: Comparison of TG-43 Dosimetric Parameters of Low and High Energy Brachytherapy Sources Obtained by MCNP Code Versions of 4C, X and 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehtabian, M; Zaker, N; Sina, S [Shiraz University, Shiraz, Fars (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Meigooni, A Soleimani [Comprehensive Cancer Center of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Different versions of MCNP code are widely used for dosimetry purposes. The purpose of this study is to compare different versions of the MCNP codes in dosimetric evaluation of different brachytherapy sources. Methods: The TG-43 parameters such as dose rate constant, radial dose function, and anisotropy function of different brachytherapy sources, i.e. Pd-103, I-125, Ir-192, and Cs-137 were calculated in water phantom. The results obtained by three versions of Monte Carlo codes (MCNP4C, MCNPX, MCNP5) were compared for low and high energy brachytherapy sources. Then the cross section library of MCNP4C code was changed to ENDF/B-VI release 8 which is used in MCNP5 and MCNPX codes. Finally, the TG-43 parameters obtained using the MCNP4C-revised code, were compared with other codes. Results: The results of these investigations indicate that for high energy sources, the differences in TG-43 parameters between the codes are less than 1% for Ir-192 and less than 0.5% for Cs-137. However for low energy sources like I-125 and Pd-103, large discrepancies are observed in the g(r) values obtained by MCNP4C and the two other codes. The differences between g(r) values calculated using MCNP4C and MCNP5 at the distance of 6cm were found to be about 17% and 28% for I-125 and Pd-103 respectively. The results obtained with MCNP4C-revised and MCNPX were similar. However, the maximum difference between the results obtained with the MCNP5 and MCNP4C-revised codes was 2% at 6cm. Conclusion: The results indicate that using MCNP4C code for dosimetry of low energy brachytherapy sources can cause large errors in the results. Therefore it is recommended not to use this code for low energy sources, unless its cross section library is changed. Since the results obtained with MCNP4C-revised and MCNPX were similar, it is concluded that the difference between MCNP4C and MCNPX is their cross section libraries.

  5. sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yin Chiang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the simplified models of the ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode multiplexer network with Bernoulli random traffic sources. Based on the model, the performance measures are analyzed by the different output service schemes.

  6. Real-Time Motion Capture Toolbox (RTMocap): an open-source code for recording 3-D motion kinematics to study action-effect anticipations during motor and social interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewkowicz, Daniel; Delevoye-Turrell, Yvonne

    2016-03-01

    We present here a toolbox for the real-time motion capture of biological movements that runs in the cross-platform MATLAB environment (The MathWorks, Inc., Natick, MA). It provides instantaneous processing of the 3-D movement coordinates of up to 20 markers at a single instant. Available functions include (1) the setting of reference positions, areas, and trajectories of interest; (2) recording of the 3-D coordinates for each marker over the trial duration; and (3) the detection of events to use as triggers for external reinforcers (e.g., lights, sounds, or odors). Through fast online communication between the hardware controller and RTMocap, automatic trial selection is possible by means of either a preset or an adaptive criterion. Rapid preprocessing of signals is also provided, which includes artifact rejection, filtering, spline interpolation, and averaging. A key example is detailed, and three typical variations are developed (1) to provide a clear understanding of the importance of real-time control for 3-D motion in cognitive sciences and (2) to present users with simple lines of code that can be used as starting points for customizing experiments using the simple MATLAB syntax. RTMocap is freely available (http://sites.google.com/site/RTMocap/) under the GNU public license for noncommercial use and open-source development, together with sample data and extensive documentation.

  7. Development of Level-2 PSA Technology: A Development of the Database of the Parametric Source Term for Kori Unit 1 Using the MAAP4 Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Chang Soon; Mun, Ju Hyun; Yun, Jeong Ick; Cho, Young Hoo; Kim, Chong Uk [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-15

    To quantify the severe accident source term of the parametric model method, the uncertainty of the parameters should be analyzed. Generally, to analyze the uncertainties, the cumulative distribution functions(CDF`S) of the parameters are derived. This report introduces a method of derivation of the CDF`s of the basic parameters, FCOR, FVES and FDCH. The calculation tool of the source term is the MAAP version 4.0. In the MAAP code, there are model parameters to consider an uncertain physical and/or chemical phenomenon. In general, the parameters have not a point value but a range. In this paper, considering this point, the input values of model parameters influencing each parameter are sampled using LHS. Then, the calculation results are shown in the cumulative distribution form. For a case study, the CDF`s of FCOR, FVES and FDCH of KORI unit 1 are derived. The target scenarios for the calculation are the ones whose initial events are large LOCA, small LOCA and transient, respectively. It is found that the distributions of this study are consistent to those of NUREG-1150 and are proven to be adequate in assessing the uncertainties in the severe accident source term of KORI Unit 1. 15 refs., 27 tabs., 4 figs. (author)

  8. Computer code determination of tolerable accel current and voltage limits during startup of an 80 kV MFTF sustaining neutral beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayhall, D.J.; Eckard, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    We have used a Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) version of the WOLF ion source extractor design computer code to determine tolerable accel current and voltage limits during startup of a prototype 80 kV Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) sustaining neutral beam source. Arc current limits are also estimated. The source extractor has gaps of 0.236, 0.721, and 0.155 cm. The effective ion mass is 2.77 AMU. The measured optimum accel current density is 0.266 A/cm 2 . The gradient grid electrode runs at 5/6 V/sub a/ (accel voltage). The suppressor electrode voltage is zero for V/sub a/ < 3 kV and -3 kV for V/sub a/ greater than or equal to 3 kV. The accel current density for optimum beam divergence is obtained for 1 less than or equal to V/sub a/ less than or equal to 80 kV, as are the beam divergence and emittance

  9. CONTAIN code calculations of the effects on the source term of CsI to I/sub 2/ conversion due to severe hydrogen burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdez, G.D.; Williams, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    In experiments conducted at Sandia National Laboratories large amounts of elemental iodine were produced when CsI-Al 2 O 3 aerosol was exposed to hydrogen/air combustion. To evaluate some of the implications of the iodide conversion (observed to occur with up to 75% efficiency) for the severe accident source term, computational simulations of representative accident sequences were conducted with the CONTAIN code. The following conclusions can be drawn from this preliminary source term assessment: (1) If the containment sprays are inoperative during the accident, or failed by the hydrogen burn, the late-time source term is almost tripled when the iodide is converted to I 2 . (2) With the sprays active, the amount released without conversion of the CsI aerosol is 63% higher than for the case when conversion occurs. (3) For the case where CsI is converted to I 2 continued operation of the sprays reduces the release by a factor of 40, relative to the case in which the sprays fail at the time of the hydrogen burn. When there is no conversion, the reduction factor for continued spray operation is about a factor of 9, relative to the failed spray case

  10. Input/output manual of light water reactor fuel analysis code FEMAXI-7 and its related codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Motoe; Udagawa, Yutaka; Nagase, Fumihisa [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Nuclear Safety Research Center, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Saitou, Hiroaki [ITOCHU Techno-Solutions Corporation, Tokyo (Japan)

    2013-10-15

    A light water reactor fuel analysis code FEMAXI-7 has been developed, as an extended version from the former version FEMAXI-6, for the purpose of analyzing the fuel behavior in normal conditions and in anticipated transient conditions. Numerous functional improvements and extensions have been incorporated in FEMAXI-7, which are fully disclosed in the code model description published in the form of another JAEA-Data/Code report. The present manual, which is the very counterpart of this description document, gives detailed explanations of files and operation method of FEMAXI-7 code and its related codes, methods of input/output, sample Input/Output, methods of source code modification, subroutine structure, and internal variables in a specific manner in order to facilitate users to perform fuel analysis by FEMAXI-7. (author)

  11. Input/output manual of light water reactor fuel analysis code FEMAXI-7 and its related codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Motoe; Udagawa, Yutaka; Nagase, Fumihisa; Saitou, Hiroaki

    2013-10-01

    A light water reactor fuel analysis code FEMAXI-7 has been developed, as an extended version from the former version FEMAXI-6, for the purpose of analyzing the fuel behavior in normal conditions and in anticipated transient conditions. Numerous functional improvements and extensions have been incorporated in FEMAXI-7, which are fully disclosed in the code model description published in the form of another JAEA-Data/Code report. The present manual, which is the very counterpart of this description document, gives detailed explanations of files and operation method of FEMAXI-7 code and its related codes, methods of input/output, sample Input/Output, methods of source code modification, subroutine structure, and internal variables in a specific manner in order to facilitate users to perform fuel analysis by FEMAXI-7. (author)

  12. Generation of point isotropic source dose buildup factor data for the PFBR special concretes in a form compatible for usage in point kernel computer code QAD-CGGP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhakrishnan, G.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Around the PFBR (Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor) reactor assembly, in the peripheral shields special concretes of density 2.4 g/cm 3 and 3.6 g/cm 3 are to be used in complex geometrical shapes. Point-kernel computer code like QAD-CGGP, written for complex shield geometry comes in handy for the shield design optimization of peripheral shields. QAD-CGGP requires data base for the buildup factor data and it contains only ordinary concrete of density 2.3 g/cm 3 . In order to extend the data base for the PFBR special concretes, point isotropic source dose buildup factors have been generated by Monte Carlo method using the computer code MCNP-4A. For the above mentioned special concretes, buildup factor data have been generated in the energy range 0.5 MeV to 10.0 MeV with the thickness ranging from 1 mean free paths (mfp) to 40 mfp. Capo's formula fit of the buildup factor data compatible with QAD-CGGP has been attempted

  13. Calculations of the thermal and fast neutron fluxes in the Syrian miniature neutron source reactor using the MCNP-4C code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, K; Sulieman, I

    2009-04-01

    The MCNP-4C code, based on the probabilistic approach, was used to model the 3D configuration of the core of the Syrian miniature neutron source reactor (MNSR). The continuous energy neutron cross sections from the ENDF/B-VI library were used to calculate the thermal and fast neutron fluxes in the inner and outer irradiation sites of MNSR. The thermal fluxes in the MNSR inner irradiation sites were also measured experimentally by the multiple foil activation method ((197)Au (n, gamma) (198)Au and (59)Co (n, gamma) (60)Co). The foils were irradiated simultaneously in each of the five MNSR inner irradiation sites to measure the thermal neutron flux and the epithermal index in each site. The calculated and measured results agree well.

