WorldWideScience

Sample records for source category wood

  1. Wood fuels sources and markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koopmans, Auke

    2003-01-01

    Biomass energy is an important source of energy in most Asian countries. Households and industries use substantial amounts of fuel wood, charcoal and other biomass energy, such as agricultural residues, dung, leaves and sawmill residues. The main household applications are cooking and heating whereas industrial applications range widely. This paper provides an overview of estimates on the production and trade of biomass fuels in the South-east Asia region. The flows and channels used in the supply of wood fuels in different countries were analysed. This paper may help in identifying policy gaps with regards to the supply and consumption of wood fuels from both forest and non-forest sources. (Author)

  2. Preliminary studies of Brazilian wood using different radioisotopic sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Gilberto; Silva, Leonardo Gondim de Andrade e

    2013-01-01

    Due to availability and particular features, wood was one of the first materials used by mankind with a wide variety of applications. It can be used as raw material for paper and cellulose manufacturing; in industries such as chemical, naval, furniture, sports goods, toys, and musical instrument; in building construction and in the distribution of electric energy. Wood has been widely researched; therefore, wood researchers know that several aspects such as temperature, latitude, longitude, altitude, sunlight, soil, and rainfall index interfere with the growth of trees. This behavior explains why average physical-chemical properties are important when wood is studied. The majority of researchers consider density to be the most important wood property because of its straight relationship with the physical and mechanical properties of wood. There are three types of wood density: basic, apparent and green. The apparent density was used here at 12% of moisture content. In this study, four different types of wood were used: 'freijo', 'jequetiba', 'muiracatiara' and 'ipe'. For wood density determination by non-conventional method, Am-241, Ba-133 and Cs-137 radioisotopic sources; a NaI scintillation detector and a counter were used. The results demonstrated this technique to be quick and accurate. By considering the nuclear parameters obtained as half value layers and linear absorption coefficients, Cs-137 radioisotopic source demonstrated to be the best option to be used for inspection of the physical integrity of electric wooden poles and live trees for future works. (author)

  3. Source apportionment of PM2.5 at multiple Northwest U.S. sites: Assessing regional winter wood smoke impacts from residential wood combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotchenruther, Robert A.

    2016-10-01

    Wood smoke from residential wood combustion is a significant source of elevated PM2.5 in many communities across the Northwest U.S. Accurate representation of residential wood combustion in source-oriented regional scale air quality models is challenging because of multiple uncertainties. As an alternative to source-oriented source apportionment, this work provides, through receptor-oriented source apportionment, an assessment of winter residential wood combustion impacts at multiple Northwest U.S. locations. Source apportionment was performed on chemically speciated PM2.5 from 19 monitoring sites using the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) receptor model. Each site was modeled independently, but a common data preparation and modeling protocol was used so that results were as comparable as possible across sites. Model solutions had from 4 to 8 PMF factors, depending on the site. PMF factors at each site were associated with a source classification (e.g., primary wood smoke), a dominant chemical composition (e.g., ammonium nitrate), or were some mixture. 15 different sources or chemical compositions were identified as contributing to PM2.5 across the 19 sites. The 6 most common were; aged wood smoke and secondary organic carbon, motor vehicles, primary wood smoke, ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, and fugitive dust. Wood smoke was identified at every site, with both aged and primary wood smoke identified at most sites. Wood smoke contributions to PM2.5 were averaged for the two winter months of December and January, the months when wood smoke in the Northwest U.S. is mainly from residential wood combustion. The total contribution of residential wood combustion, that from primary plus aged smoke, ranged from 11.4% to 92.7% of average December and January PM2.5 depending on the site, with the highest percent contributions occurring in smaller towns that have fewer expected sources of winter PM2.5. Receptor modeling at multiple sites, such as that conducted in this

  4. Preliminary studies of Brazilian wood using different radioisotopic sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Gilberto; Silva, Leonardo Gondim de Andrade e, E-mail: gcarval@ipen.br, E-mail: ftgasilva@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Due to availability and particular features, wood was one of the first materials used by mankind with a wide variety of applications. It can be used as raw material for paper and cellulose manufacturing; in industries such as chemical, naval, furniture, sports goods, toys, and musical instrument; in building construction and in the distribution of electric energy. Wood has been widely researched; therefore, wood researchers know that several aspects such as temperature, latitude, longitude, altitude, sunlight, soil, and rainfall index interfere with the growth of trees. This behavior explains why average physical-chemical properties are important when wood is studied. The majority of researchers consider density to be the most important wood property because of its straight relationship with the physical and mechanical properties of wood. There are three types of wood density: basic, apparent and green. The apparent density was used here at 12% of moisture content. In this study, four different types of wood were used: 'freijo', 'jequetiba', 'muiracatiara' and 'ipe'. For wood density determination by non-conventional method, Am-241, Ba-133 and Cs-137 radioisotopic sources; a NaI scintillation detector and a counter were used. The results demonstrated this technique to be quick and accurate. By considering the nuclear parameters obtained as half value layers and linear absorption coefficients, Cs-137 radioisotopic source demonstrated to be the best option to be used for inspection of the physical integrity of electric wooden poles and live trees for future works. (author)

  5. 40 CFR 98.70 - Definition of source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of source category. 98.70... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Ammonia Manufacturing § 98.70 Definition of source category...-based feedstock produced via steam reforming of a hydrocarbon. (b) Ammonia manufacturing processes in...

  6. 40 CFR 98.410 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Industrial Greenhouse Gases § 98.410 Definition of the source category. (a) The industrial gas supplier source category consists of any facility that...

  7. Sources and contributions of wood smoke during winter in London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crilley, Leigh; Bloss, William; Yin, Jianxin; Beddows, David; Harrison, Roy; Zotter, Peter; Prevot, Andre; Green, David

    2014-05-01

    Determining the contribution of wood smoke in large urban centres such as London is becoming increasingly important with the changing nature of domestic heating partly due to the installation of biomass burning heaters to meet renewable energy targets imposed by the EU and also a rise in so-called recreational burning for aesthetic reasons (Fuller et al., 2013). Recent work in large urban centres (London, Paris and Berlin) has demonstrated an increase in the contribution of wood smoke to ambient particles during winter that can at times exceed traffic emissions. In Europe, biomass burning has been identified as a major cause of exceedances of European air quality limits during winter (Fuller et al., 2013). In light of the changing nature of emissions in urban areas there is a need for on-going measurements to assess the impact of biomass burning in cities like London. Therefore we aimed to determine quantitatively the contribution of biomass burning in London and surrounding rural areas. We also aimed to determine whether local emissions or regional sources were the main source of biomass burning in London. Sources of wood smoke during winter in London were investigated at an urban background site (North Kensington) and two surrounding rural sites (Harwell and Detling) by analysing selected wood smoke chemical tracers. Concentrations of levoglucosan, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC) and K+ were generally well correlated, indicating a similar source of these species at the three sites. Based on the conversion factor for levoglucosan, mean wood smoke mass at Detling, North Kensington and Harwell was 0.78, 0.87 and 1.0 µg m-3, respectively. At all the sites, biomass burning was found to be a source of OC and EC, with the largest source of OC and EC found to be secondary organic aerosols and traffic emissions, respectively. Peaks in levoglucosan concentrations at the sites were observed to coincide with low ambient temperature, suggesting domestic heating as

  8. 40 CFR 98.110 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Ferroalloy Production § 98.110 Definition of the source category. The ferroalloy production source category consists of any facility that uses pyrometallurgical techniques to produce any of the following metals: ferrochromium, ferromanganese, ferromolybdenum...

  9. 40 CFR 98.360 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... this rule. (b) A manure management system (MMS) is a system that stabilizes and/or stores livestock... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Manure Management § 98.360 Definition of the source category. (a) This source category consists of livestock facilities with manure management systems that emit 25...

  10. 40 CFR 98.40 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of the source category. 98... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Electricity Generation § 98.40 Definition of the source... category does not include portable equipment, emergency equipment, or emergency generators, as defined in...

  11. Spectral and temporal cues for perception of material and action categories in impacted sound sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens; McAdams, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments, similarity ratings and categorization performance with recorded impact sounds representing three material categories (wood, metal, glass) being manipulated by three different categories of action (drop, strike, rattle) were examined. Previous research focusing on single impact...... correlated with the pattern of confusion in categorization judgments. Listeners tended to confuse materials with similar spectral centroids, and actions with similar temporal centroids and onset densities. To confirm the influence of these different features, spectral cues were removed by applying...

  12. Fuel Wood: A Conventional Source Of Energy In Mountains Of The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of fuel wood in the Garhwal Himalaya as a primary source of energy for domestic purposes is causing severe deforestation in the Garhwal Himalaya. The fuel wood consumption patterns have been studied in six villages selected two each in tropical (Ganga Bhogpur and Kunow), sub-tropical (Bhainswara and ...

  13. Identifying Sustainable Wood Sources for the Construction Industry: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghan Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood is generally considered as a sustainable construction material. However, there are not sufficient wood resources in many countries or regions, especially those short of land resources. These countries and regions have to import wood from overseas. Therefore, it is imperative to determine how to choose sustainable importing sources in order to improve the sustainability performance of using wood in construction. This study compares the sustainability performance of wood imported from different regions by considering wood harvesting, manufacture, and transportation. A framework accounting energy consumption and CO2 emissions is developed for sustainability assessment. The results show that importing wood from Canada, Australia, and New Zealand to Taiwan demands a relatively lower amount of energy than from other regions. Specifically, importing wood from Canada (West demands the lowest amount of energy (2095 MJ/m3, while importing wood form Brazil consumes the highest amount of energy (5356 MJ/m3. In addition, findings showed that the CO2 emissions generated from importing wood from Sweden are significant lower than those from other regions, although the energy consumed during the importing process is relatively high. The study also revealed that the wood manufacturing process and marine transportation contribute to the most energy consumption and CO2 emissions among all importing processes analysed from most of studied regions.

  14. Urban Wood Waste Resource Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltsee, G.

    1998-11-20

    This study collected and analyzed data on urban wood waste resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Three major categories wood wastes disposed with, or recovered from, the municipal solid waste stream; industrial wood wastes such as wood scraps and sawdust from pallet recycling, woodworking shops, and lumberyards; and wood in construction/demolition and land clearing debris.

  15. Wood : adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.H. Conner

    2001-01-01

    This chapter on wood adhesives includes: 1) Classification of wood adhesives 2) Thermosetting wood adhesives 3) Thermoplastic adhesives, 4) Wood adhesives based on natural sources 5) Nonconventional bonding of wood 6) Wood bonding.

  16. Life cycle environmental impacts of different construction wood waste and wood packaging waste processing methods

    OpenAIRE

    Manninen, Kaisa; Judl, Jáchym; Myllymaa, Tuuli

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the life cycle environmental impacts of different wood waste processing methods in three impact categories: climate impact, acidification impacts and eutrophication impacts. The wood waste recovery methods examined were the use of wood waste in terrace boards made out of wood composite which replace impregnated terrace boards, incineration of wood waste in a multi-fuel boiler instead of peat and the use of wood waste in the production of particleboard in either Finland or ...

  17. Urban Wood Waste Resource Assessment; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiltsee, G.

    1998-01-01

    This study collected and analyzed data on urban wood waste resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Three major categories wood wastes disposed with, or recovered from, the municipal solid waste stream; industrial wood wastes such as wood scraps and sawdust from pallet recycling, woodworking shops, and lumberyards; and wood in construction/demolition and land clearing debris

  18. Economy of wood supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imponen, V.

    1993-01-01

    Research and development of wood fuels production was vigorous in the beginning of the 1980's. Techniques and working methods used in combined harvesting and transportation of energy and merchantable wood were developed in addition to separate energy wood delivery. After a ten year silent period the research on this field was started again. At present the underutilization of forest supplies and the environmental effects of energy production based on fossil fuels caused the rebeginning of the research. One alternative for reduction of the price of wood fuels at the utilization site is the integration of energy and merchantable wood deliveries together. Hence the harvesting and transportation devices can be operated effectively, and the organizational costs are decreased as well. The wood delivery costs consist of the stumpage price, the harvesting and transportation costs, and of general expenses. The stumpage price form the largest cost category (over 50 %) of the industrial merchantable wood delivery, and the harvesting and transportation costs in the case of thinningwood delivery. Forest transportation is the largest part of the delivery costs of logging residues. The general expenses, consisting of the management costs and the interest costs of the capital bound to the storages, form a remarkable cost category in delivery of low-rank wood for energy or conversion purposes. The costs caused by the harvesting of thinningwood, the logging residues, chipping and crushing, the lorry transportation are reviewed in this presentation

  19. Potential wood protection strategies using physiological requirements of wood degrading fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sailer, M.F.; Etten, B.D. van

    2004-01-01

    Due to the increasing restrictions in the use of wood preserving biocides a number of potential biocide free wood preserving alternatives are currently assessed. Wood degrading fungi require certain conditions in the wood in order to be able to use wood as a food source. This paper discusses the

  20. Turbulence and Araki-Woods factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasyk, R.; Törnquist, A.; Törnquist, Asger Dag

    2010-01-01

    Using Baire category techniques we prove that Araki-Woods factors are not classifiable by countable structures. As a result, we obtain a far reaching strengthening as well as a new proof of the well-known theorem of Woods that the isomorphism problem for ITPFI factors is not smooth. We derive...

  1. Sources of heavy metal contamination in Swedish wood waste used for combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krook, J.; Martensson, A.; Eklund, M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, wood waste (RWW) recovered for heat production in Sweden was studied. Previous research has concluded that RWW contains elevated amounts of heavy metals, causing environmental problems during waste management. This study extends previous work on RWW by analysing which pollution sources cause this contamination. Using existing data on the metal contents in various materials, and the amounts of these materials in RWW, the share of the elevated amounts of metals in RWW that these materials explain was quantified. Six different materials occurring in RWW were studied and the results show that they explain from 70% to 100% of the amounts of arsenic, chromium, lead, copper and zinc in RWW. The most important materials contributing to contamination of RWW are surface-treated wood, industrial preservative-treated wood, plastic and galvanised fastening systems. These findings enable the development and evaluation of strategies aiming to decrease pollution and resource loss from handling RWW. It is argued that source separation and measures taken further downstream from the generation site, such as treatment, need to be combined to substantially decrease the amount of heavy metals in RWW

  2. 76 FR 4155 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories: Gasoline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... 63 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories: Gasoline Distribution Bulk Terminals, Bulk Plants, and Pipeline Facilities; and Gasoline Dispensing Facilities; Final...] RIN 2060-AP16 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories: Gasoline...

  3. Task-Modulated Cortical Representations of Natural Sound Source Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens; Kassuba, Tanja; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard

    2018-01-01

    In everyday sound environments, we recognize sound sources and events by attending to relevant aspects of an acoustic input. Evidence about the cortical mechanisms involved in extracting relevant category information from natural sounds is, however, limited to speech. Here, we used functional MRI...

  4. Impending sources of energy to replace fire wood in semi arid climatic zones: A case study in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihret Dananto Ulsido

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study paper shows an alternative source of energy that can decrease the extensive use of fire wood in Ethiopia. The country’s entire rural area and significant part of urban population is completely dependent on fire wood as a source of energy. This practice takes its own toll, the forest is on the verge of being wiped out and as a result a clear change of climate and loss of natural biodiversity resources is visible. Fire wood is not the only source of energy available in the country. In this paper, based on their low cost, construction material availability and the required unskilled labor it is shown that biogas and solar energy are potentially feasible source of energy to replace firewood for cooking.

  5. Projected wood energy impact on US forest wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skog, K.E. [USDA Forest Service, Madison, WI (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The USDA Forest Service has developed long-term projections of wood energy use as part of a 1993 assessment of demand for and supply of resources from forest and range lands in the United States. To assess the impact of wood energy demand on timber resources, a market equilibrium model based on linear programming was developed to project residential, industrial, commercial, and utility wood energy use from various wood energy sources: roundwood from various land sources, primary wood products mill residue, other wood residue, and black liquor. Baseline projections are driven by projected price of fossil fuels compared to price of wood fuels and the projected increase in total energy use in various end uses. Wood energy use is projected to increase from 2.67 quad in 1986 to 3.5 quad in 2030 and 3.7 quad in 2040. This is less than the DOE National Energy Strategy projection of 5.5 quad in 2030. Wood energy from forest sources (roundwood) is projected to increase from 3.1 billion (10{sup 9}) ft{sup 3} in 1986 to 4.4. billion ft{sup 3} in 2030 and 4.8 billion ft{sup 3} in 2040 (88, 124 and 136 million m{sup 3}, respectively). This rate of increase of roundwood use for fuel -- 0.8 percent per year -- is virtually the same as the projected increase rate for roundwood for pulpwood. Pulpwood roundwood is projected to increase from 4.2 billion ft{sup 3} in 1986 to 6.0 billion ft{sup 3} in 2030 and 6.4 billion ft{sup 3} in 2040 (119, 170 and 183 million m{sup 3}, respectively).

  6. Tactics at the category level of purchasing and supply management: sourcing levers, contingencies and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Hesping, Frank

    2015-01-01

    For the ‘front-line’ purchasing agent, it is obvious that not all categories of products and supplier relationships should be managed in the same way. Rather, in a modern category management approach, firms group similar products into ‘sourcing categories’ forming coherent supply markets (e.g., ‘metal sheets’, ‘leather’, ‘displays’, ‘cables’, etc.). Thus, to achieve cost reduction targets, a tailored mix of tactical sourcing levers for each sourcing category may be required. The fundamental q...

  7. Wood burning pollution in southern Chile: PM2.5 source apportionment using CMB and molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Ana M; Barraza, Francisco; Jorquera, Héctor; Schauer, James J

    2017-06-01

    Temuco is a mid-size city representative of severe wood smoke pollution in southern Chile; i.e., ambient 24-h PM 2.5 concentrations have exceeded 150 μg/m 3 in the winter season and the top concentration reached 372 μg/m 3 in 2010. Annual mean concentrations have decreased but are still above 30 μg/m 3 . For the very first time, a molecular marker source apportionment of ambient organic carbon (OC) and PM 2.5 was conducted in Temuco. Primary resolved sources for PM 2.5 were wood smoke (37.5%), coal combustion (4.4%), diesel vehicles (3.3%), dust (2.2%) and vegetative detritus (0.7%). Secondary inorganic PM 2.5 (sulfates, nitrates and ammonium) contributed 4.8% and unresolved organic aerosols (generated from volatile emissions from incomplete wood combustion), including secondary organic aerosols, contributed 47.1%. Adding the contributions of unresolved organic aerosols to those from primary wood smoke implies that wood burning is responsible for 84.6% of the ambient PM 2.5 in Temuco. This predominance of wood smoke is ultimately due to widespread poverty and a lack of efficient household heating methods. The government has been implementing emission abatement policies but achieving compliance with ambient air quality standards for PM 2.5 in southern Chile remains a challenge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 40 CFR 98.240 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... makes methanol, hydrogen, and/or ammonia from synthesis gas is part of the petrochemical source category... hydrogen recovered as product and ammonia. The facility is part of subpart P of this part (Hydrogen... levels of both methanol and ammonia. The facility is part of subpart G of this part (Ammonia...

  9. Use of wood as an energy source in the state of Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Foerster, T.

    1978-09-01

    A detailed study is presented of the availability and use of wood as an energy resource for the State of Maine. Although there are no good data on the total resources of Maine's forests, the best estimates indicate that one could obtain about 1/2 quad (10/sup 15/ Btu) per year from thinning overstocked stands and harvesting dead trees; current logging operations could produce about the same amount of energy in the form of logging residues and thinnings, an amount that could be increased manyfold by intensive forest management. The costs of wood for fuel can be estimated on the basis of current logging and transportation costs. The corresponding energy prices, while high, are competitive with current fossil fuel prices. Using any energy source requires not only the fuel but also a furnace. The total energy costs are thus not only the cost of current fuel use but also those of the capital investment in the furnace. We have estimated these for systems of two sizes, one for a small house, the other for an apartment building or small commercial establishment. In both cases, our estimated indicate, that woodfueled systems can be economically competitive. Wood is currently used as a fuel on a large scale in the pulp and paper industry. With some increase in wood harvesting efforts and some alterations of furnaces that industry could achieve energy self sufficiency. Other large-scale uses are still speculative but deserve further investigation. A state-owned energy corporation could serve to provide a market for currently wasted wood and to investigate the conversion of wood to other forms of energy. The combustion of wood is not associated with environmental effects that are different kind in magnitude from those associated with the combustion of fossil fuel.

  10. The Role of External Sources of Information in Children's Evaluative Food Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Simone P.

    2012-01-01

    Evaluative food categories are value-laden assessments, which reflect the healthfulness and palatability of foods (e.g. healthy/unhealthy, yummy/yucky). In a series of three studies, this research examines how 3- to 4-year-old children (N?=?147) form evaluative food categories based on input from external sources of information. The results…

  11. 40 CFR 98.420 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of the source category. 98.420 Section 98.420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... distribution of CO2. (4) Purification, compression, or processing of CO2. (5) On-site use of CO2 captured on...

  12. Role of carbon source in the shift from oxidative to hydrolytic wood decomposition by Postia placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiwei; Schilling, Jonathan S

    2017-09-01

    Brown rot fungi initiate wood decay using oxidative pretreatments to improve access for cellulolytic enzymes. These pretreatments are incompatible with enzymes, and we recently showed that Postia placenta overcomes this issue by delaying glycoside hydrolase (GH) gene upregulation briefly (wood wafers and spatially mapped expression (via quantitative PCR) of twelve ORs and GHs targeted using functional genomics analyses. By layering expression patterns over solubilized sugar data (via HPLC) from wood, we observed solubilization of wood glucose, cellobiose, mannose, and xylose coincident with the OR-GH transition. We then tested effects of these soluble sugars, plus polymeric carbon sources (spruce powder, cellulose), on P. placenta gene expression in liquid cultures. Expression of ORs was strictly (aox1, cro5) or progressively repressed over time (qrd1, lcc1) by all soluble sugars, including cellobiose, but not by polymeric sources. Simple sugars repressed hemicellulase gene expression over time, but these sugars did not repress cellulases. Cellulase genes were upregulated, however, along with hemicellulases in the presence of soluble cellobiose and in the presence of polymeric carbon sources, relative to starvation (carbon-free). This verifies an inducible cellulase system in P. placenta that lacks carbon catabolite repression (CCR), and it suggests that brown rot fungi use soluble sugars, particularly cellobiose, to cue a critical oxidative-hydrolytic transition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mechanical properties of wood-based composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiyong Cai; Robert J. Ross

    2010-01-01

    The term composite is used to describe any wood material bonded together with adhesives. The current product mix ranges from fiberboard to laminated beams and components. In this chapter, wood-based composite materials are classified into the following categories: panel products (plywood, oriented strandboard (OSB), particleboard, fiberboard, medium-density fiberboard...

  14. CEFTA Agreement and Opportunities for Wood Furniture Export of the Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Ilijana Petrovska; Živka Meloska; Krum Efremov; Kiril Postolov

    2016-01-01

    This paper is focused on business possibilities of CEFTA 2006 and its influence on export trend of wood furniture from the Republic of Macedonia. First, six categories of wood furniture export are analyzed such as: office furniture, kitchen furniture, bedroom furniture, living and dining room furniture, shop furniture and other furniture, presenting a positive trend in each category, except for living and dining room furniture. The total export of wood furniture shows a positive trend. The se...

