WorldWideScience

Sample records for source chile plants

  1. Source apportionment of PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅ in a desert region in northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorquera, Héctor; Barraza, Francisco

    2013-02-01

    Estimating contributions of anthropogenic sources to ambient particulate matter (PM) in desert regions is a challenging issue because wind erosion contributions are ubiquitous, significant and difficult to quantify by using source-oriented, dispersion models. A receptor modeling analysis has been applied to ambient PM(10) and PM(2.5) measured in an industrial zone ~20 km SE of Antofagasta (23.63°S, 70.39°W), a midsize coastal city in northern Chile; the monitoring site is within a desert region that extends from northern Chile to southern Perú. Integrated 24-hour ambient samples of PM(10) and PM(2.5) were taken with Harvard Impactors; samples were analyzed by X Ray Fluorescence, ionic chromatography (NO(3)(-) and SO(4)(=)), atomic absorption (Na(+), K(+)) and thermal optical transmission for elemental and organic carbon determination. Receptor modeling was carried out using Positive Matrix Factorization (US EPA Version 3.0); sources were identified by looking at specific tracers, tracer ratios, local winds and wind trajectories computed from NOAA's HYSPLIT model. For the PM(2.5) fraction, six contributions were found - cement plant, 33.7 ± 1.3%; soil dust, 22.4 ± 1.6%; sulfates, 17.8 ± 1.7%; mineral stockpiles and brine plant, 12.4 ± 1.2%; Antofagasta, 8.5 ± 1.3% and copper smelter, 5.3 ± 0.8%. For the PM(10) fraction five sources were identified - cement plant, 38.2 ± 1.5%; soil dust, 31.2 ± 2.3%; mineral stockpiles and brine plant, 12.7 ± 1.7%; copper smelter, 11.5 ± 1.6% and marine aerosol, 6.5 ± 2.4%. Therefore local sources contribute to ambient PM concentrations more than distant sources (Antofagasta, marine aerosol) do. Soil dust is enriched with deposition of marine aerosol and calcium, sulfates and heavy metals from surrounding industrial activities. The mean contribution of suspended soil dust to PM(10) is 50 μg/m(3) and the peak daily value is 104 μg/m(3). For the PM(2.5) fraction, suspended soil dust contributes with an average of 9.3

  2. Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae: first record from Chile and a newly documented host plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae: first record from Chile and a newly documented host plant. Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham, 1892 (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae is recorded for the first time from Chile. Male and female adults were reared from leaf-tying larvae collected on Myrica pavonis (Myricaceae, which is a new host plant record for S. smithiana.

  3. RESPONSE OF CHILE PEPPER (Capsicum annuum L. TO SALT STRESS AND ORGANIC AND INORGANIC NITROGEN SOURCES: III. ION UPTAKE AND TRANSLOCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Huez Lopez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The combined effect of salinity and two N sources on content, uptake rate and translocation of nutrients by chile pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Sandia was investigated in a greenhouse experiment. Either an organic-N liquid fertilizer extracted from grass clippings or ammonium nitrate, an inorganic fertilizer, were combined with three different soil salinity treatments (1.5, 4.5, and 6.5 dS m-1. Fertilizer treatments were two rates of organic-N fertilizer (120 and 200 kg ha-1 and 120 kg ha-1 of inorganic fertilizer. The combination of each N rate and source with the three salinity levels were arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated four times. The use of the organic-N source produced greater cation contents in roots, shoots, and enhanced the uptake rates and translocation of cations to shoots compared to plants fertilized with inorganic-N. The root and shoot concentration, uptake rates and root-to-shoot transport of Cl increased at increasing salinity. Higher contents of Cl and cations in chile pepper shoots in relation to roots were observed. It was also observed that high N rate from the organic source enhanced the cation contents in both roots and shoots. Salinity diminished N content, N uptake rate and root to shoot transport in both roots and shoots

  4. RESPONSE OF CHILE PEPPER (Capsicum annuum L. TO SALT STRESS AND ORGANIC AND INORGANIC NITROGEN SOURCES: I.GROWTH AND YIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Huez Lopez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of two sources of nitrogen on plant growth, and fruit yield of chile pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Sandia grown in greenhouse to increased salinity   were evaluated. An organic source extracted from grass clippings in rates of 120 and 200 kg N ha-1, and another inorganic (ammonium nitrate in rate of 120 kg ha-1 were combined with low, moderate and high (1.5, 4.5, and 6.5 dS m-1 salinity levels arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated four times. Salinity treatments reduced dry matter production, leaf area, relative growth rate and net assimilation rate but increased leaf area ratio. Mean fresh fruit yields decreased for each N rate and source combinations as soil salinity increased. The organic fertilizer produced higher fruit yields tan the inorganic fertilizer. The highest fruit yield was obtained with the increased rate of organic N.    The fruit number was more affected by salinity than the individual fruit weight. This organic fertilizer may be an effective N source for chile pepper and other vegetable crops grown under non- and salt-stressed conditions.

  5. Environmental management in Chile: The power plants case; Gestion ambiental en Chile: Caso de las centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadrijevic, Maritza [Comision Nacional del Medio Ambiente, (Chile)

    1997-12-31

    In this paper are presented the general aspects of the historic evolution o the legal norms on environmental matters in Chile; general aspects of the electric generation system and the instruments of environmental management currently applied in the fossil fueled power plants, such as: the assessment system of the environmental impact; compliance of the air quality and emissions Standards and plans for decontamination [Espanol] En este trabajo se dan a conocer aspectos generales de la evolucion historica de las normas juridicas en materia ambiental en Chile; aspectos generales del sistema de generacion electrica y los instrumentos de gestion ambiental que actualmente se aplican a las plantas de generacion termoelectricas, tales como: el sistema de evaluacion de impacto ambiental; cumplimiento de normas de la calidad de aire y de emision y, planes de descontaminacion

  6. Environmental management in Chile: The power plants case; Gestion ambiental en Chile: Caso de las centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadrijevic, Maritza [Comision Nacional del Medio Ambiente, (Chile)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper are presented the general aspects of the historic evolution o the legal norms on environmental matters in Chile; general aspects of the electric generation system and the instruments of environmental management currently applied in the fossil fueled power plants, such as: the assessment system of the environmental impact; compliance of the air quality and emissions Standards and plans for decontamination [Espanol] En este trabajo se dan a conocer aspectos generales de la evolucion historica de las normas juridicas en materia ambiental en Chile; aspectos generales del sistema de generacion electrica y los instrumentos de gestion ambiental que actualmente se aplican a las plantas de generacion termoelectricas, tales como: el sistema de evaluacion de impacto ambiental; cumplimiento de normas de la calidad de aire y de emision y, planes de descontaminacion

  7. RESPONSE OF CHILE PEPPER (Capsicum annuum L. TO SALT STRESS AND ORGANIC AND INORGANIC NITROGEN SOURCES: II. NITROGEN AND WATER USE EFFICIENCIES, AND SALT TOLERANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Huez Lopez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The response to two nitrogen sources on water and nitrogen use efficiencies, and tolerance of salt-stressed chile pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Sandia was investigated in a greenhouse experiment. Low, moderate and high (1.5, 4.5, and 6.5 dS m-1 salinity levels, and two rates of organic-N fertilizer (120 and 200 kg ha-1 and 120 kg ha-1 of inorganic fertilizer as ammonium nitrate were arranged in randomized complete block designs replicated four times. The liquid organic-N source was an organic, extracted with water from grass clippings. Water use decreased about 19 and 30% in moderate and high salt-stressed plants. Water use efficiency decreased only in high salt-stressed plants. Nitrogen use efficiency decreased either by increased salinity or increased N rates. An apparent increase in salt tolerance was noted when plants were fertilized with organic-N source compared to that of inorganic-N source.

  8. Source apportionment of PM10 and PM2.5 in a desert region in northern Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorquera, Héctor; Barraza, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Estimating contributions of anthropogenic sources to ambient particulate matter (PM) in desert regions is a challenging issue because wind erosion contributions are ubiquitous, significant and difficult to quantify by using source-oriented, dispersion models. A receptor modeling analysis has been applied to ambient PM 10 and PM 2.5 measured in an industrial zone ∼ 20 km SE of Antofagasta (23.63°S, 70.39°W), a midsize coastal city in northern Chile; the monitoring site is within a desert region that extends from northern Chile to southern Perú. Integrated 24-hour ambient samples of PM 10 and PM 2.5 were taken with Harvard Impactors; samples were analyzed by X Ray Fluorescence, ionic chromatography (NO 3 − and SO 4 = ), atomic absorption (Na + , K + ) and thermal optical transmission for elemental and organic carbon determination. Receptor modeling was carried out using Positive Matrix Factorization (US EPA Version 3.0); sources were identified by looking at specific tracers, tracer ratios, local winds and wind trajectories computed from NOAA's HYSPLIT model. For the PM 2.5 fraction, six contributions were found — cement plant, 33.7 ± 1.3%; soil dust, 22.4 ± 1.6%; sulfates, 17.8 ± 1.7%; mineral stockpiles and brine plant, 12.4 ± 1.2%; Antofagasta, 8.5 ± 1.3% and copper smelter, 5.3 ± 0.8%. For the PM 10 fraction five sources were identified — cement plant, 38.2 ± 1.5%; soil dust, 31.2 ± 2.3%; mineral stockpiles and brine plant, 12.7 ± 1.7%; copper smelter, 11.5 ± 1.6% and marine aerosol, 6.5 ± 2.4%. Therefore local sources contribute to ambient PM concentrations more than distant sources (Antofagasta, marine aerosol) do. Soil dust is enriched with deposition of marine aerosol and calcium, sulfates and heavy metals from surrounding industrial activities. The mean contribution of suspended soil dust to PM 10 is 50 μg/m 3 and the peak daily value is 104 μg/m 3 . For the PM 2.5 fraction, suspended soil dust contributes with an average of 9.3

  9. Environmental pricing of externalities from different sources of electricity generation in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravena, Claudia; Hutchinson, W. George; Longo, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    The rapid increase in electricity demand in Chile means a choice must be made between major investments in renewable or non-renewable sources for additional production. Current projects to develop large dams for hydropower in Chilean Patagonia impose an environmental price by damaging the natural environment. On the other hand, the increased use of fossil fuels entails an environmental price in terms of air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions contributing to climate change. This paper studies the debate on future electricity supply in Chile by investigating the preferences of households for a variety of different sources of electricity generation such as fossil fuels, large hydropower in Chilean Patagonia and other renewable energy sources. Using Double Bounded Dichotomous Choice Contingent Valuation, a novel advanced disclosure method and internal consistency test are used to elicit the willingness to pay for less environmentally damaging sources. Policy results suggest a strong preference for renewable energy sources with higher environmental prices imposed by consumers on electricity generated from fossil fuels than from large dams in Chilean Patagonia. Policy results further suggest the possibility of introducing incentives for renewable energy developments that would be supported by consumers through green tariffs or environmental premiums. Methodological findings suggest that advanced disclosure learning overcomes the problem of internal inconsistency in SB-DB estimates.

  10. Study of air pollution in Chile using biomonitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes, E.; Gras, N.; Guzman, G.; Pereira, I.

    1999-01-01

    A project has been undertaken within the framework of a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out a long term study on atmospheric air pollution in Chile using biomonitors. The present project aims at the selection of appropriate plants and other indicators for monitoring of air pollution in several cities and rural areas in Chile. Nuclear analytical techniques, in particular neutron activation analysis (NAA) will be used complemented by AAS for the analysis of selected elements and to determine the sources of pollutants and the applicability of biomonitors to study air pollution in large areas, using indicators either naturally grown or artificially introduced to the region under examination. (author)

  11. Wildfires in Chile: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Úbeda, Xavier; Sarricolea, Pablo

    2016-11-01

    This paper reviews the literature examining the wildfire phenomenon in Chile. Since ancient times, Chile's wildfires have shaped the country's landscape, but today, as in many other parts of the world, the fire regime - pattern, frequency and intensity - has grown at an alarming rate. In 2014, > 8000 fires were responsible for burning c. 130,000 ha, making it the worst year in Chile's recent history. The reasons for this increase appear to be the increment in the area planted with flammable species; the rejection of these landscape modifications on the part of local communities that target these plantations in arson attacks; and, the adoption of intensive forest management practices resulting in the accumulation of a high fuel load. These trends have left many native species in a precarious situation and forest plantation companies under considerable financial pressure. An additional problem is posed by fires at the wildland urban interface (WUI), threatening those inhabitants that live in Chile's most heavily populated cities. The prevalence of natural fires in Chile; the relationship between certain plant species and fire in terms of seed germination strategies and plant adaptation; the relationship between fire and invasive species; and, the need for fire prevention systems and territorial plans that include fire risk assessments are some of the key aspects discussed in this article. Several of the questions raised will require further research, including just how fire-dependent the ecosystems in Chile are, how the forest at the WUI can be better managed to prevent human and material damage, and how best to address the social controversy that pits the Mapuche population against the timber companies.

  12. Iodine-129, Iodine-127 and Caesium-137 in the environment: soils from Germany and Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daraoui, A.; Michel, R.; Gorny, M.; Jakob, D.; Sachse, R.; Synal, H.-A.; Alfimov, V.

    2012-01-01

    Soil profiles from Bavaria in southern Germany and from Chile were analysed for 129 I by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), for 127 I by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and for 137 Cs by gamma-spectrometry. The mean deposition density of 137 Cs in soils from Bavaria was (41 × 1.5 ±1 ) kBq m −2 (geometric mean and geometric standard deviation), originating mostly from the Chernobyl fall-out. The deposition density of 129 I in these soils was (109 × 1.5 ±1 ) mBq m −2 . The dominant sources of 129 I in Bavaria are, however, the reprocessing plants La Hague and Sellafield and not the Chernobyl fall-out. The 129 I/ 127 I isotopic ratios of the Bavarian soils were between 10 −7 and 10 −10 , i.e. 10 2 –10 5 times higher than the ratios observed for the samples from Chile. The 129 I integral deposition densities in Chile, Easter Island and Antarctica were between 0.3 mBq m −2 and 2 mBq m −2 . In these soils, the observed 129 I/ 127 I ratios were about 10 −12 . The soils from Chile allow the determination of the 129 I fall-out from the atmospheric nuclear weapons explosions undisturbed from contaminations due to releases from reprocessing plants. An upper limit of the integral 129 I deposition density of the atmospheric nuclear weapons explosions on the Southern Hemisphere (27°S) is about 1 mBq m −2 . Finally, the dependence of the migration behaviour of 137 Cs, 127 I and of 129 I on the soil properties is discussed. It turns out that there is a distinctly different behaviour of 127 I, 129 I, and 137 Cs in the soils exhibiting different sorption mechanisms for old and recent iodine as well as for 137 Cs. - Highlights: ► I-129 from European reprocessing plants drastically changed its natural abundances. ► We report here inventories of the Cs-137 and I-129 in Bavaria and Chile. ► The dominant sources of I-129 in Bavaria are the European reprocessing plants. ► The dominant sources of I-129 in Chile are the atmospheric

  13. Medicinal plants consumption by patients under psychological treatment in a municipality in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ramírez-Tagle

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: High levels of mental illness are found today in the population of Chile and the consumption of medicinal herbs could be included in the scope of complementary therapies for the treatment of mental illnesses. In Chile there is no information respect to consumption of medicinal herbs in patients under psychological treatment. Aims: To characterize the consumption of medicinal herbs by patients treated in a mental health clinic. Methods: In this quantitative cross-sectional study (n = 100, patients were administered a closed-response survey to determine the frequency of medicinal plant consumption as complementary treatment and subsequently to characterize such consumption. Results: Among the patients surveyed, 36% consumed medicinal herbs to treat a psychological pathology as a complementary treatment. Among those who consumed medicinal herbs, 65% consumed Cannabis sativa (marijuana either exclusively (42% or in conjunction with other plants (23%, 80% reported that their therapist was aware of this behavior, and 35% consumed medicinal herbs once or twice a day. Conclusions: In the present study, there was significant use of medicinal plants by patients treated at the mental health clinic, especially marijuana consuming. This demonstrates the importance of recognizing citizens´ right to free and equal access to healthcare and acknowledging the responsibility of the state to ensure the safety and quality of the services offered to the population.

  14. Geothermal Potential Evaluation for Northern Chile and Suggestions for New Energy Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monia Procesi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Chile is a country rich in natural resources, and it is the world’s largest producer and exporter of copper. Mining is the main industry and is an essential part of the Chilean economy, but the country has limited indigenous fossil fuels—over 90% of the country’s fossil fuels must be imported. The electricity market in Chile comprises two main independent systems: the Northern Interconnected Power Grid (SING and the Central Interconnected Power Grid (SIC. Currently, the primary Chilean energy source is imported fossil fuels, whereas hydropower represents the main indigenous source. Other renewables such as wind, solar, biomass and geothermics are as yet poorly developed. Specifically, geothermal energy has not been exploited in Chile, but among all renewables it has the greatest potential. The transition from thermal power plants to renewable energy power plants is an important target for the Chilean Government in order to reduce dependence on imported fossil fuels. In this framework, the proposed study presents an evaluation of the geothermal potential for northern Chile in terms of power generation. The El Tatio, Surire, Puchuldiza, Orriputunco-Olca and Apacheta geothermal fields are considered for the analysis. The estimated electrical power is approximately 1300 MWe, and the energy supply is 10,200 GWh/year. This means that more than 30% of the SING energy could be provided from geothermal energy, reducing the dependence on imported fossil fuels, saving 8 Mton/year of CO2 and supplying the mining industry, which is Chile’s primary energy user.

  15. First host plant records for Iridopsis hausmanni Vargas (Lepidoptera, Geometridae in the coastal valleys of northern Chile

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    Héctor A. Vargas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available First host plant records for Iridopsis hausmanni Vargas (Lepidoptera, Geometridae in the coastal valleys of northern Chile. The trees Haplorhus peruviana Engl. and Schinus molle L. (Anacardiaceae are mentioned as the first host plant records for the little known native moth Iridopsis hausmanni Vargas, 2007 (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Ennominae in the coastal valleys of the northern Chilean Atacama Desert. This is also the first record of Anacardiaceae as host plant for a Neotropical species of Iridopsis Warren, 1894.

  16. Radioactive wastes management development in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir, S.A.; Cruz, P.F.; Rivera, J.D.; Jorquera, O.H.

    1994-01-01

    A Facility for immobilizing and conditioning of radioactive wastes generated in Chile, has recently started in operation. It is a Radioactive Wastes Treatment Plant, RWTP, whose owner is Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, CCHEN. A Storgement Building of Conditioned Wastes accomplishes the facility for medium and low level activity wastes. The Project has been carried with participation of chilean professionals at CCHEN and Technical Assistance of International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA. Processes developed are volume reduction by compaction; immobilization by cementation and conditioning. Equipment has been selected to process radioactive wastes into a 200 liters drum, in which wastes are definitively conditioned, avoiding exposition and contamination risks. The Plant has capacity to treat low and medium activity radioactive wastes produced in Chile due to Reactor Experimental No. 1 operation, and annex Laboratories in Nuclear Research Centers, as also those produced by users of nuclear techniques in Industries, Hospitals, Research Centers and Universities, in the whole country. With the infrastructure developed in Chile, a centralization of Radioactive Wastes Management activities is achieved. A data base system helps to control and register radioactive wastes arising in Chile. Generation of radioactive wastes in Chile, has found solution for the present production and that of near future

  17. Shifts in Plant Chemical Defenses of Chile Pepper (Capsicum annuum L. Due to Domestication in Mesoamerica

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    Jose de Jesus Luna-Ruiz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose that comparisons of wild and domesticated Capsicum species can serve as a model system for elucidating how crop domestication influences biotic and abiotic interactions mediated by plant chemical defenses. Perhaps no set of secondary metabolites (SMs used for plant defenses and human health have been better studied in the wild and in milpa agro-habitats than those found in Capsicum species. However, very few scientific studies on SM variation have been conducted in both the domesticated landraces of chile peppers and in their wild relatives in the Neotropics. In particular, capsaicinoids in Capsicum fruits and on their seeds differ in the specificity of their ecological effects from broad-spectrum toxins in other members of the Solanaceae. They do so in a manner that mediates specific ecological interactions with a variety of sympatric Neotropical vertebrates, invertebrates, nurse plants and microbes. Specifically, capsaicin is a secondary metabolite (SM in the placental tissues of the chile fruit that mediates interactions with seed dispersers such as birds, and with seed predators, ranging from fungi to insects and rodents. As with other Solanaceae, a wide range of SMs in Capsicum spp. function to ecologically mediate the effects of a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses on wild chile peppers in certain tropical and subtropical habitats. However, species in the genus Capsicum are the only ones found within any solanaceous genus that utilize capsaicinoids as their primary means of chemical defense. We demonstrate how exploring in tandem the evolutionary ecology and the ethnobotany of human-chile interactions can generate and test novel hypotheses with regard to how the domestication process shifts plant chemical defense strategies in a variety of tropical crops. To do so, we draw upon recent advances regarding the chemical ecology of a number of wild Capsicum species found in the Neotropics. We articulate three hypotheses regarding

  18. Performance model to assist solar thermal power plant siting in northern Chile based on backup fuel consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larrain, Teresita; Escobar, Rodrigo; Vergara, Julio [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica y Metalurgica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Macul, Santiago (Chile)

    2010-08-15

    In response to environmental awareness, Chile introduced sustainability goals in its electricity law. Power producers must deliver 5% from renewable sources by 2010 and 10% by 2024. The Chilean desert has a large available surface with one of the highest radiation levels and clearest skies in the World. These factors imply that solar power is an option for this task. However, a commercial plant requires a fossil fuel system to backup the sunlight intermittency. The authors developed a thermodynamical model to estimate the backup fraction needed in a 100 MW hybrid -solar-fossil- parabolic trough power plant. This paper presents the model aiming to predicting the performance and exploring its usefulness in assisting site selection among four locations. Since solar radiation data are only available in a monthly average, we introduced two approaches to feed the model. One data set provided an average month with identical days throughout and the other one considered an artificial month of different daylight profiles on an hourly basis for the same monthly average. We recommend a best plant location based on minimum fossil fuel backup, contributing to optimal siting from the energy perspective. Utilities will refine their policy goals more closely when a precise solar energy data set becomes available. (author)

  19. Chile ushers in new hydro era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moxon, S.

    1997-01-01

    The planned construction of two hydroelectric power plants at Peuchen and Mampil, will help to meet Chile's growing electricity demand. Securing finance for the project has been straight forward thanks to the optimal hydrological conditions, rivers with a very strong flow providing a large head of water over short distance. Hydropower plays a central role in Chile's generating capacity providing 70% of total energy consumption. Thus, the future of these projects will be highly successful, it is argued. (UK)

  20. Source apportionment of ambient PM2.5 in Santiago, Chile: 1999 and 2004 results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorquera, Héctor; Barraza, Francisco

    2012-10-01

    A receptor model analysis has been applied to ambient PM(2.5) measurements taken at Santiago, Chile (33.5°S, 70.7°W) in 2004 (117 samples) and in 1999 (95 samples) on a receptor site on the eastern side of the city. For both campaigns, six sources have been identified at Santiago and their contributions in 1999/2004 are: motor vehicles: 28 ± 2.5/31.2 ± 3.4%, wood burning: 24.8 ± 2.3/28.9 ± 3.3%, sulfates: 18.8 ± 1.7/16.2 ± 2.5%, marine aerosol: 13 ± 2.1/9.9 ± 1.5%, copper smelters: 11.5 ± 1.4/9.7 ± 3.3% and soil dust: 3.9 ± 1.5/4.0 ± 2.4%. Hence relative contributions are statistically the same but the absolute contributions have been reduced because ambient PM(2.5) has decreased from 34.2 to 25.1 μg/m(3) between 1999 and 2004 at Santiago. Similarity of results for both data sets - analyzed with different techniques at different laboratory facilities - shows that the analysis performed here is robust. Source identification was carried out by inspection of key species in source profiles, seasonality of source contributions, comparison with published source profiles and by looking at wind trajectories computed using the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) from USA's National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA); for the wood burning sources the MODIS burned area daily product was used to confirm wildfire events along the year. Using this combined methodology we have shown conclusively that: a) marine air masses do reach Santiago's basin in significant amounts but combined with anthropogenic sources; b) all copper smelters surrounding Santiago - and perhaps coal-fired power plants as well - contribute to ambient PM(2.5); c) wood burning is the second largest source, coming from residential wood burning in fall and winter and from regional wildfires in spring and summer. The results of the present analysis can be used to improve emission inventories, air quality forecasting systems and cost-benefit analyses at local

  1. Different Seed Selection and Conservation Practices for Fresh Market and Dried Chile Farmers in Aguascalientes, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Kraig H; de Jesús Luna-Ruíz, José; Gepts, Paul

    2010-12-01

    Different Seed Selection and Conservation Practices for Fresh Market and Dried Chile Farmers in Aguascalientes, Mexico. The process of selecting and saving seed is the most basic and oldest of agricultural practices. In today's modern and highly capital-intensive agriculture, seeds are often treated like another chemical input. This study sought to examine seed selection and saving practices among chile farmers in Aguascalientes, Mexico, where both industrial and traditional agriculture are practiced. We observed a clear division among farmers who plant chile peppers commercially. Sixty-eight chile pepper farmers were surveyed in order to document seed selection and saving practices. Fifteen respondents (22%) planted chile peppers destined for the fresh market and all utilized purchased commercial seed of F1 hybrid varieties. Fifty-three farmers (78%) planted chiles to be dried and either saved their own or purchased seeds that others had saved and selected. Farmers who saved their own seed sought to maintain an ideotype, rather than directionally select for certain traits, much like Cleveland et al. (2000) chronicled in central Mexican maize farmers. Farmers would benefit from a participatory plant-breeding program in order to maintain productive seed stock for the continued cultivation of dried chile pepper in the state.

  2. Scenarios for wind power in Brazil, Argentina and Chile; Cenarios para a energia eolio eletrica no Brasil, Argentina e Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dedecca, Joao Gorestein; Nogueira, Larissa Goncalves; Jannuzzi, Gilberto de Martino [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia], emails: jdedecca@fem.unicamp.br, larissa@fem.unicamp.br, januzzi@fem.unicamp.br; Gomes, Rodolfo Dourado [International Energy Initiative-Latin America (IEI-LA), Campinas, SP (Brazil)], email: rodolfo@iei-la.org

    2010-07-01

    The Chilean, Argentinean and Brazilian power matrixes presented in the last two decades a growth of the non-renewable energy sources share, especially fossil sources, mainly in installed capacity and in a lesser degree in energy production. Greenpeace and the European Renewable Energy Council have elaborated a reference energy scenario together with a scenario analyzing the institution of ample measures for the promotion of renewable energy sources. Feed-in tariffs and auction or bidding mechanisms implemented in Brazil and Argentina and the renewable portfolio standard implemented in Chile allied with the wind industry state in these countries indicate that Chile and Argentina will fulfill the 2020 wind power installed capacity predicted in the reference scenarios, while Brazil will reach the energy revolution scenario prediction. Important energy policy changes are required if the Chile and Argentina energy revolution scenarios wind power installed capacity are to become a reality in 2020. (author)

  3. Saline-boron stress in northern Chile olive accessions: water relations, B and Cl contents and impact on plant growth

    OpenAIRE

    Escobar, Hugo; Lara, Nelson; Zapata, Yubinza; Urbina, Camilo; Rodriguez, Manuel; Figueroa, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    H. Escobar, N. Lara, Y. Zapata, C. Urbina, M. Rodriguez, and L. Figueroa. 2013. Saline-boron stress in northern Chile olive accessions: water relations, B and Cl contents and impact on plant growth. Cien. Inv. Agr. 40(3): 597-607. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of saline-boron stress on the vegetative growth, dry leaf weight, water potential (Ψw), relative water content, and leaf and root B and Cl- contents in 8 accessions of olive. Rooted one-year-old plants were culti...

  4. Wood burning pollution in southern Chile: PM2.5 source apportionment using CMB and molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Ana M; Barraza, Francisco; Jorquera, Héctor; Schauer, James J

    2017-06-01

    Temuco is a mid-size city representative of severe wood smoke pollution in southern Chile; i.e., ambient 24-h PM 2.5 concentrations have exceeded 150 μg/m 3 in the winter season and the top concentration reached 372 μg/m 3 in 2010. Annual mean concentrations have decreased but are still above 30 μg/m 3 . For the very first time, a molecular marker source apportionment of ambient organic carbon (OC) and PM 2.5 was conducted in Temuco. Primary resolved sources for PM 2.5 were wood smoke (37.5%), coal combustion (4.4%), diesel vehicles (3.3%), dust (2.2%) and vegetative detritus (0.7%). Secondary inorganic PM 2.5 (sulfates, nitrates and ammonium) contributed 4.8% and unresolved organic aerosols (generated from volatile emissions from incomplete wood combustion), including secondary organic aerosols, contributed 47.1%. Adding the contributions of unresolved organic aerosols to those from primary wood smoke implies that wood burning is responsible for 84.6% of the ambient PM 2.5 in Temuco. This predominance of wood smoke is ultimately due to widespread poverty and a lack of efficient household heating methods. The government has been implementing emission abatement policies but achieving compliance with ambient air quality standards for PM 2.5 in southern Chile remains a challenge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Forest nursery management in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rene Escobar R.; Manuel Sanchez O.; Guillermo Pereira C.

    2002-01-01

    The forest economy in Chile is based on products from artificial reforestation efforts on approximately 2 million ha. From these, about 1.5 million ha (75%) are planted with Pinus radiata, 400,000 ha (20%) with species of Eucalyptus, principally E. globulus and E. nitens, and the rest (5%) composed by other...

  6. The biomethane potential in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiffert, M.; Kaltschmitt, M.; Miranda, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Within the last decade natural gas gained considerable importance in Chile. The contribution of natural gas within the energy system will increase in the future by predicted 3.6% annually until the year 2015. Due to limited resources within its own country, the energy system of Chile depends on natural gas imports preferential from Argentina. Therefore, the aim of several stakeholders from policy and industry is to reduce the share of imported primary energy within the overall energy system. In order to reach this goal, the use of domestic resources and particularly the utilisation of biomass as one of the most important renewable sources of energy in Chile could play an important role. Against this background, the goal of this paper is the analysis of the technical potentials of biomethane as a substitute for natural gas. For the production of biomethane the anaerobic or bio-chemical (i.e. Biogas) as well as the thermo-chemical conversion pathways (i.e. Bio-SNG) are considered. The results of this analysis show that biomass converted to biomethane is a promising energy provision option for Chile and it contributes to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions

  7. Assessing the environmental sustainability of electricity generation in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaete-Morales, Carlos; Gallego-Schmid, Alejandro; Stamford, Laurence; Azapagic, Adisa

    2018-09-15

    Around 40% of electricity in Chile is supplied by renewables and the rest by fossil fuels. Despite the growing electricity demand in the country, its environmental impacts are as yet unknown. To address this gap, the current study presents the first comprehensive assessment of the life cycle environmental sustainability of electricity generation in Chile. Both the individual sources and the electricity mix over the past 10 years are considered. The following sources present in the electricity mix are evaluated: coal, oil, natural gas, biogas, biomass, wind, solar photovoltaics (PV) and hydropower. In total, 10 electricity technologies and 174 power plants installed across the country have been considered. Eleven environmental impacts have been estimated, including global warming, human toxicity, ecotoxicities, as well as resource and ozone layer depletion. The results reveal that hydropower is environmentally the most sustainable option across the impacts, followed by onshore wind and biogas. Electricity from natural gas has 10%-84% lower impacts than biomass for seven categories. It is also 13%-98% better than solar PV for six impacts and 17%-66% than wind for four categories. Solar PV has the highest abiotic depletion potential due to the use of scarce elements in the manufacture of panels. While electricity generation has grown by 44% in the past 10 years, all the impacts except ozone layer depletion have increased by 1.6-2.7 times. In the short term, environmental regulations should be tightened to improve the emissions control from coal and biomass plants. In the medium term, the contribution of renewables should be ramped up, primarily increasing the hydro, wind and biogas capacity. Coal and oil should be phased out, using natural gas as a transitional fuel to help the stability of the grid with the increasing contribution of intermittent renewables. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The state of solar energy resource assessment in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, Alberto; Escobar, Rodrigo [Mechanical and Metallurgical Engineering Department, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Macul, Santiago (Chile); Colle, Sergio [Laboratorios de Engenharia de Processos de Conversao e Tecnologia de Energia - LEPTEN, Mechanical Engineering Department, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis (Brazil); de Abreu, Samuel Luna [IFSC - Instituto Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Sao Jose, Sao Jose - SC (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    The Chilean government has determined that a renewable energy quota of up to 10% of the electrical energy generated must be met by 2024. This plan has already sparked interest in wind, geothermal, hydro and biomass power plants in order to introduce renewable energy systems to the country. Solar energy is being considered only for demonstration, small-scale CSP plants and for domestic water heating applications. This apparent lack of interest in solar energy is partly due to the absence of a valid solar energy database, adequate for energy system simulation and planning activities. One of the available solar radiation databases is 20-40 years old, with measurements taken by pyranographs and Campbell-Stokes devices. A second database from the Chilean Meteorological Service is composed by pyranometer readings, sparsely distributed along the country and available from 1988, with a number of these stations operating intermittently. The Chilean government through its National Energy Commission (CNE) has contracted the formulation of a simulation model and also the deployment of network of measurement stations in northern Chile. Recent efforts by the authors have resulted in a preliminary assessment by satellite image processing. Here, we compare the existing databases of solar radiation in Chile. Monthly mean solar energy maps are created from ground measurements and satellite estimations and compared. It is found that significant deviation exists between sources, and that all ground-station measurements display unknown uncertainty levels, thus highlighting the need for a proper, country-wide long-term resource assessment initiative. However, the solar energy levels throughout the country can be considered as high, and it is thought that they are adequate for energy planning activities - although not yet for proper power plant design and dimensioning. (author)

  9. Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    Chile is a long (2650 miles), narrow (250 miles at widest point) country sandwiched between the Andes mountains and the Pacific. The northern desert is rich in copper and nitrates; the temperate middle region is agricultural and supports the major cities, including Santiago, the capital, and the port of Valparaiso; and the southern region is a cold and damp area of forests, grasslands, lakes, and fjords. The country is divided into 12 administrative regions. Chile's population of 12.5 million are mainly of Spanish or Indian descent or mestizos. Literacy is 92.3%, and the national language is Spanish. Infant mortality is 18.1/1000, and life expectancy is 68.2 years. 82% of the people are urban, and most are Roman Catholics. Chile was settled by the Spanish in 1541 and attached to the Viceroyalty of Peru. Independence was won in 1818 under the leadership of Bernardo O'Higgins. In the 1880s Chile extended its sovereignty over the Strait of Magellan in the south and areas of southern Peru and Bolivia in the north. An officially parliamentary government, elected by universal suffrage, drifted into oligarchy and finally into a military dictatorship under Carlos Ibanez in 1924. Constitutional government was restored in 1932. The Christian Democratic government of Eduardo Frei (1964-70) inaugurated major reforms, including land redistribution, education, and far-reaching social and economic policies. A Marxist government under Salvador Allende lasted from 1970 to 1973 when the present military government of General Pinochet Ugarte took power, overthrew Allende, abolished the Congress, and banned political parties. It has moved the country in the direction of a free market economy but at the cost of systematic violations of human rights. A new constitution was promulgated in 1981, and congressional elections have been scheduled for October, 1989. A "National Accord for Transition to Full Democracy" was mediated by the Catholic Church in 1985. The social reforms of the

  10. Aerosol composition and source apportionment in Santiago de Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artaxo, Paulo; Oyola, Pedro; Martinez, Roberto

    1999-04-01

    Santiago de Chile, São Paulo and Mexico City are Latin American urban areas that suffer from heavy air pollution. In order to study air pollution in Santiago area, an aerosol source apportionment study was designed to measure ambient aerosol composition and size distribution for two downtown sampling sites in Santiago. The aerosol monitoring stations were operated in Gotuzo and Las Condes during July and August 1996. The study employed stacked filter units (SFU) for aerosol sampling, collecting fine mode aerosol (dpsource apportionment was performed using Absolute Principal Factor Analysis (APFA). Very high aerosol concentrations were observed (up to 400 μg/m 3 PM 10). The main aerosol particle sources in Santiago are resuspended soil dust and traffic emissions. Coarse particles account for 63% of PM 10 aerosol in Gotuzo and 53% in Las Condes. A major part of this component is resuspended soil dust. In the fine fraction, resuspended soil dust accounts for 15% of fine mass, and the aerosols associated with transportation activities account for a high 64% of the fine particle mass. Sulfate particle is an important component of the aerosol in Santiago, mainly originating from gas-to-particle conversion from SO 2. In the Gotuzo site, sulfates are the highest aerosol component, accounting for 64.5% of fine mass. Direct traffic emissions are generally mixed with resuspended soil dust. It is difficult to separate the two components, because the soil dust in downtown Santiago is contaminated with Pb, Br, Cl, and other heavy metals that are also tracers for traffic emissions. Residual oil combustion is observed, with the presence of V, S and Ni. An aerosol components from industrial emissions is also present, with the presence of several heavy metals such as Zn, Cu and others. A factor with molybdenum, arsenic, copper and sulfur was observed frequently, and it results from emissions of copper smelters.

  11. Sustainable energy system. A case study from Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebremedhin, A.; Karlsson, B. [Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden); Bjoernfot, K. [Shell Raffinaderi AB, Torslandavaegen, Box 8889, SE-402 72 (Sweden)

    2009-05-15

    This paper presents some of the results of a power system analysis for Chile. The two major Chilean electric systems are roughly modelled and optimized using a linear programming method with the option to integrate renewable energy sources like wind power, solar power, mini-hydropower and biomass-fired power and also 'municipal waste'. A total of four different scenarios are outlined: reference system, new production units, gas and coal price variations and a policy measure to encourage power production based on renewable energy. The objective of the scenarios was to illustrate under what conditions integration of the different energy sources in the existing production system is possible. The study shows that even under current conditions, mini-hydro and waste to energy plants are economically viable. Wind power might be interesting alternatives if policy instrument measures are applied. On the other hand, it is hard for the other energy sources to enter the system even when higher price levels of gas and coal are applied. The system is more sensitive to coal price increases than to gas price increases and this mainly encourages CO{sub 2} emission reduction. (author)

  12. Long-term decrease of atmospheric test 137Cs in the soil-prairie plant-milk pathway in southern Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuller, P.; Ellies, A.; Handl, J.

    1998-01-01

    The time dependency of nuclear test 137 Cs in soil, prairie plants, and milk was observed on pastures of seven dairy farms in the 10th Region, Chile, from 1982 to 1997, without any appreciable deposition of radioactive fallout after 1983. Whereas the 137 Cs concentration in the soil decreased at a rate close to that of the radionuclide's physical decay during the whole observation period, the rate of decrease of the 137 Cs concentration in the prairie plants and in the milk, having been very rapid between 1982--1990, became slower between 1991--1997. The effective half-lives of the concentration in plants were found to be 5.6 y and 12 y during the first and second observation periods, respectively. Similar half-lives of 5.5 y and 13 y were found for the concentration decline in milk during each period. These data clearly demonstrate a reduction in the long-term decrease of the 137 Cs plant uptake, and consequently in the decrease of the 137 Cs concentration in milk, resulting from a decline of 137 Cs availability for prairie plants in the Hapludand soils over the whole 15-y observation period

  13. Provisional catalogue of the flora of San Ignacio de Huinay, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Morales

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Contribution to the vascular plants flora of San Ignacio de Huinay natural reserve, Comau fiord, Región de los Lagos, Chile. To date, 262 species with their herbaria sheets stored in 5 different American and European herbaria (CONC, M, MA, and SGO and that of Huinay, are known in the territory. In this work some first new records for the South Cone are included, such as Potentilla anglica, Plantago media, and Mentha x rotundifolia. Furthermore, some of the records are new for the Flora of Chile, such as Juncus burkartii, only known from Argentina. Other species very scarcely cited in Chile, such as Solanum nigrum and Bromus squarrosus, are also included.

  14. Plant Growth Absorption Spectrum Mimicking Light Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jwo-Huei Jou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant factories have attracted increasing attention because they can produce fresh fruits and vegetables free from pesticides in all weather. However, the emission spectra from current light sources significantly mismatch the spectra absorbed by plants. We demonstrate a concept of using multiple broad-band as well as narrow-band solid-state lighting technologies to design plant-growth light sources. Take an organic light-emitting diode (OLED, for example; the resulting light source shows an 84% resemblance with the photosynthetic action spectrum as a twin-peak blue dye and a diffused mono-peak red dye are employed. This OLED can also show a greater than 90% resemblance as an additional deeper red emitter is added. For a typical LED, the resemblance can be improved to 91% if two additional blue and red LEDs are incorporated. The approach may facilitate either an ideal use of the energy applied for plant growth and/or the design of better light sources for growing different plants.

  15. Aerosol composition and source apportionment in Santiago de Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artaxo, Paulo; Oyola, Pedro; Martinez, Roberto

    1999-01-01

    Santiago de Chile, Sao Paulo and Mexico City are Latin American urban areas that suffer from heavy air pollution. In order to study air pollution in Santiago area, an aerosol source apportionment study was designed to measure ambient aerosol composition and size distribution for two downtown sampling sites in Santiago. The aerosol monitoring stations were operated in Gotuzo and Las Condes during July and August 1996. The study employed stacked filter units (SFU) for aerosol sampling, collecting fine mode aerosol (dp 10 mass of particles smaller than 10 μm) and black carbon concentration were also measured. Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) was used to measure the concentration of 22 trace elements at levels below 0.5 ng m -3 . Quantitative aerosol source apportionment was performed using Absolute Principal Factor Analysis (APFA). Very high aerosol concentrations were observed (up to 400 μg/m 3 PM 10 ). The main aerosol particle sources in Santiago are resuspended soil dust and traffic emissions. Coarse particles account for 63% of PM 10 aerosol in Gotuzo and 53% in Las Condes. A major part of this component is resuspended soil dust. In the fine fraction, resuspended soil dust accounts for 15% of fine mass, and the aerosols associated with transportation activities account for a high 64% of the fine particle mass. Sulfate particle is an important component of the aerosol in Santiago, mainly originating from gas-to-particle conversion from SO 2 . In the Gotuzo site, sulfates are the highest aerosol component, accounting for 64.5% of fine mass. Direct traffic emissions are generally mixed with resuspended soil dust. It is difficult to separate the two components, because the soil dust in downtown Santiago is contaminated with Pb, Br, Cl, and other heavy metals that are also tracers for traffic emissions. Residual oil combustion is observed, with the presence of V, S and Ni. An aerosol components from industrial emissions is also present, with the presence of

  16. [Health inequality gap in inmigrant versus local children in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabieses, Baltica; Chepo, Macarena; Oyarte, Marcela; Markkula, Niina; Bustos, Patricia; Pedrero, Víctor; Delgado, Iris

    2017-12-01

    Children and young international migrants face different health challenges compa red with the local population, particularly if they live in insecure environments or adverse social conditions. This study seeks to identify gaps in health outcomes of children between immigrant and local population in Chile. This study analyses data from three sources: (i) Born in Chile: Electronic records of antenatal visits from all municipal antenatal clinics of Recoleta in 2012; (ii) Growing up in Chile: Population survey "National Socioeconomic Characterization" (CASEN) from 2013 and (iii) Getting sick in Chile: Data of all hospital discharges in 2012, provided by the department of statistics and health information (DEIS) of the Ministry of Health. (I) Born in Chile: Im migrants more frequently have psychosocial risk (62.3% vs 50.1% in Chileans) and enter later into the program (63.1% vs 33.4% enter later than 14 weeks of pregnancy). All birth outcomes were better among immigrants (e.g. caesarean sections rates: 24.2% immigrants vs % Chileans). (ii) Growing up in Chile: A higher proportion of migrant children is outside the school system and lives in multidi mensional poverty (40% immigrants vs 23.2% Chileans). (iii) Getting sick in Chile: Injuries and other external causes were more frequent cause of hospitalisation among migrants (23.6%) than the local population (16.7%) aged between 7 and 14 years. Addressing the needs of the children in Chile, regardless of their immigration status, is an ethical, legal and moral imperative.

  17. Tourism in Chile | CTIO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Program PIA Program GO-FAAR Program Other Opportunities Tourism Visits to Tololo Astro tourism in Chile Tourism in Chile Information for travelers Visit Tololo Media Relations News Press Release Publications ‹› You are here CTIO Home » Outreach » Tourism » Tourism in Chile Tourism in Chile Map of

  18. 75 FR 32901 - Notice of Determination of Pest-Free Areas in the Republic of Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ..., based on the findings of a pest risk analysis, can be safely imported subject to one or more of the...] Notice of Determination of Pest-Free Areas in the Republic of Chile AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... additional area of the Republic of Chile as a pest-free area for Ceratitis capitata, Mediterranean fruit fly...

  19. Rapid characterization of seismic sources in Chile: Contribution of the GNSS component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, S. E.; Riquelme, S.; Baez, J. C., Sr.

    2017-12-01

    The recently created National Seismological Center (CSN) of the University of Chile was tasked to upgrade the countrýs seismic network in 2013. The upgrade included new 65 collocated accelerometer and broadband instruments together with 130 GNSS devices designed to transmit their data in real time. Forty units of the GNSS devices include the RTX option, a real time 1-Hz positioning capability at 4-cm error level. The observation system is complemented with 297 additional stand-alone strong motion instruments mainly located in basins for seismic engineering purposes. Broadband data can be accessed in real time from IRIS Data Management Service under networks C and C1. Strong motion event data can be retrieved through the CSN database (evtdb.csn.uchile.cl). A server is being established to handle GNSS data requests through an NTRIP Caster. Completion of the connectivity of the GNSS remote units to the main acquisition servers is expected to take place within several months. In addition to the 40 units providing real time positioning through the RTX option, Precise Point Positioning (PPP) algorithms are being tested on the CSN main servers to enable real time estimates every second for all GNSS remote devices. Because of the high earthquake productivity rate in Chile, the RTX system capabilities have been positively tested in two cases already, demonstrating their excellent performance: i) the main aftershock (M7.6) of the April 1, 2014, northern Chile event and ii) the April 24, 2017, (M6.9) event in central Chile. The former produced coastal horizontal static displacements of the order of 30 cm while the latter of the order of 5 cm. In addition to rapid earthquake characterization through static deformation, W-phase displacement waveform inversions are included in the fast analysis providing excellent results. These new applications and methodologies have profoundly impacted the rapid evaluation of the tsunamigenic potential of large earthquakes in the near field.

  20. 75 FR 5034 - Determination of Pest-Free Areas in the Republic of Chile; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ...] Determination of Pest-Free Areas in the Republic of Chile; Request for Comments AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... from the government of the Republic of Chile to recognize additional areas as pest-free areas for... has determined that these areas meet the criteria in our regulations for recognition as pest-free...

  1. Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    The background notes on Chile provide a statistical summary of the population, geography, government, and the economy, and more descriptive text on the history, population, government, economy, defense, and foreign relations. In brief, Chile has 13.3 million Spanish Indian (Mestizos), European, and Indian inhabitants and an annual growth rate of 1.6%. 96% are literate. Infant mortality is 18/1000. 34% of the population are involved in industry and commerce, 30% in services, 19% in agriculture and forestry and fishing, 7% in construction, and 2% in mining. The major city is Santiago. The government, which gained independence in 1810, is a republic with executive, legislative, and judicial branches. There are 12 regions. There are 6 major political parties. Suffrage is universal at 18 years. Gross domestic product (GDP) is $29.2 billion. The annual growth rate is 5% and inflation is 19%. Copper, timber, fish, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, and molybdenum are its natural resources. Agricultural products are 9% of GDP and include wheat, potatoes, corn, sugar beets, onions, beans, fruits, and livestock. Industry is 21% of GDP and includes mineral refining, metal manufacturing, food and fish processing, paper and wood products, and finished textiles. $8.3 billion is the value of exports and $7 billion of imports. Export markets are in Japan, the US, Germany, Brazil, and the United Kingdom. Chile received $3.5 billion in economic aid between 1949-85, but little in recent years. 83% live in urban centers, principally around Santiago. Congressional representation is made on the basis of elections by a unique binomial majority system. Principal government officials are identified. Chile has a diversified free market economy and is almost self-sufficient in food production. The US is a primary trading partner. 49% of Chile's exports are minerals. Chile maintains diplomatic relations with 70 countries, however, relations are strained with Argentina and Bolivia. Relations

  2. Study of the main mechanisms for incentive alternative sources of renewable energy for power generation in Chile, Argentina and Brazil; Estudo dos principais mecanismos de incentivo as fontes alternativas de energia para geracao renovavel de eletricidade no Chile, Argentina e Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Larissa Goncalves [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia; Dedecca, Joao Gorestein; Jannuzzi, Gilberto de Martinno; Gomes, Rodolfo Dourado [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    From the experience of developed countries, Brazil, Chile and Argentina are implementing some important mechanisms for encouraging alternative sources of renewable energy for power generation and thus manage to incorporate these power sources in their power matrix. However, the obstacles faced are not insignificant. This study will present and analyze the Chilean, Argentinean and Brazilian experience when it comes to implementing programs and policies based on feed-in tariffs, renewable portfolio standard and bidding mechanisms. (author)

  3. Lead isotopic characterization of respirable urban aerosols and related sources, Santiago-Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, M; Kawashita, K; Antinao, J.L

    2001-01-01

    Santiago de Chile is located in a poorly ventilated valley at 33 o 30' latitude south at an altitude of 550m. Local climate is semi-arid with mean annual rainfall below 350mm. The atmospheric particles constitute one of the main factors of urban air pollution in the city. Morphological characterization of airborne particles of Santiago done by Scanning Electron Microscopy showed the presence of three groups of particles: crystalline. spherical and agglomerate particles. The crystalline shapes originated in geologic sources have perfectly defined crystallographic parameters. The agglomerated shapes are formed by organic material and submicrometrical mineral particles derived from combustion of fossil fuel and the spherical shapes are products of metallurgical activities. Some of them could been associated with the wear of motorcars. Samples of aerosols. sediments and leaded petrol of different distributors were collected. Aerosols were sampled in two sites of Santiago: the Movil monitoring station, at east of the city, and Parque O'Higgins monitoring station in downtown. These two monitoring stations belong to the MACAM network. Sediments of Mapocho, Maipo, San Francisco and Zanjon de la Aguada rivers and two samples from Disputada and Merceditas ores were studied. All the samples have been measured for their 206 Pb/ 204 Pb, 207 Pb/ 204 Pb and 208 Pb/ 204 Pb ratios. The experimental chemical procedures of sample dissolution and Pb separation by anion exchange chromatography were developed in the Sernageomin clean laboratory of Santiago de Chile. The isotopic measurements were made using a VG-Sector isotope ratio mass spectrometer fitted with a thermal ion source, multi Faraday collector and Daly collector of the Isotopic Geology Laboratory in the Universidade Federal de Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The measurements were corrected using NBS 981 and 982 standards. Isotopic results plotted in a 208 Pb/ 204 Pb versus 206 Pb/ 204 Pb diagram and in a 207 Pb/ 204 Pb versus

  4. IAEA Mission Says Chile Committed to Enhancing Safety, Sees Regulatory Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-01-01

    An International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) team of experts said Chile is committed to strengthening its regulatory framework for nuclear and radiation safety. To help achieve this aim, the team said the country should address challenges in some areas, including the need to ensure effective independence in regulatory decision-making. The Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) team today concluded a 12-day mission to assess the regulatory safety framework in Chile. The mission was conducted at the request of the Government and hosted by the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN), which is responsible for regulatory supervision together with the Ministry of Health (MINSAL). The review mission covered all civilian nuclear and radiation source facilities and activities regulated in Chile.

  5. Deuterium content on surface waters VI to X Chile regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravena C, R; Pollastri J, A.; Suzuki S, O.

    1984-01-01

    One important parameter on any sitting study for a heavy water plant installation is the deuterium content of the feed water. Deuterium data on surface waters from differents areas located in the south of Chile, are presented. These results allow to idently some potential areas for a future heavy water plant. One of these areas, Lago Llanquihue, was sampled more in detail to study the vertical distribution and spatial variations. (Author)

  6. Formación bruta de capital en bienes de equipo en chile, 1856-1930: Fuentes nacionales y extranjeras Gross Capital Formation in Equipment in Chile, 1856-1930: National and Foreign Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristián Ducoing

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pese a contar con unas de las mejores estadísticas de los países en desarrollo, existen lagunas en las series económicas de Chile, las cuales se han corregido a lo largo de los años. El trabajo conjunto de los autores ha permitido conocer las similitudes y diferencias entre una evaluación basada en las estadísticas chilenas y otra elaborada con las estadísticas del comercio exterior del G-3 (Alemania, Estados Unidos y Gran Bretaña. El objetivo del artículo es contrastar las series de inversión en maquinaria para Chile desde 1856 hasta 1930 y servir de base para otros estudios que quieran aportar nuevas series que permitan entender el desarrollo de Chile en el largo plazo.Despite having the best statistics in developing countries, there are a number of gaps in Chile's economic series, which have been being corrected over the years. Our joint work has allowed knowing the similarities and differences between series made from the Chilean statistical yearbooks and official trade statistics of G-3 (Germany, USA and Great Britain. The article aims to contrast both machinery investment series for Chile from 1856 to 1930 and provide a basis for other studies that want to make new series for understanding the development of Chile in the long term.

  7. PLANTS, SOURCE FOR BIOFUELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Ramona PECINGINĂ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The most affordable alternative energy sources to fossil plants with hydropower are some oils that accumulate in different organs other accumulating carbohydrates with high energy value. They are known worldwide and cultivated a number of plant species entering the oilseeds, which provides significant production of edible oil (soybean, sunflower, etc. Vegetable oils or their product derived biodiesel fuels are potential diesel engines, representing an alternative to fuels. The most promising suitable for the production of oil crops "with short circuit "or biodiesel are fruits and seeds, both herbaceous and tree.

  8. Diversity patterns and composition of native and exotic floras in central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Javier A.; Teillier, Sebastián; Castro, Sergio A.

    2011-03-01

    Floristic changes in the Mediterranean region of central Chile brought about by human impact appear to be shared with other climatic regions, although there is a notable absence of empirical studies and available quantitative evidence for the central Chile region. This study examines the cover, richness and composition of native and exotic plant species in a representative area of central Chile. Through floristic characterization of 33 sites sampled using 40 × 40 m plots distributed along transect on which the two farthest sites were separated by 50 km, the floristic richness and cover patterns, as well as the general land use characteristics were evaluated (native matorral, espinal, abandoned farming field, forest plantations, periurban sites, road sites, river bank, and burnt site). We recorded 327 species of plants; 213 species were native and 114 were exotic. The average number of species was heterogeneous in all sites, showing a greater relative native frequency in those sites with a lower level of anthropic intervention. Except for the matorral, the cover of exotic species was greater than that of native species. No relation was found between richness and cover in relation to the different types of land use. The relationship between cover of native and exotic was negative, although for richness did not show relationship. Results show that the exotic species are limited by resources, although they have not completely displaced the native species. The native and exotic floras respond to different spatial distribution patterns, so their presence makes it possible to establish two facts rarely quantified in central Chile: first, that the exotic flora replaces (but does not necessarily displace) the native flora, and second, that at the same time, because of its greater geographic ubiquity and the abundance levels that it achieves, it contributes to the taxonomic and physiognomic homogenization of central Chile.

  9. Diversidad de la familia Carabidae (Coleoptera en Chile Diversity of the family Carabidae (Coleoptera in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIO ROIG-JUÑENT

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Carabidae constituye dentro de los coléopteros chilenos, la cuarta familia en importancia por su cantidad de especies. El presente trabajo incluye una breve compilación acerca de la historia de la familia y de las primeras expediciones realizadas en Chile. También se realizan comparaciones de la diversidad de carábidos chilenos con respecto a otros países y el Neotrópico. Para Chile, se conocen 21 tribus, con 95 géneros y 365 especies, que representan el 38,8, 28,8 y 7,9 % de la fauna del Neotrópico, respectivamente. Chile posee un bajo número de tribus comparado con otros países, sin embargo, constituye un área importante por la presencia de seis tribus relictuales, principalmente pangeicas o gondwánicas. Chile posee 18 géneros endémicos (18,5 % de su fauna de Carabidae, 28 cuya distribución está restringida a Chile y Argentina y seis restringidos a Chile, Argentina y Uruguay. La cantidad de especies presentes en Chile es inferior a la que poseen otros países de América del Sur, pero la cantidad de especies endémicas es muy alta (204 y representa el 55,8 % de su fauna de carábidos. El alto grado de endemismo que posee Chile con respecto a otros países de América del Sur puede deberse a su condición de aislamiento, siendo las barreras más importantes la región desértica del norte y la cordillera de Los Andes. Este hecho también se vislumbra por la ausencia de importantes tribus neotropicales como Galeritini, Scaritini y Brachinini. También se incluyen en este trabajo claves para la identificación de todas las tribus y géneros presentes en Chile, como así también una breve descripción acerca de la diversidad y ambientes en los que se encuentra cada géneroThe family Carabidae is the fourth largest Coleoptera family in Chile. The present work includes a brief compilation on the taxonomic history of the family and the first expeditions to Chile. In addition, knowledge of carabid diversity in Chile is compared with

  10. Primer "Entrenamiento en Metodologías de Investigación Clínica en Chile" (EMIC-Chile: Fundamentos psicoeducativos First "Training in Clinical Research Methodologies in Chile" (EMIC-Chile: Psychoeducational foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Cabieses

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available EMIC-Chile ("Entrenamiento en Metodologías para la Investigación Clínica en Chile" es un proyecto académico desarrollado durante el año 2008 en Chile para entrenar a profesionales de la salud y disciplinas afines en metodología de investigación clínica, con el objetivo de aumentar la calidad de los proyectos de investigación con fines concursables en nuestro país. El propósito de este artículo es dar a conocer el programa y sus fundamentos teóricos de enseñanza-aprendizaje, que estuvieron en la base de la estructura, metodología, evaluación y sistematización del conocimiento entregado. Para ello, primero se describe el programa, la metodología, la evaluación y el seguimiento. Posteriormente se detallan los aspectos psicoeducativos considerados, con especial énfasis en el aprendizaje social y la educación de adultos. Finalmente, se discute en torno a las posibles consideraciones de este programa para futuras intervenciones educativas en investigación en salud en Chile. Se espera que esta experiencia y sus fundamentos educativos sirvan de motor para futuras iniciativas en el área, a favor de la investigación en salud en Chile.EMIC-Chile ("Entrenamiento en Metodologías para la Investigación Clínica en Chile" is an academic project developed in Chile during 2008 to train health professionals in clinical research. The purpose of this initiative was to improve the quality of research projects that are submitted to apply for public funding. The aim of this article is to describe the psycho-educative theories that supported this training program, its structure, methods and evaluation. Firstly, the program is described in detail. Secondly, psycho-educative theories are described, with special emphasis of social learning theory and education for adults. Finally, implications of EMIC-Chile are stated, in order to improve future research training experiences in Chile. It is expected that this article enhance other research experts

  11. ESO and Chile: 10 Years of Productive Scientific Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    ESO and the Government of Chile launched today the book "10 Years Exploring the Universe", written by the beneficiaries of the ESO-Chile Joint Committee. This annual fund provides grants for individual Chilean scientists, research infrastructures, scientific congresses, workshops for science teachers and astronomy outreach programmes for the public. In a ceremony held in Santiago on 19 June 2006, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO) and the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs marked the 10th Anniversary of the Supplementary Agreement, which granted to Chilean astronomers up to 10 percent of the total observing time on ESO telescopes. This agreement also established an annual fund for the development of astronomy, managed by the so-called "ESO-Chile Joint Committee". ESO PR Photo 21/06 ESO PR Photo 21/06 Ten Years ESO-Chile Agreement Ceremony The celebration event was hosted by ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, and the Director of Special Policy for the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ambassador Luis Winter. "ESO's commitment is, and always will be, to promote astronomy and scientific knowledge in the country hosting our observatories", said ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky. "We hope Chile and Europe will continue with great achievements in this fascinating joint adventure, the exploration of the universe." On behalf of the Government of Chile, Ambassador Luis Winter outlined the historical importance of the Supplementary Agreement, ratified by the Chilean Congress in 1996. "Such is the magnitude of ESO-Chile Joint Committee that, only in 2005, this annual fund represented 8 percent of all financing sources for Chilean astronomy, including those from Government and universities", Ambassador Winter said. The ESO Representative and Head of Science in Chile, Dr. Felix Mirabel, and the appointed Chilean astronomer for the ESO-Chile Joint Committee, Dr. Leonardo Bronfman, also took part in the

  12. Source contributions to PM10 and arsenic concentrations in Central Chile using positive matrix factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedberg, Emma; Gidhagen, Lars; Johansson, Christer

    Sampling of particles (PM10) was conducted during a one-year period at two rural sites in Central Chile, Quillota and Linares. The samples were analyzed for elemental composition. The data sets have undergone source-receptor analyses in order to estimate the sources and their abundance's in the PM10 size fraction, by using the factor analytical method positive matrix factorization (PMF). The analysis showed that PM10 was dominated by soil resuspension at both sites during the summer months, while during winter traffic dominated the particle mass at Quillota and local wood burning dominated the particle mass at Linares. Two copper smelters impacted the Quillota station, and contributed to 10% and 16% of PM10 as an average during summer and winter, respectively. One smelter impacted Linares by 8% and 19% of PM10 in the summer and winter, respectively. For arsenic the two smelters accounted for 87% of the monitored arsenic levels at Quillota and at Linares one smelter contributed with 72% of the measured mass. In comparison with PMF, the use of a dispersion model tended to overestimate the smelter contribution to arsenic levels at both sites. The robustness of the PMF model was tested by using randomly reduced data sets, where 85%, 70%, 50% and 33% of the samples were included. In this way the ability of the model to reconstruct the sources initially found by the original data set could be tested. On average for all sources the relative standard deviation increased from 7% to 25% for the variables identifying the sources, when decreasing the data set from 85% to 33% of the samples, indicating that the solution initially found was very stable to begin with. But it was also noted that sources due to industrial or combustion processes were more sensitive for the size of the data set, compared to the natural sources as local soil and sea spray sources.

  13. Imaging Seismic Source Variations Using Back-Projection Methods at El Tatio Geyser Field, Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, C. L.; Lawrence, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    During October 2012, 51 geophones and 6 broadband seismometers were deployed in an ~50x50m region surrounding a periodically erupting columnar geyser in the El Tatio Geyser Field, Chile. The dense array served as the seismic framework for a collaborative project to study the mechanics of complex hydrothermal systems. Contemporaneously, complementary geophysical measurements (including down-hole temperature and pressure, discharge rates, thermal imaging, water chemistry, and video) were also collected. Located on the western flanks of the Andes Mountains at an elevation of 4200m, El Tatio is the third largest geyser field in the world. Its non-pristine condition makes it an ideal location to perform minutely invasive geophysical studies. The El Jefe Geyser was chosen for its easily accessible conduit and extremely periodic eruption cycle (~120s). During approximately 2 weeks of continuous recording, we recorded ~2500 nighttime eruptions which lack cultural noise from tourism. With ample data, we aim to study how the source varies spatially and temporally during each phase of the geyser's eruption cycle. We are developing a new back-projection processing technique to improve source imaging for diffuse signals. Our method was previously applied to the Sierra Negra Volcano system, which also exhibits repeating harmonic and diffuse seismic sources. We back-project correlated seismic signals from the receivers back to their sources, assuming linear source to receiver paths and a known velocity model (obtained from ambient noise tomography). We apply polarization filters to isolate individual and concurrent geyser energy associated with P and S phases. We generate 4D, time-lapsed images of the geyser source field that illustrate how the source distribution changes through the eruption cycle. We compare images for pre-eruption, co-eruption, post-eruption and quiescent periods. We use our images to assess eruption mechanics in the system (i.e. top-down vs. bottom-up) and

  14. Protecting Dark Skies in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. Chris; Sanhueza, Pedro; Phillips, Mark

    2018-01-01

    Current projections indicate that Chile will host approximately 70% of the astronomical collecting area on Earth by 2030, augmenting the enormous area of ALMA with that of three next-generation optical telescopes: LSST, GMTO, and E-ELT. These cutting-edge facilities represent billions of dollars of investment in the astronomical facilities hosted in Chile. The Chilean government, Chilean astronomical community, and the international observatories in Chile have recognized that these investments are threatened by light pollution, and have formed a strong collaboration to work at managing the threats. We will provide an update on the work being done in Chile, ranging from training municipalities about new lighting regulations to exploring international recognition of the dark sky sites of Northern Chile.

  15. Astro Tourism in Chile | CTIO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Program PIA Program GO-FAAR Program Other Opportunities Tourism Visits to Tololo Astro tourism in Chile Tourism in Chile Information for travelers Visit Tololo Media Relations News Press Release Publications ‹› You are here CTIO Home » Outreach » Tourism » Astro Tourism in Chile Astro Tourism in

  16. Germinación en semilla de chile piquín (Capsicum annuum var. aviculare).

    OpenAIRE

    Cano Vázquez, Anaid

    2013-01-01

    El chile piquín es una planta silvestre que presenta ciertos mecanismos para asegurar la perpetuación de la especie. Dentro de estos mecanismos se encuentra la latencia de sus semillas. La germinación de las semillas de chile piquín presenta problemas para siembras intensivas comerciales. En este trabajo se planteó: 1) comparar diversas colectas en cuanto a su capacidad germinativa; 2) indagar si la baja germinación se debe a impermeabilidad en la semilla o a alguna característica estructura...