  14. Coding for urologic office procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Robert A; Painter, Mark

    2013-11-01

    This article summarizes current best practices for documenting, coding, and billing common office-based urologic procedures. Topics covered include general principles, basic and advanced urologic coding, creation of medical records that support compliant coding practices, bundled codes and unbundling, global periods, modifiers for procedure codes, when to bill for evaluation and management services during the same visit, coding for supplies, and laboratory and radiology procedures pertinent to urology practice. Detailed information is included for the most common urology office procedures, and suggested resources and references are provided. This information is of value to physicians, office managers, and their coding staff. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Model documentation Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-30

    This report documents objectives and conceptual and methodological approach used in the development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Coal Market Module (CMM) used to develop the Annual Energy Outlook 1996 (AEO96). This report catalogues and describes the assumptions, methodology, estimation techniques, and source code of CMM`s three submodules: Coal Production Submodule, Coal Export Submodule, and Coal Distribution Submodule.

  16. Model documentation coal market module of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This report documents the approaches used in developing the Annual Energy Outlook 1995 (AEO95). This report catalogues and describes the assumptions, methodology, estimation techniques, and source code of the coal market module`s three submodules. These are the Coal Production Submodule (CPS), the Coal Export Submodule (CES), the Coal Expert Submodule (CES), and the Coal Distribution Submodule (CDS).

  17. Model documentation coal market module of the National Energy Modeling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This report documents the approaches used in developing the Annual Energy Outlook 1995 (AEO95). This report catalogues and describes the assumptions, methodology, estimation techniques, and source code of the coal market module's three submodules. These are the Coal Production Submodule (CPS), the Coal Export Submodule (CES), the Coal Expert Submodule (CES), and the Coal Distribution Submodule (CDS)

  18. Technical Support Document for Version 3.4.0 of the COMcheck Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, Rosemarie; Connell, Linda M.; Gowri, Krishnan; Halverson, Mark A.; Lucas, Robert G.; Richman, Eric E.; Schultz, Robert W.; Winiarski, David W.

    2007-09-14

    COMcheck provides an optional way to demonstrate compliance with commercial and high-rise residential building energy codes. Commercial buildings include all use groups except single family and multifamily not over three stories in height. COMcheck was originally based on ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-1989 (Standard 90.1-1989) requirements and is intended for use with various codes based on Standard 90.1, including the Codification of ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-1989 (90.1-1989 Code) (ASHRAE 1989a, 1993b) and ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999 (Standard 90.1-1999). This includes jurisdictions that have adopted the 90.1-1989 Code, Standard 90.1-1989, Standard 90.1-1999, or their own code based on one of these. We view Standard 90.1-1989 and the 90.1-1989 Code as having equivalent technical content and have used both as source documents in developing COMcheck. This technical support document (TSD) is designed to explain the technical basis for the COMcheck software as originally developed based on the ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-1989 (Standard 90.1-1989). Documentation for other national model codes and standards and specific state energy codes supported in COMcheck has been added to this report as appendices. These appendices are intended to provide technical documentation for features specific to the supported codes and for any changes made for state-specific codes that differ from the standard features that support compliance with the national model codes and standards.

  19. SANSMIC design document.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Paula D. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rudeen, David Keith [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The United States Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) maintains an underground storage system consisting of caverns that were leached or solution mined in four salt domes located near the Gulf of Mexico in Texas and Louisiana. The SPR comprises more than 60 active caverns containing approximately 700 million barrels of crude oil. Sandia National Labo- ratories (SNL) is the geotechnical advisor to the SPR. As the most pressing need at the inception of the SPR was to create and fill storage volume with oil, the decision was made to leach the caverns and fill them simultaneously (leach-fill). Therefore, A.J. Russo developed SANSMIC in the early 1980s which allows for a transient oil-brine interface (OBI) making it possible to model leach-fill and withdrawal operations. As the majority of caverns are currently filled to storage capacity, the primary uses of SANSMIC at this time are related to the effects of small and large withdrawals, expansion of existing caverns, and projecting future pillar to diameter ratios. SANSMIC was identified by SNL as a priority candidate for qualification. This report continues the quality assurance (QA) process by documenting the "as built" mathematical and numerical models that comprise this document. The pro- gram flow is outlined and the models are discussed in detail. Code features that were added later or were not documented previously have been expounded. No changes in the code's physics have occurred since the original documentation (Russo, 1981, 1983) although recent experiments may yield improvements to the temperature and plume methods in the future.

  20. User's manual for the NEFTRAN II computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olague, N.E.; Campbell, J.E.; Leigh, C.D.; Longsine, D.E.

    1991-02-01

    This document describes the NEFTRAN II (NEtwork Flow and TRANsport in Time-Dependent Velocity Fields) computer code and is intended to provide the reader with sufficient information to use the code. NEFTRAN II was developed as part of a performance assessment methodology for storage of high-level nuclear waste in unsaturated, welded tuff. NEFTRAN II is a successor to the NEFTRAN and NWFT/DVM computer codes and contains several new capabilities. These capabilities include: (1) the ability to input pore velocities directly to the transport model and bypass the network fluid flow model, (2) the ability to transport radionuclides in time-dependent velocity fields, (3) the ability to account for the effect of time-dependent saturation changes on the retardation factor, and (4) the ability to account for time-dependent flow rates through the source regime. In addition to these changes, the input to NEFTRAN II has been modified to be more convenient for the user. This document is divided into four main sections consisting of (1) a description of all the models contained in the code, (2) a description of the program and subprograms in the code, (3) a data input guide and (4) verification and sample problems. Although NEFTRAN II is the fourth generation code, this document is a complete description of the code and reference to past user's manuals should not be necessary. 19 refs., 33 figs., 25 tabs

  1. CMS DOCUMENTATION

    CERN Multimedia

    CMS TALKS AT MAJOR MEETINGS The agenda and talks from major CMS meetings can now be electronically accessed from the ICMS Web site. The following items can be found on: http://cms.cern.ch/iCMS Management – CMS Weeks (Collaboration Meetings), CMS Weeks Agendas The talks presented at the Plenary Sessions. Management – CB – MB – FB Agendas and minutes are accessible to CMS members through Indico. LHCC The talks presented at the ‘CMS Meetings with LHCC Referees’ are available on request from the PM or MB Country Representative. Annual Reviews The talks presented at the 2008 Annual Reviews are posted in Indico. CMS DOCUMENTS It is considered useful to establish information on the first employment of CMS doctoral student upon completion of their theses.  Therefore it is requested that Ph.D students inform the CMS Secretariat about the nature of employment and name of their first employer. The Notes, Conference Reports and Theses published si...

  2. EIA model documentation: Electricity market module - electricity fuel dispatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the National Energy Modeling System Electricity Fuel Dispatch Submodule (EFD), a submodule of the Electricity Market Module (EMM) as it was used for EIA's Annual Energy Outlook 1997. It replaces previous documentation dated March 1994 and subsequent yearly update revisions. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated through the synthesis and scenario development based on these components. This document serves four purposes. First, it is a reference document providing a detailed description of the model for reviewers and potential users of the EFD including energy experts at the Energy Information Administration (EIA), other Federal agencies, state energy agencies, private firms such as utilities and consulting firms, and non-profit groups such as consumer and environmental groups. Second, this report meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its statistical and forecast reports. Third, it facilitates continuity in model development by providing documentation which details model enhancements that were undertaken for AE097 and since the previous documentation. Last, because the major use of the EFD is to develop forecasts, this documentation explains the calculations, major inputs and assumptions which were used to generate the AE097

  3. EIA model documentation: Electricity market module - electricity fuel dispatch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the National Energy Modeling System Electricity Fuel Dispatch Submodule (EFD), a submodule of the Electricity Market Module (EMM) as it was used for EIA`s Annual Energy Outlook 1997. It replaces previous documentation dated March 1994 and subsequent yearly update revisions. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated through the synthesis and scenario development based on these components. This document serves four purposes. First, it is a reference document providing a detailed description of the model for reviewers and potential users of the EFD including energy experts at the Energy Information Administration (EIA), other Federal agencies, state energy agencies, private firms such as utilities and consulting firms, and non-profit groups such as consumer and environmental groups. Second, this report meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its statistical and forecast reports. Third, it facilitates continuity in model development by providing documentation which details model enhancements that were undertaken for AE097 and since the previous documentation. Last, because the major use of the EFD is to develop forecasts, this documentation explains the calculations, major inputs and assumptions which were used to generate the AE097.

  4. Document understanding for a broad class of documents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aiello, Marco; Monz, Christof; Todoran, Leon; Worring, Marcel

    2002-01-01

    We present a document analysis system able to assign logical labels and extract the reading order in a broad set of documents. All information sources, from geometric features and spatial relations to the textual features and content are employed in the analysis. To deal effectively with these

  5. Evaluation of the scale dependent dynamic SGS model in the open source code caffa3d.MBRi in wall-bounded flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Martin; Usera, Gabriel

    2015-04-01

    The Scale Dependent Dynamic Model (SDDM) has been widely validated in large-eddy simulations using pseudo-spectral codes [1][2][3]. The scale dependency, particularly the potential law, has been proved also in a priori studies [4][5]. To the authors' knowledge there have been only few attempts to use the SDDM in finite difference (FD) and finite volume (FV) codes [6][7], finding some improvements with the dynamic procedures (scale independent or scale dependent approach), but not showing the behavior of the scale-dependence parameter when using the SDDM. The aim of the present paper is to evaluate the SDDM in the open source code caffa3d.MBRi, an updated version of the code presented in [8]. caffa3d.MBRi is a FV code, second-order accurate, parallelized with MPI, in which the domain is divided in unstructured blocks of structured grids. To accomplish this, 2 cases are considered: flow between flat plates and flow over a rough surface with the presence of a model wind turbine, taking for this case the experimental data presented in [9]. In both cases the standard Smagorinsky Model (SM), the Scale Independent Dynamic Model (SIDM) and the SDDM are tested. As presented in [6][7] slight improvements are obtained with the SDDM. Nevertheless, the behavior of the scale-dependence parameter supports the generalization of the dynamic procedure proposed in the SDDM, particularly taking into account that no explicit filter is used (the implicit filter is unknown). [1] F. Porté-Agel, C. Meneveau, M.B. Parlange. "A scale-dependent dynamic model for large-eddy simulation: application to a neutral atmospheric boundary layer". Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 2000, 415, 261-284. [2] E. Bou-Zeid, C. Meneveau, M. Parlante. "A scale-dependent Lagrangian dynamic model for large eddy simulation of complex turbulent flows". Physics of Fluids, 2005, 17, 025105 (18p). [3] R. Stoll, F. Porté-Agel. "Dynamic subgrid-scale models for momentum and scalar fluxes in large-eddy simulations of

  6. LIGHT CURVES OF CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE WITH SUBSTANTIAL MASS LOSS USING THE NEW OPEN-SOURCE SUPERNOVA EXPLOSION CODE (SNEC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozova, Viktoriya; Renzo, Mathieu; Ott, Christian D.; Clausen, Drew; Couch, Sean M.; Ellis, Justin; Roberts, Luke F.; Piro, Anthony L.