  15. Chemical source characterization of residential wood combustion emissions in Denver, Colorado; Bakersfield, California; and Mammoth Lakes, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houck, J.E.; Goulet, J.M.; Chow, J.C.; Watson, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    The chemical composition of residential wood combustion particulate emissions was determined for fireplaces and woodstoves. Burn rates, burn patterns, wood burning appliances, and cordwood types characteristic of Denver, Colorado; Bakersfield, California; and Mammoth Lakes, California, were used during sample collection. Samples were collected using a dilution/cooling system to ensure that condensible compounds were captured. Analyses for 44 chemical species were conducted. Source profiles for use in chemical mass balance (CMB) modeling were calculated from the analytical data. The principal chemical species comprising the profiles were organic compounds and elemental carbon. The minor chemical species were sulfur, chlorine, potassium, sodium, calcium, zinc, nitrate, and ammonium. Virtually all potassium was in a water-soluble form, and sulfur emissions between fireplaces and woodstoves were noted. Area-specific source profiles for fireplaces, woodstoves, and overall residential wood combustion are presented

  16. Assessment of the wood waste resource and its position in the wood / wood-energy sector - Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinard, Ludovic; Deroubaix, Gerard; Roux, Marie-Lise; Levet, Anne-Laure; Quint, Vincent

    2015-04-01

    The first objective of this study is to obtain a better knowledge of the 'wood wastes' issue, to propose a photography of the wood waste sector (productions, trades, consumptions), and then to elaborate different prospective scenarios on the use of wood waste volumes while taking into account possible evolutions on the medium or short term of the regulation and market of the wood/wood energy sector. The considered wastes come from industrial production, from the use of wood-based products, and from the end of life of products potentially containing wood. The authors present bibliographical sources and the adopted methodology, briefly describe the 'wood waste' system with its actors, and then report their assessment of wood wastes. They propose a global assessment as well as detailed assessments with respect to waste origins: wood trade and distribution, industries, craft, households and communities, building sector, public and private tertiary sector, packaging. They also address the collection and management of wood wastes by public services, and present the different types of valorisation (panel fabrication, energy, and others). They discuss exports, and then present different scenarios: a trend-based scenario, and two prospective scenarios with a priority to energetic valorisation or to material valorisation of wood wastes. These scenarios are compared

  17. Economic assessment of RFID coupled with open source technologies for wood traceability in Calabria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sperandio G

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to assess the economic sustainability of the implementation of a wood traceability system in Calabria based on RFID and open source technologies. We identified a break-even point in its implementation under different scenarios in order to highlight the economic sustainability limits, expressed in terms of m3 or tons of processed product. The results showed that the use of RFID technology along the supply chain could lead to an effective operational simplification and to a more efficient use of resources. Based on the average market prices for timber (80-120 € / m3, the implementation of RFID technology led to an increase in timber price by 8% under the worst scenarios. This suggests that the use of open source technologies for wood traceability is already feasible and economically sustainable, as 40% of private companies stated their willingness to pay a premium price (on average 3.25% higher for purchasing certified local wood products in Calabria. Moreover, we expect a further reduction of tags and hardware costs in the next future, up to half the costs estimated in this work, thus making the application of such technology to timber traceability even more affordable.

  18. State-of-the-art of the European regulation on wood wastes and wood ashes valorization. Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousseau, S.

    2007-01-01

    This study has the objective of comparing the regulations of 10 European countries with that of France, in relation to the classification and recycling of wood waste, in particular lightly treated wood, as well as recycling of wood ash. The first part relating to wood waste presents a detailed analysis by country as well as a summary, on the one hand, of the various sectors for recycling waste wood and, on the other, the emission limits for their energy recovery. Generally, there is a distinction between waste covered by the incineration directive, and the others, without any particular category for lightly treated wood. However, recommendations emerge from this that are based essentially on the regulations or guidelines observed in Germany, Austria and the United Kingdom. The second part relating to wood ash also a presents a detailed analysis by country as well as a summary of the various sectors of recycling and limit values for spreading. Ash is generally considered as waste, and is recycled on a case-by case basis. Only Germany and Austria have clearly integrated wood ash in their regulatory framework. Overall this study shows the need for uniform regulation at European level, establishing environment requirements for recycling wood waste and wood ash, in order to encourage development of the use of biomass

  19. Morphology, composition, and mixing state of primary particles from combustion sources - crop residue, wood, and solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Kong, Shaofei; Zhang, Yinxiao; Wang, Yuanyuan; Xu, Liang; Yan, Qin; Lingaswamy, A P; Shi, Zongbo; Lv, Senlin; Niu, Hongya; Shao, Longyi; Hu, Min; Zhang, Daizhou; Chen, Jianmin; Zhang, Xiaoye; Li, Weijun

    2017-07-11

    Morphology, composition, and mixing state of individual particles emitted from crop residue, wood, and solid waste combustion in a residential stove were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our study showed that particles from crop residue and apple wood combustion were mainly organic matter (OM) in smoldering phase, whereas soot-OM internally mixed with K in flaming phase. Wild grass combustion in flaming phase released some Cl-rich-OM/soot particles and cardboard combustion released OM and S-rich particles. Interestingly, particles from hardwood (pear wood and bamboo) and softwood (cypress and pine wood) combustion were mainly soot and OM in the flaming phase, respectively. The combustion of foam boxes, rubber tires, and plastic bottles/bags in the flaming phase released large amounts of soot internally mixed with a small amount of OM, whereas the combustion of printed circuit boards and copper-core cables emitted large amounts of OM with Br-rich inclusions. In addition, the printed circuit board combustion released toxic metals containing Pb, Zn, Sn, and Sb. The results are important to document properties of primary particles from combustion sources, which can be used to trace the sources of ambient particles and to know their potential impacts in human health and radiative forcing in the air.

  20. Residential wood combustion technology review: Volume 1. Final technical report, July 1997--July 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houck, J.E.; Tiegs, P.E.

    1998-12-01

    The report gives results of a review of the current state-of-the-art of residential wood combustion (RWC). The key environmental parameter of concern was the air emission of particles. The technological status of all major RWC categories--cordwood stoves, fireplaces, masonry heaters, pettel stoves, and wood-fired central heating furnaces--was reviewed. Advances in technology achieved since the mid-1980s were the primary focus. Key findings of the review included: (1) the new source performance standard (NSPS) certification procedure only qualitatively predicts the level of emissions from wood heaters under actual use in homes; (2) woodstove durability varies with model, and a method to assess the durability problem is controversial; (3) nationally, the overwhelming majority of RWC air emissions are from noncertified devices (primarily from older noncertified woodstoves); (4) new technology appliances and fuels can reduce emissions significantly; (5) the International Organization for Standardization and EPA NSPS test procedures are quite dissimilar, and data generated by the two procedures would not be comparable; and (6) the effect of wood moisture and wood type on particulate emission appears to be real but less than an order of magnitude

  1. Residential wood combustion technology review: Volume 2 -- Appendices. Final report, July 1997--July 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houck, J.E.; Tiegs, P.E.

    1998-12-01

    The report gives results of a review of the current state-of-the-art of residential wood combustion (RWC). The key environmental parameter of concern was the air emission of particles. The technological status of all major RWC categories--cordwood stoves, fireplaces, masonry heaters, pettel stoves, and wood-fired central heating furnaces--was reviewed. Advances in technology achieved since the mid-1980s were the primary focus. Key findings of the review included: (1) the new source performance standard (NSPS) certification procedure only qualitatively predicts the level of emissions from wood heaters under actual use in homes; (2) woodstove durability varies with model, and a method to assess the durability problem is controversial; (3) nationally, the overwhelming majority of RWC air emissions are from noncertified devices (primarily from older noncertified woodstoves); (4) new technology appliances and fuels can reduce emissions significantly; (5) the International Organization for Standardization and EPA NSPS test procedures are quite dissimilar, and data generated by the two procedures would not be comparable; and (6) the effect of wood moisture and wood type on particulate emission appears to be real but less than an order of magnitude

  2. Chapter 9: Wood Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco X. Aguilar; Karen Abt; Branko Glavonjic; Eugene Lopatin; Warren  Mabee

    2016-01-01

    The availabilty of information on wood energy continues to improve, particularly for commoditized woodfuels.  Wood energy consumption and production vary in the UNECE region because demand is strngly affected by weather and the prices of competing energy sources.  There has been an increase in wood energy in the power-and-heat sector in the EU28 and North American...

  3. Sources of the PM10 aerosol in Flanders, Belgium, and re-assessment of the contribution from wood burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maenhaut, Willy; Vermeylen, Reinhilde; Claeys, Magda; Vercauteren, Jordy; Roekens, Edward

    2016-01-01

    From 30 June 2011 to 2 July 2012 PM10 aerosol samples were simultaneously taken every 4th day at four urban background sites in Flanders, Belgium. The sites were in Antwerpen, Gent, Brugge, and Oostende. The PM10 mass concentration was determined by weighing; organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) were measured by thermal-optical analysis, the wood burning tracers levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, 8 water-soluble ions were measured by ion chromatography, and 15 elements were determined by a combination of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and mass spectrometry. The multi-species dataset was subjected to receptor modeling by PMF. The 10 retained factors (with their overall average percentage contributions to the experimental PM10 mass) were wood burning (9.5%), secondary nitrate (24%), secondary sulfate (12.6%), sea salt (10.0%), aged sea salt (19.2%), crustal matter (9.7%), non-ferrous metals (1.81%), traffic (10.3%), non-exhaust traffic (0.52%), and heavy oil burning (3.0%). The average contributions of wood smoke for the four sites were quite substantial in winter and ranged from 12.5 to 20% for the PM10 mass and from 47 to 64% for PM10 OC. Wood burning appeared to be also a notable source of As, Cd, and Pb. The contribution from wood burning to the PM10 mass and OC was also assessed by making use of levoglucosan as single marker compound and the conversion factors of Schmidl et al. (2008), as done in our previous study on wood burning in Flanders (Maenhaut et al., 2012). However, the apportionments were much lower than those deduced from PMF. It seems that the conversion factors of Schmidl et al. (2008) may not be applicable to wood burning in Flanders. From scatter plots of the PMF-derived wood smoke OC and PM versus levoglucosan, we arrived at conversion factors of 9.7 and 22.6, respectively. - Highlights: • A one-year study with 4 urban background sites and a total of 372

  4. Sources of the PM10 aerosol in Flanders, Belgium, and re-assessment of the contribution from wood burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maenhaut, Willy, E-mail: willy.maenhaut@ugent.be [Ghent University (UGent), Department of Analytical Chemistry, Krijgslaan 281, S12, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); University of Antwerp - UA, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610, Antwerpen (Belgium); Vermeylen, Reinhilde; Claeys, Magda [University of Antwerp - UA, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610, Antwerpen (Belgium); Vercauteren, Jordy; Roekens, Edward [Flemish Environment Agency (VMM), Kronenburgstraat 45, B-2000, Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2016-08-15

    From 30 June 2011 to 2 July 2012 PM10 aerosol samples were simultaneously taken every 4th day at four urban background sites in Flanders, Belgium. The sites were in Antwerpen, Gent, Brugge, and Oostende. The PM10 mass concentration was determined by weighing; organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) were measured by thermal-optical analysis, the wood burning tracers levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, 8 water-soluble ions were measured by ion chromatography, and 15 elements were determined by a combination of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and mass spectrometry. The multi-species dataset was subjected to receptor modeling by PMF. The 10 retained factors (with their overall average percentage contributions to the experimental PM10 mass) were wood burning (9.5%), secondary nitrate (24%), secondary sulfate (12.6%), sea salt (10.0%), aged sea salt (19.2%), crustal matter (9.7%), non-ferrous metals (1.81%), traffic (10.3%), non-exhaust traffic (0.52%), and heavy oil burning (3.0%). The average contributions of wood smoke for the four sites were quite substantial in winter and ranged from 12.5 to 20% for the PM10 mass and from 47 to 64% for PM10 OC. Wood burning appeared to be also a notable source of As, Cd, and Pb. The contribution from wood burning to the PM10 mass and OC was also assessed by making use of levoglucosan as single marker compound and the conversion factors of Schmidl et al. (2008), as done in our previous study on wood burning in Flanders (Maenhaut et al., 2012). However, the apportionments were much lower than those deduced from PMF. It seems that the conversion factors of Schmidl et al. (2008) may not be applicable to wood burning in Flanders. From scatter plots of the PMF-derived wood smoke OC and PM versus levoglucosan, we arrived at conversion factors of 9.7 and 22.6, respectively. - Highlights: • A one-year study with 4 urban background sites and a total of 372

  5. The economic potential of wood pellet production from alternative, low-value wood sources in the southeast of the US

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefnagels, Ric; Junginger, Martin; Faaij, Andre

    2014-01-01

    The global demand for wood pellets used for energy purposes is growing. Therefore, increased amounts of wood pellets are produced from primary forestry products, such as pulp wood. The present analysis demonstrates that substantial amounts of alternative, low-value wood resources are available that

  6. Particulate Matter 2.5 Exposure and Self-Reported Use of Wood Stoves and Other Indoor Combustion Sources in Urban Nonsmoking Homes in Norway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annah B Wyss

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined particulate matter (PM exposure from self-reported use of wood stoves and other indoor combustion sources in urban settings in developed countries. We measured concentrations of indoor PM < 2.5 microns (PM2.5 for one week with the MicroPEM™ nephelometer in 36 households in the greater Oslo, Norway metropolitan area. We examined indoor PM2.5 levels in relation to use of wood stoves and other combustion sources during a 7 day monitoring period using mixed effects linear models with adjustment for ambient PM2.5 levels. Mean hourly indoor PM2.5 concentrations were higher (p = 0.04 for the 14 homes with wood stove use (15.6 μg/m3 than for the 22 homes without (12.6 μg/m3. Moreover, mean hourly PM2.5 was higher (p = 0.001 for use of wood stoves made before 1997 (6 homes, 20.2 μg/m3, when wood stove emission limits were instituted in Norway, compared to newer wood stoves (8 homes, 11.9 μg/m3 which had mean hourly values similar to control homes. Increased PM2.5 levels during diary-reported burning of candles was detected independently of concomitant wood stove use. These results suggest that self-reported use of wood stoves, particularly older stoves, and other combustion sources, such as candles, are associated with indoor PM2.5 measurements in an urban population from a high income country.

  7. Tactics at the category level of purchasing and supply management: sourcing levers, contingencies and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesping, Frank

    2015-01-01

    For the ‘front-line’ purchasing agent, it is obvious that not all categories of products and supplier relationships should be managed in the same way. Rather, in a modern category management approach, firms group similar products into ‘sourcing categories’ forming coherent supply markets (e.g.,

  8. Composites from wood and plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig Clemons

    2010-01-01

    Composites made from thermoplastics and fillers or reinforcements derived from wood or other natural fibers are a dynamic research area encompassing a wide variety of composite materials. For example, as the use of biopolymers grows, wood and other natural fiber sources are being investigated as renewable sources of fillers and reinforcements to modify performance....

  9. Production of Solid Fuel Briquettes from Agricultural and Wood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fibrous agricultural and wood waste materials have been compressed with suitable adhesive into solid fuel briquettes in a compressing machine, which was designed and constructed for this purpose. Nine samples of fibrous waste materials were prepared into different categories:- Category A (100% saw-dust, 100% ...

  10. Mechanics of Wood Machining

    CERN Document Server

    Csanády, Etele

    2013-01-01

    Wood is one of the most valuable materials for mankind, and since our earliest days wood materials have been widely used. Today we have modern woodworking machine and tools; however, the raw wood materials available are continuously declining. Therefore we are forced to use this precious material more economically, reducing waste wherever possible. This new textbook on the “Mechanics of Wood Machining” combines the quantitative, mathematical analysis of the mechanisms of wood processing with practical recommendations and solutions. Bringing together materials from many sources, the book contains new theoretical and experimental approaches and offers a clear and systematic overview of the theory of wood cutting, thermal loading in wood-cutting tools, dynamic behaviour of tool and work piece, optimum choice of operational parameters and energy consumption, the wear process of the tools, and the general regularities of wood surface roughness. Diagrams are provided for the quick estimation of various process ...

  11. Slope failure as an upslope source of stream wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel. Miller

    2013-01-01

    Large woody debris is recognized as an important component of stream geomorphology and stream ecosystem function, and forest-land management is recognized as an important control on the quantity (and size and species distributions) of wood available for recruitment to streams. Much of the wood present in streams comes from adjacent forests, and riparian management...

  12. Wood Identification of 18th Century Furniture. Interpreting Wood Naming Inventoires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Astrid BERNAL

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The 18th century Portuguese church furniture represents an extraordinary richness recognised worldwide, which demands safeguarding and valorisation. The identification of the wood of furniture artworks is the most important component for its comprehension and preservation. In this work wood anatomical characters of an 18th century Portuguese decorative furniture set from the Colegiada de São Martinho de Cedofeita, in Porto, were analysed to identify the woods used for manufacturing and to clarify their common names. Furthermore, the objectives were to recognise some of the criteria for choice of wood as well as the source of each wood. The woods identified from 16 fragments belong to Apuleia sp., Acacia sp., Neolamarckia sp. and Castanea sativa. Apuleia sp. and Acacia sp. woods most likely arrived from Brazil, while the Neolamarckia sp. woods likely arrived from India and the C. sativa woods from Portugal. The results are in accordance with the known Portuguese colonial sea routes of the 15th -18th centuries. Interestingly the terms found in the inventories can refer to finishing methods instead to the name of the woods, as for instance “oil wood” can refer to “oiled wood” or “linseed oiled wood”. The species choice may be related to the mechanical properties of the wood as well as the original tree size. Two large planks of Acacia sp. were used for the top of the “Portuguese arcaz”, and Apuleia sp. was found on main structural elements of this set of furniture, suggesting that wood colour was also important. Woods from Neolamarckia sp. and C. sativa, were also identified, being Castanea wood present only in the most recent pieces of the furniture set.

  13. Wood waste in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, O; Ribeiro, R [Biomass Centre for Energy - CBE, Miranda do Corvo (Portugal)

    1998-12-31

    The energy policy of the EC, as well as most of member states points to a sizeable increase of energy production based on renewable energy sources, wood, wood residues, agricultural residues, energy crops including SRF, organic sludges, solid residues, etc. Most recent goals indicate a desirable duplication of today`s percentage by 2010. The reasons for this interest, besides diversification of sources, less dependence on imported fuels, use of endogenous resources, expected decrease of fossil fuel reserves, use of available land, additional employment and income for rural communities, etc., are related to important environmental benefits namely in terms of emissions of hot house gases. Wood waste, resulting from forest operations, cleaning, cultural and final cuttings, and from wood based industries, constitute a special important resource by reason of quality and availability. In addition to this they do not require additional land use and the removal is beneficial. In the run-up to the becoming December`s 1997 `Climate Change Summit` in Kioto, there is mounting pressure on companies to plan on carbon cuts. (author) 6 refs., 1 tab.

  14. Wood waste in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, O.; Ribeiro, R. [Biomass Centre for Energy - CBE, Miranda do Corvo (Portugal)

    1997-12-31

    The energy policy of the EC, as well as most of member states points to a sizeable increase of energy production based on renewable energy sources, wood, wood residues, agricultural residues, energy crops including SRF, organic sludges, solid residues, etc. Most recent goals indicate a desirable duplication of today`s percentage by 2010. The reasons for this interest, besides diversification of sources, less dependence on imported fuels, use of endogenous resources, expected decrease of fossil fuel reserves, use of available land, additional employment and income for rural communities, etc., are related to important environmental benefits namely in terms of emissions of hot house gases. Wood waste, resulting from forest operations, cleaning, cultural and final cuttings, and from wood based industries, constitute a special important resource by reason of quality and availability. In addition to this they do not require additional land use and the removal is beneficial. In the run-up to the becoming December`s 1997 `Climate Change Summit` in Kioto, there is mounting pressure on companies to plan on carbon cuts. (author) 6 refs., 1 tab.

  15. Wood wastes and residues generated along the Colorado Front Range as a potential fuel source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julie E. Ward; Kurt H. Mackes; Dennis L. Lynch

    2004-01-01

    Throughout the United States there is interest in utilizing renewable fuel sources as an alternative to coal and nat-ural gas. This project was initiated to determine the availability of wood wastes and residues for use as fuel in ce-ment kilns and power plants located along the Colorado Front Range. Research was conducted through literature searches, phone surveys,...

  16. Inventory of usage pattern for wood burning appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, David; Joeborn, Inger; Sjoedin, Aake; Munkhammar, Inger; Gustavsson, Lennart

    2005-02-01

    The Swedish Environmental Research Institute (IVL) in co-operation with the Swedish National Testing and Research Institute (SP) and Statistics Sweden (SCB) have investigated the use of domestic wood burning for wood stoves and open fireplaces. The results from a closer examination of existing national energy statistics for residential heating has enabled a division of the average consumption of firewood for each house by the category 'fireplace for open fire' and 'tiled stove/heating stove/fireplace for wood'. The estimation of emissions can therefore be improved by differentiating emission factors for different wood stoves and open fireplaces. Today, only one emission factor is used. An insight into general firing procedures, wood storage routines etc. was investigated using a questionnaire for the Teleborg area of the city Vaexjoe. The results of this study provide a foundation for further work, which will subsequently enable improvements for emission inventories on small-scale biomass combustion from household appliances

  17. Potential of Reinforced Indonesian Glulam Beams Using Grade I (Bengkirai, Grade II (Kamper, Grade III (Nyatoh Woods for Use in Structural Wood Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saptahari Sugiri

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Wood is a natural resource that is renewable and available in various species in tropical countries. Its abundancy in nature makes it easy to obtain, thus making it a nature friendly material for use in construction. Indonesia is the most important source of tropical wood in the world after Brazil, making the use of wood for structural elements very desirable. It is estimated that 4000 different varieties of wood exist in Indonesia. This estimate is based on the herbarium species collected by the Forestry Research Institute, currently counting nearly 4000 types of trees with a diameter of more than 40 cm. In the Indonesian wood structure code, the strength of woods is divided into 3 grades (grade I, II and III. This paper presents an evaluation of the mechanical properties of glulam wood sourced from native Indonesian timber: Bengkirai wood (grade I, Kamper wood (grade II, and Nyatoh wood (grade III, thus proving the potential for Indonesian wood as industrial structural elements in wooden constructions.

  18. Furniture wood wastes: Experimental property characterisation and burning tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatano, Fabio; Barbadoro, Luca; Mangani, Giovanna; Pretelli, Silvia; Tombari, Lucia; Mangani, Filippo

    2009-01-01

    Referring to the industrial wood waste category (as dominant in the provincial district of Pesaro-Urbino, Marche Region, Italy), this paper deals with the experimental characterisation and the carrying out of non-controlled burning tests (at lab- and pilot-scale) for selected 'raw' and primarily 'engineered' ('composite') wood wastes. The property characterisation has primarily revealed the following aspects: potential influence on moisture content of local weather conditions at outdoor wood waste storage sites; generally, higher ash contents in 'engineered' wood wastes as compared with 'raw' wood wastes; and relatively high energy content values of 'engineered' wood wastes (ranging on the whole from 3675 to 5105 kcal kg -1 for HHV, and from 3304 to 4634 kcal kg -1 for LHV). The smoke qualitative analysis of non-controlled lab-scale burning tests has primarily revealed: the presence of specific organic compounds indicative of incomplete wood combustion; the presence exclusively in 'engineered' wood burning tests of pyrroles and amines, as well as the additional presence (as compared with 'raw' wood burning) of further phenolic and containing nitrogen compounds; and the potential environmental impact of incomplete industrial wood burning on the photochemical smog phenomenon. Finally, non-controlled pilot-scale burning tests have primarily given the following findings: emission presence of carbon monoxide indicative of incomplete wood combustion; higher nitrogen oxide emission values detected in 'engineered' wood burning tests as compared with 'raw' wood burning test; and considerable generation of the respirable PM 1 fraction during incomplete industrial wood burning.