  17. Patterns of turnover and floristic similarity show a non-random distribution of naturalized flora in Chile, South America Patrones de recambio y similitud florística muestran una distribución no aleatoria de la flora naturalizada en Chile, Sudamérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIO A CASTRO

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The current geographical distribution of alien species could be informative of processes involved in the biological invasions facilitated by humans. Because environmental and anthropic factors affect the geographic distribution of alien plants, we hypothesize that naturalized plants have a non-random distribution along extensive geographical ranges. On the basis of a complete and updated database of naturalized plants in Chile, we analyzed their turnover and floristic similarities among regions that encompass a wide latitudinal gradient in South America. Using Moran's index and Mantel's test we characterized the spatial auto-correlation (regional aggregation and the effect of geographical distance on the index values. Additionally, we used clustering methods and resampling procedures to detect plant assemblages at regional level. Whittaker's index displayed a positive tilt, increasing according to geographical distance and reaching a plateau; conversely, Jaccard's index was negatively associated with geographical distance. Removing the effect of distance, both Whittaker's and Jaccard's values showed no significant trends. Multivariate analysis combined with resampling procedures revealed the existence of three distinctive plant clusters: Northernmost Chile, Central-southern Chile, and Southernmost Chile. These clusters are characterized by naturalized plants that are not present in the others. Based on this evidence, we conclude that the set of naturalized plants in Chile exhibits a non-random geographical distribution, displaying an ordered geographical pattern across regions (latitude. We discuss the role of the environmental variables (climate, latitude and land use post-European colonization as factors in the distributional patterns here documentedLa distribución geográfica actual de especies exóticas puede ser informativa de los procesos involucrados en las invasiones biológicas facilitadas por humanos. Debido a que los factores

  18. Vitamin B12-Containing Plant Food Sources for Vegetarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Fumio; Yabuta, Yukinori; Bito, Tomohiro; Teng, Fei

    2014-01-01

    The usual dietary sources of Vitamin B12 are animal-derived foods, although a few plant-based foods contain substantial amounts of Vitamin B12. To prevent Vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians, it is necessary to identify plant-derived foods that contain high levels of Vitamin B12. A survey of naturally occurring plant-derived food sources with high Vitamin B12 contents suggested that dried purple laver (nori) is the most suitable Vitamin B12 source presently available for vegetarians. Furthermore, dried purple laver also contains high levels of other nutrients that are lacking in vegetarian diets, such as iron and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Dried purple laver is a natural plant product and it is suitable for most people in various vegetarian groups. PMID:24803097

  19. Vitamin B12-Containing Plant Food Sources for Vegetarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumio Watanabe

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The usual dietary sources of Vitamin B12 are animal-derived foods, although a few plant-based foods contain substantial amounts of Vitamin B12. To prevent Vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians, it is necessary to identify plant-derived foods that contain high levels of Vitamin B12. A survey of naturally occurring plant-derived food sources with high Vitamin B12 contents suggested that dried purple laver (nori is the most suitable Vitamin B12 source presently available for vegetarians. Furthermore, dried purple laver also contains high levels of other nutrients that are lacking in vegetarian diets, such as iron and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Dried purple laver is a natural plant product and it is suitable for most people in various vegetarian groups.

  20. Ecología trófica del jabalí europeo (Sus scrofa silvestre en Chile Trophic ecology of the wild boar (Sus scrofa in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÓSCAR SKEWES

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Documentamos la dieta del jabalí silvestre en el centro-sur de Chile basados en el examen de 20 estómagos colectados en los faldeos de volcán Mocho-Choshuenco (39°54' S, 72°02' O y en el Parque Nacional Vicente Pérez Rosales (41°03' S, 71°54' O. La dieta está representada por animales, vegetales y hongos. Entre los vegetales y hongos son consumidas tanto las partes epígeas como hipógeas, lo mismo que frutos y semillas. Hongos y rizomas de Gunnera tinctoria constituyen ítemes vegetales cuantitativamente importantes en la alimentación. El jabalí forrajea en general en ambiente boscoso, pero las especies vegetales más frecuentes en la dieta se encuentran en espacios abiertos o fuera del bosque. El ambiente dominado por Chusquea spp. constituye un importante sitio de alimentación. Los roedores de la familia Muridae dominan entre los animales determinados en la dieta del jabalí. Esta situación, sin embargo, parece obedecer a la ocurrencia de una ratada producto de la semillación masiva de Chusquea spp. durante la época de muestreo. Las aves de la familia Rhinocryptidae e invertebrados (en especial larvas del coleóptero Chiasognathus grantii constituyen parte frecuente de los ítemes animales de la dieta del jabalí. En comparación a estudios en otras partes del mundo, el jabalí silvestre en Chile consume hongos en porcentaje de ocurrencia similar (65 % a su dieta en Estados Unidos de América pero bastante más alta que su dieta en Europa (5-32 %. En relación al volumen del componente animal, el jabalí en Chile consume más (16,1 % que en Estados Unidos de América (6 % y que en Europa (7-13 %We document the diet of wild boar in south-central Chile based on analysis of 20 stomachs collected on the outskirts of Mocho-Choshuenco volcano (39°54' S, 72°02' W and of Vicente Pérez Rosales National Park (41°03' S, 71°54' W. The diet incorporates animals, plants and fungi. Among the latter two, both epigeal and hypogeal parts

  1. The oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) off Chile as intense source of CO 2 and N 2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulmier, A.; Ruiz-Pino, D.; Garcon, V.

    2008-12-01

    The oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) are recognized as intense sources of N 2O greenhouse gas (GHG) and could also be potential sources of CO 2, the most important GHG for the present climate change. This study evaluates, for one of the most intense and shallow OMZ, the Chilean East South Pacific OMZ, the simultaneous N 2O and CO 2 fluxes at the air-sea interface. Four cruises (2000-2002) and 1 year of monitoring (21°-30°-36°S) off Chile allowed the determination of the CO 2 and N 2O concentrations at the sea surface and the analysis of fluxes variations associated with different OMZ configurations. The Chilean OMZ area can be an intense GHG oceanic local source of both N 2O and CO 2. The mean N 2O fluxes are 5-10 times higher than the maximal previous historical source in an OMZ open area as in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. For CO 2, the mean fluxes are also positive and correspond to very high oceanic sources. Even if different coupling and decoupling between N 2O and CO 2 are observed along the Chilean OMZ, 65% of the situations represent high CO 2 and/or N 2O sources. The high GHG sources are associated with coastal upwelling transport of OMZ waters rich in N 2O and probably also in CO 2, located at a shallow depth. The integrated OMZ role on GHG should be better considered to improve our understanding of the past and future atmospheric CO 2 and N 2O evolutions.

  2. Coastal evidence for Holocene subduction-zone earthquakes and tsunamis in central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dure, Tina; Cisternas, Marco; Horton, Benjamin; Ely, Lisa; Nelson, Alan R.; Wesson, Robert L.; Pilarczyk, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    The ∼500-year historical record of seismicity along the central Chile coast (30–34°S) is characterized by a series of ∼M 8.0–8.5 earthquakes followed by low tsunamis (tsunami (>10 m), but the frequency of such large events is unknown. We extend the seismic history of central Chile through a study of a lowland stratigraphic sequence along the metropolitan coast north of Valparaíso (33°S). At this site, higher relative sea level during the mid Holocene created a tidal marsh and the accommodation space necessary for sediment that preserves earthquake and tsunami evidence. Within this 2600-yr-long sequence, we traced six laterally continuous sand beds probably deposited by high tsunamis. Plant remains that underlie the sand beds were radiocarbon dated to 6200, 5600, 5000, 4400, 3800, and 3700 cal yr BP. Sediment properties and diatom assemblages of the sand beds—for example, anomalous marine planktonic diatoms and upward fining of silt-sized diatom valves—point to a marine sediment source and high-energy deposition. Grain-size analysis shows a strong similarity between inferred tsunami deposits and modern coastal sediment. Upward fining sequences characteristic of suspension deposition are present in five of the six sand beds. Despite the lack of significant lithologic changes between the sedimentary units under- and overlying tsunami deposits, we infer that the increase in freshwater siliceous microfossils in overlying units records coseismic uplift concurrent with the deposition of five of the sand beds. During our mid-Holocene window of evidence preservation, the mean recurrence interval of earthquakes and tsunamis is ∼500 years. Our findings imply that the frequency of historical earthquakes in central Chile is not representative of the greatest earthquakes and tsunamis that the central Chilean subduction zone has produced.

  3. Coastal evidence for Holocene subduction-zone earthquakes and tsunamis in central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dure, Tina; Cisternas, Marco; Horton, Benjamin; Ely, Lisa; Nelson, Alan R.; Wesson, Robert L.; Pilarczyk, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    The ∼500-year historical record of seismicity along the central Chile coast (30–34°S) is characterized by a series of ∼M 8.0–8.5 earthquakes followed by low tsunamis (10 m), but the frequency of such large events is unknown. We extend the seismic history of central Chile through a study of a lowland stratigraphic sequence along the metropolitan coast north of Valparaíso (33°S). At this site, higher relative sea level during the mid Holocene created a tidal marsh and the accommodation space necessary for sediment that preserves earthquake and tsunami evidence. Within this 2600-yr-long sequence, we traced six laterally continuous sand beds probably deposited by high tsunamis. Plant remains that underlie the sand beds were radiocarbon dated to 6200, 5600, 5000, 4400, 3800, and 3700 cal yr BP. Sediment properties and diatom assemblages of the sand beds—for example, anomalous marine planktonic diatoms and upward fining of silt-sized diatom valves—point to a marine sediment source and high-energy deposition. Grain-size analysis shows a strong similarity between inferred tsunami deposits and modern coastal sediment. Upward fining sequences characteristic of suspension deposition are present in five of the six sand beds. Despite the lack of significant lithologic changes between the sedimentary units under- and overlying tsunami deposits, we infer that the increase in freshwater siliceous microfossils in overlying units records coseismic uplift concurrent with the deposition of five of the sand beds. During our mid-Holocene window of evidence preservation, the mean recurrence interval of earthquakes and tsunamis is ∼500 years. Our findings imply that the frequency of historical earthquakes in central Chile is not representative of the greatest earthquakes and tsunamis that the central Chilean subduction zone has produced.

  4. First record of folivory on a newly documented host plant for the little known geometrid moth Eupithecia yubitzae Vargas & Parra (Lepidoptera, Geometridae in northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The native tree Schinus molle (Anacardiacae is reported for the first time as a host plant for larvae of the little known geometrid moth Eupithecia yubitzae Vargas & Parra (Lepidoptera, Geometridae in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile, based on morphology and DNA barcodes. This discovery importantly expands the host range of E. yubitzae, as previous records were restricted to Fabaceae trees. Larvae were previously known as florivorous, while these were found to be folivorous on S. molle. Furthermore, host-associated cryptic larval polychromatism was detected, as larvae collected on S. molle were found to be mostly pale green, contrasting with the dark yellow ground color of the larvae typically collected on fabaceous host plants.

  5. The subduction erosion and mantle source region contamination model of Andean arc magmatism: Isotopic evidence from igneous rocks of central Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, Charles R

    2001-01-01

    Continental crust may be incorporated in mantle-derived Andean magmas as these magmas rise through the crust (Hildreth and Moorbath, 1988), or alternatively, crust may be tectonically transported into the mantle by subduction of trench sediments and subduction erosion of the continental margin, and then added into the mantle source region of Andean magmas (Stern, 1991). Since the mantle has relatively low Sr, Nd, and Pb concentrations compared to continental crust, differences in the isotopic compositions of magmas erupted in different region of the Andes may be produced by relatively small differences in the amount of subducted crust added to the mantle source region of these magmas. By comparison, significantly larger amounts of crust must be assimilated by mantle-derived magmas to produce isotopic differences of similar magnitude. Therefore, constraining the process by which continental crust is incorporated in Andean magmas has important implications for understanding the chemical cycling that takes place in the Andean subduction-related magma factory. Isotopic data suggest the incorporation of a greater proportion of crust in Andean magmas erupted at the northern portion of the Southern Volcanic Zone of central Chile compared to those erupted in the southern portion of the Southern Volcanic Zone of south central Chile (SSVZ) (Stern et al., 1984; Futa and Stern, 1988; Hildreth and Moorbath, 1988). The NSVZ occurs just south of the current locus of the subduction of the Juan Fernandez Ridge. The southward migration of the locus of subduction of this ridge has resulted in decreasing subduction angle below the NSVZ, the eastward migration of the volcanic front of the Andean arc, and an increase in the crustal thickness below the arc. These factors together have caused changes, since the middle Miocene, in the isotopic composition of Andean igneous rocks of central Chile. The data indicate a close chronologic relation between the southward migrations of the locus

  6. Hydrothermal Exploration at the Chile Triple Junction - ABE's last adventure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, C. R.; Shank, T. M.; Lilley, M. D.; Lupton, J. E.; Blackman, D. K.; Brown, K. M.; Baumberger, T.; Früh-Green, G.; Greene, R.; Saito, M. A.; Sylva, S.; Nakamura, K.; Stanway, J.; Yoerger, D. R.; Levin, L. A.; Thurber, A. R.; Sellanes, J.; Mella, M.; Muñoz, J.; Diaz-Naveas, J. L.; Inspire Science Team

    2010-12-01

    In February and March 2010 we conducted preliminary exploration for hydrothermal plume signals along the East Chile Rise where it intersects the continental margin at the Chile Triple Junction (CTJ). This work was conducted as one component of our larger NOAA-OE funded INSPIRE project (Investigation of South Pacific Reducing Environments) aboard RV Melville cruise MV 1003 (PI: Andrew Thurber, Scripps) with all shiptime funded through an award of the State of California to Andrew Thurber and his co-PI's. Additional support came from the Census of Marine Life (ChEss and CoMarge projects). At sea, we conducted a series of CTD-rosette and ABE autonomous underwater vehicle operations to prospect for and determine the nature of any seafloor venting at, or adjacent to, the point where the the East Chile Rise subducts beneath the continental margin. Evidence from in situ sensing (optical backscatter, Eh) and water column analyses of dissolved CH4, δ3He and TDFe/TDMn concentrations document the presence of two discrete sites of venting, one right at the triple junction and the other a further 10km along axis, north of the Triple Junction, but still within the southernmost segment of the East Chile Rise. From an intercomparison of the abundance of different chemical signals we can intercompare likely characteristics of these differet source sites and also differentiate between them and the high methane concentrations released from cold seep sites further north along the Chile Margin, both with the CTJ region and also at the Concepcion Methane Seep Area (CMSA). This multi-disciplinary and international collaboration - involving scientists from Chile, the USA, Europe and Japan - can serve as an excellent and exciting launchpoint for wide-ranging future investigations of the Chile Triple Junction area - the only place on Earth where an oceanic spreading center is being actively subducted beneath a continent and also the only place on Earth where all known forms of deep

  7. Modernitet og forbrugskultur i Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristoffanini, Pablo Rolando

    2012-01-01

    I de sidste årtier er Chile blevet et egentligt forbrugersamfund. Udbredelsen af forbrugskulturen og forbrugerismen er centrale fænomener i chilenernes dagligliv og har nået et omfang, som har konsekvenser for de borgere, der ikke kan deltage fuldt ud heri, noget som er typisk for et samfund med en...... ujævn økonomisk udvikling og med store sociale forskelle. Denne proces er ikke et produkt af en stille, fredelig og naturlig samfundsudvikling, således som magteliten og de toneangivende intellektuelle i Chile har fremstillet det. Som jeg vil vise, er skabelsen af et egentlig forbrugssamfund knyttet til...... til i dag. Ifølge disse er Chile blevet et moderne samfund netop i kraft af, at Chile er et ægte forbrugersamfund med alt, hvad dette indebærer, såvel materielt som symbolsk. For det tredje er billedet af Chile som en ”supermoderne” nation i den latinamerikanske kontekst en udbredt forestilling hos...

  8. conelchilenoresistentearte, Solidaridad: Chile Vive, una Exposición en España contra el Chile Dictatorial withthechileanresistantart, Solidarity: Chile Vive, an Exposition in Spain against the Dictatorial Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Godoy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En 1987 se realiza en Madrid Chile Vive, megaexposición que incluye diferentes manifestaciones artísticas para dar cuenta de la vitalidad cultural de Chile en dictadura. El ensayo, partiendo de una discusión conceptual sobre el problema de la exposición de arte latinoamericano en el extranjero, analiza la configuración de esta exposición, centrándose en las artes visuales como alineación unitaria de un discurso político de país, además de examinar su repercusión en la prensa española de la época. Por otro lado, reflexiona sobre las inclusiones y exclusiones de artistas y las proyecciones de Chile Vive en el problema de la exposición del arte chileno en el extranjero, particularmente el de un periodo tan complejo como el producido durante la dictadura militar.In 1987, Chile Vive, a mega-exhibition that included different artistic expressions, was performed in Madrid to inform people about the cultural vitality of Chile during their dictatorship. This essay will focus on a conceptual discussion about the problem of Latin American art exhibitions abroad. It will analyze the configuration of the mentioned exhibition, focusing on visual arts as a unitary alignment of a political discourse of nation. The text will also examine the repercussion in the Media of Spain in that period of time. On the other hand, the article will develop some thoughts on the artists incorporations, exclusions and projections of Chile Vive, focusing on why the exhibition of Chilean art abroad might be problematic, particularly the ones that belongs to this complex period of time; the military dictatorship.

  9. Selenium concentration in compartments of aquatic ecosystems in Central Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinochet, H.; Gregori, I. de; Cavieres, M.F. [Catholic University of Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile). Chemical Institute

    2002-07-01

    A study was conducted during 1995-96 to evaluate Se concentration in water, sediment, and plants from aquatic ecosystems of central Chile, an area particularly affected by mining activities. Samples were collected from Panquehue, Chagres, and Ocoa along the Acongua River (presumably receives discharges from a copper refinery and a copper mine). Samples were also collected from one site on the Puchuncavi Stream (directly contaminated by both a coal power plant and a copper refinery). In addition, samples were also collected from one site on the Limache Stream (an urban area with no Se-contaminating sources). The sediment and plant samples collected in Puchuncavi had higher Se levels, which were statistically different to the concentration in samples from other sites. Sediments from Puchuncavi and Ocoa had the highest levels of Se (520 plus or minus 46 and 440 plus or minus 10 {mu} g/kg, respectively) while the plant (Jussiaea repens (Ludwigia repens)) collected in Puchuncavi had an Se concentration 6.5 times higher than the sample collected in Panquehue (116 plus or minus 154 and 182 plus or minus 54 {mu} g/kg, respectively). Puchuncavi water had more acidic pH than water from the other sites thus decreasing Se solubility. Se concentrations in sediment and water collected in Chagres were lower than the concentration determined in sediment and water from either Ocoa or Panquehue. Plant/water and plant/sediment accumulation factors and a sediment/water distribution factor were similar for all sampling sites, except Puchuncavi (accumulation and distribution factors are higher than at the other sites). Hydrocotyle ranunculoides had practically the same plant/sediment accumulation factor at all sites while the accumulation factor for J. repens varied according to site. The samples collected in the Limache stream had Se at equal or even higher concentration than the other samples collected from presumably contaminated sites (except Puchuncavi). 19 refs.

  10. Sterilization plants equipped with the isotopic gamma radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, K.; Chmielewski, A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Presentation describes different isotopic gamma radiation sources applicable for sterilization of food and medical materials. Certain gamma pallet irradiators, mini gamma irradiators and different scale gamma tote irradiators are presented. It is concluded, that about two hundreds plants with gamma radiation sources operates in different countries. However, industrially developed countries must construct much more plants than operates now

  11. Effects of sewage sludge on Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate uptake by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranda, J.M.; O'Connor, G.A.; Eiceman, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a priority organic pollutant frequently found in municipal sludges. A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the effect of sludge on plant uptake of 14 C-DEHP (carbonyl labeled). Plants grown included three food chain crops, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.) and chile pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). Net 14 C concentration in plants grown in soil amended with 14 C-DEHP-contaminated sludge was independent of sludge rate (at the same DEHP loading) for lettuce, chile fruit, and carrot roots. Net 14 C concentration, however, was inversely related to sludge rate in carrot tops, fescue, and chile plants. Intact DEHP was not detected in plants by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. Calculated plant DEHP concentrations (based on measured net 14 C concentrations and DEHP specific activities) were generally correlated better with DEHP soil solution concentrations than with total DEHP soil concentrations. Net 14 C-DEHP bioconcentration factors were calculated from initial soil DEHP concentration and plant fresh weights. Bioconcentration factors ranged from 0.01 to 0.03 for fescue, lettuce, carrots, and chile, suggesting little DEHP uptake. Additionally, because intact DEHP was not detected in any plants, DEHP uptake by plants was of minor importance and would not limit sludge additions to soils used to grow these crops

  12. Taxonomy of Rhagoletis population associated with wild plums in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frias, Daniel; Alvina, Andres

    2000-01-01

    In South America, there are about fifteen Rhagoletis species that live in association with wild and cultivated Solanaceae host plants (Foote 1981, Frias 1992). The principal information on taxonomy for these species is the morphology of adults. Thus, in the genus Rhagoletis, in general, there is little information about immature stages especially on first and second larva instars (Steck et al. 1990, Carrol and Wharton 1989, Steck and Wharton 1988, Persson 1963, White and Elson-Harris 1992, Hernandez-Ortiz 1992, 1993, Frias et al. 1993). Presently, in Chile, there are 4 species associated with Solanaceae host plants. R. tomatis Foote and R. nova (Schiner) are associated with cultivated Solanaceae Lycopersicum esculentum Miller or cultivated tomatoes and Solanum muricatum Aiton or sweet cucumber respectively. R. conversa Bethes has two Solanum host plants, S. nigrum L. and S. tomatillo (Remy) Phil. F. (Frias et al. 1984). The host for R. penela Foote is unknown. Moreover, in the last few years, a population on wild plums of the Myrobalan variety (Rosaceae) was detected (Gonzalez 1989). At present, there is no information about the origin and taxonomy of this population. In this work, we have studied the morphology of eggs, three instar larvae, pupae and adults of this population associated with wild plums as well as aspects of its geographical distribution in Chile

  13. Autonomous hydrogen power plants with renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popel', O.S.; Frid, S.E.; Shpil'rajn, Eh.Eh.; Izosimov, D.B.; Tumanov, V.L.

    2006-01-01

    One studies the principles to design independent hydrogen power plants (IHPP) operating on renewable energy sources and the approaches to design a pilot IHP plant. One worded tasks of mathematical simulation and of calculations to substantiate the optimal configuration of the mentioned plants depending on the ambient conditions of operation and on peculiar features of a consumer [ru

  14. Exotic plant invasions to the mediterranean region of Chile: causes, history and impacts Invasión de plantas exóticas en la región mediterránea de Chile: causas, historia e impactos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAVIER A. FIGUEROA

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We review the literature on patterns, causes, processes and impacts of exotic plants, primarily in the mediterranean region of Chile, considering three major non-independent drivers of the invasion process: (a Availability of exotic species propagules, (b attributes of the local communities in which exotic species establish and through which they will eventually spread out, and (c attributes of exotic species that either facilitate or constraint their spread into new sites. Regarding availability of propagules, central Chile matorral presents the communities with the greatest incidence of naturalized herbs, followed by the sclerophyllous forest and the espinal scrubland in the coastal range. In contrast, north-central communities have lower numbers and proportions of naturalized species of herbs in their seed banks. Availability and persistence of naturalized herbs do not differ between aboveground vegetation and seed bank. Regarding attributes of local communities associated with the establishment and the spread of exotics, grazing regime and land use emerge as the most prominent causes that render them more prone to invasion by exotics. Evidence on the effect of the fire regime is contradictory and native species richness does not seem to be an important factor. Regarding attributes of exotic species, results suggest that naturalized annuals germinate within a wide temperature range, are highly resistant to cold and dry conditions, and show some degree of physiological dormancy. Additionally, naturalized annuals are highly tolerant to poor soils, but are generally intolerant to shade. These general attributes have largely determined the invasion process in the mediterranean region of Chile. Historical data indicate that an important number of exotic species were intentionally introduced, and that the spread of exotic is uncontrolled. It has been demonstrated that arrival time of exotics is of great relevance to understand present day spread of

  15. Total and bioavailable arsenic concentration in arid soils and its uptake by native plants from the pre-Andean zones in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, O; Tapia, Y; Pastene, R; Montes, S; Núñez, N; Vélez, D; Montoro, R

    2011-06-01

    Arsenic is the most important contaminant of the environment in northern Chile. Soil samples and plant organs from three native plant species, Pluchea absinthioides, Atriplex atacamensis and Lupinus microcarpus, were collected from arid zones in order to determine the total and bioavailable arsenic concentrations in soils and to assess the bioconcentration factor (BCF) and transport index (Ti) of arsenic in the plants. Total arsenic concentrations in soils (pH 8.3-8.5) where A. atacamensis and P. absinthioides were collected, reached levels considered to be contaminated (54.3 ± 15.4 and 52.9 ± 9.9 mg kg⁻¹, respectively), and these values were approximately ten times higher than in soils (pH 7.6) where L. microcarpus was collected. Bioavailable arsenic ranged from 0.18 to 0.42% of total arsenic concentration. In the three plant species, arsenic concentration in leaves were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher than in roots. L. microcarpus showed the highest arsenic concentration in its leaves (9.7 ± 1.6 mg kg⁻¹) and higher values of BCF (1.8) and Ti (6.1), indicating that this species has a greater capacity to accumulate and translocate the metalloid to the leaf than do the other species.

  16. Energy sources and power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, Detlef; Schulz, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Energy is obtained from various energy sources (coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear fuels, wind energy, solar energy, hydro power, biomass, geothermal energy). These differ in each case with respect to their availability, methods of their production and the required power plant technologies. As technologies of the future fuel cells and nuclear fusion are traded. [de

  17. Integrated geophysical characteristics of the 2015 Illapel, Chile, earthquake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herman, Matthew W.; Nealy, Jennifer L.; Yeck, William L.; Barnhart, William D.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Benz, Harley M.

    2017-01-01

    On 16 September 2015, a Mw 8.3 earthquake ruptured the subduction zone offshore of Illapel, Chile, generating an aftershock sequence with 14 Mw 6.0–7.0 events. A double source W phase moment tensor inversion consists of a Mw 7.2 subevent and the main Mw 8.2 phase. We determine two slip models for

  18. Seaweed: A valuable marine plant source

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.; Pereira, N.

    Seaweed, one of the components of seashore, is the most unique and important marine living resource. Its multi-ranged applications are of economic as well as ecological importance. These plants have been a source of food, feed and medicine...

  19. Bottom-up control of consumers leads to top-down indirect facilitation of invasive annual herbs in semiarid Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal, Jaime; Kelt, Douglas A; Meserve, Peter L; Gutierrez, Julio R; Squeo, Francisco A

    2011-02-01

    The abundance of exotic plants is thought to be limited by competition with resident species (including plants and generalist herbivores). In contrast, observations in semiarid Chile suggest that a native generalist rodent, the degu (Octodon degus), may be facilitating the expansion of exotic annual plants. We tested this hypothesis with a 20-year data set from a World Biosphere Reserve in mediterranean Chile. In this semiarid environment, rainfall varies annually and dramatically influences cover by both native and exotic annual plants; degu population density affects the composition and cover of exotic and native annual plants. In low-rainfall years, cover of both native and exotic herbs is extremely low. Higher levels of precipitation result in proportional increases in cover of all annual plants (exotic and native species), leading in turn to increases in degu population densities, at which point they impact native herbs in proportion to their greater cover, indirectly favoring the expansion of exotic plants. We propose that bottom-up control of consumers at our site results in top-down indirect facilitation of invasive annual herbs, and that this pattern may be general to other semiarid ecosystems.

  20. REMOTE SENSING-BASED DETECTION AND SPATIAL PATTERN ANALYSIS FOR GEO-ECOLOGICAL NICHE MODELING OF TILLANDSIA SPP. IN THE ATACAMA, CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Wolf

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the coastal Atacama Desert in Northern Chile plant growth is constrained to so-called ‘fog oases’ dominated by monospecific stands of the genus Tillandsia. Adapted to the hyperarid environmental conditions, these plants specialize on the foliar uptake of fog as main water and nutrient source. It is this characteristic that leads to distinctive macro- and micro-scale distribution patterns, reflecting complex geo-ecological gradients, mainly affected by the spatiotemporal occurrence of coastal fog respectively the South Pacific Stratocumulus clouds reaching inlands. The current work employs remote sensing, machine learning and spatial pattern/GIS analysis techniques to acquire detailed information on the presence and state of Tillandsia spp. in the Tarapacá region as a base to better understand the bioclimatic and topographic constraints determining the distribution patterns of Tillandsia spp. Spatial and spectral predictors extracted from WorldView-3 satellite data are used to map present Tillandsia vegetation in the Tarapaca region. Regression models on Vegetation Cover Fraction (VCF are generated combining satellite-based as well as topographic variables and using aggregated high spatial resolution information on vegetation cover derived from UAV flight campaigns as a reference. The results are a first step towards mapping and modelling the topographic as well as bioclimatic factors explaining the spatial distribution patterns of Tillandsia fog oases in the Atacama, Chile.

  1. Remote Sensing-Based Detection and Spatial Pattern Analysis for Geo-Ecological Niche Modeling of Tillandsia SPP. In the Atacama, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, N.; Siegmund, A.; del Río, C.; Osses, P.; García, J. L.

    2016-06-01

    In the coastal Atacama Desert in Northern Chile plant growth is constrained to so-called `fog oases' dominated by monospecific stands of the genus Tillandsia. Adapted to the hyperarid environmental conditions, these plants specialize on the foliar uptake of fog as main water and nutrient source. It is this characteristic that leads to distinctive macro- and micro-scale distribution patterns, reflecting complex geo-ecological gradients, mainly affected by the spatiotemporal occurrence of coastal fog respectively the South Pacific Stratocumulus clouds reaching inlands. The current work employs remote sensing, machine learning and spatial pattern/GIS analysis techniques to acquire detailed information on the presence and state of Tillandsia spp. in the Tarapacá region as a base to better understand the bioclimatic and topographic constraints determining the distribution patterns of Tillandsia spp. Spatial and spectral predictors extracted from WorldView-3 satellite data are used to map present Tillandsia vegetation in the Tarapaca region. Regression models on Vegetation Cover Fraction (VCF) are generated combining satellite-based as well as topographic variables and using aggregated high spatial resolution information on vegetation cover derived from UAV flight campaigns as a reference. The results are a first step towards mapping and modelling the topographic as well as bioclimatic factors explaining the spatial distribution patterns of Tillandsia fog oases in the Atacama, Chile.

  2. Registro nuevo de Amphipyrinae en Chile A new record of Amphipyrinae from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania S. Olivares

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se registra por primera vez en Chile la especie Agrotisia subhyalina Hampson, entre las latitudes 18° 29' S 70° 20' O hasta 29° 54' S 71° 16' O (I-IV regiones en Chile. Se redescriben los genitales del macho y de la hembra y se presentan algunos aspectos taxonómicos de la especie.The species Agrotisia subhyalina Hampson is recorded for the first time from Chile (18° 29' S 70° 20' W to 29° 54' S 71° 16' W, I to IV Chilean regions. Redescriptions of male and female are presented, along with some taxonomic aspects of the species.

  3. Current Discussions Between ESO and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    [Joint Press Release by the Government of the Republic of Chile and the European Southern Observatory. The text is issued simultaneously in Santiago de Chile (in Spanish) and at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (in English).] Today, Tuesday, 18 April 1995, at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany), Mr. Roberto Cifuentes, Plenipotentiary Ambassador representing the Government of the Republic of Chile, and the Director General of the European Southern Observatory, Professor Riccardo Giacconi, have signed a Supplementary, Interpretative and Amending Agreement to the Convention of 6 November 1963 which governs the relations between Chile and this International Organisation. This Agreement which in practice signifies a widening and strengthening of the cooperative relations between the Organisation and the Chilean scientific community will hereafter be submitted for ratification by the National Congress of the Republic of Chile (the Parliament) and by the ESO Council. According to the Agreement signed today, Chilean astronomers will have privileged access within up to 10 percent observing time on all present and future ESO telescopes in Chile. Moreover, ESO accepts to incorporate into its labour regulations for Chilean personnel concepts like freedom of association and collective bargaining. This signing of the Supplementary, Interpretative and Amending Agreement to the original Convention of 1963 follows after months of constructive dialogue between the parties. It constitutes an important step towards a solution of some of the pending points on the current agenda for discussions between the Government of Chile and ESO. Among the issues still pending, ESO has informed the Government of Chile that respect for its immunities by the Chilean State is of vital importance for the continuation of the construction of the world's largest telescope at Paranal, as well as the continued presence of the Organisation in Chile. The Chilean Government, on its side, and concerning

  4. Internationalization of SMES: business opportunities in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, João Filipe Amado

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to identify the main business opportunities in Chile, legal advantages in the business perspective and entry strategies for small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). The methodology used was qualitative, by conducting several interviews with chamber of commerce representative from Portugal in Chile and Chile in Portugal, several young entrepreneurs from different nations operating in Chile, the CEO of a Spanish company that decided to not internationalize to...

  5. Quantification of severe accident source terms of a Westinghouse 3-loop plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Min; Ko, Y.-C.

    2008-01-01

    Integrated severe accident analysis codes are used to quantify the source terms of the representative sequences identified in PSA study. The characteristics of these source terms depend on the detail design of the plant and the accident scenario. A historical perspective of radioactive source term is provided. The grouping of radionuclides in different source terms or source term quantification tools based on TID-14844, NUREG-1465, and WASH-1400 is compared. The radionuclides release phenomena and models adopted in the integrated severe accident analysis codes of STCP and MAAP4 are described. In the present study, the severe accident source terms for risk quantification of Maanshan Nuclear Power Plant of Taiwan Power Company are quantified using MAAP 4.0.4 code. A methodology is developed to quantify the source terms of each source term category (STC) identified in the Level II PSA analysis of the plant. The characteristics of source terms obtained are compared with other source terms. The plant analyzed employs a Westinghouse designed 3-loop pressurized water reactor (PWR) with large dry containment

  6. Rodulfo Amando Philippi, el naturalista de mayor aporte al conocimiento taxonómico de la diversidad biológica de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIO A CASTRO

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Rodulfo Amando Philippi (1808-1904 es considerado uno de los naturalistas más influyentes en el desarrollo de las Ciencias Naturales en Chile. Entre las actividades científicas que desempeñó en el país está su dedicación al trabajo taxonómico y sistemático, que lo llevó a describir numerosas especies de plantas, animales y hongos. En este artículo se determina su contribución al conocimiento del patrimonio biológico de Chile, cuantificando el número y proporción de las especies actualmente válidas. De las especies descritas, 1.670 son consideradas válidas. Esta cifra equivale al 5,8 % de la diversidad biológica reconocida para Chile. Su mayor aporte se concentra en plantas vasculares, donde se encuentran vigentes 1.017 especies, que representan el 19 % de la flora vascular de Chile. Mención especial requiere el caso de algunos grupos, tales como anfibios, fasmatódeos, dermápteros y dípteros, cuya actual diversidad incluye 14, 30, 16 y 9 % de las especies de descritas por Philippi, respectivamente. De acuerdo a lo anterior y en comparación con otros taxónomos, Rodulfo Amando Philippi es el autor del mayor número de descripciones de especies válidas de la biota de ChileRodulfo Amando Philippi (1808-1904 is considered one of most influential in the development of natural sciences in Chile. Among his scientific endeavors, he contributed taxonomic descriptions of the biological diversity of Chile, encompassing organisms in three living kingdoms: plants, animals and fungi. In this article we examine his contribution to the knowledge of the biological wealth of Chile, quantifying the number and proportion of current valid species he described. Our findings indicate that Philippi described 1,670 valid species, equivalent to 5.8 % of the recognized biological diversity for Chile. His greatest contributions were in vascular plants with 1,017 species descriptions, which represent 19 % of the vascular flora of Chile. Special

  7. Glacial Hazards in Chile: Processes, Assessment, Mitigation and Risk Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, N. F.; Wilson, R.; Casassa, G., Sr.; Reynolds, J.; Harrison, S.; Shannon, S. R.; Schaefer, M.; Iribarran, P.

    2017-12-01

    Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs) are capable of travelling considerable distances from their source and they represent one of the most important glacial hazards. In line with observations in other parts of the world, the frequency of GLOF events in Chile has increased in recent decades highlighting the need to quantify the flood risk posed to downstream areas. This poster presents the work of the `Glacial Hazards in Chile' project which aims to (1) better understand the processes that govern the development of GLOFs in Chile, (2) estimate the socio-economic effects of GLOFs in Chile, and (3) provide a GLOF risk assessment framework that can be applied to Chile and other lower income countries globally. As an initial step towards the completion of these aims, we have recently compiled the first glacial lake inventory for the central and Patagonian Andes, which details the temporal development of glacial lakes in this region over the past three decades. This analysis was used to identify two lakes of interest that were visited during a fieldwork expedition in February 2017. The first of these, Lago Chileno in Patagonia, has recently produced a large GLOF causing significant damage to the downstream floodplain, whilst the second was identified as one of the fastest growing lakes in the central Andes. Both these lakes were surveyed using aerial imagery acquired with a drone and a custom-built bathymetry boat, data from which will help to improve our understanding of the physical processes associated with glacial lake development and failure within the Chilean Andes.

  8. Listening carefully. Unique observations of harmonic tremor at Lascar volcano, Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellweg, M. [Stuttgart Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Geophysik

    1999-06-01

    During the deployment of Proyecto de Investigacion Sismologica de la Cordillera Occidental 94 (PISCO '94) in the Atacama Desert of Northern Chile, a broadband seismic station and a network od three short-period three-component stations were installed around the active volcano Lascar (Chile). The paper analyzes the resulting data set, which include a sequence of harmonic tremor with a fundamental at a about 0.63 Hz and up to 30 overtones lasting 18 h. Power spectra and spectrograms of Lascar's harmonic tremor from the various stations demonstrate that the frequencies recorded cannot be explained as path effects, and must therefore be attributed to mechanisms at or near the source.

  9. Temporal evolution of main ambient PM2. 5 sources in Santiago, Chile, from 1998 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza, Francisco; Lambert, Fabrice; Jorquera, Héctor; María Villalobos, Ana; Gallardo, Laura

    2017-08-01

    The inhabitants of Santiago, Chile have been exposed to harmful levels of air pollutants for decades. The city's poor air quality is a result of steady economic growth, and stable atmospheric conditions adverse to mixing and ventilation that favor the formation of oxidants and secondary aerosols. Identifying and quantifying the sources that contribute to the ambient levels of pollutants is key for designing adequate mitigation measures. Estimating the evolution of source contributions to ambient pollution levels is also paramount to evaluating the effectiveness of pollution reduction measures that have been implemented in recent decades. Here, we quantify the main sources that have contributed to fine particulate matter (PM2. 5) between April 1998 and August 2012 in downtown Santiago by using two different source-receptor models (PMF 5.0 and UNMIX 6.0) that were applied to elemental measurements of 1243 24 h filter samples of ambient PM2.5. PMF resolved six sources that contributed to ambient PM2. 5, with UNMIX producing similar results: motor vehicles (37.3 ± 1.1 %), industrial sources (18.5 ± 1.3 %), copper smelters (14.4 ± 0.8 %), wood burning (12.3 ± 1.0 %), coastal sources (9.5 ± 0.7 %) and urban dust (3.0 ± 1.2 %). Our results show that over the 15 years analyzed here, four of the resolved sources significantly decreased [95 % confidence interval]: motor vehicles 21.3 % [2.6, 36.5], industrial sources 39.3 % [28.6, 48.4], copper smelters 81.5 % [75.5, 85.9], and coastal sources 58.9 % [38.5, 72.5], while wood burning did not significantly change and urban dust increased by 72 % [48.9, 99.9]. These changes are consistent with emission reduction measures, such as improved vehicle emission standards, cleaner smelting technology, introduction of low-sulfur diesel for vehicles and natural gas for industrial processes, public transport improvements, etc. However, it is also apparent that the mitigation expected from the above regulations has been partially

  10. Rule of Repression in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Indian Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This report on the current condition of the Mapuche Indians of Chile is edited from a document on the "Situation of Human Rights in Chile" and details the repressive and inhumane treatment of the largest indigenous ethnic minority in the country. (Author/RTS)

  11. Black carbon and other light-absorbing impurities in the Andes of Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, P. M.; Cordero, R.; Warren, S. G.; Pankow, A.; Jorquera, J.; Schrempf, M.; Doherty, S. J.; Cabellero, M.; Carrasco, J. F.; Neshyba, S.

    2015-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) and other light-absorbing impurities in snow absorb solar radiation and thus have the potential to accelerate glacial retreat and snowmelt. In Chile, glaciers and seasonal snow are important sources of water for irrigation and domestic uses. In July 2015 (Austral winter) we sampled snow in the western Andes in a north-south transect of Chile from 18 S to 34 S. Most of the sampled snow had fallen during a single synoptic event, during 11-13 July. The snow was melted and passed through 0.4 micrometer nuclepore filters. Preliminary estimates indicate that (1) the ratio of BC to dust in snow increases going south from Northern to Central Chile, and (2) in snow sampled during the two weeks following the snowstorm, the impurities were concentrated in the upper 5 cm of snow, indicating that the surface layer became polluted over time by dry deposition.

  12. Plant model of KIPT neutron source facility simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Yan; Wei, Thomas Y.; Grelle, Austin L.; Gohar, Yousry

    2016-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) of the United States and Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine are collaborating on constructing a neutron source facility at KIPT, Kharkov, Ukraine. The facility has 100-kW electron beam driving a subcritical assembly (SCA). The electron beam interacts with a natural uranium target or a tungsten target to generate neutrons, and deposits its power in the target zone. The total fission power generated in SCA is about 300 kW. Two primary cooling loops are designed to remove 100-kW and 300-kW from the target zone and the SCA, respectively. A secondary cooling system is coupled with the primary cooling system to dispose of the generated heat outside the facility buildings to the atmosphere. In addition, the electron accelerator has a low efficiency for generating the electron beam, which uses another secondary cooling loop to remove the generated heat from the accelerator primary cooling loop. One of the main functions the KIPT neutron source facility is to train young nuclear specialists; therefore, ANL has developed the KIPT Neutron Source Facility Simulator for this function. In this simulator, a Plant Control System and a Plant Protection System were developed to perform proper control and to provide automatic protection against unsafe and improper operation of the facility during the steady-state and the transient states using a facility plant model. This report focuses on describing the physics of the plant model and provides several test cases to demonstrate its capabilities. The plant facility model uses the PYTHON script language. It is consistent with the computer language of the plant control system. It is easy to integrate with the simulator without an additional interface, and it is able to simulate the transients of the cooling systems with system control variables changing on real-time.

  13. Plant model of KIPT neutron source facility simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Yan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wei, Thomas Y. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Grelle, Austin L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gohar, Yousry [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) of the United States and Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine are collaborating on constructing a neutron source facility at KIPT, Kharkov, Ukraine. The facility has 100-kW electron beam driving a subcritical assembly (SCA). The electron beam interacts with a natural uranium target or a tungsten target to generate neutrons, and deposits its power in the target zone. The total fission power generated in SCA is about 300 kW. Two primary cooling loops are designed to remove 100-kW and 300-kW from the target zone and the SCA, respectively. A secondary cooling system is coupled with the primary cooling system to dispose of the generated heat outside the facility buildings to the atmosphere. In addition, the electron accelerator has a low efficiency for generating the electron beam, which uses another secondary cooling loop to remove the generated heat from the accelerator primary cooling loop. One of the main functions the KIPT neutron source facility is to train young nuclear specialists; therefore, ANL has developed the KIPT Neutron Source Facility Simulator for this function. In this simulator, a Plant Control System and a Plant Protection System were developed to perform proper control and to provide automatic protection against unsafe and improper operation of the facility during the steady-state and the transient states using a facility plant model. This report focuses on describing the physics of the plant model and provides several test cases to demonstrate its capabilities. The plant facility model uses the PYTHON script language. It is consistent with the computer language of the plant control system. It is easy to integrate with the simulator without an additional interface, and it is able to simulate the transients of the cooling systems with system control variables changing on real-time.

  14. Floristic changes in alpine plant communities induced by the cushion plant Azorella madreporica (Apiaceae in the Andes of central Chile Cambios florísticos en comunidades de plantas alpinas inducidos por la planta en cojín Azorella madrepórica (Apiaceae en los Andes de Chile central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANZA L QUIROZ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the number of plant species associated with nurse plants increases with elevation. However, studies conducted so far have largely ignored the effect of nurse plants on other community attributes, such as the species abundances, diversity and evenness. Moreover, changes in these community attributes along environmental gradients have also been seldom examined. The present study evaluates the effect of the cushion plant Azorella madrepórica (Apiaceae on species richness, species abundance, diversity and evenness of vascular plants at two elevations in the Andes of central Chile. Theoretically, the impact of this nurse cushion plant on these community attributes should be grater at a higher elevation. Results showed that the proportion of plant species associated with cushion plants increases with elevation, and the abundance of some species is also greater within cushions than on bare ground. Although the proportion of species growing within cushions increased with elevation, diversity and evenness were higher on bare ground. This is due to some few species that attained very high densities within cushions, generating assemblages highly dominated by some few species. Ordination analyses indicated differences in species assemblages within and outside A. madrepórica at the higher elevation. Therefore, the influence of cushion plants on community structure changes with elevation. Accordingly, we suggest that attributes other than species richness must be included in future studies in order to analyze the impact of nurse species on community structure along environmental gradients.Se sabe que el número de especies asociado a plantas nodrizas aumenta con la altitud. Sin embargo, el efecto de plantas nodrizas sobre otros atributos de las comunidades, como la abundancia de especies, diversidad y equidad, ha sido largamente ignorado. Más aún, cambios en estos atributos en gradientes ambientales han sido pocas veces examinados

  15. Geologic and anthropogenic sources of contamination in settled dust of a historic mining port city in northern Chile: health risk implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseline S. Tapia

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Chile is the leading producer of copper worldwide and its richest mineral deposits are found in the Antofagasta Region of northern Chile. Mining activities have significantly increased income and employment in the region; however, there has been little assessment of the resulting environmental impacts to residents. The port of Antofagasta, located 1,430 km north of Santiago, the capital of Chile, functioned as mineral stockpile until 1998 and has served as a copper concentrate stockpile since 2014. Samples were collected in 2014 and 2016 that show elevated concentrations of As, Cu, Pb, and Zn in street dust and in residents’ blood (Pb and urine (As samples. To interpret and analyze the spatial variability and likely sources of contamination, existent data of basement rocks and soil geochemistry in the city as well as public-domain airborne dust were studied. Additionally, a bioaccessibility assay of airborne dust was conducted and the chemical daily intake and hazard index were calculated to provide a preliminary health risk assessment in the vicinity of the port. The main conclusions indicate that the concentrations of Ba, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, and V recorded from Antofagasta dust likely originate from intrusive, volcanic, metamorphic rocks, dikes, or soil within the city. However, the elevated concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Mo, Pb, and Zn do not originate from these geologic outcrops, and are thus considered anthropogenic contaminants. The average concentrations of As, Cu, and Zn are possibly the highest in recorded street dust worldwide at 239, 10,821, and 11,869 mg kg−1, respectively. Furthermore, the contaminants As, Pb, and Cu exhibit the highest bioaccessibilities and preliminary health risk indices show that As and Cu contribute to elevated health risks in exposed children and adults chronically exposed to dust in Antofagasta, whereas Pb is considered harmful at any concentration. Therefore, an increased environmental awareness and greater

  16. Geologic and anthropogenic sources of contamination in settled dust of a historic mining port city in northern Chile: health risk implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Joseline S; Valdés, Jorge; Orrego, Rodrigo; Tchernitchin, Andrei; Dorador, Cristina; Bolados, Aliro; Harrod, Chris

    2018-01-01

    Chile is the leading producer of copper worldwide and its richest mineral deposits are found in the Antofagasta Region of northern Chile. Mining activities have significantly increased income and employment in the region; however, there has been little assessment of the resulting environmental impacts to residents. The port of Antofagasta, located 1,430 km north of Santiago, the capital of Chile, functioned as mineral stockpile until 1998 and has served as a copper concentrate stockpile since 2014. Samples were collected in 2014 and 2016 that show elevated concentrations of As, Cu, Pb, and Zn in street dust and in residents' blood (Pb) and urine (As) samples. To interpret and analyze the spatial variability and likely sources of contamination, existent data of basement rocks and soil geochemistry in the city as well as public-domain airborne dust were studied. Additionally, a bioaccessibility assay of airborne dust was conducted and the chemical daily intake and hazard index were calculated to provide a preliminary health risk assessment in the vicinity of the port. The main conclusions indicate that the concentrations of Ba, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, and V recorded from Antofagasta dust likely originate from intrusive, volcanic, metamorphic rocks, dikes, or soil within the city. However, the elevated concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Mo, Pb, and Zn do not originate from these geologic outcrops, and are thus considered anthropogenic contaminants. The average concentrations of As, Cu, and Zn are possibly the highest in recorded street dust worldwide at 239, 10,821, and 11,869 mg kg -1 , respectively. Furthermore, the contaminants As, Pb, and Cu exhibit the highest bioaccessibilities and preliminary health risk indices show that As and Cu contribute to elevated health risks in exposed children and adults chronically exposed to dust in Antofagasta, whereas Pb is considered harmful at any concentration. Therefore, an increased environmental awareness and greater protective measures

  17. SESAME: a software tool for the numerical dosimetric reconstruction of radiological accidents involving external sources and its application to the accident in Chile in December 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huet, C; Lemosquet, A; Clairand, I; Rioual, J B; Franck, D; de Carlan, L; Aubineau-Lanièce, I; Bottollier-Depois, J F

    2009-01-01

    Estimating the dose distribution in a victim's body is a relevant indicator in assessing biological damage from exposure in the event of a radiological accident caused by an external source. This dose distribution can be assessed by physical dosimetric reconstruction methods. Physical dosimetric reconstruction can be achieved using experimental or numerical techniques. This article presents the laboratory-developed SESAME--Simulation of External Source Accident with MEdical images--tool specific to dosimetric reconstruction of radiological accidents through numerical simulations which combine voxel geometry and the radiation-material interaction MCNP(X) Monte Carlo computer code. The experimental validation of the tool using a photon field and its application to a radiological accident in Chile in December 2005 are also described.

  18. Relation between source term and emergency planning for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Zhongqi; Yang Ling

    1992-01-01

    Some background information of the severe accidents and source terms related to the nuclear power plant emergency planning are presented. The new source term information in NUREG-0956 and NUREG-1150, and possible changes in emergency planning requirements in U.S.A. are briefly provided. It is suggested that a principle is used in selecting source terms for establishing the emergency planning policy and a method is used in determining the Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ) size in China. Based on the research results of (1) EPZ size of PWR nuclear power plants being built in China, and (2) impact of reactor size and selected source terms on the EPZ size, it is concluded that the suggested principle and the method are suitable and feasible for PWR nuclear power plants in China

  19. Chile Energy Policy Review 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-22

    Since 1990, Chile has been the fastest growing economy in Latin America thanks to sound economic management and integration into the global economy. Chile can also be proud of its energy policy achievements. The pioneering privatisation and liberalisation of its electricity sector in the 1980s was the foundation for a competitive energy sector, which has sustained the rapid growth of the Chilean economy over the past two decades. Nonetheless, Chile faces the continuing challenge of finding additional energy supplies to fuel economic growth. Chile has limited fossil energy resources and depends on imports to meet three-quarters of its energy needs. The country's electricity sector has faced three periods of significant stress over the past decade. The last episode took place in 2007/2008, when the loss of natural gas imports from Argentina was further exacerbated by a drought in the central system, where hydropower normally accounts for over half of electricity generation. Drawing on the experience of IEA member countries, the Review assesses Chile's major energy challenges and provides recommendations. Six main themes emerge: the successful liberalisation of the power sector in the 1980s; the essential role played by the state in ensuring energy security; the re-formulation of Chile's long-term energy policy; the proposed reorganisation of the institutional framework; greater independence for the system operators; and the need for a clear framework of regulation so that long-term investment decisions integrate social and environmental costs. This publication is essential reading for all who are interested in Chilean energy issues and in learning about the important role sound energy policy can play in developing a nation's economic and social welfare.

  20. Vnější ekonomické vztahy Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Horáková, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Práce se zabývá vnějšími ekonomickými vztahy Chile. V první části je charakterizována ekonomika Chile. V druhé části je zmapován vývoj obchodní politiky Chile a zapojování Chile do ekonomické integrace. Poslední kapitola nejprve analyzuje vývoj obchodu Chile, ilustruje problém jednostranného zaměření chilského exportu a analyzuje obchodní vztahy s EU, USA a Čínou. Následně jsou naznačeny nové ?role? Chile ve vztahu ke světovému obchodu.

  1. Comparison between Different Power Sources for Emergency Power Supply at Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenasson, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Currently the Swedish nuclear power plants are using diesel generator sets and to some extent gas turbines as their emergency AC power sources and batteries as their emergency DC power sources. In the laws governing Swedish nuclear activity, no specific power sources are prescribed. On the other hand, diversification of safety functions should be considered, as well as simplicity and reliability in the safety systems. So far the choices of emergency power sources have been similar between different power plants, and therefore this project investigated a number of alternative power sources and if they are suitable for use as emergency power on nuclear power plants. The goals of the project were to: - Define the parameters that are essential for rending a power source suitable for use at a nuclear power plant. - Present the characteristics of a number of power sources regarding the defined parameters. - Compile the suitability of the different power sources. - Make implementation suggestions for the less conventional of the investigated power sources. (unconventional in the investigated application) 10 different power sources in total have been investigated and to various degrees deemed suitable Out of the 10 power sources, diesel generators, batteries and to some extent gas turbines are seen as conventional technology at the nuclear power plants. In relation to them the other power sources have been assessed regarding diversification gains, foremost with regards to external events. The power sources with the largest diversification gains are: Internal steam turbine, Hydro power, Thermoelectric generators. The work should first and foremost put focus on the fact that under the right circumstances there are power sources that can complement conventional power sources and yield substantial diversification gains. This paper is a shortened version of the report 'Comparison between different power sources for emergency power supply at nuclear power plants'. The

  2. [Papillomavirus and cervical cancer in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Ryan, Miguel; Valenzuela, María Teresa

    2008-11-01

    Molecular, clinical and epidemiological studies have established beyond doubt that human papiloma viruses (HPV) cause cervical cancer. The virus is also associated with genital warts and other less common cancers in oropharynx, vulva, vagina and penis. Worldwide, VPH genotypes 16 and 18 are the most common high risk genotypes, detected in near 70% of women with cervical cancer. The discovery of a cause-effect relationship between several carcinogenic microorganisms and cancer open avenues for new diagnostic, treatment and prevention strategies. In this issue of Revista Médica de Chile, two papers on HPV are presented. Guzman and colleagues demonstrate that HPV can be detected in 66% to 77% of healthy male adolescents bypolymerase chain reaction and that positivity depends on the site of the penis that is sampled. These results support the role of male to female transmission of high risk HPVs in Chile and should lead to even more active educational campaigns. The second paper provides recommendations for HPV vaccine use in Chile, generated by the Immunization Advisory Committee of the Chilean Infectious Disease Society. To issue these recommendations, the Committee analyzes the epidemiological information available on HPV infection and cervical cancer in Chile, vaccine safety and effectiveness data, and describes cost-effectiveness studies. Taking into account that universal vaccination is controversial, the Committee favors vaccine use in Chile and it's incorporation into a national program. However, there is an indication that the country requires the implementation of an integrated surveillance approach including cross matching of data obtained from HPV genotype surveillance, monitoring of vaccination coverage, and surveillance of cervical cancer. The final decision of universal vaccine use in Chile should be based on a through analysis of information.ev Mid Chile

  3. Chile: Civil-Military Relations and Democratic Consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Publishers, 1992), 41. 26 Javier Martinez and Alvaro Diaz , Chile The Great Transformation (Harrisonburg, Virginia: The Brookings Institution, 1996...the world economy, by means of technological advancements, makes it necessary to reduce 32 Javier Martinez and Alvaro Diaz , Chile the Great...disapproves the executive’s budget. There is no 60 Alicia Frohman, "Chile: External Actors and the Transition to Democracy," in Beyond Sovereignty

  4. Zahraničně obchodní politika Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Horáková, Anna

    2009-01-01

    The Diploma thesis focuses on foreign trade policy of Chile. The first part is a brief summary of socio-economic characteristics of the country. The following section deals with the individual strategies in the approach to foreign trade policy applied in Chile since independence to the present. It exams the determinants of changes in foreign trade policy of Chile and monitors changes in territorial and commodity structure of the foreign trade of Chile. In the final section assesses the curren...

  5. Primary Medical Care in Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scarpaci, Joseph L.

    Primary medical care in Chile: accessibility under military rule [Front Cover] [Front Matter] [Title Page] Contents Tables Figures Preface Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 2: The Restructuring of Medical Care Financing in Chile Chapter 3: Inflation and Medical Care Accessibility Chapter 4: Help......-Seeking Behavior of the Urban Poor Chapter 5: Spatial Organization and Medical Care Accessibility Chapter 6: Conclusion...

  6. Copper Bioleaching in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Gentina; Fernando Acevedo

    2016-01-01

    Chile has a great tradition of producing and exporting copper. Over the last several decades, it has become the first producer on an international level. Its copper reserves are also the most important on the planet. However, after years of mineral exploitation, the ease of extracting copper oxides and ore copper content has diminished. To keep the production level high, the introduction of new technologies has become necessary. One that has been successful is bioleaching. Chile had the first...

  7. Small mammals as indicators of cryptic plant species diversity in the central Chilean plant endemicity hotspot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Root-Bernstein

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Indicator species could help to compensate for a shortfall of knowledge about the diversity and distributions of undersampled and cryptic species. This paper provides background knowledge about the ecological interactions that affect and are affected by herbaceous diversity in central Chile, as part of the indicator species selection process. We focus on the ecosystem engineering role of small mammals, primarily the degu Octodon degus. We also consider the interacting effects of shrubs, trees, avian activity, livestock, slope, and soil quality on herbaceous communities in central Chile. We sampled herbaceous diversity on a private landholding characterized by a mosaic of savanna, grassland and matorral, across a range of degu disturbance intensities. We find that the strongest factors affecting endemic herbaceous diversity are density of degu runways, shrub cover and avian activity. Our results show that the degu, a charismatic and easily identifiable and countable species, could be used as an indicator species to aid potential conservation actions such as private protected area uptake. We map areas in central Chile where degus may indicate endemic plant diversity. This area is larger than expected, and suggests that significant areas of endemic plant communities may still exist, and should be identified and protected. Keywords: Cryptic species, Diversity, Endemic, Indicator species, Octodon degus, Plant

  8. Environmental policy, fuel prices and the switching to natural gas in Santiago, Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coria, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    In this study I analyzed the role of environmental policies and energy cost savings on the pattern of switching to natural gas by stationary sources in Chile. According to the data most of the switching was induced by the lower cost of natural gas, although environmental policies played a small role and showed that sources were more sensitive to the cost of energy than to the environmental regulation. (author)

  9. Parasites of the Green-backed Firecrown (Sephanoides sephaniodes in Chile Parásitos del picaflor chico (Sephanoides sephaniodes en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel González-Acuña

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal and external parasites from 12 Green-backed Firecrown (Sephanoides sephaniodes were collected between January 2004 and December 2008 from the Biobío Region south-central Chile and Santiago (central Chile. Helminths collected included 1 trematode species (Mosesia sp. and 1 cestode species (Hymenolepis trinidadensis. The mite Proctophyllodes huitzilopchtlii was the only ectoparasite species found. All these parasites represent new records for Chile and the first parasites reported for this host species.Se recolectaron parásitos internos (gastrointestinales y externos de 12 picaflores (Sephanoides sephaniodes entre enero del 2004 y diciembre del 2008, de la región del Biobío en el centro-sur de Chile y en Santiago, en la región central de Chile. Los helmintos recolectados incluyeron 1 especie de trematodo (Mosesia sp. y 1 de cestodo (Hymenolepis trinidadensis. Únicamente se encontró 1 especie de ectoparásito, el ácaro Proctophyllodes huitzilopchtlii. Todos los parásitos mencionados representan nuevos registros para Chile y se registran por primera vez para este hospedero.

  10. El Niño effects on soil seed bank dynamics in north-central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Julio R; Meserve, Peter L

    2003-03-01

    The soil seed bank was monitored in four 75x75 m plots over 6 years (1990-1995) in an arid thorn scrub community in north-central Chile. Sixty-six species were identified. Total seed densities ranged from 2,000 to 42,000/m(2). Average mass of shrub seeds was significantly greater than that of other growth-forms. Between 70 and 90% of the seeds were less than 1 mg, with those in the 0.51-1.00 mg size class being most numerous. Seed densities were highly variable between years as well as within years, but were also closely associated with plant cover patterns and rainfall regime. Higher seed densities were found in wet years, and in samples taken in early summer and early autumn (i.e., after seed set); the lowest seed densities were in late winter (i.e., after annual plant germination). The annual plant species with the highest cover were also the most abundant in the soil seed bank and exhibited the largest seed density fluctuations. In general, seed densities were 5- to 10-fold higher during the 1991-1992 El Niño/southern oscillation (ENSO) years than non-ENSO years, showing the importance of this phenomenon for seed bank replenishment in the arid region of Chile.

  11. Climatic zoning of chia (Salvia hispanica L. in Chile using a species distribution model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cortés

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Salvia hispanica L., known as chia, is a plant species originally from tropical and subtropical Mesoamerica. It is economically important because its seeds produce omega-3, thus its demand has increased in Chile and internationally. As there is no commercial production in Chile, we investigated the places in the country where this species could be cultivated in order to satisfy at the least the national demand. The aim of the study was to quantify the main climatic requirements of chia and to produce a climatic aptitude map for chia cultivation in Chile. The methodology was based on the Maxent species distribution model. We used 78 georeferenced data points where chia is grown throughout the world, mostly from the GBIF database, along with raster climatic layers from the Worldclim project. We estimated the performance curves of annual precipitation and temperature along with their respective optimal and critical values, in analogy with the Ecocrop method. The maps used two scenarios for crops in different conditions, with and without irrigation. The results indicated that the intermediate depression and coastal edge of mainly the Arica y Parinacota, Tarapacá, Antofagasta and Atacama regions have optimum conditions for irrigated crops, but it would be impossible in rainfed conditions. We conclude that chia’s cultivation niche is reduced due to its tropical climate requirements; however, it can be cultivated under irrigation in northern Chile.

  12. Climatic zoning of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) in Chile using a species distribution model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortés, D.; Silva, H.; Baginsky, C.; Morales, L.

    2017-01-01

    Salvia hispanica L., known as chia, is a plant species originally from tropical and subtropical Mesoamerica. It is economically important because its seeds produce omega-3, thus its demand has increased in Chile and internationally. As there is no commercial production in Chile, we investigated the places in the country where this species could be cultivated in order to satisfy at the least the national demand. The aim of the study was to quantify the main climatic requirements of chia and to produce a climatic aptitude map for chia cultivation in Chile. The methodology was based on the Maxent species distribution model. We used 78 georeferenced data points where chia is grown throughout the world, mostly from the GBIF database, along with raster climatic layers from the Worldclim project. We estimated the performance curves of annual precipitation and temperature along with their respective optimal and critical values, in analogy with the Ecocrop method. The maps used two scenarios for crops in different conditions, with and without irrigation. The results indicated that the intermediate depression and coastal edge of mainly the Arica y Parinacota, Tarapacá, Antofagasta and Atacama regions have optimum conditions for irrigated crops, but it would be impossible in rainfed conditions. We conclude that chia’s cultivation niche is reduced due to its tropical climate requirements; however, it can be cultivated under irrigation in northern Chile.

  13. Climatic zoning of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) in Chile using a species distribution model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortés, D.; Silva, H.; Baginsky, C.; Morales, L.

    2017-07-01

    Salvia hispanica L., known as chia, is a plant species originally from tropical and subtropical Mesoamerica. It is economically important because its seeds produce omega-3, thus its demand has increased in Chile and internationally. As there is no commercial production in Chile, we investigated the places in the country where this species could be cultivated in order to satisfy at the least the national demand. The aim of the study was to quantify the main climatic requirements of chia and to produce a climatic aptitude map for chia cultivation in Chile. The methodology was based on the Maxent species distribution model. We used 78 georeferenced data points where chia is grown throughout the world, mostly from the GBIF database, along with raster climatic layers from the Worldclim project. We estimated the performance curves of annual precipitation and temperature along with their respective optimal and critical values, in analogy with the Ecocrop method. The maps used two scenarios for crops in different conditions, with and without irrigation. The results indicated that the intermediate depression and coastal edge of mainly the Arica y Parinacota, Tarapacá, Antofagasta and Atacama regions have optimum conditions for irrigated crops, but it would be impossible in rainfed conditions. We conclude that chia’s cultivation niche is reduced due to its tropical climate requirements; however, it can be cultivated under irrigation in northern Chile.

  14. Chile; Staff Report for the 2003 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2003-01-01

    Chile has successfully resisted contagion from neighboring countries difficulties. Chile's inflation targeting framework has successfully anchored inflation expectations and increased the economy's resilience to external shocks while maintaining price stability. The floating exchange rate regime is an essential part of the macroeconomic policy framework and continues to serve Chile well. The interest in recapitalizing the central bank is welcomed. Executive Directors commend Chile for the tra...