    2015-01-01

    We present the SuperNova Explosion Code (SNEC), an open-source Lagrangian code for the hydrodynamics and equilibrium-diffusion radiation transport in the expanding envelopes of supernovae. Given a model of a progenitor star, an explosion energy, and an amount and distribution of radioactive nickel, SNEC generates the bolometric light curve, as well as the light curves in different broad bands assuming blackbody emission. As a first application of SNEC, we consider the explosions of a grid of 15 M ⊙ (at zero-age main sequence, ZAMS) stars whose hydrogen envelopes are stripped to different extents and at different points in their evolution. The resulting light curves exhibit plateaus with durations of ∼20–100 days if ≳1.5–2 M ⊙ of hydrogen-rich material is left and no plateau if less hydrogen-rich material is left. If these shorter plateau lengths are not seen for SNe IIP in nature, it suggests that, at least for ZAMS masses ≲20 M ⊙ , hydrogen mass loss occurs as an all or nothing process. This perhaps points to the important role binary interactions play in generating the observed mass-stripped supernovae (i.e., Type Ib/c events). These light curves are also unlike what is typically seen for SNe IIL, arguing that simply varying the amount of mass loss cannot explain these events. The most stripped models begin to show double-peaked light curves similar to what is often seen for SNe IIb, confirming previous work that these supernovae can come from progenitors that have a small amount of hydrogen and a radius of ∼500 R ⊙

  7. LIGHT CURVES OF CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE WITH SUBSTANTIAL MASS LOSS USING THE NEW OPEN-SOURCE SUPERNOVA EXPLOSION CODE (SNEC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozova, Viktoriya; Renzo, Mathieu; Ott, Christian D.; Clausen, Drew; Couch, Sean M.; Ellis, Justin; Roberts, Luke F. [TAPIR, Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, MC 350-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Piro, Anthony L., E-mail: morozvs@tapir.caltech.edu [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2015-11-20

    We present the SuperNova Explosion Code (SNEC), an open-source Lagrangian code for the hydrodynamics and equilibrium-diffusion radiation transport in the expanding envelopes of supernovae. Given a model of a progenitor star, an explosion energy, and an amount and distribution of radioactive nickel, SNEC generates the bolometric light curve, as well as the light curves in different broad bands assuming blackbody emission. As a first application of SNEC, we consider the explosions of a grid of 15 M{sub ⊙} (at zero-age main sequence, ZAMS) stars whose hydrogen envelopes are stripped to different extents and at different points in their evolution. The resulting light curves exhibit plateaus with durations of ∼20–100 days if ≳1.5–2 M{sub ⊙} of hydrogen-rich material is left and no plateau if less hydrogen-rich material is left. If these shorter plateau lengths are not seen for SNe IIP in nature, it suggests that, at least for ZAMS masses ≲20 M{sub ⊙}, hydrogen mass loss occurs as an all or nothing process. This perhaps points to the important role binary interactions play in generating the observed mass-stripped supernovae (i.e., Type Ib/c events). These light curves are also unlike what is typically seen for SNe IIL, arguing that simply varying the amount of mass loss cannot explain these events. The most stripped models begin to show double-peaked light curves similar to what is often seen for SNe IIb, confirming previous work that these supernovae can come from progenitors that have a small amount of hydrogen and a radius of ∼500 R{sub ⊙}.

  8. Reassessment of the technical bases for estimating source terms. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silberberg, M.; Mitchell, J.A.; Meyer, R.O.; Ryder, C.P.

    1986-07-01

    This document describes a major advance in the technology for calculating source terms from postulated accidents at US light-water reactors. The improved technology consists of (1) an extensive data base from severe accident research programs initiated following the TMI accident, (2) a set of coupled and integrated computer codes (the Source Term Code Package), which models key aspects of fission product behavior under severe accident conditions, and (3) a number of detailed mechanistic codes that bridge the gap between the data base and the Source Term Code Package. The improved understanding of severe accident phenonmena has also allowed an identification of significant sources of uncertainty, which should be considered in estimating source terms. These sources of uncertainty are also described in this document. The current technology provides a significant improvement in evaluating source terms over that available at the time of the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400) and, because of this significance, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff is recommending its use

  9. Studying the co-evolution of production and test code in open source and industrial developer test processes through repository mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaidman, A.; Van Rompaey, B.; Van Deursen, A.; Demeyer, S.

    2010-01-01

    Many software production processes advocate rigorous development testing alongside functional code writing, which implies that both test code and production code should co-evolve. To gain insight in the nature of this co-evolution, this paper proposes three views (realized by a tool called TeMo)

  10. Source Code Analysis Laboratory (SCALe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    products (including services) and processes. The agency has also published ISO / IEC 17025 :2005 General Requirements for the Competence of Testing...SCALe undertakes. Testing and calibration laboratories that comply with ISO / IEC 17025 also operate in accordance with ISO 9001. • NIST National...assessed by the accreditation body against all of the requirements of ISO / IEC 17025 : 2005 General requirements for the competence of testing and

  11. The Cost of Enforcing Building Energy Codes: Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Alison [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Vine, Ed [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Sarah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sturges, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rosenquist, Greg [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to summarize key findings regarding the costs associated with enforcing building energy code compliance—primarily focusing on costs borne by local government. The review takes into consideration over 150 documents that discuss, to some extent, code enforcement. This review emphasizes those documents that specifically focus on costs associated with energy code enforcement. Given the low rates of building energy code compliance that have been reported in existing studies, as well as the many barriers to both energy code compliance and enforcement, this study seeks to identify the costs of initiatives to improve compliance and enforcement. Costs are reported primarily as presented in the original source. Some costs are given on a per home or per building basis, and others are provided for jurisdictions of a certain size. This literature review gives an overview of state-based compliance rates, barriers to code enforcement, and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and key stakeholder involvement in improving compliance with building energy codes. In addition, the processes and costs associated with compliance and enforcement of building energy codes are presented. The second phase of this study, which will be presented in a different report, will consist of surveying 34 experts in the building industry at the national and state or local levels in order to obtain additional cost information, building on the findings from the first phase, as well as recommendations for where to most effectively spend money on compliance and enforcement.

  12. Variable & Recode Definitions - SEER Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources that define variables and provide documentation for reporting using SEER and related datasets. Choose from SEER coding and staging manuals plus instructions for recoding behavior, site, stage, cause of death, insurance, and several additional topics. Also guidance on months survived, calculating Hispanic mortality, and site-specific surgery.

  13. SRS ecology: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wike, L.D.; Shipley, R.W.; Bowers, J.A.

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this Document is to provide a source of ecological information based on the exiting knowledge gained from research conducted at the Savannah River Site. This document provides a summary and synthesis of ecological research in the three main ecosystem types found at SRS and information on the threatened and endangered species residing there

  14. SRS ecology: Environmental information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L.D.; Shipley, R.W.; Bowers, J.A. [and others

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this Document is to provide a source of ecological information based on the exiting knowledge gained from research conducted at the Savannah River Site. This document provides a summary and synthesis of ecological research in the three main ecosystem types found at SRS and information on the threatened and endangered species residing there.

  15. Reactor lattice codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulikowska, T.

    1999-01-01

    The present lecture has a main goal to show how the transport lattice calculations are realised in a standard computer code. This is illustrated on the example of the WIMSD code, belonging to the most popular tools for reactor calculations. Most of the approaches discussed here can be easily modified to any other lattice code. The description of the code assumes the basic knowledge of reactor lattice, on the level given in the lecture on 'Reactor lattice transport calculations'. For more advanced explanation of the WIMSD code the reader is directed to the detailed descriptions of the code cited in References. The discussion of the methods and models included in the code is followed by the generally used homogenisation procedure and several numerical examples of discrepancies in calculated multiplication factors based on different sources of library data. (author)

  16. TEA: A CODE CALCULATING THERMOCHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM ABUNDANCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Bowman, M. Oliver, E-mail: jasmina@physics.ucf.edu [Planetary Sciences Group, Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-2385 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. and Eriksson. It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature–pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows and Sharp, the free thermochemical equilibrium code Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA), and the example given by Burrows and Sharp. Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is available under a reproducible-research, open-source license via https://github.com/dzesmin/TEA.

  17. TEA: A CODE CALCULATING THERMOCHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM ABUNDANCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Bowman, M. Oliver

    2016-01-01

    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. and Eriksson. It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature–pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows and Sharp, the free thermochemical equilibrium code Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA), and the example given by Burrows and Sharp. Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is available under a reproducible-research, open-source license via https://github.com/dzesmin/TEA.

  18. Code, standard and specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    Radiography also same as the other technique, it need standard. This standard was used widely and method of used it also regular. With that, radiography testing only practical based on regulations as mentioned and documented. These regulation or guideline documented in code, standard and specifications. In Malaysia, level one and basic radiographer can do radiography work based on instruction give by level two or three radiographer. This instruction was produced based on guideline that mention in document. Level two must follow the specifications mentioned in standard when write the instruction. From this scenario, it makes clearly that this radiography work is a type of work that everything must follow the rule. For the code, the radiography follow the code of American Society for Mechanical Engineer (ASME) and the only code that have in Malaysia for this time is rule that published by Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB) known as Practical code for radiation Protection in Industrial radiography. With the existence of this code, all the radiography must follow the rule or standard regulated automatically.