  19. Current status of securing Category 1 and 2 radioactive sources in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Y-F.; Tsai, C-H. [Atomic Energy Council of Executive Yuan of Taiwan (China)

    2014-07-01

    For enhancing safe and secure management of Category 1 and 2 radioactive sources against theft or unauthorized removal, AEC (Atomic Energy Council) of Taiwan have been regulating the import/export of the sources ever since 2005, in compliance with the IAEA's (International Atomic Energy Agency) 'Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources'. Furthermore in consulting the IAEA Nuclear Security Series No.11 report, administrative regulations on the program of securing the sources have been embodied into AECL's regulatory system since 2012, for the purpose of enforcing medical and non-medical licensees and industrial radiographers to establish their own radioactive source security programs. Regulations require that security functions such as access control, detection, delay, response and communication and security management measures are to be implemented within the programs. This paper is to introduce the current status in implementing the security control measures in Taiwan. (author)

  20. Wood-plastic composites utilizing wood flours derived from fast- growing trees common to the midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are several non- or under-utilized hardwood trees common to the Midwestern states. Wood flour (WF) derived from fast-growing Midwest trees (Osage orange, Black Locust and Red Mulberry) were evaluated as a source of bio-based fiber reinforcements. Wood plastic composites (WPC) of high density p...

  1. Wood as an energy source in the 1990s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohjonen, V.

    1993-01-01

    Woodbased fuels cover 14 % of the Finnish energy demand in the beginning of 1990s. Over half (55 %) of the wood power is generated in the cellulose industries by burning the residual black and sulphite liquor. A quarter (23 %) of the woodpower comes from mechanical wood residues, whereas 22 % only comes from conventional firewood. Based on the efficiency of the wood-based energy economy the cellulose and saw milling industries managed in the 1980s to exceed self sufficiency in electricity and steam power production. Increasing use of wood-based fuels in the future in nationally significant scale is therefore tied with the future growth of the cellulose and sawmilling industries. The growth has been made possible by the growth in the Finnish forests since the 1970s. A new model of power generation has been created in the town of Kuhmo in the eastern Finland. It is based on a modem saw mill, combined with electricity (5 MW) and district heating power (13 MW) plant. The power technology is based on fluidized bed combustion which has also been designed for minimizing the nitrogen emissions. Because woodbased fuels are sulphur free, and their impact in carbon balance can be kept in zero, increasing use of woodpower in Finland in the 1990s suits well in the international trends of sustained development

  2. 77 FR 11390 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories; Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... Source Categories. Subpart ZZZZZZ--NESHAP: Area Source Standards for Aluminum, Copper, and Other... Perchloroethylene Dry X X X Cleaning. N Hard and Decorative X X X Chromium Electroplating and Chromium Anodizing... Publishing X X X Industry. LL Primary Aluminum Reduction X X Plants. MM Chemical Recovery X X Combustion...

  3. In individual or collective dwellings, wood-fuel: an enthusiastic market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    The wood-fuel market benefits from the present day development of renewable energy sources, both in the individual residential sector where wood-fuel is becoming a main space-heating solution and not only an auxiliary one, and in the collective residential, tertiary and industrial sectors where more than 1850 wood-burning facilities have been implemented in 6 years under the impulse of the wood-fuel development plan. Sales have raised by 40% in the residential sector in 2006 and a 50% increase of renewable energy sources is expected in the heat generation sector from now to 2010. This article presents the main trends of the French wood-fuel market and the existing offer of wood-fuel boilers. (J.S.)

  4. Manufacture of wood/plastic composites by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamoto, Takeo

    1976-01-01

    The manufacture and use of wood/plastic composite (WPC) as an example of wood matrix and wood sawdust/plastic composites (SDP) as an example of plastic matrix are reviewed. The raw material for WPC are mostly vinyl monomers, particularly methyl methacrylate and styrene. The reaction in WPC polymerization is radical polymerization. Researches on the radiation sources mostly resulted in gamma-ray. Electron beam can be applied only to thin products. The future use of WPC may be for furnitures, sporting goods, decorative parts and the like. Vital study on the reduction of manufacturing costs is required, for example, the improvement of reaction and the adoption of continuous process must be considered. The raw materials for SDP are wood sawdust, vinyl monomer (mostly methyl methacrylate) and resins. Electron beam accelerators are the most preferable radiation source because of its high efficiency and safe operation. SDP shows good forming property. The most preferable use of SDP is as interior materials for prefabricated houses, for example, opening frames for bath rooms. Some combination of the technologies of wood engineering, chemical engineering and radiation engineering must be established to develop and maintain the demands. The present radiation sources are forced to grow to large scale industrially, but the establishment of radiation source technology which can be enlarged stepwise is important to keep pace with the development. (Iwakiri, K.)

  5. Wood Flour Moulding Technology: Implications for Technical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-04-19

    Apr 19, 2011 ... be waste product from saw mills, wood working plants or produced from selected dry wood by .... Stop watch-used to indicate the exact time the mould has remained in the press before wood .... There is abundance of saw dust the source of which is the ... Madison, Wisconsin: Wiley Interscience. Usoro, H. S. ...

  6. Discover the benefits of residential wood heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This publication described how residential wood-heating systems are being used to reduce energy costs and increase home comfort. Biomass energy refers to all forms are renewable energy that is derived from plant materials. The source of fuel may include sawmills, woodworking shops, forest operations and farms. The combustion of biomass is also considered to be carbon dioxide neutral, and is not considered to be a major producer of greenhouse gases (GHG) linked to global climate change. Wood burning does, however, release air pollutants, particularly if they are incompletely burned. Incomplete combustion of wood results in dense smoke consisting of toxic gases. Natural Resources Canada helped create new safety standards and the development of the Wood Energy Technical Training Program to ensure that all types of wood-burning appliances are installed correctly and safely to reduce the risk of fire and for effective wood heating. In Canada, more than 3 million families heat with wood as a primary or secondary heating source in homes and cottages. Wood heating offers security from energy price fluctuations and electrical power failures. This paper described the benefits of fireplace inserts that can transform old fireplaces into modern heating systems. It also demonstrated how an add-on wood furnace can be installed next to oil furnaces to convert an oil-only heating system to a wood-oil combination system, thereby saving thousands of dollars in heating costs. Wood pellet stoves are another wood burning option. The fuel for the stoves is produced from dried, finely ground wood waste that is compressed into hard pellets that are loaded into a hopper. The stove can run automatically for up to 24 hours. New high-efficiency advanced fireplaces also offer an alternative heating system that can reduce heating costs while preserving Canada's limited supply of fossil fuels such as oil and gas. 13 figs

  7. Large wood in the Snowy River estuary, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinwood, Jon B.; McLean, Errol J.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we report on 8 years of data collection and interpretation of large wood in the Snowy River estuary in southeastern Australia, providing quantitative data on the amount, sources, transport, decay, and geomorphic actions. No prior census data for an estuary is known to the authors despite their environmental and economic importance and the significant differences between a fluvial channel and an estuarine channel. Southeastern Australian estuaries contain a significant quantity of large wood that is derived from many sources, including river flood flows, local bank erosion, and anthropogenic sources. Wind and tide are shown to be as important as river flow in transporting and stranding large wood. Tidal action facilitates trapping of large wood on intertidal bars and shoals; but channels are wider and generally deeper, so log jams are less likely than in rivers. Estuarine large wood contributes to localised scour and accretion and hence to the modification of estuarine habitat, but in the study area it did not have large-scale impacts on the hydraulic gradients nor the geomorphology.

  8. State-of-the-art of waste wood supply chain in Germany and selected European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Carlos A; Hora, Guido

    2017-12-01

    According to the statistic office of the European Union (Eurostat), Germany is the main producer of waste wood in Europe followed by France, United Kingdom, Italy and Finland. Based on the characteristics of the waste wood, it can be classified in four (4) categories: A I, A II, A III and A IV. This paper focuses in the A I waste wood since is the only category able to be used directly for both material and energy purposes without a previously pre-treatment. Currently, most of this waste wood is used for direct energy production due to the previous government legislation that promoted its use directly in incineration facilities. However, the newest Renewable Energy Act (EEG 2017) may promote the cascade-use of A I waste wood prior to be intended for energy purposes. Nonetheless, the government incentives to the energy sector is not the only bottleneck that the use of A I waste wood as raw material in the wood-based industry has to overcome. The peak availability, collection logistics (collection centers and transportation) and recycling facility location are some of the parameters that must be considered in order to design the "best" supply chain network for A I waste wood. This work presents a detailed description of the effect of the hierarchical strategic decision in the proper design of the waste wood supply chain. Additionally, the global picture of waste wood recycling in different European countries (UK, Italy and Finland) is briefly presented. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Vitellaria paradoxa Wood as a Potential Source of Dietary Fibre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi Alanamu ABDULRAHAMAN

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In the tropical developing countries, diseases such as diabetes, tuberculosis, cancer, obesity have been a continuous cause of mortality. In recent times, nutrition experts have come up with new ideas for food recipe, with a view to improving human health. One of these ideas is to enhance dietary fibre content to improve food digestibility and bowel movement. In this study the effect of the processed insoluble wood fibres on the blood system of albino rats was studied by feeding the rats with the processed Vitellaria paradoxa wood fibres added to the animals� normal diet for a period of 28 days across four treatments namely the control, 10%, 15% and 20% processed wood fibres.. These cellulosic materials incorporated into normal diet of the albino rats did not cause a reduction in the live weight of the experimental animals. A paired sample t- test conducted on the two sets of data indicated no significant difference (P = 0.8390 > 0.05 in the mean difference between mean initial and final haematocrit. Therefore the wood fibre supplemented diet did not have had any deleterious effects on the quality and quantity of the rats� blood. Thus there is also a possibility that the cellulosic fibres did not reduce the plasma cholesterol level concentrations of the rats. Processed wood was also used in baking bread. The addition of cellulosic fibres did not negatively affect the physical, chemical and baking properties of bread, but it prolonged the shelf-life of the bread.

  10. Vitellaria paradoxa Wood as a Potential Source of Dietary Fibre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi Alanamu ABDULRAHAMAN

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In the tropical developing countries, diseases such as diabetes, tuberculosis, cancer, obesity have been a continuous cause of mortality. In recent times, nutrition experts have come up with new ideas for food recipe, with a view to improving human health. One of these ideas is to enhance dietary fibre content to improve food digestibility and bowel movement. In this study the effect of the processed insoluble wood fibres on the blood system of albino rats was studied by feeding the rats with the processed Vitellaria paradoxa wood fibres added to the animals normal diet for a period of 28 days across four treatments namely the control, 10%, 15% and 20% processed wood fibres.. These cellulosic materials incorporated into normal diet of the albino rats did not cause a reduction in the live weight of the experimental animals. A paired sample t- test conducted on the two sets of data indicated no significant difference (P = 0.8390 > 0.05 in the mean difference between mean initial and final haematocrit. Therefore the wood fibre supplemented diet did not have had any deleterious effects on the quality and quantity of the rats blood. Thus there is also a possibility that the cellulosic fibres did not reduce the plasma cholesterol level concentrations of the rats. Processed wood was also used in baking bread. The addition of cellulosic fibres did not negatively affect the physical, chemical and baking properties of bread, but it prolonged the shelf-life of the bread.

  11. RESIDENTIAL WOOD COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY REVIEW - VOLUME 2. APPENDICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a review of the current state-of-the-art of residential wood combustion (RWC). The key environmental parameter of concern was the air emission of particles. The technological status of all major RWC categories--cordwood stoves, fireplaces, masonry heat...

  12. Sources of the PM10 aerosol in Flanders, Belgium, and re-assessment of the contribution from wood burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maenhaut, Willy; Vermeylen, Reinhilde; Claeys, Magda; Vercauteren, Jordy; Roekens, Edward

    2016-08-15

    From 30 June 2011 to 2 July 2012 PM10 aerosol samples were simultaneously taken every 4th day at four urban background sites in Flanders, Belgium. The sites were in Antwerpen, Gent, Brugge, and Oostende. The PM10 mass concentration was determined by weighing; organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) were measured by thermal-optical analysis, the wood burning tracers levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, 8 water-soluble ions were measured by ion chromatography, and 15 elements were determined by a combination of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and mass spectrometry. The multi-species dataset was subjected to receptor modeling by PMF. The 10 retained factors (with their overall average percentage contributions to the experimental PM10 mass) were wood burning (9.5%), secondary nitrate (24%), secondary sulfate (12.6%), sea salt (10.0%), aged sea salt (19.2%), crustal matter (9.7%), non-ferrous metals (1.81%), traffic (10.3%), non-exhaust traffic (0.52%), and heavy oil burning (3.0%). The average contributions of wood smoke for the four sites were quite substantial in winter and ranged from 12.5 to 20% for the PM10 mass and from 47 to 64% for PM10 OC. Wood burning appeared to be also a notable source of As, Cd, and Pb. The contribution from wood burning to the PM10 mass and OC was also assessed by making use of levoglucosan as single marker compound and the conversion factors of Schmidl et al. (2008), as done in our previous study on wood burning in Flanders (Maenhaut et al., 2012). However, the apportionments were much lower than those deduced from PMF. It seems that the conversion factors of Schmidl et al. (2008) may not be applicable to wood burning in Flanders. From scatter plots of the PMF-derived wood smoke OC and PM versus levoglucosan, we arrived at conversion factors of 9.7 and 22.6, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Waste wood as bioenergy feedstock. Climate change impacts and related emission uncertainties from waste wood based energy systems in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röder, Mirjam; Thornley, Patricia

    2018-04-01

    Considering the urgent need to shift to low carbon energy carriers, waste wood resources could provide an alternative energy feedstock and at the same time reduce emissions from landfill. This research examines the climate change impacts and related emission uncertainties of waste wood based energy. For this, different grades of waste wood and energy application have been investigated using lifecycle assessment. Sensitivity analysis has then been applied for supply chain processes and feedstock properties for the main emission contributing categories: transport, processing, pelletizing, urea resin fraction and related N 2 O formation. The results show, depending on the waste wood grade, the conversion option, scale and the related reference case, that emission reductions of up to 91% are possible for non-treated wood waste. Compared to this, energy from treated wood waste with low contamination can achieve up to 83% emission savings, similar to untreated waste wood pellets, but in some cases emissions from waste wood based energy can exceed the ones of the fossil fuel reference - in the worst case by 126%. Emission reductions from highly contaminated feedstocks are largest when replacing electricity from large-scale coal and landfill. The highest emission uncertainties are related to the wood's resin fraction and N 2 O formation during combustion and, pelletizing. Comparing wood processing with diesel and electricity powered equipment also generated high variations in the results, while emission variations related to transport are relatively small. Using treated waste wood as a bioenergy feedstock can be a valid option to reduce emissions from energy production but this is only realisable if coal and landfill gas are replaced. To achieve meaningful emission reduction in line with national and international climate change targets, pre-treatment of waste wood would be required to reduce components that form N 2 O during the energy conversion. Copyright © 2017

  14. Methodologies for estimating air emissions from three non-traditional source categories: Oil spills, petroleum vessel loading and unloading, and cooling towers. Final report, October 1991-March 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, W.; Sleva, S.; Dufner, K.; Snow, S.; Kersteter, S.L.

    1993-04-01

    The report discusses part of EPA's program to identify and characterize emissions sources not currently accounted for by either the existing Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) or State Implementation Plan (SIP) area source methodologies and to develop appropriate emissions estimation methodologies and emission factors for a group of these source categories. Based on the results of the identification and characterization portions of this research, three source categories were selected for methodology and emission factor development: oil spills, petroleum vessel loading and unloading, and cooling towers. The report describes the category selection process and presents emissions estimation methodologies and emission factor data for the selected source categories. The discussions for each category include general background information, emissions generation activities, pollutants emitted, sources of activity and pollutant data, emissions estimation methodologies and data issues. The information used in these discussions was derived from various sources including available literature, industrial and trade association publications and contracts, experts on the category and activity, and knowledgeable federal and state personnel

  15. Coal and wood fuel for electricity production: An environmentally sound solution for waste and demolition wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penninks, F.W.M. [EPON, Zwolle (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    Waste wood from primary wood processing and demolition presents both a problem and a potential. If disposed in landfills, it consumes large volumes and decays, producing CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases. As an energy source used in a coal fired power plant it reduces the consumption of fossil fuels reducing the greenhouse effect significantly. Additional advantages are a reduction of the ash volume and the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions. The waste wood requires collection, storage, processing and burning. This paper describes a unique project which is carried out in the Netherlands at EPON`s Gelderland Power Plant (635 MW{sub e}) where 60 000 tonnes of waste and demolition wood will be used annually. Special emphasis is given to the processing of the powdered wood fuel. Therefore, most waste and demolition wood can be converted from an environmental liability to an environmental and economic asset. (author)

  16. Coal and wood fuel for electricity production: An environmentally sound solution for waste and demolition wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penninks, F W.M. [EPON, Zwolle (Netherlands)

    1998-12-31

    Waste wood from primary wood processing and demolition presents both a problem and a potential. If disposed in landfills, it consumes large volumes and decays, producing CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases. As an energy source used in a coal fired power plant it reduces the consumption of fossil fuels reducing the greenhouse effect significantly. Additional advantages are a reduction of the ash volume and the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions. The waste wood requires collection, storage, processing and burning. This paper describes a unique project which is carried out in the Netherlands at EPON`s Gelderland Power Plant (635 MW{sub e}) where 60 000 tonnes of waste and demolition wood will be used annually. Special emphasis is given to the processing of the powdered wood fuel. Therefore, most waste and demolition wood can be converted from an environmental liability to an environmental and economic asset. (author)

  17. WOOD BIOMASS FOR ENERGY IN MONTENEGRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gradimir Danon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood biomass has got its place in the energy balance of Montenegro. A little more than 6% of the total energy consumption is obtained by burning wood. Along with the appropriate state measures, it is economically and environmentally justified to expect Montenegro to more than double the utilization of the existing renewable energy sources including wood biomass, in the near future. For the purpose of achieving this goal, ‘Commercial Utilisation of the Wood Residue as a Resource for Economic Development in the North of Montenegro' project was carried out in 2007. The results of this project were included in the plan of the necessary interventions of the Government and its Agencies, associations or clusters, non-government organisations and interested enterprises. The plan was made on the basis of the wood residue at disposal and the attitude of individual subjects to produce and/or use solid bio-fuels and consists of a proposal of collection and utilisation of the wood residue for each individual district in the north of Montenegro. The basic factors of sustainability of future commercialisation of the wood residue were: availability of the wood raw material, and thereby the wood residue; the development of wood-based fuel markets, and the size of the profit.

  18. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Xxxxxx... - Description of Source Categories Affected by This Subpart

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... heating units, combination gas-oil burners, oil or gas swimming pool heaters, heating apparatus (except... supplies industry sector of this source category includes establishments primarily engaged in high energy...), coke and gas burning salamanders, liquid or gas solar energy collectors, solar heaters, space heaters...

  19. The Swedish wood fuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, Bengt

    1999-01-01

    In Sweden, wood fuels are traditionally used in the Swedish forest products industry and for heating of single-family houses. More recently they are also become established as an energy source for district heating and electricity production. Energy policy, especially the energy taxation system, has favoured wood fuels and other biofuels, mainly for environmental reasons. There is now an established commercial market for wood fuels in the district heating sector, which amounts to 45 PJ and is growing 20 per cent annually. Price levels have been stable in current prices for a decade, mainly because of good access to wood fuels. Price levels are dominated by production costs on a market that is largely governed by the buyer. It is expected that the use of wood fuels will increased in Sweden in the future, which will push a further development of this section on the market and bring about technological changes in the area. (Author)

  20. RESIDENTIAL WOOD COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY REVIEW VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report gives results of a review of the current state-of-the-art of residential wood combustion (RWC). The key environmental parameter of concern was the air emission of particles. The technological status of all major RWC categories -- cordwood stoves, fireplaces, masonry h...

  1. Preparation and applications of wood-polyester composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czvikovszky, T.

    1982-01-01

    Optimum processing parameters were searched for the pilot-scale production of wood-polyester composites by irradiation of resin-impregnated wood material. The radiation initiation of the following systems were examined in wood and without wood matrix: methyl methacrylate, mixture of styrene and acrylonitryle, and their combination with unsaturated polyester. In the most cases the over-all rate of the complete polymerization process in wood matrix is proportional to the square root of the initiation rate. The parameters of the radiation technology of wood-polyester composites have been determined, using 260 TBq (7 kCi) 60 Co radiation source. A pilot plant has been constructed using an underwater irradiation system of 1.85 PBq (50 kCi) 60 Co. The successful production rate of 200 kg wood-polyester composite per day, as well as the application tests have demonstrated the technical feasibility of this new structural material. (author)

  2. Mapping the performance of wood-burning stoves by installations worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo; Jensen, Ole Michael; Tarelho, Luis A. C.

    2016-01-01

    environmental health risk. Research stressed the need to increase the performance of conventional interplays between users, stoves and buildings. This scientific review aims to characterize the performance and environmental effects of 9 wood-burning stove categories by installations worldwide...

  3. Significance of wood extractives for wood bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffael, Edmone

    2016-02-01

    Wood contains primary extractives, which are present in all woods, and secondary extractives, which are confined in certain wood species. Extractives in wood play a major role in wood-bonding processes, as they can contribute to or determine the bonding relevant properties of wood such as acidity and wettability. Therefore, extractives play an immanent role in bonding of wood chips and wood fibres with common synthetic adhesives such as urea-formaldehyde-resins (UF-resins) and phenol-formaldehyde-resins (PF-resins). Extractives of high acidity accelerate the curing of acid curing UF-resins and decelerate bonding with alkaline hardening PF-resins. Water-soluble extractives like free sugars are detrimental for bonding of wood with cement. Polyphenolic extractives (tannins) can be used as a binder in the wood-based industry. Additionally, extractives in wood can react with formaldehyde and reduce the formaldehyde emission of wood-based panels. Moreover, some wood extractives are volatile organic compounds (VOC) and insofar also relevant to the emission of VOC from wood and wood-based panels.

  4. Wood Petrifaction: A New View of Permineralization and Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E. Mustoe

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Petrified wood has traditionally been divided into two categories based on preservation processes: permineralization (where tissues are entombed within a mineral-filled matrix and replacement (where organic anatomical features have been replicated by inorganic materials. New analytical evidence suggests that for most petrified wood, permineralization and replacement are not independent processes; instead, both processes may occur contemporaneously during diagenesis. Infiltration of mineral-bearing groundwater may initially cause permineralization of cellular tissues, but the wood is undergoing gradual degradation. The degree of anatomical preservation thus depends on the relative rates of mineral precipitation and tissue destruction. Rapid rates of mineralization under relatively mild Eh and pH conditions favor the preservation of organic matter. These conditions appear to be more common for calcium carbonate deposition than for silicification, based on observations of fossil woods from many localities. Because of these preservational complexities, “mineralization” and “mineralized” are more accurate as general descriptive terms than “permineralization” and “permineralized”.

  5. Anthropogenic Sulfur Dioxide Emissions, 1850-2005: National and Regional Data Set by Source Category, Version 2.86

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Anthropogenic Sulfur Dioxide Emissions, 1850-2005: National and Regional Data Set by Source Category, Version 2.86 provides annual estimates of anthropogenic...

  6. Emissions from wood domestic heating appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collet, S.

    2009-01-01

    Much research has been carried out to study emissions from wood domestic heating appliances. This work reviews the available emission factors about pollutants produced in different types of wood domestic heating appliances. The main sources of pollutants are older stoves that in most cases are used as an additional heating appliance. These stoves causes higher emissions than modern appliances. Then, substitution of an old type wood appliance with a modern appliance or boiler or a pellet boilers, would reduce considerably emissions in this sector. The efficiency of this measure is estimated for each pollutant. (author)

  7. Wood energy and air quality. Synthetic report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-07-01

    This report presents and comments some reference data about the current and prospective (2010, 2020) pollutant emissions through wood combustion as a source of energy. It indicates and compares greenhouse gas emissions by the different sources for household, collective and industrial heating (fuel, gas, electricity, pellets, logs, grinds, wood wastes), gives an overview of atmospheric emissions due to biomass combustion. It compares emissions due to wood combustion with respect to the activity sectors and to combustion equipment. It highlights the challenges of the development of the household sector in terms of improvement and renewal of the quality of the burning equipment. It comments the implemented policies which notably aim at reducing the emission of particles, and at defining quality labels

  8. Identification and characterization of five non-traditional-source categories: Catastrophic/accidental releases, vehicle repair facilities, recycling, pesticide application, and agricultural operations. Final report, September 1991-September 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sleva, S.; Pendola, J.A.; McCutcheon, J.; Jones, K.; Kersteter, S.L.