  15. Can native plant species be preserved in an anthropogenic forest landscape dominated by aliens? A case study from Mediterranean Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffi Heinrichs

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Plantations with fast growing exotic tree species can negatively affect native plant species diversity and promote the spread of alien species. Mediterranean Chile experienced major landscape changes with a vast expansion of industrial plantations of Pinus radiata in the past. However, with increasing knowledge of biodiversity effects on ecosystem services Chilean forest owners now aim to integrate the conservation of native biodiversity into forest management, but data on native species diversity and establishment within a plantation landscape is scarce. Here we investigated plant species diversity and composition in four forest management options applied within a landscape dominated by P. radiata plantations in comparison to an unmanaged reference: (i a clear cut, (ii a strip cut, (iii a native canopy of Nothofagus glauca and (iv a young P. radiata plantation. We wanted to assess if native plant species can be maintained either by natural regeneration or by planting of native tree species (Nothofagus glauca, N. obliqua, Quillaja saponaria within this landscape. Results show a high diversity of native and forest plant species within the different management options indicating a high potential for native biodiversity restoration within an anthropogenic landscape. In particular, herbaceous species can benefit from management. They are rare in unmanaged natural forests that are characterized by low light conditions and a thick litter layer. Management, however, also promoted a diversity of alien species. The rapid spread of alien grass species after management can deter an initial establishment of native tree species or the survival and growth after planting mainly under dry but less under sufficient moisture conditions. The most unsuccessful option for promoting native plant species was clear cutting in a dry area where alien grasses were abundant. For drought-tolerant tree species such as Quillaja saponaria, though

  16. Lead sulfate nano- and microparticles in the acid plant blow-down generated at the sulfuric acid plant of the El Teniente mine, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barassi, Giancarlo M; Klimsa, Martin; Borrmann, Thomas; Cairns, Mathew J; Kinkel, Joachim; Valenzuela, Fernando

    2014-12-01

    The acid plant 'blow-down' (also called weak acid) produced at El Teniente mine in Chile was characterized. This liquid waste (tailing) is generated during the cooling and cleaning of the smelter gas prior to the production of sulfuric acid. The weak acid was composed of a liquid and a solid phase (suspended solids). The liquid phase of the sample analyzed in this study mainly contained Cu (562 mg L(-1)), SO4(2-) (32 800 mg L(-1)), Ca (1449 mg L(-1)), Fe (185 mg L(-1)), As (6 mg L(-1)), K (467 mg L(-1)) and Al (113 mg L(-1)). Additionally, the sample had a pH-value and total acidity of 0.45 and 2970 mg L(-1) as CaCO3, respectively. Hence, this waste was classified as extremely acidic and with a high metal content following the Ficklin diagram classification. Elemental analysis using atomic absorption, inductively coupled plasma, X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy showed that the suspended solids were anglesite (PbSO4) nano- and microparticles ranging from 50 nm to 500 nm in diameter.

  17. Where Do Mexico and Chile Stand on Inclusive Education? Short Title: Inclusion in Mexico and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cedillo, Ismael; Romero-Contreras, Silvia; Ramos-Abadie, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the background, current situation and challenges of educational integration and inclusive education in Mexico and Chile. These countries obtained similar low results on the academic achievement of their students (Mexico last and Chile second last) among OECD countries; and above average scores, among Latin-American countries.…

  18. Advanced Neutron Sources: Plant Design Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is a new, world class facility for research using hot, thermal, cold, and ultra-cold neutrons. At the heart of the facility is a 350-MW th , heavy water cooled and moderated reactor. The reactor is housed in a central reactor building, with supporting equipment located in an adjoining reactor support building. An array of cold neutron guides fans out into a large guide hall, housing about 30 neutron research stations. Office, laboratory, and shop facilities are included to provide a complete users facility. The ANS is scheduled to begin operation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the end of the decade. This Plant Design Requirements document defines the plant-level requirements for the design, construction, and operation of the ANS. This document also defines and provides input to the individual System Design Description (SDD) documents. Together, this Plant Design Requirements document and the set of SDD documents will define and control the baseline configuration of the ANS

  19. Retail Bank Interest Rate Pass-Through; Is Chile Atypical?

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Rebucci; Marco A Espinosa-Vega

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates empirically the pass-through of money market interest rates to retail banking interest rates in Chile, the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and five European countries. Overall, Chile's pass-through does not appear atypical. Based on a standard error-correction model, we find that, as in most countries considered, Chile's measured pass-through is incomplete. But Chile's pass-through is also faster than in many other countries considered and is comparable ...

  20. Mapuche medicinal plants: Proposition in their propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz Ovalle; Zoia Neira; Patricio Nunez

    2002-01-01

    The Mapuche (native indians from Chile) population is one of the largest populations of native indians left in America (approximately 1 million). As many of the other Native communities, they continuously struggle to maintain their rituals and customs. One of the most valuable customs for the Mapuche is the use of medicinal plants. All these plants are native plants...

  1. Institutional impediments to using alternative water sources in thermoelectric power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-08-03

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Obtaining adequate water supplies for cooling and other operations at a reasonable cost is a key factor in siting new and maintaining existing thermoelectric power plant operations. One way to reduce freshwater consumption is to use alternative water sources such as reclaimed (or recycled) water, mine pool water, and other nontraditional sources. The use of these alternative sources can pose institutional challenges that can cause schedule delays, increase costs, or even require plants to abandon their plans to use alternative sources. This report identifies and describes a variety of institutional challenges experienced by power plant owners and operators across the country, and for many of these challenges it identifies potential mitigating approaches. The information comes from publically available sources and from conversations with power plant owners/operators familiar with using alternative sources. Institutional challenges identified in this investigation include, but are not limited to, the following: (1) Institutional actions and decisions that are beyond the control of the power plant. Such actions can include changes in local administrative policies that can affect the use of reclaimed water, inaccurate growth projections regarding the amount of water that will be available when needed, and agency workloads and other priorities that can cause delays in the permitting and approval processes. (2) Developing, cultivating, and maintaining institutional relationships with the purveyor(s) of the alternative water source, typically a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP

  2. Socioeconomic determinants of disability in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitko Melo, Pedro; Cabieses Valdes, Báltica

    2011-10-01

    Disability is a worldwide public health priority. A shift from a biomedical perspective of dysfunction to a broader social understanding of disability has been proposed. Among many different social factors described in the past, socioeconomic position remains as a key multidimensional determinant of health. The study goal was to analyze the relationship between disability and different domains of socioeconomic position in Chile. Cross-sectional analysis of an anonymized population-based survey conducted in Chile in 2006. Any disability (dichotomous variable) and 6 different types of disability were analyzed on the bases of their relationship with income quintiles, occupational status, educational level, and material living standards (quality of the housing, overcrowding rate and sanitary conditions). Confounding and interaction effects were explored using R statistical program. Income, education, occupation, and material measures of socioeconomic position, along with some sociodemographic characteristics of the population, were independently associated with the chance of being disabled in Chile. Interestingly, classic measures of socioeconomic position (income, education, and occupation) were consistently associated with any disability in Chile, whereas material living conditions were partially confounded by these classic measures. In addition to this, each type of disability showed a particular pattern of related social determinants, which also varied by age group. This study contributed to the understanding of disability in Chile and how different domains of socioeconomic position might be associated with this prevalent condition. Disability remains a complex multidimensional public health problem in Chile that requires the inclusion of a wide range of risk factors, of which socioeconomic position is particularly relevant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Herbaceous land plants as a renewable energy source for Puerto Rico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, A.G.

    1980-01-01

    Herbaceous tropical plants are a renewable energy source of major importance to many tropical nations. They convert the radiant energy of sunlight to chemical energy, which is stored in plant tissues (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin) and fermentable solids (sugars, starches). Because all tropical plants do this - even those commonly regarded as weeds - they constitute an inexpensive, renewable, and domestic alternative to foreign fossil energy. The vast majority of herbaceous tropical plants have never been cultivated for food, fiber, or energy. A major screening program would be needed to identify superior species and the most effective roles they can play in a domestic energy industry. Other herbaceous plants, such as sugarcane and tropical forage grasses, have been cultivated for centuries as agricultural commodities. As energy crops, important revisions in management will be needed to maximize their energy yield. Two broad groups of herbaceous plants are seen to have an immediate potential for reducing Puerto Rico's reliance on imported fossil fuels: the tropical grasses (of which sugarcane is the dominant member) and the tropical legumes. Managed for its maximum growth potential, sugarcane is an excellent source of boiler fuel, fermentation substrates, cellulosic feedstocks, and the sweetener sucrose. Other tropical grasses store relatively little extractable sugar while equaling or moderately surpassing sugarcane in yield of cellulosic dry matter. The latter might soon become an economical source of fermentation substrates. Certain legume species are also very effective producers of biomass. Herbaceous tropical legumes are perceived as a potential source of biological nitrogen for energy crops unable to utilize nitrogen from the atmosphere.

  4. Herbaceous land plants as a renewable energy source for Puerto Rico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, A G

    1980-01-01

    Herbaceous tropical plants are a renewable energy source of major importance to many tropical nations. They convert the radiant energy of sunlight to chemical energy, which is stored in plant tissues (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin) and fermentable solids (sugars, starches). Because all tropical plants do this - even those commonly regarded as weeds - they constitute an inexpensive, renewable, and domestic alternative to foreign fossil energy. The vast majority of herbaceous tropical plants have never been cultivated for food, fiber, or energy. A major screening program would be needed to identify superior species and the most effective roles they can play in a domestic energy industry. Other herbaceous plants, such as sugarcane and tropical forage grasses, have been cultivated for centuries as agricultural commodities. As energy crops, important revisions in management will be needed to maximize their energy yield. Two broad groups of herbaceous plants are seen to have an immediate potential for reducing Puerto Rico's reliance on imported fossil fuels: the tropical grasses (of which sugarcane is the dominant member) and the tropical legumes. Managed for its maximum growth potential, sugarcane is an excellent source of boiler fuel, fermentation substrates, cellulosic feedstocks, and the sweetener sucrose. Other tropical grasses store relatively little extractable sugar while equaling or moderately surpassing sugarcane in yield of cellulosic dry matter. The latter might soon become an economical source of fermentation substrates. Certain legume species are also very effective producers of biomass. Herbaceous tropical legumes are perceived as a potential source of biological nitrogen for energy crops unable to utilize nitrogen from the atmosphere.

  5. Teacher Evaluation in Chile: Highlights and Complexities in 13 Years of Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos-Bevan, Beatrice

    2018-01-01

    The paper examines the process of establishing a teacher evaluation system in Chile and its acceptance by teachers over time. The conceptual base upon which the system was established is described. Evidence is also examined from a variety of data sources and research related to the evaluation system as well as teachers' use of its results. This…

  6. Análisis cuantitativo de la investigación en invasiones biológicas en Chile: tendencias y desafíos Quantitative analysis of the research in biological invasions in Chile: Trends and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANZA L QUIROZ

    2009-12-01

    biological invasions in Chile between the years 1991 and 2008. The analysis was performed for animals and plants, according to the focus of the study, and the methods used in the article. The time series of published articles on biological invasions in Chile is significantly related to the number of publications on biological invasions world-wide. We found that most studies in Chile have focused on the invasion of introduced species, followed by the naturalization of species and finally, species introduction. The study of invasión patterns has more often been evaluated in introduced plants than animals, while the study of the impact of introduced species shows the opposite trend. Most studies of introduced plants and animals have used a sampling approach, followed by experimental studies. We conclude that there are still some important challenges for researchers focused on biological invasions, including: 1 along with describing patterns, the studies should also aim to understand the processes behind these patterns, 2 more experimental work should be incorporated, specially assessing invasión impacts, 3 a greater integration should exist between conservation and ecosystem restoration, and 4 local studies should consider current conceptual frameworks.

  7. Temporal evolution of main ambient PM2. 5 sources in Santiago, Chile, from 1998 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Barraza

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The inhabitants of Santiago, Chile have been exposed to harmful levels of air pollutants for decades. The city's poor air quality is a result of steady economic growth, and stable atmospheric conditions adverse to mixing and ventilation that favor the formation of oxidants and secondary aerosols. Identifying and quantifying the sources that contribute to the ambient levels of pollutants is key for designing adequate mitigation measures. Estimating the evolution of source contributions to ambient pollution levels is also paramount to evaluating the effectiveness of pollution reduction measures that have been implemented in recent decades. Here, we quantify the main sources that have contributed to fine particulate matter (PM2. 5 between April 1998 and August 2012 in downtown Santiago by using two different source-receptor models (PMF 5.0 and UNMIX 6.0 that were applied to elemental measurements of 1243 24 h filter samples of ambient PM2.5. PMF resolved six sources that contributed to ambient PM2. 5, with UNMIX producing similar results: motor vehicles (37.3 ± 1.1 %, industrial sources (18.5 ± 1.3 %, copper smelters (14.4 ± 0.8 %, wood burning (12.3 ± 1.0 %, coastal sources (9.5 ± 0.7 % and urban dust (3.0 ± 1.2 %. Our results show that over the 15 years analyzed here, four of the resolved sources significantly decreased [95 % confidence interval]: motor vehicles 21.3 % [2.6, 36.5], industrial sources 39.3 % [28.6, 48.4], copper smelters 81.5 % [75.5, 85.9], and coastal sources 58.9 % [38.5, 72.5], while wood burning did not significantly change and urban dust increased by 72 % [48.9, 99.9]. These changes are consistent with emission reduction measures, such as improved vehicle emission standards, cleaner smelting technology, introduction of low-sulfur diesel for vehicles and natural gas for industrial processes, public transport improvements, etc. However, it is also apparent that the

  8. [Beginning of the Microbiology education in Chile: formation centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Carlos

    2015-08-01

    The first Chair of Microbiology in Chile was created in the School of Medicine of the Cañadilla at the University of Chile in 1892. Dr. Alejandro del Río Soto Aguilar was its first Professor. For almost three decades it was the only educational center for microbiologists in Chile. Among them were the first Professors of the new School of Medicine of the Catholic University of Chile and of the University of Concepción.

  9. Assessing the impact of plantation forestry on plant biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Ch. Braun

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Effects of plantation forestry on biodiversity are controversially discussed in literature. While some authors stress positive effects, others tend to attribute a largely negative influence to plantations. One important factor steering the influence on biodiversity are management practices. A second important factor is the environmental matrix. Chile offers the option to analyse both factors jointly. The coastal range of central Chile has experienced rapid and widespread replacement of native Nothofagus spp. forests in favour of Pinus radiata plantations. Here, native forests remain limited to small patches surrounded by an environmental matrix of plantations. Management is rather intensive and not designed to maintain biodiversity. While in the coastal range of central Chile the transformation from native forests to non-native tree plantations has almost come to an end, spatial extension of P. contorta and P. ponderosa plantations has just recently begun in Chilean Patagonia. While the management is similar to central Chile, plantations rather exist as small patches surrounded by an environmental matrix of native plant formations (e.g. Nothofagus spp. forests and Nothofagus spp. scrublands. In the framework of this work, effects of the two diametric land usages on biodiversity are assessed and compared. Biodiversity is assessed at the α-, β- and γ-scale. At the α-scale, biodiversity impacts are inferred statistically, using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s PostHoc test. Biodiversity of plants at both sites is significantly reduced in plantations when compared to native forests or scrublands. Plantation forestry lowers α-biodiversity and does not provide additional habitats for specialists. At the β-scale, weak edge effects due to the presence of native forests are observed. In total, plantation forestry tends to promote plant invasions and impairs the survival of endemics. At the γ-scale, plant species communities where predominantly native

  10. Village microgrids: The Chile project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E.I.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a village application in Chile. The objective was to demonstrate the technical, economic and institutional viability of renewable energy for rural electrification, as well as to allow local partners to gain experience with hybrid/renewable technology, resource assessment, system siting and operation. A micro-grid system is viewed as a small village system, up to 1200 kWh/day load with a 50 kW peak load. It can consist of components of wind, photovoltaic, batteries, and conventional generators. It is usually associated with a single generator source, and uses batteries to cover light day time loads. This paper looks at the experiences learned from this project with regard to all of the facets of planning and installing this project.

  11. El proceso emprendedor en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    José Miguel Benavente

    2004-01-01

    Este estudio analiza los factores que afectan en forma positiva y negativa el proceso de creación de emprendimientos dinámicos en Chile. Se basa en una encuesta a 200 empresas jóvenes, la cual es parte de una muestra de casi 2000 empresas de América Latina. El presente estudio se enfoca básicamente en el segmento de nuevos emprendimientos existentes en Chile.

  12. Connectivity and propagule sources composition drive ditch plant metacommunity structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre-Bac, Lisa; Ernoult, Aude; Mony, Cendrine; Rantier, Yann; Nabucet, Jean; Burel, Françoise

    2014-11-01

    The fragmentation of agricultural landscapes has a major impact on biodiversity. In addition to habitat loss, dispersal limitation increasingly appears as a significant driver of biodiversity decline. Landscape linear elements, like ditches, may reduce the negative impacts of fragmentation by enhancing connectivity for many organisms, in addition to providing refuge habitats. To characterize these effects, we investigated the respective roles of propagule source composition and connectivity at the landscape scale on hydrochorous and non-hydrochorous ditch bank plant metacommunities. Twenty-seven square sites (0.5 km2 each) were selected in an agricultural lowland of northern France. At each site, plant communities were sampled on nine ditch banks (totaling 243 ditches). Variables characterizing propagule sources composition and connectivity were calculated for landscape mosaic and ditch network models. The landscape mosaic influenced only non-hydrochorous species, while the ditch network impacted both hydrochorous and non-hydrochorous species. Non-hydrochorous metacommunities were dependent on a large set of land-use elements, either within the landscape mosaic or adjacent to the ditch network, whereas hydrochorous plant metacommunities were only impacted by the presence of ditches adjacent to crops and roads. Ditch network connectivity also influenced both hydrochorous and non-hydrochorous ditch bank plant metacommunity structure, suggesting that beyond favoring hydrochory, ditches may also enhance plant dispersal by acting on other dispersal vectors. Increasing propagule sources heterogeneity and connectivity appeared to decrease within-metacommunity similarity within landscapes. Altogether, our results suggest that the ditch network's composition and configuration impacts plant metacommunity structure by affecting propagule dispersal possibilities, with contrasted consequences depending on species' dispersal vectors.

  13. Residential Solar PV Planning in Santiago, Chile: Incorporating the PM10 Parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Cáceres

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses an economic study of the installation of photovoltaic (PV solar panels for residential power generation in Santiago, Chile, based on the different parameters of a PV system, such as efficiency. As a performance indicator, the Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE was used, which indicates the benefit of the facility vs. the current cost of electrical energy. In addition, due to a high level of airborne dusts typically associated with PM10, the effect of the dust deposition on PV panels’ surfaces and the effect on panel performance are examined. Two different scenarios are analyzed: on-grid PV plants and off-grid PV plants.

  14. Origin of fumarolic fluids from Tupungatito Volcano (Central Chile): interplay between magmatic, hydrothermal, and shallow meteoric sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavente, Oscar; Tassi, Franco; Gutiérrez, Francisco; Vaselli, Orlando; Aguilera, Felipe; Reich, Martin

    2013-08-01

    Tupungatito is a poorly known volcano located about 100 km eastward of Santiago (Chile) in the northernmost sector of the South Volcanic Zone. This 5,682 m high volcano shows intense fumarolic activity. It hosts three crater lakes within the northwestern portion of the summit area. Chemical compositions of fumarolic gases and isotopic signatures of noble gases (3He/4He and 40Ar/36Ar are up to 6.09 Ra and 461, respectively), and steam (δ18O and δD) suggest that they are produced by mixing of fluids from a magmatic source rich in acidic gas compounds (SO2, HCl, and HF), and meteoric water. The magmatic-hydrothermal fluids are affected by steam condensation that controls the outlet fumarolic temperatures (contamination from the subducting slab, (2) the sedimentary basement, and (3) limited contribution from crustal sediments. Gas geothermometry based on the kinetically rapid H2-CO equilibria indicates equilibrium temperatures 200 °C and redox conditions are consistent with those inferred by the presence of the SO2-H2S redox pair, typical of fluids that have attained equilibrium in magmatic environment. A comprehensive conceptual geochemical model describing the circulation pattern of the Tupungatito hydrothermal-magmatic fluids is proposed. It includes fluid source regions and re-equilibration processes affecting the different gas species due to changing chemical-physical conditions as the magmatic-hydrothermal fluids rise up toward the surface.

  15. On the effect of operation of the hydropower plant on the water quality of Rapel reservoir, central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossel, V.; De La Fuente, A.

    2013-12-01

    Eutrophication of lakes and reservoirs is a common problem in systems with high incoming loads of nutrients. The consequent algae bloom related to the eutrophication alters the water quality and generates an incompatibility with the tourist and recreational activities. This study is focused on Rapel reservoir: an old, dentritic and monomictic reservoir, located in central Chile (34°S, 71.6°W), that has experienced numerous algae bloom events in the past years produced by high loads of nutrients, sediments and metals. This reservoir was originally constructed in 1968 for hydropower generation without environmental restrictions on its operation. Rapel is part of Chile's Central Interconnected System (SIC), and is controlled by an independent system operator (ISO) that decides the optimal allocation of water by minimizing the SIC's operation cost. As a result of this framework, Rapel reservoir operates based on a hydropeaking scheme, thus producing energy few hours a day while zero outflows are observed the remaining hours, impacting on Rapel river located downstream the reservoir. However, previous research showed that this hydropeaking has important effects on the hydrodynamic of the reservoir as well. Particularly, it enhances vertical mixing nears the dam, and reduces horizontal dispersion. Furthermore, hydropeaking defines the outflows water temperature, and the temperature profile near the dam. As a consequence of this role of hydropeaking on the hydrodynamics and mixing of Rapel reservoir, it is expected to be a link between hydropeaking and water quality. The aim of the study is to evaluate the impact of the operation of hydropower plant on the water quality of Rapel reservoir, for which the reservoir system is modeled using the three dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality model ELCOM-CAEDYM. Field data to validate the results and to define boundary and initial conditions are available for the austral summer period of 2009-2010. Different scenarios of

  16. Estimating impacts of plantation forestry on plant biodiversity in southern Chile-a spatially explicit modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Andreas Christian; Koch, Barbara

    2016-10-01

    Monitoring the impacts of land-use practices is of particular importance with regard to biodiversity hotspots in developing countries. Here, conserving the high level of unique biodiversity is challenged by limited possibilities for data collection on site. Especially for such scenarios, assisting biodiversity assessments by remote sensing has proven useful. Remote sensing techniques can be applied to interpolate between biodiversity assessments taken in situ. Through this approach, estimates of biodiversity for entire landscapes can be produced, relating land-use intensity to biodiversity conditions. Such maps are a valuable basis for developing biodiversity conservation plans. Several approaches have been published so far to interpolate local biodiversity assessments in remote sensing data. In the following, a new approach is proposed. Instead of inferring biodiversity using environmental variables or the variability of spectral values, a hypothesis-based approach is applied. Empirical knowledge about biodiversity in relation to land-use is formalized and applied as ascription rules for image data. The method is exemplified for a large study site (over 67,000 km(2)) in central Chile, where forest industry heavily impacts plant diversity. The proposed approach yields a coefficient of correlation of 0.73 and produces a convincing estimate of regional biodiversity. The framework is broad enough to be applied to other study sites.

  17. Tuberculosis control in Bolivia, Chile, Colombia and Peru: why does incidence vary so much between neighbors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobero, R A; Peabody, J W

    2006-11-01

    In 2003, Peru and Bolivia reported the highest annual tuberculosis (TB) incidence rates in the Americas. Neighboring Colombia and Chile had lower annual incidence rates despite their proximity. To determine what factors contribute to differences in TB incidence rates among Chile, Colombia, Bolivia and Peru. Multiple sources of literature dating between 1990 and 2005 were used and World Health Organization TB control guidelines were consulted for policy level comparisons. Comprehensive implementation of the DOTS strategy is the main factor explaining the differences in TB incidence rates, even after considering socio-economic factors. Cross-national comparisons suggest ways to improve regional DOTS implementation.

  18. The 'PhenoBox', a flexible, automated, open-source plant phenotyping solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czedik-Eysenberg, Angelika; Seitner, Sebastian; Güldener, Ulrich; Koemeda, Stefanie; Jez, Jakub; Colombini, Martin; Djamei, Armin

    2018-04-05

    There is a need for flexible and affordable plant phenotyping solutions for basic research and plant breeding. We demonstrate our open source plant imaging and processing solution ('PhenoBox'/'PhenoPipe') and provide construction plans, source code and documentation to rebuild the system. Use of the PhenoBox is exemplified by studying infection of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon by the head smut fungus Ustilago bromivora, comparing phenotypic responses of maize to infection with a solopathogenic Ustilago maydis (corn smut) strain and effector deletion strains, and studying salt stress response in Nicotiana benthamiana. In U. bromivora-infected grass, phenotypic differences between infected and uninfected plants were detectable weeks before qualitative head smut symptoms. Based on this, we could predict the infection outcome for individual plants with high accuracy. Using a PhenoPipe module for calculation of multi-dimensional distances from phenotyping data, we observe a time after infection-dependent impact of U. maydis effector deletion strains on phenotypic response in maize. The PhenoBox/PhenoPipe system is able to detect established salt stress responses in N. benthamiana. We have developed an affordable, automated, open source imaging and data processing solution that can be adapted to various phenotyping applications in plant biology and beyond. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Noise source analysis of nuclear ship Mutsu plant using multivariate autoregressive model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, K.; Shimazaki, J.; Shinohara, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The present study is concerned with the noise sources in N.S. Mutsu reactor plant. The noise experiments on the Mutsu plant were performed in order to investigate the plant dynamics and the effect of sea condition and and ship motion on the plant. The reactor noise signals as well as the ship motion signals were analyzed by a multivariable autoregressive (MAR) modeling method to clarify the noise sources in the reactor plant. It was confirmed from the analysis results that most of the plant variables were affected mainly by a horizontal component of the ship motion, that is the sway, through vibrations of the plant structures. Furthermore, the effect of ship motion on the reactor power was evaluated through the analysis of wave components extracted by a geometrical transform method. It was concluded that the amplitude of the reactor power oscillation was about 0.15% in normal sea condition, which was small enough for safe operation of the reactor plant. (authors)

  20. Pollution in coastal fog at Alto Patache, Northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sträter, Ellen; Westbeld, Anna; Klemm, Otto

    2010-11-01

    The Atacama Desert in Northern Chile is one of the most arid places on earth. However, fog occurs regularly at the coastal mountain range and can be collected at different sites in Chile to supply settlements at the coast with freshwater. This is also planned in the fog oasis Alto Patache (20°49'S, 70°09'W). For this pilot study, we collected fog water samples in July and August 2008 for chemical analysis to find indications for its suitability for domestic use. Fog water samples were taken with a cylindrical scientific fog collector and from the net and the storage tank of a Large Fog Collector (LFC). The pHs of advective fog, originating from the stratus cloud deck over the Eastern Pacific, varied between 2.9 and 3.5. Orographic fog, which was formed locally, exhibited a pH of 2.5. About 50% of the total ionic concentration was due to sea salt. High percentages of sulfate and very high enrichment factors (versus sea salt) of heavy metals were found. Both backward trajectories and the enrichment factors indicate that the high concentrations of ions and heavy metals in fog were influenced by anthropogenic activities along the Chilean Pacific Coast such as power plants, mining, and steel industry. We found no direct indication for the importance of other sources such as the emission of dimethyl sulfide from the ocean and subsequent atmospheric oxidation for acidity and sulfate or soil erosion for heavy metal concentrations. When fog water was collected by the LFC, it apparently picked up large amounts of dry deposition which accumulated on the nets during fog-free periods. This material is rinsed off the collector shortly after the onset of a fog event with the water collected first. During the first flush, some concentrations of acidity, nitrate, As, and Se, largely exceeded the Chilean drinking water limits. Before any use of fog water for domestic purpose, its quality should be checked on a regular basis. Strategies to mitigate fog water pollution are given.

  1. Isotopic composition and origin of the precipitation in Northern Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravena, R.; Pena, H.; Grilli, A.; Pollastri, A.; Fuenzalida, H.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: A three years isotope data on precipitation collected in northern Chile show a very distinct pattern, with depleted δ 18 and -150/00 observed at high altitude stations, compared to δ 18 0 values ranging between - 10 and -6/00 measured at the lower altitude areas. The depleted δ 0 values observed in the high altitude area, the Altiplano, are related to different processes that affect the air masses as moved from the Atlantic, crossed the Amazon Basin (continental effect), ascend the Andes (altitude effect) and precipitated (convective effect) in the Altiplano. It is postulated that a second source of moisture, associated to air masses from the Pacific, explained the enriched isotopic values observed in the lower altitude areas. Similar isotopic pattern, documented in springs and groundwater, indicates that the rain data presented in this paper is an accurate representation of the long term behavior of the isotopic composition of the rain in northern Chile

  2. The current situation for gastric cancer in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglevic, Christian; Silva, Shirley; Mahave, Mauricio; Rolfo, Christian; Gallardo, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a neoplasm with a high incidence and mortality rate in Chile where more than 3000 people die every year from this type of cancer. This study shows the clinical and epidemiological considerations of this disease, information about translational research on this pathology in Chile, the contribution of Chilean doctors to the development of gastric cancer management awareness and the general situation of gastric cancer in Chile.

  3. Efectos de la planta en cojín Oreopolus glacialis (Rubiaceae sobre la riqueza y diversidad de especies en una comunidad alto-andina de Chile central Effects of the cushion plant Oreopolus glacialis (Rubiaceae on species richness and diversity in a high-Andean plant community of central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERNESTO I BADANO

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Las plantas en cojín que crecen en ambientes de alta montaña modifican microclimáticamente su entorno, generando microhábitats favorables para el establecimiento de otras especies, actuando como nodrizas. Varios estudios han demostrado que los cojines contienen una mayor riqueza de especies que los espacios abiertos. Sin embargo, hasta ahora, no se ha evaluado el efecto de los cojines sobre otros parámetros comunitarios como la abundancia de individuos, la diversidad y la equitatividad. En este trabajo se analiza el efecto que posee Oreopolus glacialis, una planta en cojín de la cordillera andina, sobre la riqueza, abundancia, diversidad y equitatividad de la comunidad vegetal en un ambiente de alta montaña ubicado a 1.900 m en Chile central. Se determino la riqueza y abundancia de especies que crecen tanto sobre cojines de O. glacialis como en los espacios abiertos entre cojines. Los resultados mostraron que la riqueza de especies y la abundancia de individuos por unidad de área es mayor dentro de los cojines que fuera de ellos. Sin embargo, los valores de diversidad y equitatividad sobre O. glacialis fueron menores que fuera de ellos debido a la presencia de algunas especies dominantes. Análisis particulares de la frecuencia y abundancia de cada especie mostraron que no todas las especies son afectadas de la misma manera por la presencia de este cojín, por lo que O. glacialis actuaría como nodriza sólo para una parte limitada de los componentes de la comunidadCushion plants growing in high mountain habitats can modify the microclimate within their canopy generating microhabitats more favorable for the recruitment of other plant species, acting as nurse plants. Although several studies have shown that species richness is higher within cushions than outside them, no attempts have been made in order to assess the effect of cushions on other community aspects such as total and individual abundance, diversity and evenness. In this study

  4. Rising Expectations in Brazil and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elacqua, Gregory; Alves, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Two themes connect Brazil and Chile: one is economic success; the other is social unrest. Protests rocked cities across Brazil in June 2013, and in Chile, recent student protests turned violent. Yet living conditions in both nations are better now than they've ever been. Successful economic and social reforms over the last two decades have led to…

  5. IDRC in Chile

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    occupied by Morocco). SENEGAL. GUINEA BISSAU. CHILE. Santiago. %. 0. 300 km. ARGENTINA. BOLIVIA. PERU. Arica. Punta Arenas . Puerto Montt . South. Pacific. Ocean. South. Atlantic. Ocean. Antofagasta. Coquimbo. Valparaiso. Concepcíon.

  6. [Plants as a source of natural harmful substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwiecki, Ludwik

    2005-01-01

    In this review the several data concerning phytotoxins as natural harmful substances of plants and phycotoxins--toxicants of algae were described. For example plants are source of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, glycoalkaloids, glucosinolates as well as glycosides, saponine and psolarens. Possible adverse effects of phytoestrogens as endocrine disruptors versus beneficial influence these substances on human organism were mentioned. About lectins as possible factors of some diseases was reported, as well as some proteins as allergens of soy and peanuts was mentioned. Accumulated by shellfish and fish the most important phycotoxins such as saxitoxin, okadaic acid, brevetoxins and ciguatoxins were described. Phycotoxins produced several poisoning symptoms. Microcystins and nodularin--cyanobacterial phycotoxins of freshwater, was mentioned. In conclusion, the need of limitation of permissible levels of some plant toxicants, development of analytical methods as well as knowledge of influence of some technological processes on toxic plant substances was highlighted. The importance of balanced diet as a tool of defense against plant toxicants was concluded.

  7. Grid-wide subdaily hydrologic alteration under massive wind power penetration in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, J; Olivares, M A; Palma-Behnke, R

    2015-05-01

    Hydropeaking operations can severely degrade ecosystems. As variable renewable sources (e.g. wind power) are integrated into a power grid, fluctuations in the generation-demand balance are expected to increase. In this context, compensating technologies, notably hydropower reservoir plants, could operate in a stronger peaking scheme. This issue calls for an integrated modeling of the entire power system, including not only hydropower reservoirs, but also all other plants. A novel methodology to study the link between the short-term variability of renewable energies and the subdaily hydrologic alteration, due to hydropower reservoir operations is presented. Grid operations under selected wind power portfolios are simulated using a short-term hydro-thermal coordination tool. The resulting turbined flows by relevant reservoir plants are then compared in terms of the Richard-Baker flashiness index to both the baseline and the natural flow regime. Those are then analyzed in order to: i) detect if there is a significant change in the degree of subdaily hydrologic alteration (SDHA) due to a larger wind penetration, and ii) identify which rivers are most affected. The proposed scheme is applied to Chile's Central Interconnect System (SIC) for scenarios up to 15% of wind energy penetration. Results show a major degree of SDHA under the baseline as compared to the natural regime. As wind power increases, so does the SDHA in two important rivers. This suggests a need for further ecological studies in those rivers, along with an analysis of operational constraints to limit the SDHA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nootropic, anxiolytic and CNS-depressant studies on different plant sources of shankhpushpi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Jai; Karan, Maninder; Vasisht, Karan

    2011-12-01

    Shankhpushpi, a well-known drug in Ayurveda, is extensively used for different central nervous system (CNS) effects especially memory enhancement. Different plants are used under the name shankhpushpi in different regions of India, leading to an uncertainty regarding its true source. Plants commonly used under the name shankhpushpi are: Convolvulus pluricaulis Chois., Evolvulus alsinoides Linn., both from Convolvulaceae, and Clitoria ternatea Linn. (Leguminosae). To find out the true source of shankhpushpi by evaluating and comparing memory-enhancing activity of the three above mentioned plants. Anxiolytic, antidepressant and CNS-depressant activities of these three plants were also compared and evaluated. The nootropic activity of the aqueous methanol extract of each plant was tested using elevated plus-maze (EPM) and step-down models. Anxiolytic, antidepressant and CNS-depressant studies were evaluated using EPM, Porsolt?s swim despair and actophotometer models, respectively. C. pluricaulis extract (CPE) at a dose of 100 mg/kg, p.o. showed maximum nootropic and anxiolytic activity (p nootropic, anxiolytic and CNS-depressant activity. The results of memory-enhancing activity suggest C. pluricaulis to be used as true source of shankhpushpi.

  9. Checklist, diversity and distribution of testate amoebae in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Leonardo D; Lara, Enrique; Mitchell, Edward A D

    2015-10-01

    Bringing together more than 170 years of data, this study represents the first attempt to construct a species checklist and analyze the diversity and distribution of testate amoebae in Chile, a country that encompasses the southwestern region of South America, countless islands and part of the Antarctic. In Chile, known diversity includes 416 testate amoeba taxa (64 genera, 352 infrageneric taxa), 24 of which are here reported for the first time. Species-accumulation plots show that in Chile, the number of testate amoeba species reported has been continually increasing since the mid-19th century without leveling off. Testate amoebae have been recorded in 37 different habitats, though they are more diverse in peatlands and rainforest soils. Only 11% of species are widespread in continental Chile, while the remaining 89% of the species exhibit medium or short latitudinal distribution ranges. Also, species composition of insular Chile and the Chilean Antarctic territory is a depauperated subset of that found in continental Chile. Nearly, the 10% of the species reported here are endemic to Chile and many of them are distributed only within the so-called Chilean biodiversity hotspot (ca. 25° S-47° S). These findings are here thoroughly discussed in a biogeographical and evolutionary context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Importance of water quality on plant abundance and diversity in high-alpine meadows of the Yerba Loca Natural Sanctuary at the Andes of north-central Chile Importancia de la calidad del agua sobre la abundancia y diversidad vegetal en vegas altoandinas del Santuario Natural Yerba Loca en los Andes de Chile centro-norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSANNA GINOCCHIO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Porphyry Cu-Mo deposits have influenced surface water quality in high-Andes of north-central Chile since the Miocene. Water anomalies may reduce species abundance and diversity in alpine meadows as acidic and metal-rich waters are highly toxic to plants The study assessed the importance of surface water quality on plant abundance and diversity in high-alpine meadows at the Yerba Loca Natural Santuary (YLNS, central Chile (33°15' S, 70°18' W. Hydrochemical and plant prospecting were carried out on Piedra Carvajal, Chorrillos del Plomo and La Lata meadows the growing seasons of 2006 and 2007. Direct gradient analysis was performed through canonical correspondence analysis (CCA to look for relationships among water chemistry and plant factors. High variability in water chemistry was found inside and among meadows, particularly for pH, sulphate, electric conductivity, hardness, and total dissolved Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Fe. Data on species abundance and water chemical factors suggests that pH and total dissolved Cu are very important factor determining changes in plant abundance and diversity in study meadows. For instance, Festuca purpurascens, Colobanthus quitensis, and Arenaria rivularis are abundant in habitals with Cu-rich waters while Festuca magellanica, Patosia clandestina, Plantago barbata, Werneria pygmea, and Erigeron andícola are abundant in habitals with dilute waters.Los megadepósitos de pórfidos de Cu-Mo han influido sobre la calidad de las aguas superficiales en las zonas altoandinas del centro-norte de Chile desde el Mioceno. Estas alteraciones en la calidad de las aguas podrían afectar negativamente a la vegetación presente en las vegas altoandinas, ya que las aguas acidas y ricas en metales son altamente tóxicas para las plantas. En este estudio se evaluó el efecto de la calidad de las aguas en la abundancia y diversidad florística de las vegas altoandinas del Santuario de la Naturaleza Yerba Loca (SNYL, en Chile central (33

  11. Chile: protección social de la salud Chile: social protection in health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Urriola

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This piece begins with a brief discussion of the concepts leading to the social right to health protection. Special emphasis is placed on the principle of social cohesion, which has influenced social health protection in European countries. Chile’s experience in this field from the 1990s to the present is described, as exemplified in three dimensions. In the first place, social security coverage is presented as a means to achieve universal (horizontal coverage. A discussion follows on vertical coverage, where the author identifies health problems for which insured persons have guaranteed rights of access to medical care. This section describes available emergency care, primary health care, and the special plan for Universal Access to Explicit Guarantees (Acceso Universal de Garantías Explícitas de salud, or AUGE. Thirdly, the discussion covers the funding sources supporting the Chilean health care system: Government subsidies, contributions to social security, and out-of-pocket disbursements for private care. Chile’s public health system has various special programs. One of them is catastrophic insurance, which covers 100% of the care needed for complex and very costly treatments. Older persons (over 65 have coverage for 100% of the cost of eyeglasses and hearing aids, and for 50% of the cost of home care. If life expectancy is an appropriate indicator of health system results, it is worth noting that Chile and the United States of America have both achieved a life expectancy of 77 years, even though Chile spends only 5.9% of its gross domestic product on health care, as compared to the 15% spent by the United States.

  12. Intense Seismic Activity at Chiles and Cerro Negro Volcanoes on the Colombia-Ecuador Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, R. A.; Cadena, O.; Gomez, D.; Ruiz, M. C.; Prejean, S. G.; Lyons, J. J.; White, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    The region of Chiles and Cerro Negro volcanoes, located on the Colombian-Ecuadorian border, has experienced an ongoing seismic swarm beginning in Aug. 2013. Based on concern for local residents and authorities, a cooperative broadband monitoring network was installed by the Servicio Geológico Colombiano in Colombia and the Instituto Geofísico of the Escuela Politécnica Nacional in Ecuador. Since November 2013 more than 538,000 earthquakes were recorded; although since May 2015 the seismicity has decreased significantly to an average of 70 events per day. Three large earthquake swarms with increasing energy occurred in Aug.-Oct. 2013, March-May 2014, and Sept.-Dec. 2014. By the end of 2014, roughly 400 earthquakes greater than M 3 had occurred with a maximum rate of 8000 earthquakes per day. The largest earthquake was a 5.6 ML on Oct. 20, 2014. This event produced an InSAR coseismic deformation of ~23 cm (S. Ebmeier, personal communication). Most events are typical brittle failure volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes that are located in a cluster beneath the southern flank of Chiles volcano, with depths between 1.5 and 10 km. Although the great majority of earthquakes are VT, some low-frequency (LF, ~0.5 Hz) and very-low-frequency (VLF) events have occurred. Particle motion analysis suggests that the VLF source migrated with time. While a VLF on Oct. 15, 2014 was located south of Chiles volcano, near the InSAR source, the VLF registered on Feb. 14, 2015 was likely located very close to Chiles Volcano. We infer that magma intrusion and resulting fluid exsolution at depths greater than 5 km are driving seismicity in the Chiles-Cerro Negro region. However earthquakes are failing in a manner consistent with regional tectonics. Relative relocations reveal a structure consistent with mapped regional faults. Thus seismicity is likely controlled by an interaction of magmatic and tectonic processes. Because the regional stress field is highly compressional and the volcanoes

  13. Plant uptake of pentachlorophenol from sludge-amended soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellin, C.A.; O'Connor, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the effects of sludge on plant uptake of 14 C-pentachlorophenol (PCP). Plants included tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), lettuce (Latuca sativa L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.), and chile pepper (Capsicum annum L.). Minimal intact PCP was detected in the fescue and lettuce by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. No intact PCP was detected in the carrot tissue extracts. Chile pepper was not analyzed for intact PCP because methylene chloride extracts contained minimal 14 C. The GC/MS analysis of soil extracts at harvest suggests a half-life of PCP of about 10 d independent of sludge rate or PCP loading rate. Rapid degradation of PCP in the soil apparently limited PCP availability to the plant. Bioconcentration factors (dry plant wt./initial soil PCP concentration) based on intact PCP were < 0.01 for all crops, suggesting little PCP uptake. Thus, food-chain crop PCP uptake in these alkaline soils should not limit land application of sludge

  14. Production and consumption of energy in Chile 1987. Produccion y consumo de energia en Chile 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    Presents information, at a national level, on production and consumption of various types of energy, including statistical data on commercial deals (hydrocarbons, coal) and the activities of the companies (hydromechanical energy, vegetable wastes for power generation and biogas). Electrical energy is described in detail. The first chapter presents an energy overview of the country and its energy sources, evaluating each one in order to obtain the total energy produced in Chile. The second chapter deals with electric power in the country, classifying power installed, generated and consumed by category of producer, consumer and generating type. The third chapter discusses the planned capacity of the Zonas Electricas, and the fourth chapter reviews the characteristics of the installations, production statistics, consumption and operation of the grid.

  15. Chile: los mapuches y el Bicentenario Chile: Mapuches e do Bicentenario Chile: Mapuche and the Bicentennial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Bengoa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El Bicentenario de la República de Chile se conmemoró en el mes de septiembre del año 2010. Además de marcar un importante hito histórico, coincidió con un cambio político en el Gobierno del país, el que pasó de la Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia a la Alianza de partidos formada por la derecha chilena. Se cumplieron por tanto 20 años desde que en el año 1990 cambiara el Gobierno militar presidido por el general Pinochet. Ese largo tiempo, dos décadas, coincide con un período de políticas que el Estado ha implementado hacia los Pueblos Indígenas. El Proyecto “Conmemoraciones y Memorias Subalternas” ha realizado durante el año 2010 un conjunto de investigaciones de terreno y documentales tendientes a comprender del modo más objetivo y científico lo ocurrido en el período y por tanto la situación actual de las sociedades mapuches en sus complejas relaciones con la chilena.O Bicentenario da República do Chile comemorou-se no mês de Setembro do ano 2010. Junto com transformar-se num marco histórico, coincidiu com uma mudança política no Governo do país, que passou da Concertação de Partidos pela Democracia (centro-esquerda à Aliança de partidos formada pela direita chilena. Cumpriram-se por tanto 20 anos desde que em 1990 mudasse o Governo militar presidido pelo general Pinochet. Esse longo tempo, duas décadas, coincide com um período de políticas que o Estado implementou para com os Povos Indígenas. O Projeto “Comemorações e Memórias Subalternas” realizou durante o ano 2010 um conjunto de pesquisas de campo e documentais tendentes a compreender do modo mais objetivo e científico o ocorrido no período e, por tanto, a situação atual das sociedades mapuches em suas complexas relações com a chilena.The conmeration of the 200 years of the Independence of Chile was in September 2010. This year was also the political change from the Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia to the right

  16. Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The beginning of spring in central Chile looked like this to SeaWiFS. The snow-covered Andes mark the country's eastern border, and phytoplankton blooms and river sediment plumes fill the waters off its west coast. A large eddy due west of Concepcion is highlighted by the phytoplankton it contains.

  17. Nuclear heat source design for an advanced HTGR process heat plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.F.; O'Hanlon, T.W.

    1983-01-01

    A high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) coupled with a chemical process facility could produce synthetic fuels (i.e., oil, gasoline, aviation fuel, methanol, hydrogen, etc.) in the long term using low-grade carbon sources (e.g., coal, oil shale, etc.). The ultimate high-temperature capability of an advanced HTGR variant is being studied for nuclear process heat. This paper discusses a process heat plant with a 2240-MW(t) nuclear heat source, a reactor outlet temperature of 950 0 C, and a direct reforming process. The nuclear heat source outputs principally hydrogen-rich synthesis gas that can be used as a feedstock for synthetic fuel production. This paper emphasizes the design of the nuclear heat source and discusses the major components and a deployment strategy to realize an advanced HTGR process heat plant concept

  18. Center for oceanographic research opens in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Carina B.; Ulloa, Osvaldo

    The Humboldt Current System, with its coastal upwelling ecosystem off Peru and Chile, is one of the most productive marine systems in the world. Here, significant exchange of heat and CO2 takes place between the ocean and the atmosphere due to upwelling of sub-surface, cold, nutrient-rich, CO2-saturated waters. In addition, the eastern South Pacific holds one of the three most important oxygen minimum zones of the global ocean. Through the biologically mediated process of denitrification, the oxygen minimum zone contributes to the global sink of nitrogen in the ocean and as a source of the greenhouse gas N2O to the atmosphere.

  19. Source-sink relationships in radish plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Starck

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of source-sink relationships in di- and tetraploidal radish plants grown in. hydroponic cultures was investigated in two stages of their development: with intensively growing swollen hypocotyl and in the period of actively accumulating nutrients in the storage organ. It was found, that the proportion, between the mass of organs, their RGR and NAR was very similar in di- and tetraploidal populations, probably owing to a similar rate of photosynthesis and pattern of assimilates distribution. The high variability of swollen hypocotyls size is slightly correlated with the size of the whole aerial part and is not correlated with the rate of photosynthesis in leaves. Partial defoliation of radish plants did not affect the rate of photosynthesis of the remaining leaves. Only in the cotyledones the oldest donors of 14C-assimilates, a slight compensation of photosynthesis was reported. It may suggest, that the rate of photosynthesis in radish plants is not under the control of sink activity. The size of the storage organ have determined in some extent its attractive force and influenced the amount of 14C-assimilates exported from their donors. Translocation of photosynthates from the young, still growing leaves was conditioned mainly by their retention power. Therefore, in young radish plants cotyledons were the main donor of 14C-assimilates.

  20. Recovery of black-necked swans, macrophytes and water quality in a Ramsar wetland of southern Chile: Assessing resilience following sudden anthropogenic disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Eduardo; Lagos, Nelson A; Labra, Fabio A; Paredes, Enrique; Acuña, Emilio; Melnick, Daniel; Manzano, Mario; Velásquez, Carlos; Duarte, Cristian

    2018-07-01

    In 2004 migration and mortality for unknown reasons of the herbivorous Black necked swan (Cygnus melancorhyphus (Molina, 1782)) occurred within the Río Cruces wetland (southern Chile), a Ramsar Site and nature sanctuary. Before 2004, this wetland hosted the largest breeding population of this water bird in the Neotropic Realm. The concurrent decrease in the spatial occurrence of the aquatic plant Egeria densa Planch. 1849 - the main food source of swans - was proposed as a cause for swan migration and mortality. Additionally, post-mortem analyses carried out on swans during 2004 showed diminished body weight, high iron loads and histopathological abnormalities in their livers, suggesting iron storage disease. Various hypotheses were postulated to describe those changes; the most plausible related to variations in water quality after a pulp mill located upstream the wetland started to operate in February 2004. Those changes cascaded throughout the stands of E. densa whose remnants had high iron contents in their tissues. Here we present results of a long-term monitoring program of the wetland components, which show that swan population abundance, body weights and histological liver conditions recovered to pre-disturbance levels in 2012. The recovery of E. densa and iron content in plants throughout the wetland, also returned to pre-disturbance levels in the same 8-year time period. These results show the temporal scale over which resilience and natural restoring processes occur in wetland ecosystems of temperate regions such as southern Chile. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Earthquakes in Fiordland, Southern Chile: Initiation and Development of a Magmatic Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, S.; Service, N. S.

    2007-05-01

    Several efforts in Chile are being conducted in relation to geophysical monitoring with the objective of disaster mitigation. A long and permanent monitoring effort along the country has been the continuous effort resulting in the recognition and delineation of new seismogenic sources. Here we report on the seismo-volcanic crisis that is currently taking place in the in the region close to the triple junction (Nazca, Antarctica and South America) in southern Chile at around latitude 45°S. On January 22, 2007, an intensity V-VI (MMI) earthquake shook the cities of Puerto Aysén, Puerto Chacabuco and Coyhaique. This magnitude 5 event, was the first of a series of earthquakes that have taken place in the region for nearly a month and a half (until end of February, time when this abstract was written). The closest station to the source area -part of the GEOSCOPE network located in Coyhaique, about 80 km away from the epicenters- reveals seismic activity about 3 hours before the first event. Immediately after the first event, more than 20 events per hour were detected and recorded by this station, rate which decreased with time with the exception of those time intervals following larger events. More than six events with magnitude 5 or more have been recorded. Five seismic stations were installed surrounding the epicentral area between 27 - 29 January and are currently operational. After processing some of the recorded events, a sixth station was installed at the closest possible site of the source of the seismic activity. Preliminary analysis of the recorded seismic activity reveals a concentration of hypocenters - 5 to 10 km depth- along an eight-km NNE-SSW vertical plane crossing the Aysén fiord. Harmonic tremor has also been detected. This seismic activity is interpreted as the result of a magmatic process in progress which will most likely culminate in the generation of a new underwater volcanic edifice. Because the seismic activity fully extends across the Ays

  2. Proyecto conservación, restauración y desarrollo de las islas Juan Fernández, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    CUEVAS, JAIME G.; VAN LEERSUM, GART

    2001-01-01

    From a scientific point of view, the Juan Fernández islands contain one of the most interesting floras of the planet. Although protected as a National Park and a World Biosphere Reserve, 400 years of human interference have left deep traces in the native plant communities. Repeated burning, overexploitation of species, and the introduction of animal and plant plagues have taken 75 % of the endemic vascular flora to the verge of extinction. In 1997, Chile's national forest service (Corporación...

  3. Studies to Control Endemic Typhoid Fever in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-30

    Bol. Inst. Bacteriol. Chile 1976; 18:33-37. 30. Escaff, M, Urbina, A, Mary, J. Contaminacion de repollos regados con aguas servidas. Agricultura...Tecnica 1979; 39:59-62. - 31. Lobos, H, Greive, R, Quijada, M, Brandt, H. Pesquisa del genero Vibrio en aguas servidas. Bol. Inst. Bact. Chile 1974; 16:40...REPORT #2 0") STUDIES TO CONTROL ENDEMIC TYPHOID N FEVER IN CHILE 0) ANNUAL REPORT U’ Contract Period 1/1/82-12/31/82 • I REPORT PREPARED BY: L

  4. Expedition Atacama - project AMOS in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, J.; Kaniansky, S.

    2016-01-01

    The Slovak Video Meteor Network operates since 2009 (Tóth et al., 2011). It currently consists of four semi-automated all-sky video cameras, developed at the Astronomical Observatory in Modra, Comenius University in Bratislava, Slovakia. Two new generations of AMOS (All-sky Meteor Orbit System) cameras operate fully automatically at the Canary Islands, Tenerife and La Palma, since March 2015 (Tóth et al., 2015). As a logical step, we plan to cover the southern hemisphere from Chile. We present observational experiences in meteor astronomy from the Atacama Desert and other astronomical sites in Chile. This summary of the observations lists meteor spectra records (26) between Nov.5-13, 2015 mostly Taurid meteors, single and double station meteors as well as the first light from the permanent AMOS stations in Chile.

  5. All projects related to chile | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Strengthen the use of scientific evidence to inform climate policy, negotiations ... Evaluating the impact of digital tools to teach math and science in Chile ... Business Cooperation and Regional Productive Development in Chile, El Salvador, ...

  6. Potential Sources of Polarized Light from a Plant Canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbilt, Vern; Daughtry, Craig; Dahlgren, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Field measurements have demonstrated that sunlight polarized during a first surface reflection by shiny leaves dominates the optical polarization of the light reflected by shiny-leafed plant canopies having approximately spherical leaf angle probability density functions ("Leaf Angle Distributions" - LAD). Yet for other canopies - specifically those without shiny leaves and/or spherical LADs - potential sources of optically polarized light may not always be obvious. Here we identify possible sources of polarized light within those other canopies and speculate on the ecologically important information polarization measurements of those sources might contain.

  7. Optimization of source pencil deployment based on plant growth simulation algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Lei; Liu Yibao; Liu Yujuan

    2009-01-01

    A plant growth simulation algorithm was proposed for optimizing source pencil deployment for a 60 Co irradiator. A method used to evaluate the calculation results was presented with the objective function defined by relative standard deviation of the exposure rate at the reference points, and the method to transform two kinds of control variables, i.e., position coordinates x j and y j of source pencils in the source plaque, into proper integer variables was also analyzed and solved. The results show that the plant growth simulation algorithm, which possesses both random and directional search mechanism, has good global search ability and can be used conveniently. The results are affected a little by initial conditions, and improve the uniformity in the irradiation fields. It creates a dependable field for the optimization of source bars arrangement at irradiation facility. (authors)

  8. An evaluation of information sources and requirements for nuclear plant-aging research with life-extension implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, P.T.

    1986-01-01

    Information requirements for plant-aging and life-extension research are discussed. Various information sources that have been used in plant-aging studies and reliability assessments are described. Data-base searches and analyses were performed for a specific system using several data bases and plant sources. Comments are provided on the results using the various information sources

  9. Acanthamoeba belonging to T3, T4, and T11: genotypes isolated from air-conditioning units in Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorga, Berbeli; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Martín-Navarro, Carmen M; Alarcón, Verónica; Moreno, Johanna; González, Ana C; Navarrete, Elizabeth; Piñero, José E; Valladares, Basilio

    2011-01-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) of the genus Acanthamoeba are widely distributed in the environment, in the air, soil, and water, and have also been isolated from air-conditioning units. The objective of this work was to investigate the presence of this genus of FLA in the air-conditioning equipment at the Institute of Public Health of Chile in Santiago, Chile. Water and air samples were collected from air-conditioning systems and were checked for the presence of Acanthamoeba spp. Positive samples were further classified at the genotype level after sequencing the highly variable diagnostic fragment 3 (DF3) region of the 18S rRNA gene. This is the first report of the T3, T4, and T11 genotypes of Acanthamoeba in air-conditioning units from Chile. Overall, the widespread distribution of potentially pathogenic Acanthamoeba strains in the studied source demands more awareness within the public and health professionals in Chile as this pathogen is emerging as a risk for human health worldwide. © 2011 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2011 International Society of Protistologists.

  10. Source term estimation during incident response to severe nuclear power plant accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna, T.J.; Glitter, J.G.

    1988-10-01

    This document presents a method of source term estimation that reflects the current understanding of source term behavior and that can be used during an event. The various methods of estimating radionuclide release to the environment (source terms) as a result of an accident at a nuclear power reactor are discussed. The major factors affecting potential radionuclide releases off site (source terms) as a result of nuclear power plant accidents are described. The quantification of these factors based on plant instrumentation also is discussed. A range of accident conditions from those within the design basis to the most severe accidents possible are included in the text. A method of gross estimation of accident source terms and their consequences off site is presented. 39 refs., 48 figs., 19 tabs

  11. Mutations induced in plant breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriga B, P.

    1984-01-01

    The most significant aspects of the use of ionizing radiations in plant breeding are reviewed. Aspects such as basic principles of mutation, expression and selection in obtention of mutants, methods for using induced mutations and sucess achieved with this methodology in plant breeding are reviewed. Results obtained in a program of induced mutation on wheat for high content of protein and lysine at the Universidad Austral de Chile are presented. (Author)

  12. Mutations induced in plant breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriga B, P. (Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia. Inst. de Produccion y Sanidad Vegetal)

    1984-10-01

    The most significant aspects of the use of ionizing radiations in plant breeding are reviewed. Aspects such as basic principles of mutation, expression and selection in obtention of mutants, methods for using induced mutations and sucess achieved with this methodology in plant breeding are reviewed. Results obtained in a program of induced mutation on wheat for high content of protein and lysine at the Universidad Austral de Chile are presented.

  13. Sources of Verticillium dahliae affecting lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atallah, Zahi K; Maruthachalam, Karunakaran; Subbarao, Krishna V

    2012-11-01

    ABSTRACT Since 1995, lettuce in coastal California, where more than half of the crop in North America is grown, has consistently suffered from severe outbreaks of Verticillium wilt. The disease is confined to this region, although the pathogen (Verticillium dahliae) and the host are present in other crop production regions in California. Migration of the pathogen with infested spinach seed was previously documented, but the geographic sources of the pathogen, as well as the impact of lettuce seed sparsely infested with V. dahliae produced outside coastal California on the pathogen population in coastal California remain unclear. Population analyses of V. dahliae were completed using 16 microsatellite markers on isolates from lettuce plants in coastal California, infested lettuce seed produced in the neighboring Santa Clara Valley of California, and spinach seed produced in four major spinach seed production regions: Chile, Denmark, the Netherlands, and the United States (Washington State). California produces 80% of spinach in the United States and all seed planted with the majority infested by V. dahliae comes from the above four sources. Three globally distributed genetic populations were identified, indicating sustained migration among these distinct geographic regions with multiple spinach crops produced each year and repeated every year in coastal California. The population structure of V. dahliae from coastal California lettuce plants was heavily influenced by migration from spinach seed imported from Denmark and Washington. Conversely, the sparsely infested lettuce seed had limited or no contribution to the Verticillium wilt epidemic in coastal California. The global trade in plant and seed material is likely contributing to sustained shifts in the population structure of V. dahliae, affecting the equilibrium of native populations, and likely affecting disease epidemiology.

  14. Intelectuais e política no Chile: Apontamentos sobre a revista Aurora de Chile (1938-1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Amélia M.C. Melo

    Full Text Available Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é o de examinar a revista Aurora de Chile que circula em Santiago entre 1938-1940. Criada por Pablo Neruda esta publicação apresentou-se como um importante órgão de comunicação da Alianza de Intelectuales de Chile para la Defensa de la Cultura (AICH, entidade fundada em articulação com outras organizações internacionais de intelectuais e com orientação da Comintern. A revista situou-se nos debates políticos e culturais desses anos no Chile e atuou vigorosamente na defesa dos princípios da democracia, das liberdades públicas e contra o fascismo. Neste estudo busco demonstrar o papel desta revista como uma das vozes da perspectiva frentista que passou a orientar o Partido Comunista Chileno no período.

  15. Primer "Entrenamiento en Metodologías de Investigación Clínica en Chile" (EMIC-Chile: Fundamentos psicoeducativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Cabieses

    Full Text Available EMIC-Chile ("Entrenamiento en Metodologías para la Investigación Clínica en Chile" es un proyecto académico desarrollado durante el año 2008 en Chile para entrenar a profesionales de la salud y disciplinas afines en metodología de investigación clínica, con el objetivo de aumentar la calidad de los proyectos de investigación con fines concursables en nuestro país. El propósito de este artículo es dar a conocer el programa y sus fundamentos teóricos de enseñanza-aprendizaje, que estuvieron en la base de la estructura, metodología, evaluación y sistematización del conocimiento entregado. Para ello, primero se describe el programa, la metodología, la evaluación y el seguimiento. Posteriormente se detallan los aspectos psicoeducativos considerados, con especial énfasis en el aprendizaje social y la educación de adultos. Finalmente, se discute en torno a las posibles consideraciones de este programa para futuras intervenciones educativas en investigación en salud en Chile. Se espera que esta experiencia y sus fundamentos educativos sirvan de motor para futuras iniciativas en el área, a favor de la investigación en salud en Chile.

  16. A solar radiation database for Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Alejandra; Falvey, Mark; Rondanelli, Roberto

    2017-11-01

    Chile hosts some of the sunniest places on earth, which has led to a growing solar energy industry in recent years. However, the lack of high resolution measurements of solar irradiance becomes a critical obstacle for both financing and design of solar installations. Besides the Atacama Desert, Chile displays a large array of "solar climates" due to large latitude and altitude variations, and so provides a useful testbed for the development of solar irradiance maps. Here a new public database for surface solar irradiance over Chile is presented. This database includes hourly irradiance from 2004 to 2016 at 90 m horizontal resolution over continental Chile. Our results are based on global reanalysis data to force a radiative transfer model for clear sky solar irradiance and an empirical model based on geostationary satellite data for cloudy conditions. The results have been validated using 140 surface solar irradiance stations throughout the country. Model mean percentage error in hourly time series of global horizontal irradiance is only 0.73%, considering both clear and cloudy days. The simplicity and accuracy of the model over a wide range of solar conditions provides confidence that the model can be easily generalized to other regions of the world.

  17. Rotylenchulus reniformis on Greenhouse-grown Foliage Plants: Host Range and Sources of Inoculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, J L

    1991-10-01

    Two sources of inoculum of reniform nematodes, Rotylenchulus reniformis, were identified for infestation of ornamental foliage plants in commercial greenhouses. These were water from a local canal system and rooted cuttings purchased from other sources. Eight ornamental plant species were identified as good hosts for the reniform nematode, with each species supporting a reniform population density equal to or greater than that supported by 'Rutgers' tomato and a reproduction factor of greater than 1.0. Nine other plant species were identified as poor hosts.

  18. Using plant growth modeling to analyse C source-sink relations under drought: inter and intra specific comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit ePallas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability to assimilate C and allocate NSC (non structural carbohydrates to the most appropriate organs is crucial to maximize plant ecological or agronomic performance. Such C source and sink activities are differentially affected by environmental constraints. Under drought, plant growth is generally more sink than source limited as organ expansion or appearance rate is earlier and stronger affected than C assimilation. This favors plant survival and recovery but not always agronomic performance as NSC are stored rather than used for growth due to a modified metabolism in source and sink leaves. Such interactions between plant C and water balance are complex and plant modeling can help analyzing their impact on plant phenotype. This paper addresses the impact of trade-offs between C sink and source activities and plant production under drought, combining experimental and modeling approaches. Two contrasted monocotyledonous species (rice, oil palm were studied. Experimentally, the sink limitation of plant growth under moderate drought was confirmed as well as the modifications in NSC metabolism in source and sink organs. Under severe stress, when C source became limiting, plant NSC concentration decreased. Two plant models dedicated to oil palm and rice morphogenesis were used to perform a sensitivity analysis and further explore how to optimize C sink and source drought sensitivity to maximize plant growth. Modeling results highlighted that optimal drought sensitivity depends both on drought type and species and that modeling is a great opportunity to analyse such complex processes. Further modeling needs and more generally the challenge of using models to support complex trait breeding are discussed.

  19. Isotopic composition and origin of the precipitation in Northern Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravena, R.; Suzuki, O.; Pena, H.; Pollastri, A.; Fuenzalida, H.; Grilli, A.

    1999-01-01

    A 3 a data set of isotopes in precipitation from northern Chile show a very distinct pattern, with δ 18 O values ranging between -18 and -15per thousand at high altitude stations, compared to δ 18 O values between -10 and -6per thousand at the lower altitude areas. The 18 O-depleted values observed in the high altitude area, the Altiplano, are related to processes that affect the air masses that originated over the Atlantic, cross the Amazon Basin (continental effect), ascend the Andes (altitude effect) and precipitated (convective effect) in the Altiplano. It is postulated that a second source of moisture, associated with air masses from the Pacific, may contribute to the 18 O-enriched values observed in the lower altitude areas. Similar isotopic patterns are documented in springs and groundwater indicating that the data presented in this paper are an accurate representation of the long term behavior isotopic composition of rain in northern Chile. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  20. Isotopic composition and origin of the precipitation in Northern Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aravena, R. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo (Canada); Suzuki, O. [Exploracion y Desarrollo de Recursos Hidricos, Santiago (Chile); Pena, H. [Direccion General de Aguas, Ministerio de Obras Publicas, Santiago (Chile); Pollastri, A. [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile); Fuenzalida, H. [Departamento de Geofisica, Universidad of Chile, Santiago (Chile); Grilli, A. [Empresa Metropolitana de Obras Sanitarias, Santiago (Chile)

    1999-06-01

    A 3 a data set of isotopes in precipitation from northern Chile show a very distinct pattern, with {delta}{sup 18}O values ranging between -18 and -15per thousand at high altitude stations, compared to {delta}{sup 18}O values between -10 and -6per thousand at the lower altitude areas. The {sup 18}O-depleted values observed in the high altitude area, the Altiplano, are related to processes that affect the air masses that originated over the Atlantic, cross the Amazon Basin (continental effect), ascend the Andes (altitude effect) and precipitated (convective effect) in the Altiplano. It is postulated that a second source of moisture, associated with air masses from the Pacific, may contribute to the {sup 18}O-enriched values observed in the lower altitude areas. Similar isotopic patterns are documented in springs and groundwater indicating that the data presented in this paper are an accurate representation of the long term behavior isotopic composition of rain in northern Chile. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  1. First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae in Chile. The presence of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas, 1976 (Lepidoptera, Pieridae is reported for the first time in Chile, from the Azapa valley, Arica.Primeiro registro de Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae no Chile. A presença de Phoebis argante chincha Lamas, 1976 (Lepidoptera; Pieridae é mencionada pela primeira vez para o Chile, no vale de Azapa, Arica.