  19. Study of the source-detector system geometry using the MCNP-X code in the flowrate measurement with radioactive tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avilan Puertas, Eddie, E-mail: epuertas@nuclear.ufrj.br [Universidad Central de Venezuela (UCV), Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Braz, Delson, E-mail: delson@lin.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Brandao, Luis E.; Salgado, Cesar M., E-mail: brandao@ien.gov.br, E-mail: otero@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The use radioactive tracers for flow rate measurement is applied to a great variety of situations, however the accuracy of the technique is highly dependent of the adequate choice of the experimental measurement conditions. To measure flow rate of fluids in ducts partially filled, is necessary to measure the fluid flow velocity and the fluid height. The flow velocity can be measured with the cross correlation function and the fluid level, with a fluid level meter system. One of the error factors when measuring flow rate, is on the correct setting of the source-detector of the fluid level meter system. The goal of the present work is to establish by mean of MCNP-X code simulations the experimental parameters to measure the fluid level. The experimental tests will be realized in a flow rate system of 10 mm of diameter of acrylic tube for water and oil as fluids. The radioactive tracer to be used is the {sup 82}Br and for the detection will be employed two 1″ NaI(Tl) scintillator detectors, shielded with collimators of 0.5 cm and 1 cm of circular aperture diameter. (author)

  20. Atlas C++ Coding Standard Specification

    CERN Document Server

    Albrand, S; Barberis, D; Bosman, M; Jones, B; Stavrianakou, M; Arnault, C; Candlin, D; Candlin, R; Franck, E; Hansl-Kozanecka, Traudl; Malon, D; Qian, S; Quarrie, D; Schaffer, R D

    2001-01-01

    This document defines the ATLAS C++ coding standard, that should be adhered to when writing C++ code. It has been adapted from the original "PST Coding Standard" document (http://pst.cern.ch/HandBookWorkBook/Handbook/Programming/programming.html) CERN-UCO/1999/207. The "ATLAS standard" comprises modifications, further justification and examples for some of the rules in the original PST document. All changes were discussed in the ATLAS Offline Software Quality Control Group and feedback from the collaboration was taken into account in the "current" version.

  1. Neutron and photon measurements through concrete from a 15 GeV electron beam on a target-comparison with models and calculations. [Intermediate energy source term, Monte Carlo code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, T M [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, CA (USA)

    1979-02-15

    Measurements of neutron and photon dose equivalents from a 15 GeV electron beam striking an iron target inside a scale model of a PEP IR hall are described, and compared with analytic-empirical calculations and with the Monte Carlo code, MORSE. The MORSE code is able to predict both absolute neutron and photon dose equivalents for geometries where the shield is relatively thin, but fails as the shield thickness is increased. An intermediate energy source term is postulated for analytic-empirical neutron shielding calculations to go along with the giant resonance and high energy terms, and a new source term due to neutron capture is postulated for analytic-empirical photon shielding calculations. The source strengths for each energy source term, and each type, are given from analysis of the measurements.

  2. Fracture flow code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dershowitz, W; Herbert, A.; Long, J.

    1989-03-01

    The hydrology of the SCV site will be modelled utilizing discrete fracture flow models. These models are complex, and can not be fully cerified by comparison to analytical solutions. The best approach for verification of these codes is therefore cross-verification between different codes. This is complicated by the variation in assumptions and solution techniques utilized in different codes. Cross-verification procedures are defined which allow comparison of the codes developed by Harwell Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and Golder Associates Inc. Six cross-verification datasets are defined for deterministic and stochastic verification of geometric and flow features of the codes. Additional datasets for verification of transport features will be documented in a future report. (13 figs., 7 tabs., 10 refs.) (authors)

  3. SIMULATING PROTEIN DIGESTION ON TROUT A RAPID AND INEXPENSIVE METHOD FOR DOCUMENTING FISH MEAL QUALITY AND SCREENING NOVEL PROTEIN SOURCES FOR USE IN AQUAFEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bassompierre

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel in vitro digestion system, which simulated rainbow trout gastric and intestinal digestion was developed. The method was employed to evaluate the impact of the gastric phase of digestion upon degradation of three fish meals od differing quality. Results illustrated that two-phase gastric-intestinal digestion increased the discriminatory powers of the system when compared to one-step intestinal digestion. A comparison of the system with pH-STAT methods demonstrated that the in vitro technique was superior. The presented method provides an ethical and cost effective means for rapid evaluation of fish meals and potentially, alternative protein sources for aquafeeds.

  4. Integrated criteria document mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloof, W.; Beelan, P. van; Annema, J.A.; Janus, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    The document contains a systematic review and a critical evaluation of the most relevant data on the priority substance mercury for the purpose of effect-oriented environmental policy. Chapter headings are: properties and existing standards; production, application, sources and emissions (natural sources, industry, energy, households, agriculture, dental use, waste); distribution and transformation (cinnabar; Hg 2+ , Hg 2 2+ , elemental mercury, methylmercury, behavior in soil, water, air, biota); concentrations and fluxes in the environment and exposure levels (sampling and measuring methods, occurrence in soil, water, air etc.); effects (toxicity to humans and aquatic and terrestrial systems); emissions reduction (from industrial sources, energy, waste processing etc.); and evaluation (risks, standards, emission reduction objectives, measuring strategies). 395 refs

  5. Strategy and programs of the research on high-level and long-living radioactive wastes (by right of article L542 of the environment code from December 30, 1991 law). Conjuncture document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document gives, in a first part, a brief insight on the main results of the researches carried out in 2002 on the management of high-level and long-living radioactive wastes according to the three research ways defined by the December 30, 1991 law: separation-transmutation, disposal in deep geologic underground, wastes conditioning and storage. The second part of the document is an executive summary of the 2003 edition of the document 'strategy and programs of the researches on the management of high-level and long-living radioactive wastes - SPR 2003'. It presents the content of the different chapters: 1 - researches methodology and implementation of coordinated studies; 2 - researches status 10 years after the enforcement of the law; 3 - the main goals and steps to reach before the 2006 date-line; 4 - the description and analysis of the programs under consideration; 5 - the coordination between French programs; 6 - the international cooperation. (J.S.)

  6. Using tritium to document the mean transit time and sources of water contributing to a chain-of-ponds river system: Implications for resource protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartwright, I.; Morgenstern, U.

    2016-01-01

    Documenting the interaction between groundwater and rivers is fundamental to understanding hydrological systems. While many studies have examined the location and magnitude of groundwater inflows to rivers, much less is known about the transit times of water in catchments and from where in the aquifer the groundwater originates. Resolving those questions is vital for protecting riverine ecosystems, assessing the impact of contamination, and understanding the potential consequences of groundwater pumping. This study uses tritium ("3H) to evaluate the mean transit times of water contributing to Deep Creek (southeast Australia), which is a chain-of-ponds river system. "3H activities of river water vary between 1.47 and 2.91 TU with lower "3H activities recorded during cease-to-flow periods when the river comprises isolated groundwater-fed pools. Regional groundwater 1–2.5 km away from Deep Creek at depths of 7.5–46.5 m has "3H activities of between 100 years. Alternatively the variation in "3H activities can be explained by mixing of a young near-river water component with up to 50% older groundwater. The results of this study reinforce the need to protect shallow near-river groundwater from contamination in order to safeguard riverine ecosystems and also illustrate the potential pitfalls in using regional bores to characterise the geochemistry of near-river groundwater. - Highlights: • We measured tritium in river water and groundwater from a groundwater-fed river. • Transit times of the river water are years to decades. • Transit times of regional groundwater are decades to centuries. • Regional groundwater is only a minor component of the river water. • Results have implications for protection of the river and its ecosystems.

  7. Revised C++ coding conventions

    CERN Document Server

    Callot, O

    2001-01-01

    This document replaces the note LHCb 98-049 by Pavel Binko. After a few years of practice, some simplification and clarification of the rules was needed. As many more people have now some experience in writing C++ code, their opinion was also taken into account to get a commonly agreed set of conventions

  8. Coding Partitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Burderi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the study of decipherability conditions for codes weaker than Unique Decipherability (UD, we introduce the notion of coding partition. Such a notion generalizes that of UD code and, for codes that are not UD, allows to recover the ``unique decipherability" at the level of the classes of the partition. By tacking into account the natural order between the partitions, we define the characteristic partition of a code X as the finest coding partition of X. This leads to introduce the canonical decomposition of a code in at most one unambiguouscomponent and other (if any totally ambiguouscomponents. In the case the code is finite, we give an algorithm for computing its canonical partition. This, in particular, allows to decide whether a given partition of a finite code X is a coding partition. This last problem is then approached in the case the code is a rational set. We prove its decidability under the hypothesis that the partition contains a finite number of classes and each class is a rational set. Moreover we conjecture that the canonical partition satisfies such a hypothesis. Finally we consider also some relationships between coding partitions and varieties of codes.

  9. HELIOS–RETRIEVAL: An Open-source, Nested Sampling Atmospheric Retrieval Code; Application to the HR 8799 Exoplanets and Inferred Constraints for Planet Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavie, Baptiste; Mendonça, João M.; Malik, Matej; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Grimm, Simon L. [University of Bern, Space Research and Planetary Sciences, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012, Bern (Switzerland); Mordasini, Christoph; Oreshenko, Maria; Heng, Kevin [University of Bern, Center for Space and Habitability, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012, Bern (Switzerland); Bonnefoy, Mickaël [Université Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, F-38000, Grenoble (France); Ehrenreich, David, E-mail: baptiste.lavie@space.unibe.ch, E-mail: kevin.heng@csh.unibe.ch [Observatoire de l’Université de Genève, 51 chemin des Maillettes, 1290, Sauverny (Switzerland)

    2017-09-01

    We present an open-source retrieval code named HELIOS–RETRIEVAL, designed to obtain chemical abundances and temperature–pressure profiles by inverting the measured spectra of exoplanetary atmospheres. In our forward model, we use an exact solution of the radiative transfer equation, in the pure absorption limit, which allows us to analytically integrate over all of the outgoing rays. Two chemistry models are considered: unconstrained chemistry and equilibrium chemistry (enforced via analytical formulae). The nested sampling algorithm allows us to formally implement Occam’s Razor based on a comparison of the Bayesian evidence between models. We perform a retrieval analysis on the measured spectra of the four HR 8799 directly imaged exoplanets. Chemical equilibrium is disfavored for HR 8799b and c. We find supersolar C/H and O/H values for the outer HR 8799b and c exoplanets, while the inner HR 8799d and e exoplanets have a range of C/H and O/H values. The C/O values range from being superstellar for HR 8799b to being consistent with stellar for HR 8799c and being substellar for HR 8799d and e. If these retrieved properties are representative of the bulk compositions of the exoplanets, then they are inconsistent with formation via gravitational instability (without late-time accretion) and consistent with a core accretion scenario in which late-time accretion of ices occurred differently for the inner and outer exoplanets. For HR 8799e, we find that spectroscopy in the K band is crucial for constraining C/O and C/H. HELIOS–RETRIEVAL is publicly available as part of the Exoclimes Simulation Platform (http://www.exoclime.org).

  10. Simulation of equivalent dose due to accidental electron beam loss in Indus-1 and Indus-2 synchrotron radiation sources using FLUKA code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahani, P.K.; Dev, Vipin; Singh, Gurnam; Haridas, G.; Thakkar, K.K.; Sarkar, P.K.; Sharma, D.N.