    1993-03-01

    The work is part of EPA's program to identify and characterize emissions sources not currently accounted for by either the existing Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) or State Implementation Plans (SIP) area source methodologies and to develop appropriate emissions estimation methodologies and emission factors for a group of these source categories. Based on the results of the identification and characterization portions of the research, five source categories were selected for methodology and emission factor development: catastrophic/accidental releases, vehicle repair facilities, recycling, pesticide application and agricultural operations. The report presents emissions estimation methodologies and emission factor data for the selected source categories. The discussions for each selected category include general background information, emissions generation activities, pollutants emitted, sources of activity and pollutant data, emissions estimation methodologies, issues to be considered and recommendations. The information used in these discussions was derived from various sources including available literature, industrial and trade association publications and contracts, experts on the category and activity, and knowledgeable federal and state personnel

  9. Wood plastic combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunanan, S.A.; Bonoan, L.S.; Verceluz, F.P.; Azucena, E.A.

    1976-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to improve the physical and mechaniproperties of local inferior quality wood species by radiation-induced graft polymerization with plastic monomers. The process involves the following: 1) Preparation of sample; 2) Impregnation of sample with the monomers; 3) Irradiation of the impregnated sample with the use of 20,000 curie Co-60 as gamma-source; 4) Drying of irradiated sample to remove the unpolymerized monomer. Experimentation on different wood species were undertaken and the results given. From the results obtained, it can be concluded that the monomers systems MMA, MMA-USP, and styrene-USP are suitable for graft polymerization with the wood species almon, apitong, bagtikan, mayapis, red lauan, and tanguile. This is shown by their maximum conversion value which range from 86% to 96% with the optimum dose range of 1 to 2 Mrads. However, in the application of WPC process, properties that are required in a given wood product must be considered, thus aid in the selection of the monomer system to be used with a particular wood species. Some promising applications of WPC is in the manufacture of picker sticks, shuttles, and bobbins for the textile industry. However, there is a need for a pilot plant scale study so that an economic assessment of the commercial feasibility of this process can be made

  10. Unique low-molecular-weight lignin with high purity extracted from wood by deep eutectic solvents (DES): a source of lignin for valorization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Vasco, Carlos; Ma, Ruoshui; Quintero, Melissa; Guo, Mond; Geleynse, Scott; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Wolcott, Michael; Zhang, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a new method of applying Deep Eutectic Solvents (DES) for extracting lignin from woody biomass with high yield and high purity. DES mixtures prepared from Choline Chloride (ChCl) and four hydrogen-bond donors–acetic acid, lactic acid, levulinic acid and glycerol–were evaluated for treatment of hardwood (poplar) and softwood (D. fir). It was found that these DES treatments can selectively extract a significant amount of lignin from wood with high yields: 78% from poplar and 58% from D. fir. The extracted lignin has high purity (95%) with unique structural properties. We discover that DES can selectively cleave ether linkages in wood lignin and facilitate lignin removal from wood. The mechanism of DES cleavage of ether bonds between phenylpropane units was investigated. The results from this study demonstrate that DES is a promising solvent for wood delignification and the production of a new source of lignin with promising potential applications.

  11. Tracing nitrogen accumulation in decaying wood and examining its impact on wood decomposition rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinne, Katja T.; Rajala, Tiina; Peltoniemi, Krista; Chen, Janet; Smolander, Aino; Mäkipää, Raisa

    2016-04-01

    Decomposition of dead wood, which is controlled primarily by fungi is important for ecosystem carbon cycle and has potentially a significant role in nitrogen fixation via diazotrophs. Nitrogen content has been found to increase with advancing wood decay in several studies; however, the importance of this increase to decay rate and the sources of external nitrogen remain unclear. Improved knowledge of the temporal dynamics of wood decomposition rate and nitrogen accumulation in wood as well as the drivers of the two processes would be important for carbon and nitrogen models dealing with ecosystem responses to climate change. To tackle these questions we applied several analytical methods on Norway spruce logs from Lapinjärvi, Finland. We incubated wood samples (density classes from I to V, n=49) in different temperatures (from 8.5oC to 41oC, n=7). After a common seven day pre-incubation period at 14.5oC, the bottles were incubated six days in their designated temperature prior to CO2 flux measurements with GC to determine the decomposition rate. N2 fixation was measured with acetylene reduction assay after further 48 hour incubation. In addition, fungal DNA, (MiSeq Illumina) δ15N and N% composition of wood for samples incubated at 14.5oC were determined. Radiocarbon method was applied to obtain age distribution for the density classes. The asymbiotic N2 fixation rate was clearly dependent on the stage of wood decay and increased from stage I to stage IV but was substantially reduced in stage V. CO2 production was highest in the intermediate decay stage (classes II-IV). Both N2 fixation and CO2 production were highly temperature sensitive having optima in temperature 25oC and 31oC, respectively. We calculated the variation of annual levels of respiration and N2 fixation per hectare for the study site, and used the latter data together with the 14C results to determine the amount of N2 accumulated in wood in time. The proportion of total nitrogen in wood

  12. Wood energy and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    This publication first recalls the main benefits of the use of wood, the first source of renewable energy in France: abundant and local resource, low CO 2 emission, competitiveness, job creation. It comments the relationship between the use of this source of energy and the compliance with air quality standards as they are notably defined by European directives, as the use of wood as heating source is one of the recommended lever to improve air quality. The publication comments emissions generated by this type of heating (mainly in the housing sector, with some critical meteorological periods). Levers for actions are discussed: fleet renewal to promote the best performing equipment, practice improvements (fuel quality, apparatus maintenance). Actions undertaken by the ADEME are briefly reviewed: support to individual equipment fleet modernisation, support to R and D, support to the sector, and information and communication

  13. Using multiple continuous fine particle monitors to characterize tobacco, incense, candle, cooking, wood burning, and vehicular sources in indoor, outdoor, and in-transit settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Wayne R.; Siegmann, Hans C.

    This study employed two continuous particle monitors operating on different measurement principles to measure concentrations simultaneously from common combustion sources in indoor, outdoor, and in-transit settings. The pair of instruments use (a) photo-charging (PC) operating on the principle ionization of fine particles that responds to surface particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPAHs), and (b) diffusion charging (DC) calibrated to measure the active surface area of fine particles. The sources studied included: (1) secondhand smoke (cigarettes, cigars, and pipes), (2) incense (stick and cone), (3) candles used as food warmers, (4) cooking (toasting bread and frying meat), (5) fireplaces and ambient wood smoke, and (6) in-vehicle exposures traveling on California arterials and interstate highways. The ratio of the PC to the DC readings, or the PC/DC ratio, was found to be different for major categories of sources. Cooking, burning toast, and using a "canned heat" food warmer gave PC/DC ratios close to zero. Controlled experiments with 10 cigarettes averaged 0.15 ng mm -2 (ranging from 0.11 to 0.19 ng mm -2), which was similar to the PC/DC ratio for a cigar, although a pipe was slightly lower (0.09 ng mm -2). Large incense sticks had PC/DC ratios similar to those of cigarettes and cigars. The PC/DC ratios for ambient wood smoke averaged 0.29 ng mm -2 on 6 dates, or about twice those of cigarettes and cigars, reflecting a higher ratio of PAH to active surface area. The smoke from two artificial logs in a residential fireplace had a PC/DC ratio of 0.33-0.35 ng mm -2. The emissions from candles were found to vary, depending on how the candles were burned. If the candle flickered and generated soot, a higher PC/DC ratio resulted than if the candle burned uniformly in still air. Inserting piece of metal into the candle's flame caused high PPAH emissions with a record PC/DC reading of 1.8 ng mm -2. In-vehicle exposures measured on 43- and 50-min drives on a

  14. USE OF CANDEIA’S (Eremanthus erythropappus WASTE WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosimeire Cavalcante dos Santos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The candeia (Eremanthus erythropappus is a native forest species with multiple uses and specially utilized as essential oils source. The use of the candeia´s waste wood after oil extraction for particle panels production becomes a viable alternative, avoiding environmental problems and increasing the availability of these products in the consuming market. This work verified the viability of producing wood-cement panels using waste wood generated after the extraction of candeia’s oil, in association with pinus and eucalipto woods. The experiment was installed according to a completely randomized design with three repetitions. The treatments were arranged according to a factorial 2 x 3 scheme (two wooden species and three replacement percentages of the woods by candeia’s waste. The results of the physical and mechanical property tests showed high potentiality of candeia waste wood, after oil extraction, in association with pinus and eucalipto wood for manufacturing wood-cement panels.

  15. Health effects assessment of exposure to particles from wood smoke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Elsa; Dybdahl, Marianne; Larsen, Poul Bo

    551,000 wood stoves and 48,000 wood boilers and the particle emission from these sources make up the most dominant source of particle emission in DK. It is estimated that this emission contributes to an annual increased PM2.5 level of 0.6 microgram/m³. From the dose-response relationships used...

  16. Wood handbook : wood as an engineering material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Ross; Forest Products Laboratory. USDA Forest Service.

    2010-01-01

    Summarizes information on wood as an engineering material. Presents properties of wood and wood-based products of particular concern to the architect and engineer. Includes discussion of designing with wood and wood-based products along with some pertinent uses.

  17. An assessment of management practices of wood and wood-related wastes in the urban environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency estimates that yard waste{sup 1} accounts for approximately 16% of the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream (US EPA, 1994). Until recently, specific data and related information on this component of the (MSW) stream has been limited. The purposes of this study, phase two of the three-phase assessment of urban wood waste issues, are to assess and describe current alternatives to landfills for urban wood waste management; provide guidance on the management of urban wood waste to organizations that produce or manage wood waste; and clarify state regulatory and policy positions affecting these organizations. For this study, urban wood waste is defined as solid waste generated by tree and landscape maintenance services (public and private). Urban wood waste includes the following materials: unchipped mixed wood, unchipped logs, and unchipped tops and brush; clearing and grubbing waste; fall leaves and grass clippings; and chips and whole stumps. Construction and demolition debris and consumer-generated yard waste are not included in this study. Generators of urban wood waste include various organizations; municipal, county, and commercial tree care divisions; nurseries, orchards, and golf courses; municipal park and recreation departments; and electric and telephone utility power line maintenance, excavator and land clearance, and landscape organizations. (1) US EPA defines yard waste as ''yard trimmings'' which includes ''grass, leaves and tree brush trimmings from residential, institutional, and commercial sources.''

  18. WOOD PROPERTIES AND EFFECT OF WOOD PROPERTIES ON THE WOOD FINISHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkadir Malkoçoğlu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Wood is basic raw material for furniture and joinery industries with wood structures. Wood is a biological material that has widely different properties depending on species, geographic area where the tree grew, the growth condition, size of the tree at harvest, sawing, and other manufacturing processes. Wood properties have been characterized within two groups as natural and manufacturing factors that effects finishing performance. Grow rate, density, knots, moisture content, extractives and juvenile wood are natural characteristics. Grain orientation, texture, drying and performance expectations are manufacturing characteristics. In this review, the effects of natural and manufacturing characteristics are discussed on the surface finishing performance of wood.

  19. Community turnover of wood-inhabiting fungi across hierarchical spatial scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerea Abrego

    Full Text Available For efficient use of conservation resources it is important to determine how species diversity changes across spatial scales. In many poorly known species groups little is known about at which spatial scales the conservation efforts should be focused. Here we examined how the community turnover of wood-inhabiting fungi is realised at three hierarchical levels, and how much of community variation is explained by variation in resource composition and spatial proximity. The hierarchical study design consisted of management type (fixed factor, forest site (random factor, nested within management type and study plots (randomly placed plots within each study site. To examine how species richness varied across the three hierarchical scales, randomized species accumulation curves and additive partitioning of species richness were applied. To analyse variation in wood-inhabiting species and dead wood composition at each scale, linear and Permanova modelling approaches were used. Wood-inhabiting fungal communities were dominated by rare and infrequent species. The similarity of fungal communities was higher within sites and within management categories than among sites or between the two management categories, and it decreased with increasing distance among the sampling plots and with decreasing similarity of dead wood resources. However, only a small part of community variation could be explained by these factors. The species present in managed forests were in a large extent a subset of those species present in natural forests. Our results suggest that in particular the protection of rare species requires a large total area. As managed forests have only little additional value complementing the diversity of natural forests, the conservation of natural forests is the key to ecologically effective conservation. As the dissimilarity of fungal communities increases with distance, the conserved natural forest sites should be broadly distributed in space, yet

  20. Wood-burning stoves worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo

    global environmental health risk, since these sources are important contributors to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the ambient air that increase climate and health risks. This thesis explores the social-technical dimensions of both the use of wood-burning stoves (WBSs) and transition to the use......More than any time in our history, the wood-burning stove continues to be the most popular technology used for cooking and heating worldwide. According to the World Health Organization and recent scientific studies, the inefficient use of solid-fuels in traditional stoves constitutes the major...... systems, improved efficient retrofits and advanced stove innovations. In chapter 3, four popular wood-burning practices found in five countries were singled-out to be examined closely in four case studies: “cooking in Brazil”, “cooking and heating in Peru”, “heating in Portugal” and “recreational heat...

  1. Energy from wood biomass: The experience of the Brazilian forest sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couto, L. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (Brazil); Graca, L.R. [Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Floresta, Colombo (Brazil); Betters, D.R. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Wood biomass is one of the most significant renewable sources of energy in Brazil. Fuelwood and charcoal play a very important role not only for household energy consumption but also for the cement, iron and steel industries. Wood is used as an energy source by the pulp and paper, composite board and other industries of the country, mainly for steam and electricity generation. Ethanol, lignin-based coke and methanol from wood were produced at experimental units in Brazil but were not implemented on a commercial scale. Currently, a new experimental plant using a technology developed in the US is being built in the state of Bahia to generate electricity from Eucalyptus. This technology is a Biomass Integrated Gasification/Gas Turbine process which is expected to make the use of wood biomass economically feasible for electricity generation. Forest plantations are the main source of wood biomass for energy consumption by the Brazilian industrial sector. Fiscal incentives in the 1960s helped the country to begin a massive reforestation program mainly using Eucalyptus and Pinus species. A native species, bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella) has also been used extensively for wood energy plantations in southern Brazil. Technical, economic, social and environmental impacts of these plantation forests are discussed along with a forecast of the future wood energy utilization in Brazil.

  2. Carbon stored in harvested wood products in Turkey and projections for 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Bouyer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkey is an Annex-I country under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC and therefore submits its Greenhouse gases (GHG emissions and removals from anthropogenic sources to the UNFCCC secretariat on an annual basis, through a National GHG Inventory Report (NIR. GHG emissions and removals from Land Use, Land Use and Forestry (LULUCF constitute one of the main sectors in this report. One of the major land use categories in this sector is Forestland, and harvests in this category must be considered as a direct GHG emission to the atmosphere, unless the fate of the Harvested Wood Products (HWP is reported. In this study, we estimated the carbon sequestration in the HWP category of the Turkish NIR, according to the 2006 Guidelines for GHG inventory in the Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU sector, from the International Panel of Experts on Climate Change (IPCC. This is the first time such an estimate of carbon stocks and carbon stock changes in the HWP pool has been carried out in Turkey. The calculation has been done in Tier 2. We used United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE Timber database disaggregated figures for HWP produced in Turkey from 1964 to 2013. We focused on the two main HWP categories, which are sawnwood and wood-based panels. Comparing UNECE data series with Orman Genel Müdürlügü (OGM, the Republic of Turkey, General Directorate of Forestry data series for industrial roundwood over 1976-2013 (starting date for OGM data series, we noticed some anomalies (with UNECE data series as a basis: max: +47%, min = -23%, mean = +16%. Thus, the UNECE data on sawnwood and wood based panels were corrected based on OGM data. These anomalies could be due to: (i use of volume over bark for UNECE and volume under bark for OGM (+15% for volume over bark, and (ii integration of industrial roundwood coming from the private sector for UNECE. In order to ensure coherence, we then corrected the 1976

  3. Simulated long-term effects of varying tree retention on wood production, dead wood and carbon stock changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaniello, Francesca; Djupström, Line B; Ranius, Thomas; Weslien, Jan; Rudolphi, Jörgen; Sonesson, Johan

    2017-10-01

    Boreal forests are an important source of timber and pulp wood, but provide also other products and services. Utilizing a simulation program and field data from a tree retention experiment in a Scots pine forest in central Sweden, we simulated the consequences during the following 100 years of various levels of retention on production of merchantable wood, dead wood input (as a proxy for biodiversity), and carbon stock changes. At the stand level, wood production decreased with increased retention levels, while dead wood input and carbon stock increased. We also compared 12 scenarios representing a land sharing/land sparing gradient. In each scenario, a constant volume of wood was harvested with a specific level of retention in a 100-ha landscape. The area not needed to reach the defined volume was set-aside during a 100-year rotation period, leading to decreasing area of set-asides with increasing level of retention across the 12 scenarios. Dead wood input was positively affected by the level of tree retention whereas the average carbon stock decreased slightly with increasing level of tree retention. The scenarios will probably vary in how they favor species preferring different substrates. Therefore, we conclude that a larger variation of landscape-level conservation strategies, also including active creation of dead wood, may be an attractive complement to the existing management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fuel wood symposium; Symposium Energieholz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wild, C.; Wauer, A. (comps.)

    2001-07-01

    The Bavarian State Institute of Forestry (LWF) organised a 'Fuel Wood Symposium' in Freising-Weihenstephan on 17.11.2000. The purpose of this specialist conference was to give an overview of the use of biomass, especially wood, as an source of energy. (orig.) [German] Die Bayerische Landesanstalt fuer Wald und Forstwirtschaft richtete am 17.11.2000 in Freising-Weihenstephan das 'Symposium Energieholz' aus. Ziel der Fachtagung war es, einen Ueberblick ueber die energetische Nutzung von Biomasse, insbesondere Holz, zu geben. (orig.)

  5. Simulating measures of wood density through the surface by Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penna, Rodrigo; Oliveira, Arno H.; Braga, Mario R.M.S.S.; Vasconcelos, Danilo C.; Carneiro, Clemente J.G.; Penna, Ariane G.C.

    2009-01-01

    Monte Carlo code (MCNP-4C) was used to simulate a nuclear densimeter for measuring wood densities nondestructively. An Americium source (E = 60 keV) and a NaI (Tl) detector were placed on a wood block surface. Results from MCNP shown that scattered photon fluxes may be used to determining wood densities. Linear regressions between scattered photons fluxes and wood density were calculated and shown correlation coefficients near unity. (author)

  6. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: WOOD-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report provides a profile for a wood-fired industrial boiler equipped with a multistage electrostatic precipitator control device. Along with the profile of emissions of fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less (PM-2.5), data are also provide...

  7. Tannins in tropical woods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doat, J

    1978-01-01

    A preliminary study was made of the chemistry of pyrogallol- and catecholtannins, their general properties and methods of extraction and determination. Three methods of estimation - Lowenthal, powdered hide and spectrophotometry - were compared using two control solutions, four samples of wood and one of bark. Using the empirical powdered hide method, tannins of both types were estimated in wood and bark of various tropical species (some separately and some as a mixture), Moroccan oaks (Quercus suber and Q. ilex), and European oak 9Q. petraea). Further tests were made on the wood and bark of the two mangrove species, Rhizophora mangle and R. racemosa, by subjecting them to successive extraction with a range of solvents. None of the woods tested had as much as the 10% of tannins considered necessary in economic sources. The bark of the two mangroves, of Eucalyptus urophylla and of Prosopis africana had tannin contents over 10% and the latter two species had very favorable tannin/non-tannin ratios. All the tropical species, with the probable exception of E. urophylla, had only catecholtannins. Only the oaks and E. urophylla bark gave positive results when tested for gallotannins.

  8. Fatty acid-based formulations for wood protection against mold and sapstain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol A. Clausen; Robert D. Coleman; Vina W. Yang

    2010-01-01

    Safer, highly effective biocides providing long-term protection of mold growth on wood-based materials is of interest to the wood protection industry. Moldicide formulations containing synergistic combinations of ingredients derived from natural sources are commonly recognized as a promising approach for the next generation of wood protectants. Although fatty acid (FA...

  9. Pristine Early Eocene wood buried deeply in kimberlite from northern Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Alexander P; Csank, Adam Z; Reyes, Alberto V; McKellar, Ryan C; Tappert, Ralf; Muehlenbachs, Karlis

    2012-01-01

    We report exceptional preservation of fossil wood buried deeply in a kimberlite pipe that intruded northwestern Canada's Slave Province 53.3±0.6 million years ago (Ma), revealed during excavation of diamond source rock. The wood originated from forest surrounding the eruption zone and collapsed into the diatreme before resettling in volcaniclastic kimberlite to depths >300 m, where it was mummified in a sterile environment. Anatomy of the unpermineralized wood permits conclusive identification to the genus Metasequoia (Cupressaceae). The wood yields genuine cellulose and occluded amber, both of which have been characterized spectroscopically and isotopically. From cellulose δ(18)O and δ(2)H measurements, we infer that Early Eocene paleoclimates in the western Canadian subarctic were 12-17°C warmer and four times wetter than present. Canadian kimberlites offer Lagerstätte-quality preservation of wood from a region with limited alternate sources of paleobotanical information.

  10. Emissions and Deforestation Associated with Household Fuel Wood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fuel wood is regarded as a major source of energy around the world, particularly in developing nations where it forms part of the energy mix. Most rural communities around the world, consider forests a repository of stored energy. This paper focuses on the role of fuel wood in deforestation and the emission of greenhouse ...

  11. Biomass energy from wood chips: Diesel fuel dependence?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmons, Dave; Mejia, Cesar Viteri

    2010-01-01

    Most renewable energy sources depend to some extent on use of other, non-renewable sources. In this study we explore use of diesel fuel in producing and transporting woody biomass in the state of New Hampshire, USA. We use two methods to estimate the diesel fuel used in woody biomass production: 1) a calculation based on case studies of diesel consumption in different parts of the wood chip supply chain, and 2) to support extrapolating those results to a regional system, an econometric study of the variation of wood-chip prices with respect to diesel fuel prices. The econometric study relies on an assumption of fixed demand, then assesses variables impacting supply, with a focus on how the price of diesel fuel affects price of biomass supplied. The two methods yield similar results. The econometric study, representing overall regional practices, suggests that a $1.00 per liter increase in diesel fuel price is associated with a $5.59 per Mg increase in the price of wood chips. On an energy basis, the diesel fuel used directly in wood chip production and transportation appears to account for less than 2% of the potential energy in the wood chips. Thus, the dependence of woody biomass energy production on diesel fuel does not appear to be extreme. (author)

  12. Safety issues in the handling of radiation sources in category IV gamma radiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohli, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    There is potential for incidents/accidents related to handling of radiation sources. This is increasing due to the fact that more number of plants that too with much larger levels of activity are now coming up. Such facilities produce very high levels of exposure rates during irradiation. A person accidentally present in the irradiation cell can receive a lethal dose within a very short time. Apart from safety requirements during operation and maintenance of these facilities, safety during loading and unloading of sources is important. Category IV type irradiators are the most common. Doubly encapsulated Co-60 slugs are employed to form the source pencils. These irradiators employ a water pool for safely storing the source pencils when irradiation of the products is not going on or when human access is needed into the irradiation cell for some maintenance or source loading/unloading operations. Safety during loading/unloading operations of source pencils is important. In design itself care needs to be taken such that all such operations are convenient and any incident will not lead to a situation where it becomes difficult to come out. Different situations, which can arise during handling of radiation sources and suggested designs to obviate such tight situations, are discussed. (Author)

  13. Future carbon storage in harvested wood products from Ontario's Crown forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.; Colombo, S.J.; Ter-Mikaelian, M.T.