  2. [Consumption of antidepressants in Chile from 1992 to 2004].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirón, Marcela; Machado, Márcio; Ruiz, Inés

    2008-09-01

    Data from the Ministry of Health show that in Chile in 2004, 17% of the population had some form of depression, and mood disorders are the tenth cause of disability-adjusted life years (DALY) loss. To determine consumption of antidepressants (ADs) in Chile from 1992 to 2004. National sales data were obtained from the company IMS Health Chile and converted into defined daily doses (DDDs) per 1,000 inhabitants per day. Available ADs were classified in four pharmacological groups (i.e., serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, SNRLs; selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitors, SSRLs; tricyclic antidepressants, TCAs; and others). Total economic burden of ADs utilization and cost per DDDs were also calculated. Trends over time were analyzed using Pearson-R2. Total ADs consumption in Chile measured by DDDs per 1,000 inhabitants per day (DHD) increased linearly (y =0.901x + 1.9129; R2 =0.9296; p economic burden of ADs in Chile (total cost of DDDs consumed) increased from US$65.4 million in 2001 to US$74.6 million in 2004 (14% increase). Average cost per DDD of all AD increased linearly, however not significantly from US$ 0.94 in 2001 to US$ 1.04 in 2004 (y =0.0362x + 0.8784; R2 =0.7382; p =0,262). DDDs per 1,000 inhabitants per day increased linearly over 470% from 1992-2004. SSRLs were the most commonly consumed drugs in Chile. Future research should evaluate the cost-effectiveness of antidepressants in Chile, comparing the results with drug utilization, and determining if unnecessary expenditures have been paid out.

  3. Using 137Cs and 210Pbex and other sediment source fingerprints to document suspended sediment sources in small forested catchments in south-central Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuller, P.; Walling, D.E.; Iroumé, A.; Quilodrán, C.; Castillo, A.; Navas, A.

    2013-01-01

    A study of the impact of forest harvesting operations on sediment mobilization from forested catchments has been undertaken in south-central Chile. The study focused on two sets of small paired catchments (treatment and control), with similar soil type, but contrasting mean annual rainfall, located about 400 km apart at Nacimiento (1200 mm yr −1 ) and Los Ulmos (2500 mm yr −1 ). The objective was to study the changes in the relative contribution of the primary sources of fine sediment caused by forestry operations. Attention focused on the pre-harvest and post-harvest periods and the post-replanting period was included for the Nacimiento treatment catchment. The sediment source fingerprinting technique was used to document the contributions of the potential sources. Emphasis was placed on discriminating between the forest slopes, forest roads and channel erosion as potential sources of fine sediment and on assessing the relative contributions of these three sources to the sediment yield from the catchments. The fallout radionuclides (FRNs) 137 Cs and excess lead-210, the environmental radionuclides 226 Ra and 40 K and soil organic matter (SOM) were tested as possible fingerprints for discriminating between potential sediment sources. The Kruskal–Wallis test and discriminant function analysis were used to guide the selection of the optimum fingerprint set for each catchment and observation period. Either one or both of the FRNs were selected for inclusion in the optimum fingerprint for all datasets. The relative contribution of each sediment source to the target sediment load was estimated using the selected fingerprint properties, and a mixing model coupled with a Monte Carlo simulation technique that takes account of uncertainty in characterizing sediment source properties. The goodness of fit of the mixing model was tested by comparing the measured and simulated fingerprint properties for the target sediment samples. In the Nacimiento treatment catchment

  4. Open Source Power Plant Simulator Development Under Matlab Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratemi, W.M.; Fadilah, S.M.; Abonoor, N

    2008-01-01

    In this paper an open source programming approach is targeted for the development of power plant simulator under Matlab environment. With this approach many individuals can contribute to the development of the simulator by developing different orders of complexities of the power plant components. Such modules can be modeled based on physical principles, or using neural networks or other methods. All of these modules are categorized in Matlab library, of which the user can select and build up his simulator. Many international companies developed its own authoring tool for the development of its simulators, and hence it became its own property available for high costs. Matlab is a general software developed by mathworks that can be used with its toolkits as the authoring tool for the development of components by different individuals, and through the appropriate coordination, different plant simulators, nuclear, traditional , or even research reactors can be computerly assembled. In this paper, power plant components such as a pressurizer, a reactor, a steam generator, a turbine, a condenser, a feedwater heater, a valve, a pump are modeled based on physical principles. Also a prototype modeling of a reactor ( a scram case) based on neural networks is developed. These modules are inserted in two different Matlab libraries one called physical and the other is called neural. Furthermore, during the simulation one can pause and shuffle the modules selected from the two libraries and then proceed the simulation. Also, under the Matlab environment a PID controller is developed for multi-loop plant which can be integrated for the control of the appropriate developed simulator. This paper is an attempt to base the open source approach for the development of power plant simulators or even research reactor simulators. It then requires the coordination among interested individuals or institutions to set it to professionalism. (author)

  5. Studies to Control Endemic Typhoid Fever in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    Society for Microbiology, Chapter 16. 10. Medina E, Yrarrazaval M. (1983) Fiebre tifoidea en Chile: Consideraciones epideniologicas. Revista Medica de...epidesiologia de la fiebre tifoidea . Boletin de !a Escuela de Medicina, Pontificia universidad catolica de Chile. 30:113-119. 14. Reyes H, Olea M, Hernandez

  6. Medicinal plants of the Mapuche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, P J; Manby, J

    1985-03-01

    A list of 136 plants used for medicinal purposes by the Mapuche Amerindians of Chile has been compiled. This is the first such list in English and is important due to the disappearance of Mapuche culture with increasing urbanisation. Some introduced plants have been incorporated into the traditional medicine of the Mapuche since the advent of European settlers but there is also a wealth of information about the uses of many indigenous species.

  7. Spent Fuel in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López Lizana, F.

    2015-01-01

    The government has made a complete and serious study of many different aspects and possible road maps for nuclear electric power with strong emphasis on safety and energy independence. In the study, the chapter of SFM has not been a relevant issue at this early stage due to the fact that it has been left for later implementation stage. This paper deals with the options Chile might consider in managing its Spent Fuel taking into account foreign experience and factors related to safety, economics, public acceptance and possible novel approaches in spent fuel treatment. The country’s distinctiveness and past experience in this area taking into account that Chile has two research reactors which will have an influence in the design of the Spent Fuel option. (author)

  8. 75 FR 3756 - Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ...)] Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia AGENCY: United States International Trade... preserved mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice of... mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  9. Source term estimation during incident response to severe nuclear power plant accidents. Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenna, T J; Giitter, J

    1987-07-01

    The various methods of estimating radionuclide release to the environment (source terms) as a result of an accident at a nuclear power reactor are discussed. The major factors affecting potential radionuclide releases off site (source terms) as a result of nuclear power plant accidents are described. The quantification of these factors based on plant instrumentation also is discussed. A range of accident conditions from those within the design basis to the most severe accidents possible are included in the text. A method of gross estimation of accident source terms and their consequences off site is presented. The goal is to present a method of source term estimation that reflects the current understanding of source term behavior and that can be used during an event. (author)

  10. Source term estimation during incident response to severe nuclear power plant accidents. Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna, T.J.; Giitter, J.

    1987-01-01

    The various methods of estimating radionuclide release to the environment (source terms) as a result of an accident at a nuclear power reactor are discussed. The major factors affecting potential radionuclide releases off site (source terms) as a result of nuclear power plant accidents are described. The quantification of these factors based on plant instrumentation also is discussed. A range of accident conditions from those within the design basis to the most severe accidents possible are included in the text. A method of gross estimation of accident source terms and their consequences off site is presented. The goal is to present a method of source term estimation that reflects the current understanding of source term behavior and that can be used during an event. (author)

  11. Primer registro de Heliotropium amplexicaule (Heliotropiaceae) en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Ibáñez, Sergio; Luebert, Federico; Gómez, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    The presence of the commonly known weed Heliotropium amplexicaule (Heliotropiaceae) is reported for Chile first time, from a collection recently made in Santiago. Its potential as weed in Chile is discussed in the context of the experience of other countries where the species has become naturalised.

  12. Source book for planning nuclear dual-purpose electric/distillation desalination plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, S.A.

    1981-02-01

    A source book on nuclear dual-purpose electric/distillation desalination plants was prepared to assist government and other planners in preparing broad evaluations of proposed applications of dual-purpose plants. The document is divided into five major sections. Section 1 presents general discussions relating to the benefits of dual-purpose plants, and spectrum for water-to-power ratios. Section 2 presents information on commercial nuclear plants manufactured by US manufacturers. Section 3 gives information on distillation desalting processes and equipment. Section 4 presents a discussion on feedwater pretreatment and scale control. Section 5 deals with methods for coupling the distillation and electrical generating plants to operate in the dual mode

  13. Source book for planning nuclear dual-purpose electric/distillation desalination plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, S.A.

    1981-02-01

    A source book on nuclear dual-purpose electric/distillation desalination plants was prepared to assist government and other planners in preparing broad evaluations of proposed applications of dual-purpose plants. The document is divided into five major sections. Section 1 presents general discussions relating to the benefits of dual-purpose plants, and spectrum for water-to-power ratios. Section 2 presents information on commercial nuclear plants manufactured by US manufacturers. Section 3 gives information on distillation desalting processes and equipment. Section 4 presents a discussion on feedwater pretreatment and scale control. Section 5 deals with methods for coupling the distillation and electrical generating plants to operate in the dual mode.

  14. Electricity supply from thermal power plants and alternative sources at the Adriatic coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurek, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Croatian coastline with its numerous islands offers the most appropriate region in the whole of Croatia for the realisation of energy supply from alternative sources as a substitute for the electricity supplied from coal-driven thermal power plants, not only from the point of view of energy but also financial results. Investment costs of a 100 MW thermal power plant served for the estimation of results which would be achieved with the introduction of alternative sources (the sun, small hydro power plants and biomass) as well as for the rationalisation of consumption and savings of the existing energy sources. The alternative programmes can be conducted partially and the investments financed from savings. However, without a systematic solution for the whole country no significant results can be expected. (author)

  15. Estudio del campo ocupacional del traductor en Santiago de Chile (A Study of Opportunities for Professional Translators in Santiago, Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Ileana; And Others

    A study of translation as a profession in Chile covered two areas: a diagnostic study of the real need for literary, scientific, and technical translations, and a followup study of graduates of the translation degree program at the Catholic Pontifical University of Chile (Santiago). The analysis considered the relationship between the need for…

  16. The Revolutionary Left and Terrorist Violence in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    Fraude Electoral Designada por la Facultad de Derecho de la Pontifica Universidad de Chile," in Libro Blanco del Cambio de Gobierno de Chile, Editorial...Chilean law, could not be invaded by the police. The MIR never became a formal political party. It completely rejected the electoral process

  17. Jazz en Chile: su historia y función social Jazz in Chile: its history and social function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Menanteau

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una visión general de la historia del jazz en Chile que destaca la función social de esta música y el cambio que tuvo a través del tiempo. Estos cambios se relacionaron con diferentes valoraciones de la práctica jazzística local. En un principio el jazz fue música popular masiva. Posteriormente fue valorado estéticamente por un segmento de élite, quienes eran profesionales en áreas no musicales y en muchos casos eran instrumentistas aficionados. En una tercera etapa, músicos profesionales asumieron la práctica del jazz como una plataforma para fusionar el lenguaje jazzístico con recursos tomados de la música tradicional chilena. Este tránsito del jazz en Chile está cruzado por factores socioeconómicos y estéticos, que se analizan en el trabajo.The article presents an overview of the history of jazz in Chile on the basis of the social function of jazz and the changes it has underwent over the years in terms of the valúes it has represented for Chilean society. Initially jazz was considered as mass popular music. Afterwards it was valued in aesthetic terms by a group belonging to the élite of Chilean society. Many of them belonged to non-music professions and in some cases were amateur musicians. Most recently professional musicians took up jazz as the basis for combining the jazz style with elements belonging to traditional music of Chile. This process in Chile is also influenced by social, economic and aesthetic aspects which are explored in this article.

  18. Psicología comunitaria y políticas sociales en Chile Psicologia comunitaria e políticas sociais no Chile Community psychology and social policies in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Alfaro Inzunza

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo analizamos la relación entre Psicología Comunitaria y políticas sociales, estableciendo la influencia de las políticas sociales sobre el desarrollo contemporáneo de la Psicología Comunitaria en Chile. Sostenemos que su consolidación como profesión se asocia estrechamente a la implementación de políticas sociales a partir de la década de los noventa y su conformación actual está condicionada y tensionada por las orientaciones de estas políticas. Se examina la evolución tanto de las políticas sociales como de la Psicología Comunitaria en Chile, los puntos de encuentro y las tensiones, de las que derivamos una serie de desafíos y proyecciones que examinamos en el presente artículo, con el objetivo de avanzar en la comprensión de esta relación.Este artigo investigou a relação entre a Psicologia Comunitária e as políticas sociais, estabelecendo a influência das políticas sociais sobre o desenvolvimento contemporâneo da Psicologia Comunitária no Chile. Afirmamos que a sua consolidação como profissão está intimamente associada à implementação de políticas sociais desde a década de noventa e sua formação atual está condicionada e tensionada pelas diretrizes dessas políticas. O estudo analisa a evolução das políticas sociais e da psicologia comunitária no Chile, os pontos de encontro e de tensão, dos quais se deriva uma série de desafios e projeções discutidos neste artigo com o objetivo de fazer avançar a compreensão desta relação.In this article we analyze the evolution of community psychology in Chile, and the influences of social policies in its development. We hold that its consolidation as a profession is closely associated to the implementation of social policies since the nineties, and its present conformation is determined and tightened by the orientation of these policies. From the evolution of social policies and Community Psychology in Chile we have come up with a series

  19. Socialisme i Chile efter Pinochet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristoffanini, Pablo Rolando

    2008-01-01

    Chile bliver ofte præsenteret som et paradigme for resten af det latinamerikanske kontinent: Et land med høj økonomisk vækst og politisk stabilitet. Landet har endda haft to socialistiske præsidenter siden 2000, den sidste den første kvindelige præsident. Succeshistorien har en bagside: De...... socialistiske regeringer har accepteret et begrænset demokrati og videreført en nyliberal økonomisk politik, der har bragt dem på konfrontationskurs med massebevægelserne og isoleret Chile fra de andre lande i regionen, der søger integration og gensidig støøte. Udgivelsesdato: Februar...

  20. The role of phosphorus sources in the growth of lowland rice plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisworo, Widjang Herry

    1975-01-01

    The role of phosphorus sources in the growth of lowland rice plant was studied using P 32 -labelled superphosphate. The experiment was carried out in the glass house. Three high yielding rice varieties used in the experiment were PB 5, IR 22 and Pelita I/1. Results obtained from the experiment showed that, during early growth, seedlings in the nursery did not require any phosphorus from outside. The phosphorus needed was apparently supplied by the seeds themselves. After 10 days seedlings started using phosphorus from outside the plants. Phosphorus in the plants derived from fertilizer reached 5-12% at 16 days old and 25-40% at transplanting time depending on the varieties. Higher response to phosphorus application in the nursery was given by Pelita I/1, the phosphorus in the plants derived from fertilizer was 40% at transplanting time. The phosphorus requirement was mostly supplied by the application of phosphorus fertilizer till 20 days after transplanting but after 40 days soil-phosphorus became the main source for the plants. (author)

  1. Analýza obchodných vzťahov medzi EU a Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Chabová, Zuzana

    2011-01-01

    The aim of my bachelor thesis is to particularly charakterize Chile's economy and to analyze its position in international trade. The main part of my whole work is the analysis of business relationship between European Union and Chile, which I also describe in point of law. The work has five main chapters. The first chapter describes the economical situation of Chile. The second chapter is concerned with Chile's whole foreign trade. The third chapter analyze Chile's foreign trade legally thro...

  2. Trace elements in bivalves from the Rio Cruces, Chile, trace watershed evolution after a major earthquake and challenge a postulated chemical spill from a pulp plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk, M.; Burchell, M.; Nairn, R.; Tubrett, M.; Forsterra, G.

    2009-05-01

    In May, 1960, the largest recorded earthquake in the history of the planet hit southern Chile, dropping part of the course of the Rio Cruces by 2m and creating an extensive wetland. The Brazilian Waterweed Egeria densa colonised the area, and became a primary food source for large populations of the Black-necked Swan, Cygnus melancoryphus. In 2004, a large pulp mill commenced operations upstream on the river. According to local reports, immediately after the opening of the plant, the weed died and the swans left. There was public outcry, and a search for a cause or a culprit. It was postulated that some sort of chemical spill from the plant caused the weed to die, resulting in departure of the swans. In 2008, we collected specimens of the bivalve Diplodon chilensis from several locations downstream from the Plant and towards the wetland to see if there was evidence of a chemical spill recorded in the shells. We prepared thin-sections of the shells to observe growth line development and patterns. Additionally, shell samples were analysed for stable oxygen isotopes and trace elements, using LA-ICP/MS. Based on annual growth lines, some of the bivalves were long-lived, with an age of more than 50 years. These individuals settled in the river shortly after the earthquake, and have lived there continuously ever since. Annual and sub-annual banding was clear, and the annual cyclicity of the major bands was verified with oxygen isotope analysis. There are no changes in growth corresponding to 2004. Trace element scans provided a wealth of information on the evolution of this earthquake-impacted wetland. Barium, Strontium and Manganese all showed strong annual cyclicity. From the analysis of older specimens, we interpret the high peaks of the Ba signal as reflecting soil erosion-Ba peaks are large immediately after the earthquake, then they diminish through time. Sr is likely a temperature signal, and Mn reflects runoff. Minor peaks in Cu, As and Pb probably reflect

  3. All projects related to Chile | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... living in poverty in the rural-urban territories of Chile, Colombia, and Mexico. ... Region: Brazil, Chile, Colombia, India ... Enhancing Women's Economic Empowerment Through Better Policies in Latin America ... Program: Employment and Growth ... Understanding Think Tank-University Relationships in Latin America.

  4. Spatiotemporal variation patterns of plants and animals in San Carlos de Apoquindo, central Chile Patrones de variación espaciotemporal de plantas y animales en San Carlos de Apoquindo, Chile central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FABIÁN M. JAKSIC

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available I summarize what is known about the mediterranean ecosystem represented in San Carlos de Apoquindo (33º 23' S, 70º 31' W, a rugged area of 835 ha located ca. 20 km east of downtown Santiago on the Andean foothills. This site attracted numerous researchers during 1976-1990 because of its proximity to Santiago and its relatively protected status. I review the literature, and provide unpublished information on this site. A total of 132 literature entries describe the ecology of San Carlos de Apoquindo, in about 30 topics. The shrub and herbaceous vegetation have been well studied, but little is known about the respective seed banks. Among animals, small mammals, rabbits, and avian and mammalian predators are the best investigated, whereas epigean arthropods, amphibians, lizards, snakes, passerine birds, and scavengers of all types are the least studied. Thematically, interactions from plant/climate, to plant/soil, to plant/herbivore, to herbivore/predator interactions, and to decomposition of animal carcasses, have been addressed. But gross inequalities exist on the thoroughness with which each topic has been researched. The best studied aspects deal with plant/herbivore and herbivore/predator interactions. Up to now, no description existed of soils and climate in the area, which I present in this paper. Taking advantage of the long-term aspect of the research at the site, I highlight temporal variation patterns. And because of the different landscape aspects present at the site, I also highlight data that depict such spatial variability. In general, San Carlos de Apoquindo has contributed greatly to the understanding of ecological processes in central Chile. I call for renewed efforts at studying this site's ecology from an ecosystem perspectiveResumo lo que se conoce acerca del ecosistema mediterráneo representado en San Carlos de Apoquindo (33º 23' S, 70º 31' O, un área con alto relieve y de 835 ha localizada ca. 20 km al Este del centro

  5. Effects of massive wind power integration on short-term water resource management in central Chile - a grid-wide study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, J.; Olivares, M. A.; Palma, R.

    2013-12-01

    In central Chile, water from reservoirs and streams is mainly used for irrigation and power generation. Hydropower reservoirs operation is particularly challenging because: i) decisions at each plant impact the entire power system, and ii) the existence of large storage capacity implies inter-temporal ties. An Independent System Operator (ISO) decides the grid-wide optimal allocation of water for power generation, under irrigation-related constraints. To account for the long-term opportunity cost of water, a future cost function is determined and used in the short term planning. As population growth and green policies demand increasing levels of renewable energy in power systems, deployment of wind farms and solar plants is rising quickly. However, their power output is highly fluctuating on short time scales, affecting the operation of power plants, particularly those fast responding units as hydropower reservoirs. This study addresses these indirect consequences of massive introduction of green energy sources on reservoir operations. Short-term reservoir operation, under different wind penetration scenarios, is simulated using a replica of Chile's ISO's scheduling optimization tools. Furthermore, an ongoing study is exploring the potential to augment the capacity the existing hydro-power plants to better cope with the balancing needs due to a higher wind power share in the system. As reservoir releases determine to a great extent flows at downstream locations, hourly time series of turbined flows for 24-hour periods were computed for selected combinations between new wind farms and increased capacity of existing hydropower plants. These time series are compiled into subdaily hydrologic alteration (SDHA) indexes (Zimmerman et al, 2010). The resulting sample of indexes is then analyzed using duration curves. Results show a clear increase in the SDHA for every reservoir of the system as more fluctuating renewables are integrated into the system. High

  6. Antecedentes geobotánicos de una cuenca andina de Chile Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quintanilla Pérez, V.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Like any other mountain ecosystem; the Andes Mountains show an outstanding phytoecological specificity. This is because of the influence of ecological conditions; as well as the presence of special vegetation groups. These groups of plants show a well defined structure and functionality; arising from the adaptation of biological behavior to the regional altitude. Nevertheless; despite the rigourous climatic conditions; plants do have access to water supplies. A latitudinal vegetation distribution is proposed; based on three vegetation belts: montane; subandine and andine. A remarkable similarity can be noticed between the montane plant communities and those corresponding to the central lower valleys. In addition; the influence of geomorphological processes on plant life and its distribution is presented. Finally; a case study in the highlands of the Andes; Santiago de Chile; is discussed.

    [fr] Comme tous les systèmes de montagne du monde; les Andes du Chili Central présentent une identité phytoécologique; qui se manifeste par l'action des conditions écologiques très particulières et par la présence de groupements végétaux qui montrent une individualité par rapport à ces caractères structurels et fonctionels; résultant de l'adaptation des plantes aux effets de l'altitude; avec des conditions climatiques difficiles; mais pourtant avec la possibilité de profiter des reserves du sol en eau. Dans ces montagnes on a établi une zonation en altitude; et on peut distinguer trois étages: montagnard; subandin et andin. Les seuils altimétriques des étages changent selon les versants; mais tous présentent une certaine richesse d'espèces endémiques. Cependant on remarque les ressemblances floristiques de l'étage montagnard avec les vallées centrales du pays. On présente aussi un aperçu des effets de la dynamique agressive des processus géomorphologiques de montagne sur la vie des plantes; avec une étude de cas dans les

  7. Urban domestic dog populations as a source of canine distemper virus for wild carnivores in the Coquimbo region of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Jamett, G; Chalmers, W S K; Cunningham, A A; Cleaveland, S; Handel, I G; Bronsvoort, B M deC

    2011-09-28

    Urban areas can support dog populations dense enough to maintain canine distemper virus (CDV) and can be a source of infection for rural dogs and free-ranging carnivores. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between urban and rural domestic dog and wild carnivore populations and their effects on the epidemiology of CDV to explain retrospectively a CD outbreak in wild foxes in 2003. From 2005 to 2007 a cross-sectional household questionnaire survey was conducted in Coquimbo and Ovalle cities, in three towns and in rural sites along two transects from these cities to the Fray Jorge National Park (FJNP) in the Coquimbo region, Chile. Blood samples were collected from unvaccinated dogs at surveyed households and from free-ranging foxes in rural areas along the transects. The seroprevalence of CDV in domestic dogs was higher in urban than in rural areas and in the later was highest in dogs born before 2001-2002. The seroprevalence of CDV in foxes was higher in areas closer to human settlements. A high seroprevalence in dogs born before 2001-2002 further supports a link between CDV patterns in rural dog and fox populations. In our study area, urban dogs are proposed to be the source of CDV infection to wild carnivores. The large dog population size and density detected in Coquimbo and Ovalle provides optimal conditions for maintaining a large and dense susceptible population of dogs, which can act as a reservoir for highly infectious diseases and could have been the source of infection in the CD outbreak in wild foxes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Virtual Borders Between Chile and Its Neighbors: Argentina, Peru and Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-30

    Estadísticas, “ Inmigrantes en Chile ”, Santiago Census, 2002 20 ...Studies and Research Center, 1998), 13 22 Military Studies and Research Center, Chile en la Region. CESIM. 2001; available from <http...Estatuto de Inversiones Extranjeras en Chile ”, ( Santiago: 1974), Capitulo I,19 35 The International Center for Adjustment of Disputes of Investment

  9. Rape genotypic differences in P uptake and utilization from phosphate rocks in an Andisol of Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montenegro, A.; Zapata, F.

    2002-01-01

    A main constraint to agricultural productivity in the southern regions of Chile is the low available soil P exacerbated by the high P sorption capacity of the predominant Andisols. Therefore, substantial amounts of P fertilizers must be applied to obtain optimum growth and crop yields. One cost-effective strategy followed to supply P to crops grown in these soils is the direct application of the local Bahia Inglesa PR source. However, a more sustainable strategy would be to combine the use of the local PR with the crop species and cultivars that are able to grow in these acid soils and can utilize efficiently PR. Rape is reported to be very efficient in utilising P from PR sources due to its capacity to exude organic acids to the rhizosphere. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the ability of five rape cultivars grown in an Andisol of southern Chile in utilising P from two PR sources (Bahia Inglesa and Bayovar) and triple superphosphate, a water-soluble P fertilizer. It was found that rape was able to absorb significant amounts of P from the PR sources and much less from the TSP and soil P. Both Bahia Inglesa and Bayovar PRs were found to be as effective as TSP for the rape genotypes in the Andisol Pemehue. The use of the 32 P isotope technique enabled to assess the ability of the genotypes tested to utilize P from the different P fertilizers applied. The genotypes G2 and G3 showed increased P acquisition from the PR than the genotype G5. Combined utilization of P efficient genotypes and direct application of the Bahia Inglesa PR seems to be a promising technology for attaining sustainable agricultural productivity in the Andisols of Chile. Further field trials for validating these findings at the level of cropping systems are needed. This agronomic testing should be accompanied by in-depth studies to assess the relative importance of the morphological and physiological traits determining a higher P efficiency. (author)

  10. Medicinal Plants: A Source of Anti-Parasitic Secondary Metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Wink

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes human infections caused by endoparasites, including protozoa, nematodes, trematodes, and cestodes, which affect more than 30% of the human population, and medicinal plants of potential use in their treatment. Because vaccinations do not work in most instances and the parasites have sometimes become resistant to the available synthetic therapeutics, it is important to search for alternative sources of anti-parasitic drugs. Plants produce a high diversity of secondary metabolites with interesting biological activities, such as cytotoxic, anti-parasitic and anti-microbial properties. These drugs often interfere with central targets in parasites, such as DNA (intercalation, alkylation, membrane integrity, microtubules and neuronal signal transduction. Plant extracts and isolated secondary metabolites which can inhibit protozoan parasites, such as Plasmodium, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, Trichomonas and intestinal worms are discussed. The identified plants and compounds offer a chance to develop new drugs against parasitic diseases. Most of them need to be tested in more detail, especially in animal models and if successful, in clinical trials.

  11. Sarcocystis spp. in red deer (Cervus elaphus, fallow deer (Dama dama, and pudu (Pudu pudu in southern Chile

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    Esteban Reyes Lobão-Tello

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Worldwinde, cervids are considered an important source of infection and dissemination of a wide variety of pathogens, both for farm animals and humans. Among this diseases is sarcosporidiosis, which is a parasitic disease caused by Sarcocystis spp. (Protozoa: Apicomplexa. Most frequent clinical signs are hemolytic anemia, weakness, weight loss and decrease of growth and some species of Sarcocystis might cause abortions. The clinical disease in ruminants is fairly rare but the infection is very frequent. Infections are accumulative and the parasite does not generate immunity in any of the hosts. Ovine sarcosporidiosis is a serious issue in the some regions of Chile due to the macrocysts located in the muscle which means condemnation of the whole carcass. Sarcocystis spp. has been widely reported in red deer and other cervid species but in Chile the situation remains unknown. Nowadays there is little to no evidence of Sarcocystis in foreign deer in Chile and there is only one report of the parasite on pudu. The main goal of this study is to demonstrate the presence of Sarcocystis spp. in myocardium of red deer and fallow deer in Chile, and confirm the presence of Sarcocystis spp. in pudu. All cervid cases from 1994 to 2013 of the Institute of Animal Pathology of the Universidad Austral de Chile were reviewed. The animals selected were those in which a myocardium sample was taken. From the histopathological samples observed, it was found that 5 of the 9 red deer, 1 of the 4 fallow deer and in 11 of the 23 pudu there were Sarcocystis cysts in the myocardium. This study represents the first record for Chile of Sarcocystis spp. in myocardium of red deer and fallow deer. Stablishing the red deer, fallow deer and pudu as hosts of Sarcocystis aids to have a better understanding of the parasite epidemiology in Chile and the role of wild and captive cervids in the maintenance and spread of these parasites.

  12. Eso's Situation in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    that the best VLT site would be the Paranal Mountain, 700 km north of La Silla and 130 km south of Antofagasta, the capital of the Second Region in Chile. In October 1988, the Chilean Government by an official act donated the land surrounding Paranal (in all 725 sq. km) to ESO. As is the case for La Silla, this would serve to protect the planned, incredibly sensitive mega-telescope against all possible future sources of outside interference. The donation was made on the condition that ESO would indeed proceed with the construction of the VLT at Paranal within the next five years. The corresponding decision was taken by the ESO Council in December 1990. The construction of the VLT observatory site at Paranal started immediately thereafter, thus fulfilling the condition attached to the donation. The construction of the VLT is now well advanced. In Europe, the main parts of the first VLT unit 8.2-metre telescope will be pre-assembled later this year and the first two of the enormous mirrors are being polished. In Chile, the extensive landscaping of the Paranal peak was finished in 1993, during which around 300,000 cubic metres of rock and soil was removed to provide a 100x100 sq. metres platform for the VLT, and the concrete foundations are now ready. The installation of the first telescope enclosure can now begin and the next will start later this year. The first of the four telescopes is expected to start observations in late 1997. All in all, ESO has until now committed about 70 percent of the expected total investment for the VLT, estimated to be approximately 570 million DEM. THE OWNERSHIP OF PARANAL According to information later received, the Chilean Ministry of National Properties ("Bienes Nacionales") inscribed in 1977 in its name various lands in the commune of Taltal, including the area of the Paranal peak. At that time, i.e. ten years before ESO decided to construct the VLT, nobody in this Organisation could imagine that this telescope would one day be

  13. Behavioral problems and tobacco use among adolescents in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caris Luis

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between behavioral problems and tobacco smoking among adolescent students in Chile. METHODS: Data were drawn from a study that included questionnaire surveys of 46 907 school-attending adolescents in all 13 of the administrative regions of Chile. Assessments were based on an adapted, Spanish-language version of the Drug Use Screening Inventory. The conditional form of the logistic regression model was used for analysis, with matching of students on individual schools, and with further statistical adjustments for sex, age, and selected risk factors. RESULTS: The prevalence of tobacco smoking among the adolescents was very high across all of Chile, with a level between 56% and 65% in each of the 13 regions. The estimated odds of tobacco use in youths at the highest level of behavioral problems was about twice that for youths at the lowest levels, both before and after controlling for sex, age, lack of participation in recreational activities, level of irritability, and levels of problems with school, family attention, and mental health. CONCLUSIONS: These findings help to complement and complete the evidence of prior studies on tobacco smoking among adolescents with behavior problems, including recent research on Central American youths. Although the magnitude of observed associations in Chile was not as great as that for the associations found in Central America, both the strength of these associations and their statistical significance were observed throughout Chile. This is the first study in Chile on potentially causal relationships such as these.

  14. Determination of available phosphorous for plants using different sources and 33P as a tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastidas, O.G.

    1986-01-01

    In an experiment with flower-pots we compared for three different types of soil the amount of phosphorus available to rice and barley from commercial phosphorus sources. We used 33 P to label the soil and based on the specific activity of the plants growing in flower pots, in the presence and absence of commercial phosphorus sources, the available amount of phosphorus for the plant was calculated. This was done for every source in TSP whits for each soil type. It was found that available phosphorus for the plant in the three soil types were TSP >> Thomas and Reno >> Roca Salto y Pesca > Roca Huila

  15. El IDRC en Chile

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    prácticas para promover la innovación ... Estudios para Latino américa sentaron las ... Argentina, Brasil, Canadá, Chile y Colombia. ... soluciones locales innovadoras y duraderas que apuntan a proporcionar opciones y cambios a aquellos ...

  16. Selective application of revised source terms to operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Joo Hyun; Song, Jae Hyuk; Lee, Young Wook; Ko, Hyun Seok; Kang, Chang Sun

    2001-01-01

    More than 30 years later since 1962 when TID-14844 was promulgated, there has been big change of the US NRC's regulatory position in using accident source terms for radiological assessment following a design basis accident (DBA). To replace the instantaneous source terms of TID-14844, the time-dependent source terms of NUREG-1465 was published in 1995. In the meantime, the radiological acceptance criteria for reactor site evaluation in 10 CFR Part 100 were also revised. In particular, the concept of total effective dose equivalent has been incorporated in accordance with the radiation protection standards set forth in revised 10 CFR Part 20. Subsequently, the publication of Regulatory Guide 1.183 and the revision of Standard Review Plan 15.0.1 followed in 2000, which provided the licensee of operating nuclear power reactor with the acceptable guidance of applying the revised source term. The guidance allowed the holder of an operating license issued prior to January 10, 1997 to voluntarily revise the accident source terms used in the radiological consequence analyses of DBA. Regarding to its type of application, there suggested full and selective applications, Whether it is full or selective, based upon the scope and nature of associated plant modifications being proposed, the actual application of the revised source terms to an operating plant is expected to give a large impact on its facility design basis. Considering scope and cost of the analyses required for licensing, selective application is seemed to be more appealing to an licensee of the operating plant rather than full application. In this paper, hence, the selective application methodology is reviewed and is actally applied to the assessment of offsite radiological consequence following a LOCA at Ulchin Unit 3 and 4, in order to identify and analyze the potential impacts due to application of revised source terms and to assess the considerations taken in each application prior to its actual

  17. Una arteria norte-sur y el Santiago de Chile „non plus ultra’: la historia de un largo trayecto. / A north-south artery and Santiago de Chile 'non plus ultra

    OpenAIRE

    María Isabel Pavez Reyes

    2011-01-01

    Este escrito resume la prehistoria e historia del Complejo Vial Norte-Sur, de Santiago de Chile, como parte de las acciones del Estado de Chile, en la época del urbanismo realizado por el sector público. /This paper summarizes the prehistory and history of North-South Road Complex, Santiago de Chile, as part of the actions of the State of Chile, at the time of planning by the public sector.

  18. [Mental health in Chile and Finland: Challenges and lessons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retamal C, Pedro; Markkula, Niina; Peña, Sebastián

    2016-07-01

    This article analyses and compares the epidemiology of mental disorders and relevant public policies in Chile and Finland. In Chile, a specific mental health law is still lacking. While both countries highlight the role of primary care, Finland places more emphasis on participation and recovery of service users. Comprehensive mental health policies from Finland, such as a successful suicide prevention program, are presented. Both countries have similar prevalence of mental disorders, high alcohol consumption and high suicide rates. In Chile, the percentage of total disease burden due to psychiatric disorders is 13% and in Finland 14%. However, the resources to address these issues are very different. Finland spends 4.5% of its health budget on mental health, while in Chile the percentage is 2.2%. This results in differences in human resources and service provision. Finland has five times more psychiatric outpatient visits, four times more psychiatrists, triple antidepressant use and twice more clinical guidelines for different psychiatric conditions. In conclusion, both countries have similar challenges but differing realities. This may help to identify gaps and potential solutions for public health challenges in Chile. Finland’s experience demonstrates the importance of political will and long-term vision in the construction of mental health policies.

  19. Riparian leaf litter processing by benthic macroinvertebrates in a woodland stream of central Chile Procesamiento de detritus ripariano por macroinvertebrados bentónicos en un estero boscoso de Chile central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIO VALDOVINOS

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Leaf litter input from riparian landscapes has been identified as both a major energy flow to stream ecosystems and as a food source for stream macroinvertebrates. In riparian landscapes of woodland streams of central Chile, the native deciduous hardwoods are being artificially replaced by exotic coniferous trees at a large spatial scale. It is suggested that this process has a significant impact on the stream communities of central Chile. Today, exotic plantations occur throughout central Chile, with Pinus radiata (D. Don (Monterrey pine accounting for about 80 % of the more than 1,800,000 ha of exotic forests. The objective of this paper was to analyze the effect of the litter beds of a dominant native species (Nothofagus pumilio and an exotic species (P. radiata on the detritus processing carried out by benthic macroinvertebrates, in an experimental catchment of central Chile (Rucúe Creek; 36° 26'00" S, 71° 35'40" W. Results revealed that processing rates of native leaf packs are higher than rates of coniferous leaf packs, suggesting that the replacement of the native hardwoods by exotic coniferous riparian flora has an important impact on the stream energy flow in central Chile. The decay rate coefficients (k were 0.0072 for N. pumilio, and 0.0027 for P. radiata. The greater abundance and biomass of shredders per gram of leaf pack of native Nothofagus would explain the differences in leaf processing rates, especially through the activity of two Plecoptera Gripopterygidae, Limnoperla jaffueli and Antarctoperla michaelseniLa entrada de detritus foliar procedente de áreas riparianas ha sido reconocido como un componente importante en la energética de ecosistemas fluviales y como fuente de alimento de macroinvertebrados acuáticos. En áreas riparianas de esteros boscosos de Chile central los componentes nativos caducifolios están siendo artificialmente reemplazados a gran escala por coníferas exóticas, sugiriendo que este proceso tiene

  20. Development of the methodology for application of revised source term to operating nuclear power plants in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, M.S.; Kang, P.; Kang, C.S.; Moon, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    Considering the current trend in applying the revised source term proposed by NUREG-1465 to the nuclear power plants in the U.S., it is expected that the revised source term will be applied to the Korean operating nuclear power plants in the near future, even though the exact time can not be estimated. To meet the future technical demands, it is necessary to prepare the technical system including the related regulatory requirements in advance. In this research, therefore, it is intended to develop the methodology to apply the revised source term to operating nuclear power plants in Korea. Several principles were established to develop the application methodologies. First, it is not necessary to modify the existing regulations about source term (i.e., any back-fitting to operating nuclear plants is not necessary). Second, if the pertinent margin of safety is guaranteed, the revised source term suggested by NUREG-1465 may be useful to full application. Finally, a part of revised source term could be selected to application based on the technical feasibility. As the results of this research, several methodologies to apply the revised source term to the Korean operating nuclear power plants have been developed, which include: 1) the selective (or limited) application to use only some of all the characteristics of the revised source term, such as release timing of fission products and chemical form of radio-iodine and 2) the full application to use all the characteristics of the revised source term. The developed methodologies are actually applied to Ulchin 9 and 4 units and their application feasibilities are reviewed. The results of this research are used as either a manual in establishing the plan and the procedure for applying the revised source term to the domestic nuclear plant from the utility's viewpoint; or a technical basis of revising the related regulations from the regulatory body's viewpoint. The application of revised source term to operating nuclear

  1. Irrigation water sources and irrigation application methods used by U.S. plant nursery producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Krishna P.; Pandit, Mahesh; Hinson, Roger

    2016-02-01

    We examine irrigation water sources and irrigation methods used by U.S. nursery plant producers using nested multinomial fractional regression models. We use data collected from the National Nursery Survey (2009) to identify effects of different firm and sales characteristics on the fraction of water sources and irrigation methods used. We find that regions, sales of plants types, farm income, and farm age have significant roles in what water source is used. Given the fraction of alternative water sources used, results indicated that use of computer, annual sales, region, and the number of IPM practices adopted play an important role in the choice of irrigation method. Based on the findings from this study, government can provide subsidies to nursery producers in water deficit regions to adopt drip irrigation method or use recycled water or combination of both. Additionally, encouraging farmers to adopt IPM may enhance the use of drip irrigation and recycled water in nursery plant production.

  2. Comparison of six green chile (capsicum annum) cultivars for efficiency of Etgar® machine harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    As U.S. demand for fresh market green chile rises green chile acreage in the U.S. is declining due to limited availability and high cost of hand labor to harvest it. Many farmers are opting to grow crops other than green chile. Green chile is a New Mexican pod-type chile that is harvested when the...

  3. Plant Oils as Potential Sources of Vitamin D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele I Stangl

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To combat vitamin D insufficiency in a population, reliable diet sources of vitamin D are required. The recommendations to consume more oily fish and the use of UVB treated yeast are already applied strategies to address vitamin D insufficiency. This study aimed to elucidate the suitability of plant oils as an alternative vitamin D source. Therefore, plant oils that are commonly used in human nutrition were firstly analyzed for their content of vitamin D precursors and metabolites. Secondly, selected oils were exposed to a short-term UVB irradiation to stimulate the synthesis of vitamin D. Finally, to elucidate the efficacy of plant-derived vitamin D to improve the vitamin D status, we fed UVB-exposed wheat germ oil for 4 weeks to mice and compared them with mice that received non-exposed or vitamin D3 supplemented wheat germ oil. Sterol analysis revealed that the selected plant oils contained high amounts of ergosterol, but also 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC, with the highest concentrations found in wheat germ oil. Exposure to UVB irradiation resulted in a partial conversion of ergosterol and 7-DHC to vitamin D2 and D3 in these oils. Mice fed the UVB-exposed wheat germ oil were able to improve their vitamin D status as shown by the rise in the plasma concentration of 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD and the liver content of vitamin D compared to mice fed the non-exposed oil. However, the plasma concentration of 25(OHD of mice fed the UVB-treated oil did not reach the values observed in the group fed the D3 supplemented oil. It was striking that the intake of the UVB-exposed oil resulted in distinct accumulation of vitamin D2 in the livers of these mice. In conclusion, plant oils, in particular wheat germ oil, contain considerable amounts of vitamin D precursors which can be converted to vitamin D via UVB exposure. However, the UVB-exposed wheat germ oil was less effective to improve the 25(OHD plasma concentration than a supplementation with vitamin D

  4. El Parque Portal Bicentenario en Santiago de Chile / Portal Bicentennial Park in Santiago de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beach Lobos, Myriam;

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta los principios que orientaron el diseño del Parque Portal Bicentenario, un parque de 50 hás. que será el eje principal de la nueva urbanización “Ciudad Parque Bicentenario”, actualmente en construcción en los terrenos del ex aeropuerto de Los Cerrillos en Santiago de Chile.The following text was submitted to the Architecture Competition together with the project drawings. It presents the principles that leaded the design. The 123 acres park will be the main axis of a new urban development in Santiago “Ciudad Parque Bicentenario” at present under construction on the area occupied by the former Cerrillos Airport, Santiago de Chile.

  5. Una arteria norte-sur y el Santiago de Chile „non plus ultra’: la historia de un largo trayecto. / A north-south artery and Santiago de Chile 'non plus ultra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Pavez Reyes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este escrito resume la prehistoria e historia del Complejo Vial Norte-Sur, de Santiago de Chile, como parte de las acciones del Estado de Chile, en la época del urbanismo realizado por el sector público. /This paper summarizes the prehistory and history of North-South Road Complex, Santiago de Chile, as part of the actions of the State of Chile, at the time of planning by the public sector.

  6. [Dermatophyte colonization on guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) kept in pet stores. First report from Santiago, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Pamela; Monsalves, Pamela; Maier, Liliana; Silva, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    Dermatophytes are pathogenic fungi that can be present in the flora of mammals, such as dogs, cats and rodents, which can be a source and transmission vehicle to other hosts, including humans. In Chile, there is a steady increase of acquiring guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) as pets, with no local studies on their colonization by dermatophytes. To determine the presence of dermatophytes on clinically healthy guinea pigs, kept in pet stores in Santiago, Chile. A total of 52 clinically healthy animals were studied using the method by Mariat and Tapia (1966). The specimen culture and identification of the dermatophytes were performed using classical mycological procedures. Four guinea pigs (7.7%) out of 52 were colonized by dermatophytes, and were identified as Trichophyton mentagrophytes (3 cases) and Trichophyton verrucosum (one case). This study shows, for the first time in Chile, that guinea pigs can be colonized by dermatophytes, which should alert administrators of pet stores, veterinarians and physicians, to keep this in mind when purchasing or looking after this type of pet in a veterinary office. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Use of high-resolution satellite images for characterization of geothermal reservoirs in the Tarapaca Region, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-Baeza, A. A.; Montenegro A., C.

    2010-12-01

    The use of renewable and clean sources of energy is becoming crucial for sustainable development of all countries, including Chile. Chilean Government plays special attention to the exploration and exploitation of geothermal energy, total electrical power capacity of which could reach 16.000 MW. In Chile the main geothermal fields are located in the Central Andean Volcanic Chain in the North, between the Central valley and the border with Argentina in the center, and in the fault system Liquiñe-Ofqui in the South of the country. High resolution images from the Lansat satellite have been used to characterize the geothermal field in the region of the Puchuldiza geysers, Colchane, Region of Tarapaca, North of Chile, located at the altitude of 4000 m. Structure of lineaments associated to the geothermal field have been extracted from the images using the lineament detection technique developed by authors. These structures have been compared with the distribution of main geological structures obtained in the field. It was found that the lineament analysis is a power tool for the detection of faults and joint zones associated to the geothermal fields.

  8. Vida Chile 1998-2006: resultados y desafíos de la política de promoción de la salud en Chile The Vida Chile program: results and challenges with health promotion policy in Chile, 1998-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Judith Salinas; Anselmo Cancino; Sergio Pezoa; Fernando Salamanca; Marina Soto

    2007-01-01

    La prioridad política otorgada por el Gobierno de Chile a la promoción de la salud se expresa en el desarrollo alcanzado por el Consejo Vida Chile y su Plan Nacional de Promoción de la Salud (PNPS). En este artículo se presenta el modelo evaluativo del PNPS chileno y sus principales resultados preliminares en el ámbito técnico y económico en el período 1998-2006. Para medir los resultados de las metas de proceso se utilizaron indicadores de cobertura (número de personas, de espacios promotore...

  9. Latencia y banco de semillas en plantas de la región mediterránea de Chile central Seed bank and dormancy in plants of the Mediterranean region of central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAVIER A. FIGUEROA

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Los bancos de semillas en las regiones mediterráneas presentan rasgos particulares que los distinguen de bancos de otras regiones del mundo. El banco de semillas es concentración de propágulos viables enterrados en el suelo por períodos variables de tiempo. Los bancos de semillas del matorral de Chile central son principalmente transitorios y funcionalmente semejantes a los bancos presentes en otros ecosistemas mediterráneos no perturbados por fuego, a excepción de Australia. El banco transitorio es aquel formado por semillas que permanecen viables en los horizontes superiores del suelo por no más de 1 año después de la dispersión. En el matorral de Chile central, en los horizontes superiores del suelo, se encuentra una de las densidades de semillas de hierbas más altas de las regiones mediterráneas. Una gran proporción de esta reserva está constituida por semillas sin latencia, fácilmente germinables, especialmente pastos anuales que germinan en otoño. Con respecto a los mecanismos de latencia de las semillas del banco transitorio responsables del almacenamiento de las semillas en el suelo, nuestra revisión bibliográfica reveló los siguientes principales síndromes de germinación: (1 especies con semillas que deben ser estratificadas en frío debido a la presencia de latencia fisiológica (principalmente hierbas introducidas; (2 especies con semillas que deben ser escarificadas con ácidos o procedimientos mecánicos debido a la presencia de latencia física (principalmente especies leñosas nativas; (3 especies con latencia fisiológica que necesitan de estratificación cálida para activar la germinación (hierbas nativas e introducidas. Estos síndromes provocan que la época de germinación en Chile central esté situada entre otoño e inicio de la primavera. Además, no hay referencias sobre la presencia de algún síndrome esporádico de germinación para los componentes de un banco de semillas permanente. Proponemos

  10. Application of PIXE to the characterization of vitreous dacites from archaeolgical sites in the Atacama region in northern Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, J.R.; Cancino, S. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Nunoa, Santiago 1 (Chile); Miranda, P. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Nunoa, Santiago 1 (Chile)], E-mail: pjmirand@gmail.com; Dinator, M.I. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Nunoa, Santiago 1 (Chile); Seelenfreund, A. [Universidad Academia de Humanismo Cristiano, Condell 343, Providencia, Santiago (Chile)

    2007-11-15

    Geochemical characterization studies using PIXE were carried out on 21 vitreous dacite artifacts from early formative archaeological sites in the Atacama region, in northern Chile, and on 13 samples taken from two potential volcanic sources located within the region. Performing statistical analyses it was possible to obtain elemental concentration patterns for the archaeological samples of this material and match some of these artifacts with the geological source samples.

  11. The secret formula of Coke. In Peru and Chile, mining companies may help the solar industry achieve a breakthrough; Das Geheimrezept von Coca-Cola. In Peru und Chile koennten ausgerechnet Bergbaukonzerne der Solarbranche zum Durchbruch verhelfen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosell, Alejandro Diego; Siemer, Jochen

    2012-01-15

    Peru and Chile are among the countries with the highest insolation values of the world, but there are hardly any photovoltaic systems. This may change soon; for power supply to mining operations in the Atacama desert, solar power can compete directly with fossil energy sources. Opinions differ, however, as to whether competition can start in the near future or at once.

  12. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Chile 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    Chile has experienced several serious energy supply incidents over the last decade, including major droughts, a sustained gas supply cut from Argentina (since 2004), and a major earthquake in early 2010 which affected electricity networks and refineries, and caused several black-outs. Due to Chile's unique and sinuous geography - it runs 4 300 kilometres from North to South and only 175 kms from East to West- the country's energy markets are regionally disjointed, particularly as the regional gas and electricity grids are not connected. In the arid North, energy demand is dominated by the mining industry, and operates based on a separate thermal-based Sistema Interconectado Norte Grande (SING) electricity grid. The more densely-populated central region (including Santiago) operates on the more hydro-dependent Sistema Interconectado Central (SIC) electricity grid. The southernmost, hydro-rich regions of the country are not connected to the rest of Chile in terms of electricity and gas. The following report is based on an IEA Emergency Response Assessment carried out in 2010 and 2011 which looked specifically at Chile's capacity to respond to short-term emergencies in oil, gas and electricity.

  13. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Chile 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    Chile has experienced several serious energy supply incidents over the last decade, including major droughts, a sustained gas supply cut from Argentina (since 2004), and a major earthquake in early 2010 which affected electricity networks and refineries, and caused several black-outs. Due to Chile's unique and sinuous geography - it runs 4 300 kilometres from North to South and only 175 kms from East to West- the country's energy markets are regionally disjointed, particularly as the regional gas and electricity grids are not connected. In the arid North, energy demand is dominated by the mining industry, and operates based on a separate thermal-based Sistema Interconectado Norte Grande (SING) electricity grid. The more densely-populated central region (including Santiago) operates on the more hydro-dependent Sistema Interconectado Central (SIC) electricity grid. The southernmost, hydro-rich regions of the country are not connected to the rest of Chile in terms of electricity and gas. The following report is based on an IEA Emergency Response Assessment carried out in 2010 and 2011 which looked specifically at Chile's capacity to respond to short-term emergencies in oil, gas and electricity.

  14. Boreal bog plants: nitrogen sources and uptake of recently deposited nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordbakken, J.F.; Ohlson, M.; Hoegberg, P.

    2003-01-01

    The main goals of this study were to determine the δ 15 N signature of quantitatively important boreal bog plants as basis for discussing their N sources, and to assess the effects of five different 3 year N treatments (i.e. 0, 5, 10, 20 and 40 kg N ha -1 year -1 ) on the bog plants and surface peat at different depths (i.e. 0, 5, 10, 20 and 40 cm) by using 15 N as tracer. Plants and peat were analyzed for N concentration, 15 N natural abundance and 15 N at.%. From the results we draw three main conclusions: First, the relative importance of different N sources is species-specific among bog plants. Second, an annual addition of 5 kg N ha -1 year -1 was sufficient to significantly increase the N concentration in Sphagnum mosses, liverworts and shallow rooted vascular plants, and an annual addition of 40 kg N ha -1 year -1 during 3 years was not sufficient to increase the N concentration in deep rooted plants, although the 15 N content increased continuously, indicating a possible longer term effect. Third, an annual addition of 40 kg N ha -1 year -1 during 3 years increased the N content in surface peat at depths of 5 and 10 cm, but not at depths of 20 and 40 cm, indicating the capacity of the living Sphagnum mosses and the surface peat to take up deposited N, and thereby function as a filter. - Living Sphagnum mosses and surface peat function as a filter for added nitrogen

  15. Molecular characterization of endophytic fungi associated with the roots of Chenopodium quinoa inhabiting the Atacama Desert, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Teuber, M; Vilo, C; Bascuñán-Godoy, L

    2017-03-01

    Plant roots can be highly colonized by fungal endophytes. This seems to be of particular importance for the survival of plants inhabiting stressful habitats. This study focused on the Identification of the fungal endophytic community associated with the roots of quinoa plants ( Chenopodium quinoa ) growing near the salt lakes of the Atacama Desert, Chile. One hundred endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy quinoa roots, and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was sequenced for phylogenetic and taxonomic analysis. The isolates were classified into eleven genera and 21 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Despite a relatively high diversity of root endophytic fungi associated with quinoa plants, the fungal community was dominated by only the Ascomycota phyla. In addition, the most abundant genera were Penicillium , Phoma and Fusarium , which are common endophytes reported in plant roots. This study shows that roots of C . quinoa harbor a diverse group of endophytic fungi. Potential roles of these fungi in plant host tolerance to stressful conditions are discussed.

  16. Obchodní a kulturní zvláštnosti Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Štieglerová, Renata

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor thesis is to analyse business and cultural particularities of Chile. The thesis is divided into three chapters. First chapter talks about general characteristics of Chile, which include economical, political and administrative facts, history of Chile and geographical conditions. Second chapter outlines cultural aspects such as structure of population, language and Chilean cuisine. Last chapter deals with business particularities of Chilean businessmen. A part of this ...

  17. Protection of Existing and Potential Astronomical Sites in Chile - an Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. G.; Sanhueza, P.; Norman, D.; Schwarz, H.; Orellana, D.

    2002-12-01

    The IAU's Working Group on Controlling Light Pollution (iauwg) has declared Mauna Kea and a wide strip of Northern Chile between Antofagasta and Chajnanator as top priorities for its efforts to protect existing and potential sites in the Northern and Southern hemispheres respectively. This report provides an update on the iauwg's co-ordinated efforts to protect areas around the major international optical observatories in Chile, as well as the "Chilean Special Zone" (CSZ) mentioned above. This zone is of current and potential interest for the installation of extremely large optical telescopes and includes the ALMA radio-astronomy site. The CSZ is potentially vulnerable to adverse effects of mining in the region. Progess has been made in demonstrating to local mining interests within the CSZ the economic advantages of quality lighting. Educational and outreach activities to a variety of target audiences are building on legislation covering dark skies - itself part of work by the Chilean government to protect the natural heritage of Chile. Substantial good will was generated by an international, bilingual conference held last March in Chile. Just in the region around AURA's Observatory in Chile (Gemini South, CTIO and SOAR), a portable planetarium has been used to reach out to over 600 teachers and 65,000 pupils in the RedLaSer schools network within the last three years. This has attracted the direct interest of Chile's Ministry of Education. Videoconferencing over Internet2 is being used for educational purposes between Chile and various sites in the US. The NSF- initiated Mamalluca municipal observatory now receives more visitors than all the international observatories in Chile combined and is the focus of an expanding local industry of astronomical eco-tourism. Most of this work was supported by funding from, or via, the US NSF through CTIO and Gemini, and from ESO, OCIW, CONAMA and the IDA.

  18. Vida Chile 1998-2006: resultados y desafíos de la política de promoción de la salud en Chile The Vida Chile program: results and challenges with health promotion policy in Chile, 1998-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Salinas

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available La prioridad política otorgada por el Gobierno de Chile a la promoción de la salud se expresa en el desarrollo alcanzado por el Consejo Vida Chile y su Plan Nacional de Promoción de la Salud (PNPS. En este artículo se presenta el modelo evaluativo del PNPS chileno y sus principales resultados preliminares en el ámbito técnico y económico en el período 1998-2006. Para medir los resultados de las metas de proceso se utilizaron indicadores de cobertura (número de personas, de espacios promotores de la salud y de actividades y del grado de cumplimiento de las estrategias. El número de actividades durante el período aumentó significativamente; 98% de los municipios del país cuentan con un plan comunal de promoción y un comité Vida Chile, que surge como instancia de trabajo intersectorial y ejecutora del Plan Comunal de Promoción; se incrementó el número de organizaciones sociales incorporadas a las estrategias de promoción de la salud; 34% de los establecimientos de educación del país (preescolar, básica y media resultaron acreditadas como entidades promotoras de la salud; y aproximadamente 20% de la población total del país de todos los grupos de edad recibió beneficios directos de los planes comunales de promoción en 2006, entre otros logros. El costo total anual per capita de los planes comunales ascendió a $US 6,60. Los principales factores facilitadores identificados fueron contar con la participación de las organizaciones sociales y redes comunitarias y disponer de un presupuesto adecuado para el plan comunal. Los factores obstaculizadores más frecuentes fueron la falta de tiempo o de recursos humanos para la promoción, la dispersión geográfica de la población y los problemas de accesibilidad a las actividades. Se hacen recomendaciones para la aplicación y el mejoramiento de los programas de promoción de la salud en la comunidad.The Government of Chile has placed a high priority on health promotion. This is

  19. Bio aerosol Generation at wastewater treatment plants: Identification of main bio aerosols sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Monedero, M. A.; Aguilar, M. I.; Fenoll, R.; Roig, A.

    2009-01-01

    Typical operations taking place at wastewater treatment plants, especially those involving aeration and mechanical agitation of raw wastewater, represent one of the main sources of bio aerosols that, if inhaled, could pose a biologic hazard to site workers and local residents. Six different wastewater treatment plants from southeast Spain were monitories in order to identify the main bio aerosol sources and to evaluate the airborne microorganisms levels to which workers may be exposed to. Air samples were taken from selected locations by using a single stage impactor. (Author)

  20. Extraction and characterization of anthocyanin colorants from plant sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dyankova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Natural pigments (and especially those of anthocyanins are a valuable source of bioactive compounds and may be used in the production of new functional food ingredients. Furthermore, their applications in the treatment and prevention of chronic disorders are becoming more and more widespread. In the last few years consumers have focused their attention on the natural biologically active compounds as functional food ingredients, and therefore, it may be assumed that natural colorants are an alternative source of synthetic additives. The aim of the study was to determine the quantitative content of monomeric anthocyanin pigments in extracts obtained from eight plants. The total content of monomeric anthocyanin pigments was measured by a pH-differential method. The TLC analysis of the pigment extracts from the different plants showed intensive rose, red and violet stripes corresponding to the anthocyanin content. The extracts from chicory and lavender petals were unstable and their color decreased in intensity in 1 month. The analysis of the experimental data shows that the yield of pigment substances depends on a few factors: the type of plant, the preliminary treatment of the plant and the solvent that is used. The largest quantity of extracted substances in the studied plants were isolated from chokeberry (2 195.9 cyd eq mg/l, followed by blackberry (1 466.2 and one variety of the grapes (1 199.3 . In the case of chokeberry, the pigment content included a large number of anthocyanins and the combination of these components was the reason for the deep red/violet color of the extract. Fresh or frozen materials are the most suitable for extraction of anthocyanin pigments. On the whole, fruit pulp yielded a larger quantity of pigments than juice. Anthocyanins are water-soluble compounds and for that reason their isolation requires water and other polar solvents. Better stabilization of color is obtained by a slight acidification of the

  1. The Mass Media and Political Socialization: Chile, 1970-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Amy R.

    2005-01-01

    This project seeks to determine the effect of the mass media on political attitudes and behaviors in Chile between the years 1970 and 2000. The relationship between the media and "political socialization" is just now gaining recognition in scholarly research, and Chile offers an excellent case study. This paper traces these two variables…

  2. Solar cooking and wood in Chile, energetical alternatives; Cocina solares y manejo de lena en Chile, alternativas energeticas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, R. P.

    2004-07-01

    Firewood in Latin America is, after petroleum, the second primary source of energy. In Chile, the statistics have shown that the total use of energy produce by firewood fluctuates between 16 and 21% from which the residential sector represents 54%. There are great social and environmental impacts produced by the use of firewood. For the near future, it will be difficult to eradicate the firewood consumption in Latin America. In looking for sustainable use of firewood to produce energy, NGOs have developed efficient systems for production, management and consume of it. For this research we will focus on the efficient use of biomass and solar energy use for cooking, both to be applied in suitable places. The paper shows Chilean experiences on both, biomass and solar energy production, and how these programs have impacted the national statistics in energy consumption. (Author)

  3. [Public health infrastructure investment difficulties in Chile: concessions and public tenders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyenechea, Matías

    2016-05-12

    This paper seeks to highlight the problems of gaps in health infrastructure in Chile, and to analyze the mechanisms by which it is provided. In Chile this is done in two ways: the first is through competitive bidding or sector-wide modality. The second way is through hospital concessions. Both mechanisms have had difficulties in recent years, which are reported. Finally, we propose ways to improve the provision of health infrastructure in Chile.

  4. Adapting to climate variability and change in Chile's Maipo basin ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-04-09

    Apr 9, 2014 ... Given the region's role in Chile's national economy, a strategy for adapting to ... to Chile's economy, and may be threatened by future water stress. ... for the project, with the goal of bringing together government, business, and ...

  5. The energy sector in Chile: An introductory outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    After an introduction on Chilean energy policy, governmental structure in the energy sector, and foreign investment regulations, descriptions and analyses are provided of the main energy sectors in Chile: petroleum, electric power, natural gas, coal, and non-traditional energy sources. The descriptions include a general overview, government policies, current legislation, incentives and restrictions to energy production, organizations that have a bearing on policy design, and the role of the particular sector in the national economy. The analyses outline the current and possible future state of activity in each sector and provide an indication of areas of interest and business opportunities for Canadian investors. A directory is included of public organizations and other entities related to energy. 12 refs, 1 fig., 9 tabs

  6. Ecological significance and complexity of N-source preference in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Dev T; Kronzucker, Herbert J

    2013-10-01

    Plants can utilize two major forms of inorganic N: NO3(-) (nitrate) and NH4(+) (ammonium). In some cases, the preference of one form over another (denoted as β) can appear to be quite pronounced for a plant species, and can be an important determinant and predictor of its distribution and interactions with other species. In many other cases, however, assignment of preference is not so straightforward and must take into account a wide array of complex physiological and environmental features, which interact in ways that are still not well understood. This Viewpoint presents a discussion of the key, and often co-occurring, factors that join to produce the complex phenotypic composite referred to by the deceptively simple term 'N-source preference'. N-source preference is much more complex a biological phenomenon than is often assumed, and general models predicting how it will influence ecological processes will need to be much more sophisticated than those that have been so far developed.

  7. [Ecology and health in Chile: present and future development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzún, M

    1997-09-01

    In response to the progressive environmental deterioration, the Ecological Society of America has made a proposal, called "Sustainable Biosphere Initiative", to do research, teaching and decision making processes on biodiversity, global change and the effects of human activities on environment. The goal of appropriate environmental protection and welfare for mankind includes health and quality of life. Presently, Chile faces a number of environmental problems such as pollution, excessive urban growth, loss of agricultural areas, disposal of solid waste and species extinction. The lack of education and information in Chile, on these problems, is worrisome. The role of universities to overcome this deficit should be crucial in the future sustainable development of Chile.

  8. Citizenship ‘from Above’? The Case of Chile, 1964-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Ree, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    During the last fifty years, citizenship in Chile has been re-interpreted and reformulated in different ways. By combining top-down and bottom-up approaches towards citizenship, this article argues that the reformulation of citizenship in Chile has been brought about through both state-initiated

  9. National control and eradication program of bovine tuberculosis in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max, Vanessa; Paredes, Luis; Rivera, Alejandro; Ternicier, Claudio

    2011-07-05

    There have been reports of the presence of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in Chile for more than 100 years. Several prevalence studies have revealed that there is a wide spectrum of disease across the country with certain geographic areas where the disease is endemic through to other geographic areas where infection is sporadic and at very low prevalence. In 2009, this information was used to divide Chile into different geographic zones based on prevalence rates. This will enable the correct actions to be undertaken to reduce the prevalence of TB. Thus the northern part of Chile which has a medium to high prevalence of TB will be categorized as a control zone. In contrast, the southern part of Chile which has a high proportion of the bovine population, has a low prevalence of TB and will be classified as an eradication zone (Paredes, 2008). Although there have been several past attempts to create a national control and eradication program in Chile, none has been successful. A national program is proposed, and outlined in this paper. Progress toward program initiation in 2009 has been difficult, mostly because of the global economic crisis, difficulties in the milk and meat industry, and social and political issues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Do oxygen stable isotopes track precipitation moisture source in vascular plant dominated peatlands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charman, D.; Amesbury, M. J.; Newnham, R.; Loader, N.; Goodrich, J. P.; Gallego-Sala, A. V.; Royles, J.; Keller, E. D.; Baisden, W. T.