    2008-01-01

    Indus-1 and Indus-2 are two Synchrotron radiation sources at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), India. Stored electron energy in Indus-1 and Indus-2 are 450MeV and 2.5GeV respectively. During operation of storage ring, accidental electron beam loss may occur in addition to normal beam losses. The Bremsstrahlung radiation produced due to the beam losses creates a major radiation hazard in these high energy electron accelerators. FLUKA, the Monte Carlo radiation transport code is used to simulate the accidental beam loss. The simulation was carried out to estimate the equivalent dose likely to be received by a trapped person closer to the storage ring. Depth dose profile in water phantom for 450MeV and 2.5GeV electron beam is generated, from which percentage energy absorbed in 30cm water phantom (analogous to human body) is calculated. The simulation showed the percentage energy deposition in the phantom is about 19% for 450MeV electron and 4.3% for 2.5GeV electron. The dose build up factor in 30cm water phantom for 450MeV and 2.5GeV electron beam are found to be 1.85 and 2.94 respectively. Based on the depth dose profile, dose equivalent index of 0.026Sv and 1.08Sv are likely to be received by the trapped person near the storage ring in Indus-1 and Indus-2 respectively. (author)

  11. Development document for the effluent limitations and guidelines for the ore mining and dressing point source category. Volume I. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarrett, B.M.; Kirby, R.G.

    1978-07-01

    To establish effluent limitation guidelines and standards of performance, the ore mining and dressing industry was divided into 41 separate categories and subcategories for which separate limitations were recommended. This report deals with the entire metal-ore mining and dressing industry and examines the industry by ten major categories: iron ore; copper ore; lead and zinc ores; gold ore; silver ore; bauxite ore; ferroalloy-metal ores; mercury ores; uranium, radium and vanadium ores; and metal ores, not elsewhere classified ((ores of antimony, beryllium, pltinum, rare earths, tin, titanium, and zirconium). The subcategorization of the ore categories is based primarily upon ore mineralogy and processing or extraction methods employed; however, other factors (such as size, climate or location, and method of mining) are used in some instances. With the best available technology economically achievable, facilities in 21 of the 41 subcategories can be operated with no discharge of process wastewater to navigable waters. No discharge of process wastewater is also achievable as a new source performance standard for facilities in 21 of the 41 subcategories

  12. Documentation of TRU biological transport model (BIOTRAN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, A.F.; Garcia, B.J.; Sutton, C.M.

    1980-01-01

    Inclusive of Appendices, this document describes the purpose, rationale, construction, and operation of a biological transport model (BIOTRAN). This model is used to predict the flow of transuranic elements (TRU) through specified plant and animal environments using biomass as a vector. The appendices are: (A) Flows of moisture, biomass, and TRU; (B) Intermediate variables affecting flows; (C) Mnemonic equivalents (code) for variables; (D) Variable library (code); (E) BIOTRAN code (Fortran); (F) Plants simulated; (G) BIOTRAN code documentation; (H) Operating instructions for BIOTRAN code. The main text is presented with a specific format which uses a minimum of space, yet is adequate for tracking most relationships from their first appearance to their formulation in the code. Because relationships are treated individually in this manner, and rely heavily on Appendix material for understanding, it is advised that the reader familiarize himself with these materials before proceeding with the main text.

  13. Documentation of TRU biological transport model (BIOTRAN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallegos, A.F.; Garcia, B.J.; Sutton, C.M.

    1980-01-01

    Inclusive of Appendices, this document describes the purpose, rationale, construction, and operation of a biological transport model (BIOTRAN). This model is used to predict the flow of transuranic elements (TRU) through specified plant and animal environments using biomass as a vector. The appendices are: (A) Flows of moisture, biomass, and TRU; (B) Intermediate variables affecting flows; (C) Mnemonic equivalents (code) for variables; (D) Variable library (code); (E) BIOTRAN code (Fortran); (F) Plants simulated; (G) BIOTRAN code documentation; (H) Operating instructions for BIOTRAN code. The main text is presented with a specific format which uses a minimum of space, yet is adequate for tracking most relationships from their first appearance to their formulation in the code. Because relationships are treated individually in this manner, and rely heavily on Appendix material for understanding, it is advised that the reader familiarize himself with these materials before proceeding with the main text

  14. RFQ simulation code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysenko, W.P.

    1984-04-01

    We have developed the RFQLIB simulation system to provide a means to systematically generate the new versions of radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac simulation codes that are required by the constantly changing needs of a research environment. This integrated system simplifies keeping track of the various versions of the simulation code and makes it practical to maintain complete and up-to-date documentation. In this scheme, there is a certain standard version of the simulation code that forms a library upon which new versions are built. To generate a new version of the simulation code, the routines to be modified or added are appended to a standard command file, which contains the commands to compile the new routines and link them to the routines in the library. The library itself is rarely changed. Whenever the library is modified, however, this modification is seen by all versions of the simulation code, which actually exist as different versions of the command file. All code is written according to the rules of structured programming. Modularity is enforced by not using COMMON statements, simplifying the relation of the data flow to a hierarchy diagram. Simulation results are similar to those of the PARMTEQ code, as expected, because of the similar physical model. Different capabilities, such as those for generating beams matched in detail to the structure, are available in the new code for help in testing new ideas in designing RFQ linacs

  15. PS2-15: Coding for Obesity in a Health Plan Claims Database

    OpenAIRE

    Shainline, Michael; Carter, Shelley; Von Worley, Ann; Gunter, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims: The Centers for Disease Control estimated the obesity rate in New Mexico for 2008 to be 25.2%. Sources estimate the following associations between obesity and type 2 diabetes (80%); cardiovascular disease (70%); hypertension (26 %). Yet obesity is infrequently coded as a secondary diagnosis among providers submitting claims. This study examines the frequency with which obesity is documented on claims forms, the relationship between age, gender, and obesity coding, and the...

  16. Efficient Coding of Information: Huffman Coding -RE ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to a stream of equally-likely symbols so as to recover the original stream in the event of errors. The for- ... The source-coding problem is one of finding a mapping from U to a ... probability that the random variable X takes the value x written as ...

  17. FENDL/MC. Library of continuous energy cross sections in ACE format for neutron-photon transport calculations with the Monte Carlo N-particle Transport Code system MCNP 4A. Version 1.1 of March 1995. Summary documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashchenko, A.B.; Wienke, H.; Ganesan, S.

    1996-01-01

    Selected neutron reaction nuclear data evaluations for elements of interest to the IAEA's program on Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (FENDL) have been processed into ACE format using the NJOY system by R.E. MacFarlane. This document summarizes the resulting continuous energy cross-section data library FENDL/MC version 1.1. The data are available cost free, upon request from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, online or on magnetic tape. (author). 1 tab

  18. Calculations of fuel burn up and radionuclide inventories in the Syrian miniature neutron source reactor using the WIMSD4 and CITATION codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, K.

    2005-01-01

    The WIMSD4 code is used to generate the fuel group constants and the infinite multiplication factor as a function of the reactor operating time for 10, 20, and 30 k W operating power levels. The uranium burn up rate and burn up percentage, the amounts of the plutonium isotopes, the concentrations and radioactivities of the fission products and actinide radionuclides accumulated in the reactor core, and the total radioactivity of the reactor core are calculated using the WIMSD4 code as well. The CITATION code is used to calculate the changes in the effective multiplication factor of the reactor.(author)

  19. Elaboration of data and documents intended to complement and expand the German series of nuclear engineering codes. 4. Technical report. Current knowledge of the mechanisms of corrosion fatigue in ferritic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, J.

    1997-01-01

    Concerning the processes of crack initiation under cyclic loading in a high-temperature water environment, examinations are performed in the USA for amending the design-basis curves published in ASME section III, which are comparable to those contained in the KTA code 3201.2. A revision of ASME section III has not yet been published. The same applies to the processes of crack propagation under cyclic loading in a high-temperature water environment, US experts examining for the purpose of amendment the limiting curves of cyclic crack propagation rates of carbon and low-alloyed steels in a water environment published in ASME section XI. (Orig./CB) [de

  20. Static Code Analysis with Gitlab-CI

    CERN Document Server

    Datko, Szymon Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Static Code Analysis is a simple but efficient way to ensure that application’s source code is free from known flaws and security vulnerabilities. Although such analysis tools are often coming with more advanced code editors, there are a lot of people who prefer less complicated environments. The easiest solution would involve education – where to get and how to use the aforementioned tools. However, counting on the manual usage of such tools still does not guarantee their actual usage. On the other hand, reducing the required effort, according to the idea “setup once, use anytime without sweat” seems like a more promising approach. In this paper, the approach to automate code scanning, within the existing CERN’s Gitlab installation, is described. For realization of that project, the Gitlab-CI service (the “CI” stands for "Continuous Integration"), with Docker assistance, was employed to provide a variety of static code analysers for different programming languages. This document covers the gene...

  1. Examining the economics of seawater desalination using the DEEP code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    This Technical Document presents analysis of the results of the study initiated by the IAEA on comparison of costs of nuclear and fossil fuel energy sources coupled with selected seawater desalination processes, including regional studies and sensitivity analysis. The economical modelling was performed with use of the Desalination Economic Evaluation Program code (DEEP) released in 1998 which incorporated the latest advances in economic modelling and technological changes in both desalination and reactor technologies

  2. THE EXPERIENCE OF COMPARISON OF STATIC SECURITY CODE ANALYZERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Markov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a methodological approach to comparison of static security code analyzers. It substantiates the comparison of the static analyzers as to efficiency and functionality indicators, which are stipulated in the international regulatory documents. The test data for assessment of static analyzers efficiency is represented by synthetic sets of open-source software, which contain vulnerabilities. We substantiated certain criteria for quality assessment of the static security code analyzers subject to standards NIST SP 500-268 and SATEC. We carried out experiments that allowed us to assess a number of the Russian proprietary software tools and open-source tools. We came to the conclusion that it is of paramount importance to develop Russian regulatory framework for testing software security (firstly, for controlling undocumented features and evaluating the quality of static security code analyzers.