    2008-01-01

    Carbon (C) storage in harvested wood products (HWP) from Ontario's Crown forests were analyzed using a large-scale forest C budget model. The model was used to estimate HWP C stock changes as defined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The harvested C mass was then allocated to 4 HWP end-use categories, notably (1) in use; (2) landfill; (3) energy; and (4) emissions. C mass redistribution among HWP end-use categories was calculated using an age-based C distribution matrix. Emissions for harvest, transport, and manufacturing were accounted for as well as emission reductions gained by using the HWP in place of other construction materials and fossil fuels. Results of the study showed that C storage in HWP is projected to increase by 3.6 Mt per year. The projections indicated that the harvest of wood products in Ontario will result in a steadily increasing C sink in HWP and forests. 51 refs., 8 tabs., 4 figs

  14. Source emission and model evaluation of formaldehyde from composite and solid wood furniture in a full-scale chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Mason, Mark A.; Guo, Zhishi; Krebs, Kenneth A.; Roache, Nancy F.

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes the measurement and model evaluation of formaldehyde source emissions from composite and solid wood furniture in a full-scale chamber at different ventilation rates for up to 4000 h using ASTM D 6670-01 (2007). Tests were performed on four types of furniture constructed of different materials and from different manufacturers. The data were used to evaluate two empirical emission models, i.e., a first-order and power-law decay model. The experimental results showed that some furniture tested in this study, made only of solid wood and with less surface area, had low formaldehyde source emissions. The effect of ventilation rate on formaldehyde emissions was also examined. Model simulation results indicated that the power-law decay model showed better agreement than the first-order decay model for the data collected from the tests, especially for long-term emissions. This research was limited to a laboratory study with only four types of furniture products tested. It was not intended to comprehensively test or compare the large number of furniture products available in the market place. Therefore, care should be taken when applying the test results to real-world scenarios. Also, it was beyond the scope of this study to link the emissions to human exposure and potential health risks.

  15. Development of a residential wood smoke reduction plan in a wood burning community: A case study in Libby, Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, R.J.; Manderino, L.; Lyons, C.E.; Morris, A.L.; Anderson, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Libby, Montana depends on wood as a heating fuel. Libby exceeded the 24-hour federal PM10 ambient air quality standard every year since monitoring began in 1987. Residential wood smoke significantly contributes to its air pollution. To decrease residential wood smoke's contribution to air pollution, residents have to modify their heating habits. County officials sponsored the development of a comprehensive community-oriented plan to reduce wood smoke. This paper describes how the plan was developed and the components of the air pollution reduction strategies. The plan was developed using community input and tailored to local conditions. Four specific strategies were developed to reduce residential wood smoke pollution. Development of strategies required analysis of home heating habits and potential alternatives. Economic conditions were also considered. Expensive control strategies would be worthless unless alternative funding methods were provided. Thus, the plan included an array of funding sources to facilitate implementation. The development and implementation techniques are applicable to other communities with similar air pollution challenges

  16. Pristine Early Eocene wood buried deeply in kimberlite from northern Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander P Wolfe

    Full Text Available We report exceptional preservation of fossil wood buried deeply in a kimberlite pipe that intruded northwestern Canada's Slave Province 53.3±0.6 million years ago (Ma, revealed during excavation of diamond source rock. The wood originated from forest surrounding the eruption zone and collapsed into the diatreme before resettling in volcaniclastic kimberlite to depths >300 m, where it was mummified in a sterile environment. Anatomy of the unpermineralized wood permits conclusive identification to the genus Metasequoia (Cupressaceae. The wood yields genuine cellulose and occluded amber, both of which have been characterized spectroscopically and isotopically. From cellulose δ(18O and δ(2H measurements, we infer that Early Eocene paleoclimates in the western Canadian subarctic were 12-17°C warmer and four times wetter than present. Canadian kimberlites offer Lagerstätte-quality preservation of wood from a region with limited alternate sources of paleobotanical information.

  17. Functional lignocellulosic materials prepared by ATRP from a wood scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabane, Etienne; Keplinger, Tobias; Künniger, Tina; Merk, Vivian; Burgert, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Wood, a natural and abundant source of organic polymers, has been used as a scaffold to develop novel wood-polymer hybrid materials. Through a two-step surface-initiated Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP), the porous wood structure can be effectively modified with polymer chains of various nature. In the present study, polystyrene and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) were used. As shown with various characterization techniques including confocal Raman microscopy, FTIR, and SEM/EDX, the native wood ultrastructure and features are retained and the polymer chains can be introduced deep within the wood, i.e. inside the wood cell walls. The physical properties of the new materials have been studied, and results indicate that the insertion of polymer chains inside the wood cell wall alters the intrinsic properties of wood to yield a hybrid composite material with new functionalities. This approach to the functionalization of wood could lead to the fabrication of a new class of interesting functional materials and promote innovative utilizations of the renewable resource wood. PMID:27506369

  18. Respiratory symptoms and lung function in relation to wood dust and monoterpene exposure in the wood pellet industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfstedt, Håkan; Hagström, Katja; Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss; Holmström, Mats; Rask-Andersen, Anna

    2017-06-01

    Wood pellets are used as a source of renewable energy for heating purposes. Common exposures are wood dust and monoterpenes, which are known to be hazardous for the airways. The purpose of this study was to study the effect of occupational exposure on respiratory health in wood pellet workers. Thirty-nine men working with wood pellet production at six plants were investigated with a questionnaire, medical examination, allergy screening, spirometry, and nasal peak expiratory flow (nasal PEF). Exposure to wood dust and monoterpenes was measured. The wood pellet workers reported a higher frequency of nasal symptoms, dry cough, and asthma medication compared to controls from the general population. There were no differences in nasal PEF between work and leisure time. A lower lung function than expected (vital capacity [VC], 95%; forced vital capacity in 1 second [FEV 1 ], 96% of predicted) was noted, but no changes were noted during shifts. There was no correlation between lung function and years working in pellet production. Personal measurements of wood dust at work showed high concentrations (0.16-19 mg/m 3 ), and exposure peaks when performing certain work tasks. Levels of monoterpenes were low (0.64-28 mg/m 3 ). There was no association between exposure and acute lung function effects. In this study of wood pellet workers, high levels of wood dust were observed, and that may have influenced the airways negatively as the study group reported upper airway symptoms and dry cough more frequently than expected. The wood pellet workers had both a lower VC and FEV 1 than expected. No cross-shift changes were found.

  19. Strong air pollution from old wood stoves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    According to this article, wood-firing is the major source of suspended dust in Norway. Old stoves emit about six times as much as new stoves. Only seven percent of the wood-firing takes place in modern, clean-burning stoves. In Oslo, where replacement of old stoves has been publicly supported, this fraction is even less. The emission of carbon dioxide from burning wood does not count as climate gas emission since the amount of CO 2 released from a burning tree equals the amount that was fixed in the growing tree, and it would have been released anyhow by the decaying tree if not burned

  20. Fuel Wood Consumption and Species Degradation in South-Western Nigeria: The Ecological Relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orimoogunje Oluwagbenga O.I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuous dependence of man on fuel and service wood has resulted in serious degradation of the fragile forest ecosystem. Therefore, this study evaluated the sources and patterns of fuel wood and examined the rate of consumption in the study area. This was with the aim to assess the ecological implications of fuelwood consumption on species degradation. The study utilized both, primary and secondary data. Information was extracted from topographic map on the scale of 1: 50,000 and satellites imageries that cover the study area. Questionnaire administration, field observation and weight measurement of fuel wood were carried out. The results showed that the sources of fuel wood for domestic cooking were forest, nearby bush and abandoned farm while the sources of domestic energy were fuel wood (61.17%, charcoal (27%, kerosene (10%, electricity (1.33% and gas (0.5%. Fuel wood for small scale industries were: forest (49.23%, farmland (34.62 and fallow land (16.15%. The trend of fuel wood consumption was on the high side from 1995 to 2011, it was 58% in 1995, 70% in 2000, 82% in 2005 and 92% in 2010 and 2011 respectively. Many valuable economic tree species such as Triplochiton scleroxylon, Nesogordonia papaverifera, and Cordia spp. are near their extinction. Animals such as antelope, wolf and fox are going into extinction while monkey, grasscutter, hare, rabbit were endemic in the study area. The study concluded that the patterns of fuel wood use and fuel wood saturation presents a great danger for biodiversity products and services.

  1. Wood, the indigenous energy source. 1100 plants built in 20 years, all of them 'Swiss made'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlen, B.

    1999-01-01

    The company HOBAG Brienz, Ltd., specialised in the field of automatic wood-burning plants, continuously developed its unique system over the past 20 years and has more than 1100 satisfied clients in Switzerland as well as in foreign countries. It is equally dealing with log boilers, wood chip boilers, or pellet boilers. Nowadays, the company is seen as the market leader for modern, full automatic log-burning plants and wood conditioning equipment including containers for logs or wood chips

  2. Cord Wood Testing in a Non-Catalytic Wood Stove

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trojanowski, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wei, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-06-30

    EPA Method 28 and the current wood stove regulations have been in-place since 1988. Recently, EPA proposed an update to the existing NSPS for wood stove regulations which includes a plan to transition from the current crib wood fuel to cord wood fuel for certification testing. Cord wood is seen as generally more representative of field conditions while the crib wood is seen as more repeatable. In any change of certification test fuel, there are questions about the impact on measured results and the correlation between tests with the two different fuels. The purpose of the work reported here is to provide data on the performance of a noncatalytic stove with cord wood. The stove selected has previously been certified with crib wood which provides a basis for comparison with cord wood. Overall, particulate emissions were found to be considerably higher with cord wood.

  3. Utilisation of Estonian energy wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muiste, P.; Tullus, H.; Uri, V. [Estonian Agricultural University, Tartu (Estonia)

    1996-12-31

    In the end of the Soviet period in the 1980s, a long-term energy programme for Estonia was worked out. The energy system was planned to be based on nuclear power and the share of domestic alternative sources of energy was low. The situation has greatly changed after the re-establishment of the Estonian independence, and now wood and peat fuels play an important role in the energy system. Energy consumption in Estonia decreased during the period 1970-1993, but this process has less influenced the consumption of domestic renewable fuels - peat and wood. It means that the share of these fuels has grown. The investment on substitution of imported fossil fuels and on conversion of boiler plants from fossil fuels to domestic fuels has reached the level of USD 100 million. The perspectives of the wood energy depend mainly on two factors; the resources and the price of wood energy compared with other fuels. The situation in wood market influences both the possible quantities and the price. It is typical that the quickly growing cost of labour power in Estonia is greatly affecting the price of energy wood. Though the price level of fuel peat and wood chips is lower than the world market price today, the conditions for using biofuels could be more favourable, if higher environmental fees were introduced. In conjunction with increasing utilisation of biofuels it is important to evaluate possible emissions or removal of greenhouse gases from Estonian forests 3 refs.

  4. Utilisation of Estonian energy wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muiste, P; Tullus, H; Uri, V [Estonian Agricultural University, Tartu (Estonia)

    1997-12-31

    In the end of the Soviet period in the 1980s, a long-term energy programme for Estonia was worked out. The energy system was planned to be based on nuclear power and the share of domestic alternative sources of energy was low. The situation has greatly changed after the re-establishment of the Estonian independence, and now wood and peat fuels play an important role in the energy system. Energy consumption in Estonia decreased during the period 1970-1993, but this process has less influenced the consumption of domestic renewable fuels - peat and wood. It means that the share of these fuels has grown. The investment on substitution of imported fossil fuels and on conversion of boiler plants from fossil fuels to domestic fuels has reached the level of USD 100 million. The perspectives of the wood energy depend mainly on two factors; the resources and the price of wood energy compared with other fuels. The situation in wood market influences both the possible quantities and the price. It is typical that the quickly growing cost of labour power in Estonia is greatly affecting the price of energy wood. Though the price level of fuel peat and wood chips is lower than the world market price today, the conditions for using biofuels could be more favourable, if higher environmental fees were introduced. In conjunction with increasing utilisation of biofuels it is important to evaluate possible emissions or removal of greenhouse gases from Estonian forests 3 refs.

  5. Cold shock on the wood fuel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queyrel, A.

    2008-01-01

    The development of the wood fuel industry represents one of the pillars of the European energy plan, and in particular of the French energy policy, as it fulfills both objectives of development of renewable energy sources and CO 2 balance. The wood fuel industry supplies 6% of the French energy consumption and has permitted to save more than 9 million tons of petroleum equivalent. However, the conclusions of the European project CARBOSOL stress on the strong health impacts of wood-fueled combustion systems, in particular in the case of domestic individual systems and appliances. The combustion of biomass (fireplaces and agriculture) is responsible for 50 to 70% of the winter carbon pollution in Europe. The situation of collective or industrial wood-fueled facilities is different since pollution control solutions can be more easily implemented. (J.S.)

  6. Wood-burning stoves in low-carbon dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo; Jensen, Ole Michael; Afshari, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    The European climate change strategy intends to encourage the erection of low-carbon buildings and the upgrading of existing buildings to low-carbon level. At the same time, it is an EU vision to maximise the use of renewable energy resources. In this strategy, small-scale wood......-burning is an overlooked source for heating. A wood-burning stove is considered low-carbon technology since its fuel is based on local residual biomass. A field study investigating how modern wood-burning stoves operated in modern single-family houses showed that intermittent heat supply occasionally conflicted...... combustion technology and automatics, controlling the interplay between stove and house, can make wood-burning stoves suitable for low-carbon dwellings and meet the remaining heat demand during the coldest period. It was further concluded that new guidelines need to be elaborated about how to install...

  7. Gamma radiation a help to archeological woods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balibar, F.

    1981-01-01

    Waterlogged archeological wood falls into dust once extracted from the water. In order to prevent this destruction several processes have been thought up. In France, the Grenoble Nuclear Study Centre has developed a method of consolidation by resin impregnation and gamma irradiation. The object is first immersed in a vessel containing liquid resin which spreads throughout the wood thereby driving off the water. During the second stage of the treatment, the impregnated objects are irradiated by gamma radiation emitted by a rectangular grid of cobalt 60, so as to polymerize the resin inside the wood. The irradiated objects are Gallo-Roman statuettes discovered during digs at the sources of the river Seine. The wood consolidated right through to the core then becomes sufficiently solid for the restorer to work on the surface of these objects [fr

  8. Feasibility of biodegradation of pentachlorophenol in scrap wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaulieu, G.; Besner, A.; Gilbert, R.; Tetreault, P.; Beaudet, R.; Bisaillon, J. G.; Lepine, F.; Ottou, J. M.; Sansregret, J. L.; Lei, J.

    1998-04-01

    The feasibility of biological treatment of scrap wood impregnated in pentachlorophenol (PCP) was investigated using wood samples impregnated with PCP for biodegradation experiments by the Hydro-Quebec Research Institute (IREQ). IREQ identified the necessity of pre-treating the wood, first by shredding wood poles into wood shavings, followed by mechanical milling of the shavings to obtain wood dust. Biodegradation experiments under anaerobic conditions were performed by the Armand-Frappier Institute by isolating a consortium of bacteria from a mixture of PCP-contaminated soils and a municipal anaerobic sludge that was able to degrade PCP under anaerobic methanogenic conditions at 29 degrees C. A complementary source of carbon was found to be necessary for the bacterial consortium to degrade the PCP. The best PCP degradation results were obtained with an aerobic fixed-film reactor. Aerobic biodegradation tests were performed on liquor extracted from wood dust contaminated with PCP. The anaerobic fixed field reactor was able to completely degrade the PCP extracted from wood dust in less than one day. Aerobic biodegradation was also investigated using microorganisms and fungi. Over a four month experimental period only low concentrations of PCP were found in effluents treated with the aerobic cultures. 117 refs., 38 tabs., 31 figs

  9. A look at worldwide usage of residual wood for energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekstrom, H.; Hall, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Wood Resources International was established in 1987, offering on-site evaluation services of forest resources and forest industry developments in over 20 countries worldwide. This presentation reviewed residual wood markets in North America and Europe. Wood chip trade and wood pellet markets were also reviewed. It is estimated that more than 50 per cent of the wood harvested worldwide is used for heating and cooking. Although sawmill wood residue has been typically used for particle board manufacturing, the energy sector in North America and Europe is now competing for low cost residuals, including sawdust, shavings and wood chips. With demand for renewable resources increasing, district heating plants have revived an interest in collecting the nearly 35 per cent of biomass left behind after traditional clear cutting. This biomass represents branches, tops and stumps left behind after the roundwood has been removed. In Canada, demand for mill residuals has grown and wood pellet manufacturers have the opportunity to invest in capacity while continuing to produce competitively priced pellets for the European market. It is anticipated that in the next decade, large volumes of beetle-killed wood are going to be available in British Columbia for energy consumption, including wood pellet production. Prices for sawdust have doubled over the past 3 years as a result of increased competition. The biomass supply potential in the United States is 7 times the current consumption. There is an increased interest in bioenergy in California due to the declining lumber sector. As such, the use of forest and agricultural waste is on the rise, along with prices for wood residues. There has also been a large increase in demand for wood biomass in Europe over the past 5 years, resulting in higher costs of all wood fiber sources used for energy. By 2020, Europe has set a target that all energy should come from renewable energy sources, with a minimum of 10 per cent being biofuel for

  10. Environmental assessment of wood domestic heating. Synthetic report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-12-01

    This report proposes a synthesis of the results of an environmental assessment of wood domestic heating. This study is based on a life cycle analysis which quantifies the impacts on the environment of all the related activities: fuel extraction, retailing, final use, and so on. Environmental impacts are assessed by means of different indicators: energetic assessment, greenhouse effect assessment, air pollution (acidification), water pollution (eutrophication), toxic material emissions in air and into the soils. Wood is compared to other heating sources (gas, fuel, electricity). Ways to improve this environmental assessment are discussed for the different types of wood (logs, pellets)

  11. Electrochemical in-situ impregnation of wood using a copper nail as source for copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Block, Thomas; Nymark, Morten

    2011-01-01

    A new method for copper impregnation of wood in structures was suggested and tested in laboratory scale with specimen of new pine sapwood. A copper nail and a steel screw were placed in the wood, and an electric direct current field was applied, so the copper nail was anode and the screw...... was cathode. At the anode, copper ions were generated. The copper ions were transported into the wood by electromigration (movement of ions in an applied electric field) towards the cathode, and a volume between the two electrodes was thereby impregnated. Copper also moved to a lesser degree in the opposite...

  12. Okanagan indoor wood burning appliance inventory survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the usage and nature of wood burning appliances used by residents in British Columbia's Okanagan region. The objective was to better understand this source of air quality concern and to facilitate strategic planning, guidelines and legislation. The survey also provides a baseline to track the effectiveness of any reduction strategies. It identifies the different types of wood burning appliances used in the community and presents residential options about potential bylaws to protect air quality. The receptivity of households to switch to more efficient wood burning appliances was also examined. The survey completes a portion of an overall emissions inventory for the Okanagan Valley. Environment Canada uses the particulate loading results to model the air quality in the airshed. Results showed that approximately 21 per cent of the households in the Okanagan use indoor wood burning appliances, and burn an average of 2.3 cords of wood each year. Only 11 per cent of the appliances are considered to have advanced burning technology. It is projected that the use of wood burning appliances in the Okanagan will increase by 5 to 7 per cent in the next 2 years. Most residents have good burning habits, but some improvements can still be made. Many residents are considering exchanging old wood burning appliances for clean burning technology appliances for environmental and health reasons. Most households would support a bylaw to control nuisance amounts of smoke from wood burning appliances. 20 tabs., 5 figs

  13. Urban wood: Fuel from landscapers and land fills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, T.R.; Miles, T.R. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Wood recovered from urban landscaping, construction and building demolition has become an important fuel for several new power plants. Sources, composition, and requirements for fuel preparation, handling, firing and emissions control are described from experience at several plants. Urban wood waste fuels are suitable for steam and power generation if precautions are taken to process the fuel and provide uniform flow to the boiler

  14. Preparation of wood for energy use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald L. Sirois; Bryce J. Stokes

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents an overview & current sources and forms of raw materials for wood energy use and the types of machines available to convert them to the desired form for boiler fuel. Both the fuel source or raw material, and the combustion furnace will dictate the requirements for the processing system. Because of the wide range of processing equipment...

  15. Potential greenhouse gas benefits of transatlantic wood pellet trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwivedi, Puneet; Khanna, Madhu; Bailis, Robert; Ghilardi, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Power utility companies in the United Kingdom are using imported wood pellets from the southern region of the United States for electricity generation to meet the legally binding mandate of sourcing 15% of the nation’s total energy consumption from renewable sources by 2020. This study ascertains relative savings in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for a unit of electricity generated using imported wood pellet in the United Kingdom under 930 different scenarios: three woody feedstocks (logging residues, pulpwood, and logging residues and pulpwood combined), two forest management choices (intensive and non-intensive), 31 plantation rotation ages (year 10 to year 40 in steps of 1 year), and five power plant capacities (20–100 MW in steps of 20 MW). Relative savings in GHG emissions with respect to a unit of electricity derived from fossil fuels in the United Kingdom range between 50% and 68% depending upon the capacity of power plant and rotation age. Relative savings in GHG emissions increase with higher power plant capacity. GHG emissions related to wood pellet production and transatlantic shipment of wood pellets typically contribute about 48% and 31% of total GHG emissions, respectively. Overall, use of imported wood pellets for electricity generation could help in reducing the United Kingdom’s GHG emissions. We suggest that future research be directed to evaluation of the impacts of additional forest management practices, changing climate, and soil carbon on the overall savings in GHG emissions related to transatlantic wood pellet trade. (paper)

  16. Government policies increasingly promote renewable energy sources : wood energy markets in the UNECE region, 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olle Olsson; Bengt Hillring; Rens Hartkamp; Kenneth Skog; Henry Spelter; Francisco Aguilar; Warren Mabee; Christopher Gaston; Antje Wahl

    2010-01-01

    Sustainability issues about wood fuels are increasingly being debated, but the European Union has decided not to impose EU-wide sustainability criteria for solid biomass. United Kingdom energy companies plan massive increases in their utilization of wood energy, further fuelling European demand for wood energy. In order to increase control of the value chain, European...

  17. Installation, care, and maintenance of wood shake and shingle siding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack Dwyer; Tony Bonura; Arnie Nebelsick; Sam Williams; Christopher G. Hunt

    2011-01-01

    This article gives general guidelines for selection, installation, finishing, and maintenance of wood shakes and shingles. The authors gathered information from a variety of sources: research publications on wood finishing, technical data sheets from paint manufacturers, installation instructions for shake and shingle siding, and interviews with experts having...