    2014-12-01

    Variations in the isotopic composition of precipitation are determined by fractionation processes which occur during temperature and humidity dependent phase changes associated with evaporation and condensation. Oxygen stable isotope ratios have therefore been frequently used as a source of palaeoclimate data from a variety of proxy archives. Exploitation of this record from ombrotrophic peatlands, where the source water used in cellulose synthesis is derived solely from precipitation, has been mostly limited to Northern Hemisphere Sphagnum-dominated bogs, with limited application in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) or in peatlands dominated by vascular plants. Throughout New Zealand (NZ), the preserved root matrix of the restionaceous wire rush (Empodisma spp.) forms deep peat deposits. NZ provides an ideal location to undertake empirical research into oxygen isotope fractionation in vascular peatlands because sites are ideally suited to single taxon analysis, preserve potentially high resolution full Holocene palaeoclimate records and are situated in the climatically sensitive SH mid-latitudes. Crucially, large gradients exist in the mean isotopic composition of precipitation across NZ, caused primarily by the relative influence of different climate modes. We test the capacity for δ18O analysis of Empodisma alpha cellulose from ombrotrophic restiad peatlands in NZ to provide a methodology for developing palaeoclimate records. We took surface plant, water and precipitation samples over spatial (six sites spanning >10° latitude) and temporal (monthly measurements over one year) gradients. We found a strong link between the isotopic compositions of surface root water, the most likely source water for plant growth, and precipitation in both datasets. Back-trajectory modelling of precipitation moisture source for rain days prior to sampling showed clear seasonality in the temporal data that was reflected in surface root water. The link between source water and plant

  11. The Effect of Plant Source on the Properties of Lignin-Based Polyurethanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M. Lang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This work increases our understanding of the effect of plant source on the mechanical and morphological properties of lignin-based polyurethanes (PUs. Lignin is a polymer that is synthesized inside the plant cell wall and can be used as a polyol to synthesize PUs. The specific aromatic structure of the lignin is heavily reliant on the plant source from which it is extracted. These results show that the mechanical properties of lignin-based PUs differ based on lignin’s plant source. The morphology of lignin-based PUs was examined using atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy and the mechanical properties of lignin-based PU samples were measured using dynamic mechanical analysis and shore hardness (Type A. The thermal analysis and morphology studies demonstrate that all PUs prepared form a multiphase morphology. In these PUs, better mixing was observed in the wheat straw lignin PU samples leading to higher moduli than in the hardwood lignin and softwood lignin PUs whose morphology was dominated by larger aggregates. Independent of the type of the lignin used, increasing the fraction of lignin increased the rigidity of PU. Among the different types of lignin studied, PU with wheat straw soda lignin exhibited storage moduli ~2-fold higher than those of PUs incorporating other lignins. This study also showed that during synthesis all hydroxyl groups in the lignin are not available to react with isocyanates, which alters the number of cross-links formed within the PU and impacts the mechanical properties of the material.

  12. Global sensitivity analysis in wastewater treatment plant model applications: Prioritizing sources of uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sin, Gürkan; Gernaey, Krist; Neumann, Marc B.

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrates the usefulness of global sensitivity analysis in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) design to prioritize sources of uncertainty and quantify their impact on performance criteria. The study, which is performed with the Benchmark Simulation Model no. 1 plant design, complements...... insight into devising useful ways for reducing uncertainties in the plant performance. This information can help engineers design robust WWTP plants....... a previous paper on input uncertainty characterisation and propagation (Sin et al., 2009). A sampling-based sensitivity analysis is conducted to compute standardized regression coefficients. It was found that this method is able to decompose satisfactorily the variance of plant performance criteria (with R2...

  13. Entrevista a Mónica Maldonado. Las condiciones carcelarias en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeska David

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abogada, egresada de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. Comenzó su carrera judicial en los Tribunales de Santiago en 1970 y a partir del año 2001 se desempeña como Fiscal Judicial de la Corte Suprema de Chile.

  14. Geomodels of coseismic landslides environments in Central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serey, A.; Sepulveda, S. A.; Murphy, W.; Petley, D. N.

    2017-12-01

    Landslides are a major source of fatalities and damage during strong earthquakes in mountain areas. Detailed geomodels of coseismic landslides environments are essential parts of seismic landslide hazard analyses. The development of a site specific geological model is required, based on consideration of the regional and local geological and geomorphological history and the current ground surface conditions. An engineering geological model is any approximation of the geological conditions, at varying scales, created for the purpose of solving an engineering problem. In our case, the objective is the development of a methodology for earthquake-induced landslide hazard assessment applicable to urban/territorial planning and disaster prevention strategies assessment at a regional scale adapted for the Chilean tectonic conditions. We have developed the only 2 complete inventories of landslides triggered by earthquakes in Chile. The first from the Mw 6.2, shallow crustal Aysén earthquake in 2007. Second one from the Mw 8.8, megathrust subduction Maule earthquake in 2010. From the comparison of these 2 inventories with others from abroad, as well as analysis of large, prehistoric landslide inventories proposed as likely induced by seismic activity we have determined topographic, geomorphological, geological and seismic controlling factors in the occurrence of earthquake-triggered landslides. With the information collected we have defined different environments for generation of coseismic landslides based on the construction of geomodels. As a result we have built several geomodels in the Santiago Cordillera in central Chile (33°S), based upon the San Ramón Fault, a west-vergent reverse fault that outcrops at the edge of Santiago basin recently found to be active and a likely source of seismic activity in the future, with potential of triggering landslides in the Santiago mountain front as well as inland into the Mapocho and Maipo Cordilleran valleys. In conclusion

  15. First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae in Chile. The presence of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas, 1976 (Lepidoptera, Pieridae is reported for the first time in Chile, from the Azapa valley, Arica.

  16. International Summer School on Astronomy and Space Science in Chile, first experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, M.; Arellano-Baeza, A. A.

    I International Summer School on Astronomy and Space Science took place in the Elqui Valley Chile January 15-29 2005 Eighty 12-17 year old students from Chile Russia Venezuela and Bulgaria obtained a valuable experience to work together with outstanding scientists from Chile and Russia and with Russian cosmonaut Alexander Balandine They also had opportunity to visit the main astronomical observatories and to participate in workshops dedicated to the telescope and satellite design and remote sensing This activity was supported by numerous institutions in Chile including the Ministry of Education the European Southern Observatory Chilean Space Agency Chilean Air Force Latin American Association of Space Geophysics the principal Chilean universities and the First Lady Mrs Luisa Duran

  17. [Who finances medical research in Chile?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, H; Kauffmann, R; Goic, A

    1995-10-01

    To identify those institutions granting medical research in Chile, every issue of Revista Médica de Chile published between 1987 and 1994 was reviewed, under the assumption that a vast majority (over 70%) of papers released by Chilean authors in topics of internal medicine and related subspecialties would have been submitted for publication in this journal. This assumption was based in the solid prestige of Revista Médica de Chile among Chilean physicians and investigators: it is one of the oldest medical journals in the world (founded in 1872) and its inclusion in the most important international indexes (e.g. Index Medicus, Current Contents) qualifies it in the "mainstream literature". Papers classified as "Original Articles", "Clinical Experiences", "Review Articles", "Public Health", "Case Reports", "Clinical Laboratory", "Special Articles" and "Medical Education" were screened for acknowledgment of financial support beyond the resources needed for routine clinical work. Among 1,528 manuscripts published, 344 were "Original Articles" and 61.3% of them acknowledged special financial support. Five hundred and one manuscripts were "Clinical Experiences" and 21.5% of them received special financial support; similar proportions were detected in "Review Articles" and "Public Health" topics. The institution ranked as providing support most often was the "Fondo Nacional de Ciencias y Tecnología" (FONDECYT), a governmental fund that assigns resources to research in all areas of science and technology through a peer-reviewed nationwide annual contest. FONDECYT was identified as provider of financial support to 45.2% of the "Original Articles" and "Clinical Experiences"; Chilean universities were mentioned by 33.6% and other entities (including pharmaceutical companies, other national and foreign organizations) by 23.1%. The University of Chile was the main Chilean university mentioned in the acknowledgments. The proportion of papers receiving special financial support

  18. Childcare in Chile. The role of ethnicity and socioeconomic inequalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cárcamo Leiva, Rodrigo Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Chile has embarked on a road that must lead to the reduction of inequality gaps for the population. A public policy called Chile Growths With You has focused on an increase in the breadth of coverage of non-maternal care through childcare centers to provide equal opportunities in early childhood and

  19. Environmental lithium exposure in the north of Chile - Tissue exposure indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo T. Figueroa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: northern Chile has the highest levels of lithium in surface waters in the world which is reflected in very high lithium levels in the plants and animals that depend on these water systems and consequently in the indigenous population.Methods: the lithium tissue burdens in populations from two valleys in the extreme north of Chile have been studied. The bulk of this report is based on analyses of lithium levels in urine, hair, and breast milk in the population of several villages. Data on serum levels, some of which had been previously published, are included for the sake of completeness. Since this paper reports studies by several groups of workers samples were analysed by a variety of methods. These include atomic emission, atomic absorption, other photospectroscopic techniques and mass spectroscopy.Results: in all samples studied the average lithium level (5.3 ppm was found to be significantly elevated compared to levels reported in the literature and measured in this study for people not exposed to high levels in water and food (0.009-0.228 ppm.Conclusions: the people studied represent a unique longitudinal cohort. The work should provide important insights into the potential neuroprotective effects of lithium also help us set guidelines to assess the risks from high dose environmental exposure.

  20. Altitudinal and interannual variation in seedling survival of tree species in central Chile: implications for sclerophyllous forest restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Becerra, Pablo I; Smith-Ramírez, Cecilia; Armesto, Juan J

    2016-01-01

    An important issue in ecological restoration of forest ecosystems is to establish where reforestation is more limited by ecological factors and thus where additional treatments (e.g. irrigation, shading) are more needed. Population growth, density and reproduction in plants have frequently been documented to decrease with altitude, although in semiarid regions, initial increases up to middle elevations and then decreasing upward have been reported. In the semiarid region of central Chile, the...

  1. [Medical specialization in Chile. A centralized vision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouet-Huerta, Diego E; González, Bárbara; Correa, Katherine

    2017-11-01

    Medical graduates face different postgraduate training options, but their priority is to obtain a primary medical specialty, defined as a specialty that does not derive from other. There are different specialty training programs in Chile, which can be dependent or independent of the Ministry of Health. The information about these programs is available in different Internet sites. However a centralized information service that groups and synthetize these programs is lacking, hampering graduate choice decisions. This article aims to review all specialization program modalities, providing a general vision of the institutional structure and implications that govern the specialization process in Chile.

  2. Source selection problem of competitive power plants under government intervention: a game theory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Reza; Hafezalkotob, Ashkan; Makui, Ahmad

    2014-06-01

    Pollution and environmental protection in the present century are extremely significant global problems. Power plants as the largest pollution emitting industry have been the cause of a great deal of scientific researches. The fuel or source type used to generate electricity by the power plants plays an important role in the amount of pollution produced. Governments should take visible actions to promote green fuel. These actions are often called the governmental financial interventions that include legislations such as green subsidiaries and taxes. In this paper, by considering the government role in the competition of two power plants, we propose a game theoretical model that will help the government to determine the optimal taxes and subsidies. The numerical examples demonstrate how government could intervene in a competitive market of electricity to achieve the environmental objectives and how power plants maximize their utilities in each energy source. The results also reveal that the government's taxes and subsidiaries effectively influence the selected fuel types of power plants in the competitive market.

  3. chile : tous les projets | Page 5 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: INTRAREGIONAL MIGRATION, WOMEN WORKERS, WOMEN'S RIGHTS. Région: ... Région: Brazil, South America, Chile, Colombia, North and Central America, Panama ... Région: Argentina, South America, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Dominican Republic, North and Central America, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay.

  4. [Eugenic abortion could explain the lower infant mortality in Cuba compared to that in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoso S, Enrique; Carvajal C, Jorge A

    2012-08-01

    Cuba and Chile have the lower infant mortality rates of Latin America. Infant mortality rate in Cuba is similar to that of developed countries. Chilean infant mortality rate is slightly higher than that of Cuba. To investigate if the lower infant mortality rate in Cuba, compared to Chile, could be explained by eugenic abortion, considering that abortion is legal in Cuba but not in Chile. We compared total and congenital abnormalities related infant mortality in Cuba and Chile during 2008, based on vital statistics of both countries. In 2008, infant mortality rates in Chile were significantly higher than those of Cuba (7.8 vs. 4.7 per 1,000 live born respectively, odds ratio (OR) 1.67; 95% confidence intervals (Cl) 1.52-1.83). Congenital abnormalities accounted for 33.8 and 19.2% of infant deaths in Chile and Cuba, respectively. Discarding infant deaths related to congenital abnormalities, infant mortality rate continued to be higher in Chile than in Cuba (5.19 vs. 3.82 per 1000 live born respectively, OR 1.36; 95%CI 1.221.52). Considering that antenatal diagnosis is widely available in both countries, but abortion is legal in Cuba but not in Chile, we conclude that eugenic abortion may partially explain the lower infant mortality rate observed in Cuba compared to that observed in Chile.

  5. Factores determinantes de la esperanza de vida en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Planck Barahona-Urbina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: En las últimas décadas, Chile ha experimentado un fuerte crecimiento económico, lo que ha permitido mejorar las condiciones de vida de los ciudadanos. Objetivos: Determinar los factores asociados a la esperanza de vida en Chile. Diseño: Análisis econométrico. Lugar: Chile. Intervenciones: Aplicación del modelo de regresión múltiple con series temporales para el análisis de la esperanza de vida en Chile. Se utilizó datos de naturaleza agregada del Instituto Nacional de Estadística (INE y el Banco Central de Chile para el período comprendido entre 1988 y 2008. Se utilizó como variable dependiente la esperanza de vida en años y, como variables explicativas, el PIB per cápita, número de médicos, número de enfermeras y gasto público en salud. Principales medidas de resultados: Factores asociados a la esperanza de vida. Resultados: Luego del análisis, los resultados han puesto de manifiesto que el ingreso per cápita, el número de médicos, número de enfermeras y el gasto en salud resultaron ser estadísticamente significativos, es decir, tienen un efecto positivo sobre la esperanza de vida de las personas. Conclusiones: A la luz de los resultados podría argumentarse lo beneficioso que puede resultar en términos cuantitativos un aumento del PIB per cápita a la hora de conseguir una mayor esperanza de vida de las personas. Igualmente, los resultados sugieren el efecto positivo que produce un incremento del número de personal médico en el país dado, pues esta variable ha permitido satisfacer la demanda sanitaria cada vez más creciente de la población. El aumento del presupuesto social en salud ha sido una variable que ha tenido un resultado positivo a la hora de valorar su efecto en la mejora de las condiciones de vida en Chile.

  6. The Lower Cretaceous Way Group of northern Chile: An alluvial fan-fan delta complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, S.; Clemmey, H.; Turner, P.

    1986-01-01

    Alluvial fan sediments of the Lower Cretaceous Coloso Basin in northern Chile were deposited in a half-graben and derived from andesitic volcanics of a former island arc. Transport directions were towards the east, away from the present-day Peru-Chile trench. Grain flow, density modified grain flow and sheetflow processes were responsible for most of the sediment deposition with cohesive debris flows playing only a minor part. An early phase of conglomerate deposition (Coloso Formation) into a restricted basin records the transition from proximal fan facies with abundant grain flows and remobilized screes to mid-fan facies dominated by sheetflows. Stratiform copper mineralization near the top of the lower conglomerates is related to the unroofing of the Jurassic island arc. This mineralization comprises copper sulphide-cemented sands and gravels and formed by the reaction of mineralized detritus with diagenetic and hydrothermal solutions. A later phase of deposition (Lombriz Formation) includes sandstones, siltstones and conglomerates with a source area different from the Coloso Formation. This change in source may be related to strike-slip tectonics as the basin extended. The Lombriz conglomerates pass distally (eastwards) into red sandstones and purple siltstones with thin limestones deposited under marine conditions. This sequence is interpreted as a major fan delta complex. It passes conformably into marine carbonates of the Tableado Formation signifying the complete drowning of the basin in lower Cretaceous times.

  7. Capsaicinoides en chiles nativos de Puebla, México

    OpenAIRE

    Morán-Bañuelos, S. Hirán; Aguilar-Rincón, V. Heber; Corona-Torres, Tarsicio; Castillo-González, Fernando; Soto-Hernández, R. Marcos; San Miguel-Chávez, Rubén

    2008-01-01

    Los recursos genéticos del chile (Capsicum spp.) son importantes por ser la fuente natural de capsaicinoides que confieren el sabor picante a los frutos. Los reportes sobre la amplitud de esta característica en los chiles nativos cultivados por agricultores tradicionales en México son escasos. Por tanto, el objetivo del presente estudio fue identificar y cuantificar los capsaicinoides predominantes en 22 poblaciones recolectadas en nueve municipios de Puebla, México, mediante la extracción de...

  8. Nuclear heat source component design considerations for HTGR process heat reactor plant concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.F.; Kapich, D.; King, J.H.; Venkatesh, M.C.

    1982-05-01

    The coupling of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) and a chemical process facility has the potential for long-term synthetic fuel production (i.e., oil, gasoline, aviation fuel, hydrogen, etc) using coal as the carbon source. Studies are in progress to exploit the high-temperature capability of an advanced HTGR variant for nuclear process heat. The process heat plant discussed in this paper has a 1170-MW(t) reactor as the heat source and the concept is based on indirect reforming, i.e., the high-temperature nuclear thermal energy is transported [via an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX)] to the externally located process plant by a secondary helium transport loop. Emphasis is placed on design considerations for the major nuclear heat source (NHS) components, and discussions are presented for the reactor core, prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV), rotating machinery, and heat exchangers

  9. Assessing the Potential for Interstate Conflict Between Chile and Peru: A Political Economy Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Militares Peru-Chile no Se Han Afectado por Diferendo,” El Comercio , April 6, 2008. 329 Chile/Peru: Tensions Flare on Maritime Border Change.” 330 “FF...Relaciones Militares Peru-Chile no Se Han Afectado por Diferendo.” El Comercio , April 6, 2008. “Relations Falter for Peru, Chile.” Chicago Tribune...América Latina y el Mediterráneo (Centro de Estudios e Investigaciones Militares: Santiago, 2000), 82. 129 “A. P. Bureau Chief in Peru is Ordered out of

  10. Chile y los Desafíos Globales de Seguridad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Griffiths Spielman

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo pretende abordar el tema "Chile y los desafíos globales de seguridad", asumiendo a modo de propuesta una noción de seguridad relativa a todo fenómeno violento e intencional, que como producto de su actuación provoca mortalidad, y ello desde la perspectiva de un país pequeño, tal y como Chile, si bien notablemente interconectado a nivel global. En consecuencia, Chile debería asumir un efecto potencialmente mayor de las principales amenazas globales. En síntesis, se expresa que en el actual escenario de seguridad, la lejanía geográfica de los fenómenos ya no es necesariamente un factor que prevenga los efectos de dichas amenazas sobre la seguridad de un Estado.

  11. [Research on source profile of aerosol organic compounds in leather plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo-Guang; Zhou, Yan; Feng, Zhi-Cheng; Liu, Hui-Xuan

    2009-04-15

    Through investigating current air pollution condition for PM10 in every factories of different style leather plants in Pearl River Delta, characteristic profile of semi-volatile organic compounds in PM10 emitted from leather factories and their contents were researched by using ultrasonic and gas chromatography and mass spectrum technology. The 6 types of organic compounds containing 46 species in total were found in the collected samples, including phenyl compounds, alcohols, PAHs, acids, esters and amides. The concentrations of PM10 in leather tanning plant, leather dying plant and man-made leather plant were 678.5, 454.5, 498.6 microgm x m(-3) respectively, and concentration of organic compounds in PM10 were 10.04, 6.89, 14.21 microg x m(-3) in sequence. The more important type of pollutants in each leather plants had higher contribution to total organic mass as follows, esters and amides in tanning plants profile account for 43.47% and 36.51% respectively; esters and alcohols in dying plants profiles account for 52.52% and 16.16% respectively; esters and amide in man-made leather plant have the highest content and account for 57.07% and 24.17% respectively. In the aerosol organic source profiles of tested leather plants, 9-octadecenamide was the abundant important species with the weight of 26.15% in tanning plant, and Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate was up to 44.19% in the dying plant, and Bis(2-ethylhexyl) maleate and 1-hydroxy-piperidine had obviously higher weight in man-made plant than the other two plants.

  12. REE Distribution in Cultivated and No Cultivated Soils in Two Viticultural Areas of Central Chile: Mineralogical, Pedological and Anthropic Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, P.; Townley, B.; Aburto, F.

    2017-12-01

    Within the scope of a Corfo-Innova Project (I+D Wines of Chile-University of Chile) we have recognized remarkable REE patterns in soils of two vineyards located in traditional vinicultural areas: Casablanca and Santa Cruz. Both vineyards have granitic parent rock, with similar petrographic features and REE patterns. We studied REE distribution on twelve cultivated soil profiles at each vineyard, where a full mineralogical, geochemical and pedogenic sampling and characterization was performed. To establish the effect of management no cultivated soil profiles were included from each vineyard location. REE in soil samples were measured by ICP-MS using two digestion methods: lithium metaborate/tetraborate fusion to obtain REE contents in total soil and MMI® partial extraction technique for REE contents on bioavailable phases.Soils display similar signatures of REEs respect to the rock source at both vineyards, but showing relative enrichments in soils of Casablanca and depletion in soils of Santa Cruz. Bioavailable phase data indicates a relative depletion of LREEs compared to HREEs and different anomalies for Ce (positive vs negative) in different areas of the same vineyard. Similar patterns of soils and parent rock suggest that REEs are adequate tracers of lithological source. Enrichments and/or depletions of REE patterns in soils respect to the rock source and Ce anomalies, evidence differential pedogenetic processes occurring at each sampled site. Results of bioavailable phase are coherent with the immobilization and fractionation of LREEs by stable minerals within soils as clays and Fe oxides. Mineralogical results in soil thin sections of Casablanca evidence the occurrence of Ti phases as sphene, ilmenite and rutile, which probably control the relative REE enrichment, since these minerals are considered more stable under pedogenic conditions.Finally, cultivated soils show a depleted but analogous pattern of REE regarding to no cultivated soil, indicating the

  13. Representation of Ecosystem Services by Terrestrial Protected Areas: Chile as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, América P.; Casalegno, Stefano; Marquet, Pablo A.; Gaston, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    Protected areas are increasingly considered to play a key role in the global maintenance of ecosystem processes and the ecosystem services they provide. It is thus vital to assess the extent to which existing protected area systems represent those services. Here, for the first time, we document the effectiveness of the current Chilean protected area system and its planned extensions in representing both ecosystem services (plant productivity, carbon storage and agricultural production) and biodiversity. Additionally, we evaluate the effectiveness of protected areas based on their respective management objectives. Our results show that existing protected areas in Chile do not contain an unusually high proportion of carbon storage (14.9%), agricultural production (0.2%) or biodiversity (11.8%), and also represent a low level of plant productivity (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index of 0.38). Proposed additional priority sites enhance the representation of ecosystem services and biodiversity, but not sufficiently to attain levels of representation higher than would be expected for their area of coverage. Moreover, when the species groups were assessed separately, amphibians was the only one well represented. Suggested priority sites for biodiversity conservation, without formal protection yet, was the only protected area category that over-represents carbon storage, agricultural production and biodiversity. The low representation of ecosystem services and species’ distribution ranges by the current protected area system is because these protected areas are heavily biased toward southern Chile, and contain large extents of ice and bare rock. The designation and management of proposed priority sites needs to be addressed in order to increase the representation of ecosystem services within the Chilean protected area system. PMID:24376559

  14. Analysis of safety information for nuclear power plants and development of source term estimation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Woon; Choi, Seong Soo; Park, Jin Hee

    1999-12-01

    Current CARE(Computerized Advisory System for Radiological Emergency) in KINS(Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety) has no STES(Source Term Estimation System) which links between SIDS(Safety Information Display System) and FADAS(Following Accident Dose Assessment System). So in this study, STES is under development. STES system is the system that estimates the source term based on the safety information provided by SIDS. Estimated source term is given to FADAS as an input for estimation of environmental effect of radiation. Through this first year project STES for the Kori 3,4 and Younggwang 1,2 has been developed. Since there is no CARE for Wolsong(PHWR) plants yet, CARE for Wolsong is under construction. The safety parameters are selected and the safety information display screens and the alarm logic for plant status change are developed for Wolsong Unit 2 based on the design documents for CANDU plants

  15. Strontium isotope data for recent andesites in Ecuador and North Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, P.W.; Thorpe, R.S.; Moorbath, S.

    1977-01-01

    New Sr isotope data are presented for andesite lavas from active volcanoes in Ecuador and North Chile. Twenty-three samples from five Ecuadorian volcanoes have 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios most of which are essentially within analytical error, and average 0.7044. In contrast, 16 samples from the San Pedro-San Pablo volcano complex in North Chile have 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios between 0.7058 and 0.7072. These samples show no correlation between 87 Sr/ 86 Sr and 87 Rb/ 86 Sr, nor between 87 Sr/ 86 Sr and other elements or ratios. The major difference in setting between the two volcanic provinces lies in the thickness of the continental crust; 40-50 km beneath Ecuador, 70 km beneath North Chile. Andesites from both areas are derived primarily from the mantle, but those from North Chile show evidence of a significant Sr isotopic contribution from the continental crust. (Auth.)

  16. α-Amylase inhibitors: a review of raw material and isolated compounds from plant source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Paloma Michelle; Souza, Paula Monteiro; Simeoni, Luiz Alberto; Silveira, Damaris

    2012-01-01

    Inhibition of α-amylase, enzyme that plays a role in digestion of starch and glycogen, is considered a strategy for the treatment of disorders in carbohydrate uptake, such as diabetes and obesity, as well as, dental caries and periodontal diseases. Plants are an important source of chemical constituents with potential for inhibition of α-amylase and can be used as therapeutic or functional food sources. A review about crude extracts and isolated compounds from plant source that have been tested for α-amylase inhibitory activity has been done. The analysis of the results shows a variety of crude extracts that present α-amylase inhibitory activity and some of them had relevant activity when compared with controls used in the studies. Amongst the phyto-constituents that have been investigated, flavonoids are one of them that demonstrated the highest inhibitory activities with the potential of inhibition related to number of hydroxyl groups in the molecule of the compound. Several phyto-constituents and plant species as α-amylase inhibitors are being reported in this article. Majority of studies have focused on the anti-amylase phenolic compounds.

  17. Adubação do tomateiro - ensaios com diversos adubos nitrogenados Trials with the tomato plant using nitrogenous fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Ribeiro de Campos

    1963-01-01

    Full Text Available Ensaios de campo foram conduzidos em solo massapé da Estação Experimental de Monte Alegre do Sul, com o objetivo de investigar o efeito de quatro adubos nitrogenados - salitre do Chile, sulfato de amônio, Nitrocálcio e uréia - sôbre a produção do tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.. O nitrogênio foi aplicado em cobertura em quatro e em cinco parcelas iguais, para o primeiro e segundo ensaio, respectivamente. Não foram significativas as diferenças entre as produções proporcionadas pelas diversas formas de adubo nitrogenado usadas; houve, porém, diferença altamente significativa entre as produções obtidas com êsses adubos e a da testemunha.This paper presents the results of two fertilizer trials comparing nitrogen sources for the tomato plant. Both were carried out at the Monte Alegre Experiment Station, on a massape type of soil. The nitrogenous fertilizers were ammonium sulfate, Nitroealcio (ammonium nitrate plus calcium carbonate, Chile nitrate and urea. They were applied as top dressing four and five times, respectively, for the first and second experiments. The results of these tests indicated that there was no significant difference between the nitrogen sourees, but on the other hand its application was highly significant when compared with the control, except for the Chile nitrate.

  18. [Health research and health technology assessment in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Manuel Antonio; Cabieses, Báltica; Paraje, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Health research is considered an essential element for the improvement of population health and it has been recommended that a share of the national health budget should be allocated to develop this field. Chile has undertaken efforts in the last decades in order to improve the governmental structure created to promote the development of health research, which has increased human resources and funding opportunities. On the other hand, the sustained economic growth of Chile in the last decades suggests that the health expenditure will maintain its increasing trend in the following years. This additional funding could be used to improve coverage of current activities performed in the health system, but also to address the incorporation of new strategies. More recently, health technology assessment (HTA) has been proposed as a process to support decisions about allocation of resources based on scientific evidence. This paper examines the relationship between the development of health research and the HTA process. First, it presents a brief diagnosis of the situation of health research in Chile. Second, it reviews the conceptual basis and the methods that account for the relationship between a HTA process and the development of health research. In particular, it emphasizes the relevance of identifying information gaps where funding additional research can be considered a good use of public resources. Finally, it discusses the challenges and possible courses of action that Chile could take in order to guarantee the continuous improvement of an articulated structure for health research and HTA.

  19. Observations of rapid-fire event tremor at Lascar volcano, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rademacher

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available During the Proyecto de Investigaciòn Sismològica de la Cordillera Occidental (PISCO '94 in the Atacama desert of Northern Chile, a continuously recording broadband seismic station was installed to the NW of the currently active volcano, Lascar. For the month of April, 1994, an additional network of three, short period, three-component stations was deployed around the volcano to help discriminate its seismic signals from other local seismicity. During the deployment, the volcanic activity at Lascar appeared to be limited mainly to the emission of steam and SO2. Tremor from Lascar is a random, «rapid-fire» series of events with a wide range of amplitudes and a quasi-fractal structure. The tremor is generated by an ensemble of independent elementary sources clustered in the volcanic edifice. In the short-term, the excitation of the sources fluctuates strongly, while the long-term power spectrum is very stationary.

  20. A Tsunami Model for Chile for (Re) Insurance Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango, Cristina; Rara, Vaclav; Puncochar, Petr; Trendafiloski, Goran; Ewing, Chris; Podlaha, Adam; Vatvani, Deepak; van Ormondt, Maarten; Chandler, Adrian

    2014-05-01

    Catastrophe models help (re)insurers to understand the financial implications of catastrophic events such as earthquakes and tsunamis. In earthquake-prone regions such as Chile,(re)insurers need more sophisticated tools to quantify the risks facing their businesses, including models with the ability to estimate secondary losses. The 2010 (M8.8) Maule (Chile) earthquake highlighted the need for quantifying losses from secondary perils such as tsunamis, which can contribute to the overall event losses but are not often modelled. This paper presents some key modelling aspects of a new earthquake catastrophe model for Chile developed by Impact Forecasting in collaboration with Aon Benfield Research partners, focusing on the tsunami component. The model has the capability to model tsunami as a secondary peril - losses due to earthquake (ground-shaking) and induced tsunamis along the Chilean coast are quantified in a probabilistic manner, and also for historical scenarios. The model is implemented in the IF catastrophe modelling platform, ELEMENTS. The probabilistic modelling of earthquake-induced tsunamis uses a stochastic event set that is consistent with the seismic (ground shaking) hazard developed for Chile, representing simulations of earthquake occurrence patterns for the region. Criteria for selecting tsunamigenic events (from the stochastic event set) are proposed which take into consideration earthquake location, depth and the resulting seabed vertical displacement and tsunami inundation depths at the coast. The source modelling software RuptGen by Babeyko (2007) was used to calculate static seabed vertical displacement resulting from earthquake slip. More than 3,600 events were selected for tsunami simulations. Deep and shallow water wave propagation is modelled using the Delft3D modelling suite, which is a state-of-the-art software developed by Deltares. The Delft3D-FLOW module is used in 2-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation settings with non-steady flow

  1. Initial results from the operation of village hybrid systems in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holz, R.; Baring-Gould, E.I.; Corbus, D. [and others

    1997-08-01

    The government of Chile has undertaken a rural electrification program to electrify 75% of the population by the year 2000. Renewable energy is considered within this program, and its application facilitated through a technical cooperation agreement between Chile`s national energy commission (CNE) and the U.S. Department of Energy. In order to introduce isolated mini-grid hybrid wind-energy systems into Chile, three pilot projects were implemented in Region IX. The goal of the pilot systems is to establish renewables as a viable option for rural electrification in the Chilean context. In this paper we report on the first six months of three pilot projects. Presented as background information are brief descriptions of the power systems, data acquisition systems, and the operation and maintenance (O&M) protocols. Analyses of loads, component performance, system operation, and balance of payments for O&M are the primary points presented. Important lessons learned and future plans are also discussed.

  2. Off-design performance analysis of organic Rankine cycle using real operation data from a heat source plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Seop; Kim, Tong Seop; Lee, Jong Jun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • ORC systems driven by waste or residual heat from a combined cycle cogeneration plant were analyzed. • An off-design analysis model was developed and validated with commercial ORC data. • A procedure to predict the actual variation of ORC performance using the off-design model was set up. • The importance of using long-term operation data of the heat source plant was demonstrated. - Abstract: There has been increasing demand for cogeneration power plants, which provides high energy utilization. Research on upgrading power plant performance is also being actively pursued. The organic Rankine cycle (ORC) can operate with mid- and low-temperature heat sources and is suitable for enhancing performance of existing power plants. In this study, an off-design analysis model for the ORC was developed, which is driven by waste heat or residual heat from a combined cycle cogeneration plant. The applied heat sources are the exhaust gas from the heat recovery steam generator (Case 1) and waste heat from a heat storage unit (Case 2). Optimal design points of the ORC were selected based on the design heat source condition of each case. Then, the available ORC power output for each case was predicted using actual long-term plant operation data and a validated off-design analysis model. The ORC capacity of Case 2 was almost two times larger than that of Case 1. The predicted average electricity generation of both cases was less than the design output. The results of this paper reveal the importance of both the prediction of electricity generation using actual plant operation data and the need for optimal ORC system sizing.

  3. El chile poblano criollo en la cultura alimentaria del Alto Atoyac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Joaquín Pérez Carrasco

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El chile poblano criollo producido en la re-gión Alto Atoyac en Puebla, forma parte de la cultura alimenticia de la población, junto con el maíz y el frijol. Ya sea en fresco o en seco es un componente fundamental en muy diver-sos platillos como: el mole poblano, los chiles en nogada, las rajas con huevo, por mencio-nar algunos. El objetivo del trabajo fue el en-tender las razones sociales y culturales de lo planteado e identificar la problemática del cultivo de chile poblano criollo y los factores que favorecen que los productores persistan en su cultivo en la región. Metodología. Se realizaron entrevistas estructuradas, siguien-do el método de muestreo por “bola de nieve” (Snowball, empleado frecuentemente en es-tudios con poblaciones marginales. Resulta-dos. El sistema de producción predominante en el Alto Atoyac, es el chile poblano criollo intercalado en árboles frutales, con superficies de siembra igual o menor a 100 m2, estrategia usada por los productores para diversificar el riesgo de las enfermedades del cultivo y con ello asegurar la sobrevivencia de sus tradicio-nes culinarias y la permanencia de su semilla con sus propias características. Limitaciones. El trabajo de investigación no pudo abarcar el rendimiento de chile poblano en la región y del perfil del productor. Conclusiones. El chi-le poblano criollo en el Alto Atoyac, se siem-bra en superficies pequeñas y condiciones de temporal, intercalado en árboles frutales y es afectado por la enfermedad pudrición radical o secadera. El productor continúa sembrando su semilla de chile poblano criollo, como estra-tegia para conservar sus tradiciones en la elabo-ración de los alimentos y mitigar en lo posible los daños ocasionados por las enfermedades.

  4. Sources and Amounts of Animal, Dairy, and Plant Protein Intake of US Adults in 2007–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan M. Pasiakos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Dietary guidelines suggest consuming a mixed-protein diet, consisting of high-quality animal, dairy, and plant-based foods. However, current data on the distribution and the food sources of protein intake in a free-living, representative sample of US adults are not available. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 2007–2010, were used in these analyses (n = 10,977, age ≥ 19 years. Several US Department of Agriculture (USDA databases were used to partition the composition of foods consumed into animal, dairy, or plant components. Mean ± SE animal, dairy, and plant protein intakes were determined and deciles of usual intakes were estimated. The percentages of total protein intake derived from animal, dairy, and plant protein were 46%, 16%, and 30%, respectively; 8% of intake could not be classified. Chicken and beef were the primary food sources of animal protein intake. Cheese, reduced-fat milk, and ice cream/dairy desserts were primary sources of dairy protein intake. Yeast breads, rolls/buns, and nuts/seeds were primary sources of plant protein intake. This study provides baseline data for assessing the effectiveness of public health interventions designed to alter the composition of protein foods consumed by the American public.

  5. Constraining Biomarkers of Dissolved Organic Matter Sourcing Using Microbial Incubations of Vascular Plant Leachates of the California landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harfmann, J.; Hernes, P.; Chuang, C. Y.; Kaiser, K.; Spencer, R. G.; Guillemette, F.

    2017-12-01

    Source origin of dissolved organic matter (DOM) is crucial in determining reactivity, driving chemical and biological processing of carbon. DOM source biomarkers such as lignin (a vascular plant marker) and D-amino acids (bacterial markers) are well-established tools in tracing DOM origin and fate. The development of high-resolution mass spectrometry and optical studies has expanded our toolkit; yet despite these advances, our understanding of DOM sources and fate remains largely qualitative. Quantitative data on DOM pools and fluxes become increasingly necessary as we refine our comprehension of its composition. In this study, we aim to calibrate and quantify DOM source endmembers by performing microbial incubations of multiple vascular plant leachates, where total DOM is constrained by initial vascular plant input and microbial production. Derived endmembers may be applied to endmember mixing models to quantify DOM source contributions in aquatic systems.

  6. Aspects of Integration and Adaptation of Croatian Immigrants in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Perić

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The emigration of Croats to Chile was a part of transoceanic migration that occurred at the end of the 19th and at the beginning of the 20th century. Croatia at the time was within the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. The most important area of emigration was Dalmatia, especially the island of Brač. Emigration went on without organisation, with no emigration policy or legislative framework. The main routes of emigration to Chile were to its northern parts (Antofagasta and Tarapaca and southern parts (the province Magallanes. In the new social milieu, in the immigration country – i.e. Chile, Croatian immigrants passed through various processes of integration and adaptation. The openness of Chilean society and politics to cultural pluralism gave them the opportunity to freely express themselves and their ethnicity. On the other hand, Chilean laws did not permit dual citizenship, and thus the children of the immigrants automatically became Chileans. Croatian immigrants at first nurtured a mechanical type of solidarity, since their migration was a chain development and they lived in groups of relatives and friends. After they assured for themselves the material necessities of life, they began to establish societies and were recognized from the outside as an immigrant group, distinct from other such groups. With time social stratification developed among them. They lived in communion with many other immigrant groups. They were attracted to all Slavic immigrant groups and they also have good relations with Chileans. Mixed marriages, mostly with Chileans, quickened the process of assimilation and brought about the almost total disappearance of the Croatian language. This paper is based on research, until the present, made by Croatian and Chilean authors into the historical sources and newspaper articles analysing the process of integration of immigrants on three social levels: within Chilean society, within their own immigrant groups and in regard to

  7. Regiones-commodities: Crisis y contagio en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Daher

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available La hipótesis de un nuevo dualismo entre una capital subglobal y sus "regiones-commodities" subyace en el estudio del impacto diferencial de las tres últimas crisis internacionales en las regiones de Chile, cuantificado a través de cuatro indicadores: el producto, el empleo, la inversión externa y las exportaciones, cuya variación permite verificar la disímil vulnerabilidad de cada región y su desigual exposición al riesgo de contagio de crisis. Fundamentado en un marco conceptual que sostiene que las crisis siguen siendo más regionales que globales, y que existe una verdadera geografía del contagio, el estudio muestra evidencia empírica que permite constatar: 1 la reproducción de un desbalance norte-sur al interior de Chile; 2 la doble paradoja de Santiago, cuya economía es la más diversificada y la más vulnerable, la más recesiva y la de mayor crecimiento; 3 la emergencia de Antofagasta como segunda economía regional de Chile, desplazando a Valparaíso y Concepción; 4 el paralelismo de Santiago y Antofagasta como regiones con el mayor producto, la mayor inversión extranjera y mayores exportaciones; y 5 la "mercosurización" de Santiago, capital subglobal, y la globalización de sus "regiones-commodities".The hypothesis of a new dualism between a sub-global capital city and its "commodities regions" underlies the study of the differential impact of the three last international crises on the regions of Chile. This impact is quantified through four indicators: product, employment, foreign investment and exports, and their variability allow the verification of the dissimilar vulnerability of each region and its dissimilar exposure to the risk of crisis contamination. The study is based on a conceptual frame that states that crisis continue to be more regional-like than global, and that there is a real geography of contamination. On the other hand, this study shows empirical evidence which makes it possible to verify: 1 the

  8. President of Chile at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The President of Chile, Michelle Bachelet, in the ATLAS cavern with, from left to right, Peter Jenni, ATLAS Spokesman, Vivian Heyl, CONICYT President, and Robert Aymar, CERN Director-General. Robert Aymar, CERN Director-General, and Vivian Heyl, CONICYT President, signing a cooperation agreement between CERN and Chile’s Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT).The President of Chile, Michelle Bachelet, paid a visit to CERN during her three-day tour of Switzerland. The charismatic Michelle Bachelet and her large delegation were greeted by the CERN Director-General and then taken to see the ATLAS experiment and the LHC. She also took time to meet the Chilean community working at CERN, comprising several physicists in the Theory Group and the ATLAS experiment. The meeting was followed by the signing of a cooperation agreement between CERN and Chile’s Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científi...

  9. [Mental disorders among immigrants in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Graciela; Fritsch, Rosemarie; Castro, Ariel; Guajardo, Viviana; Torres, Pamela; Díaz, Berta

    2011-10-01

    Chile is receiving immigrant populations coming from other Latin-American countries. To determine the prevalence of Common Mental Disorders (CMD) among immigrants who live in Independencia, a quarter in Santiago, Chile. A cross sectional study was carried out in the primary health care clinic and in the state-funded school of Independencia. A representative sample of 282 adults and 341 children were interviewed. Mental disorders were diagnosed using CIS-R and MINI structured interviews. The interviewed immigrants came mostly from Peru. The prevalence of mental disorders in the adult population was 17.8% and among children, it was 29.3%. The adult immigrants have a lower prevalence of mental disorders than the Chilean population but it increases among children. Barriers of access to health services, that should be solved, were detected.

  10. Estimating the Seasonal Importance of Precipitation to Plant Source Water over Time and Space with Water Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, D. B.; Kahmen, A.

    2017-12-01

    The stable isotopic composition of hydrogen and oxygen are physical properties of water molecules that can carry information on their sources or transport histories. This provides a useful tool for assessing the importance of rainfall at different times of the year for plant growth, provided that rainwater values vary over time and that waters do not partially evaporate after deposition. We tested the viability of this approach using data from samples collected at nineteen sites throughout Europe at monthly intervals over two consecutive growing seasons in 2014 and 2015. We compared isotope measurements of plant xylem water with soil water from multiple depths, and measured and modeled precipitation isotope values. Paired analyses of oxygen and hydrogen isotope values were used to screen out a limited number of water samples that were influenced by evaporation, with the majority of all water samples indicating meteoric sources. The isotopic composition of soil and xylem waters varied over the course of an individual growing season, with many trending towards more enriched values, suggesting integration of the plant-relevant water pool at a timescale shorter than the annual mean. We then quantified how soil water residence times varied at each site by calculating the interval between measured xylem water and the most recently preceding match in modeled precipitation isotope values. Results suggest a generally increasing interval between rainfall and plant uptake throughout each year, with source water corresponding to dates in the spring, likely reflecting a combination of spring rain, and mixing with winter and summer precipitation. The seasonally evolving spatial distribution of source water-precipitation lag values was then modeled as a function of location and climatology to develop continental-scale predictions. This spatial portrait of the average date for filling the plant source water pool provides insights on the seasonal importance of rainfall for plant

  11. [Illegitimate patients: Undocumented immigrants' access to health care in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha, Nanette Liberona; Mansilla, Miguel Ángel

    2017-01-01

    In recent decades, Chile has become a destination for immigrants from other South American countries, which has significantly impacted public services - particularly the public health system - at the economic, social, and cultural levels. The aim of this paper is to provide substantiated information on issues concerning undocumented immigrants' access to health care in Chile. A qualitative methodology, fundamentally an ethnography of the clinical setting, was used. Results were then analyzed in relation to theories of power asymmetries and interethnic relations. The research results highlight the lack of compliance with existing regulations and the exercise of discretionary personal judgment as barriers to access. It is concluded that in Chile immigrants in general, and undocumented immigrants in particular, are considered to be illegitimate patients.

  12. Illegitimate patients: Undocumented immigrants’ access to health care in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanette Paz Liberona Concha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, Chile has become a destination for immigrants from other South American countries, which has significantly impacted public services – particularly the public health system – at the economic, social, and cultural levels. The aim of this paper is to provide substantiated information on issues concerning undocumented immigrants’ access to health care in Chile. A qualitative methodology, fundamentally an ethnography of the clinical setting, was used. Results were then analyzed in relation to theories of power asymmetries and interethnic relations. The research results highlight the lack of compliance with existing regulations and the exercise of discretionary personal judgment as barriers to access. It is concluded that in Chile immigrants in general, and undocumented immigrants in particular, are considered to be illegitimate patients.

  13. Stable isotope tracers of water vapor sources in the Atacama Desert, Northern Chile: a pilot study on the Chajnantor Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, K. E.; Galewsky, J.; Sharp, Z. D.; Rella, C.; Ward, D.

    2010-12-01

    Subtropical deserts form in response to the interaction of large-scale processes, including atmospheric circulation and oceanic currents, with local features like topography. The degree to which each of these factors controls desert formation and the anticipated impacts of variations in each as climate changes, however, are poorly understood. Stable isotope compositions of water vapor in desert air can help to distinguish between moisture sources and processes that control aridity. The Atacama Desert, located in northern Chile between latitudes 23S and 27S, provides a natural laboratory in which to test the degree to which water vapor isotopologues enable the distinction between processes that control humidity, including the Hadley Circulation, the cold Humboldt Current off the coast of Chile, and the orographic effect of the Andes, in this subtropical desert. Water vapor isotopologues and concentrations were measured in real time using a cavity-ringdown spectrometer deployed on the Chajnantor Plateau over a three-week period from mid-July early August 2010. The elevation of the Plateau, 5000 m amsl (~550 hPa), places it above the boundary layer, allowing the evaluation of the Rayleigh fractionation model from the coast inland. Values reported by the instrument were verified with air samples taken at the coast and the Plateau, which were analyzed on an MAT-252 mass spectrometer. Water vapor concentrations and δD values varied spatially and temporally. Water vapor concentrations on the Plateau ranged from 200 to 3664 ppmv with a mean value of 536 ppmv. In contrast, water vapor concentrations at the coast were approximately 10000 ppmv, and at Yungay, 60 km inland, water vapor concentrations ranged from 1300 to 2000 ppmv from morning to evening. δD values on the Plateau ranged from -526‰ to -100‰ with a mean value of 290‰ with enriched values correlated to periods with higher water vapor concentrations. There are no strong diurnal variations in water vapor

  14. Credit constraints in rural financial markets in Chile: determinants and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyes, A.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from two surveys carried out in 2006 and 2008 on 177 farmers in Chile, this study measures access to credit and empirically determine the effects of credit constraints on investment and production for market-oriented farmers in central Chile. More specifically, four issues are dealt

  15. 75 FR 28059 - Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... Trade Agreements with Chile, Australia, and Singapore. DATES: July 15, 2010: Deadline for filing written... effects of the free trade agreements (FTAs) concluded with Chile, Singapore, and Australia. In its report...

  16. Micropropagation of Prosopis chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz from young and mature plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, L A; Polci, P A; Lindström, L I; Echenique, C V; Hernández, L F

    2002-04-01

    Prosopis chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz (Algarrobo de Chile) is an important native tree species that can be grown in arid and semiarid regions for wood and forage production and environmental protection. Developing a simple and reliable in vitro protocol for cloning it would enable to improve it genetically. Explants of P. chilensis were taken from 4 months-old plants grown in the greenhouse or from adult trees grown in a natural environment. Nodal segments 1-2 cm long containing an axillary bud were selected from elongating shoots. These cuttings were aseptically cultured on two agar-solid basal media, MS or BTMm, and treated with 0.05 mg L-1 BA and 3 mg L-1 of either IAA, IBA or NAA. Sucrose (3% w/v) was used as carbon source. The percentage of sprouted cuttings and whole plant regeneration as well as its shoot and root length were recorded. Number, length and dry weight of shoots and roots were also measured. Rooting was successful with cuttings taken from young or adult plants, but explants from young plants showed a better response. Culturing in BTMm resulted in significantly greater shoot and root biomass than culturing in MS. Moreover, this response was higher in young explants when IBA was used as growth regulator. This paper reports a simple and effective method to micropropagate P. chilensis from young and adult plants.

  17. Chile: Una Vision Politica, Economica y Social (Chile: A Political, Economic, and Social View).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Hwang, Adriana

    1972-01-01

    This address seeks to explain in brief the historical background and political, economic, and social conditions leading to the democratic election of a Marxist president in Chile. A historical sketch of Chilean government from independence in 1810 is provided with a description of the situation just before Salvador Allende's election in 1969. Some…

  18. Surface Observations from Punta Arenas, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface Observations from Punta Arenas, in extreme southern Chile. WMO station ID 85934. Period of record 1896-1954. The original forms were scanned at the Museo...

  19. Energy prices in the presence of plant indivisibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Ronald; Serra, Pablo

    2003-01-01

    In several countries (Chile, Bolivia, Argentina and Peru, among others), power plants are dispatched according to merit order, i.e. based on the marginal operating costs of the plants. In this scheme, the operating plant with the highest marginal cost sets the spot price at which firms trade the energy required to fulfill their contracts. The underlying peak-load pricing model assumes that plants can operate at any level up to capacity, whereas real power plants have minimum operating levels. This implies that a low cost plant might have to reduce its supply in order to accommodate the minimum operating level of a more expensive power plant. This paper derives the welfare maximizing price rules in this case and shows that the standard peak-load pricing rules no longer apply

  20. Nuclear heat source component design considerations for HTGR process heat reactor plant concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.F.; Kapich, D.; King, J.H.; Venkatesh, M.C.

    1982-01-01

    Using alternate energy sources abundant in the U.S.A. to help curb foreign oil imports is vitally important from both national security and economic standpoints. Perhaps the most forwardlooking opportunity to realize national energy goals involves the integrated use of two energy sources that have an established technology base in the U.S.A., namely nuclear energy and coal. The coupling of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) and a chemical process facility has the potential for long-term synthetic fuel production (i.e., oil, gasoline, aviation fuel, hydrogen, etc.) using coal as the carbon source. Studies are in progress to exploit the high-temperature capability of an advanced HTGR variant for nuclear process heat. The process heat plant discussed in this paper has a 1170-MW(t) reactor as the heat source and the concept is based on indirect reforming, i.e., the high-temperature nuclear thermal energy is transported (via an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX)) to the externally located process plant by a secondary helium transport loop. Emphasis is placed on design considerations for the major nuclear heat source (NHS) components, and discussions are presented for the reactor core, prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV), rotating machinery, and heat exchangers

  1. Decades lost and found: Mexico and Chile since 1980

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael Bergoeing; Patrick J. Kehoe; Timothy J. Kehoe; Raimundo Soto

    2002-01-01

    Both Chile and Mexico experienced severe economic crises in the early 1980s, yet Chile recovered much faster than Mexico. This study analyzes four possible explanations for this difference and rules out three, explanations based on money supply expansion, real wage and real exchange rate declines, and foreign debt overhangs. The fourth explanation is based on government policy reforms in the two countries. Using growth accounting and a calibrated growth model, the study determines that the on...

  2. Bullfighting at Santiago de Chile during the Colonial Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escardiel González Estévez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that in Chile there is no bullfighting and that people have forgotten it, bulls existed in this territory as in any other Spanish colony, with critical social implications. Although follow the Iberian trend, from ritual to a spectacle, some local factors made that bullfighting had special features in Chile, as is the case of the permanence of chivalrous bullfighting in the context of military training at the frontier with mapuche people.

  3. Thermal performance assessment of a large aperture concentrating collector in an industrial application in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Clare; Pino, Alan; Cardemil, José Miguel; Escobar, Rodrigo

    2017-06-01

    The application of solar thermal energy to meet the heat demands of the food and beverage processing industry in Chile has huge potential. This paper presents an assessment of the first large aperture trough collector installed in Latin America. The collector preheats water for a boiler in a juice-concentrating factory, 100 km north of Santiago. An analysis of the system for a day in November indicates the system was not able to utilize the heat generated, resulting in rapid de- and refocusing of the collector and problems with sensor calibration. An analysis of a day in March indicates the tracking algorithm has not correctly aligned the collector with the sun's position. An investigation into the design document reveals that the meteorological data underestimates the actual irradiation values by 40%, resulting in an oversized system given the actual conditions. To increase the energy gain in the system it is proposed to increase the working pressure from the current value of 1.5bar to up to 5bar, which could increase the system utilization from 41% to 65% and reduce the dumped energy to near zero. The simulation results with actual weather data and a fixed inlet temperature indicate the annual solar fraction could increase from the design value of 8.1% to 31.8% with a working pressure of 5 bar. The plant presents multiple opportunities for improvement not only to the performance of the plant but also in the design and installation of solar thermal systems in Chile in the future.

  4. Strategy of investment in electricity sources--Market value of a power plant and the electricity market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartnik, R.; Hnydiuk-Stefan, A.; Buryn, Z.

    2017-11-01

    This paper reports the results of the investment strategy analysis in different electricity sources. New methodology and theory of calculating the market value of the power plant and value of the electricity market supplied by it are presented. The financial gain forms the most important criteria in the assessment of an investment by an investor. An investment strategy has to involve a careful analysis of each considered project in order that the right decision and selection will be made while various components of the projects will be considered. The latter primarily includes the aspects of risk and uncertainty. Profitability of an investment in the electricity sources (as well as others) is offered by the measures applicable for the assessment of the economic effectiveness of an investment based on calculations e.g. power plant market value and the value of the electricity that is supplied by a power plant. The values of such measures decide on an investment strategy in the energy sources. This paper contains analysis of exemplary calculations results of power plant market value and the electricity market value supplied by it.

  5. [The 140th anniversary of Revista Médica de Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, B Humberto; Andresen, H Max; Palma, H Joaquín

    2012-01-01

    Revista Médica de Chile was founded in 1872 and thus is one of the oldest medical journals being published since the 19th Century. The sponsoring institution--"Sociedad Médica de Santiago", founded in 1869--initially was the only scientific society in Chile, gathering medical doctors from every existing specialty. With the splitting of independent organizations representing specific specialties, including subspecial-ties of internal medicine, Sociedad Médica de Santiago focused its scope of action to become the "Chilean Society of Internal Medicine". Its official journal -Revista Médica de Chile--is currently a general and internal medicine journal that also publishes articles on scientific and technological advances in many fields of medicine and health sciences. While initially all authors were Chilean, the journal is now open to submissions from abroad and since the year 2000 articles are published in English when the local language of authors is not Spanish. The number of articles received determines an increasing administrative and editorial burden and, together with the high cost of publishing, will require changes in publication policies. The journal will participate in continuing medical education programs as soon as reaccreditation of medical specialties becomes officially organized in Chile.

  6. Chile and Mercosur: One Strategic Perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oviedo, Humberto

    2000-01-01

    ... a big free trade area. Chile has been proactive to open its economy unilaterally and now is looking for creating the best conditions to participate in some important economic blocks, as a NAFTA, MERCOSUR, the Asian-Pacific...

  7. Nuclear public information activities in Chile; Programa de educacion publica de la energia nuclear en Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz Quintana, R [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile)

    1995-10-01

    Nuclear plans and developing programs in developing and developed countries are facing-in a higher or lower degree- opposition from public opinion. The objectives and contents of the public education program on nuclear energy in Chile are dealt with in this paper.

  8. Positive matrix factorization as source apportionment of soil lead and cadmium around a battery plant (Changxing County, China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jian-long; Zhi, Yu-you; Yang, Li-ping; Shi, Jia-chun; Zeng, Ling-zao; Wu, Lao-sheng

    2014-06-01

    Chemical compositions of soil samples are multivariate in nature and provide datasets suitable for the application of multivariate factor analytical techniques. One of the analytical techniques, the positive matrix factorization (PMF), uses a weighted least square by fitting the data matrix to determine the weights of the sources based on the error estimates of each data point. In this research, PMF was employed to apportion the sources of heavy metals in 104 soil samples taken within a 1-km radius of a lead battery plant contaminated site in Changxing County, Zhejiang Province, China. The site is heavily contaminated with high concentrations of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd). PMF successfully partitioned the variances into sources related to soil background, agronomic practices, and the lead battery plants combined with a geostatistical approach. It was estimated that the lead battery plants and the agronomic practices contributed 55.37 and 29.28%, respectively, for soil Pb of the total source. Soil Cd mainly came from the lead battery plants (65.92%), followed by the agronomic practices (21.65%), and soil parent materials (12.43%). This research indicates that PMF combined with geostatistics is a useful tool for source identification and apportionment.

  9. Biomass size-spectra of macrobenthic communities in the oxygen minimum zone off Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Eduardo; Quiñones, Renato; Palma, Maritza; Sellanes, Javier; Gallardo, Víctor A.; Gerdes, Dieter; Rowe, Gilbert

    2005-01-01

    Estimates of macrofaunal secondary production and normalized biomass size-spectra (NBSS) were constructed for macrobenthic communities associated with the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) in four areas of the continental margin off Chile. The presence of low oxygen conditions in the Humboldt Current System (HCS) off Chile was shown to have important effects on the size structure and secondary production of the benthic communities living in this ecosystem. The distribution of normalized biomass by size was linear (log 2-log 2 scale) at all stations. The slope of the NBSS ranged from -0.481 to -0.908. There were significant differences between the slopes of the NBS-spectra from the stations located in the OMZ (slope = -0.837) and those located outside the OMZ (slope = -0.463) ( p oxygen conditions (Chile (6.8 g C m -2 y -1) than off northern Chile (2.02 g C m -2 y -1) and off southern Chile (0.83 g C m -2 y -1). A comparison with other studies suggests that secondary production in terms of carbon equivalents was higher than in other upwelling regions.

  10. Plant-Derived Natural Products as Sources of Anti-Quorum Sensing Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Gan Chan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Quorum sensing is a system of stimuli and responses in relation to bacterial cell population density that regulates gene expression, including virulence determinants. Consequently, quorum sensing has been an attractive target for the development of novel anti-infective measures that do not rely on the use of antibiotics. Anti-quorum sensing has been a promising strategy to combat bacterial infections as it is unlikely to develop multidrug resistant pathogens since it does not impose any selection pressure. A number of anti-quorum sensing approaches have been documented and plant-based natural products have been extensively studied in this context. Plant matter is one of the major sources of chemicals in use today in various industries, ranging from the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food biotechnology to the textile industries. Just like animals and humans, plants are constantly exposed to bacterial infections, it is therefore logical to expect that plants have developed sophisticated of chemical mechanisms to combat pathogens. In this review, we have surveyed the various types of plant-based natural products that exhibit anti-quorum sensing properties and their anti-quorum sensing mechanisms.

  11. The Bulimulidae (Mollusca: Pulmonata) from the Región de Atacama, northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Juan Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The bulimulid genus Bostryx Troschel, 1847 is the most species-rich genus of land snails found in Chile, with the majority of its species found only in the northern part of the country, usually in arid coastal zones. This genus has been sparsely studied in Chile and there is little information on their distribution, diversity or ecology. Here, for the first time, a formal analysis of the diversity of bulimulids in the Región de Atacama, northern Chile, is reported. Of the seventeen species recorded for the area, most of them were efectively found in the field collections and one record was based on literature. Five taxa are described as new: Bostryx ancavilorum sp. nov., Bostryx breurei sp. nov., Bostryx calderaensis sp. nov., Bostryx ireneae sp. nov. and Bostryx valdovinosi sp. nov., and the known geographic distribution of seven species is extended. Results reveal that the Región de Atacama is the richest region in terrestrial snails in Chile, after the Juan Fernández Archipelago. All of the terrestrial molluscan species occurring in the area are endemic to Chile, most of them with restricted geographic distributions along the coastal zones, and none of them are currently protected by law. Further sampling in northern Chile will probably reveal more snail species to be discovered and described.

  12. NoSQL data model for semi-automatic integration of ethnomedicinal plant data from multiple sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ningthoujam, Sanjoy Singh; Choudhury, Manabendra Dutta; Potsangbam, Kumar Singh; Chetia, Pankaj; Nahar, Lutfun; Sarker, Satyajit D; Basar, Norazah; Das Talukdar, Anupam

    2014-01-01

    Sharing traditional knowledge with the scientific community could refine scientific approaches to phytochemical investigation and conservation of ethnomedicinal plants. As such, integration of traditional knowledge with scientific data using a single platform for sharing is greatly needed. However, ethnomedicinal data are available in heterogeneous formats, which depend on cultural aspects, survey methodology and focus of the study. Phytochemical and bioassay data are also available from many open sources in various standards and customised formats. To design a flexible data model that could integrate both primary and curated ethnomedicinal plant data from multiple sources. The current model is based on MongoDB, one of the Not only Structured Query Language (NoSQL) databases. Although it does not contain schema, modifications were made so that the model could incorporate both standard and customised ethnomedicinal plant data format from different sources. The model presented can integrate both primary and secondary data related to ethnomedicinal plants. Accommodation of disparate data was accomplished by a feature of this database that supported a different set of fields for each document. It also allowed storage of similar data having different properties. The model presented is scalable to a highly complex level with continuing maturation of the database, and is applicable for storing, retrieving and sharing ethnomedicinal plant data. It can also serve as a flexible alternative to a relational and normalised database. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Los patelogastrópodos intermareales de Chile y Perú Intertidal limpets of Chile and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN ESPOZ

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se entrega un sistema de clasificación que refleja las relaciones de parentesco, inferidas a partir del análisis de la región 16S de ADN mitocondrial, de los patelogastrópodos que habitan en la zona intermareal a lo largo de la costa rocosa de Chile y Perú. Además, se incluye el análisis comparativo de estos patelogastrópodos en relación con la estructura, la morfología y los patrones de color de la concha, los dientes de la rádula y la anatomía corporal. Adicionalmente, se entrega información respecto de la distribución y ecología para todos los miembros de este grupo. Los resultados muestran que la fauna Lottiidae de Chile y Perú consiste en al menos nueve especies de patelogastrópodos intermareales. Esto es, ocho especies de patelogastrópodos agrupadas dentro del clado monofilético Scurria (S. variabilis, S. zebrina, S. viridula, S. plana, S. scurra, S. araucana, S. ceciliana y una especie no determinada y un "taxón problemático" asignado preliminarmente dentro del género Lottia (Lottia orbignyi. El grupo está presente entre los 5º S y 54º S, registrándose en los niveles intermareales superior, medio e inferior, desde zonas expuestas a protegidas del oleaje. A nivel intraespecífico, los resultados nos permiten proponer la sinonimia de S. parasitica con S. variabilis, y de S. ceciliana con S. boehmita. Según esto, S. variabilis presentaría al menos tres ecofenotipos: (1 en sustratos rocosos a lo largo de todo su rango geográfico, (2 sobre las conchas de Fissurella crassa y F. limbata principalmente en Chile centro-sur y (3 sobre las placas del chitón Enoplochiton niger en el norte de Chile y sur del Perú. Por su parte, S. ceciliana es una especie de patelogastrópodo que presenta un patrón morfológico y de coloración de la concha altamente variable. En general, la alta variabilidad del patrón de color y morfología de la concha sitúa a estos patelogastrópodos entre los más complejos y

  14. Partitioning geochemistry of arsenic and antimony, El Tatio Geyser Field, Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landrum, J.T. [Department of Geological Sciences, The University of Texas, Austin, TX 78759 (United States); Bennett, P.C., E-mail: pbennett@mail.utexas.edu [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78759 (United States); Engel, A.S. [Department of Geology and Geophysics, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Alsina, M.A.; Pasten, P.A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Hidraulica y Ambiental, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Milliken, K. [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78759 (United States)

    2009-04-15

    The abundance of As and Sb in aqueous, mineral and biological reservoirs was examined at El Tatio Geyser Field, a unique hydrothermal basin located in the Atacama Desert region of Chile. Here the concentration of total As and Sb in hydrothermal springs and discharge streams are the highest reported for a natural surface water, and the geyser basin represents a significant source of toxic elements for downstream users across Region II, Chile. The geyser waters are near neutral Na:Cl type with {approx}0.45 and 0.021 mmol L{sup -1} total As and Sb, respectively, primarily in the reduced (III) redox state at the discharge with progressive oxidation downstream. The ferric oxyhydroxides associated with the microbial mats and some mineral precipitates accumulate substantial As that was identified as arsenate by XAS analysis (>10 wt% in the mats). This As is easily mobilized by anion exchange or mild dissolution of the HFO, and the ubiquitous microbial mats represent a significant reservoir of As in this system. Antimony, in contrast, is not associated with the mineral ferric oxides or the biomats, but is substantially enriched in the silica matrix of the geyserite precipitates, up to 2 wt% as Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Understanding the mobility and partitioning behavior of these metalloids is critical for understanding their eventual impact on regional water management.

  15. Proposal for implementation of alternative source term in the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazan L, A.; Lopez L, M.; Vargas A, A.; Cardenas J, J. B.

    2009-10-01

    In 2010 the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde will implement the extended power upbeat in both units of the plant. Agree with methodology of NEDC-33004P-A, (constant pressure power up rate), and the source term of core, for accidents evaluations, were increased in proportion to the ratio of power level. This means that for the case of a design basis accident of loss of coolant an increase of power of 15% originated an increase of 15% in dose to main control room. Using the method of NEDC-33004P-A to extended power upbeat conditions was determined that the dose value to main control room is very near to regulatory limit established by SRP 6.4. By the above and in order to recover the margin, the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde will calculate an alternative source term following the criteria established in RG 1.183 (alternative radiological source term for evaluating DBA at nuclear power reactor). This approach also have a more realistic dose value using the criterion of 10-CFR-50.67, in addition is predicted to get the benefit of additional operational flexibilities. This paper present the proposal of implementing the alternative source term in Laguna Verde. (Author)

  16. Early Child Care Education: Evidence from the New Law in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Felipe Aravena; Lobos, Marta Quiroga

    2017-01-01

    In the last decade, Chile has focused on early childhood education and care (ECEC) as a key opportunity to increase student-learning outcomes and decrease socio-economic inequalities. The creation of Chile's Under-Secretariat of ECEC in 2015 highlights the relevance of this educational stage. The purpose of this study is to analyse the new law…

  17. Nitrogen source tracking with δ15N content of coastal wetland plants in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory L. Bruland; Richard A.. Mackenzie

    2010-01-01

    Inter- and intra-site comparisons of the nitrogen (N) stable isotope composition of wetland plant species have been used to identify sources of N in coastal areas. In this study, we compared δ15N values from different herbaceous wetland plants across 34 different coastal wetlands from the five main Hawaiian Islands and investigated relationships of δ15N with...