  3. Evaluation of the FRAPCON-3 Computer Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jernkvist, Lars Olof; Massih, Ali

    2002-03-01

    The FRAPCON-3 computer code has been evaluated with respect to its applicability, modeling capability, user friendliness, source code structure and supporting experimental database. The code is intended for thermo-mechanical analyses of light water reactor nuclear fuel rods under steady-state operational conditions and moderate power excursions. It is applicable to both boiling- and pressurized water reactor fuel rods with UO 2 fuel, ranging up to about 65 MWd/kg U in rod average burnup. The models and numerical methods in FRAPCON-3 are relatively simple, which makes the code transparent and also fairly easy to modify and extend for the user. The fundamental equations for heat transfer, structural analysis and fuel fission gas release are solved in one-dimensional (radial) and stationary (time-independent) form, and interaction between axial segments of the rod is confined to calculations of coolant axial flow and rod internal gas pressure. The code is fairly easy to use; fuel rod design data and time histories of fuel rod power and coolant inlet conditions are input via a single text file, and the corresponding calculated variation with time of important fuel rod parameters are printed to a single output file in textual form. The results can also be presented in graphical form through an interface to the general graphics program xmgr. FRAPCON-3 also provides the possibility to export calculated results to the transient fuel rod analysis code FRAPTRAN, where the data can be used as burnup-dependent initial conditions to a postulated transient. Most of the source code to FRAPCON-3 is written in Fortran-IV, which is an archaic, non-standard dialect of the Fortran programming language. Since Fortran-IV is not accepted by all compilers for the latest standard of the language, Fortran-95, there is a risk that the source code must be partly rewritten in the future. Documentation of the code comprises (i) a general code description, which briefly presents models

  4. Evaluation of the FRAPCON-3 Computer Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jernkvist, Lars Olof; Massih, Ali [Quantum Technologies AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2002-03-01

    The FRAPCON-3 computer code has been evaluated with respect to its applicability, modeling capability, user friendliness, source code structure and supporting experimental database. The code is intended for thermo-mechanical analyses of light water reactor nuclear fuel rods under steady-state operational conditions and moderate power excursions. It is applicable to both boiling- and pressurized water reactor fuel rods with UO{sub 2} fuel, ranging up to about 65 MWd/kg U in rod average burnup. The models and numerical methods in FRAPCON-3 are relatively simple, which makes the code transparent and also fairly easy to modify and extend for the user. The fundamental equations for heat transfer, structural analysis and fuel fission gas release are solved in one-dimensional (radial) and stationary (time-independent) form, and interaction between axial segments of the rod is confined to calculations of coolant axial flow and rod internal gas pressure. The code is fairly easy to use; fuel rod design data and time histories of fuel rod power and coolant inlet conditions are input via a single text file, and the corresponding calculated variation with time of important fuel rod parameters are printed to a single output file in textual form. The results can also be presented in graphical form through an interface to the general graphics program xmgr. FRAPCON-3 also provides the possibility to export calculated results to the transient fuel rod analysis code FRAPTRAN, where the data can be used as burnup-dependent initial conditions to a postulated transient. Most of the source code to FRAPCON-3 is written in Fortran-IV, which is an archaic, non-standard dialect of the Fortran programming language. Since Fortran-IV is not accepted by all compilers for the latest standard of the language, Fortran-95, there is a risk that the source code must be partly rewritten in the future. Documentation of the code comprises (i) a general code description, which briefly presents models

  5. Model documentation report: Macroeconomic Activity Module (MAM) of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Macroeconomic Activity Module (MAM) used to develop the Annual Energy Outlook for 1997 (AEO 97). The report catalogues and describes the module assumptions, computations, methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and mainframe source code. This document serves three purposes. First it is a reference document providing a detailed description of the NEMS MAM used for the AEO 1997 production runs for model analysts, users, and the public. Second, this report meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its models. Third, it facilitates continuity in model development by providing documentation from which energy analysts can undertake model enhancements, data updates, and parameter refinements as future projects.

  6. Model documentation report: Transportation sector model of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Transportation Model (TRAN). The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated by the model. This document serves three purposes. First, it is a reference document providing a detailed description of TRAN for model analysts, users, and the public. Second, this report meets the legal requirements of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its statistical and forecast reports (Public Law 93-275, 57(b)(1)). Third, it permits continuity in model development by providing documentation from which energy analysts can undertake model enhancements, data updates, and parameter refinements.

  7. Fulcrum Network Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Fulcrum network codes, which are a network coding framework, achieve three objectives: (i) to reduce the overhead per coded packet to almost 1 bit per source packet; (ii) to operate the network using only low field size operations at intermediate nodes, dramatically reducing complexity...... in the network; and (iii) to deliver an end-to-end performance that is close to that of a high field size network coding system for high-end receivers while simultaneously catering to low-end ones that can only decode in a lower field size. Sources may encode using a high field size expansion to increase...... the number of dimensions seen by the network using a linear mapping. Receivers can tradeoff computational effort with network delay, decoding in the high field size, the low field size, or a combination thereof....

  8. Note related to the elaboration of a coding by key sentences for the programming of a document automatic selection system; Notice relative a l'elaboration d'un codage par phrases cles pour la programmation d'un systeme De selection automatique des documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leroy, A. [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, Service de Documentation (France); Braffort, P. [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, Departement d' Electronique (France)

    1959-07-01

    This note deals with the providing of CEA documentalists with a tool for coding studies. The authors first discuss issues related to code selection criteria (author classification, topic classification, and so on), and propose an overview and a discussion of linguistic models. They also comment how diagrams illustrating relationships between words are built up, and propose a diagram representation example which includes different concepts such as conditions, properties, object, tools or processes (for example hardness for a steel, batch processing for a condition, or sintering for a process), and also the introduction of negation. Then, the authors address how basic concepts can be highlighted, describe how key sentences can be built up, and propose an example analysis in the case of a published article dealing with nuclear reactors (in this case, the study of a liquid-metal neutron absorber for the control of a gas-cooled power reactor). Perspectives of evolution are finally discussed.

  9. Report number codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.N. (ed.)

    1985-05-01

    This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name.

  10. Report number codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.N.

    1985-05-01

    This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name

  11. Lattice Index Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Natarajan, Lakshmi; Hong, Yi; Viterbo, Emanuele

    2014-01-01

    The index coding problem involves a sender with K messages to be transmitted across a broadcast channel, and a set of receivers each of which demands a subset of the K messages while having prior knowledge of a different subset as side information. We consider the specific case of noisy index coding where the broadcast channel is Gaussian and every receiver demands all the messages from the source. Instances of this communication problem arise in wireless relay networks, sensor networks, and ...

  12. Software Certification - Coding, Code, and Coders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelund, Klaus; Holzmann, Gerard J.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a certification approach for software development that has been adopted at our organization. JPL develops robotic spacecraft for the exploration of the solar system. The flight software that controls these spacecraft is considered to be mission critical. We argue that the goal of a software certification process cannot be the development of "perfect" software, i.e., software that can be formally proven to be correct under all imaginable and unimaginable circumstances. More realistically, the goal is to guarantee a software development process that is conducted by knowledgeable engineers, who follow generally accepted procedures to control known risks, while meeting agreed upon standards of workmanship. We target three specific issues that must be addressed in such a certification procedure: the coding process, the code that is developed, and the skills of the coders. The coding process is driven by standards (e.g., a coding standard) and tools. The code is mechanically checked against the standard with the help of state-of-the-art static source code analyzers. The coders, finally, are certified in on-site training courses that include formal exams.

  13. Lean coding machine. Facilities target productivity and job satisfaction with coding automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Genna

    2010-07-01

    Facilities are turning to coding automation to help manage the volume of electronic documentation, streamlining workflow, boosting productivity, and increasing job satisfaction. As EHR adoption increases, computer-assisted coding may become a necessity, not an option.

  14. Low-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear reactors. Volume 3. Bibliographic abstracts of significant source documents. Part 1. Open-literature abstracts for low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, M.K.; Rodgers, B.R.; Jolley, R.L.

    1986-05-01

    The overall task of this program was to provide an assessment of currently available technology for treating commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), to initiate development of a methodology for choosing one technology for a given application, and to identify research needed to improve current treatment techniques and decision methodology. The resulting report is issued in four volumes. Volume 3 of this series is a collection of abstracts of most of the reference documents used for this study. Because of the large volume of literature, the abstracts have been printed in two separate parts. Volume 3, part 1 presents abstracts of the open literature relating to LLRW treatment methodologies. Some of these references pertain to treatment processes for hazardous wastes that may also be applicable to LLRW management. All abstracts have been limited to 21 lines (for brevity), but each abstract contains sufficient information to enable the reader to determine the potential usefulness of the source document and to locate each article. The abstracts are arranged alphabetically by author or organization, and indexed by keyword.

  15. Low-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear reactors. Volume 3. Bibliographic abstracts of significant source documents. Part 1. Open-literature abstracts for low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, M.K.; Rodgers, B.R.; Jolley, R.L.

    1986-05-01

    The overall task of this program was to provide an assessment of currently available technology for treating commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), to initiate development of a methodology for choosing one technology for a given application, and to identify research needed to improve current treatment techniques and decision methodology. The resulting report is issued in four volumes. Volume 3 of this series is a collection of abstracts of most of the reference documents used for this study. Because of the large volume of literature, the abstracts have been printed in two separate parts. Volume 3, part 1 presents abstracts of the open literature relating to LLRW treatment methodologies. Some of these references pertain to treatment processes for hazardous wastes that may also be applicable to LLRW management. All abstracts have been limited to 21 lines (for brevity), but each abstract contains sufficient information to enable the reader to determine the potential usefulness of the source document and to locate each article. The abstracts are arranged alphabetically by author or organization, and indexed by keyword

  16. Benchmark testing and independent verification of the VS2DT computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCord, J.T.

    1994-11-01

    The finite difference flow and transport simulator VS2DT was benchmark tested against several other codes which solve the same equations (Richards equation for flow and the Advection-Dispersion equation for transport). The benchmark problems investigated transient two-dimensional flow in a heterogeneous soil profile with a localized water source at the ground surface. The VS2DT code performed as well as or better than all other codes when considering mass balance characteristics and computational speed. It was also rated highly relative to the other codes with regard to ease-of-use. Following the benchmark study, the code was verified against two analytical solutions, one for two-dimensional flow and one for two-dimensional transport. These independent verifications show reasonable agreement with the analytical solutions, and complement the one-dimensional verification problems published in the code's original documentation

  17. Correct coding for laboratory procedures during assisted reproductive technology cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This document provides updated coding information for services related to assisted reproductive technology procedures. This document replaces the 2012 ASRM document of the same name. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Software testing and source code for the calculation of clearance values. Final report; Erprobung von Software und Quellcode zur Berechnung von Freigabewerten. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artmann, Andreas; Meyering, Henrich

    2016-11-15

    The GRS research project was aimed to the test the appropriateness of the software package ''residual radioactivity'' (RESRAD) for the calculation of clearance values according to German and European regulations. Comparative evaluations were performed with RESRAD-OFFSITE and the code SiWa-PRO DSS used by GRS and the GRS program code ARTM. It is recommended to use RESRAD-OFFSITE for comparative calculations. The dose relevant air-path dispersion of radionuclides should not be modeled using RESRAD-OFFSITE, the use of ARTM is recommended. The sensitivity analysis integrated into RESRAD-OFFSITE allows a fast identification of crucial parameters.