  18. Impact of operating wood-burning fireplace ovens on indoor air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salthammer, Tunga; Schripp, Tobias; Wientzek, Sebastian; Wensing, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The use of combustion heat sources like wood-burning fireplaces has regained popularity in the past years due to increasing energy costs. While the outdoor emissions from wood ovens are strictly regulated in Germany, the indoor release of combustion products is rarely considered. Seven wood burning fireplaces were tested in private homes between November 2012 and March 2013. The indoor air quality was monitored before, during and after operation. The following parameters were measured: ultra-fine particles (5.6-560 nm), fine particles (0.3-20 μm), PM2.5, NOx, CO, CO2, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Most ovens were significant sources of particulate matter. In some cases, an increase of benzene and BaP concentrations was observed in the indoor air. The results illustrate that wood-burning fireplaces are potential sources of indoor air contaminants, especially ultra-fine particles. Under the aspect of lowering indoor air exchange rates and increasing the use of fuels with a net zero-carbon footprint, indoor combustion sources are an important topic for the future. With regards to consumer safety, product development and inspection should consider indoor air quality in addition to the present fire protection requirements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Wood Specific Gravity Variations and Biomass of Central African Tree Species: The Simple Choice of the Outer Wood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Bastin

    Full Text Available Wood specific gravity is a key element in tropical forest ecology. It integrates many aspects of tree mechanical properties and functioning and is an important predictor of tree biomass. Wood specific gravity varies widely among and within species and also within individual trees. Notably, contrasted patterns of radial variation of wood specific gravity have been demonstrated and related to regeneration guilds (light demanding vs. shade-bearing. However, although being repeatedly invoked as a potential source of error when estimating the biomass of trees, both intraspecific and radial variations remain little studied. In this study we characterized detailed pith-to-bark wood specific gravity profiles among contrasted species prominently contributing to the biomass of the forest, i.e., the dominant species, and we quantified the consequences of such variations on the biomass.Radial profiles of wood density at 8% moisture content were compiled for 14 dominant species in the Democratic Republic of Congo, adapting a unique 3D X-ray scanning technique at very high spatial resolution on core samples. Mean wood density estimates were validated by water displacement measurements. Wood density profiles were converted to wood specific gravity and linear mixed models were used to decompose the radial variance. Potential errors in biomass estimation were assessed by comparing the biomass estimated from the wood specific gravity measured from pith-to-bark profiles, from global repositories, and from partial information (outer wood or inner wood.Wood specific gravity profiles from pith-to-bark presented positive, neutral and negative trends. Positive trends mainly characterized light-demanding species, increasing up to 1.8 g.cm-3 per meter for Piptadeniastrum africanum, and negative trends characterized shade-bearing species, decreasing up to 1 g.cm-3 per meter for Strombosia pustulata. The linear mixed model showed the greater part of wood specific gravity

  20. Wood Specific Gravity Variations and Biomass of Central African Tree Species: The Simple Choice of the Outer Wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastin, Jean-François; Fayolle, Adeline; Tarelkin, Yegor; Van den Bulcke, Jan; de Haulleville, Thales; Mortier, Frederic; Beeckman, Hans; Van Acker, Joris; Serckx, Adeline; Bogaert, Jan; De Cannière, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Wood specific gravity is a key element in tropical forest ecology. It integrates many aspects of tree mechanical properties and functioning and is an important predictor of tree biomass. Wood specific gravity varies widely among and within species and also within individual trees. Notably, contrasted patterns of radial variation of wood specific gravity have been demonstrated and related to regeneration guilds (light demanding vs. shade-bearing). However, although being repeatedly invoked as a potential source of error when estimating the biomass of trees, both intraspecific and radial variations remain little studied. In this study we characterized detailed pith-to-bark wood specific gravity profiles among contrasted species prominently contributing to the biomass of the forest, i.e., the dominant species, and we quantified the consequences of such variations on the biomass. Radial profiles of wood density at 8% moisture content were compiled for 14 dominant species in the Democratic Republic of Congo, adapting a unique 3D X-ray scanning technique at very high spatial resolution on core samples. Mean wood density estimates were validated by water displacement measurements. Wood density profiles were converted to wood specific gravity and linear mixed models were used to decompose the radial variance. Potential errors in biomass estimation were assessed by comparing the biomass estimated from the wood specific gravity measured from pith-to-bark profiles, from global repositories, and from partial information (outer wood or inner wood). Wood specific gravity profiles from pith-to-bark presented positive, neutral and negative trends. Positive trends mainly characterized light-demanding species, increasing up to 1.8 g.cm-3 per meter for Piptadeniastrum africanum, and negative trends characterized shade-bearing species, decreasing up to 1 g.cm-3 per meter for Strombosia pustulata. The linear mixed model showed the greater part of wood specific gravity variance was

  1. Chapter 6: Wood energy and competing wood product markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth E. Skog; Robert C. Abt; Karen Abt

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the effect of expanding wood energy markets is important to all wood-dependent industries and to policymakers debating the implementation of public programs to support the expansion of wood energy generation. A key factor in determining the feasibility of wood energy projects (e.g. wood boiler or pellet plant) is the long-term (i.e. 20-30year) supply...

  2. Wood adhesives : vital for producing most wood products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2011-01-01

    A main route for the efficient utilization of wood resources is to reduce wood to small pieces and then bond them together (Frihart and Hunt 2010). Although humankind has been bonding wood since early Egyptian civilizations, the quality and quantity of bonded wood products has increased dramatically over the past 100 years with the development of new adhesives and...

  3. Preliminary correlation of organic molecular tracers in residential wood smoke with the source of fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Laurel J.; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    Polar cyclic di- and triterpenoids were analyzed in the extracts of residential wood combustion aerosols collected in suburban sections of Eugene, Oakridge and Corvallis, Oregon. Additional samples collected included alder wood, smoke from two wood stoves burning only alder or pine as fuel, soot from a stove burning alder and a fireplace where oak was the predominant fuel. Due to the relatively cooler temperatures present under the smoldering conditions of residential wood combustion, as compared to the active burning of forest fires and slash burns, incomplete combustion resulted in the preservation of high levels of the natural products. There were three distinct signatures which could be used to trace relative input from coniferous, alder and oak combustion products, i.e. diterpenoids, lupane-derived triterpenoids and friedelin, respectively. Conifer combustion products dominated the suburban smoke aerosols.

  4. Installation, care, and maintenance of wood shake and shingle roofs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony Bonura; Jack Dwyer; Arnie Nebelsick; Brent Stuart; R. Sam Williams; Christopher Hunt

    2011-01-01

    This article gives general guidelines for selection, installation, finishing, and maintenance of wood shake and shingle roofs. The authors have gathered information from a variety of sources: research publications on wood finishing, technical data sheets from paint manufacturers, installation instructions for shake and shingle roofs, and interviews with experts having...

  5. Wood waste: A disposal problem or an opportunity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajda, P.

    1989-01-01

    The utilization of wood wastes in North America is reviewed, with a focus on the wood products industry and markets. On the whole, wood mill residues in North America have always been utilized except for a period from the 1940s to the 1970s oil crisis. In the latter period, low cost electric power and hydrocarbon fuels rendered uneconomical the use of wood wastes as fuel. As a response to the problem of disposing these wastes, a number of innovations occurred in that period, including the use of wood chips for manufacturing pulp and particleboard, and the use of sawdust and shavings for manufacturing hardboard and medium density fiberboard. Uses for bark, except as fuel, have not been successfully developed. Since the 1970s, wood waste in the USA is essentially all used for composite board products and fuel. This is also true in eastern Canada, which is close to the wood products markets and which has fairly high oil and gas costs. However, in western Canada, low energy costs and small internal markets have led to a serious wood waste disposal problem. A survey of wood waste supply and demand shows large surpluses in mill residues in western Canada and some remote locations in northern Ontario and Quebec. The Pacific Rim countries are identified as a potential market for western Canadian composite board production. The use of other sources of wood waste (forestry or logging residues, which are costly to collect, and municipal construction waste) is briefly discussed

  6. Wood frame systems for wood homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Molina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of constructive systems that combine strength, speed, with competitive differential techniques and mainly, compromising with the environment, is becoming more popular in Brazil. The constructive system in wood frame for houses of up to five stories is very interesting, because it is a light system, structured in reforested treated wood which allows the combination of several materials, besides allowing speed in the construction and total control of the expenses already in the project phase for being industrialized. The structural behavior of the wood frame is superior to the structural masonry in strength, thermal and acoustic comfort. However, in Brazil, the wood frame is still little known and used, due to lack of technical knowledge about the system, prejudice associated the bad use of the wood as construction material, or still, in some cases, lack of normalization. The aim of this manuscript consists of presenting the main technical characteristics and advantages of the constructive system in wood frame homes, approaching the main stages of the constructive process through examples, showing the materials used in the construction, in addition the main international normative recommendations of the project. Thus, this manuscript also hopes to contribute to the popularization of the wood frame system in Brazil, since it is a competitive, fast and ecologically correct system. Moreover, nowadays, an enormous effort of the technical, commercial and industrial section has been accomplished for the development of this system in the country.

  7. Importance of small-scale wood combustion for the air quality at Lycksele and Vaexjoe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, C.; Hansson, H.C.; Stroem, Johan; Hedberg, Emma; Olivares, Gustavo; Karlsson, Hans; Wideqvist, Ulla

    2005-02-01

    This report focuses on three different issues: 1. A characterisation of the carbonaceous fraction of the aerosols in Lycksele and Vaexjoe during the campaigns undertaken within the BHM programme in 2002 and 2003. 2. A more detailed source receptor analysis have been undertaken. The wood combustion source is compared with estimates using levoglucosan as tracer. 3. A chemical mass balance of the particle mass has been attempted. A comparison between different methods shows that soot measurements using the integrating plate method (light absorption) provides a very good estimate of the temporal variations of the elemental and organic carbon concentrations. In this case EC and OC concentrations were determined by heating a quartz filter and detection of evolved CO 2 . The concentrations of PM 10 , PM 2.5 and PM 1 are often due to other sources than those that determine the soot levels. In particular occasionally there are very high levels of road dust particles which contain negligible amounts of carbonaceous compounds. At the site Norrmalm, Lycksele also road traffic contribute to the soot levels as indicated by the good correlation between soot and NO x concentrations. Based on a linear relationship between soot concentrations and NO x levels at a road side location close to a high-way just North of Stockholm, an emission factor for soot of 20 mg/vkm was determined. This is much lower than the emission factor for PM 10 obtained at the same location, 550 mg/vkm. In Lycksele the main part of the particle mass was organic and elemental Carbon, almost 40%. Of this, the tracer levoglucosan, made up about 30%. This was very different compared to Vaexjoe, where EC+OC was only 20% of the total PM and levoglucosan was only 6% of the EC and OC part. This confirms that wood-burning is a much more important source in Lycksele as compared to Vaexjoe. Another significant difference between Lycksele and Vaexjoe was that the sum of sulphate, nitrate and ammonium constituted around

  8. Environmental assessment of post-consumer wood and forest residues gasification: The case study of Barcelona metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puy, Neus; Rieradevall, Joan; Bartroli, Jordi

    2010-01-01

    An energy and environmental analysis of post-consumer wood and forest residues gasification in metropolitan areas is carried out to determine the most critical stages of their life cycle. Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methodology is used to identify the environmental load of three defined scenarios: (1) Post-consumer wood from recycling points; (2) Post-consumer wood from bulky wastes; and (3) Forest residues. The stages considered are biomass pre-treatment, transport and gasification. Biomass pre-treatment comprise different steps: separation, chipping, sifting, post-chipping for all the scenarios; except for the drying step which is only entailed to Scenario 3. The midpoint impact categories taken into account are: abiotic depletion (AD), global warming (GW), ozone layer depletion (ODP), human toxicity (HT), acidification (A) and eutrophication (E). Results show that, due to the high physical requirements for biomass gasification, the most appropriate biomass is that of Scenario 1, since forest residues require a drying stage, which involves high energy consumption and high environmental impact. Energy consumption in biomass pre-treatment and transport stages is low compared to the energy obtained from gasification, which represents the 5% in Scenario 1; 7% in Scenario 2; and 13% in Scenario 3. Biomass pre-treatment is associated to an important contribution in AD and ODP impact categories, calculated as 71% and 98% of the overall impact. The transport stage is of no significant influence either in the scenarios or in the impact categories (less than 24% of the overall impact). Finally, gasification represents an impact of 3-78% of the different impact categories. (author)

  9. Statistical analysis of influence of soil source on leaching of arsenic and copper from CCA-C treated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia Lebow; Richard Ziobro; Linda Sites; Tor Schultz; David Pettry; Darrel Nicholas; Stan Lebow; Pascal Kamdem; Roger Fox; Douglas Crawford

    2006-01-01

    Leaching of wood preservatives affects the long-term efficacy and environmental impact of treated wood. Soil properties and wood characteristicscan affectleaching of woad preservatives, but these effects are not well understood. This paper reports a statistical analysis of the effects of soil and wood properties on leaching of arsenic (As) and copper (Cu) from southern...

  10. Turning wood residues into wood revenues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.G.; Kravetz, Don

    1996-01-01

    Ensyn is a profitable commercial company which derives its revenues from the conversion of wood residues into liquid biofuel and chemicals. The technology, Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP (TM) )is based on extremely fast ''cracking'' of biomass which results in light liquid yields exceeding 70% by weight, from wood. Whether producing chemicals or liquid biofuel, the RTP plant is configured identically and operated essentially in the same mode. Chemicals production simply allows economical production to occur at a lower plant capacity, as low as 2 tonnes/day, than is feasible for a dedicated fuel plant (typically greater than 100 tonnes/day). Ensyn has developed the commercialisation of RTP TM from bench to industrial scale in 10 years. A variety of crative funding initiatives in the early years allowed for capital to be raised for R and D without the loss of intellectual property (IP). The transition years of technology demonstration, prior to full commercialisation, were funded by a blend of revenues from venture capital and public sources, and by quickly tapping into a niche market for RTP TM . The utilisation of the technology at the niche market scale opened the doors to the larger fuel and commodity markets. Once, again, both IP and control of the company were maintained during these years. Flexibility, creativity and expertise are necessary to understand the significance of various financing options (private investments, commercial banking and bond issues) and to integrate these options with various renewable energy, recycling and tax incentives. Understanding these options with various renewable energy, recycling and tax incentives is necessary. Understanding both the core and peripheral needs of the customer are essential in successfully advancing a commercial wood energy venture. Ensyn's experience in these areas is the focus of the paper. (Author)

  11. Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2014-01-01

    come from? How is it harvested? How is it manufactured and treated ? How are the buildings detailed and protected against weather during construction to keep them dry and make them long-life ? In a period of climate change, forests are the last lungs of the planet to sequestrate CO2. Their global size......Wood – a sustainable building material ? For thousands of years and all over the planet, wood has been used as a building material and exciting architecture has been created in wood. The fantastic structural, physical and aesthetic properties of the material as well as the fact that wood...

  12. Changing Face of Wood Science in Modern Era: Contribution of Nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Pawan Kumar; Giagli, Kyriaki; Tsalagkas, Dimitrios; Mishra, Harshita; Talegaonkar, Sushma; Gryc, Vladimír; Wimmer, Rupert

    2018-02-14

    Wood science and nanomaterials science interact together in two different aspects; a) fabrication of lignocellulosic nanomaterials derived from wood and plant-based sources and b) surface or bulk wood modification by nanoparticles. In this review, we attempt to visualize the impact of nanoparticles on the wood coating and preservation treatments based on a thorough registration of the patent databases. The study was carried out as an overview of the scientifically most followed trends on nanoparticles utilization in wood science and wood protection depicted by recent universal filed patents. This review is exclusively targeted on the solid (timber) wood as a subject material. Utilization of mainly metal nanoparticles as photoprotection, antibacterial, antifungal, antiabrasive and functional component on wood modification treatments was found to be widely patented. Additionally, an apparent minimization in the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been succeeded. Bulk wood preservation and more importantly, wood coating, splay the range of strengthening wood dimensional stability and biological degradation, against moisture absorption and fungi respectively. Nanoparticle materials have addressed various issues of wood science in a more efficient and environmental way than the traditional methods. Nevertheless, abundant tests and regulations are still needed before industrializing or recycling these products. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Wood burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelmann, H

    1955-01-01

    Discussed are the use of wood as a fuel, the technique of wood combustion and the operation of wood-burning stoves for cooking and heating. In addition, there is a section which reviews the use of wood stoves in various countries and lists manufacturers of stoves, central heating furnaces and in some cases sawdust burners.

  14. Design considerations for the commercial production of wood acrylics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, A.E.; Bosco, L.R.

    1978-01-01

    The major application of wood acrylics is for flooring, more specifically in high traffic area. The most important property is its abrasion resistance. As for the decisions in facility design, the following considerations must be made: irradiation or heat-catalyst to polymerize, machine irradiation or isotope irradiation, and wet or dry irradiation. Then, processing considerations are made on wood type, monomer selection, dye selection, fire retardant, dose conditions and crosslinker usage. In ''PermaGrain'' production, for example, the facility has the yearly production capacity of over 4,000,000 kilograms of wood acrylic. The starting wood form is small slats or fingers. After pressure cycle, the impregnant wet wood is lowered into an irradiation pool and the product canister passes around a cobalt 60 source. After irradiation, the product is taken out of the pool and allowed to cool. Then, final sizing and finishing are carried out. (Mori, K.)

  15. The suitability of selected wood species in the production of turned ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the suitability of selected wood species in the production of turned glue-laminated products. Five different wood species of high quality grades which were sourced from Bodija market Ibadan, south western Nigeria were thoroughly examined where the moisture content, density and shrinkage ...

  16. Outlook for U.S. paper and paperboard sector and wood fiber supply in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince

    2000-01-01

    Consumption of wood fiber in pulp, paper and paperboard increased in the United States over the past century and is projected to increase well into the next century at a decelerating rate of growth. Harvest of pulpwood on forest land is the single largest source of wood fiber, followed by recycled paper and wood residues. In the past decade, wood residues declined in...

  17. Wood-burning appliances and indoor air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levesque, Benoit; Allaire, Sylvain; Gauvin, Denis; Gingras, Suzanne; Rhainds, Marc; Prud' Homme, Henri; Duchesne, Jean-Francois [CHUQ-Centre de Recherche du CHUL, Unite de Recherche en Sante Publique, 2400, d' Estimauville, Beauport, G1E 7G9 Quebec (Canada); Koutrakis, Petros [Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2001-12-17

    Wood heating represents an interesting economic alternative to electrical or heating oil and gas systems. However, many people are concerned about poor indoor air quality in homes equipped with wood-burning appliances. We conducted a study in the Quebec City region (Canada) to verify the extent of indoor air contamination, and to examine the frequency of respiratory symptoms and illnesses among occupants of wood-heated homes. One child attending primary school (median=8 years old; range=5-14 years old) and an adult (median=37 years old; range=23-52 years old) were recruited in each eligible house. Eligible houses were without known sources of combustion products (smokers, attached garage, oil or gas furnace, gas stove, etc.) except for wood-burning appliance. Out of the 89 houses included in the study, 59 had wood-burning appliances. Formaldehyde, nitrogen dioxide, respirable particles (PM10) and carbon monoxide were measured in a sub-set of 49 houses (41 with a wood-burning appliance and 8 without). The frequency of respiratory symptoms and diseases among participants were documented using a daily symptom diary. Concentrations of contaminants were low in most houses, both with or without a wood-burning appliance. Globally, there was no consistent relationship between the presence of a wood-burning appliance and respiratory morbidity in residents. Nevertheless, residents who mentioned being exposed to fumes emitted by such an appliance reported more respiratory illnesses and symptoms. The presence of animals or molds, and keeping windows closed most of the time in winter were other factors associated with respiratory problems. We conclude that wood burning appears to be a respiratory health risk for occupants if the appliance is not maintained and used properly.

  18. Wood Export and Deposition Dynamics in Mountain Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senter, Anne Elizabeth

    conditions and accompanying hydrologic responses. Chapter 2 contains development of new theory in support of the introduction of multiplicative coefficients, categorized by water year type, that were used to predict wood export quantities via utilization of an existing discharge-based theoretical equation. This new theory was the product of continued investigations into watershed-scale factors in search of explanation of observed variation of wood export rates into New Bullards Bar Reservoir. The gap between known variability and the attribution of wood export to one hydrologic relation continues to be a persistent issue, as the hierarchical and stochastic temporal and spatial nature of wood budget components remain difficult to quantify. The development of "watershed processes" coefficients was specifically focused on a generalized, parsimonious approach using water year type categories, with validation exercises supporting the approach. In dry years, predictions more closely represented observed wood export quantities, whereas the previously derived annual peak discharge relation yielded large over-predictions. Additional data are needed to continue development of these watershed-specific coefficients. This new approach to wood export prediction may be beneficial in regulated river systems for planning purposes, and its efficacy could be tested in other watersheds. Chapter 3 presents the results of an investigation into wood deposition mechanisms in a 12.2 km segment of the confined, bedrock-dominated South Yuba River watershed. Inclusion of coarse wood particles in the analyses was essential in recognizing depositional patterns, thus supporting the value of utilizing a wider wood-size range. A near-census data collection effort yielded myriad data, of which topographic wetted width and bed elevation data, developed for an observed 4.5-year flood event, were standardized in 10-m intervals and then univariate and linked values were ordered into landform classifications

  19. Climate effects of wood used for bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ros, Jan P.M.; Van Minnen, Jelle G. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Arets, Eric J.M.M. [Alterra, Wageningen University WUR, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2013-08-15

    Wood growth and natural decay both take time, and this is an important aspect of sustainability assessments of wood used for energy. Wood taken from forests is a carbon-neutral energy source in the long term, but there are many examples of potential sources of wood used for bioenergy for which net emission reductions are not achieved in 10 to 40 years - the time frame for most climate policy mitigation targets. This is caused by two factors. The first factor relates to the fact that the carbon cycles of wood have a long time span. After final felling, CO2 fixation rates are initially relatively low, but increase again as forests regrow. This regrowth takes many years, sometimes more than a century. Wood residues can either be used or left in the forest. By using them, the emissions from the otherwise decaying residues (taking 2 to 30 years) would be avoided. The second factor concerns the fact that, if the wood is used for bioenergy, then fossil energy emissions are being avoided. However, the direct emission levels from bioenergy are higher than those related to the fossil energy it replaces. These additional emissions also have to be compensated. The carbon debt caused by both factors has to be paid back first, before actual emission reductions can be realised. For wood residues (from harvesting or thinning) that are used to replace coal or oil products, these payback times are relatively short, of the order of 5 to 25 years, mainly depending on location and type of residue (longer if they replace gas). This is also the case when using wood from salvage logging. In most cases, when using wood from final felling directly for energy production, payback times could be many decades to more than a century, with substantial increases in net CO2 emissions, in the meantime. This is especially the case for many forests in Europe, because they are currently an effective carbon sink. Additional felling reduces average growth rates in these forests and thus the sequestration

  20. Wood energy in Switzerland - State of the art, developments and potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutschmann, C.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the present-day use of wood as a source of energy and the potential it exhibits as part of a future Swiss energy supply system. The history of the use of wood to provide energy is looked at and its changing share of total energy consumption is commented on. In particular, the use of wood energy during the period 1991-2004 is looked at and its promotion by various programmes examined. Apart from wood-fired heating systems, open fires are commented on as are the changes noted over this period in the types of heating systems installed. The potential of wood-energy and custom-tailored solutions are looked at. The important role played by quality assurance for fast market development is stressed. Finally, the role to be played by wood energy in the future is looked at

  1. Competitive outcomes between wood-decaying fungi are altered in burnt wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edman, Mattias; Eriksson, Anna-Maria

    2016-06-01

    Fire is an important disturbance agent in boreal forests where it creates a wide variety of charred and other types of heat-modified dead wood substrates, yet how these substrates affect fungal community structure and development within wood is poorly understood. We allowed six species of wood-decaying basidiomycetes to compete in pairs in wood-discs that were experimentally burnt before fungal inoculation. The outcomes of interactions in burnt wood differed from those in unburnt control wood for two species:Antrodia sinuosanever lost on burnt wood and won over its competitor in 67% of the trials compared to 40% losses and 20% wins on unburnt wood. In contrast, Ischnoderma benzoinumwon all interactions on unburnt wood compared to 33% on burnt wood. However, the responses differed depending on the identity of the competing species, suggesting an interaction between competitor and substrate type. The observed shift in competitive balance between fungal species probably results from chemical changes in burnt wood, but the underlying mechanism needs further investigation. Nevertheless, the results indicate that forest fires indirectly structure fungal communities by modifying dead wood, and highlight the importance of fire-affected dead wood substrates in boreal forests. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Air pollution from residential wood combustion in a Danish village. Measuring campaign and analysis of results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waahlin, P; Roerdam Olesen, H; Bossi, R; Stubkjaer, J