  18. Comunidades de escorpiones (Arachnida: Scorpiones del desierto costero transicional de Chile Communities of scorpions (Arachnida: Scorpiones of the transitional coastal desert of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PABLO AGUSTO

    2006-12-01

    them are endemic species, well adapted to xeric environments. We studied the taxonomic structure of the scorpiofauna with regards to the plant formations present in the transitional coastal desert of Chile (25-32º S. Captures of scorpions were conducted with pitfall traps and UV light. Data from de field were complemented from literature and reference material. We identified the presence of 9 species in a total of 226 specimens captured, in the families Bothriuridae and Iuridae. The most abundant genera of Bothriuridae, represented by eight species, were Brachistosternus and Bothriurus, with 55.4 % and 11 % respectively of total captured specimens. Regarding Brachistosternus, Br. (Leptosternus roigalsinai was the most abundant species, with 38.9 % of total captured specimens. Caraboctonus keyserlingi (Iuridae made the 33.2 % of total captured specimens. The highest species richness of scorpions, with six and seven species were respectively, the plant formations of the coastal desert of Huasco (27°52' S, 71°05' W; 29°24' S, 71°18' W and those of the coastal shrubby steppe (29°24' S, 71°18' W; 30°34' S, 71°42' W. The coastal deserts of Tal-Tal (23°52' S, 70°30' W; 27°51' S, 71°05' W and Huasco presented exclusive species. The analysis of correspondence showed that, to the scorpiofauna studied, the coastal shrubby steppe would represent a transitional zone of geographic distribution. Finally, we discussed in function of substrate preference, some aspects related to habitat occupation showed by some of the recorded species

  19. Identification of virus and nematode resistance genes in the Chilota Potato Genebank of the Universidad Austral de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon López

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Potato Genebank of the Universidad Austral de Chile (UACh is an important gene bank in Chile. The accessions collected all over the country possess high genetic diversity, present interesting agronomic and cooking traits, and show resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. A particularly interesting subgroup of the gene bank includes the accessions collected in the South of Chile, the Chilota Potato Genebank. The focus of this study is the identification of virus and nematode resistant genes in potatoes (Solatium tuberosum L., using the RYSC3 and YES3-3B molecular markers. The Potato virus Y(PVY resistance genes Ry adg and Ry sto were identified. Furthermore, the CP60 marker was used to assess the Rx resistance gene that confers resistance to Potato virus X (PVX. In addition, the HC and GRO1-4 markers were utilized to identify the GpaVvrn_QTL and Gro1-4, resistance genes of Globodera pallida and Globodera rostochiensis, respectively. Both G. pallida and G. rostochiensis are Potato Cyst Nematodes (PCN. The plant material used in this study included leaves from 271 accessions of the gene bank. These samples were collected in the field where natural pathogen pressure of potential viruses and diseases exists. ELISA assays were run for field detection of PVY and PVX. However, there have been no previous reports of nematode presence in the plant material. The results herein presented indicate presence of virus and nematode resistance genes in accessions of the Chilota Potato Genebank. In terms of virus resistance, 99 accessions out of the 271 tested possess the Ry adg resistance gene and 17 accessions of these 271 tested have the Ry sto resistance gene. Also, 10 accessions showed positive amplification of the Rxl resistant gene marker. As to nematode resistance, 99 accessions have possible resistance to G. pallida and 54 accessions show potential resistance to G. rostochiensis as detected using the available molecular markers.

  20. [Brucellosis in Chile: Description of a series of 13 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Roberto; Vidal, Pamela; Sotomayor, Camila; Norambuena, Mackarenna; Luppi, Mario; Silva, Francisco; Cifuentes, Marcela

    2017-06-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonosis caused by Brucella spp. It may be acquired by consuming unpasteurized dairy products. Brucellosis has a low incidence in Chile, thus, we have a scarce data. To report and to characterize the first series of clinical cases of adult patients diagnosed with brucellosis in Chile. We describe a series of 13 clinical cases in patients diagnosed between 2000 and 2016 in three different centers in the Metropolitan Region, Chile. A retrospective analysis was performed on clinical presentation, laboratory, antibiotic treatment, morbidity and mortality. The mean age was 50 years old. Eight cases had a record of consumption of unpasteurized dairy products. The most frequently reported complaints were fever. The most frequent focal point involved was the spine. Only one patient had a positive blood culture, while the diagnosis was made using serological techniques in the other part of the group. The most indicated antibiotic regimens were doxycycline-rifampicin and doxycycline-gentamicin. The hospital stay was 20 days approximately as an average. Clinical cure was achieved in all cases. Brucellosis is an infrequent zoonosis in Chile, and it produces a nonspecific clinical picture, so it is necessary to have high suspicion to make the diagnosis based in the antecedent of consumption of unpasteurized dairy or raw meat.

  1. Advanced Neutron Source: Plant Design Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source will be a new world-class facility for research using hot, thermal, cold, and ultra-cold neutrons. The heart of the facility will be a 330-MW (fission), heavy-water cooled and heavy-water moderated reactor. The reactor will be housed in a central reactor building, with supporting equipment located in an adjoining reactor support building. An array of cold neutron guides will fan out into a large guide hall, housing about 30 neutron research stations. Appropriate office, laboratory, and shop facilities will be included to provide a complete facility for users. The ANS is scheduled to begin operation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory early in the next decade. This PDR document defines the plant-level requirements for the design, construction, and operation of ANS. It also defines and provides input to the individual System Design Description (SDD) documents. Together, this PDR document and the set of SDD documents will define and control the baseline configuration of ANS

  2. Pentecostalism and Politics in Neoliberal Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lindhardt

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo investiga las relaciones históricas y contemporáneas entre el Pentecostalismo y la política en Chile. La primera parte del artículo provee un resumen histórico del crecimiento y consolidación de la religión Pentecostal en relación a diferentes ambientes políticos. En este artículo se esclarecen además las diferentes posturas Pentecostales hacia la esfera política. En particular hago hincapié, en cómo surge una cultura de desencanto político en el Chile post-dictatorial que crea un vacío simbólico, el cual trae como consecuencia el nacimiento de movimientos religiosos. En la segunda parte de este artículo se discute las posibles afinidades entre el Pentecostalismo, como una cultura religiosa, y los principios democráticos. El argumento es que a pesar de que el Pentecostalismo puede contener algunas cualidades democráticas, también existe una compatibilidad notable entre la visión teísta e individualista Pentecostal acerca de los cambios sociales, y un orden social neoliberal, en donde la indolencia política se expande y en donde predomina un sentido de progreso individual y no colectivo. English: This article explores historical and contemporary relationships between Pentecostalism and politics in Chile. The first part of the article provides an historical account of the growth and consolidation of Pentecostal religion within changing political environments and sheds light on Pentecostal stances to and involvements with the political sphere. In particular, it focuses on how a culture of political disenchantment has emerged in post-dictatorial neo-liberal Chile, creating a symbolic void that can be filled by religious movements. The second part of the article discusses possible affinities between Pentecostalism as a religious culture and democratic principles and values. It argues that although Pentecostalism may contain certain democratic qualities, there is also a striking compatibility between, on the one

  3. Immigrant health workers in Chile: is there a Latin American "brain drain"? Inmigración de personal sanitario hacia Chile: ¿hay una "fuga de cerebros" hacia América Latina?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltica Cabieses

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Most research on the phenomenon of "brain drain" (one-way flow of highly skilled/educated individuals has focused on movement between the least developed and most highly developed countries. Therefore, the significance of patterns of migration to middle-income countries such as those in Latin America is less clear. The aim of this study was to outline key features of international health worker "brain drain" to Chile to promote discussion and further research on this phenomenon as it pertains to the Latin American region. The study compared immigrant health workers living in Chile to both Chilean-born health workers and other immigrants living in Chile using a qualitative nationwide dataset (the results of Chile's 2009 National Socioeconomic Characterization Survey. Demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related variables were included in the analyses, which were weighted by population to obtain nationally representative estimates. In 2009, immigrant health workers represented 2.2% of all health personnel and 2.6% of all resident immigrants in the country. While most immigrant health workers had a universitylevel education, about 25% had only a high school-level education or less. There was no statistically significant difference between the distribution of immigrant health workers' household income and that of Chilean-born health workers. A significantly higher proportion of the immigrant group reported no entitlement to health care provision. While the results of this study do not indicate a significant international health worker "brain drain" to Chile, they do suggest distinctive patterns of migration within the Latin American region. Future studies in Chile could confirm the validity of these results, using a larger sample of immigrant health workers.La mayoría de las investigaciones sobre el fenómeno de la "fuga de cerebros" (migración unidireccional de individuos sumamente capacitados y educados se ha centrado en la migración desde pa

  4. Nuclear public information activities in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz Quintana; R

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear plans and developing programs in developing and developed countries are facing-in a higher or lower degree- opposition from public opinion. The objectives and contents of the public education program on nuclear energy in Chile are dealt with in this paper

  5. Wool-waste as organic nutrient source for container-grown plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D. [Mississippi State University, North Mississippi Research and Extension Center, Verona, MS 38879 (United States)], E-mail: vj40@pss.msstate.edu; Stratton, Glenn W [Department of Plant and Animal Sciences and Department of Environmental Sciences, Nova Scotia Agricultural College, Truro, NS, B2N 5E3 (Canada); Pincock, James [Department of Chemistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, B3H 4J3 (Canada); Butler, Stephanie [Department of Plant and Animal Sciences and Department of Environmental Sciences, Nova Scotia Agricultural College, Truro, NS, B2N 5E3 (Canada); Jeliazkova, Ekaterina A [Mississippi State University, Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States); Nedkov, Nedko K [Research Institute for Roses and Aromatic Crops, 49 Osvobojdenie Blv., Kazanluk (Bulgaria); Gerard, Patrick D [Department of Applied Economics and Statistics, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    A container experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that uncomposted wool wastes could be used as nutrient source and growth medium constituent for container-grown plants. The treatments were: (1) rate of wool-waste application (0 or unamended control, 20, 40, 80, and 120 g of wool per 8-in. pot), (2) growth medium constituents [(2.1) wool plus perlite, (2.2) wool plus peat, and (2.3) wool plus peat plus perlite], and (3) plant species (basil and Swiss chard). A single addition of 20, 40, 80, or 120 g of wool-waste to Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L.) and basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) in pots with growth medium provided four harvests of Swiss chard and five harvests of basil. Total basil yield from the five harvests was 1.6-5 times greater than the total yield from the unamended control, while total Swiss chard yield from the four harvests was 2-5 times greater relative to the respective unamended control. The addition of wool-waste to the growth medium increased Swiss chard and basil tissue N, and NO{sub 3}-N and NH{sub 4}-N in growth medium relative to the unamended control. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis of wool fibers sampled at the end of the experiments indicated various levels of decomposition, with some fibers retaining their original surface structure. Furthermore, most of the wool fibers' surfaces contained significant concentrations of S and much less N, P, or K. SEM/EDX revealed that some plant roots grow directly on wool-waste fibers suggesting either (1) root directional growth towards sites with greater nutrient concentration and/or (2) a possible role for roots or root exudates in wool decomposition. Results from this study suggest that uncomposted wool wastes can be used as soil amendment, growth medium constituent, and nutrient source for container-grown plants.

  6. Wool-waste as organic nutrient source for container-grown plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D.; Stratton, Glenn W.; Pincock, James; Butler, Stephanie; Jeliazkova, Ekaterina A.; Nedkov, Nedko K.; Gerard, Patrick D.

    2009-01-01

    A container experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that uncomposted wool wastes could be used as nutrient source and growth medium constituent for container-grown plants. The treatments were: (1) rate of wool-waste application (0 or unamended control, 20, 40, 80, and 120 g of wool per 8-in. pot), (2) growth medium constituents [(2.1) wool plus perlite, (2.2) wool plus peat, and (2.3) wool plus peat plus perlite], and (3) plant species (basil and Swiss chard). A single addition of 20, 40, 80, or 120 g of wool-waste to Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L.) and basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) in pots with growth medium provided four harvests of Swiss chard and five harvests of basil. Total basil yield from the five harvests was 1.6-5 times greater than the total yield from the unamended control, while total Swiss chard yield from the four harvests was 2-5 times greater relative to the respective unamended control. The addition of wool-waste to the growth medium increased Swiss chard and basil tissue N, and NO 3 -N and NH 4 -N in growth medium relative to the unamended control. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis of wool fibers sampled at the end of the experiments indicated various levels of decomposition, with some fibers retaining their original surface structure. Furthermore, most of the wool fibers' surfaces contained significant concentrations of S and much less N, P, or K. SEM/EDX revealed that some plant roots grow directly on wool-waste fibers suggesting either (1) root directional growth towards sites with greater nutrient concentration and/or (2) a possible role for roots or root exudates in wool decomposition. Results from this study suggest that uncomposted wool wastes can be used as soil amendment, growth medium constituent, and nutrient source for container-grown plants.

  7. Illegitimate patients: Undocumented immigrants’ access to health care in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Nanette Paz Liberona Concha; Miguel Angel Mansilla

    2017-01-01

    In recent decades, Chile has become a destination for immigrants from other South American countries, which has significantly impacted public services – particularly the public health system – at the economic, social, and cultural levels. The aim of this paper is to provide substantiated information on issues concerning undocumented immigrants’ access to health care in Chile. A qualitative methodology, fundamentally an ethnography of the clinical setting, was used. Results were then analyzed ...

  8. Modeling of solar polygeneration plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, Roberto; Escobar, Rodrigo; Cardemil, José

    2017-06-01

    In this work, a exergoeconomic analysis of the joint production of electricity, fresh water, cooling and process heat for a simulated concentrated solar power (CSP) based on parabolic trough collector (PTC) with thermal energy storage (TES) and backup energy system (BS), a multi-effect distillation (MED) module, a refrigeration absorption module, and process heat module is carried out. Polygeneration plant is simulated in northern Chile in Crucero with a yearly total DNI of 3,389 kWh/m2/year. The methodology includes designing and modeling a polygeneration plant and applying exergoeconomic evaluations and calculating levelized cost. Solar polygeneration plant is simulated hourly, in a typical meteorological year, for different solar multiple and hour of storage. This study reveals that the total exergy cost rate of products (sum of exergy cost rate of electricity, water, cooling and heat process) is an alternative method to optimize a solar polygeneration plant.

  9. Immigrant health workers in Chile: is there a Latin American "brain drain"?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltica Cabieses

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Most research on the phenomenon of "brain drain" (one-way flow of highly skilled/educated individuals has focused on movement between the least developed and most highly developed countries. Therefore, the significance of patterns of migration to middle-income countries such as those in Latin America is less clear. The aim of this study was to outline key features of international health worker "brain drain" to Chile to promote discussion and further research on this phenomenon as it pertains to the Latin American region. The study compared immigrant health workers living in Chile to both Chilean-born health workers and other immigrants living in Chile using a qualitative nationwide dataset (the results of Chile's 2009 National Socioeconomic Characterization Survey. Demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related variables were included in the analyses, which were weighted by population to obtain nationally representative estimates. In 2009, immigrant health workers represented 2.2% of all health personnel and 2.6% of all resident immigrants in the country. While most immigrant health workers had a universitylevel education, about 25% had only a high school-level education or less. There was no statistically significant difference between the distribution of immigrant health workers' household income and that of Chilean-born health workers. A significantly higher proportion of the immigrant group reported no entitlement to health care provision. While the results of this study do not indicate a significant international health worker "brain drain" to Chile, they do suggest distinctive patterns of migration within the Latin American region. Future studies in Chile could confirm the validity of these results, using a larger sample of immigrant health workers.

  10. Immigrant health workers in Chile: is there a Latin American "brain drain"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabieses, Baltica; Tunstall, Helena

    2012-08-01

    Most research on the phenomenon of "brain drain" (one-way flow of highly skilled/educated individuals) has focused on movement between the least developed and most highly developed countries. Therefore, the significance of patterns of migration to middle-income countries such as those in Latin America is less clear. The aim of this study was to outline key features of international health worker "brain drain" to Chile to promote discussion and further research on this phenomenon as it pertains to the Latin American region. The study compared immigrant health workers living in Chile to both Chilean-born health workers and other immigrants living in Chile using a qualitative nationwide dataset (the results of Chile's 2009 National Socioeconomic Characterization Survey). Demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related variables were included in the analyses, which were weighted by population to obtain nationally representative estimates. In 2009, immigrant health workers represented 2.2% of all health personnel and 2.6% of all resident immigrants in the country. While most immigrant health workers had a universitylevel education, about 25% had only a high school-level education or less. There was no statistically significant difference between the distribution of immigrant health workers' household income and that of Chilean-born health workers. A significantly higher proportion of the immigrant group reported no entitlement to health care provision. While the results of this study do not indicate a significant international health worker "brain drain" to Chile, they do suggest distinctive patterns of migration within the Latin American region. Future studies in Chile could confirm the validity of these results, using a larger sample of immigrant health workers.

  11. Influence of the crustal and subcrustal Vrancea seismic sources on Cernavoda nuclear power plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmureanu, Gheorghe; Popescu, Emilia; Mircea Radulian

    2002-01-01

    The basis of the seismic hazard assessment in different geographical regions with dense-populated areas and strategic objectives (dams, nuclear power plants, etc.) is the study of seismicity of the seismogenic sources which affect these sites. The purpose of this paper is to provide a complete set of information relative to the Vrancea seismic source (in the crust and the intermediate depth domains) that is fundamental for the seismic hazard evaluation at Cernavoda nuclear power plant site. The analysis that we propose has to deal with the following items: (1) geometrical definition of the seismic sources; (2) setting the earthquake catalog associated to each seismic source; (3) estimation of the maximum possible magnitude; (4) estimation of the frequency - magnitude relationship; (5) computation of the distribution function for focal distance; (6) correlation between focal depth and magnitude; (7) attenuation law. We discuss also the implications of the model parameters on the seismic hazard level. (authors)

  12. Seed germination responses in a temperate rain forest of Chiloé, Chile: effects of a gap and the tree canopy

    OpenAIRE

    Figueroa, Javier A; Hernández, Juan F

    2001-01-01

    This study determined germination responses of 19 species, including trees, shrubs, vines, and herbs, under natural gap and non-gap conditions, in a secondary forest in Chiloé Island, southern Chile, in order to assess if there is any association between the habitat where the seedlings of these plant species occur and their germination requirements. Statistical differences in percentage seed germination were detected in six species in a gap habitat compared to the understory. Five forest edge...

  13. TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF REALISTIC EMISSIONS OF SOURCE AEROSOLS (TERESA): APPLICATION TO POWER PLANT-DERIVED PM2.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette C. Rohr; Petros Koutrakis; John Godleski

    2011-03-31

    Determining the health impacts of different sources and components of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is an important scientific goal, because PM is a complex mixture of both inorganic and organic constituents that likely differ in their potential to cause adverse health outcomes. The TERESA (Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions of Source Aerosols) study focused on two PM sources - coal-fired power plants and mobile sources - and sought to investigate the toxicological effects of exposure to realistic emissions from these sources. The DOE-EPRI Cooperative Agreement covered the performance and analysis of field experiments at three power plants. The mobile source component consisted of experiments conducted at a traffic tunnel in Boston; these activities were funded through the Harvard-EPA Particulate Matter Research Center and will be reported separately in the peer-reviewed literature. TERESA attempted to delineate health effects of primary particles, secondary (aged) particles, and mixtures of these with common atmospheric constituents. The study involved withdrawal of emissions directly from power plant stacks, followed by aging and atmospheric transformation of emissions in a mobile laboratory in a manner that simulated downwind power plant plume processing. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) derived from the biogenic volatile organic compound {alpha}-pinene was added in some experiments, and in others ammonia was added to neutralize strong acidity. Specifically, four scenarios were studied at each plant: primary particles (P); secondary (oxidized) particles (PO); oxidized particles + secondary organic aerosol (SOA) (POS); and oxidized and neutralized particles + SOA (PONS). Extensive exposure characterization was carried out, including gas-phase and particulate species. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed for 6 hours to filtered air or different atmospheric mixtures. Toxicological endpoints included (1) breathing pattern; (2) bronchoalveolar lavage

  14. Food source quality and ant dominance hierarchy influence the outcomes of ant-plant interactions in an arid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Flores, Rocío Vianey; Aguirre, Armando; Anjos, Diego V.; Neves, Frederico S.; Campos, Ricardo I.; Dáttilo, Wesley

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we conducted a series of experiments in a population of Vachellia constricta (Fabaceae) in the arid Tehuacan-Cuicatláan valley, Mexico, in order to evaluate if the food source quality and ant dominance hierarchy influence the outcomes of ant-plant interactions. Using an experiment with artificial nectaries, we observed that ants foraging on food sources with higher concentration of sugar are quicker in finding and attacking potential herbivorous insects. More specifically, we found that the same ant species may increase their defence effectiveness according to the quality of food available. These findings indicate that ant effectiveness in plant protection is context-dependent and may vary according to specific individual characteristics of plants. In addition, we showed that competitively superior ant species tend to dominate plants in periods with high nectar activity, emphasizing the role of the dominance hierarchy structuring ant-plant interactions. However, when high sugar food sources were experimentally available ad libitum, the nocturnal and competitively superior ant species, Camponotus atriceps, did not dominate the artificial nectaries during the day possibly due to limitation of its thermal tolerance. Therefore, temporal niche partitioning may be allowing the coexistence of two dominant ant species (Camponotus rubritorax during the day and C. atriceps at night) on V. constricta. Our findings indicate that the quality of the food source, and temporal shifts in ant dominance are key factors which structure the biotic plant defences in an arid environment.

  15. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-08-01

    Chile has an area of 740,760 square kilometers. The capital is Santiago. The country is 4,183 km. long and ranges from 22.5 to about 354 km. in width. Its chief topographic features para]lei each other - the Coastal Range, Andes Mountains and Central Valley. The Coastal Range rises to 2,130 meters in the north, but averages from 610 to 700 meters high generally. The range plunges into the Pacific Ocean far south of Valparaiso and reappears in the southern archipelagic islands. The Andes extend along nearly the entire length of Chile and contain 100 volcanoes. Andean peaks range mostly from 3,000 to 6,700 meters in elevation. In southern Chile the Andes are lower, and contain about a dozen major lakes. The mountains disappear in Chilean Patagonia, but reappear at Cape Horn. The Central Valley lies between the Coastal Range and the Andes, being best defined in the midland region as a 64 to 72 km sloping plain. It is the Chilean heartland with three-quarters of the country's population. Salt basins are found over much of northern Chile in the very arid desert, while the region south of the Gulf of Reloncavi consists of unpopulated islands, fjords, channels and heavily forested mountains. The Strait of Magellan, the Tierra del Fuego archipelago and a flat grassland area make up the extreme southern end of the country. Much of Chile is subject to flash floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides and avalanches. In September 1976 the Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear (CCEN) was given exclusive rights to negotiate contracts with private companies for the exploration, development and mining of uranium and other radioactive minerals. The new law provides the CCEN with considerable flexibility in the terms of the contracts. Pre-964 owners of uranium deposits may reach agreements with foreign companies to mine the uranium, but since 1964 all uranium has belonged to the state. Uranium produced in the country can only be exported after Chile's needs have been met. The

  16. Source modelling in seismic risk analysis for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yucemen, M.S.

    1978-12-01

    The proposed probabilistic procedure provides a consistent method for the modelling, analysis and updating of uncertainties that are involved in the seismic risk analysis for nuclear power plants. The potential earthquake activity zones are idealized as point, line or area sources. For these seismic source types, expressions to evaluate their contribution to seismic risk are derived, considering all the possible site-source configurations. The seismic risk at a site is found to depend not only on the inherent randomness of the earthquake occurrences with respect to magnitude, time and space, but also on the uncertainties associated with the predicted values of the seismic and geometric parameters, as well as the uncertainty in the attenuation model. The uncertainty due to the attenuation equation is incorporated into the analysis through the use of random correction factors. The influence of the uncertainty resulting from the insufficient information on the seismic parameters and source geometry is introduced into the analysis by computing a mean risk curve averaged over the various alternative assumptions on the parameters and source geometry. Seismic risk analysis is carried for the city of Denizli, which is located in the seismically most active zone of Turkey. The second analysis is for Akkuyu

  17. The socioeconomic impact of drug-related crimes in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Matías

    2012-11-01

    Illegal drug use and trafficking are closely connected to crime. This article estimates the socioeconomic impact of this connection in Chile. Goldstein's tripartite model was applied quantifying drug-crime connections and then using those estimates to measure the socioeconomic impact of drug-related crimes. This was estimated in terms of both the monetary cost of law enforcement, and lost productivity due to incarceration. This socioeconomic impact can be divided into: (a) the direct costs arising from infractions to Chile's Drug Law, and the indirect costs originated by crimes linked only partially to drug consumption and trafficking; (b) is measured in productivity losses, as well as in costs to the three branches of Chile's criminal justice system (police, judiciary, and prisons); and (c) is attributed to the three illicit drugs most prevalent in Chile: cannabis, cocaine hydrochloride (CH) and cocaine base paste (CBP). The socioeconomic impact of Chile's drug-crime relationship in 2006 is estimated to be USD 268 million. Out of this amount, 36% is spent on national Drug Law enforcement, and the remaining 64% comes from the connection of drug use and trafficking with non-Drug-Law-related crimes. The police bear the largest share of drug enforcement costs (32%), followed by penitentiaries (25%). Productivity losses due to incarceration for drug-related crimes represent 29% of the total impact. 53% of the costs are attributable to CBP, 29% to CH, and the remaining 18% to cannabis. The impact of CBP is greater when indirect costs are taken into account, although direct costs are primarily associated with CH. The majority of costs is attributed to the trafficking and consumption of CBP, a drug with a relatively low prevalence. Based on the results, this study suggests reviewing drug enforcement policies to differentiate them according to the social and individual harm caused by each drug. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Non-random co-occurrence of native and exotic plant species in Mediterranean grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miguel, José M.; Martín-Forés, Irene; Acosta-Gallo, Belén; del Pozo, Alejandro; Ovalle, Carlos; Sánchez-Jardón, Laura; Castro, Isabel; Casado, Miguel A.

    2016-11-01

    Invasion by exotic species in Mediterranean grasslands has determined assembly patterns of native and introduced species, knowledge of which provides information on the ecological processes underlying these novel communities. We considered grasslands from Spain and Chile. For each country we considered the whole grassland community and we split species into two subsets: in Chile, species were classified as natives or colonizers (i.e. exotics); in Spain, species were classified as exclusives (present in Spain but not in Chile) or colonizers (Spanish natives and exotics into Chile). We used null models and co-occurrence indices calculated in each country for each one of 15 sites distributed along a precipitation gradient and subjected to similar silvopastoral exploitation. We compared values of species co-occurrence between countries and between species subsets (natives/colonizers in Chile; exclusives/colonizers in Spain) within each country and we characterised them according to climatic variables. We hypothesized that: a) the different coexistence time of the species in both regions should give rise to communities presenting a spatial pattern further from random in Spain than in Chile, b) the co-occurrence patterns in the grasslands are affected by mesoclimatic factors in both regions. The patterns of co-occurrence are similar in Spain and Chile, mostly showing a spatial pattern more segregated than expected by random. The colonizer species are more segregated in Spain than in Chile, possibly determined by the longer residence time of the species in the source area than in the invaded one. The segregation of species in Chile is related to water availability, being species less segregated in habitat with greater water deficit; in Spain no relationship with climatic variables was found. After an invasion process, our results suggest that the possible process of alteration of the original Chilean communities has not prevented the assembly between the native and

  19. Isaac Newton Institute of Chile: The fifteenth anniversary of its "Yugoslavia" Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijević, M. S.

    In 2002, the Isaac Newton Institute of Chile established in Belgrade its "Yugoslavia" Branch, one of 15 branches in nine countries in Eastern Europe and Eurasia. On the occasion of fifteen years since its foundation, the activities of "Yugoslavia" Branch of the Isaac Newton Institute of Chile are briefly reviewed.

  20. Limitation of fusion power plant installation on future power grids under the effect of renewable and nuclear power sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Shutaro, E-mail: takeda.shutarou.55r@st.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Advanced Integrated Studies in Human Survivability, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Kyoto (Japan); Sakurai, Shigeki [Graduate School of Advanced Integrated Studies in Human Survivability, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Kyoto (Japan); Yamamoto, Yasushi [Faculty of Engineering Science, Kansai University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Kasada, Ryuta; Konishi, Satoshi [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Future power grids would be unstable due to renewable and nuclear power sources. • Output interruptions of fusion plant would cause disturbances to future grids. • Simulation results suggested they would create limitations in fusion installation. • A novel diagram was presented to illustrate this suggested limitation. - Abstract: Future power grids would be unstable because of the larger share of renewable and nuclear power sources. This instability might bring some additional difficulties to fusion plant installation. Therefore, the authors carried out a quantitative feasibility study from the aspect of grid stability through simulation. Results showed that the more renewable and nuclear sources are linked to a grid, the greater disturbance the grid experiences upon a sudden output interruption of a fusion power plant, e.g. plasma disruption. The frequency deviations surpassed 0.2 Hz on some grids, suggesting potential limitations of fusion plant installation on future grids. To clearly show the suggested limitations of fusion plant installations, a novel diagram was presented.

  1. Mycotrophy in Gilliesieae, a threatened and poorly known tribe of Alliaceae from central Chile Micotrofía en Gilliesieae, una tribu amenazada y poco conocida de Alliaceae de Chile central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUSTAVO A TORRES-MELLADO

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The five known genera of Gilliesieae have their diversity center in the Mediterranean zone of central Chile, where many of their habitats are threatened by urban expansion, industrial and agroforestry activities, as well as other anthropogenic impacts. Very little is known about the biology of these particular geophytes, the majority of which currently have either vulnerable or endangered status, mainly due to their dispersed and small populations generally associated to remnants of native vegetation. As mycorrhizal associations are essential for soil resource acquisition and stress mitigation in most plants, our objective was to assess the hitherto unknown mycotrophic status of ten species of Gilliesieae from central Chile by qualitative and quantitative assessment of intraradical fungal structures. All sampled genera (Gethyum, Gilliesia, Miersia, Solaria, Speea showed regular presence of arbuscular mycorrhiza, while other mycorrhizal or putatively mutualistic associations, like dark septate endophytes, were practically absent. Mycorrhizal colonization of fine roots reached a mean of ca. 45 % across all examined taxa, with highly variable values ranging from 9 % to 82 % in Miersia tenuiseta and Gilliesia curicana, respectively. The high level of mycorrhization indicates that arbuscular mycorrhiza should be considered for conservation strategies of threatened species or biotechnological use in plant propagation. The main future task is the identification of the associated fungal taxa.Los cinco géneros conocidos de Gilliesieae tienen su centro de diversidad en la zona mediterránea de Chile central, donde muchos de sus hábitats están amenazados por la expansión urbana, actividades industriales y agroforestales, así como otros impactos antropogénicos. Se sabe muy poco sobre la biología de estas particulares geófitas, que en la actualidad tienen en su mayoría estatus de vulnerable o en peligro de extinción, debido a sus poblaciones

  2. Image Harvest: an open-source platform for high-throughput plant image processing and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, Avi C.; Campbell, Malachy T.; Caprez, Adam; Swanson, David R.; Walia, Harkamal

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput plant phenotyping is an effective approach to bridge the genotype-to-phenotype gap in crops. Phenomics experiments typically result in large-scale image datasets, which are not amenable for processing on desktop computers, thus creating a bottleneck in the image-analysis pipeline. Here, we present an open-source, flexible image-analysis framework, called Image Harvest (IH), for processing images originating from high-throughput plant phenotyping platforms. Image Harvest is developed to perform parallel processing on computing grids and provides an integrated feature for metadata extraction from large-scale file organization. Moreover, the integration of IH with the Open Science Grid provides academic researchers with the computational resources required for processing large image datasets at no cost. Image Harvest also offers functionalities to extract digital traits from images to interpret plant architecture-related characteristics. To demonstrate the applications of these digital traits, a rice (Oryza sativa) diversity panel was phenotyped and genome-wide association mapping was performed using digital traits that are used to describe different plant ideotypes. Three major quantitative trait loci were identified on rice chromosomes 4 and 6, which co-localize with quantitative trait loci known to regulate agronomically important traits in rice. Image Harvest is an open-source software for high-throughput image processing that requires a minimal learning curve for plant biologists to analyzephenomics datasets. PMID:27141917

  3. Growth phenology of coast Douglas-fir seed sources planted in diverse environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Gould; Constance A. Harrington; J. Bradley St. Clair

    2012-01-01

    The timing of periodic life cycle events in plants (phenology) is an important factor determining how species and populations will react to climate change. We evaluated annual patterns of basal-area and height growth of coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotusuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedlings from four seed sources...

  4. APORTES AL DEBATE SOBRE EL ABORTO EN CHILE: DERECHOS, GÉNERO Y BIOÉTICA CONTRIBUIÇÕES AO DEBATE SOBRE O ABORTO NO CHILE: DIREITOS, GÊNERO E BIOÉTICA CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE DEBATE ABOUT ABORTION IN CHILE: RIGHTS, GENDER AND BIOETHICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Dides C

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo es un ensayo reflexivo sobre el problema del aborto en Chile, a partir de la revisión del contexto histórico actual del país, así como un planteamiento crítico desde la perspectiva de género y bioética. El análisis se ha organizado en tres apartados: el contexto del aborto en Chile en el marco de los derechos humanos, las transformaciones en la intimidad y los aportes de la bioética y la perspectiva de género al debate. Por último, se presentan, a modo de reflexión, algunas de las tensiones existentes así como las interrogantes para posibles investigacionesO presente artigo é um ensaio reflexivo sobre o problema do aborto no Chile, a partir da revisão do contexto histórico atual do país, assim como um posicionamento crítico a partir da perspectiva de gênero e bioética. A análise foi organizada em três momentos: o contexto do aborto no Chile, no marco dos direitos humanos, as transfoamrações na intimidade e as contribuiçãos da bioética e a perspectiva de gênero ao debabe. Por último, apresentam-se, em forma de reflexão, algumas das tensões existentes, assim como as interrogações para as possíveis pesquisasThis paper is a reflexive essay about the abortion problem in Chile, considering the current historical context as well as a critical approach from the gender and bioethical perspective. The analysis has been organized in three tracks: the abortion context in Chile in relation to the human rights, the changes in privacy and the contribution of bioethics and gender perspective to this debate. Finally, for reflection, some current tensions as well as questions for future studies are presented

  5. The Impact of Commodity Price Shocks in a Major Producing Economy. The Case of Copper and Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Pedersen

    2015-01-01

    The present study analyzes how copper price shocks affect macroeconomic variables in Chile, which is the largest producer in the world of this commodity. It is taken into account that shocks with different sources may have different impacts and a separation is made between supply, demand, and specific copper demand shocks. The empirical analysis is based on a structural VAR model, where shocks are identified by sign restrictions, i.e. restrictions are imposed on impulse-response functions. In...

  6. Pre-crisis Conditions and Government Policy Responses: Chile and Mexico during the Great Recession

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Martorano

    2014-01-01

    Chile and Mexico reacted to the crisis by implementing several policy responses, they achieved different outcomes. In particular, the Chilean economy recovered faster than the Mexican one. However, the main differences are related to social outcomes. On one hand, the Gini coefficient decreased in both countries. On the other hand, both overall and child poverty dropped in Chile while they rose sharply in Mexico. , Chile introduced a stimulus package twice as large the Mexican one. When the fi...

  7. A drone flight over ESO’s experimental sites in Chile

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2015-01-01

    Paola Catapano, a member of CERN’s Communication Group, and Mike Struik, a member of the TE Department, were invited to visit ESO’s experimental sites – the ALMA observatory and the Very Large Telescope in Paranal, Chile. Enjoy some of the beautiful images they sent to the Bulletin.   Image courtesy Paola Catapano and Mike Struik. The 66 radio astronomy antennas of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observatory at 5,000 m altitude on the Chajnantor highland in Chile. The ALMA array specialises in the cold, invisible Universe, catching radiation from millimetre and submillimetre radiowaves night and day. ALMA is an international partnership between the European Southern Observatory (ESO), the US National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS) of Japan, together with NRC (Canada), NSC and ASIAA (Taiwan), and KASI (Republic of Korea), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile.   Image cour...

  8. May 1960 Puerto Montt, Valdivia, Chile Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On May 22, 1960, a Mw 9.5 earthquake, the largest earthquake ever instrumentally recorded, occurred in southern Chile. The series of earthquakes that followed...

  9. Arrowleaf Clover (Trifolium vesiculosum Savi: A New Species of Annual Legumes for High Rainfall Areas of the Mediterranean Climate Zone of Chile Trébol Vesiculoso (Trifolium vesiculosum Savi: Una Nueva Especie de Leguminosa Anual para Áreas de Alta Precipitación en la Zona Mediterránea de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ovalle M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The present review examines the main attributes and agronomic characteristics of arrowleaf clover (Trifolium vesiculosum Savi and its incorporation into production systems in dryland areas of the Andean foothills of the humid Mediterranean climate zone of Chile. It is a new species of annual legume in Chile for light and medium textured soils. The root system can reach a depth of 1.5 m and its seeds have a high percentage of hardseedness (99.8%. It is an upright plant, with purplish-white flowers. The mature plant has large arrow-shaped leaves up to 50 mm long, often marked with a large white “V”. Dry matter and seed production in the Andean foothills is high (3.9-8.8 t DM ha-1 and 700-900 kg ha-1, respectively, surpassing the productivity of sub clover (Trifolium subterraneum L. cv. Mount Barker and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.. However, DM production in the second year was lower, possibly because the high percentage of hardseedness inhibited plant emergence. The phenological records and productive performance suggest that arrowleaf clover could contribute to improving pastoral production in dryland areas with annual rainfall levels of more than 800 mm, such as the Andean foothills in the central-southern region of Chile.En la presente revisión se examinan los principales atributos y características agronómicas del trébol vesiculoso (Trifolium vesiculosum Savi y su eventual incorporación a sistemas de producción en la precordillera andina de la zona de clima mediterráneo húmedo de Chile. Se trata de una nueva especie de leguminosa forrajera anual para suelos de textura liviana y media. El sistema radical puede alcanzar 1,5 m de profundidad y las semillas tienen un alto porcentaje de dureza seminal (99,8%. Es una planta de crecimiento erecto, flores de color blanco con una leve coloración púrpura. Las plantas adultas tienen grandes hojas con forma de flecha de más de 50 mm de largo, a menudo muestran una marca blanca en

  10. Biogeografía marina de Chile continental Marine biogeography of continental Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIO A. CAMUS

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Por casi un siglo, varios autores han analizado los patrones de distribución de la fauna y flora marina del Pacífico de Sudamérica y de la costa de Chile en particular, con el propósito de establecer el número de las unidades biogeográficas presentes. Si bien los patrones generales actuales son relativamente bien conocidos, la mayoría de los estudios se ha enfocado en las discontinuidades distribucionales y en propuestas de clasificación más que en los factores y procesos dinámicos que han formado las unidades espaciales identificadas. Aun en el caso de las clasificaciones, las conclusiones publicadas se basan principalmente en el análisis de uno o pocos grupos seleccionados, y presentan diferencias importantes en los criterios de selección de los grupos, el número de especies involucrado y la metodología usada. Por otra parte, las discrepancias entre estudios específicos tienden a obscurecer un fenómeno relevante y de mayor escala como es la dinámica de las biotas, uno de los aspectos biogeográficos menos conocidos en Chile. En tal contexto, este trabajo presenta una revisión de literatura sobre la biogeografía marina de Chile y sus aspectos asociados, con los siguientes objetivos: (a resumir las características oceanográficas, climáticas y geomorfológicas de la costa continental de Chile; (b discutir 27 clasificaciones biogeográficas publicadas para la costa chilena, analizando los criterios y procedimientos usados por los autores, sus conclusiones principales, y la concordancia entre los estudios; (c evaluar los procesos dispersivos y vicariantes asociados a los desplazamientos y modificaciones de las biotas de la región, en función de los antecedentes disponibles sobre las condiciones existentes y los principales eventos ocurridos durante los períodos Terciario y Cuaternario; y (d proponer un escenario de cambio biogeográfico basado en determinantes históricas y su influencia en la formación, carácter y din

  11. Distribution and habitat ecology of the sorediate species of Menegazzia (Parmeliaceae, lichenized Ascomycota in Chile Distribución y ecología de las especies sorediosas de Menegazzia (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota liquenizado en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JARLE W BJERKE

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The taxonomy and ecology of the sorediate species of Menegazzia from the southernmost regions of Chile and Argentina and the South Atlantic Islands was recently published, only with sporadic reports from the more northern regions. In the present work the distribution patterns and habitat ecology of the sorediate species are discussed, with emphasis on the area north of 48º S. Eleven species are treated. Menegazzia subpertusa, an epiphyte of sclerophyll scrubs, is recorded from South America for the first time (Chile and Argentina. Menegazzia neozelandica has a disjunct distribution in Chile, with occurrences in Fray Jorge (Fourth Region of Chile and on Islas Juan Fernández, and along the coast south of latitude 38º S. Menegazzia kawesqarica and M. tenuis are most common in the southernmost part of Chile, but are also found at high altitudes at lower latitudes. Additional treated species are M. chrysogaster, M. fumarprotocetrarica, M. globulifera, M. magellanica, M. norsorediata, M. sanguinascens and M. wandae. Several of the sorediate species are early colonisers of newly developed substrates. They show variable occurrences along light and humidity gradients. Distribution maps and a revised key are presented.Recientemente se han publicado datos sobre la taxonomía y ecología de las especies sorediosas de Menegazzia representadas en las regiones más australes de Chile y Argentina e islas del Atlántico Sur, además de registros esporádicos en zonas ubicadas más al norte en Chile. En este trabajo se discuten los patrones de distribución y la ecología del hábitat de 11 especies sorediosas, con especial enfásis en aquellas que se desarrollan al norte de los 48º S. Menegazzia subpertusa, un epífito de arbustos esclerófilos, se registra por primera vez en América (Chile y Argentina. Menegazzia neozelandica tiene una distribución discontinua en Chile; ha sido recolectada en Fray Jorge (Cuarta Región de Chile, Islas Juan Fern

  12. Silencio y memoria: Nocturno de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Iniesta Ruiz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio, sostenido por el Trabajo de Fin de Grado Representación y ficción: Nocturno de Chile y Sostiene Pereira (2015, se introduce en la construcción literaria articulada en la obra Nocturno de Chile, de Roberto Bolaño, examinando y evaluando sus fronteras, fronteras que resultan tan movedizas como las de cualquier construcción inserta en el marco de la ficción. Las implicaciones históricas y políticas del relato hacen que su impronta testimonial cobre una fuerza inusitada, y nociones como la memoria, la violencia o el silencio ayudan a vertebrar una obra de arte verbal que logra, en el decurso de su propia narración, asediar al lector con las angustiosas imágenes de un pasado hecho presente en el camino de un tiempo político que se subyuga a la propia creación artística.

  13. [Haiti, new immigrant community in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez P, Katherin; Valderas J, Jaime; Messenger C, Karen; Sánchez G, Carolina; Barrera Q, Francisco

    2018-04-01

    Migration is a growing phenomenon in Latin America influenced by several factors such as economic stability, employment, social welfare, education and health system. Currently Chile has a positive migration flow rate. Particularly, a significant number of Haitian immigrants has been observed du ring the last years, especially after earthquake of 2010. These immigrants present a different cultural background expressed in relevant aspects of living including parenting and healthcare. Knowing the Haitian culture and its health situation is relevant for a better understanding of their health needs. Haitian people come to Chile looking for a cordial reception and willing to find a place with better perspectives of wellbeing in every sense. Immigration represents a major challenge for Chilean health system that must be embraced. Integration efforts in jobs, health, education system and community living should be enhanced to ensure a prosper settlement in our country. A new immigration law is crucial to solving major problems derived from current law created in 1975.

  14. Overview of plant specific source terms and their impact on risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desaedeleer, G.

    2004-01-01

    Probabilistic risk assesment and safety assessment focuses on systems and measures to prevent core meltdown, and it integrates many aspects of design and operation. It provides mapping of initiating event, frequencies onto plant damage state and through plant systems analysis, utilizes fault tree and event tree logic models, may include 'external event' analysis such as fire, flood, wind, seismic events. Percent contribution of sequences to the core damage frequency are shown for the following plants, taken as examples ZION, EDISON, OCONEE 3, SEABROOK, SIZEWELL B, MILLSTONE 3, RINGHALS 2. The presentation includes comparison of the following initiating event frequencies: loss of off-site power; small LOCA; large LOCA, steam generator tube rupture; loss of feedwater; turbine trip; reactor trip. Consequence analysis deals with: dispersion and depletion of radioactivity in the atmosphere, health effects, factors in the off-site emergency plan analyzed with codes that address the weather conditions; provision of mapping of source terms; risk diagram for early fatalities and for latent cancer fatalities

  15. Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions of Source Aerosols (TERESA): Application to Power Plant-Derived PM2.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette Rohr

    2007-02-28

    This report documents progress made on the subject project during the period of September 1, 2007 through February 28, 2007. The TERESA Study is designed to investigate the role played by specific emissions sources and components in the induction of adverse health effects by examining the relative toxicity of coal combustion and mobile source (gasoline and/or diesel engine) emissions and their oxidative products. The study involves on-site sampling, dilution, and aging of coal combustion emissions at three coal-fired power plants, as well as mobile source emissions, followed by animal exposures incorporating a number of toxicological endpoints. The DOE-EPRI Cooperative Agreement (henceforth referred to as ''the Agreement'') for which this technical progress report has been prepared covers the performance and analysis of field experiments at the first TERESA plant, located in the Upper Midwest and henceforth referred to as Plant 0, and at two additional coal-fired power plants (Plants 1 and 2) utilizing different coal types and with different plant configurations. During this reporting period, fieldwork was completed at Plant 2, located in the Midwest. The following scenarios were completed: (1) July 19-22: POS (oxidized + SOA); (2) July 25-28: PONS (oxidized + neutralized + SOA); (3) August 8-13: P (primary); (4) August 14-15: POS; (5) August 16-17: POS (MI rats); (6) August 28-31: OS (oxidized + SOA, without primary particles); (7) September 1-4: O (oxidized, no primary particles); (8) September 6-9: S (SOA, no primary particles); and (9) September 19-22: PO (oxidized). Results indicated some biological effects with some scenarios. Also during this reporting period, the annual meeting of the TERESA Technical Advisory Committee was held at the Harvard School of Public Health in Boston. During the next reporting period, data analyses will continue for Plant 2 as well as for pooled data from all three plants. Manuscripts documenting the overall

  16. Analyses of multi-color plant-growth light sources in achieving maximum photosynthesis efficiencies with enhanced color qualities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tingzhu; Lin, Yue; Zheng, Lili; Guo, Ziquan; Xu, Jianxing; Liang, Shijie; Liu, Zhuguagn; Lu, Yijun; Shih, Tien-Mo; Chen, Zhong

    2018-02-19

    An optimal design of light-emitting diode (LED) lighting that benefits both the photosynthesis performance for plants and the visional health for human eyes has drawn considerable attention. In the present study, we have developed a multi-color driving algorithm that serves as a liaison between desired spectral power distributions and pulse-width-modulation duty cycles. With the aid of this algorithm, our multi-color plant-growth light sources can optimize correlated-color temperature (CCT) and color rendering index (CRI) such that photosynthetic luminous efficacy of radiation (PLER) is maximized regardless of the number of LEDs and the type of photosynthetic action spectrum (PAS). In order to illustrate the accuracies of the proposed algorithm and the practicalities of our plant-growth light sources, we choose six color LEDs and German PAS for experiments. Finally, our study can help provide a useful guide to improve light qualities in plant factories, in which long-term co-inhabitance of plants and human beings is required.

  17. Seabird eggs as bioindicators of chemical contamination in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cifuentes, Jacqueline Munoz; Becker, Peter H.; Sommer, Ute; Pacheco, Patricia; Schlatter, Roberto

    2003-11-01

    Seabird eggs are proposed as biomonitors of chemical contamination in Chile. - Seabird eggs were used as bioindicators of chemical contamination in Chile. Brown-hooded Gull (Larus maculipennis), Kelp Gull (Larus dominicanus), Trudeau's Tern (Sterna trudeaui), Neotropic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus), and Pink-footed Shearwater (Puffinus creatopus) eggs were sampled at different breeding sites during the 1990s. Mercury and organochlorines (PCBs, DDT, HCB, HCH, and PCP) were quantified to reveal the interspecific differences, spatial and temporal trends in contamination levels. Trudeau's Tern displayed the highest levels of mercury (486 ng g{sup -1} wet weight). The highest {sigma}DDT concentrations were measured in Brown-hooded Gulls (726 ng g{sup -1}). PCB levels were similar among the species (102-236 ng g{sup -1}), but the composition of the PCB mixture was different in Pink-footed Shearwaters. With the exception of the Brown-hooded Gull, all species studied presented similar and low levels of organochlorines ({sigma}OHa). Residues of PCB and related compounds were not detected in any of the seabird eggs analyzed in Chile. Geographical variation was low, although levels of industrial chemicals were slightly higher in eggs from Concepcion Bay, and agricultural chemicals in eggs from Valdivia. Also interannual variation was low, but some evidence was found of decreasing levels in gull eggs throughout the time of the study. The causes of the low levels and small variability in space and time of environmental chemicals in Chilean seabirds are discussed. We propose the use of seabirds in future monitoring of the development of chemical contamination in Chile.

  18. Seabird eggs as bioindicators of chemical contamination in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cifuentes, Jacqueline Munoz; Becker, Peter H.; Sommer, Ute; Pacheco, Patricia; Schlatter, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    Seabird eggs are proposed as biomonitors of chemical contamination in Chile. - Seabird eggs were used as bioindicators of chemical contamination in Chile. Brown-hooded Gull (Larus maculipennis), Kelp Gull (Larus dominicanus), Trudeau's Tern (Sterna trudeaui), Neotropic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus), and Pink-footed Shearwater (Puffinus creatopus) eggs were sampled at different breeding sites during the 1990s. Mercury and organochlorines (PCBs, DDT, HCB, HCH, and PCP) were quantified to reveal the interspecific differences, spatial and temporal trends in contamination levels. Trudeau's Tern displayed the highest levels of mercury (486 ng g -1 wet weight). The highest ΣDDT concentrations were measured in Brown-hooded Gulls (726 ng g -1 ). PCB levels were similar among the species (102-236 ng g -1 ), but the composition of the PCB mixture was different in Pink-footed Shearwaters. With the exception of the Brown-hooded Gull, all species studied presented similar and low levels of organochlorines (ΣOHa). Residues of PCB and related compounds were not detected in any of the seabird eggs analyzed in Chile. Geographical variation was low, although levels of industrial chemicals were slightly higher in eggs from Concepcion Bay, and agricultural chemicals in eggs from Valdivia. Also interannual variation was low, but some evidence was found of decreasing levels in gull eggs throughout the time of the study. The causes of the low levels and small variability in space and time of environmental chemicals in Chilean seabirds are discussed. We propose the use of seabirds in future monitoring of the development of chemical contamination in Chile

  19. VEGETATIVE GROWTH AND EARLY PRODUCTION OF SIX OLIVE CULTIVARS, IN SOUTHERN ATACAMA DESERT, CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy MORA

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Tree survival, early fruit production, vegetative growth and alternate bearing were examined in six different olive cultivars (Barnea, Biancolilla, Coratina, Empeltre, Koroneiki and Leccino under intensive agronomic conditions i southern Atacama Desert, in the Coquimbo Region of Chile. The cultivars were evaluated over four successive years and had a high survival rate (93% confi rming their potential for these dry-lands. Fruit production (recorded over the growing seasons 2002-2003, vegetative growth (2000-2003 and alternate bearing differed signifi cantly among cultivars. Olive selection in intensively managed planting at the southern part of the Atacama Desert depends on matching specifi c cultivars to sites on which they perform the best.

  20. A typology of female sex work in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmar, Julieta; Stuardo, Valeria; Folch, Cinta; Carvajal, Bielka; Clunes, Maria José; Montoliu, Alexandra; Casabona, Jordi

    2018-04-01

    In Chile, sex work takes place covertly in a variety of venues and locations. Formative research using time-location sampling methods is important in order to understand the nature of this diversity. This study used qualitative methods to develop a typology of female sex work in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile, using semi-structured interviews, focus groups and ethnographic fieldwork during visits to sex work venues. The study identified seven types of venue, which reflect the context and regulatory framework of the country and the structural vulnerabilities that affect female sex workers in Chile. These venues and locations include: cafés con piernas (coffee with legs); nightclubs, topless bars and cabarets; brothels; hotels; street and highway soliciting; massage parlours; and private residences. Formative research methods were helpful in identifying and characterising the venues and locations in which sex work occurred. Barriers to accessing and mapping specific locations were also identified. Recommendations for addressing these barriers include working with non-governmental organisations to map venues and initiate contact with the populations of interest. A comprehensive typology of sex work in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile, is an essential element for future time-location sampling and bio-behavioural research in the context of second-generation surveillance for HIV and sexually transmitted infections in Chile.

  1. On analgesic and narcotic plants: Pliny and his Greek sources, the history of a complex graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet, Valérie

    2014-01-01

    Grafting is an important concept in the study of Pliny the Elder, who is a compiler of written sources. We intend to examine how this grafting works in Pliny's discussion of analgesic and narcotic plants, especially the most famous: opium poppy, henbane, mandrake, and hound's berry. We will study Pliny's use of Greek sources and ask how he took up his predecessors' works while integrating the changes that took place during the centuries in the diagnosis and treatment of pain. This cultural graft remains elusive because we do not have access to all of Pliny's Greek sources. When Pliny speaks about these plants, he sometimes copies out information, adding or removing details, and occasionally makes significant mistakes. The graft was particularly difficult in this case because these analgesic plants were considered so special and poisonous that they were sometimes rejected or even condemned. Nevertheless, we can say that this cultural graft succeeded, despite some obstacles, because Pliny assimilated and adapted these old Greek materials to his own time, society, and project.

  2. A decade towards better health in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmke, Irene

    2011-10-01

    In 1990, after 17 years of dictatorship, Chile started rebuilding its political system with a focus on improving social conditions and health. A recent study of the last 10 years shows some positive results. Irene Helmke reports.

  3. The Mining Sectors in Chile and Norway, ca. 1870–1940

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranestad, Kristin

    2018-01-01

    in development. More knowledge was developed and accumulated in Norway than in Chile, which indicates that there was a knowledge gap between the two countries. Mining instructions were similar, but there were striking differences when it came to (1) number of graduates, (2) number of travel arrangements...... of education, scholarships and the National Geological Survey. In Chile, these key knowledge organizations were given lower priority by political decision-makers....

  4. Non-Edible Plant Oils as New Sources for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rafiqul Islam

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the concern on the availability of recoverable fossil fuel reserves and the environmental problems caused by the use those fossil fuels, considerable attention has been given to biodiesel production as an alternative to petrodiesel. However, as the biodiesel is produced from vegetable oils and animal fats, there are concerns that biodiesel feedstock may compete with food supply in the long-term. Hence, the recent focus is to find oil bearing plants that produce non-edible oils as the feedstock for biodiesel production. In this paper, two plant species, soapnut (Sapindus mukorossi and jatropha (jatropha curcas, L. are discussed as newer sources of oil for biodiesel production. Experimental analysis showed that both oils have great potential to be used as feedstock for biodiesel production. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME from cold pressed soapnut seed oil was envisaged as biodiesel source for the first time. Soapnut oil was found to have average of 9.1% free FA, 84.43% triglycerides, 4.88% sterol and 1.59% others. Jatropha oil contains approximately 14% free FA, approximately 5% higher than soapnut oil. Soapnut oil biodiesel contains approximately 85% unsaturated FA while jatropha oil biodiesel was found to have approximately 80% unsaturated FA. Oleic acid was found to be the dominant FA in both soapnut and jatropha biodiesel. Over 97% conversion to FAME was achieved for both soapnut and jatropha oil.

  5. Ex-ante Study of a Possible Modernisation of the EU-Chile Association Agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henry de Frahan, Bruno; Hartwell, Christopher; Kuik, O.J.; Lirette, Paul; Mirecka, Katarzyna; Nolan Garcia, Kimberly; Pellandra, Andrea; Polanco, Rodrigo; Schmidt-Hebbel, Klaus; Shuvaieva, Iryna; Sidlo, Kataryna; Teresinski, Jan; Torrent, Ramon; Valdes, Albert

    This study provides an ex-ante impact assessment of the possible modernisation of the EU-Chile Association Agreement. Since the current agreement entered into force in 2003, Chilean exports of agricultural/food products and services to the EU have nearly tripled while EU exports to Chile have

  6. Una bebida moderna: la cerveza en Chile en el siglo XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ricardo Couyoumdjian

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available La cerveza se introdujo en Chile en los años de la Independencia. La producción masiva de la bebida despegó en la década de 1850 y para fines de siglo se consumía a través de todo el país. El presente artículo analiza las estadísticas comerciales para determinar el volumen de la importación de cerveza y la producción local, usando las importaciones de oblón como indicador, para estimar el consumo nacional. Las cifras de cabotaje, por su parte, permiten apreciar las diferencias regionales en el consumo. Otras fuentes proporcionan información sobre las cervecerías nacionales, su modernización y la tendencia a la concentración de la industria, sobre los tipos y calidades y patrones sociales de consumo.Beer drinking was introduced in Chile during the years of Independence; local production took off in the 1850s and by the end of the century it was consumed throughout the country. This paper uses trade statistics to determine the volume of imported beers and local production, using imports of hops as a proxy, and thus, estimate local consumption, while coastal trade figures provide a view of regional consumption patterns. Other sources provide information on local breweries, their modernization and the tendency towards industrial concentration, types and qualities, as well as social patterns of consumption.

  7. First parasitological study of the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis, Amphibia in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristóbal Castillo

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduced species can arrive into new territories with parasites; however, these species are expected to face lower parasite richness than in their original regions. Both introduced hosts and parasites can affect native fauna. Since their release into the wild in Chile following laboratory use, Xenopus laevis Daudin, 1802 has widely spread throughout central Chile. The only pathogen described on the host is the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Longcore, Pessier, Nichols, 1999; thus, this is the first parasitological study of this species in Chile. In 10 localities in central Chile, 179 specimens of X. laevis were captured and examined for parasites in the gastrointestinal tube, cavities, lungs, liver, and skin. Only nine specimens of the genus Contracaecum Railliet, Henry, 1912 were found in six specimens of X. laevis from a private dam in La Patagua. It is likely that these parasites originated from species of native birds. This is the first record of Contracaecum sp. in Chilean amphibians.

  8. Protecting the Local Dark-Sky Areas around the International Observatories in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. G.

    2001-12-01

    This report covers efforts by IAU Commission 50's new Working Group on Light Pollution to slow or halt the spread of incipient light pollution near the VLT, the Magellan 6.5m telescopes, Gemini South, SOAR, Blanco and many smaller telescopes in Chile. An effort has just begun to protect the ALMA site in Northern Chile from RFI. Such work includes extensive outreach programs to the local population, schools and industry as well as to local, regional and national levels of government in Chile. The group is working internationally with such organizations as the IDA; one member has recently led the production of "The first world atlas of the artificial night-sky brightness". These efforts have resulted in the first national-level environmental legislation covering dark skies as part of a government effort to protect the environment. Chilean manufacturers are now producing competitive, full-cut-off, street lighting designed specifically to comply with the new legislation. The Chilean national tourism agency is supporting "Astronomical Tourism" based on the dark, clear skies of Chile. An international conference on Controlling Light Pollution and RFI will be held in La Serena, Chile on 5-7 March, 2002, backed up by a parallel meeting of Chilean amateur astronomers. Much work remains to be done. Most of this work is supported by funding from the US National Science Foundation through CTIO, and from ESO, OCIW and CONAMA.

  9. EL CONEJO EUROPEO EN CHILE: HISTORIA DE UNA INVASIÓN BIOLÓGICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Camus

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza las relaciones entre los seres humanos y su ambiente, a partir de la historia de la aclimatación y posterior invasión de conejos en Chile, constatando que, en el largo plazo, las acciones humanas tienen efectos e impactos insospechados sobre el medio natural. En efecto, si bien inicialmente los conejos fueron vistos como una oportunidad de desarrollo económico a partir del aprovechamiento de su piel y su carne, pronto esta especie se convirtió en una plaga difícil de controlar en diversas regiones del país, como Chile central, Tierra del Fuego e islas Juan Fernández. Así, con el paso del tiempo, el conejo se ha terminado por transformar en nuestro país en un verdadero "convidado de piedra".This work analyses the relationship between human beings and their environment taking into consideration the adjustment and eventual invasión of rabbits in Chile. It argües that in the long run, human actions have unsuspected effects upon the environment. In fact rabbits were seen initially as an opportunity for economic development because of the exploitation of their meat and skin. Later, rabbits became a plague in different áreas of Central Chile, Tierra del Fuego and Juan Fernández islands, which was difficult to control. Over the years rabbits became unwelcome guests in Chile.

  10. Water Source Utilization of Hammock and Pine Rockland Plant Communities in the Everglades, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, A. K.; Sternberg, L.; Miralles-Wilhelm, F.

    2007-12-01

    South Florida has a mosaic of plant communities resulting from topographical differences, spatially varying hydroperiods and fire. The only plant communities not flooded in the wet season are hardwood hammocks and often pine rocklands. Natural fires burn off litter accumulated in pine rocklands, with the exception of organic matter in sinkholes in the limestone bedrock. This relative lack of soil is thought to constrain pineland plants in the Everglades to depend upon groundwater that is typically low in nutrients. In contrast, adjoining hardwood hammocks have accumulated an organic soil layer that traps rainwater and nutrients. Plants in hammocks may be able to utilize this water and thereby access nutrients present in the litter. Hammocks are thus viewed as localized areas of high nutrients and instances of vegetation feedback upon the oligotrophic everglades landscape enabling establishment and survival of flood-intolerant tropical hardwood species. This study examines water source use and couples it to foliar nutrient concentrations of plants found in hammocks and pinelands. We examined the δ2H and δ18O of stem waters in plants in Everglades National Park and compared those with the δ2H and δ18O of potential water sources. In the wet season hammock plants accessed both groundwater and water in the surface organic soil layer while in the dry season they relied more on groundwater. A similar seasonal shift was observed in pineland plants; however groundwater constituted a much higher proportion of total water uptake throughout the year under observation. Concomitant with differential water utilization by hammock and pineland plant communities, we observed hammock plants having a significantly higher annual mean foliar N and P concentration than pineland plants. Most hammock species are intolerant of flooded soils and are thus constrained by the high water table in the wet season, yet access the lowered groundwater table in the dry season due to drying up of

  11. KOREA-CHILE FREE TRADE AGREEMENT – A CASE STUDY FROM THE CHILEAN SIDE TO ANALYZE HOW IT CAN BE IMPROVED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Felipe Maldaner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Trade in the global market is one of the most important ways to achieve economic growth. Some countries sell raw materials and others sell value added products. Innovation is the key issue in this competition and, in a sense, it makes a big difference in trade balance worldwide. FTA (Free Trade Agreement is one of the means to gain different markets. The Korea-Chile FTA is a good example of success in terms of trade agreement. Korea sells value added products to Chile, and Chile sells raw materials to Korea, mainly copper. Korea and Chile can improve their Free Trade Agreement to the higher level, which is to produce conductors and semi-conductors in Chile through Korea’s investment. Korea has technology and Chile can offer tax advantages to Korean companies which are interested to invest in Chile. For Chile, it is possible to achieve a huge market in North and Latin America. This is one way to improve the successful Korea-Chile FTA. Keywords: Free Trade Agreement. Innovation. Government Strategy. Results and Improvement.     TRATADO DE LIVRE COMÉRCIO ENTRE COREIA DO SUL E CHILE – UM ESTUDO DE CASO DO PONTO DE VISTA CHILENO PARA ANALISAR COMO ESTE PODE SER AMPLIADO RESUMO O comércio no mercado global é um dos mais importantes caminhos para obter crescimento econômico. Alguns países vendem matérias-primas e outros vendem produtos com valor agregado. Inovação é um ponto-chave nessa competição e, em certo sentido, faz uma grande diferença na balança comercial mundial. Tratado de livre comércio é um dos caminhos para atingir diferentes mercados. O Tratado de Livre Comércio (TLC entre Coreia do Sul e Chile é um bom exemplo de sucesso, tratando-se de acordos comerciais. Coreia do Sul vende produtos de valor agregado para o Chile e o Chile vende matérias-primas para a Coreia, principalmente cobre. Coreia e Chile podem ampliar o seu tratado de livre comércio para um nível mais elevado, qual seja, produzir condutores e

  12. Traditional Knowledge and Access to Genetic Resources Critical Elements towards a National Policy and Legislation for Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Rojas

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditional knowledge, hereinafter TK, is a broad concept that is deeply rooted in the life of billions of people, especially within the indigenous communities that have developed it either in the North or in the South. TK has multiple manifestations in several fields, from medicinal uses of plants and herbs, to artistic creations. Bio-prospective activities during the 90 have brought the TK problematic to the international fora: the indigenous communities, South Governments, NGO’s and some other groups have complained against the everlasting misappropriation of TK. Since genetic resources are scarce in the North, TK has been reaching increasing value for transnational companies and Universities research groups who have turned their interest to it as a critical source of their R+D projects to advance their business and academic agendas. This work addresses the problematic of TK as well as the Access to Genetic Resources and the benefit Sharing derived from it (hereinafter ABS. It intends to contribute to clarify some still obscure issues for Chile and to show some valuable international experiences to advance in the process of drafting a national strategy, policy and legislation to regulate the issues surrounding TK and AGR. The work calls for a collaborative approach between the main stakeholders to better achieve huge humanity challenges as fighting hunger and catastrophic diseases. The first part addresses the main concerns about TK from an international legal perspective, explaining different views and issues, some of them quite controversial. The second part brings up an interesting new approach to align conflicting interest in the international world, the so-called public-private partnership. The third part is an attempt to provide guidance to decision makers in Chile and eventually some other developing countries on how to face such a process having in mind the fulfillment of the principles and objectives surrounding TK and ABS. The

  13. Image Harvest: an open-source platform for high-throughput plant image processing and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, Avi C; Campbell, Malachy T; Caprez, Adam; Swanson, David R; Walia, Harkamal

    2016-05-01

    High-throughput plant phenotyping is an effective approach to bridge the genotype-to-phenotype gap in crops. Phenomics experiments typically result in large-scale image datasets, which are not amenable for processing on desktop computers, thus creating a bottleneck in the image-analysis pipeline. Here, we present an open-source, flexible image-analysis framework, called Image Harvest (IH), for processing images originating from high-throughput plant phenotyping platforms. Image Harvest is developed to perform parallel processing on computing grids and provides an integrated feature for metadata extraction from large-scale file organization. Moreover, the integration of IH with the Open Science Grid provides academic researchers with the computational resources required for processing large image datasets at no cost. Image Harvest also offers functionalities to extract digital traits from images to interpret plant architecture-related characteristics. To demonstrate the applications of these digital traits, a rice (Oryza sativa) diversity panel was phenotyped and genome-wide association mapping was performed using digital traits that are used to describe different plant ideotypes. Three major quantitative trait loci were identified on rice chromosomes 4 and 6, which co-localize with quantitative trait loci known to regulate agronomically important traits in rice. Image Harvest is an open-source software for high-throughput image processing that requires a minimal learning curve for plant biologists to analyzephenomics datasets. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  14. Estimation of the Plant Time Constant of Current-Controlled Voltage Source Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Ana; Yepes, Alejandro G.; Malvar, Jano

    2014-01-01

    Precise knowledge of the plant time constant is essential to perform a thorough analysis of the current control loop in voltage source converters (VSCs). As the loop behavior can be significantly influenced by the VSC working conditions, the effects associated to converter losses should be included...... in the model, through an equivalent series resistance. In a recent work, an algorithm to identify this parameter was developed, considering the inductance value as known and practically constant. Nevertheless, the plant inductance can also present important uncertainties with respect to the inductance...... of the VSC interface filter measured at rated conditions. This paper extends that method so that both parameters of the plant time constant (resistance and inductance) are estimated. Such enhancement is achieved through the evaluation of the closed-loop transient responses of both axes of the synchronous...