  19. GAMMA-CLOUD: a computer code for calculating gamma-exposure due to a radioactive cloud released from a point source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, O [Chugoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Hiroshima (Japan); Sawaguchi, Y; Kaneko, M

    1979-03-01

    A computer code, designated GAMMA-CLOUD, has been developed by specialists of electric power companies to meet requests from the companies to have a unified means of calculating annual external doses from routine releases of radioactive gaseous effluents from nuclear power plants, based on the Japan Atomic Energy Commission's guides for environmental dose evaluation. GAMMA-CLOUD is written in FORTRAN language and its required capacity is less than 100 kilobytes. The average ..gamma..-exposure at an observation point can be calculated within a few minutes with comparable precision to other existing codes.

  20. The Bern Simple Climate Model (BernSCM) v1.0: an extensible and fully documented open-source re-implementation of the Bern reduced-form model for global carbon cycle-climate simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassmann, Kuno M.; Joos, Fortunat

    2018-05-01

    The Bern Simple Climate Model (BernSCM) is a free open-source re-implementation of a reduced-form carbon cycle-climate model which has been used widely in previous scientific work and IPCC assessments. BernSCM represents the carbon cycle and climate system with a small set of equations for the heat and carbon budget, the parametrization of major nonlinearities, and the substitution of complex component systems with impulse response functions (IRFs). The IRF approach allows cost-efficient yet accurate substitution of detailed parent models of climate system components with near-linear behavior. Illustrative simulations of scenarios from previous multimodel studies show that BernSCM is broadly representative of the range of the climate-carbon cycle response simulated by more complex and detailed models. Model code (in Fortran) was written from scratch with transparency and extensibility in mind, and is provided open source. BernSCM makes scientifically sound carbon cycle-climate modeling available for many applications. Supporting up to decadal time steps with high accuracy, it is suitable for studies with high computational load and for coupling with integrated assessment models (IAMs), for example. Further applications include climate risk assessment in a business, public, or educational context and the estimation of CO2 and climate benefits of emission mitigation options.

  1. The Bern Simple Climate Model (BernSCM v1.0: an extensible and fully documented open-source re-implementation of the Bern reduced-form model for global carbon cycle–climate simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Strassmann

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The Bern Simple Climate Model (BernSCM is a free open-source re-implementation of a reduced-form carbon cycle–climate model which has been used widely in previous scientific work and IPCC assessments. BernSCM represents the carbon cycle and climate system with a small set of equations for the heat and carbon budget, the parametrization of major nonlinearities, and the substitution of complex component systems with impulse response functions (IRFs. The IRF approach allows cost-efficient yet accurate substitution of detailed parent models of climate system components with near-linear behavior. Illustrative simulations of scenarios from previous multimodel studies show that BernSCM is broadly representative of the range of the climate–carbon cycle response simulated by more complex and detailed models. Model code (in Fortran was written from scratch with transparency and extensibility in mind, and is provided open source. BernSCM makes scientifically sound carbon cycle–climate modeling available for many applications. Supporting up to decadal time steps with high accuracy, it is suitable for studies with high computational load and for coupling with integrated assessment models (IAMs, for example. Further applications include climate risk assessment in a business, public, or educational context and the estimation of CO2 and climate benefits of emission mitigation options.

  2. Introduction to coding and information theory

    CERN Document Server

    Roman, Steven

    1997-01-01

    This book is intended to introduce coding theory and information theory to undergraduate students of mathematics and computer science. It begins with a review of probablity theory as applied to finite sample spaces and a general introduction to the nature and types of codes. The two subsequent chapters discuss information theory: efficiency of codes, the entropy of information sources, and Shannon's Noiseless Coding Theorem. The remaining three chapters deal with coding theory: communication channels, decoding in the presence of errors, the general theory of linear codes, and such specific codes as Hamming codes, the simplex codes, and many others.

  3. ForTrilinos Design Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Mitchell T. [ORNL; Johnson, Seth R. [ORNL; Prokopenko, Andrey V. [ORNL; Evans, Katherine J. [ORNL; Heroux, Michael A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL)

    2017-08-01

    With the development of a Fortran Interface to Trilinos, ForTrilinos, modelers using modern Fortran will beable to provide their codes the capability to use solvers and other capabilities on exascale machines via astraightforward infrastructure that accesses Trilinos. This document outlines what Fortrilinos does andexplains briefly how it works. We show it provides a general access to packages via an entry point and usesan xml file from fortran code. With the first release, ForTrilinos will enable Teuchos to take xml parameterlists from Fortran code and set up data structures. It will provide access to linear solvers and eigensolvers.Several examples are provided to illustrate the capabilities in practice. We explain what the user shouldhave already with their code and what Trilinos provides and returns to the Fortran code. We provideinformation about the build process for ForTrilinos, with a practical example. In future releases, nonlinearsolvers, time iteration, advanced preconditioning techniques, and inversion of control (IoC), to enablecallbacks to Fortran routines, will be available.

  4. The International Atomic Energy Agency Flag Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the IAEA Flag Code which was promulgated by the Director General on 15 September 1999, pursuant to the decision of the Board of Governors on 10 June 1999 to adopt an Agency flag as described in document GOV/1999/41 and its use in accordance with a flag code to be promulgated by the Director General

  5. The International Atomic Energy Agency Flag Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-17

    The document reproduces the text of the IAEA Flag Code which was promulgated by the Director General on 15 September 1999, pursuant to the decision of the Board of Governors on 10 June 1999 to adopt an Agency flag as described in document GOV/1999/41 and its use in accordance with a flag code to be promulgated by the Director General.

  6. Speaking Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Geoff

    Speaking Code begins by invoking the “Hello World” convention used by programmers when learning a new language, helping to establish the interplay of text and code that runs through the book. Interweaving the voice of critical writing from the humanities with the tradition of computing and software...

  7. Generic safety documentation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahn, J.A.

    1994-04-01

    This document is intended to be a resource for preparers of safety documentation for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico facilities. It provides standardized discussions of some topics that are generic to most, if not all, Sandia/NM facilities safety documents. The material provides a ''core'' upon which to develop facility-specific safety documentation. The use of the information in this document will reduce the cost of safety document preparation and improve consistency of information

  8. Multimodal document management in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahrner, H.; Kirrmann, S.; Roehner, F.; Schmucker, M.; Hall, M.; Heinemann, F.

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: After incorporating treatment planning and the organisational model of treatment planning in the operating schedule system (BAS, 'Betriebsablaufsystem'), complete document qualities were embedded in the digital environment. The aim of this project was to integrate all documents independent of their source (paper-bound or digital) and to make content from the BAS available in a structured manner. As many workflow steps as possible should be automated, e.g. assigning a document to a patient in the BAS. Additionally it must be guaranteed that at all times it could be traced who, when, how and from which source documents were imported into the departmental system. Furthermore work procedures should be changed that the documentation conducted either directly in the departmental system or from external systems can be incorporated digitally and paper document can be completely avoided (e.g. documents such as treatment certificate, treatment plans or documentation). It was a further aim, if possible, to automate the removal of paper documents from the departmental work flow, or even to make such paper documents superfluous. In this way patient letters for follow-up appointments should automatically generated from the BAS. Similarly patient record extracts in the form of PDF files should be enabled, e.g. for controlling purposes. Method: The available document qualities were analysed in detail by a multidisciplinary working group (BAS-AG) and after this examination and assessment of the possibility of modelling in our departmental workflow (BAS) they were transcribed into a flow diagram. The gathered specifications were implemented in a test environment by the clinical and administrative IT group of the department of radiation oncology and subsequent to a detailed analysis introduced into clinical routine. Results: The department has succeeded under the conditions of the aforementioned criteria to embed all relevant documents in the departmental

  9. Comparing the co-evolution of production and test code in open source and industrial developer test processes through repository mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rompaey, B.; Zaidman, A.E.; Van Deursen, A.; Demeyer, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper represents an extension to our previous work: Mining software repositories to study coevolution of production & test code. Proceedings of the International Conference on Software Testing, Verification, and Validation (ICST), IEEE Computer Society, 2008; doi:10.1109/ICST.2008.47

  10. Pharmaceutical Industry Off-label Promotion and Self-regulation: A Document Analysis of Off-label Promotion Rulings by the United Kingdom Prescription Medicines Code of Practice Authority 2003-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Vilhelmsson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available European Union law prohibits companies from marketing drugs off-label. In the United Kingdom--as in some other European countries, but unlike the United States--industry self-regulatory bodies are tasked with supervising compliance with marketing rules. The objectives of this study were to (1 characterize off-label promotion rulings in the UK compared to the whistleblower-initiated cases in the US and (2 shed light on the UK self-regulatory mechanism for detecting, deterring, and sanctioning off-label promotion.We conducted structured reviews of rulings by the UK self-regulatory authority, the Prescription Medicines Code of Practice Authority (PMCPA, between 2003 and 2012. There were 74 off-label promotion rulings involving 43 companies and 65 drugs. Nineteen companies were ruled in breach more than once, and ten companies were ruled in breach three or more times over the 10-y period. Drawing on a typology previously developed to analyse US whistleblower complaints, we coded and analysed the apparent strategic goals of each off-label marketing scheme and the practices consistent with those alleged goals. 50% of rulings cited efforts to expand drug use to unapproved indications, and 39% and 38% cited efforts to expand beyond approved disease entities and dosing strategies, respectively. The most frequently described promotional tactic was attempts to influence prescribers (n = 72, 97%, using print material (70/72, 97%, for example, advertisements (21/70, 30%. Although rulings cited prescribers as the prime target of off-label promotion, competing companies lodged the majority of complaints (prescriber: n = 16, 22%, versus companies: n = 42, 57%. Unlike US whistleblower complaints, few UK rulings described practices targeting consumers (n = 3, 4%, payers (n = 2, 3%, or company staff (n = 2, 3%. Eight UK rulings (11% pertaining to six drugs described promotion of the same drug for the same off-label use as was alleged by whistleblowers in the US

  11. Pharmaceutical Industry Off-label Promotion and Self-regulation: A Document Analysis of Off-label Promotion Rulings by the United Kingdom Prescription Medicines Code of Practice Authority 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhelmsson, Andreas; Davis, Courtney; Mulinari, Shai