    2010-05-15

    A campaign took place in the winter 2006/2007 comprising measurements of many air pollution components at two sites: a wood smoke exposed site within the village Slagslunde, and a background site 500 m outside of the village. The report describes the campaign and its results. A central result is a so-called 'wood smoke source profile', which relates several measures of wood smoke pollution to each other. This is based on a 'cleaned' data set, for which the effect of other sources than wood smoke was small. The wood smoke profile links the measures PM2.5, particle volume, soot, monosaccharide anhydrides (levoglucosan and mannosan) and different PAHs to each other. Particle number N does not have a close link to the other measures. (author)

  3. World trade in forest products and wood fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, Bengt

    2006-01-01

    Wood fuel is a strategic resource for future energy supply and is usually utilised locally. Traditional use of wood fuel and other bioenergy has a share of 10-15% energy supply, used mainly for the household sector. The utilisation for industrial purposes is much smaller but is a strategic resource in the effort to fulfil the Kyoto agreement to replace fossil fuels and to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Many industrialised countries already use a significant share of biofuels in their energy supply e.g. Nordic countries while others like some other European Union countries are planning to increase their use. Production and use of biofuels need to be carried out sustainable. Official statistics do not report trade in such detail that international trade in different biomass types can be fully identified. However, FAO and European Forestry Institute are important sources. In some countries, there is a growing interest in the international trade, because the trade can provide biofuels at lower prices, larger quantities and better quality than domestic alternatives. The first signs of an international market price for wood fuel are indicated in Europe. For the future both the use and the trade of wood fuel is expected to increase. Analyses for trade in charcoal, wood chips, fuel wood and wood residues made in this report identify 'hot' trade spots in Europe, in south East Asia and in North America

  4. Pollution-free combustion of waste wood in Swiss joineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The exploitation of scrap wood for heat generation in the wood processing industry makes sense not only in the context of energy conservation but also on environmental grounds. Existing energy requirements can be provided by renewable energy sources, relieving the burden on the public waste disposal facility. The wood-fired heating plant for a joinery in Pratteln, Switzerland consumes 150 to 180 tonnes of waste wood per year, enabling approximately 80 tonnes of heating oil to be saved. The heat produced is used in a local scheme to heat the joinery and adjacent housing. A new fibrous filter system for the retention of fine particles was installed, enabling the particle concentration in the exhaust to be reduced from 292 mg/m{sup 3} to 24 mg/m{sup 3}. (UK)

  5. Comparison of Different Wood Species as Raw Materials for Bioenergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana Klašnja

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Most projections of the global energy use predict that biomass will be an important component of primary energy sources in the coming decades. Short rotation plantations have the potential to become an important source of renewable energy in Europe because of the high biomass yields, a good combustion quality as solid fuel, ecological advantages and comparatively low biomass production costs. Materials and Methods: In this study, the wood of black locust Robinia pseudoacacia, white willow Salix alba L., poplars Populus deltoides and Populus x euramericana cl.I-214, aged eight years were examined. Immediately after the felling, sample discs were taken to assess moisture content, ash content, the width of growth rings, wood densities and calorific values, according to the standard methodology. Results:The mean values of willow, poplar and black locust wood density were 341 kg/m3, 336 kg/m3 and 602 kg/m3,respectively. The average heating values of willow poplar and black locust wood were 18.599 MJ/kg, 18.564 MJ/kg and 21.196 MJ/kg, respectively. The FVI index (average values was higher for black locust (17.186 than for poplar and willow clones, which were similar: 11.312 and 11.422 respectively. Conclusions: Black locust wood with a higher density, calorific value and ash content compared to poplar and willow wood proved to be a more suitable raw material as RES. However, it is very important, from the aspect of the application of wood of these tree species as RES, to also consider the influence of the biomass yield per unit area of the plantations established as “energy plantations”.

  6. Preliminary data summary for the hospitals point-source category

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strassler, E.; Hund, F.H.

    1989-09-01

    The summaries were prepared in order to allow EPA to respond to the mandate of Section 304(m) of the Clean Water Act. Summaries for categories already subject to rulemaking were developed for comparison purposes, and contain only the minimum amount of data needed to provide some perspective on the relative magnitude of the pollution problems created across the categories. The document summarizes the most current information available regarding the discharge of wastewater and solid wastes containing priority and hazardous non-priority pollutants by hospitals. The document provides a technical basis for determining whether additional national regulations should be developed pursuant to the Clean Water Act (CWA), and makes available preliminary information regarding the discharge of priority and hazardous non-priority pollutants by the hospital industry

  7. Effect of raw wood supply system on the wood paying capability of a kraft pulp mill using Scots pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahl, O. (Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland), Dept. of Forest Products Technology), Email: olli.dahl@tkk.fi; Jylhae, P. (Finnish Forest Research Inst., Kannus (Finland)), Email: paula.jylha@metla.fi; Laitila, J. (Finnish Forest Research Inst., Joensuu (Finland)), Email: juha.laitila@metla.fi; Kaerhae, K. (Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)), Email: kalle.karha@metsateho.fi

    2009-07-01

    Integration of energy wood procurement into that of pulpwood is seen as a means for reducing the high procurement costs of small-diameter wood harvested from first thinnings. In the deepest mode of integration, pulp and energy fractions are separated from each other in the debarking drum of the pulp mill. In the present paper, the competitiveness of the conventional supply chain based on cut-to-length harvesting was compared to the supply systems based on the harvesting of loose whole trees and whole-tree bundling, in the cases of three Scots pine-dominated first-thinning stands using wood paying capability (WPC) of a kraft pulp mill as a decisive criterion. Furthermore, the competitiveness of first thinnings as raw material sources for a pulp mill was evaluated by using intermediate thinnings as s reference. (orig.)

  8. A calculation program for harvesting and transportation costs of energy and industrial wood; Energiapuun korjuun ja kuljetuksen kustannuslaskentaohjelmisto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranta, T [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    A computer based model has been developed for calculating the production costs of industrial wood and wood fuel. Several calculation situations, which might be useful for decision-making in energy wood supply, are included into this software. The model will be easy to use for practical purposes and flexible so that different new model and changes in the basis of calculations are easy to implement. Model will offer open interfaces for importing and exporting information. Model includes selected wood delivery chains and open interfaces for adding data from different procurement sources. The cost analysis model is built on Windows-based software, SQLWindows, using different sources of data (ODBC). With the model it is possible to manage these SQLBase databases with SQL-queries. The data included in the databases origins from various energy wood sources (local communities or part of them, forestry boards planning areas or even stands ready for cutting). By knowing the planned share of first thinnings, final cuttings and other harvesting operations it is possible to estimate the potential amount of wood fuel from each area. Also databases from energy wood users, forest and transportation machinery and distances are available in the system. Using the information it is possible to find out the fuel demand of power and heating plants in each moment (e.g., amount and quality), costs of various machines (harvesters, forwarders, trucks) as well as distances between energy wood sources and users. (orig.)

  9. Air pollution from residential wood combustion in a Danish village. Measuring campaign and analysis of results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waahlin, P.; Roerdam Olesen, H.; Bossi, R.; Stubkjaer, J.

    2010-05-15

    A campaign took place in the winter 2006/2007 comprising measurements of many air pollution components at two sites: a wood smoke exposed site within the village Slagslunde, and a background site 500 m outside of the village. The report describes the campaign and its results. A central result is a so-called 'wood smoke source profile', which relates several measures of wood smoke pollution to each other. This is based on a 'cleaned' data set, for which the effect of other sources than wood smoke was small. The wood smoke profile links the measures PM2.5, particle volume, soot, monosaccharide anhydrides (levoglucosan and mannosan) and different PAHs to each other. Particle number N does not have a close link to the other measures. (author)

  10. Evaluation of energy efficient techniques in the wood working and wood processing industry. Final report THERMIE - Action no. DIS-0059-95-DE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichhammer, W.; Digutsch, O.; Frey, G. v. [and others

    1997-05-01

    With the entrance of Austria, Finland and Sweden in the European Union beginning of 1995 the pattern of industrial energy consumption has changed considerably in some branches which are large energy consumers in the Northern countries. The wood working and wood processing industry is one of those branches. It comprises the preparation of wood from primary processing in sawmills up to the production of finished products, and is highly energy-intensive although to a somewhat smaller extent than the large energy consumers such as the iron and steel production or glass manufacturing. It can further be assumed that official statistics underestimate the real importance of the energy consumption in the wood sector because most official statistics do not indicate waste wood as a fuel. Waste wood is a renewable fuel and has as such not the same impact in terms of CO{sub 2}-emissions as fossil fuels. Nevertheless, renewable energy sources should be also used efficiently because they can replace fossil fuels for other purposes. The objective of this study on the wood sector were to analyse and summarise the present status of energy consumption in the fifteen countries of the EU and the two EFTA countries Norway and Switzerland, to evaluate present day energy technology in the wood industry, and to investigate existing application barriers to these techniques in order to inform, support and to motivate small and medium-sized companies in particular, thus simulating the wide spread use of such techniques. (orig./SR)

  11. Particles from wood smoke and traffic induce differential pro-inflammatory response patterns in co-cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocbach, Anette; Herseth, Jan Inge; Lag, Marit; Refsnes, Magne; Schwarze, Per E.

    2008-01-01

    The inflammatory potential of particles from wood smoke and traffic has not been well elucidated. In this study, a contact co-culture of monocytes and pneumocytes was exposed to 10-40 μg/cm 2 of particles from wood smoke and traffic for 12, 40 and 64 h to determine their influence on pro-inflammatory cytokine release (TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, IL-8) and viability. To investigate the role of organic constituents in cytokine release the response to particles, their organic extracts and the washed particles were compared. Antagonists were used to investigate source-dependent differences in intercellular signalling (TNF-α, IL-1). The cytotoxicity was low after exposure to particles from both sources. However, wood smoke, and to a lesser degree traffic-derived particles, induced a reduction in cell number, which was associated with the organic fraction. The release of pro-inflammatory cytokines was similar for both sources after 12 h, but traffic induced a greater release than wood smoke particles with increasing exposure time. The organic fraction accounted for the majority of the cytokine release induced by wood smoke, whereas the washed traffic particles induced a stronger response than the corresponding organic extract. TNF-α and IL-1 antagonists reduced the release of IL-8 induced by particles from both sources. In contrast, the IL-6 release was only reduced by the IL-1 antagonist during exposure to traffic-derived particles. In summary, particles from wood smoke and traffic induced differential pro-inflammatory response patterns with respect to cytokine release and cell number. Moreover, the influence of the organic particle fraction and intercellular signalling on the pro-inflammatory response seemed to be source-dependent

  12. Analytical electron microscopy of combustion particles: a comparison of vehicle exhaust and residential wood smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocbach, A.; Johansen, B.V.; Schwarze, P.E.; Namork, E.

    2005-01-01

    Particulate matter has been associated with a number of adverse health effects. Since combustion particles from vehicle exhaust and wood smoke are common constituents of ambient air, the morphology and elemental composition of particles from these two sources were analysed and compared using single particle analysis. Ambient air particles were collected in locations dominated by vehicle exhaust or residential wood smoke. To verify the source contributions to the ambient air samples, particles were collected directly from the combustion sources. All particulate samples were analysed on carbon extraction replica by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray microanalysis (XRMA). The particles were classified into four groups based on morphology and elemental composition. Carbon aggregates were the only particles identified to originate from combustion sources and accounted for more than 88% of the particle numbers in the ambient air samples from both sources. The carbon aggregates were therefore further analysed with respect to morphology and elemental composition on germanium extraction replica. Carbon aggregates from vehicle exhaust were characterised by higher levels of Si and Ca compared to wood smoke aggregates that contained higher levels of K. The S content in aggregates from both sources was probably caused by interaction with gases in the air. Furthermore, the diameters of primary particles from vehicle exhaust were significantly smaller (27±7 nm) than the diameters for wood smoke (38±11 nm). The observed differences in elemental profiles and primary particle diameters for vehicle exhaust and wood smoke may influence the health effects caused by these particles

  13. Energy wood. Part 2b: Wood pellets and pellet space-heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussbaumer, T.

    2002-01-01

    The paper gives an overview on pellet utilization including all relevant process steps: Potential and properties of saw dust as raw material, pellet production with drying and pelletizing, standardization of wood pellets, storage and handling of pellets, combustion of wood pellets in stoves and boilers and applications for residential heating. In comparison to other wood fuels, wood pellets show several advantages: Low water content and high heating value, high energy density, and homogeneous properties thus enabling stationary combustion conditions. However, quality control is needed to ensure constant properties of the pellets and to avoid the utilization of contaminated raw materials for the pellet production. Typical data of efficiencies and emissions of pellet stoves and boilers are given and a life cycle analysis (LCA) of wood pellets in comparison to log wood and wood chips is described. The LCA shows that wood pellets are advantageous thanks to relatively low emissions. Hence, the utilization of wood pellet is proposed as a complementary technology to the combustion of wood chips and log wood. Finally, typical fuel cost of wood pellets in Switzerland are given and compared with light fuel oil. (author)

  14. Energy wood resources availability and delivery cost in Northwest Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerasimov, Yuri; Karjalainen, Timo [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Joensuu (Finland)], E-mail: yuri.gerasimov@metla.fi

    2013-10-01

    Availability of solid by-products from wood harvesting and mechanical wood processing was estimated as sources for energy production based on recent actual harvesting, sawmill, and plywood production in Northwest Russia at 30 million m{sup 3}. Nearly 70% of the energy wood, 20 million m{sup 3}, was from harvesting, consisting of non-industrial round wood, unused branches and tops, defective wood resulting from logging, and spruce stumps removed after final felling. Over 30%, 10 million m{sup 3}, of the available volume was from sawmills and plywood mills, i.e. wood chips, sawdust, and bark. Due to current low utilization of energy wood for bioenergy in Northwest Russia, delivery cost of energy wood to the potential border-crossing points in Finland was analyzed for three means of transport: railways, roadways, and waterways. Nearly 28 million m{sup 3} of the energy wood could be transported by railways and 2 million m{sup 3} by roadways and waterways. The costs were lowest by roadways from the nearby border areas (10-15 Euro/m{sup 3} for wood processing by-products and 16-22 Euro/m{sup 3} for forest chips). The costs by railways varied from 12 to 27 Euro/m{sup 3} on shorter distances to 47-58 Euro/m{sup 3} on longer distances. Waterway transportation was the most expensive, about 28-48 Euro/m{sup 3}. It should be emphasized that we have estimated availability and delivery costs of energy wood, not prices which are defined by the market based on supply and demand.

  15. Microwave-assisted liquefaction of wood with polyhydric alcohols and its application in preparation of polyurethane (PU) foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui Pan; Zhifeng Zheng; Chung Y. Hse

    2011-01-01

    Microwave radiation was used as the heating source in southern pine wood liquefaction with PEG/glycerin binary solvent. It was found that microwave heating was more efficient than conventional oil bath heating for wood liquefaction. The wood residue content of the H2SO4 catalyzed liquefied wood dropped to zero within 5 min with microwave heating. The resulting...

  16. Wood energy markets, 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco Aguilar; Christopher Gaston; Rens Hartkamp; Warren Mabee; Kenneth Skog

    2011-01-01

    Global wood energy markets continue to grow, driven primarily by demand in the EU and its commitment to meet 20% of energy consumption from renewable sources by 2020. Large investments in industrial pellet-production capacity have been made under expectations of a continuously growing demand, mainly from the EU. Concern about how energy and climate-change policies may...

  17. Wood-related occupations, wood dust exposure, and sinonasal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, R B; Gerin, M; Raatgever, J W; de Bruyn, A

    1986-10-01

    A case-control study was conducted to examine the relations between type of woodworking and the extent of wood dust exposure to the risks for specific histologic types of sinonasal cancer. In cooperation with the major treatment centers in the Netherlands, 116 male patients newly diagnosed between 1978 and 1981 with primary malignancies of epithelial origin of this site were identified for study. Living controls were selected from the municipal registries, and deceased controls were selected from the national death registry. Interviews were completed for 91 (78%) cases and 195 (75%) controls. Job histories were coded by industry and occupation. An index of exposure was developed to classify the extent of occupational exposure to wood dust. When necessary, adjustment was made for age and usual cigarette use. The risk for nasal adenocarcinoma was elevated by industry for the wood and paper industry (odds ratio (OR) = 11.9) and by occupation for those employed in furniture and cabinet making (OR = 139.8), in factory joinery and carpentry work (OR = 16.3), and in association with high-level wood dust exposure (OR = 26.3). Other types of nasal cancer were not found to be associated with wood-related industries or occupations. A moderate excess in risk for squamous cell cancer (OR = 2.5) was associated with low-level wood dust exposure; however, no dose-response relation was evident. The association between wood dust and adenocarcinoma was strongest for those employed in wood dust-related occupations between 1930 and 1941. The risk of adenocarcinoma did not appear to decrease for at least 15 years after termination of exposure to wood dust. No cases of nasal adenocarcinoma were observed in men whose first exposure to wood dust occurred after 1941.

  18. Legal Harvesting, Sustainable Sourcing and Cascaded Use of Wood for Bioenergy: Their Coverage through Existing Certification Frameworks for Sustainable Forest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Sikkema

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The first objective of this paper was to provide an inventory of developments of certification schemes for sustainable biomass production, following recent EU legislation (both formalized and under development. One main pillar is the EU Timber Regulation for legal harvesting; a second one is the EU’s 2010 recommendations for sustainable woody biomass sourcing for energy; the third one is the EU Waste Directive. The second objective was to benchmark the coverage of this (draft legislation, when wood product certificates for sustainable forest management (SFM are used as proof of the related legislative requirements. We studied North America, as it is a major biomass supplier to the EU-28. Together with existing forest legislation in the US and Canada, SFM certificates are actively used to cover the EU’s (draft legislation. However, North American forests are only partially certified with fibers coming from certified forests; these are referred to as forest management (FM fibers. Other certified fibers should come from complementary risk assessments downstream in the supply chain (risk based fibers. Our benchmark concludes that: (a FM fiber certification by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC and the Program for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC international standards show the highest level of coverage with EU’s (draft legislation; (b There is insufficient coverage for risk based fibers by FSC Controlled Wood (FSC-CW, PEFC Due Diligence (PEFC-DD, or SFI-fiber sourcing (SFI-FS. Other weaknesses identified for elaboration are: (c Alignment in definitions are needed, such as for primary forest, high carbon stock, and wood waste (cascading; (d Imperfect mass balance (fiber check downstream needs to be solved, as non-certified fiber flows are inadequately monitored; (e Add-on of a GHG calculation tool is needed, as GHG life cycle reporting is not covered by any of the SFM frameworks.

  19. Effect of cement/wood ratios and wood storage conditions on hydration temperature, hydration time, and compressive strength of wood-cement mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andy W.C. Lee; Zhongli Hong; Douglas R. Phillips; Chung-Yun Hse

    1987-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of cement/wood ratios and wood storage conditions on hydration temperature, hydration time, and compressive strength of wood-cement mixtures made from six wood species: southern pine, white oak, southern red oak, yellow-poplar, sweetgum, and hickory. Cement/wood ratios varied from 13/1 to 4/1. Wood storage conditions consisted of air-...

  20. Techno-economic analysis of wood biomass boilers for the greenhouse industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, J.; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, S.; Preto, F.; Melin, S.; Bi, X.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to perform a techno-economic analysis on a typical wood pellet and wood residue boiler for generation of heat to an average-sized greenhouse in British Columbia. The variables analyzed included greenhouse size and structure, boiler efficiency, fuel types, and source of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) for crop fertilization. The net present value (NPV) show that installing a wood pellet or a wood residue boiler to provide 40% of the annual heat demand is more economical than using a natural gas boiler to provide all the heat at a discount rate of 10%. For an assumed lifespan of 25 years, a wood pellet boiler system could generate NPV of C$259,311 without electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and C$74,695 with ESP, respectively. While, installing a wood residue boiler with or without an ESP could provide NPV of C$919,922 or C$1,104,538, respectively. Using a wood biomass boiler could also eliminate over 3000 tonne CO 2 equivalents of greenhouse gases annually. Wood biomass combustion generates more particulate matters than natural gas combustion. However, an advanced emission control system could significantly reduce particulate matters emission from wood biomass combustion which would bring the particulate emission to a relatively similar level as for natural gas

  1. Chemical characterzation of fine particle emissions from the fireplace combustion of woods grown in the Southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Philip M; Cass, Glen R; Simoneit, Bernd R T

    2002-04-01

    The fireplace combustion of wood is a significant and largely unregulated source of fine particle pollution in the United States. Source apportionment techniques that use particulate organic compounds as tracers have been successful in determining the contribution of wood smoke to ambient fine particle levels in specific areas in California. To apply these techniques to the rest of the United States, the differences in emissions profiles between different wood smoke sources and fuel types should be resolved. To this end, a series of fireplace source tests was conducted on six fuel wood species found in the Southern United States to determine fine particulate emission factors for total mass, ionic and elemental species, elemental and organic carbon, and over 250 individual organic compounds. The wood species tested, chosen for their high abundance and availability in the Southern U.S. region, were yellow poplar, white ash, sweetgum, mockernut hickory, loblolly pine, and slash pine. The differences in the emissions of compounds such as substituted phenols and resin acids help to distinguish between the smoke from hardwood and softwood combustion. Levoglucosan, a cellulose pyrolysis product which may serve as a tracer for wood smoke in general, was quantified in the emissions from all the wood species burned. The furofuran lignan, yangambin, which was emitted in significant quantities from yellow poplar combustion and not detected in any of the other North American wood smokes, is a potential species-specific molecular tracer which may be useful in qualitatively identifying particulate emissions from a specific geographical area where yellow poplar is being burned.

  2. Wood pellet seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarniala, M.; Puhakka, A.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the wood pellet seminar, arranged by OPET Finland and North Karelia Polytechnic, was to deliver information on wood pellets, pellet burners and boilers, heating systems and building, as well as on the activities of wood energy advisors. The first day of the seminar consisted of presentations of equipment and products, and of advisory desks for builders. The second day of the seminar consisted of presentations held by wood pellet experts. Pellet markets, the economy and production, the development of the pellet markets and their problems (in Austria), the economy of heating of real estates by different fuel alternatives, the production, delivery and marketing of wood pellets, the utilization of wood pellet in different utilization sites, the use of wood pellets in detached houses, pellet burners and fireplaces, and conversion of communal real estate houses to use wood pellets were discussed in the presentations. The presentations held in the third day discussed the utilization of wood pellets in power plants, the regional promotion of the production and the use of pellets. The seminar consisted also of visits to pellet manufacturing plant and two pellet burning heating plants

  3. The Use of Wood Biomass in the Regional System of Renewable Energy Sources as a Chance for the Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Kluczkowski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The world needs energy. It is an obvious truth you do not need to prove. The modern world needs the electricity. With advancing civilization and the rate of consumption, and the demand for electricity is growing. At the same time, conventional resources are running out. This situation leads to the search for new renewable sources of energy. Therefore a crucial role of forests should be taken into consideration. The study shows that, in the relatively short term, the wood biomass (mainly forest will play a significant role in the regional energy system.

  4. Seeds of growth for small enterprises in forestry and wood-processing industries; Kasvun evaeaet metsae- ja puualan pienyrityksille

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieppo, K. (ed.)