  15. Analysis of seismicity and stress before and after the Mw 8.1 Pisagua, Chile, 2014 earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoli, F.; Cesca, S.; Dahm, T.; Hainzl, S.

    2014-12-01

    On April 1st, 2014 at 23:46:50 UTC, a powerful earthquake of magnitude Mw 8.1 occurred offshore the Northern Chile in the region of the North Chilean seismic gap. The epicenter of the earthquake was approximately 50 km offshore the Chilean coast, near the town of Pisagua. Two days after the main event a Mw 7.6 aftershock struck approximately the same area. In order to identify spatio-temporal changes of source parameters and stress before and after the mainshock, we analyzed in detail the local seismicity above magnitude Mw 3.0 within the time period 01/01/2013-30/04/2014 and estimated long term trends in b-values and earthquake productivity. We used data from the IPOC (Integrated Plate boundary Observatory Chile) regional seismic network, consisting of 20 "in land" broadband station deployed and managed by the GFZ-Potsdam. The recorded earthquake catalog shows an intense foreshock activity consisting of more than 1000 M3+ events in the source region. Full waveform techniques are used to derive both locations and focal mechanisms of about 435 seismic events. The location process has been performed by using a waveform stacking method (Grigoli et al 2013, 2014) with a layered velocity model based on CRUST 2.0 (see the attached figure for the location results of one of these events). Moment tensor inversion has been performed by using the KIWI tool software (Cesca et al. 2010), which is based on a two-step inversion approach. The first step consists in the inversion of the amplitude spectra to retrieve the best fitting focal planes, while the second inversion step is carried out in time domain to solve the focal mechanism polarity and to obtain the centroid location and time. Both location and moment tensor inversion resulted in agreement with the geodynamical settings of the region. Mapping the b-value reveals a spatiotemporal anomaly of low b-values characterizing the frequency-magnitude distribution of the foreshocks in the source area of the mainshock. Finally

  16. Application of the source term code package to obtain a specific source term for the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souto, F.J.

    1991-06-01

    The main objective of the project was to use the Source Term Code Package (STCP) to obtain a specific source term for those accident sequences deemed dominant as a result of probabilistic safety analyses (PSA) for the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant (CNLV). The following programme has been carried out to meet this objective: (a) implementation of the STCP, (b) acquisition of specific data for CNLV to execute the STCP, and (c) calculations of specific source terms for accident sequences at CNLV. The STCP has been implemented and validated on CDC 170/815 and CDC 180/860 main frames as well as on a Micro VAX 3800 system. In order to get a plant-specific source term, data on the CNLV including initial core inventory, burn-up, primary containment structures, and materials used for the calculations have been obtained. Because STCP does not explicitly model containment failure, dry well failure in the form of a catastrophic rupture has been assumed. One of the most significant sequences from the point of view of possible off-site risk is the loss of off-site power with failure of the diesel generators and simultaneous loss of high pressure core spray and reactor core isolation cooling systems. The probability for that event is approximately 4.5 x 10 -6 . This sequence has been analysed in detail and the release fractions of radioisotope groups are given in the full report. 18 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  17. Lessons for tsunami risk mitigation from recent events occured in Chile: research findings for alerting and evacuation from interdisciplinary perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cienfuegos, R.; Catalan, P. A.; Leon, J.; Gonzalez, G.; Repetto, P.; Urrutia, A.; Tomita, T.; Orellana, V.

    2016-12-01

    In the wake of the 2010 tsunami that hit Chile, a major public effort to promote interdisciplinary disaster reseach was undertaken by the Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (Conicyt) allocating funds to create the Center for Integrated Research on Natural Risks Management (CIGIDEN). This effort has been key in promoting associativity between national and international research teams in order to transform the frequent occurrence of extreme events that affect Chile into an opportunity for interdisciplinary research. In this presentation we will summarize some of the fundamental research findings regarding tsunami forecasting, alerting, and evacuation processes based on interdisciplinary field work campaigns and modeling efforts conducted in the wake of the three most recent destructive events that hit Chile in 2010, 2014, and 2015. One of the main results that we shall emphatize from these findings, is that while research and operational efforts to model and forecast tsunamis are important, technological positivisms should not undermine educational efforts that have proved to be effective in reducing casualties due to tsunamis in the near field. Indeed, in recent events that hit Chile, first tsunami waves reached the adjacent generation zones in time scales comparable with the required time for data gathering and modeling even for the most sophisticated early warning tsunami algorithms currently available. The latter emphasizes self-evacuation from coastal areas, while forecasting and monitoring tsunami hazards remain very important for alerting more distant areas, and are essential for alert cancelling especially when shelf and embayment resonance, and edge wave propagation may produce destructive late tsunami arrivals several hours after the nucleation of the earthquake. By combining some of the recent evidence we have gathered in Chile on seismic source uncertainities (both epistemic and aleatoric), tsunami hydrodynamics, the response

  18. Genetic diversity and structure in semiwild and domesticated chiles (Capsicum annuum; Solanaceae) from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Meléndez, Araceli; Morrell, Peter L; Roose, Mikeal L; Kim, Seung-Chul

    2009-06-01

    The chile of Mesoamerica, Capsicum annuum, is one of five domesticated chiles in the Americas. Among the chiles, it varies the most in size, form, and color of its fruits. Together with maize, C. annuum is one of the principal elements of the neotropical diets of Mesoamerican civilizations. Despite the great economic and cultural importance of C. annuum both worldwide and in Mexico, however, very little is known about its geographic origin and number of domestications. Here we sampled a total of 80 accessions from Mexico (58 semiwild and 22 domesticated) and examined nucleotide sequence diversity at three single- or low-copy nuclear loci, Dhn, G3pdh, and Waxy. Across the three loci, we found an average reduction of ca. 10% in the diversity of domesticates relative to semiwild chiles and geographic structure within Mexican populations. The Yucatan Peninsula contained a large number of haplotypes, many of which were unique, suggesting an important region of chile domestication and center of diversity. The present sampling of loci did not conclusively resolve the number and location of domestications, but several lines of evidence suggest multiple independent domestications from widely distributed progenitor populations.

  19. Can oxygen stable isotopes be used to track precipitation moisture source in vascular plant-dominated peatlands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amesbury, Matthew J.; Charman, Dan J.; Newnham, Rewi M.; Loader, Neil J.; Goodrich, Jordan; Royles, Jessica; Campbell, David I.; Keller, Elizabeth D.; Baisden, W. Troy; Roland, Thomas P.; Gallego-Sala, Angela V.

    2015-11-01

    Variations in the isotopic composition of precipitation are determined by fractionation processes which occur during temperature- and humidity-dependent phase changes associated with evaporation and condensation. Oxygen stable isotope ratios have therefore been frequently used as a source of palaeoclimate data from a variety of proxy archives, which integrate this signal over time. Applications from ombrotrophic peatlands, where the source water used in cellulose synthesis is derived solely from precipitation, have been mostly limited to Northern Hemisphere Sphagnum-dominated bogs, with few in the Southern Hemisphere or in peatlands dominated by vascular plants. New Zealand (NZ) provides an ideal location to undertake empirical research into oxygen isotope fractionation in vascular peatlands because single taxon analysis can be easily carried out, in particular using the preserved root matrix of the restionaceous wire rush (Empodisma spp.) that forms deep Holocene peat deposits throughout the country. Furthermore, large gradients are observed in the mean isotopic composition of precipitation across NZ, caused primarily by the relative influence of different climate modes. Here, we test whether δ18O of Empodisma α-cellulose from ombrotrophic restiad peatlands in NZ can provide a methodology for developing palaeoclimate records of past precipitation δ18O. Surface plant, water and precipitation samples were taken over spatial (six sites spanning >10° latitude) and temporal (monthly measurements over one year) gradients. A link between the isotopic composition of root-associated water, the most likely source water for plant growth, and precipitation in both datasets was found. Back-trajectory modelling of precipitation moisture source for rain days prior to sampling showed clear seasonality in the temporal data that was reflected in root-associated water. The link between source water and plant cellulose was less clear, although mechanistic modelling predicted mean

  20. Productivity and Persistence of Yellow Serradela (Ornithopus compressus L. and Biserrula (Biserrula pelecinus L. in the Mediterranean Climate Region of Central Chile Productividad y Persistencia de Serradela Amarilla (Ornithopus compressus L. y Biserrula (Biserrula pelecinus L. en la Región Climática Mediterránea de Chile Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro del Pozo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The production and sustainability of non-irrigated pastures in the Mediterranean climate region of central Chile is currently limited by the low diversity of valuable species and cultivars of annual forage legumes, able to persist in zones with highly variable annual rainfall, and low fertility or poorly drained soils. In this work, DM production, seed yield, hardseededness and pasture persistence were evaluated for cultivars of yellow serradella (Ornithopus compressus L. and biserrula (Biserrula pelecinus L., in field experiments conducted in the subhumid portion of the Mediterranean climate region of Chile. Burr medic (Medicago polymorpha L. and sub clover (Trifolium subterraneum L. were used as a reference plants. A remarkable DM production and seed yield were observed in biserrula (cvs. Mor96 and Casbah, and in some cultivars of yellow serradella (e.g. Madeira, Santorini; biserrula produced by far the largest number of seeds per m². As was expected for species that produce very high levels of hard-seeds, the regeneration of biserrula and serradella was low in second growing season, but plant density and productivity were high in the third growing season. The use of biserrula and serradela in monoculture or in mixture with other annual legumes, either in pasture-crop rotation or permanent pasture, would contribute to the improvement of the prevailing productive systems in the Mediterranean climate region of central Chile.La producción y la sostenibilidad de las praderas de secano en la región de clima mediterráneo de Chile central están actualmente limitadas por la baja diversidad de especies valiosas y cultivares de leguminosas forrajeras anuales, capaces de persistir en zonas con precipitaciones anuales sumamente variables, y suelos de baja fertilidad o de mal drenaje. En este trabajo se evaluó la producción de fitomasa, producción de semilla, dureza seminal y la persistencia de cultivares de serradela amarilla (Ornithopus

  1. Santiago de Chile, ¿ejemplo de una reestructuración capitalista global?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fuentes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Términos como "ciudad global", "ciudad difusa", "ciudad dual", entre otros, merecen ser rediscutidos y contrastados con el proceso de transformaciones experimentado por Santiago de Chile producto de la reestructuración capitalista. En este sentido, este trabajo pretende discutir acerca de la conveniencia de otorgar a la capital de Chile éstos y otros adjetivos frecuentemente utilizados en la literatura urbanística internacional.Terms like "global city", "diffuse city", "dual city", among others, deserve to be discussed and contrasted with urban processes that are been taking part in Santiago de Chile in the last decades. This article attempts to discuss the convenience of grant to Chile’s capital city these and others adjectives, commonly used in the urban literature

  2. Cyclic variations in nitrogen uptake rate of soybean plants: ammonium as a nitrogen source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, L. T.; Raper, C. D. Jr

    1989-01-01

    When NO3- is the sole nitrogen source in flowing solution culture, the net rate of nitrogen uptake by nonnodulated soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cv Ransom) plants cycles between maxima and minima with a periodicity of oscillation that corresponds with the interval of leaf emergence. Since soybean plants accumulate similar quantities of nitrogen when either NH4+ or NO3- is the sole source in solution culture controlled at pH 6.0, an experiment was conducted to determine if the oscillations in net rate of nitrogen uptake also occur when NH4+ is the nitrogen source. During a 21-day period of vegetative development, net uptake of NH4+ was measured daily by ion chromatography as depletion of NH4+ from a replenished nutrient solution containing 1.0 millimolar NH4+. The net rate of NH4+ uptake oscillated with a periodicity that was similar to the interval of leaf emergence. Instances of negative net rates of uptake indicate that the transition between maxima and minima involved changes in influx and efflux components of net NH4+ uptake.

  3. Nitrogen fixation in four dryland tree species in central Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovalle, C.; Arredondo, S.; Aronson, J.; Longeri, L.; Avendano, J.

    1998-01-01

    Results are presented from a 5-year experiment using 15 N-enriched fertilizer to determine N 2 fixation in four tree species on degraded soils in a Mediterranean-climate region of central Chile in which there are 5 months of drought. Species tested included three slow-growing but long-lived savannah trees native to southers South America, (acacia caven, Prosopic alba and P. chilensis; Mimosoideae), and Tagasaste (Chamaecytisus proliferus ssp. palmensis; Papilonoideae), a fast-growing but medium-lived tree from the Canary Islands. Tagasaste produced four- to twenty-fold more biomass than the other species, but showed declining N 2 fixation and biomass accumulation during the 5th year, corresponding to the juvenile-to-adult developmental transition. Nitrogen content was significantly higher in Tagasaste and Acacia caven than in the other species. The data revealed inter-specific differences in resource allocation and phenology of N 2 fixation rarely detailed for woody plants in dryland regions. (author)

  4. Maternity protection vs. maternity rights for working women in Chile: a historical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Lidia; Herrera, Tania

    2012-12-01

    Maternity leave in Chile has been a social right since 1919, when the International Labour Organization set the first global standards. From its inception, Chile's labour legislation focused on protecting motherhood and the family. The length of maternity leave has been extended several times since then but its main aim remains the protection of infant health. In 1931, Chile's first Labour Code required anyone employing 20 or more women to provide day care services and facilitate childcare and paid breastfeeding time for all mothers of children under one. Labour laws began to play an important role in accommodating the care of infants within working conditions, though not always effectively. In spite of job protection during pregnancy and breastfeeding, women can be dismissed on grounds other than pregnancy. It was only under Salvador Allende and again in the past two decades that Chile has enfranchised women as holders of health rights. However, many unresolved tensions remain. Chile promotes motherhood, but often considers that working women who demand employment protection abuse the system. Motherhood is a magic wand that represents the selflessness of women, but society throws a blanket of mistrust over women who wish to exercise their maternity rights and to determine the number and spacing of their children. Copyright © 2012 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A dichotomous species of Codium (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta is colonizing northern Chile Una especie dicotómica de Codium (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta está colonizando el norte de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEJANDRA GONZÁLEZ

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In late 2001 and early 2002, a dichotomous species of Codium appeared colonizing the low intertidal and shallow subtidal bottoms of Caldera Bay, northern Chile (27° 03’ S, 70° 51’ W. Due to the ecological and economic impact the species is having in Caldera Bay and its potential spread along the Chilean coastline, we studied the taxonomic identity of the species and examined its relationships with other dichotomous species of Codium reported for temperate Pacific South America. Morphological analyses suggest that the seaweeds from Caldera Bay belong to Codium fragile (Suringar Hariot. Not only is there strong agreement in internal and external morphological characters, but among all the species reported for Peru and Chile, this is the only one exhibiting utricles with rounded, apiculate tip terminating in a mucron. This species has a broad geographic distribution in temperate waters. In Chile it was known only from the coasts of Valdivia to the Straits of Magellan (39° 48’ S, 73° 26’ W to 53° 10’ S, 73° 49’ W. This is the first record of C. fragile in northern Chile, and this study discusses several alternative hypotheses for the presence of the species into this area. The morphological characteristics of the material collected in Caldera partially agree with diagnostic characters known for C. fragile subspecies tasmanicum and C. fragile subspecies tomentosoides. However, the rapid population spread of the species in northern Chile, and recent molecular analysis support the identification of this form as the invasive C. fragile subspecies tomentosoidesA fines de 2001 y principio de 2002, apareció en el norte de Chile una especie del género Codium, de morfología dicotómica, colonizando los niveles intermareales y submareales de la Bahía de Caldera (27° 03’ S, 70° 51’ O. Debido al impacto ecológico y económico que ha provocado esta especie en la Bahía de Caldera y a su dispersión potencial a lo largo de la costa de

  6. Boron exposure assessment using drinking water and urine in the North of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, S; Reynaga-Delgado, E; Sancha, A M; Ferreccio, C

    2011-12-01

    Boron is an essential trace element for plants and humans however it is still an open question what levels of boron are actually safe for humans. This study, conducted between 2006 and 2010, measured exposure levels of boron in drinking water and urine of volunteers in Arica, an area in the North of Chile with high levels of naturally occurring boron. Samples were taken of tap and bottled water (173 and 22, respectively), as well as urine from 22 volunteers, and subsequently analyzed by inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Boron varied in public tap water from 0.22 to 11.3mgL(-1), with a median value of 2.9mgL(-1), while concentrations of boron in bottled water varied from 0.01 to 12.2mgL(-1). Neither tap nor bottled water samples had concentrations of boron within WHO recommended limits. The concentration of boron in urine varied between 0.45 and 17.4mgL(-1), with a median of 4.28mgL(-1) and was found to be correlated with tap water sampled from the homes of the volunteers (r=0.64). Authors highly recommend that in northern Chile - where levels of boron are naturally high - that the tap and bottled water supplies be monitored in order to protect public health and that regulatory standards also be established for boron in drinking water in order to limit exposure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Boron exposure assessment using drinking water and urine in the North of Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes, S., E-mail: scortes@med.puc.cl [Departamento de Salud Publica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Reynaga-Delgado, E. [Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas del Noroeste, La Paz B.C.S. (Mexico); Sancha, A.M. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Ferreccio, C. [Departamento de Salud Publica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2011-12-01

    Boron is an essential trace element for plants and humans however it is still an open question what levels of boron are actually safe for humans. This study, conducted between 2006 and 2010, measured exposure levels of boron in drinking water and urine of volunteers in Arica, an area in the North of Chile with high levels of naturally occurring boron. Samples were taken of tap and bottled water (173 and 22, respectively), as well as urine from 22 volunteers, and subsequently analyzed by inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Boron varied in public tap water from 0.22 to 11.3 mg L{sup -1}, with a median value of 2.9 mg L{sup -1}, while concentrations of boron in bottled water varied from 0.01 to 12.2 mg L{sup -1}. Neither tap nor bottled water samples had concentrations of boron within WHO recommended limits. The concentration of boron in urine varied between 0.45 and 17.4 mg L{sup -1}, with a median of 4.28 mg L{sup -1} and was found to be correlated with tap water sampled from the homes of the volunteers (r = 0.64). Authors highly recommend that in northern Chile - where levels of boron are naturally high - that the tap and bottled water supplies be monitored in order to protect public health and that regulatory standards also be established for boron in drinking water in order to limit exposure.

  8. Calculate the high solar radiation for photovoltaic panels in Chile; Aproximacio al calculo de la oferta de energia por paneles fotovoltaicos en Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cancino, Beatriz; Roth, Pedro; Stolz, German [Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso (Chile); Bonneschky, Alexis [Cottbus University, Cottbus (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a method which permits to calculate and predict the theoretically possible electrical energy which can be obtained in different places in Chile with photovoltaic panels used in solar home systems. Chile is a country with a high solar radiation, specially in its northern part, between parallels 18 degrees with a daily mean energy of 4600 Wh/m{sup 2} over the year and 37 degrees, with 3700 Wh/m{sup 2}. Therefore, the use of photovoltaic power is an interesting alternative to be studied and used. Nevertheless, the photovoltaic possibilities have not been studied and no evaluation of real possibilities exist. In a previous paper, the absence of an installation guide for solar home systems have been mentioned. And also the lack of information regarding the real electrical energy needs of people. This work pretends to be the first approximation to a detailed chart and list of possible electric supplies using photovoltaic panels in different locations of Chile. It is made with a computer program which permits to calculate the solar radiation on a tilted surface, on a hourly bases. It uses geographical data and the daily average of monthly radiation. Therefore, the hourly energy, harnessed by the panel can be established and the total energy for some place calculated. [Spanish] El objetivo de este trabajo, es el de mostrar a traves de un listado y un mapa nacional, la cantidad teorica de energia electrica que puede ser obtenida a traves del uso de paneles fotovoltaicos principalmente destinados a Solar Home System (SHS) en Chile. Chile es un pais con una alta oferta de energia solar ubicada principalmente en la zona norte y centro del pais, aproximadamente entre los paralelos 18 grados (sobre 4600 Wh/m{sup 2} dia promedio anual) y 37 grados Sur (sobre 3700 Wh/m{sup 2} dia promedio anual). Por lo que el uso de paneles fotovoltaicos representa una alternativa interesante de ser estudiada y aprovechada. Sin embargo, no existe una evaluacion

  9. Radiation protection in pediatric interventional cardiology. Current status and challenges in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubeda, Carlos; Miranda, Patricia; Vano, Eliseo; Nocetti, Diego

    2013-01-01

    Further actions to improve radiation safety in this medical practice are discussed. All the X-ray systems used in paediatric IC procedures in Chile have been characterized in terms of dose and image quality. In addition, dose rates of scattered radiation to the position of the eyes and ankles of cardiologists have been measured. In May 2010, in Santiago, Chile, a workshop organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was the starting point for a pilot program on patient dosimetry and medical personnel for Latin America and the Caribbean, with participants from 11 countries. A pilot training course on Radiological Protection was given as part of the program. The first dose values reported for paediatric patients under the pilot program conducted by the IAEA in Latin America and the Caribbean included 70 procedures in Chile later extending to a total of 544 procedures. We think that a fundamental first step to improve IC radiation safety in Chile, would be to revise and update legislation on the use of ionizing radiation, including the implementation of quality assurance programs and training in radiation protection according to those involved in IC procedures

  10. Taurine supplemented plant protein based diets with alternative lipid sources for juvenile sea bream, sparus aurata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two lipid sources were evaluated as fish oil replacements in fishmeal free, plant protein based diets for juvenile gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata. A twelve week feeding study was undertaken to examine the performance of fish fed the diets with different sources of essential fatty acids (canola o...

  11. Alstroemeria presliana Herb. (Alstroemeriaceae in Chile from a Cytogenetic Perspective Alstroemeria presliana Herb. (Alstroemeriaceae en Chile Bajo una Perspectiva Citogenética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M Baeza

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Alstroemeria (Alstroemeriaceae is an endemic genus of South America with two major distribution centers in the continent: Chile and Brazil. In Chile the genus is distributed from the North, near Iquique (20º13’ S, 70º09’ W to the Chilean and Argentine Patagonia (53º10’ S, 70º54’ W. The central zone of Chile presents the highest number of species. A. presliana Herb. grows from Curicó (34º59’ S, 71º14’ W to Cautín (38º45’ S, 72º34’ W in Chile and Neuquén (36º50’ S, 71º05’ W, Argentina. A comparative karyotype study was made between a population of A. presliana subsp. presliana and a population of A. presliana subsp. australis Ehr. Bayer. Both populations presented asymmetric karyotypes, with 2n = 2x = 16 chromosomes, but with different chromosome formulae: A. presliana subsp. presliana has a haploid formula with 4m + 1sm-sat + 1st-sat + 2t, i.e., four pairs ofmetacentric chromosomes, one submetacentric pair with satellite, one subtelocentric pair with satellite, and two telocentrics pairs. A. presliana subsp. australis has a formula with 2m + 1m-sat + 1sm + 4t chromosomes, i.e., two pairs of metacentric chromosomes, one metacentric pair with satellite, one submetacentric pair, and four telocentrics chromosomes. These results indicated that the karyotype of the subspecies is very different, and it would be possible to recognize A. presliana subsp. australis as a new species.Alstroemeria (Alstroemeriaceae es un género endémico de Sudamérica y presenta dos grandes centros de distribución: Chile y Brasil. En Chile se distribuye desde el norte, cerca de Iquique (20º13’ S, 70º09’ O hasta la Patagonia (53º10’ S, 70º54’ O. La zona central del país presenta el mayor número de especies. A. presliana Herb. crece con una distribución que va desde Curicó (34º59’ S, 71º14’ O a Cautín (38º45’ S, 72º34’ O en Chile y en la Provincia de Neuquén (36º50’ S, 71º05’ O, Argentina. Se hizo un

  12. Chile and Its Efforts to Present High-Level Technologies to the Developed World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Nathan

    2007-01-01

    Chile is rich in natural resources. Like many other resource-dependent nations, it has never made technology transfer a subject of intense focus. This article sheds light on the technological state of Chile today and its efforts to promote development, increase innovation and move towards a knowledge-based economy. The paper summarizes current…

  13. Género y protección social: las transferencias condicionadas de ingresos en Chile = Gender and social protection: conditional cash transfers in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabbush, Constanza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pone de manifiesto las preguntas que le plantea a una perspectiva de género, las nuevas formas de pensar la protección social en la región. Para ello, se toma como ejemplo las transferencias condicionadas de ingresos (TCI puestas en marcha en Chile. Basándose en el ejemplo del programa Puente, la estrategia inicial del sistema de protección social denominado Chile Solidario, el objetivo de este trabajo es analizar cómo estas formas de protección apelan a la participación de las mujeres para salir de la pobreza. Los hallazgos indican que la política de lucha contra la pobreza en Chile se enmarca en una visión multidimensional de la pobreza que, sin embargo, termina posicionando a las mujeres como responsables de lograr el bienestar de todos los miembros de sus hogares. Este artículo concluye proponiendo que el escenario chileno constituye un extremo ejemplo de la extensión de las responsabilidades individuales de las mujeres en la gestión de pobreza, sin proporcionarles ningún componente comunitario o colectivo

  14. Ecology, genetic diversity, and phylogeographic structure of andes virus in humans and rodents in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Rafael A; Torres-Perez, Fernando; Galeno, Hector; Navarrete, Maritza; Vial, Pablo A; Palma, R Eduardo; Ferres, Marcela; Cook, Joseph A; Hjelle, Brian

    2009-03-01

    Andes virus (ANDV) is the predominant etiologic agent of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in southern South America. In Chile, serologically confirmed human hantavirus infections have occurred throughout a wide latitudinal distribution extending from the regions of Valparaíso (32 to 33 degrees S) to Aysén (46 degrees S) in southern Patagonia. In this study, we found seropositive rodents further north in the Coquimbo region (30 degrees S) in Chile. Rodent seroprevalence was 1.4%, with Oligoryzomys longicaudatus displaying the highest seroprevalence (5.9%), followed by Abrothrix longipilis (1.9%) and other species exhibiting Chile. Phylogenetic analyses showed two major ANDV South (ANDV Sout) clades, congruent with two major Chilean ecoregions, Mediterranean (Chilean matorral [shrubland]) and Valdivian temperate forest. Human and rodent samples grouped according to geographic location. Phylogenetic comparative analyses of portions of S and medium segments (encoding glycoproteins Gn and Gc) from a subset of rodent specimens exhibited similar topologies, corroborating two major ANDV Sout clades in Chile and suggesting that yet unknown factors influence viral gene flow and persistence throughout the two Chilean ecoregions. Genetic algorithms for recombination detection identified recombination events within the S segment. Molecular demographic analyses showed that the virus is undergoing purifying selection and demonstrated a recent exponential growth in the effective number of ANDV Sout infections in Chile that correlates with the increased number of human cases reported. Although we determined virus sequences from four rodent species, our results confirmed O. longicaudatus as the primary ANDV Sout reservoir in Chile. While evidence of geographic differentiation exists, a single cosmopolitan lineage of ANDV Sout remains the sole etiologic agent for HCPS in Chile.

  15. Historia y documentos sobre la colonización alemana en Chile.

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco , Eduardo; Gleisner , Christine; Winkler , Lisette; de Pablo , Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    Fonds audiovisuel du programme ESCoM-AAR (Equipe Sémiotique Cognitive et nouveaux Médias - Archives Audiovisuelles de la Recherche; 2001 - 2016).; Eduardo CARRASCO, Spezialist der Geschichte sowie des Kulturmanagements (Universität von Los Andes in Santiago de Chile) und Christine GLEISNER haben an der pontifikal-katholischen Universität Chiles Geschichte studiert. In dieser Reportage sprechen Sie von Ihren Arbeiten für die Archive « Emilio Held Winkler » des Chilenisch-Deutschen Verbands in ...

  16. Aerosols Observations with a new lidar station in Punta Arenas, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barja, Boris; Zamorano, Felix; Ristori, Pablo; Otero, Lidia; Quel, Eduardo; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Shimizu, Atsushi; Santana, Jorge

    2018-04-01

    A tropospheric lidar system was installed in Punta Arenas, Chile (53.13°S, 70.88°W) in September 2016 under the collaboration project SAVERNET (Chile, Japan and Argentina) to monitor the atmosphere. Statistical analyses of the clouds and aerosols behavior and some cases of dust detected with lidar, at these high southern latitude and cold environment regions during three months (austral spring) are discussed using information from satellite, modelling and solar radiation ground measurements.

  17. HIV ISSUES AND MAPUCHES IN CHILE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Cabieses, Báltica; Araya, Alejandra; Matsumoto, Cristina; Miner, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Chile is a country with an incipient HIV epidemic. Just as in other countries, disadvantaged groups in Chile are contributing to the increased incidence of the disease. The Mapuche indigenous population is one such group that has been affected by the spread of HIV. However, no prevention programs are tailored to the culturally specific needs of this community. In recognition of this discrepancy, an academic-community partnership was formed to develop an HIV educational module for a Mapuche community. The module was developed for use as part of an already established health-related program. The aims of the module were to identify perceptions about HIV among Mapuches and present information specific to HIV and its prevention. Focus was placed on cultural sensitivity. The module was carried out in connection with a first-aid course in an attempt to increase effectiveness of the intervention by working jointly with an established community program. Sixteen (16) Mapuches participated voluntarily and demonstrated some knowledge regarding HIV, but they lacked an overall understanding as to how it is transmitted and why prevention strategies are affective. Participants correctly identified sexual contact as a means of transmission, but when asked why, one person stated, “I just know it, I read it.” There were significant barriers to communication within the group, secondary to cultural practices related to age and gender. Major obstacles in controlling HIV are the lack of prevention strategies targeted to disadvantaged groups. The module developed for this intervention was the first effort of the Academic Community Partnership established between the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile and the Mapuche group around HIV prevention. Continued collaboration between academia and affected communities as well as incorporating HIV information into established programs are effective strategies for delivering prevention information to disadvantaged populations and for

  18. DEZVOLTAREA CONTEMPORANĂ A TURISMULUI DIN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Mihaela Győri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary development of the Chilean Tourism sector is analyzed mainly on thebasis of data supplied by the National Service of Tourism in Chile. Figures on inboundtourism, domestic tourism, lodging, employment, receipts, as well as the existing structurewithin the sector, were taken into consideration for the investigated period of 1999-2006.

  19. Frutales y agroindustria: conservas, aceites y maderas (Chile y Cuyo, 1550-1850

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacoste, Pablo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid propagation of European fruit-bearing plants in Chile and Cuyo led to the problem of their exploitation, which was a complex issue in the period before the availability of means of refrigeration. The response was to encourage agro-industrial activity. Some fruits were conserved through a process of dehydration and others were used in the making of oils. Some of these products were commercialised on the domestic market and others were exported, especially to Peru. There was also an improved use of the timber from fruit trees in both the construction industry and carpentry and cabinet-making. These activities ensured the economic viability of fruit-growing and made it possible for it to expand in the region under analysis.

    La rápida propagación de plantas frutales europeas en Chile y Cuyo formuló el problema de su aprovechamiento, asunto complejo antes de la disponibilidad de medios de refrigeración. La respuesta fue el impulso a la actividad agroindustrial. Algunos frutas se conservaban mediante deshidratación, otras se usaban para elaboraban aceites. Algunos de estos productos se comercializaban en el mercado interno y otros se exportaban, particularmente al Perú. Además se avanzó en el aprovechamiento de frutales tanto para construcción como en carpintería y ebanistería. Estas actividades aseguraron la viabilidad económica de la fruticultura e hicieron posible su expansión en la región estudiada.

  20. Chile Confronts its Environmental Health Future After 25 Years of Accelerated Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, Paulina; Iglesias, Verónica; Garreaud, René; Cortés, Sandra; Canals, Mauricio; Folch, Walter; Burgos, Soledad; Levy, Karen; Naeher, Luke P; Steenland, Kyle

    2015-01-01

    Chile has recently been reclassified by the World Bank from an upper-middle-income country to a high-income country. There has been great progress in the last 20 to 30 years in relation to air and water pollution in Chile. Yet after 25 years of unrestrained growth, there remain clear challenges posed by air and water pollution, as well as climate change. The aim of this study was to review environmental health in Chile. In late 2013, a 3-day workshop on environmental health was held in Santiago, Chile, bringing together researchers and government policymakers. As a follow-up to that workshop, here we review the progress made in environmental health in the past 20 to 30 years and discuss the challenges of the future. We focus on air and water pollution and climate change, which we believe are among the most important areas of environmental health in Chile. Air pollution in some cities remains among the highest in the continent. Potable water is generally available, but weak state supervision has led to serious outbreaks of infectious disease and ongoing issues with arsenic exposure in some regions. Climate change modeling in Chile is quite sophisticated, and a number of the impacts of climate change can be reasonably predicted in terms of which areas of the country are most likely to be affected by increased temperature and decreased availability of water, as well as expansion of vector territory. Some health effects, including changes in vector-borne diseases and excess heat mortality, can be predicted. However, there has yet to be an integration of such research with government planning. Although great progress has been made, currently there are a number of problems. We suspect that the Chilean experience in environmental health may be of some use for other Latin American countries with rapid economic development. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Accident source terms for Light-Water Nuclear Power Plants. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soffer, L.; Burson, S.B.; Ferrell, C.M.; Lee, R.Y.; Ridgely, J.N.

    1995-02-01

    In 1962 tile US Atomic Energy Commission published TID-14844, ''Calculation of Distance Factors for Power and Test Reactors'' which specified a release of fission products from the core to the reactor containment for a postulated accident involving ''substantial meltdown of the core''. This ''source term'', tile basis for tile NRC's Regulatory Guides 1.3 and 1.4, has been used to determine compliance with tile NRC's reactor site criteria, 10 CFR Part 100, and to evaluate other important plant performance requirements. During the past 30 years substantial additional information on fission product releases has been developed based on significant severe accident research. This document utilizes this research by providing more realistic estimates of the ''source term'' release into containment, in terms of timing, nuclide types, quantities and chemical form, given a severe core-melt accident. This revised ''source term'' is to be applied to the design of future light water reactors (LWRs). Current LWR licensees may voluntarily propose applications based upon it

  2. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme in Chile, 1981-1991. Country programme evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Agency support for nuclear activities in Chile dates back to the early 1960s. During the last ten years, the period covered by this evaluation, this support has considerably expanded. In the period 1981-1991, 62 Agency projects with allotments amounting to over $7 million were completed or are under implementation. Through this co-operation Chile has received 360 man-months of expert services, $3.4 million worth of equipment, and 105 fellowships for some 390 man-months of training. In addition, 262 Chileans attended 219 Agency regional and interregional training courses, and Chilean institutions were awarded 40 research contracts worth over $325,000. This evaluation covers ten years of Agency technical co-operation with Chile, during which 35 projects were completed and 27 are still being implemented. Eight major sectors received assistance: general atomic energy development; nuclear physics; nuclear raw materials; nuclear engineering and technology; nuclear techniques in agriculture; nuclear medicine; hydrology; and nuclear safety. The evaluation concluded that, overall, the Agency's technical co-operation activities have, in keeping with the national priorities concerning peaceful nuclear applications, contributed substantially to the establishment of Chile's nuclear scientific and technical infrastructure, and played a major role in Chile's efforts to introduce nuclear applications in a number of sectors of the economy, with many benefits for broader national development objectives. Another strength of the Agency's programme with Chile is the high level of commitment and dedication that was noted in the great majority of recipient institutions, and in particular at the Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, CChEN. Mention should also be made of the fact that bureaucracy appears to be less severe than in some other developing countries, and that constraints that frequently affect other countries, such as insufficient counterpart commitment and lack of continuity of

  3. Distribution of greenhouse gases in hyper-arid and arid areas of northern Chile and the contribution of the high altitude wetland microbiome (Salar de Huasco, Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Verónica; Eissler, Yoanna; Cornejo, Marcela; Galand, Pierre E; Dorador, Cristina; Hengst, Martha; Fernandez, Camila; Francois, Jean Pierre

    2018-04-06

    Northern Chile harbors different bioclimatic zones including hyper-arid and arid ecosystems and hotspots of microbial life, such as high altitude wetlands, which may contribute differentially to greenhouse gases (GHG) such as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O). In this study, we explored ground level GHG distribution and the potential role of a wetland situated at 3800 m.a.s.l, and characterized by high solar radiation arid to hyper-arid zones. The microbiome from the water and sediments was described by high-throughput sequencing 16S rRNA and rDNA genes. The results indicate that GHG at ground level were variable along the elevation gradient potentially associated with different bioclimatic zones, reaching high values at the high Andean steppe and variable but lower values in the Atacama Desert and at the wetland. The water areas of the wetland presented high concentrations of CH 4 and CO 2 , particularly at the spring areas and in air bubbles below microbial mats. The microbial community was rich (> 40 phyla), including archaea and bacteria potentially active in the different matrices studied (water, sediments and mats). Functional microbial groups associated with GHG recycling were detected at low frequency, i.e., arid and arid areas of northern Chile are sites of GHG exchange associated with various bioclimatic zones and particularly in aquatic areas of the wetland where this ecosystem could represent a net sink of N 2 O and a source for CH 4 and CO 2 .

  4. Radiological protection in interventional cardiology in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.; Leyton, F.A.; Farias, E.; Silva, A.M.; Vano, E.; Oyarzun, C.; Gamarra, J.; Ortiz, P.

    2001-01-01

    In September 2000, an expert mission was assigned to Chile, under the regional project named 'International BBS in Medical Practices Radiation Protection and Quality Assurance In Interventional Radiology' (ARCAL XLIX). The objective of the mission was to evaluate the level of radiation protection (RP) and safety in interventional cardiology ( IC ) installations. A team of local cardiologists, medical physicists and technologists was created for this purpose and during one week, several cardiology laboratories were evaluated and some basic quality controls (QC) were carried out. A basic pilot training course in radiation protection was imparted at the Hospital of the University of Chile in Santiago de Chile and some of the key objectives for a future national quality assurance programme were presented during the national congress of IC. In addition, a national survey on radiation protection aspects was circulated and its results evaluated. These activities enabled the local team to become familiar with the methodology of assessment of the level of protection and the organization of a programme, which was illustrated with the examples of similar European programmes. As result of these actions, several proposals were made to both the local authorities and the IAEA. The most important were: a) to initiate a basic QC programme, b) to organize a training in RP for cardiologists in order to formalize their accreditation, c) to improve personal occupational dosimetry, d) to initiate a programme of patient dosimetry, e) to optimize the technical and clinical protocols, f) to create a national registry of incidents with skin injuries. (author)

  5. A dainty review of the business and economic history of Chile and Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Bátiz-Lazo, Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    This introductory piece provides some context to the special edition on business and economic history of Chile and Latin America. It also provides an introduction to better understanding research and method in business history while inviting for this field to be further developed in Chile.

  6. EPIDEMIOLOGÍA DE LA DIABETES MELLITUS EN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Sapunar Z., MD, MSC, FACP

    2016-03-01

    Finalmente, la frecuencia, morbilidad y mortalidad de la diabetes mellitus, se suman para explicar que el manejo de la enfermedad y sus complicaciones consuma el 10,2% del presupuesto en salud de Chile.

  7. Mass balance and hydrological contribution of glaciers in northern and central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonell, Shelley; Vivero, Sebastian; McPhee, James; Ayala, Alvaro; Pellicciotti, Francesca; Campos, Cristian; Caro, Dennys; Ponce, Rodrigo

    2016-04-01

    Water is a critical resource in the northern and central regions of Chile, as the area supports more than 40% of the country's population, and the regional economy depends on agricultural production and mining, which are two industries that rely heavily on a consistent water supply. Due to relatively low rates of rainfall, meltwater from snow and ice bodies in the highland areas provides a key component of the annual water supply in these areas. Consequently, accurate estimates of the rates of ablation of the cryosphere (i.e. snow and ice) are crucial for predicting current supply rates, and future projections. Whilst snow is generally a larger contributor of freshwater, during periods of drought, glaciers provide a significant source. This study aims to determine the contribution of glaciers to two catchments in northern and central Chile during a 2.5 year period, which largely consisted of extreme dry periods, but also included the recent El Niño event. This study combined field and modelling studies to understand glacier and rock glacier contributions in the Tapado (30°S), Yeso (33°S) catchments. In the field we undertook glaciological mass balance monitoring of three glaciers, monitored albedo and snow line changes using automatic cameras for three glaciers, measured discharge continuously at several points, installed six automatic weather stations and used thermistors to monitor thermal regime changes of two rock glaciers. The combination of these datasets where used to drive energy balance and hydrological models to estimate the contribution of ice bodies to streamflow in the two studied catchments. Over the course of the study all glaciers maintained a negative mass balance, however glaciers in central Chile lost more mass, which is due to the higher melt rates experienced due to lower elevations and higher temperatures. Areas free of debris generally contributed more to streamflow than sediment covered regions, and snow generally contributed more over

  8. Social Well-Being Among Colombian and Peruvian Immigrants in Northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urzúa Morales, Alfonso; Delgado-Valencia, Eric; Rojas-Ballesteros, Mariela; Caqueo-Urízar, Alejandra

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, northern Chile has received a large number of immigrants attracted mainly by mining and related services. The last population census revealed that 70.5 % of foreigners in Chile came from South America, and were mainly Peruvians (30.5 %), Argentines (16.8 %), and Colombians (8.1 %). The aim of this cross-sectional study is to describe the social well-being levels reported by Colombian and Peruvian immigrants in northern Chile, as well as their connection to socio-demographic and relational factors. The Spanish version of the Scale of Social Well-being (Keyes in Soc Psychol Q 61:121-140, 1998) was administered to 431 men and women over 18 years old, with a minimum residence of 6 months in the city of Antofagasta. The highest-rated aspect was Social Contribution, and the lowest-rated aspect was Social Acceptance. The relational variables that show statistically significant differences in both populations relate to who the subject lives with, the degree of contact that the subject has with people from Chile, and the subject's relationship status. There are no differences that indicate a higher level of social well-being in one population more than the other; however, it appears that the Peruvian population has a greater perception of Social Coherence, while Colombians show a greater perception of Social Contribution.

  9. Antarctic icequakes triggered by the 2010 Maule earthquake in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhigang; Walter, Jacob I.; Aster, Richard C.; Nyblade, Andrew; Wiens, Douglas A.; Anandakrishnan, Sridhar

    2014-09-01

    Seismic waves from distant, large earthquakes can almost instantaneously trigger shallow micro-earthquakes and deep tectonic tremor as they pass through Earth's crust. Such remotely triggered seismic activity mostly occurs in tectonically active regions. Triggered seismicity is generally considered to reflect shear failure on critically stressed fault planes and is thought to be driven by dynamic stress perturbations from both Love and Rayleigh types of surface seismic wave. Here we analyse seismic data from Antarctica in the six hours leading up to and following the 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule earthquake in Chile. We identify many high-frequency seismic signals during the passage of the Rayleigh waves generated by the Maule earthquake, and interpret them as small icequakes triggered by the Rayleigh waves. The source locations of these triggered icequakes are difficult to determine owing to sparse seismic network coverage, but the triggered events generate surface waves, so are probably formed by near-surface sources. Our observations are consistent with tensile fracturing of near-surface ice or other brittle fracture events caused by changes in volumetric strain as the high-amplitude Rayleigh waves passed through. We conclude that cryospheric systems can be sensitive to large distant earthquakes.

  10. Assessment of water sources to plant growth in rice based cropping systems by stable water isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahindawansha, Amani; Kraft, Philipp; Racela, Heathcliff; Breuer, Lutz

    2016-04-01

    Rice is one of the most water-consuming crops in the world. Understanding water source utilization of rice will help us to improve water use efficiency (WUE) in paddy management. The objectives of our study are to evaluate the isotopic compositions of surface ponded water, soil water, irrigation water, groundwater, rain water and plant water and based on stable water isotope signatures to evaluate the contributions of various water sources to plant growth (wet rice, aerobic rice and maize) together with investigating the contribution of water from different soil horizons for plant growth in different maturity periods during wet and dry seasons. Finally we will compare the water balances and crop yields in both crops during both seasons and calculate the water use efficiencies. This will help to identify the most efficient water management systems in rice based cropping ecosystems using stable water isotopes. Soil samples are collected from 9 different depths at up to 60 cm in vegetative, reproductive and matured periods of plant growth together with stem samples. Soil and plant samples are extracted by cryogenic vacuum extraction. Root samples are collected up to 60 cm depth from 10 cm intercepts leading calculation of root length density and dry weight. Groundwater, surface water, rain water and irrigation water are sampled weekly. All water samples are analyzed for hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios (d18O and dD) using Los Gatos Research DLT100. Rainfall records, ground water level, surface water level fluctuations and the amount of water irrigated in each field will be measured during the sampling period. The direct inference approach which is based on comparing isotopic compositions (dD and d18O) between plant stem water and soil water will be used to determine water sources taken up by plant. Multiple-source mass balance assessment can provide the estimated range of potential contributions of water from each soil depth to root water uptake of a crop. These

  11. Nitrogen cycling in an extreme hyperarid environment inferred from δ15N analyses of plants, soils and herbivore diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Francisca P.; Frugone, Matías; Gutiérrez, Rodrigo A.; Latorre, Claudio

    2016-03-01

    Climate controls on the nitrogen cycle are suggested by the negative correlation between precipitation and δ15N values across different ecosystems. For arid ecosystems this is unclear, as water limitation among other factors can confound this relationship. We measured herbivore feces, foliar and soil δ15N and δ13C values and chemically characterized soils (pH and elemental composition) along an elevational/climatic gradient in the Atacama Desert, northern Chile. Although very positive δ15N values span the entire gradient, soil δ15N values show a positive correlation with aridity as expected. In contrast, foliar δ15N values and herbivore feces show a hump-shaped relationship with elevation, suggesting that plants are using a different N source, possibly of biotic origin. Thus at the extreme limits of plant life, biotic interactions may be just as important as abiotic processes, such as climate in explaining ecosystem δ15N values.

  12. Nitrogen cycling in an extreme hyperarid environment inferred from δ(15)N analyses of plants, soils and herbivore diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Francisca P; Frugone, Matías; Gutiérrez, Rodrigo A; Latorre, Claudio

    2016-03-09

    Climate controls on the nitrogen cycle are suggested by the negative correlation between precipitation and δ(15)N values across different ecosystems. For arid ecosystems this is unclear, as water limitation among other factors can confound this relationship. We measured herbivore feces, foliar and soil δ(15)N and δ(13)C values and chemically characterized soils (pH and elemental composition) along an elevational/climatic gradient in the Atacama Desert, northern Chile. Although very positive δ(15)N values span the entire gradient, soil δ(15)N values show a positive correlation with aridity as expected. In contrast, foliar δ(15)N values and herbivore feces show a hump-shaped relationship with elevation, suggesting that plants are using a different N source, possibly of biotic origin. Thus at the extreme limits of plant life, biotic interactions may be just as important as abiotic processes, such as climate in explaining ecosystem δ(15)N values.

  13. Robotics research in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ruiz-del-Solar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of research in robotics in a developing country is a challenging task. Factors such as low research funds, low trust from local companies and the government, and a small number of qualified researchers hinder the development of strong, local research groups. In this article, and as a case of study, we present our research group in robotics at the Advanced Mining Technology Center of the Universidad de Chile, and the way in which we have addressed these challenges. In 2008, we decided to focus our research efforts in mining, which is the main industry in Chile. We observed that this industry has needs in terms of safety, productivity, operational continuity, and environmental care. All these needs could be addressed with robotics and automation technology. In a first stage, we concentrate ourselves in building capabilities in field robotics, starting with the automation of a commercial vehicle. An important outcome of this project was the earn of the local mining industry confidence. Then, in a second stage started in 2012, we began working with the local mining industry in technological projects. In this article, we describe three of the technological projects that we have developed with industry support: (i an autonomous vehicle for mining environments without global positioning system coverage; (ii the inspection of the irrigation flow in heap leach piles using unmanned aerial vehicles and thermal cameras; and (iii an enhanced vision system for vehicle teleoperation in adverse climatic conditions.

  14. Doing Business 2014 Economy Profile : Chile

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation

    2013-01-01

    This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Chile In a series of annual reports, Doing Business assesses regulations affecting domestic firms in 189 economies and ranks the economies in 10 areas of business regulation, such as starting a business, resolving insolvency and trading across borders. This year's report data cover regulations measured from June 2012 through M...

  15. Soviet Policy in Cuba and Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-06

    critical stance to the USSR for much of the rest of the decade. Along with Castro’s efforts to establish the Cuban experience of a rural guerrilla-based...Neresidades de Financamento Externo parea el Desarrollo de Chile, January 28. 1974, p. V-9. 17. New aid loans from the United States declined to $S.5 million

  16. [Revista Médica de Chile in the year 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes B, Humberto; Bustos-González, Atilio; Andresen H, Max; Palma H, Joaquín

    2013-08-01

    During the year 2012, 539 manuscripts were submitted to this journal, following an increasing trend in the recent decade. Rejection rate was 33%. This higher number of submissions demanded a larger number and wider scope of external reviews, retarding the editorial process. The mean time lapse from reception to acceptance (or rejection) was 6.3 months (range 2-14) and from acceptance to publication 5.3 months (range 3-7). Research articles were 43.9% of published manuscripts and the remaining articles were Reviews, Special Articles, Case Reports, articles on Medical Ethics, Medical Education, Evidence Based Medicine, Public Health, History of Medicine, Letters to the Editor and others. Thirty seven published manuscripts (14.6%) came from foreign countries and 9 of them were published with full text in English. The 2012 Impact Factor was 0.360, showing little variation from previous years, locating the journal in the upper part of quartil 4 in the ISI-JCR category "Medicine, General and Internal", while the SCImago Journal & Country Rank locates the Revista in quartil 2 of its category "Medicine (miscellaneous)". In contrast with the low citation rate, the number of visits to the open access electronic version in www.scielo.cl averages over 3 million visits per year, illustrating that the interest among readers outnumbers the country's expectable readership. Only 22% of articles declared to have received financial help from entities external to the institution where the work was performed, coming mainly from Chilean Governmental competitive funds. The aim of Revista Médica de Chile is to provide readers and authors a valuable source of information about current relevant topics in general and internal medicine, progress in related specialties and updates in basic sciences, rendering them available to Health professionals in Chile and worldwide, following international standards of ethical and scientific quality in medical publications.

  17. ["Revista Médica de Chile": 120 years (July 1872-July 1992)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Casaretto, C

    1992-07-01

    The "Revista Medica de Chile" founded in 1872 is the second oldest medical journal in Latin America after the "Gaceta Medica de Mexico" (1864). Among medical journals in the world it is placed 24. It has been published monthly without interruption, except for the period January through December 1891, due to the revolution taking place at that time. The first Editor was German Schneider, a German physician from Bonn who came to Chile in 1850 with the immigrants that settled in the South.

  18. Replantear los "aconteceres", replantear los espacios en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Onetto Pavez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como objetivo reflexionar y profundizar sobre las perspectivas teóricas que se tuvieron en cuenta por el grupo de autores para crear el dossier “Memorias y circulaciones de un territorio. Chile, estudio de casos”. La primera parte del artículo abordará las diversas aristas que se intentaron considerar por el grupo de autores en relación al tema del espacio, la historia y la memoria. Con esto se pretende explicar de manera global lo relevante de esta corresponden-cia para los sujetos de estudio analizados en el dossier. En tanto, la segunda parte se centrará en presentar las inquietudes y preguntas que surgen al estudiar un caso como el de Chile.

  19. External and internal sources which inhibit the nitrification process in wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinkjær, O.; Bøgebjerg, P.; Grüttner, H.

    1996-01-01

    the nitrification capacity monitored at the pilot plants has been in agreement with the design basis. The recycling of the scrubber water from the cleaning of sludge incineration flue gas was found to be an important internal source of inhibition at the Lynetten WWTP. Investigations show that it is possible...

  20. Dos edificios públicos a base de tierra en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira, Hugo

    1986-02-01

    Full Text Available Two works in Chile are reported: The House of the Culture in La Florida (Santiago and the Botalcura Concentred School in the Vlllth Zone. Both constructions have as common characteristic to be built with adobe and wooden girders, to present a certain continuity in the adapted criteria of desing -both from Architect Hugo Pereira- and to be newly constructed buildings, even partialy in construction. The fact that there are spaces with appropriate light and height for public use, so as the circumstance that the part which waas being constructed just at the moment of the great seism in Chile (February 1985 had and excelent behaviour, makes these works interesting to be published.Se presentan dos realizaciones en Chile: la Casa de la Cultura, en la barriada La Florida (Santiago y la Escuela Concentrada de Botalcura, en la VIII Región. Ambas construcciones tienen en común el haberse realizado a base de adobe y cerchas de madera, el presentar una cierta continuidad en los criterios de diseño adoptados, en ambas ha participado el Arquitecto Hugo Pereira, y ser edificios recién construidos, incluso parcialmente en construcción. El hecho de tratarse de espacios con luces y alturas propias de construcciones para uso público, así como la circunstancia de que la parte construida de la Casa de la Cultura en el momento del último gran sismo en Chile (marzo 1985, presentase un excelente comportamiento, son hechos que hacen especialmente interesante la publicación de estas realizaciones.

  1. Santiago de Chile, ¿ejemplo de una reestructuración capitalista global?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fuentes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Términos como "ciudad global", "ciudad difusa", "ciudad dual", entre otros, merecen ser rediscutidos y contrastados con el proceso de transformaciones experimentado por Santiago de Chile producto de la reestructuración capitalista. En este sentido, este trabajo pretende discutir acerca de la conveniencia de otorgar a la capital de Chile éstos y otros adjetivos frecuentemente utilizados en la literatura urbanística internacional.

  2. Climatic niche conservatism and biogeographical non-equilibrium in Eschscholzia californica (Papaveraceae), an invasive plant in the Chilean Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Gómez, Francisco T; Guerrero, Pablo C; Bizama, Gustavo; Duarte, Milén; Bustamante, Ramiro O

    2014-01-01

    Species climate requirements are useful for predicting their geographic distribution. It is often assumed that the niche requirements for invasive plants are conserved during invasion, especially when the invaded regions share similar climate conditions. California and central Chile have a remarkable degree of convergence in their vegetation structure, and a similar Mediterranean climate. Such similarities make these geographic areas an interesting natural experiment for testing climatic niche dynamics and the equilibrium of invasive species in a new environment. We tested to see if the climatic niche of Eschscholzia californica is conserved in the invaded range (central Chile), and we assessed whether the invasion process has reached a biogeographical equilibrium, i.e., occupy all the suitable geographic locations that have suitable conditions under native niche requirements. We compared the climatic niche in the native and invaded ranges as well as the projected potential geographic distribution in the invaded range. In order to compare climatic niches, we conducted a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Species Distribution Models (SDMs), to estimate E. californica's potential geographic distribution. We also used SDMs to predict altitudinal distribution limits in central Chile. Our results indicated that the climatic niche occupied by E. californica in the invaded range is firmly conserved, occupying a subset of the native climatic niche but leaving a substantial fraction of it unfilled. Comparisons of projected SDMs for central Chile indicate a similarity, yet the projection from native range predicted a larger geographic distribution in central Chile compared to the prediction of the model constructed for central Chile. The projected niche occupancy profile from California predicted a higher mean elevation than that projected from central Chile. We concluded that the invasion process of E. californica in central Chile is consistent with climatic niche

  3. Ecological consistency across space: a synthesis of the ecological aspects of Dromiciops gliroides in Argentina and Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontúrbel, Francisco E; Franco, Marcela; Rodríguez-Cabal, Mariano A; Rivarola, M Daniela; Amico, Guillermo C

    2012-11-01

    Dromiciops gliroides is an arboreal marsupial found in the temperate forests of South America (36-43 °S). This species is the sole extant representative of the order Microbiotheria, and is a key seed disperser of many native plant species, including the keystone mistletoe Tristerix corymbosus. Here, we synthesized the current knowledge on the ecological aspects of this species, and compared the available information from Argentina and Chile. Population density (23 ± 2 (mean ± SE) individual/ha) and home range (1.6 ± 0.6 ha) appear to be relatively similar across a marked ecological gradient in the mainland, but lower densities (7 ± 2 individual/ha) and smaller home ranges (0.26 ± 0.04 ha) were detected at island sites. We detected regional variation in body condition in Chile, but there were no significant differences across a wider E-W gradient. Movement patterns fit a random walk model; such behavior might have important consequences in shaping plant's spatial patterns. Although our data suggest that D. gliroides is more tolerant to habitat disturbance than previously thought, its incapability to disperse across non-forested areas suggests that the rapid rate of habitat loss and fragmentation that characterizes southern temperate forests likely poses a serious threat to this species. These ecological similarities are surprising given that forests studied receive dramatically different rainfall and correspond to distinct forest types. The evidence synthetized here dispels some of the myths about this species but also stresses the need for more comprehensive ecological studies across its distribution range.

  4. Current Perspective in the International Trade of Medicinal Plants Material: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasisht, Karan; Sharma, Neetika; Karan, Maninder

    2016-01-01

    The recent years have seen an increased interest in medicinal plants together with the therapeutic use of phytochemicals. Medicinal plants are utilized by the industry for the production of extracts, phytopharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and cosmeceuticals and their use is expected to grow faster than the conventional drugs. The enormous demand of medicinal plant material has resulted in huge trade both at domestic and international levels. The trade data of medicinal plant material with commodity code HS 1211 (SITC.4, code 292.4) and their derived/related products which are traded under different commodity codes has been acquired from COMTRADE, Trade Map, country reports, technical documents etc for the period 2001 to 2014. The data was analyzed using statistical tools to draw conclusions. The significant features of the global trade; the leading source, consumer, import and export countries; and the striking trends are presented. The trade of the ten key countries and the selected important items is also discussed in detail. The conservative figure of trade of medicinal plants materials and their derived/related products including extracts, essential oils, phytopharmaceuticals, gums, spices used in medicine, tannins for pharmaceutical use, ingredients for cosmetics etc. as calculated from the global export data for the year 2014 is estimated at USD 33 billion. The average global export in medicinal plants under HS 1211 for the fourteen year period was USD 1.92 billion for 601,357 tons per annum and for the year 2014 it stood at 702,813 tons valued at USD 3.60 billion. For the studied period, an annual average growth rate (AAGR) of 2.4% in volumes and 9.2% in values of export was observed. Nearly 30% of the global trade is made up by top two countries of the import and export. China and India from Asia; Egypt and Morocco from Africa; Poland, Bulgaria and Albania from Europe; Chile and Peru from South America are important supply sources. The USA, Japan and Europe

  5. Worthy Women of Chile: What Role Did They Play? Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad Program 1995 (Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzberg, Ruth A.

    This paper describes the lives of some notable women in the history of Chile from the time of the conquistadors to the present. The significant women described in the paper include: (1) Ines de Suarez (accompanied Pedro de Validivia in 1544); (2) Micaela Bastidas Puyucahua (wife of Incan leader Jose Gabriel Tupac Amaru, about 1780); (3) Gabriela…

  6. Evaluation of a New Mexico Landrace and Two Commercial Chile (Capsicum annuum Cultivars under Four Furrow Irrigation Schedules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Joukhadar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Commercial and landrace chile (Capsicum annuum cultivars are cultivated under furrow irrigation systems in Northern New Mexico. Yield and physiological differences between commercial and landrace chile cultivars under furrow irrigation systems have not been evaluated. In 2011 and 2012 two commercial chiles, ‘Sandia’ and ‘NuMex Big Jim’, with one landrace chile, ‘Chimayo’, were evaluated under four irrigation schedules, with irrigation once every 7, 9, 11, and 13-days. These four schedules represent possible water availability for farmers in Northern New Mexico. In 2011 there were inconsistent yield patterns; fresh red chile yield of ‘Chimayo’ at the seven-day interval was 90% more than at the nine-day interval. ‘Sandia’ had 138% better yields at the seven- than at the nine-day interval. ‘Chimayo’ fresh green chile yields at the nine-day interval were 47% better than the seven-day interval. ‘NuMex Big Jim’ fresh green yields were 40% greater at the seven-day interval than the 13-day interval. In 2012 no yield components were statistically different for cultivars across irrigation intervals. This data shows commercial green and landrace chile cultivars can be furrow irrigated as water becomes available on 7, 9, 11, or 13-day intervals with no yield effect.

  7. Insects as a Nitrogen Source for Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Bidochka

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Many plants have evolved adaptations in order to survive in low nitrogen environments. One of the best-known adaptations is that of plant symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria; this is the major route by which nitrogen is incorporated into plant biomass. A portion of this plant-associated nitrogen is then lost to insects through herbivory, and insects represent a nitrogen reservoir that is generally overlooked in nitrogen cycles. In this review we show three specialized plant adaptations that allow for the recovery of insect nitrogen; that is, plants gaining nitrogen from insects. First, we show specialized adaptations by carnivorous plants in low nitrogen habitats. Insect carnivorous plants such as pitcher plants and sundews (Nepenthaceae/Sarraceniaceae and Drosera respectively are able to obtain substantial amounts of nitrogen from the insects that they capture. Secondly, numerous plants form associations with mycorrhizal fungi that can provide soluble nitrogen from the soil, some of which may be insect-derived nitrogen, obtained from decaying insects or insect frass. Finally, a specialized group of endophytic, insect-pathogenic fungi (EIPF provide host plants with insect-derived nitrogen. These soil-inhabiting fungi form a remarkable symbiosis with certain plant species. They can infect a wide range of insect hosts and also form endophytic associations in which they transfer insect-derived nitrogen to the plant. Root colonizing fungi are found in disparate fungal phylogenetic lineages, indicating possible convergent evolutionary strategies between taxa, evolution potentially driven by access to carbon-containing root exudates.

  8. Estado del conocimiento y principales amenazas de los humedales boscosos de agua dulce de Chile Knowledge status and principal threats to freshwater forested wetlands of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO CORREA-ARANEDA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Los humedales boscosos de agua dulce son áreas naturalmente inundadas o saturadas, que sustentan vegetación boscosa hidrófila, están presentes en todo el mundo, y en Chile son conocidos como "pitrantos, hualves o hualhues". El presente estudio entrega el estado del conocimiento de estos humedales en Chile, mediante una descripción de sus características biológicas, fisicoquímicas e hidrodinámicas, identificando las principales amenazas para su conservación y las principales necesidades de investigación. Estos ambientes pueden presentar inundación permanente o temporal, dependiendo de un conjunto de procesos microclimáticos, biológicos y edafológicos. Su vegetación, del tipo hidrófila boscosa, es dominada por especies de la familia Myrtaceae. Tanto el comportamiento hídrico como la estructura vegetacional destacan dentro de los aspectos que determinan directamente las características fisicoquímicas del agua y los patrones de distribución de las comunidades biológicas. Los humedales boscosos de Chile han sido ampliamente estudiados desde un punto de vista vegetacional y florístico, pero carecen de estudios limnológicos, hidrológicos o faunísticos básicos, de lo cual deriva un total desconocimiento en relación a su funcionamiento a nivel ecosistémico y los efectos que pueden tener las actividades humanas en sus cuencas (e.g., agrícola, ganadera, forestal sobre sus componentes hídricos y biológicos. A pesar de ser ecosistemas de gran relevancia cultural y ecológica, se identifican importantes falencias en cuanto a su estado de conservación, al no encontrarse protegidos por las actuales herramientas de conservación existentes en el país. Por lo tanto, emergen como ecosistemas únicos, de relevancia mundial, prácticamente desconocidos en Chile y de gran interés para el desarrollo de numerosas líneas de investigación, aunque su alta susceptibilidad ante perturbaciones de origen antrópico amenaza su permanencia

  9. Vinos, carnes, ferrocarriles y el Tratado de Libre Comercio entre Argentina y Chile (1905-1910)

    OpenAIRE

    Lacoste, Pablo

    2004-01-01

    Entre 1905 y 1910 Chile y Argentina negociaron la firma de un Tratado de Comercio con vistas a suprimir los aranceles aduaneros y consagrar el principio de "Cordillera Libre". El centro de atracción eran las exportaciones de ganado argentino a Chile y de vino chileno a Argentina. Pero en ambos países se produjo una fuerte reacción de los intereses creados con vistas a frustrar las tratativas diplomáticas. Tanto la Sociedad Nacional de Agricultura (Chile) como el Centro Vitivinícola Nacional (...