    2016-01-01

    European Union law prohibits companies from marketing drugs off-label. In the United Kingdom--as in some other European countries, but unlike the United States--industry self-regulatory bodies are tasked with supervising compliance with marketing rules. The objectives of this study were to (1) characterize off-label promotion rulings in the UK compared to the whistleblower-initiated cases in the US and (2) shed light on the UK self-regulatory mechanism for detecting, deterring, and sanctioning off-label promotion. We conducted structured reviews of rulings by the UK self-regulatory authority, the Prescription Medicines Code of Practice Authority (PMCPA), between 2003 and 2012. There were 74 off-label promotion rulings involving 43 companies and 65 drugs. Nineteen companies were ruled in breach more than once, and ten companies were ruled in breach three or more times over the 10-y period. Drawing on a typology previously developed to analyse US whistleblower complaints, we coded and analysed the apparent strategic goals of each off-label marketing scheme and the practices consistent with those alleged goals. 50% of rulings cited efforts to expand drug use to unapproved indications, and 39% and 38% cited efforts to expand beyond approved disease entities and dosing strategies, respectively. The most frequently described promotional tactic was attempts to influence prescribers (n = 72, 97%), using print material (70/72, 97%), for example, advertisements (21/70, 30%). Although rulings cited prescribers as the prime target of off-label promotion, competing companies lodged the majority of complaints (prescriber: n = 16, 22%, versus companies: n = 42, 57%). Unlike US whistleblower complaints, few UK rulings described practices targeting consumers (n = 3, 4%), payers (n = 2, 3%), or company staff (n = 2, 3%). Eight UK rulings (11%) pertaining to six drugs described promotion of the same drug for the same off-label use as was alleged by whistleblowers in the US. However

  12. Pharmaceutical Industry Off-label Promotion and Self-regulation: A Document Analysis of Off-label Promotion Rulings by the United Kingdom Prescription Medicines Code of Practice Authority 2003–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhelmsson, Andreas; Davis, Courtney; Mulinari, Shai

    2016-01-01

    Background European Union law prohibits companies from marketing drugs off-label. In the United Kingdom—as in some other European countries, but unlike the United States—industry self-regulatory bodies are tasked with supervising compliance with marketing rules. The objectives of this study were to (1) characterize off-label promotion rulings in the UK compared to the whistleblower-initiated cases in the US and (2) shed light on the UK self-regulatory mechanism for detecting, deterring, and sanctioning off-label promotion. Methods and Findings We conducted structured reviews of rulings by the UK self-regulatory authority, the Prescription Medicines Code of Practice Authority (PMCPA), between 2003 and 2012. There were 74 off-label promotion rulings involving 43 companies and 65 drugs. Nineteen companies were ruled in breach more than once, and ten companies were ruled in breach three or more times over the 10-y period. Drawing on a typology previously developed to analyse US whistleblower complaints, we coded and analysed the apparent strategic goals of each off-label marketing scheme and the practices consistent with those alleged goals. 50% of rulings cited efforts to expand drug use to unapproved indications, and 39% and 38% cited efforts to expand beyond approved disease entities and dosing strategies, respectively. The most frequently described promotional tactic was attempts to influence prescribers (n = 72, 97%), using print material (70/72, 97%), for example, advertisements (21/70, 30%). Although rulings cited prescribers as the prime target of off-label promotion, competing companies lodged the majority of complaints (prescriber: n = 16, 22%, versus companies: n = 42, 57%). Unlike US whistleblower complaints, few UK rulings described practices targeting consumers (n = 3, 4%), payers (n = 2, 3%), or company staff (n = 2, 3%). Eight UK rulings (11%) pertaining to six drugs described promotion of the same drug for the same off-label use as was alleged by

  13. Synthesis document on the long time behavior of packages: operational document ''bituminous'' 2204

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiffreau, C.

    2004-09-01

    This document is realized in the framework of the law of 1991 on the radioactive wastes management. The 2004 synthesis document on long time behavior of bituminous sludges packages is constituted by two documents, the reference document and the operational document. This paper presents the operational model describing the water alteration of the packages and the associated radioelements release, as the gas term source and the swelling associated to the self-irradiation and the bituminous radiolysis. (A.L.B.)

  14. ENDF/B summary documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinsey, R.

    1979-07-01

    This publication provides a localized source of descriptions for the evaluations contained in the ENDF/B Library. The summary documentation presented is intended to be a more detailed description than the (File 1) comments contained in the computer readable data files, but not so detailed as the formal reports describing each ENDF/B evaluation. The summary documentations were written by the CSEWB (Cross Section Evaluation Working Group) evaluators and compiled by NNDC (National Nuclear Data Center). This edition includes documentation for materials found on ENDF/B Version V tapes 501 to 516 (General Purpose File) excluding tape 504. ENDF/B-V also includes tapes containing partial evaluations for the Special Purpose Actinide (521, 522), Dosimetry (531), Activation (532), Gas Production (533), and Fission Product (541-546) files. The materials found on these tapes are documented elsewhere. Some of the evaluation descriptions in this report contain cross sections or energy level information

  15. ENDF/B summary documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinsey, R. (comp.)

    1979-07-01

    This publication provides a localized source of descriptions for the evaluations contained in the ENDF/B Library. The summary documentation presented is intended to be a more detailed description than the (File 1) comments contained in the computer readable data files, but not so detailed as the formal reports describing each ENDF/B evaluation. The summary documentations were written by the CSEWB (Cross Section Evaluation Working Group) evaluators and compiled by NNDC (National Nuclear Data Center). This edition includes documentation for materials found on ENDF/B Version V tapes 501 to 516 (General Purpose File) excluding tape 504. ENDF/B-V also includes tapes containing partial evaluations for the Special Purpose Actinide (521, 522), Dosimetry (531), Activation (532), Gas Production (533), and Fission Product (541-546) files. The materials found on these tapes are documented elsewhere. Some of the evaluation descriptions in this report contain cross sections or energy level information. (RWR)

  16. Two-terminal video coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Stanković, Vladimir; Xiong, Zixiang; Zhao, Wei

    2009-03-01

    Following recent works on the rate region of the quadratic Gaussian two-terminal source coding problem and limit-approaching code designs, this paper examines multiterminal source coding of two correlated, i.e., stereo, video sequences to save the sum rate over independent coding of both sequences. Two multiterminal video coding schemes are proposed. In the first scheme, the left sequence of the stereo pair is coded by H.264/AVC and used at the joint decoder to facilitate Wyner-Ziv coding of the right video sequence. The first I-frame of the right sequence is successively coded by H.264/AVC Intracoding and Wyner-Ziv coding. An efficient stereo matching algorithm based on loopy belief propagation is then adopted at the decoder to produce pixel-level disparity maps between the corresponding frames of the two decoded video sequences on the fly. Based on the disparity maps, side information for both motion vectors and motion-compensated residual frames of the right sequence are generated at the decoder before Wyner-Ziv encoding. In the second scheme, source splitting is employed on top of classic and Wyner-Ziv coding for compression of both I-frames to allow flexible rate allocation between the two sequences. Experiments with both schemes on stereo video sequences using H.264/AVC, LDPC codes for Slepian-Wolf coding of the motion vectors, and scalar quantization in conjunction with LDPC codes for Wyner-Ziv coding of the residual coefficients give a slightly lower sum rate than separate H.264/AVC coding of both sequences at the same video quality.

  17. Applications guide to the MORSE Monte Carlo code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, S.N.

    1985-08-01

    A practical guide for the implementation of the MORESE-CG Monte Carlo radiation transport computer code system is presented. The various versions of the MORSE code are compared and contrasted, and the many references dealing explicitly with the MORSE-CG code are reviewed. The treatment of angular scattering is discussed, and procedures for obtaining increased differentiality of results in terms of reaction types and nuclides from a multigroup Monte Carlo code are explained in terms of cross-section and geometry data manipulation. Examples of standard cross-section data input and output are shown. Many other features of the code system are also reviewed, including (1) the concept of primary and secondary particles, (2) fission neutron generation, (3) albedo data capability, (4) DOMINO coupling, (5) history file use for post-processing of results, (6) adjoint mode operation, (7) variance reduction, and (8) input/output. In addition, examples of the combinatorial geometry are given, and the new array of arrays geometry feature (MARS) and its three-dimensional plotting code (JUNEBUG) are presented. Realistic examples of user routines for source, estimation, path-length stretching, and cross-section data manipulation are given. A deatiled explanation of the coupling between the random walk and estimation procedure is given in terms of both code parameters and physical analogies. The operation of the code in the adjoint mode is covered extensively. The basic concepts of adjoint theory and dimensionality are discussed and examples of adjoint source and estimator user routines are given for all common situations. Adjoint source normalization is explained, a few sample problems are given, and the concept of obtaining forward differential results from adjoint calculations is covered. Finally, the documentation of the standard MORSE-CG sample problem package is reviewed and on-going and future work is discussed

  18. Image content authentication based on channel coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Xu, Lei

    2008-03-01

    The content authentication determines whether an image has been tampered or not, and if necessary, locate malicious alterations made on the image. Authentication on a still image or a video are motivated by recipient's interest, and its principle is that a receiver must be able to identify the source of this document reliably. Several techniques and concepts based on data hiding or steganography designed as a means for the image authentication. This paper presents a color image authentication algorithm based on convolution coding. The high bits of color digital image are coded by the convolution codes for the tamper detection and localization. The authentication messages are hidden in the low bits of image in order to keep the invisibility of authentication. All communications channels are subject to errors introduced because of additive Gaussian noise in their environment. Data perturbations cannot be eliminated but their effect can be minimized by the use of Forward Error Correction (FEC) techniques in the transmitted data stream and decoders in the receiving system that detect and correct bits in error. This paper presents a color image authentication algorithm based on convolution coding. The message of each pixel is convolution encoded with the encoder. After the process of parity check and block interleaving, the redundant bits are embedded in the image offset. The tamper can be detected and restored need not accessing the original image.

  19. The 1989 ENDF pre-processing codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, D.E.; McLaughlin, P.K.

    1989-12-01

    This document summarizes the 1989 version of the ENDF pre-processing codes which are required for processing evaluated nuclear data coded in the format ENDF-4, ENDF-5, or ENDF-6. The codes are available from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, free of charge upon request. (author)

  20. The Art of Readable Code

    CERN Document Server

    Boswell, Dustin

    2011-01-01

    As programmers, we've all seen source code that's so ugly and buggy it makes our brain ache. Over the past five years, authors Dustin Boswell and Trevor Foucher have analyzed hundreds of examples of "bad code" (much of it their own) to determine why they're bad and how they could be improved. Their conclusion? You need to write code that minimizes the time it would take someone else to understand it-even if that someone else is you. This book focuses on basic principles and practical techniques you can apply every time you write code. Using easy-to-digest code examples from different languag