  10. Evaluation of applicability of alternative source terms to operating nuclear power plants in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, S. N.; Park, Y. S.; Nam, K. M.; Song, D. B.; Bae, Y. J.; Lee, Y. J.; Jung, C. Y.

    2002-01-01

    In 1995 and 2000, NRC issued NUREG-1465 and Regulatory Guide 1.183 with respect to Alternative Source Terms(AST) replacing the existing source terms of TID-14844 and Regulatory Guide 1.4, 1.25, and 1.77 for radiological Design Basis Accidents(DBA) analysis. In 1990, ICRP published ICRP Pub. 60 which represents new recommendations on dose criteria and concepts. In Korea, alternative source terms were used for evaluation of effective doses for design basis accidents of Advanced Power Reactor(APR1400) using the computer program developed by an overseas company. Recently, DBADOSE, new computer program for DBA analysis incorporating AST and effective dose concept was developed by KHNP and KOPEC, and reanalysis applying AST to operating nuclear power plants, Kori units 3 and 4 in Korea using DBADOSE has been performed. As the results of this analysis, it was concluded that some conservative variables or operation procedures of operating plants could be mitigated or simplified by virtue of increased safety margin and consequently, economical and operational benefits ensue. In this paper, methodologies and results of Kori 3 and 4 DBA reanalysis and sensitivity analysis for mitigation of main design variables are introduced

  11. Thermodynamic evaluation of solar-geothermal hybrid power plants in northern Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardemil, José Miguel; Cortés, Felipe; Díaz, Andrés; Escobar, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermodynamic evaluation of geothermal-solar hybrid systems. • A multi-parameter analysis for different cycle configurations. • Performance comparison between two operation modes. • Overview of the technical applicability of the hybridization. - Abstract: A thermodynamic model was developed using Engineering Equation Solver (EES) to evaluate the performance of single and double-flash geothermal power plants assisted by a parabolic trough solar concentrating collector field, considering four different geothermal reservoir conditions. The benefits of delivering solar thermal energy for either the superheating or evaporating processes were analyzed in order to achieve the maximum 2"n"d law efficiency for the hybrid schemes and reduce the geothermal resource consumption for a constant power production. The results of the hybrid single-flash demonstrate that the superheating process generates additional 0.23 kWe/kWth, while supplying solar heat to evaporate the geothermal brine only delivers 0.16 kWe/kWth. The double-flash hybrid plant simulation results allow obtaining 0.29 kWe/kWth and 0.17 kW/kWth by integrating solar energy at the superheater and evaporator, respectively. In this context, the hybrid single-flash power plant is able to produce at least 20% additional power output, depending on the characteristics of the geothermal resource. Moreover, all of the cases analyzed herein increased the exergy efficiency of the process by at least 3%. The developed model also allowed assessing the reduction on the consumption of the geothermal fluid from the reservoir when the plant power output stays constant, up to 16% for the hybrid single-flash, and 19% for the hybrid double-flash. Based on the results obtained in this study, the solar-geothermal hybrid scheme increases the power generation compared with geothermal-only power plants, being an attractive solution for improved management of the geothermal reservoir depletion rates. The study shows

  12. Holocene tephrostratigraphy of southern Chiloé Continental (Andean southern volcanic zone; ~43°S), Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachowycz, S.; Smith, V. C.; Pyle, D. M.; Mather, T. A.

    2012-12-01

    The eruptive history of the volcanoes in the southern part of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone (42.5-45°S) is very poorly constrained: only several late Quaternary eruptions have been identified, mostly from study of sparse roadcuts [1]. In this study, we further constrain the Holocene explosive eruption history around 43°S by identifying and analysing tephra layers preserved in a ~3.25m long peat core from Cuesta Moraga [2], ~35km east of Yanteles volcano. Cryptotephra was extracted following the method of [3], in addition to macrotephra; owing to the vicinity of the sampling site to the tephra sources, cryptotephra was found throughout the core stratigraphy, but was sufficiently variable in concentration that discrete layers were identifiable and attributed to specific eruptions. Chemical analysis of the glass by electron microprobe shows that the tephra layers originate from a number of volcanoes in the region. This new tephrostratigraphy improves our knowledge of the important history of explosive volcanism in this area, potentially tying the tephrostratigraphies of surrounding areas (e.g., [4]) and allowing improved evaluation of regional volcanic risk. [1] Naranjo, J.A.., and C. R. Stern, 2004. Holocene tephrochronology of the southernmost part (42°30'-45°S) of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone. Revista geológica de Chile, 31, pp. 225-240. [2] Heusser, C.J., et al., 1992. Paleoecology of late Quaterary deposits in Chiloé Continental, Chile. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural, 65, pp. 235-245. [3] Blockley, S.P.E., et al., 2005. A new and less destructive laboratory procedure for the physical separation of distal glass tephra shards from sediments. Quaternary Science Reviews, 24, pp. 1952-1960. [4] Watt, S.F.L., et al., 2011. Holocene tephrochronology of the Hualaihue region (Andean southern volcanic zone, ~42°S), southern Chile. Quaternary International, 246, pp. 324-343.

  13. Socio-Territorial Conflicts in Chile: Configuration and Politicization (2005-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Delamaza

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Within a context of intensifying socio-territorial conflicts in several countries, this paper analyses a database of 101 conflicts occurring in Chile between 2005 and 2014. These conflicts emerged from specific territorial problems, were scattered throughout the country, and did not involve urban centres. The evidence examined here shows significant contentious activity in non-metropolitan territories during this period. These conflicts occur in different places, arise from local problems and articulate new actors into the political game. They have had an impact on the modification of public and private investment projects and can also bring broader political consequences. The paper widens the argument that extractivism is the source of these conflicts, and suggests that politicization processes have modified what was once a Chilean historical pattern of relatively centralized conflict articulated by traditional political actors. It also identifies some venues for future research to more accurately determine the political consequences of such conflicts.Resumen: Los conflictos socio-territoriales en Chile: Configuración y politización (2005-2014En el contexto de la intensificación de los conflictos socio-territoriales en diversos países de América Latina, se analiza un conjunto de 101 conflictos ocurridos en Chile entre 2005 y 2014. Distribuidos por todo el país y alejados de los centros urbanos, surgen en torno a diversos problemas propios de territorios específicos. La evidencia presentada muestra que en este período ha existido una importante actividad contenciosa en sectores no metropolitanos. Estos conflictos suceden en lugares diferentes, en torno a problemas de tipo local y articulan actores nuevos en el juego político. Son conflictos que han tenido incidencia en la modificación de proyectos de inversión públicos y privados y podrían dar origen también a consecuencias políticas más amplias. El trabajo amplía la discusi

  14. Science, Technology, and Innovation in Chile | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Book cover Science, Technology, and Innovation in Chile ... With this in mind, and following a conversation between Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chrétien and ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.

  15. Disponibilidad de médicos en Chile al año 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Román A, Oscar; Acuña F, Miguel; Señoret S, Miriam

    2006-01-01

    Background: The number of physicians available in a given country, their efficiency, quality and specialization is of utmost epidemiological importance. Aim: To evaluate the availability of physicians in Chile. Material and methods: The information about the number of physicians in Chile up to the year 2004, was obtained from the Ministry of Health, national universities and the register of immigrant physicians since 1950. Results: The total number of physicians licensed to practice was 25,54...

  16. Indicator based sustainability analysis of future energy situation of Santiago de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Stelzer, Volker; Quintero, Adriana; Vargas, Luis; Paredes, Gonzalo; Simon, Sonja; Nienhaus, Kristina; Kopfmüller, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Up to now, the Chilean Energy system has fulfilled the energy needs of Santiago de Chile considerably well. However, development trends of the current system impose significant future risks on the energy system. A detailed sustainability analysis of the energy sector of the Metropolitan Region of Santiago de Chile was conducted, using selected energy indicators and a distance-to-target approach. Risks for the sustainable development of the energy sector are detected, such...

  17. Nurse effect in seedling establishment: facilitation and tolerance to damage in the Andes of central Chile Efecto nodriza en el establecimiento de plántulas: facilitación y tolerancia al daño en los Andes de Chile central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IAN S ACUÑA-RODRÍGUEZ

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Nurse effects, which occur when one plant species enhances the survival or growth of another plant species, are predicted to be most relevant in stressful environments. These effects are particulary important during seedling establishment due to their vulnerability to both biotic and abiotic factors, such as herbivory and drought. Tolerance to herbivory reflects the degree to which plants are able to regrow and reproduce after damage, and should vary with resource availability. In the high Andes of central Chile, the cushion plant Laretia acaulis (Apiaceae acts as a buffer against environmental stress, enhancing survival of several associated plant species. We hypothesized that tolerance to herbivory of seedlings growing inside the canopy of L. acaulis should be greater than that of seedlings growing outside the cushion plant. We conducted a field experiment to test this hypothesis for two native perennial species in the high Andes of central Chile: Hordeum comosum (Poaceae and Haplopappus anthylloides (Asteraceae. Seedlings of each species were planted inside and outside L. acaulis cushions and half of them received manual damage (50 % foliar tissue removed. Seedlings growing inside the nurse species showed high survival independent of the damage treatment. Whereas position (inside or outside the cushion plant did not affect tolerance of Haplopappus anthylloides, it significantly affected tolerance of Hordeum comosum. Thus, we found similar survival of damaged and control seedlings of H. comosum inside the cushions, but survival of damaged seedlings in the bare ground was lower than that of control seedlings. We verified the occurrence of nurse effects of Laretia acaulis on the establishment of both species, and detected enhancement of tolerance to damage in Hordeum comosum in this stressful habitatSe ha sugerido que el efecto nodriza, el cual se evidencia cuando una especie vegetal incrementa la supervivencia o el crecimiento de otra, es m

  18. Fires in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    On February 5, 2002, the dense smoke from numerous forest fires stretched out over the Pacific Ocean about 400 miles south of Santiago, Chile. This true-color Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image shows the fires, which are located near the city of Temuco. The fires are indicated with red dots (boxes in the high-resolution imagery). The fires were burning near several national parks and nature reserves in an area of the Chilean Andes where tourism is very popular. Southeast of the fires, the vegetation along the banks of the Rio Negro in Argentina stands out in dark green. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  19. Integrative response of plant mitochondrial electron transport chain to nitrogen source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachiya, Takushi; Noguchi, Ko

    2011-02-01

    Nitrogen (N) availability is widely known as a determinant of plant growth and respiration rate. However, less attention has been paid to the effect of the type of N source (nitrate, nitrite or ammonium) on the respiratory system. This review summarizes the latest findings on this topic, with an emphasis on the effect of ammonium and nitric oxide (NO) on the respiratory system, and the physiological role of alternative oxidase (AOX). First, concentrated ammonium has been found to increase plant respiration rate (ammonium-dependent respiratory increase, ARI). We will introduce two hypotheses to explain ARI, futile ammonium cycling and excess reducing equivalents, and verify the validity of each hypothesis. We suggest that these two hypotheses are not necessarily mutually exclusive. Second, gene expression of AOX is suppressed when N is predominately available as nitrate instead of ammonium. We will discuss possible signaling pathways leading to this expression pattern. Third, while AOX expression is induced by NO, AOX activity itself is insensitive to NO. In contrast, activity of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) is sensitive to NO. We outline the NO production pathway, focusing on nitrite-dependent NO production, and discuss the physiological significance of the fact that AOX activity is insensitive to NO. Finally, this review aims to build an integrated scheme of the respiratory response to the type of N source, considering leaves in high light conditions or hypoxic roots.

  20. Natural plant sugar sources of Anopheles mosquitoes strongly impact malaria transmission potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Gu

    Full Text Available An improved knowledge of mosquito life history could strengthen malaria vector control efforts that primarily focus on killing mosquitoes indoors using insecticide treated nets and indoor residual spraying. Natural sugar sources, usually floral nectars of plants, are a primary energy resource for adult mosquitoes but their role in regulating the dynamics of mosquito populations is unclear. To determine how the sugar availability impacts Anopheles sergentii populations, mark-release-recapture studies were conducted in two oases in Israel with either absence or presence of the local primary sugar source, flowering Acacia raddiana trees. Compared with population estimates from the sugar-rich oasis, An. sergentii in the sugar-poor oasis showed smaller population size (37,494 vs. 85,595, lower survival rates (0.72 vs. 0.93, and prolonged gonotrophic cycles (3.33 vs. 2.36 days. The estimated number of females older than the extrinsic incubation period of malaria (10 days in the sugar rich site was 4 times greater than in the sugar poor site. Sugar feeding detected in mosquito guts in the sugar-rich site was significantly higher (73% than in the sugar-poor site (48%. In contrast, plant tissue feeding (poor quality sugar source in the sugar-rich habitat was much less (0.3% than in the sugar-poor site (30%. More important, the estimated vectorial capacity, a standard measure of malaria transmission potential, was more than 250-fold higher in the sugar-rich oasis than that in the sugar-poor site. Our results convincingly show that the availability of sugar sources in the local environment is a major determinant regulating the dynamics of mosquito populations and their vector potential, suggesting that control interventions targeting sugar-feeding mosquitoes pose a promising tactic for combating transmission of malaria parasites and other pathogens.

  1. The Influence of Solar Power Plants on Microclimatic Conditions and the Biotic Community in Chilean Desert Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suuronen, Anna; Muñoz-Escobar, Christian; Lensu, Anssi; Kuitunen, Markku; Guajardo Celis, Natalia; Espinoza Astudillo, Pablo; Ferrú, Marcos; Taucare-Ríos, Andrés; Miranda, Marcelo; Kukkonen, Jussi V. K.

    2017-10-01

    The renewable energy sector is growing at a rapid pace in northern Chile and the solar energy potential is one of the best worldwide. Therefore, many types of solar power plant facilities are being built to take advantage of this renewable energy resource. Solar energy is considered a clean source of energy, but there are potential environmental effects of solar technology, such as landscape fragmentation, extinction of local biota, microclimate changes, among others. To be able to minimize environmental impacts of solar power plants, it is important to know what kind of environmental conditions solar power plants create. This study provides information about abiotic and biotic conditions in the vicinity of photovoltaic solar power plants. Herein, the influence of these power plants as drivers of new microclimate conditions and arthropods diversity composition in the Atacama Desert was evaluated. Microclimatic conditions between panel mounts was found to be more extreme than in the surrounding desert yet beneath the panels temperature is lower and relative humidity higher than outside the panel area. Arthropod species composition was altered in fixed-mount panel installations. In contrast, solar tracking technology showed less influence on microclimate and species composition between Sun and Shade in the power plant. Shady conditions provided a refuge for arthropod species in both installation types. For example, Dipterans were more abundant in the shade whereas Solifugaes were seldom present in the shade. The presented findings have relevance for the sustainable planning and construction of solar power plants.

  2. The Influence of Solar Power Plants on Microclimatic Conditions and the Biotic Community in Chilean Desert Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suuronen, Anna; Muñoz-Escobar, Christian; Lensu, Anssi; Kuitunen, Markku; Guajardo Celis, Natalia; Espinoza Astudillo, Pablo; Ferrú, Marcos; Taucare-Ríos, Andrés; Miranda, Marcelo; Kukkonen, Jussi V K

    2017-10-01

    The renewable energy sector is growing at a rapid pace in northern Chile and the solar energy potential is one of the best worldwide. Therefore, many types of solar power plant facilities are being built to take advantage of this renewable energy resource. Solar energy is considered a clean source of energy, but there are potential environmental effects of solar technology, such as landscape fragmentation, extinction of local biota, microclimate changes, among others. To be able to minimize environmental impacts of solar power plants, it is important to know what kind of environmental conditions solar power plants create. This study provides information about abiotic and biotic conditions in the vicinity of photovoltaic solar power plants. Herein, the influence of these power plants as drivers of new microclimate conditions and arthropods diversity composition in the Atacama Desert was evaluated. Microclimatic conditions between panel mounts was found to be more extreme than in the surrounding desert yet beneath the panels temperature is lower and relative humidity higher than outside the panel area. Arthropod species composition was altered in fixed-mount panel installations. In contrast, solar tracking technology showed less influence on microclimate and species composition between Sun and Shade in the power plant. Shady conditions provided a refuge for arthropod species in both installation types. For example, Dipterans were more abundant in the shade whereas Solifugaes were seldom present in the shade. The presented findings have relevance for the sustainable planning and construction of solar power plants.

  3. [Chile's experience with developing abalone (Haliotis spp.) farming: opportunities and challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enríquez, R; Villagrán, R

    2008-04-01

    Intensive abalone farming--specifically of the red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) and the green (or Japanese) abalone (Haliotis discus hannai)--has expanded rapidly in Chile since the late 1990s, and this article presents an overview of the challenges facing the industry and the factors which favour its development. At present, 100% of Chile's abalone enterprises farm the H. rufescens species, owing to its suitability for full-cycle culture. In the analysis of factors that facilitate the development of abalone farming in Chile, those that stand out include the characteristics of the aquatic ecosystem, existing entrepreneurial and professional skills, decisive government support in co-financing scientific and technological projects, infrastructure and associated services to support these development initiatives and a market where prices have remained stable and demand for abalone products has been steady. The greatest challenges facing intensive abalone farming in Chile are providing a constant supply of macroalgae for abalone feed and developing complementary feed, as well as updating current legislation on intensive abalone farming, strengthening producer associations and establishing health certification. The article discusses examples of the impact that native organisms can have on animals introduced into an aquatic ecosystem and the international transmission of agents such as withering syndrome and sabellid polychaete infestation disease, associated with the movement of abalone seeds and broodstock. The article also emphasises the importance of implementing the recommendations of the World Organisation for Animal Health.

  4. Protein Hydrolysates from Non-bovine and Plant Sources Replaces Tryptone in Microbiological Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Yamini; Patel, Shifa; Pasupuleti, Vijai K.; Meganathan, R.

    Tryptone (pancreatic digest of casein) is a common ingredient in laboratory and fermentation media for growing wild-type and genetically modified microorganisms. Many of the commercially manufactured products such as human growth hormone, antibiotics, insulin, etc. are produced by recombinant strains grown on materials derived from bovine sources. With the emergence of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) and the consequent increase in Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations, elimination of materials of bovine origin from fermentation media is of paramount importance. To achieve this objective, a number of protein hydrolysates derived from non-bovine animal and plant sources were evaluated. Tryptone in Luria-Bertani (LB) broth was replaced with an equal quantity of alternate protein hydrolysates. Four of the six hydrolysates (one animal and three from plants) were found to efficiently replace the tryptone present in LB-medium as measured by growth rate and growth yield of a recombinant Escherichia coli strain. In addition, we have determined plasmid stability, inducibility and activity of the plasmid encoded β-galactosidase in the recombinant strain grown in the presence of various protein hydrolysates.

  5. All projects related to Chile | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... complex knowledge economy demands economic, social and environmental data ... Region: Brazil, South America, Chile, Colombia, Uruguay, North and Central ... Labour Market Regulations, Outcomes and Income Distribution in Colombia ...

  6. Anaerobic co-digestion plants for the revaluation of agricultural waste: Sustainable location sites from a GIS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamar, Cristina Alejandra; Rivera, Diego; Aguayo, Mauricio

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to establish sustainably feasible areas for the implementation of anaerobic co-digestion plants for agricultural wastes (cattle/swine slurries and cereal crop wastes). The methodology was based on the use of geographic information systems (GIS), the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and map algebra generated from hedges related to environmental, social and economic constraints. The GIS model obtained was applied to a region of Chile (Bío Bío Region) as a case study showing the energy potential (205 MW-h) of agricultural wastes (swine/cattle manures and cereal crop wastes) and thereby assessing its energy contribution (3.5%) at country level (Chile). From this model, it was possible to spatially identify the influence of each factor (environmental, economic and social) when defining suitable areas for the siting of anaerobic co-digestion plants. In conclusion, GIS-based models establish appropriate areas for the location of anaerobic co-digestion plants in the revaluation of agricultural waste from the production of energy through biogas production. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. The GNSS Component of the Seismic Monitoring System in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, S. E.

    2016-12-01

    Chile is amongst the most seismically active countries in the world. Since mid-XVI Century, a magnitude 8 or more earthquake has taken place every dozen of years, as an average. In the last 100 years, more than ten events with magnitudes around 8 or larger have taken place in this part of world. Three events with M>8 have taken place only in the last six years. The largest earthquake ever recorded took place in May, 1960, in southern Chile. Such extreme seismic activity is the result of the interaction of the Nazca, Antarctic, Scotia and South American plates in southwestern South America where Chile is located. These megathrust earthquakes exhibit long rupture regions reaching several hundreds of km with fault displacements of several tens of meters. At least eighteen of these earthquakes have generated local tsunamis with runups larger than 4 m -including events in 2010, 2014 and 2015- therefore it is mandatory to establish a system with capabilities to rapidly evaluate the tsunamigenic potential of these events. In 2013, the newly created National Seismological Center (CSN) of the University of Chile was tasked to upgrade the countrýs seismic network by increasing the numbers of real-time monitoring stations. The most important change to previous practices is the establishment of a GNSS network composed by 130 devices, in addition to the incorporation of 65 new collocated broadband and strong motion instruments. Additional 297 strong motion instruments for engineering purposes complement the system. Forty units -of the 130 devices- present an optional RTX capability, where satellite orbits and clock corrections are sent to the field device producing a 1-Hz position stream at 4-cm level. First records of ground displacement -using this technology-were recorded at the time of the largest aftershock (Mw=7.6) of the sequence that affected northern Chile in 2014. The CSN is currently developing automatic detectors and amplitude estimators of displacement from the

  8. Climate change and energy policy in Chile: Up in smoke?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundaca T, Luis

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an ex-post assessment of the climate and energy policy developments in Chile emerging from a neoliberal economic model, during the period 1971–2007. First, correlation and regression analyses were performed to analyse historical CO 2 emissions as a product of demographic, economic and energy-wide drivers. Then I estimate indicators related to CO 2 emissions, energy use and economic activity. In the light of empirical results, I identify policy instruments and structural issues. Finally, I present a comparative analysis of Chile and other Latin American countries. Statistical tests show that variability of CO 2 emissions is explained mostly by GDP per capita (‘affluence’) than any other tested variable. Indicators show that the diversification and decarbonisation of the energy mix has been a major policy challenge. With two notable exceptions (hydro and natural gas), the CO 2 intensity of the energy supply mix suggests no effective policies, while energy security crises triggered negative carbon effects and increased prices. No clear policies to promote energy efficiency can be identified until 2005. Explicit policy instruments to promote renewable energy are only recognised after 2004. The results strongly suggest that Chile lacked of policies to effectively decarbonise its energy–economy system. - Highlight: ► The first paper that quantitatively assesses key drivers of CO 2 emissions in Chile. ► It examines energy and climate policy development during the period 1971–2007. ► GDP per capita (‘affluence’) is the main determinant of CO 2 emissions. ► Diversification and decarbonisation of energy mix has been a major policy challenge. ► Policy approach under analysed period not suited for a low-carbon economy.

  9. Public health infrastructure investment difficulties in Chile: concessions and public tenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Goyenechea

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El presente trabajo busca evidenciar los problemas de brechas en infraestructura sanitaria en Chile, así como analizar los mecanismos mediante los cuales ésta se provee. Ello se realiza mediante dos modalidades, la primera es la licitación competitiva o modalidad sectorial. La segunda forma es la concesión hospitalaria. En los últimos años ambos mecanismos presentan dificultades, las cuales se relatan en este documento. Finalmente, se plantean propuestas con el fin de mejorar la provisión de infraestructura sanitaria en Chile.

  10. [Notes about other epidemics in Colonial Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laval, Enrique

    2015-10-01

    In chronicles or in the historiography of the Colony in Chile there are few references about epidemics different to smallpox; like typhus, typhoid fever, dysentery, etc. Almost all, fast spreading in the country and some with high lethality, which led to overflowing the capacity of hospitals in the Chilean colonial period.

  11. [Teenage fecundity rates in Chile: a serious public health problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina C, Ramiro; Molina G, Temístocles; González A, Electra

    2007-01-01

    Teenage fecundity rates are an indicator of epidemiological discrimination in developing countries. To study fertility rates of girls under 14 years of age in Chile from 1993 to 2003. Information of children born alive from mothers aged 10 to 15 years, was obtained from the Chilean National Institute of Statistics. Age segmented population data was obtained from the Ministry of Health. Trends were analyzed by regions and single ages. The rates in communities of the Metropolitan Region were compared. Between 1993 and 2003, there was an increasing trend in fecundity rates, ratios and crude numbers. These rates duplicate from 14 to 15 years of age. In the Metropolitan Region, the fecundity ratios of communities with lower economical incomes is seven times greater than those with higher incomes. During 2003, the fecundity rates in Chile were 100 and 10 higher than those of Holland and Sweden in 1981. In developing countries with very low infant mortality rates such as Chile, the high fecundity rates of young girls is an indicator of a deficient human and social development. Sexual Education and Health Services for adolescents are essential to prevent this public health problem.

  12. Hantavirus en roedores de la Octava Región de Chile Hantavirus in rodents of the VIII Region of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN CARLOS ORTIZ

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available La Octava Región de Chile corresponde a la segunda región con el mayor número de casos de Síndrome Cardiopulmonar por Hantavirus (SCPH. Por tal motivo se realizó un estudio para detectar la presencia de anticuerpos contra hantavirus en roedores y su distribución local en la Octava Región. El estudio comprendió las cuatro provincias de la región y consideró once sitios de muestreo. Se capturaron siete especies de roedores, Abrothrix olivaceus fue la más abundante seguida de Oligoryzomys longicaudatus. De los 300 roedores analizados, cinco ejemplares (1,66 % resultaron ser positivos a hantavirus y correspondieron a tres especies de sigmodontinos: a saber, Loxodontomys micropus, que corresponde al único registro de este tipo para la especie en Chile, Abrotrix longipilis y Oligoryzomys longicaudatusThe Eight Region has the second highest number of cases of Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS in humans for Chile. A study was performed to identify the number of rodents serologically positive to hantavirus and their local distribution in this region. To achieve this goal, we sampled eleven sites in the four provinces of the region. Seven rodents species were collected, with Abrothrix olivaceus presenting the largest number of captures followed by Oligoryzomys longicaudatus. Of the 300 rodents analyzed, five (1.66 % were sero-positives to hantavirus and belonged to three different sigmodontine species: Abrothrix longipilis, O. longicaudatus, and Loxodontomys micropus. No previous records of seropositive L. micropus existed.

  13. Forensic psychiatry in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Denis, Emily E; Sepúlveda, Enrique; Téllez, Carlos; Arboleda-Flórez, Julio; Stuart, Heather; Lam, Miu

    2012-01-01

    Mental disorders are among the most prevalent of chronic disorders, and a high prevalence of these disorders has been consistently found in jails and prisons. This study was a retrospective case series that described the population of adults charged with a criminal offense who were court ordered to undergo a psychiatric assessment within the Medical Legal Service in Santiago, Chile from 2005 to 2006. Characteristics were explored in order to better understand this population in light of the recent reforms in the judicial and health systems of Chile. Ninety percent of sampled individuals were male, primarily between the ages of 18-39 years. Seventy percent of the evaluations came from the pre-reformed judicial system and 30% were from the reformed system. Approximately 63% of evaluated offenders were considered to have a psychiatric pathology, the most common being the personality disorders. Of the evaluated offenders, approximately 84% were considered by a psychiatrist to be criminally responsible for their crime, 7% were regarded as having diminished criminal responsibility, 4% were considered to be not criminally responsible for their crime, and 4% were cases where criminal responsibility was not applicable. Profession status, municipality of residence, type of residence, ICD-10 diagnosis, treatment recommendation, and criminal responsibility were found to be significantly different between male and female evaluated offenders. Results from this investigation will contribute to knowledge about forensic psychiatry and mental health in Latin America, and will hopefully pave the way for more research and international comparisons. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 77 FR 70874 - Notification of the Next Meetings of the U.S.-Chile FTA Environmental Affairs Council and ECA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 8095] Notification of the Next Meetings of the U.S.-Chile FTA... Commission pursuant to Chapter 19 (Environment) of the United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement (``FTA'') and...: Article 19.3 of the United States-Chile FTA establishes an Environment Affairs Council, which shall meet...

  15. A Decade Lost and Found: Mexico and Chile in the 1980s

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael Bergoeing; Patrick J. Kehoe; Raimundo Soto

    2001-01-01

    Chile and Mexico experienced severe economic crises in the early 1980s. This paper analyzes four possible explanations for why Chile recovered much faster than did Mexico. Comparing data from the two countries allows us to rule out a monetarist explanation, an explanation based on falls in real wages and real exchange rates, and a debt overhang explanation. Using growth accounting, a calibrated growth model, and economic theory, we conclude that the crucial difference between the two countrie...

  16. Male attitudes to family planning education in Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, M F

    1977-01-01

    Male attitudes toward family planning education were assessed through a study of 720 men in Santiago and 240 men in a nearby rural area of Chile. Interviews were conducted by male students at the University of Chile School of Public Health. A large majority of the men were using or planned to use contraception in the future. There was a near consensus that adults should be informed regarding family planning. More than a majority of the respondents favored provision of contraceptive information for unmarried women, but most did not approve of premarital sexual activity for females. Most respondents favored the teaching of sex education in schools "according to the age of the children." Younger and higher class males tended to hold the most liberal attitudes.

  17. Ideological Configurations and Prediction of Attitudes toward Immigrants in Chile and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Carvacho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The concept of ideological configuration is proposed to refer to a complex of ideological attitudes – Right-Wing Authoritarianism (RWA and Social Dominance
    Orientation (SDO – based on a shared core of derogation of outgroups. This concept is used in two surveys, in Chile and in Germany, to predict
    attitudes toward foreigners. Analyses using structural equation modeling (SEM showed that a second-order factor involving RWA and SDO predicts hostility
    toward foreigners in Germany and affection toward Peruvian and Argentinean immigrants in Chile. This prediction was stronger in Germany than in Chile.
    The difference in strength is discussed in terms of the kind of measurements, different contexts of migration, and characteristics of the immigrants. Further
    research using the concept of ideological configuration is proposed.

  18. From instinct to evidence: the role of data in country decision-making in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Ximena Paz; Espinosa-Marty, Consuelo; Castillo-Laborde, Carla; Gonzalez, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Background The Chilean health system has undergone profound reforms since 1990, while going through many political upheavals, and faced demographic, health, and economic transformations. The full information requirements to develop an evidence-informed process implied the best possible use of available data, as well as efforts for improving the information systems. Objective To examine, from a historical perspective, the use of data during the health reforms undertaken in Chile since 1990, and to identify the factors that have determined its utilization and improvement. Design A qualitative methodological approach was followed to review the case study of the Chilean experience with data on decision-making. We use as the primary source our first-hand experience as officials of the Ministry of Health (MOH) and the Ministry of Finance during the reform period considered. Second, a literature review was conducted, using documents from official sources, historical accounts, books, policy reports, and articles about the reform process, looking for the use of data. Findings The Chilean health care reform process was intensive in utilization and production of information. In this context, the MOH conducted several studies, from the burden of disease, efficacy of interventions, cost-effectiveness, out-of-pocket payments, and fiscal impact to social preferences, among others. Policy and prioritization frameworks developed by international agencies influenced the use of data and the studies’ agenda. Conclusions Health systems in Latin America have struggled to adapt to changing health needs caused by demographic transition and economic growth. Health reforms in Chile provide lessons of this sustained effort, based on data and scientific grounds, with lights and shadows. Tradition, receptiveness to foreign ideas, and benchmarking with international data determined this approach, facilitated by the political influence of physicians and other technocrats. Besides

  19. Risk factors during construction of power plants using renewable energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nefedova Lyudmila Veniaminovna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider main characteristics of modern development of renewable energy sources (RES. It is dedicated that there are some technical and economic barriers to the widespread use of renewable energy. For example, RES are inconstancy in time and space and have low density of energy flow. High capital intensity and cost price, long-term construction, a considerable degree of different kinds of risk, lack of competitiveness with hydrocarbon species generation in the existing regulatory environment are also inherent to RES. The role of the regulatory framework is shown according to perspective plans of construction of power plants using renewable energy sources. The main requirements which are applied to measures of state support of construction industry of renewable energy development are formulated. Current condition of construction industry of RES in Russia is assessed. The problems of risks which arise during construction of renewable energy facilities according to results of practical use of RES are discussed. And it is rather important to use stage assessment for the construction phase of the project during risk analysis of construction of alternative energy sources. The main groups of RES risks are described. The importance of regulatory and resource risks for effective development of renewable energy in Russia according to the method of strategic planning with the identification of the adverse effects of gradation factors are determined. The analysis of financial risks types and methods of its management during construction power generation projects based on different types of renewable energy resources are made. In the end of the article the authors make a conclusion, that the development of projects for the construction of power plants with the use of innovative technical solutions to ensure minimal risks to the environment and safe operation in various climatic conditions is a priority.

  20. CASE STUDY: Chile — Health, environment, and indigenous culture ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-06

    Jan 6, 2011 ... CASE STUDY: Chile — Health, environment, and indigenous culture .... For example, the National Corporation for Indigenous Development (CONADI) ... Institute for Agriculture Development (INDAP), and applied research on ...

  1. Privatización de los servicios de salud: las experiencias de Chile y Costa Rica Health services privatization: the experiences of Chile and Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Homedes

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo cuestiona los argumentos que justifican la privatización neoliberal de la financiación, gestión y prestación de servicios de salud, y analiza el significado y estrategias de privatización. Comparamos la privatización en Costa Rica y Chile, y en la discusión se sugiere que el modelo costarricense de privatización selectiva, limitada y concebida autóctonamente de Costa Rica lleva a un sistema de salud más solidario, equitativo, eficiente y satisfactorio para los usuarios que el modelo importado de privatización chileno.This study questions the premises that justify the neoliberal privatization of financing, managing and delivering health services. It also analyses the meaning of privatization and its strategies. We compare privatization in Chile and Costa Rica and suggest that the more limited, selective and locally designed privatization process in Costa Rica has resulted in a more equitable, and efficient health system than the imported privatization model introduced in Chile. The Costa Rican system also produces greater patient satisfaction and at the same time preserves the solidarity principle.

  2. Socio-economic Segregation with (without) Competitive Education Policies: A Comparative Analysis of Argentina and Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narodowski, Mariano; Nores, Milagros

    2002-01-01

    The view that competition initiatives in education, such as Chile's introduction of vouchers, promote socioeconomic segregation in schools is questioned. Chile and Argentina have faced very different decentralization reforms, carried out within different regulatory frameworks, but have arrived at similar situations in terms of schools'…

  3. Estado de conservación de Chiasognathus granti Stephens 1831 (Coleóptera: Lucanidae en Chile Conservation status of Chiasognathus granti Stephens 1831 (Coleoptera: Lucanidae in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLIVIA E VERGARA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Las estrategias de conservación en Chile han analizado la diversidad de nuestro país en base a información de especies grandes, carismáticas, paraguas y poco abundantes. Actualmente, nuestro interés ha estado dirigido a analizar la información de invertebrados para definir áreas de endemismo, áreas prioritarias para conservación y áreas naturales importantes desde el punto de vista filogenético. El lucánido Chiasognathus granti es una especie emblemática para la entomología chilena. Este trabajo es pionero en evaluar el estado de conservación de esta especie en Chile, para lo cual fueron calculados los índices de prioridad de conservación (SUMIN y CPI en base a literatura especializada, colecciones de referencia y prospecciones en terreno. C. granti es considerada una especie Rara, de acuerdo al índice de SUMIN y Vulnerable, de acuerdo al índice CPI. Nosotros concluimos que C. granti puede ser considerada Vulnerable en Chile con una alta probabilidad de extinción, hecho que podría afectar la sobrevivencia de las poblaciones presentes en Argentina.Based on information of large body size, charismatic, umbrella and Rare species, the Conservation strategies have analyzed the diversity of Chile. Define endemism areas, priorities conservation areas and geographic areas with high phylogenetic value has been the aims of our studies in beetles. An emblematic species for the Chilean entomologic community is the stag beetle C. granti. We assign priorities for the conservation of C. granti through conservation priority indexes (SUMIN and CPI based on literature, reference collection and field studies. C. granti can be considered Rare by SUMIN index and Vulnerable by CPI index. We concluded that C. granti is Vulnerable with a high probability of extinction in Chile; this situation could affect the survival of populations in Argentina.

  4. Sensory properties of chile pepper heat - and its importance to food quality and cultural preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Ivette; Bosland, Paul W

    2017-10-01

    Chile peppers are one of the most important vegetable and spice crops in the world. They contain capsaicinoids that are responsible for the characteristic burning (pungency) sensation. Currently, there are 22 known naturally occurring capsaicinoids that can cause the heat sensation when consumed. Each produces a different heat sensation effect in the mouth. A need exists for a standard and new terminology to describe the complex heat sensation one feels when eating a chile pepper. A comprehensive set of descriptors to describe the sensory characteristics of chile pepper heat was developed. It was validated with trained panelists tasting samples representing the five domesticated species and 14 pod-types within these species. Five key attributes that define and reference a lexicon for describing the heat sensation of chile peppers were determined to describe the heat sensation in any product, and importantly, can be used in the food industry worldwide. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Discovering Chile's hidden water treasures – rock glaciers | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-05-30

    May 30, 2011 ... This means the research methods for investigating rock glaciers are ... group advising Chile's national environmental protection agency on ... Communities' perception of climate change risks in South America's Atlantic coasts.

  6. Personas con discapacidad y políticas públicas de inclusión educativa en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Guillermo Estay

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Chile se ve enfrentado en la actualidad a un cambio de paradigma en materia educacional. La Reforma Educativa, hasta el momento, no hace mención a la educación de Personas con Discapacidad y Necesidades Educativas Especiales, que de plasmarse en ley, dejaría a Chile -entre un reducido número de países no desarrollados-, con una educación inclusiva consagrada constitucionalmente. Objetivo: Identificar las políticas de educación inclusiva que amparan a las personas con discapacidad en Chile. Metodología: Artículo de revisión. Se realizó una búsqueda de la literatura en la biblioteca nacional de Chile y Google Scholar. Resultados: Se abordaron las temáticas: sistema educativo chileno, normativa internacional en materia de educación inclusiva, normativa chilena sobre inclusión y normativa chilena sobre educación e inclusividad. Conclusión: A pesar de la normatividad sobre discapacidad existente en Chile, no ha existido una verdadera inclusión de las personas con discapacidad y necesidades educativas especiales en el sistema educativo.

  7. Andes virus infections in the rodent reservoir and in humans vary across contrasting landscapes in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Pérez, Fernando; Palma, R. Eduardo; Hjelle, Brian; Ferres, Marcela; Cook, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) is an emerging infectious disease first reported in Chile in 1995. Andes hantavirus (ANDV) is responsible for the more than 500 cases of HCPS reported in Chile. Previous work showed that ANDV is genetically differentiated in Chile across contrasting landscapes. To determine whether the reservoir rodent (Oligoryzomys longicaudatus) populations are also geographically segregated, we conducted range-wide spatial genetic analyses of O. longicaudatus in Chile using the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene. Given that landscape structure influences the incidence of hantavirus infections, we also tested 772 O. longicaudatus specimens for antibodies to ANDV captured during the period 2000 − 2006. Population genetic analyses of O. longicaudatus are largely congruent with those reported for ANDV, with the host primarily differentiated according to three defined ecoregions, Mediterranean, Valdivian rain forest and North Patagonian rain forest. Significant differences in the relative prevalence of anti-ANDV antibodies in rodent samples also were found across the three ecoregions. We relate these results to the number of reported human HCPS cases in Chile, and discuss the importance of landscape differences in light of ANDV transmission to humans and among rodent populations. PMID:19632357

  8. Bloom of the Yessotoxin producing dinoflagellate Protoceratium reticulatum (Dinophyceae) in Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Gonzalo; Uribe, Eduardo; Díaz, Rosario; Braun, Mauricio; Mariño, Carmen; Blanco, Juan

    2011-05-01

    In summer 2007, a dinoflagellate preliminarily identified as Protoceratium reticulatum bloomed in Bahía Mejillones, northern Chile. Phytoplankton samples were analyzed in detail by light and scanning electron microscopy revealing the presence of resting cyst and motile cells of P. reticulatum. Oceanographic and phytoplankton data suggest that the bloom was initiated offshore by motile cells and germinated cysts during an upwelling pulse. These cells were advected into the bay when upwelling relaxed and grew without any relevant competitor. Phytoplankton net samples were found to contain yessotoxin as the only toxin in an estimated proportion of 0.2 and 0.4 pg cell - 1 , thus confirming that P. reticulatum is a source of yessotoxin in northern Chilean waters and consequently that it poses a risk for human health and mollusk exploitation in the area.

  9. Fruit production in Chile: bright past, uncertain future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge B. Retamales

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2007 (the last agricultural census, Chile had 308, 445 ha of fruit orchards: an increase of almost 32% from the previous census (1997. The most important species were table grapes (20%, avocados (13% and apples (12%. Some 22% of the fruit crops growing area corresponded to juvenile orchards; within the species with higher proportion of juvenile orchards were prunes (42% and blueberries (56%. Most orchards are located between latitude 27º18` S (Copiapó and 40º36´S (Puerto Varas. The industry is driven by the export component which accounts for more than 50% of the fruits produced. In the crop season 2009-2010, approximately 254 million boxes (around 2.5 million tons were exported, representing over US$ 3.5 million. Processed and fresh fruits represented 8.2 and 26.7% of the total forest and agricultural Chilean exports in 2008, respectively. The main markets for this fruits were USA/Canada (42% and Europe (32%. The fruit grower receives, on average, 12-16% of the total price of the fruit in its final destination. Each year the fruit industry employs 450.000 people directly, of which 1/3 are permanent. Even though the fruit industry employs the highest proportion of the agricultural labor and the growing area has increased in the last 20 years, the proportion of agricultural employment has decreased from 19.5% in 1989 to 10.8% in 2008. It might also be noted that Chile invests only 0.7% of the GDP in research. In the last 40 years, the fruit industry has been a motor for the Chilean economic development, but the lower rates of currency exchange, the rising costs of energy (oil, electricity, and the increasing scarcity of hand labor have drastically reduced the profitability and are putting at risk the viability of a large proportion of the fruit orchards in Chile. It is estimated that this season around 65% of the orchards will have a negative economic balance in their operations. Higher investment in research, improvements in fruit quality

  10. On the indiscriminate use of imported emission factors in environmental impact assessment: A case study in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal, María Fernanda; Oyarzún, Jorge; Oyarzún, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) aims to determine if the environmental effect of an activity or project complies with standards and regulations. A primary component of the environment to evaluate is air and the effect that various activities can have on its quality. To this end, emission factors (EFs), which are empirical coefficients or mathematical relationships, are normally used. The present research critically analyzes the implications and consequences of using imported EFs in environmental impact studies (EISs), taking as case of study the situation in Chile. Among the main results, the widespread use of EFs in EISs in the country and the lack of assessments of their actual applicability stand out. In addition, the official guidelines related to emissions estimation that are used for EIA in the country mostly include EFs derived elsewhere, without considering the recommendations or restrictions that the original sources indicate for their use. Finally, the broad use of default values defined for the Metropolitan Region in Central Chile, is highly questionable for a country that extends north-south along more than 35° of latitude, with wide variability in climate, traffic conditions, population, soil types, etc. Finally, it is very likely that situations similar to those observed in the present work occurs in other countries with young environmental impact assessment systems, and therefore, that the results herein presented should be of general interest and relevance. - Highlights: • Emission factors are widely used in environmental impact assessment in Chile. • There is a lack of a proper understanding of the limitations of EFs for EIA. • Imported emission factors use requires caution and full understanding. • Misuse of foreign EFs may have serious environmental and economic consequences.

  11. On the indiscriminate use of imported emission factors in environmental impact assessment: A case study in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernal, María Fernanda [Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universidad de La Serena (Chile); Oyarzún, Jorge [Department of Mining Engineering, Universidad de La Serena (Chile); Oyarzún, Ricardo, E-mail: royarzun@userena.cl [Department of Mining Engineering, Universidad de La Serena (Chile); Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Zonas Aridas, La Serena (Chile)

    2017-05-15

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) aims to determine if the environmental effect of an activity or project complies with standards and regulations. A primary component of the environment to evaluate is air and the effect that various activities can have on its quality. To this end, emission factors (EFs), which are empirical coefficients or mathematical relationships, are normally used. The present research critically analyzes the implications and consequences of using imported EFs in environmental impact studies (EISs), taking as case of study the situation in Chile. Among the main results, the widespread use of EFs in EISs in the country and the lack of assessments of their actual applicability stand out. In addition, the official guidelines related to emissions estimation that are used for EIA in the country mostly include EFs derived elsewhere, without considering the recommendations or restrictions that the original sources indicate for their use. Finally, the broad use of default values defined for the Metropolitan Region in Central Chile, is highly questionable for a country that extends north-south along more than 35° of latitude, with wide variability in climate, traffic conditions, population, soil types, etc. Finally, it is very likely that situations similar to those observed in the present work occurs in other countries with young environmental impact assessment systems, and therefore, that the results herein presented should be of general interest and relevance. - Highlights: • Emission factors are widely used in environmental impact assessment in Chile. • There is a lack of a proper understanding of the limitations of EFs for EIA. • Imported emission factors use requires caution and full understanding. • Misuse of foreign EFs may have serious environmental and economic consequences.

  12. Sources of variability in canopy reflectance and the convergent properties of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollinger, S V

    2011-01-01

    How plants interact with sunlight is central to the existence of life and provides a window to the functioning of ecosystems. Although the basic properties of leaf spectra have been known for decades, interpreting canopy-level spectra is more challenging because leaf-level effects are complicated by a host of stem- and canopy-level traits. Progress has been made through empirical analyses and models, although both methods have been hampered by a series of persistent challenges. Here, I review current understanding of plant spectral properties with respect to sources of uncertainty at leaf to canopy scales. I also discuss the role of evolutionary convergence in plant functioning and the difficulty of identifying individual properties among a suite of interrelated traits. A pattern that emerges suggests a synergy among the scattering effects of leaf-, stem- and canopy-level traits that becomes most apparent in the near-infrared (NIR) region. This explains the widespread and well-known importance of the NIR region in vegetation remote sensing, but presents an interesting paradox that has yet to be fully explored: that we can often gain more insight about the functioning of plants by examining wavelengths that are not used in photosynthesis than by examining those that are. © 2010 The Author. New Phytologist © 2010 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Bioengineered Plants Can Be a Useful Source of Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Amjad Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids have proven to be very essential for human health due to their multiple health benefits. These essential fatty acids (EFAs need to be uptaken through diet because they are unable to be produced by the human body. These are important for skin and hair growth as well as for proper visual, neural, and reproductive functions of the body. These fatty acids are proven to be extremely vital for normal tissue development during pregnancy and infancy. Omega-3 fatty acids can be obtained mainly from two dietary sources: marine and plant oils. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5 n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3 are the primary marine-derived omega-3 fatty acids. Marine fishes are high in omega-3 fatty acids, yet high consumption of those fishes will cause a shortage of fish stocks existing naturally in the oceans. An alternative source to achieve the recommended daily intake of EFAs is the demand of today. In this review article, an attempt has, therefore, been made to discuss the importance of omega-3 fatty acids and the recent developments in order to produce these fatty acids by the genetic modifications of the plants.

  14. El Caso del Dinero Desaparecido Chile 1984-1986

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Larraín; Aníbal Larraín

    1988-01-01

    Between the third quarter of 1984 and the second one of 1986, Chile's real money balances (seasonally adjusted, real MI) decreased by 11%. In the same period, Gross Domestic Product grew by 12.3% and the effective short-term interest rate systematically d

  15. Apprenticeship in Latin America: The INACAP Program in Chile. A Case Study. Occasional Paper #6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvalan-Vasquez, Oscar E.

    The development of apprenticeship programs in several Latin American countries was investigated with a focus on the results of an industrial apprenticeship program in Santiago, Chile. The program studied was the Instituto Nacional de Capacitacion Profesional (INACAP), the national vocational training institute of Chile. The purpose of the study…

  16. niño lector en Chile (1860-1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara-Maria Parra-Triana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se propone establecer las coordenadas para el estudio de la formación del niño lector en Chile a partir del análisis de las publicaciones periódicas comprendidas entre 1860 y 1960, periodo conocido como el del Estado Liberal hasta los tiempos de la Reforma y Revolución. Se revisan algunas fuentes bibliográficas básicas para la comprensión de la problemática lectora en el Chile moderno junto con la consideración de ciertas herramientas teórico-conceptuales que ayudarían al estudio de un corpus ejemplificado con tres publicaciones periódicas de tres diferentes momentos, que muestran el proceso de modernización de las prácticas lectoras que dan paso al ejercicio de la lectura como actividad de entretenimiento.

  17. Drinking water treatment plant costs and source water quality: An updated case study (2013-2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed protection can play an important role in producing safe drinking water. However, many municipalities and drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) lack the information on the potential benefits of watershed protection as an approach to improving source water quality. This...

  18. Adaptation and Genotype x Environment Interaction of Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L. Genotypes in South Central Chile Adaptación e Interacción Genotipo x Ambiente en Lino (Linum usitatissimum L. en la Zona Centro Sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Berti

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L. is imported into Chile mostly for bread making and feed. Identification of genotypes best adapted for seed production in South Central Chile would facilitate producer’s decision. The objective of this study was to determine the adaptation and genotype x environment interaction of 16 flaxseed genotypes (including 10 from North American and six from Argentine sources grown at 11 environments (defined as location-year in Chile from 2003 to 2007. Genotype seed yield was above 5700 kg ha-1 for some environments indicating a high yield potential. According to the AMMI (Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interaction and SREG (Sites regression models the 11 environments were classified into four groups by the AMMI and three groups by the SREG models. Genotypes were classified into five groups by the SREG model with four of the groups as single genotypes. Overall mean seed yield was similar for all genotypes; however the genotype Nekoma was the most stable and higher yielding genotype across environments. The environment with the highest yield potential was Chillán 2003-2004, but this location had low yield stability across years. The environments with greatest seed yield potential, Chillán 2003-2004 and Los Ángeles 2004-2005, had irrigation during flowering and seed filling. Seed oil content fluctuated between 420 and 530 g kg-1. The climatic differences among environments did not influence oil composition as expected from previous research. Flaxseed appears adapted to South Central Chile with differences observed among genotypes for biomass and seed yield, harvest index, test weight, oil content, and composition.La semilla de lino (Linum usitatissimum L. se importa a Chile principalmente para panaderías y alimento animal. La identificación de genotipos altamente productivos en la zona Centro Sur de Chile facilitaría la decisión de los productores. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la adaptaci

  19. Detection and phylogenetic analysis of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, D; Eissler, Y; Torres, P; Jorquera, E; Espinoza, J C; Kuznar, J

    2015-10-27

    Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) is the etiological agent of a highly contagious disease that is endemic to salmon farming in Chile and causes great economic losses to the industry. Here we compared different diagnostic methods to detect IPNV in field samples, including 3 real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) assays, cell culture isolation, and indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Additionally, we performed a phylogenetic analysis to investigate the genogroups prevailing in Chile, as well as their geographic distribution and virulence. The 3 qRT-PCR assays used primers that targeted regions of the VP2 and VP1 genes of the virus and were tested in 46 samples, presenting a fair agreement within their results. All samples were positive for at least 2 of the qRT-PCR assays, 29 were positive for cell culture, and 23 for IFAT, showing less sensitivity for these latter 2 methods. For the phylogenetic analysis, portions of 1180 and 523 bp of the VP2 region of segment A were amplified by RT-PCR, sequenced and compared with sequences from reference strains and from isolates reported by previous studies carried out in Chile. Most of the sequenced isolates belonged to genogroup 5 (European origin), and 5 were classified within genogroup 1 (American origin). Chilean isolates formed clusters within each of the genogroups found, evidencing a clear differentiation from the reference strains. To our knowledge, this is the most extensive study completed for IPNV in Chile, covering isolates from sea- and freshwater salmon farms and showing a high prevalence of this virus in the country.

  20. Ice Damage in a Georgia Planting of Loblolly Pine from Different Seed Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle P. Jones; Osborn O. Wells

    1969-01-01

    After a severe ice storm in south-central Georgia, the degree of ice damage in a provenance test planting of 11-year-old loblolly pines varied considerably among the nine widely seperated seed sources represented. Damage was less among tress from the colder, more inland locations than among tress from coastal areas where the climate is more moderate. In terms of...

  1. Letter from Chile: Re-establishing health care in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Jorge

    1993-01-01

    Chile's long term social policy has produced very impressive outcomes in general health indicators, with a national health service established as early as 1952. During the years of the Pinochet dictatorship (1973-89) public health institutions were greatly affected, with sharp diminution in financing which affected investment and salaries. The democratic government initiated in 1990 faced a difficult situation, with underpaid staff and decrepit hospitals. The ministry took immediate action to improve salaries and start an ambitious health sector reform including investment in infrastructure, technology, and modern management. Decentralisation and autonomy, changes in payment for service mechanisms, and a public-private mix are the main objectives of this reform, keeping the public role as predominant in the proposed structure. This process has been affected by union unrest and public opinion dissatisfaction, which tend to present obstacles to progress in this complicated issue. Imagesp729-ap730-a

  2. EL GÉNERO GLANDULARIA (VERBENACEAE EN CHILE

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    Nataly O\\u2019Leary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una revisión taxonómica y nomenclatural del género Glandularia para Chile. El género está representado por 12 especies y una variedad, ocho de estos taxones son endémicos de Chile. Las especies se distribuyen desde la zona más septentrional del territorio, región de Arica y Parinacota, hasta la región de Los Lagos, al sur. Sin embargo la mayor diversidad específica se encuentra en las regiones centrales, de Coquimbo, Valparaíso y Metropolitana. Se describen e ilustran cada una de las 12 especies de Glandularia. A su vez, se proponen 14 nuevos sinónimos y tres nuevas combinaciones: Glandularia landbecki, G. multiglandulosa y G. ribifolia; se designan 15 lectotipos para: Erinus laciniatus, Verbena bella, V. berteroi, V. corymbosa, V. foetida, V. gynobasis, V. gynobasis var. strigosa, V. landbeckii, V. lipozygioides, V. multiglandulosa, V. porrigens, V. ribifolia, V. sulphurea var. fuscorubra, V. sulphurea var. pedunculata, y V. trachea; y se postula un neotipo para Verbena paulseni.

  3. Estimation of impact from natural sources of radiation sources in two non nuclear plant workers and nearby residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Wanderson de Oliveira

    2005-09-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials, often referred to as NORM, are and always have been a part of our world. Our planet 'Earth' and its atmosphere contain many different types of naturally occurring radioactive species , mainly minerals containing radionuclides of uranium and thorium decay series. Human activities for e x p l o i t a t i o n of mineral resources as mining, necessarily, do not enhance the concentration of NORM in products , by-products or residues, but can be a concern, simply due to the increased potential for human exposure. The goal of this work is to assess the impact of the presence of two non-nuclear plants (coal mining and monazite extraction plant) to workers and general population living in the vicinities of plants, by calculating their internal exposure to natural radionuclides . Excreta samples (urine and feces) were collected from workers and inhabitants of the two small towns where workers reside. The activities of 238 U, 234 U ( o n l y in feces), 226 Ra , 210 Pb and 210 Po (only in urine),- present in the samples were determined. The results of daily excretion in urine and feces of the groups, indicate that workers from coal mining, are exposed to natural radionuclides by inhalation and ingestion. The intake of some radionuclides ( 238 U and 210 Po ) are influenced by the professional activity . The results also indicate a chronic intake of 226 Ra by workers of the coal mining and their neighbors. Workers from the monazite extraction plant and inhabitants of the vicinity of the plant are exposed, mainly by ingestion. The intake through diet is the major source of incorporation of natural radionuclides. (author)

  4. Field survey of the 16 September 2015 Chile tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagos, Marcelo; Fritz, Hermann M.

    2016-04-01

    On the evening of 16 September, 2015 a magnitude Mw 8.3 earthquake occurred off the coast of central Chile's Coquimbo region. The ensuing tsunami caused significant inundation and damage in the Coquimbo or 4th region and mostly minor effects in neighbouring 3rd and 5th regions. Fortunately, ancestral knowledge from the past 1922 and 1943 tsunamis in the region along with the catastrophic 2010 Maule and recent 2014 tsunamis, as well as tsunami education and evacuation exercises prompted most coastal residents to spontaneously evacuate to high ground after the earthquake. There were a few tsunami victims; while a handful of fatalities were associated to earthquake induced building collapses and the physical stress of tsunami evacuation. The international scientist joined the local effort from September 20 to 26, 2015. The international tsunami survey team (ITST) interviewed numerous eyewitnesses and documented flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment deposition, damage patterns, performance of the navigation infrastructure and impact on the natural environment. The ITST covered a 500 km stretch of coastline from Caleta Chañaral de Aceituno (28.8° S) south of Huasco down to Llolleo near San Antonio (33.6° S). We surveyed more than 40 locations and recorded more than 100 tsunami and runup heights with differential GPS and integrated laser range finders. The tsunami impact peaked at Caleta Totoral near Punta Aldea with both tsunami and runup heights exceeding 10 m as surveyed on September 22 and broadcasted nationwide that evening. Runup exceeded 10 m at a second uninhabited location some 15 km south of Caleta Totoral. A significant variation in tsunami impact was observed along the coastlines of central Chile at local and regional scales. The tsunami occurred in the evening hours limiting the availability of eyewitness video footages. Observations from the 2015 Chile tsunami are compared against the 1922, 1943, 2010 and 2014 Chile tsunamis. The

  5. Explaining judicial corruption in the courts of Chile, Peru and Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Basabe-Serrano

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article identifies the main variables that explain judicial corruption in Chile, Peru, and Ecuador. Improving the current methodological strategies used to measure judicial corruption and incorporating endogenous and exogenous variables in the model, this article argues that legal training of the judges, respect for the judicial career, and the fragmentation of political power explain different degrees of judicial corruption. Through a comparative diachronic and synchronic research design of Chile, Peru and Ecuador, the article shows institutional designs with more legal steps will be more inclined to illegal payments or other types of judicial corruption.

  6. Evaluación del primer "Entrenamiento en Metodología de Investigación Clínica en Chile" Evaluation of the first training on clinical research methodology in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Espinoza

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo describe la evaluación del primer "Entrenamiento en Metodología de Investigación Clínica en Chile (EMIC-Chile tras 12 meses de haber finalizado. Se aplicó una encuesta online para alumnos y el método Delphi para el equipo docente. Entre los estudiantes, la mayoría informó que el programa apoyó su desarrollo profesional y que transmitieron los conocimientos en su lugar de trabajo. El 41% presentó un proyecto a fondos concursables de investigación una vez finalizado el curso. Entre los profesores, las áreas de mayor interés fueron la estrategia comunicacional, la metodología educativa, las características del equipo docente y las posibles estrategias de permanencia de EMIC-Chile a futuro. Esta experincia podría servir a futuras iniciativas de formación en investigación para profesionales de la salud. Se reconocen como desafíos la incorporación de profesiones no médicas en la investigación clínica, complejidades asociadas a la metodología semi-presencial y permanencia duradera de iniciativas de esta envergadura a nivel nacional y regional.This paper describes the evaluation of the first training on clinical research methodology in Chile (EMIC-Chile 12 months after its completion. An online survey was conducted for students and the Delphi method was used for the teaching team. Among the students, the majority reported that the program had contributed to their professional development and that they had shared some of the knowledge acquired with colleagues in their workplace. Forty-one percent submitted a project to obtain research funding through a competitive grants process once they had completed the course. Among the teachers, the areas of greatest interest were the communication strategy, teaching methods, the characteristics of the teaching team, and potential strategies for making the EMIC-Chile permanent in the future. This experience could contribute to future research training initiatives for health

  7. Nuevos inmigrantes en Chile: Los determinantes de su actividad emprendedora

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    Claudio MANCILLA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En Chile es poca la literatura que estudia a los inmigrantes desde una perspectiva económica, y menos la que aborda su actitud emprendedora (a pesar de que son proporcionalmente más emprendedores que los habitantes locales. El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar los factores que influyen en el emprendimiento de los in - migrantes sudamericanos en Chile. Se utilizó un modelo logit ajustado para even - tos extraños para determinar el impacto sobre la probabilidad de emprendimiento individual. Algunos resultados indican que el tiempo de residencia, forma legal de ingreso al país, nivel educacional y experiencia previa de emprendimiento, influyen en la probabilidad de crear una actividad empresarial.

  8. All projects related to Chile | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Maipo River Basin in central Chile is home to six million people, most residing in the city of ... Program: Climate Change ... Program: Governance and Justice ... Rethinking Political Legitimacy: Citizen Inclusion and Social Digital Media.

  9. A snapshot of cancer in Chile:Analytical frameworks for developing a cancer policy

    OpenAIRE

    De Jimenez La Jara, Jorge; Bastias, Gabriel; Ferreccio, Catterina; Moscoso, Cristian; Sagues, Sofia; Cid, Camilo; Bronstein, Eduardo; Herrera, Cristian; Nervi, Bruno; Corvalan, Alejandro; Velasquez, Ethel V.; Gonzalez, Pamela; Castellon, Enrique; Bustamante, Eva; Oñate, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The South American country Chile now boasts a life expectancy of over 80 years. As a consequence, Chile now faces the increasing social and economic burden of cancer and must implement political policy to deliver equitable cancer care. Hindering the development of a national cancer policy is the lack of comprehensive analysis of cancer infrastructure and economic impact. Objectives: Evaluate existing cancer policy, the extent of national investigation and the socio-economic impa...

  10. How efficient are pension fund managers in Chile? Quão eficientes são os administradores de fundos de pensão no Chile?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Barrientos

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper measures and evaluates technical efficiency among pension fund managers in Chile. Recent pension reform has established pension fund management market in nine countries in Latin America. The new pension providers compete for affiliates on the basis of fees, rates of return, and quality of service, and are subject to extensive regulation. Applying data envelopment analysis to data from Chile 1982-1999, the paper examines issues of efficiency, competition, and regulation. The analysis concludes that pension fund managers operate below the estimated "efficiency frontier", and there is no evidence of a sustained upward trend in technical efficiency over time.Este artigo se propõe a avaliar e medir a eficiência técnica dos administradores de fundos de previdência privada no Chile. A recente reforma sofrida pela previdência deu lugar a um mercado de gestão de fundos de aposentadoria em nove países da América Latina. Esses novos gestores de fundos de pensão competem por investidores através do custo de suas tarifas, dos índices de rendimento oferecidos e da qualidade do serviço prestado, estando sujeitos a uma regulamentação rigorosa. Aplicando a análise por envoltória de dados (DEA aos dados obtidos para o Chile entre 1982 e 1999, examinamos aqui as questões de eficiência, competitividade e regulamentação. Nossa análise conclui que os administradores de fundos de previdência privada operam abaixo do nível de eficiência desejado, e não há previsão de que venha a ocorrer nenhuma melhora consistente na eficiência técnica desses fundos num futuro próximo.

  11. Microbial pathogens in source and treated waters from drinking water treatment plants in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    An occurrence survey was conducted on selected pathogens in source and treated drinking water collected from 25 drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) in the United States. Water samples were analyzed for the protozoa Giardia and Cryptosporidium (EPA Method 1623); the fungi Asp...

  12. La prensa satírica de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paúl Alonso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Refiere el autor sobre la revista más vendida de Chile y convertida en el referente obligado de la prensa alternativa en Latinoamérica. De humor descarnado, irreverente, de marcado rechazo a la Dictadura militar de Pinochet y en la búsqueda constante por revelar las contradicciones de la sociedad chilena.

  13. Selection of energy source and evolutionary stable strategies for power plants under financial intervention of government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafezalkotob, Ashkan; Mahmoudi, Reza

    2017-09-01

    Currently, many socially responsible governments adopt economic incentives and deterrents to manage environmental impacts of electricity suppliers. Considering the Stackelberg leadership of the government, the government's role in the competition of power plants in an electricity market is investigated. A one-population evolutionary game model of power plants is developed to study how their production strategy depends on tariffs levied by the government. We establish that a unique evolutionary stable strategy (ESS) for the population exists. Numerical examples demonstrate that revenue maximization and environment protection policies of the government significantly affect the production ESS of competitive power plants. The results reveal that the government can introduce a green energy source as an ESS of the competitive power plants by imposing appropriate tariffs.

  14. First detection and characterization of Salmonella spp. in poultry and swine raised in backyard production systems in central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegria-Moran, R; Rivera, D; Toledo, V; Moreno-Switt, A I; Hamilton-West, C

    2017-11-01

    Little is known about Salmonella serovars circulating in backyard poultry and swine populations worldwide. Backyard production systems (BPS) that raise swine and/or poultry are distributed across Chile, but are more heavily concentrated in central Chile, where industrialized systems are in close contact with BPS. This study aims to detect and identify circulating Salmonella serovars in poultry and swine raised in BPS. Bacteriological Salmonella isolation was carried out for 1744 samples collected from 329 BPS in central Chile. Faecal samples were taken from swine, poultry, geese, ducks, turkeys and peacocks, as well as environmental faecal samples. Confirmation of Salmonella spp. was performed using invA-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Identification of serovars was carried out using a molecular serotyping approach, where serogroups were confirmed by a multiplex PCR of Salmonella serogroup genes for five Salmonella O antigens (i.e., D, B, C1, C2-C3, and E1), along with two PCR amplifications, followed by sequencing of fliC and fljB genes. A total of 25 samples (1·4% of total samples) from 15 BPS (4·6 % of total sampled BPS) were found positive for Salmonella. Positive samples were found in poultry (chickens and ducks), swine and environmental sources. Molecular prediction of serovars on Salmonella isolated showed 52·0% of S. Typhimurium, 16·0% of S. Infantis, 16·0% S. Enteritidis, 8·0% S. Hadar, 4·0% S. Tennessee and 4·0% S. Kentucky. Poor biosecurity measures were found on sampled BPS, where a high percentage of mixed confinement systems (72·8%); and almost half of the sampled BPS with improper management of infected mortalities (e.g. selling the carcasses of infected animals for consumption). Number of birds other than chickens (P = 0·014; OR = 1·04; IC (95%) = 1·01-1·07), mixed producti