    2010-07-01

    The theme of the research and development programme focusing on small enterprises in the forestry and wood processing industries in 2007-2010 was growth. Subcontracting in the wood harvesting and wood transport sectors has increased. In the wood harvesting sector, the growth reflects the existing financial situation. In the wood transport sector, a turnover smaller or larger than EUR 1-1,5 million weakens profitability. A clear trend in these sectors is expansion into new industries. The share of forest service enterprises in various work categories is increasing. A significant share of the growth is born when forest owners associations outsource their own forestry service production. Moreover, forests owned by municipalities, parishes and collective forests are a potential target for forest service enterprises. The forest energy business is built on the foundation of a new kind of competence and immaterial factors of production based on networking. Joint enterprises by machinery entrepreneurs have enabled a light organisational structure, effective and flexible management of production chains and raw material procurement as well as the sufficiency of machinery capacity. This also creates scale benefits and ensures delivery reliability. Heating entrepreneurs were interested in expanding their business to the one-family house category provided there is sufficient heating capacity. Among one-family house dwellers interest in district heating provided by a heating entrepreneur was significant. The small sawmill sector aimed to grow in moderation. The most important business objective for small sawmills was the improvement of profitability and a return on capital. Next in importance were satisfied customers and the reasonable livelihood of the owner. There are very few enterprises with actual growth orientation in the forestry and wood-producing industries. Development of entrepreneurship and business activities is important. In addition to entrepreneurs

  5. Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Commercial Portable Air Purifier in Homes with Wood Burning Stoves: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie F. Hart

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood burning for residential heating is prevalent in the Rocky Mountain regions of the United States. Studies have shown that wood stoves can be a significant source of PM2.5 within homes. In this study, the effectiveness of an electrostatic filter portable air purifier was evaluated (1 in a home where a wood stove was the sole heat source and (2 in a home where a wood stove was used as a supplemental heat source. Particle count concentrations in six particle sizes and particle mass concentrations in two particle sizes were measured for ten 12-hour purifier on and ten purifier off trials in each home. Particle count concentrations were reduced by 61–85 percent. Similar reductions were observed in particle mass concentrations. These findings, although limited to one season, suggest that a portable air purifier may effectively reduce indoor particulate matter concentrations associated with wood combustion during home heating.

  6. Cornstalk as a source of fiber and energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz Ahmed; J. Y. Zhu

    2006-01-01

    Wood is the major source of fiber supply. Non-wood fibers are mainly used in papermaking where there is a lack of forest resource such as in China and India. Cornstalk, among the agricultural residues and other non-wood fiber, is the most promising source of fiber. However, The usage of cornstalks is very limited in pulp and paper industry, although nearly 284 million...

  7. Hogged wood fuel price analysis in the U.S. Pacific Northwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biederman, R.T.; Blazek, C.F.; Fox, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the results of a comprehensive analysis of wood residues used for meeting energy requirements in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. These wood residues are generated primarily from cutting, sawing, planning, sanding, and debarking activities in the lumber and plywood industries. While high-quality wood residues are commonly used as raw material in the manufacture of pulp and board commodities, a very large amount of wood residues are ultimately used for plant fuel purposes. The characteristics of this market for hogged wood fuel are examined in depth, with particular emphasis given to the factors which affect the supply, demand and price of hogged wood. Hogged wood has played an enormous role in the Pacific Northwest for over sixty years, a result of the massive regional timber harvest. Utilization of this renewable energy resource continues to be a large component in regional energy supply. Despite having a large number of highly integrated mills that both use and produce wood residues, the Pacific Northwest region experiences a lively trade in hogged wood. The IGT study discussed herein examines the determinants of the regional market price for hogged wood. A number of useful leading indicators are identified, and a statistical forecasting model is prepared to help predict future hogged wood prices. This model provides insight into the factors that are, and are not, important determinants of hogged wood price. The issue of fuel substitution is addressed in relation to the potential of hogged wood to displace some amount of primary energy sources such as natural gas and electricity. Also examined in the study are techniques to estimate the actual quantity of hogged wood available, and the quantity demanded by the marketplace. Conclusions presented in the study have important ramifications for understanding the price behavior and utilization of hogged wood fuel. 4 refs., 12 figs

  8. Efficiency Assessment of Support Mechanisms for Wood-Fired Cogeneration Development in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, Anna; Siirde, Andres

    2010-01-01

    There are various support mechanisms for wood-fired cogeneration plants, which include both support for cogeneration development and stimulation for increasing consumption of renewable energy sources. The efficiency of these mechanisms is analysed in the paper. Overview of cogeneration development in Estonia is given with the focus on wood-fired cogeneration. Legislation acts and amendments, related to cogeneration support schemes, were described. For evaluating the efficiency of support mechanisms an indicator - fuel cost factor was defined. This indicator includes the costs related to the chosen fuel influence on the final electricity generation costs without any support mechanisms. The wood fuel cost factors were compared with the fuel cost factors for peat and oil shale. For calculating the fuel cost factors, various data sources were used. The fuel prices data were based on the average cost of fuels in Estonia for the period from 2000 till 2008. The data about operating and maintenance costs, related to the fuel type in the case of comparing wood fuel and oil shale fuel were taken from the CHP Balti and Eesti reports. The data about operating and maintenance costs used for peat and wood fuel comparison were taken from the Tallinn Elektrijaam reports. As a result, the diagrams were built for comparing wood and its competitive fuels. The decision boundary lines were constructed on the diagram for the situation, when no support was provided for wood fuels and for the situations, when various support mechanisms were provided during the last 12 years.

  9. Finishing of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam Williams

    1999-01-01

    The primary function of any wood finish (paint, varnish, and stain, for example) is to protect the wood surface, help maintain a certain appearance, and provide a cleanable surface. Although wood can be used both outdoors and indoors without finishing, unfinished wood surfaces exposed to the weather change color, are roughened by photodegradation and surface checking,...

  10. Brief communication: The curious case of the large wood-laden flow event in the Pocuro stream (Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ravazzolo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Large wood transported during extreme flood events can represent a relevant additional source of hazards that should be taken into account in mountain environments. However, direct observations and monitoring of large-wood transport during floods are difficult and scarce. Here we present a video of a flood characterised by multiple phases of large-wood transport, including an initial phase of wood-laden flow rarely described in the literature. Estimations of flow velocity and transported wood volume provide a good opportunity to develop models of large-wood-congested transport.

  11. Wood fuels utilization in Central Europe - the wood fuels consumption and the targets of utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alakangas, E.

    1999-01-01

    Following subjects are discussed in this presentation: The share of bioenergy of the total energy consumption in EU region; the wood fuels consumption in EU region in 1995; the division of bioenergy utilization (households, wood- based district heating, wood consumption in industry, power generation from wood and residues, biofuels, biogas and sludges); wood fuels consumption in households in EU countries in 1995; wood consumption in France; the additional wood fuel consumption potential in France; Blan bois - wood energy program; French wood energy markets; German wood energy markets; energy consumption in Germany; wood consumption in Bavaria; the wood fuels potential in Bavaria; wood fuels consumption in households in Bavaria; wood fuels consumption for district heating in Bavaria; fuel prices in Bavaria; Environmental regulations in Germany; small boiler markets in Germany; Energy consumption in Austria; small-scale utilization of wood fuels; utilization of wood energy. (Slides, additional information from the author)

  12. Wood construction and magnetic characteristics of impregnated type magnetic wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Hideo; Hojo, Atsushi; Seki, Kyoushiro; Takashiba, Toshio

    2002-01-01

    The results of experiments involving the AC and DC magnetic characteristics of impregnated type magnetic wood were studied by taking into consideration the wood construction and fiber direction. The experimental results show that the sufficient amount of impregnated magnetic fluid varies depending on the fiber direction and length, and the grain face of the wood material. The impregnated type magnetic wood sample that is fully impregnated by magnetic fluid has a 60% saturation magnetization compared to the saturation magnetization of magnetic fluid. Samples for which the wood fiber direction was the same as the direction of the magnetic path had a higher magnetization intensity and permeability

  13. Determination of mass attenuation coefficient in wood and leaves of typical trees by gamma-ray attenuation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Regina M. de; Pascholati, Elisabete M.

    1997-01-01

    Using an 241 Am source the mass attenuation coefficient of different woods and leaves of typical species of the Atlantic Forest were measured. The results for natural wood, dry wood and dry leaves indicate that the variation is very small among different species. However, woods present a higher attenuation than leaves, both depending on their water content. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  14. Experimental techniques for characterising water in wood covering the range from dry to fully water-saturated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybring, Emil Engelund; Kymäläinen, Maija; Rautkari, Lauri

    2018-01-01

    focuses on selected experimental techniques that can give deeper insights into various aspects of water in wood in the entire moisture domain from dry to fully water-saturated. These techniques fall into three broad categories: (1) gravimetric techniques that determine how much water is absorbed, (2...

  15. Global patterns and trends of wood harvest and use between 1990 and 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bais-Moleman, A.L.; Lauk, Christian; Kastner, Thomas; Erb, Karl Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Wood biomass forms the basis for a variety of products and it represents an important source of technical energy. Woodfuels and forests play an important role for climate change mitigation, by their ability to replace fossil fuel and sequester atmospheric carbon. At the same time, wood extraction is

  16. Wood preservatives and pressure-treated wood: considerations for historic-preservation projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald W. Anthony; Stan T. Lebow

    2015-01-01

    Wood, an abundant resource throughout most of the world, has been used as a building material for thousands of years. Many historic buildings have been built primarily of wood, and masonry and stone buildings generally have wood elements, both structural and architectural. As a biological material, wood is both remarkably complex and yet quite durable if well...

  17. Thermophotovoltaics, wood powder and fuel quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, J [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Operational Efficiency; Broman, L; Jarefors, K [Solar Energy Research Center, Borlaenge (Sweden)

    1998-06-01

    PV cells can be used for electricity production based on other heat sources than the sun. If the temperature of the source is around 1500 K it is possible to get reasonably high conversion efficiency from heat radiation to electricity. This is due to recent advances in low-bandgap PV cells and selectively emitting fibrous emissive burners. There are some different biomass fuels capable of producing this temperature in the flame, especially gas and liquid fuels of different kinds. Wood powder is the only solid wood fuel with a sufficiently stable quality and properties for this high temperature combustion. A joint project between SERC, SLU and National Renewable Energy Laboratory NREL in Golden, Colorado, USA aims at building a wood powder fuelled thermophotovoltaic (TPV) generator for cogeneration of heat and electricity. A stable flame temperature of 1500 K has been achieved in a prototype pilot-scale burner that includes feeder and combustion chamber. Furthermore, a setup for measuring TPV cell efficiency for a wide region of black body emitter temperatures and cell irradiation has been constructed and several 0.6 eV GaInAs TPV cells have been investigated. A setup for testing the chain IR emitter - selectively reflecting filter - TPV cell has been designed. In order to limit the region of filter incident angles, which will make the filter act more efficiently, a special geometry of the internally reflecting tube that transmits the radiation is considered 23 refs, 4 figs

  18. A Documentation of Some Traditional Aspects of Wood Consumption in Anaocha, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeka E. Okonkwo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The usefulness of wood to mankind varies from place to place, community to community, state to state, and nation to nation. Wood is a natural product, which is one of the components of biodiversity and a bio-product that serves numerous purposes to mankind. Such multifunctional purposes include those of sociopolitical, economic, religious, and cultural aspects of man. This article examines some traditional aspects of wood consumption in Anaocha Local Government Area of Anambra State, Nigeria, with a view to ascertaining the uses to which the people put wood as a by-product of the trees around them. In-depth interview, on-the-site observation, and focused group discussion were used to elicit information from knowledgeable elders, artisans, and wood vendors in different towns that make up the local government area. This research brings to limelight aspects of wood consumption in Anaocha and lends credence to the belief that wood is still the major source of revenue and energy in rural areas, probably because it is a free gift of nature. The research findings show that modernization has not completely eroded the value of wood in the study area.

  19. 2000-2006 National Wood Energy Programme. 2000-2005 Activities Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    2005 was marked by key decisions which were taken with the aim of developing the biomass sector as a substitute for fossil fuels. Indeed, to achieve the ambitious objectives for renewable sources of energy set out by the July 2005 Energy Policy Orientation Programme (POPE), we must make great use of biomass, particularly to increase by 50% the share of renewable thermal energy between now and 2010 and to enable biofuels to represent 7% of all fuels used at the same date. To a lesser extent, and in conjunction with heat production, the share of biomass in renewable electricity production also needs to rise. Both the resource and key supply players are there and are ready to get organised in order to rise to these challenges. There is an abundant supply of agricultural and forest by-products. More than sixty companies organise and deliver heating wood. More than 300 government and professional promotion, regulatory, PR, finance, equipment construction and operation, research and engineering organizations are involved in this market. The strategic and economic context is highly favourable in the light of laws, directives and international agreements aiming to combat greenhouse gas emissions, but also due to the structural pressure on the price of fossil fuels. Wood energy, as a renewable energy source, has an important role to play in this context of growth. Furthermore, the wood energy sector should be developed using an exemplary sustainable development approach, which means that all the economic, social and environmental effects are taken into account. In order to comprehensively assess the sector's environmental impact, a full chapter of this report presents the work and programmes set up by ADEME to reduce pollutant emissions produced by biomass combustion, particularly from private households. Moreover, consultation and dialogue between those involved must be widened in order to enable all wood users to benefit from 'best forest use' which will be a key

  20. A new genomic resource dedicated to wood formation in Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couloux Arnaud

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Renowned for their fast growth, valuable wood properties and wide adaptability, Eucalyptus species are amongst the most planted hardwoods in the world, yet they are still at the early stages of domestication because conventional breeding is slow and costly. Thus, there is huge potential for marker-assisted breeding programs to improve traits such as wood properties. To this end, the sequencing, analysis and annotation of a large collection of expressed sequences tags (ESTs from genes involved in wood formation in Eucalyptus would provide a valuable resource. Results We report here the normalization and sequencing of a cDNA library from developing Eucalyptus secondary xylem, as well as the construction and sequencing of two subtractive libraries (juvenile versus mature wood and vice versa. A total of 9,222 high quality sequences were collected from about 10,000 cDNA clones. The EST assembly generated a set of 3,857 wood-related unigenes including 2,461 contigs (Cg and 1,396 singletons (Sg that we named 'EUCAWOOD'. About 65% of the EUCAWOOD sequences produced matches with poplar, grapevine, Arabidopsis and rice protein sequence databases. BlastX searches of the Uniref100 protein database allowed us to allocate gene ontology (GO and protein family terms to the EUCAWOOD unigenes. This annotation of the EUCAWOOD set revealed key functional categories involved in xylogenesis. For instance, 422 sequences matched various gene families involved in biosynthesis and assembly of primary and secondary cell walls. Interestingly, 141 sequences were annotated as transcription factors, some of them being orthologs of regulators known to be involved in xylogenesis. The EUCAWOOD dataset was also mined for genomic simple sequence repeat markers, yielding a total of 639 putative microsatellites. Finally, a publicly accessible database was created, supporting multiple queries on the EUCAWOOD dataset. Conclusion In this work, we have identified a

  1. Integrated control of wood destroying basidiomycetes combining Cu-based wood preservatives and Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribera, Javier; Fink, Siegfried; Bas, Maria Del Carmen; Schwarze, Francis W M R

    2017-01-01

    The production of new generation of wood preservatives (without addition of a co-biocide) in combination with an exchange of wood poles on identical sites with high fungal inoculum, has resulted in an increase of premature failures of wood utility poles in the last decades. Wood destroying basidiomycetes inhabiting sites where poles have been installed, have developed resistance against wood preservatives. The objective of the in vitro studies was to identify a Trichoderma spp. with a highly antagonistic potential against wood destroying basidiomycetes that is capable of colonizing Cu-rich environments. For this purpose, the activity of five Trichoderma spp. on Cu-rich medium was evaluated according to its growth and sporulation rates. The influence of the selected Trichoderma spp. on wood colonization and degradation by five wood destroying basidiomycetes was quantitatively analyzed by means of dry weight loss of wood specimens. Furthermore, the preventative effect of the selected Trichoderma spp. in combination with four Cu-based preservatives was also examined by mass loss and histological changes in the wood specimens. Trichoderma harzianum (T-720) was considered the biocontrol agent with higher antagonistic potential to colonize Cu-rich environments (up to 0.1% CuSO4 amended medium). T. harzianum demonstrated significant preventative effect on wood specimens against four wood destroying basidiomycetes. The combined effect of T. harzianum and Cu-based wood preservatives demonstrated that after 9 months incubation with two wood destroying basidiomycetes, wood specimens treated with 3.8 kg m-3 copper-chromium had weight losses between 55-65%, whereas containers previously treated with T. harzianum had significantly lower weight losses (0-25%). Histological studies on one of the wood destroying basidiomycetes revealed typical decomposition of wood cells by brown-rot fungi in Cu-impregnated samples, that were notably absent in wood specimens previously exposed to T

  2. Integrated control of wood destroying basidiomycetes combining Cu-based wood preservatives and Trichoderma spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ribera

    Full Text Available The production of new generation of wood preservatives (without addition of a co-biocide in combination with an exchange of wood poles on identical sites with high fungal inoculum, has resulted in an increase of premature failures of wood utility poles in the last decades. Wood destroying basidiomycetes inhabiting sites where poles have been installed, have developed resistance against wood preservatives. The objective of the in vitro studies was to identify a Trichoderma spp. with a highly antagonistic potential against wood destroying basidiomycetes that is capable of colonizing Cu-rich environments. For this purpose, the activity of five Trichoderma spp. on Cu-rich medium was evaluated according to its growth and sporulation rates. The influence of the selected Trichoderma spp. on wood colonization and degradation by five wood destroying basidiomycetes was quantitatively analyzed by means of dry weight loss of wood specimens. Furthermore, the preventative effect of the selected Trichoderma spp. in combination with four Cu-based preservatives was also examined by mass loss and histological changes in the wood specimens. Trichoderma harzianum (T-720 was considered the biocontrol agent with higher antagonistic potential to colonize Cu-rich environments (up to 0.1% CuSO4 amended medium. T. harzianum demonstrated significant preventative effect on wood specimens against four wood destroying basidiomycetes. The combined effect of T. harzianum and Cu-based wood preservatives demonstrated that after 9 months incubation with two wood destroying basidiomycetes, wood specimens treated with 3.8 kg m-3 copper-chromium had weight losses between 55-65%, whereas containers previously treated with T. harzianum had significantly lower weight losses (0-25%. Histological studies on one of the wood destroying basidiomycetes revealed typical decomposition of wood cells by brown-rot fungi in Cu-impregnated samples, that were notably absent in wood specimens

  3. Wood composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lars Berglund; Roger M. Rowell

    2005-01-01

    A composite can be defined as two or more elements held together by a matrix. By this definition, what we call “solid wood” is a composite. Solid wood is a three-dimensional composite composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin (with smaller amounts of inorganics and extractives), held together by a lignin matrix. The advantages of developing wood composites are (...

  4. Bacteria in decomposing wood and their interactions with wood-decay fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Sarah R; Boddy, Lynne; Weightman, Andrew J

    2016-11-01

    The fungal community within dead wood has received considerable study, but far less attention has been paid to bacteria in the same habitat. Bacteria have long been known to inhabit decomposing wood, but much remains underexplored about their identity and ecology. Bacteria within the dead wood environment must interact with wood-decay fungi, but again, very little is known about the form this takes; there are indications of both antagonistic and beneficial interactions within this fungal microbiome. Fungi are hypothesised to play an important role in shaping bacterial communities in wood, and conversely, bacteria may affect wood-decay fungi in a variety of ways. This minireview considers what is currently known about bacteria in wood and their interactions with fungi, and proposes possible associations based on examples from other habitats. It aims to identify key knowledge gaps and pressing questions for future research. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Rehabilitating agricultural streams in Australia with wood: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Rebecca E; Boulton, Andrew J

    2008-08-01

    Worldwide, the ecological condition of streams and rivers has been impaired by agricultural practices such as broadscale modification of catchments, high nutrient and sediment inputs, loss of riparian vegetation, and altered hydrology. Typical responses include channel incision, excessive sedimentation, declining water quality, and loss of in-stream habitat complexity and biodiversity. We review these impacts, focusing on the potential benefits and limitations of wood reintroduction as a transitional rehabilitation technique in these agricultural landscapes using Australian examples. In streams, wood plays key roles in shaping velocity and sedimentation profiles, forming pools, and strengthening banks. In the simplified channels typical of many agricultural streams, wood provides habitat for fauna, substrate for biofilms, and refuge from predators and flow extremes, and enhances in-stream diversity of fish and macroinvertebrates.Most previous restoration studies involving wood reintroduction have been in forested landscapes, but some results might be extrapolated to agricultural streams. In these studies, wood enhanced diversity of fish and macroinvertebrates, increased storage of organic material and sediment, and improved bed and bank stability. Failure to meet restoration objectives appeared most likely where channel incision was severe and in highly degraded environments. Methods for wood reintroduction have logistical advantages over many other restoration techniques, being relatively low cost and low maintenance. Wood reintroduction is a viable transitional restoration technique for agricultural landscapes likely to rapidly improve stream condition if sources of colonists are viable and water quality is suitable.

  6. Hazardous emissions, operating practices, and air regulations at industrial wood-fired facilities in Wisconsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, A.J.

    1993-01-01

    Since October of 1988 the State of Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources has regulated over four hundred substances as hazardous air pollutants. The rule regulates new as well as existing sources of air pollution in Wisconsin. Consequently, all permits to operate an air pollution source in Wisconsin must address the hazardous air emissions potential of the source. While widely perceived as a clean-burning fuel, wood is often burned in a manner which clearly results in significant emissions of very hazardous air pollutants. Research conducted on a 20 million BTU per hour wood-fired spreader stoker boiler in northern Wisconsin showed that this boiler has the potential to emit 0.022 pound of benzene and 0.012 pound of formaldehyde per ton (lb/ton) of wood fired. Recent stack tests at more than a dozen other small industrial wood-fired facilities in Wisconsin show a range of formaldehyde emissions of 0.0007--0.1950 lb/ton. Work at Birchwood Lumber ampersand Veneer showed that the benzene and formaldehyde emission rates under good firing conditions are an order of magnitude lower than the benzene and formaldehyde emission rates under poor firing conditions. This finding has supported Wisconsin's regulatory approach of encouraging wood-fired facilities to enhance the quality of the combustion process as a technique to minimize the hazardous air pollution potential of industrial wood combustion. The Wisconsin strategy is to define open-quotes good combustion technologyclose quotes through easily measurable combustion parameters rather than emission standards. This paper presents several techniques in use in Wisconsin to comply with open-quotes good combustion technologyclose quotes for industrial wood-fired furnaces. These techniques include fuel blending overfire air, furnace insulation, and proper grate design

  7. World-wide ocean optics database WOOD (NODC Accession 0092528)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — WOOD was developed to be a comprehensive publicly-available oceanographic bio-optical database providing global coverage. It includes nearly 250 major data sources...

  8. Non_standard Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin

    . Using parametric design tools and computer controlled production facilities Copenhagens Centre for IT and Architecture undertook a practice based research into performance based non-standard element design and mass customization techniques. In close cooperation with wood construction software......, but the integration of traditional wood craft techniques. The extensive use of self adjusting, load bearing wood-wood joints contributed to ease in production and assembly of a performance based architecture....

  9. Thermal Properties of Wood-Plastic Composites Prepared from Hemicellulose-extracted Wood Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Enayati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemicellulose of Southern Yellow Pine wood spices was extracted by pressurized hot water at three different temperatures: 140°C, 155°C and 170°C. Compounding with PP (polypropylene was performed by extrusion after preparing wood flour and sieving to determine its mesh size. The ratio of wood to polymer was 50:50 based on oven-dry weight of wood flour. All extraction treatments and control samples were compounded under two sets of conditions, without and with 2% MAPP as coupling agent. Injection molding was used to make tensile test samples (dogbone from the pellets made by extrusion. Thermal properties of wood-plastic composites were studied by TGA and DSC while the thermal stability of pretreated wood flours, PP and MAPP were studied by TGA as well. The greater weight loss of wood materials was an indication that higher treatment temperature increases the extractability of hemicellulose. The removal of hemicellulose by extraction improves thermal stability of wood flour, especially for extraction at 170°C. Wood-plastic composites made from extracted fibers at 170°C showed the highest thermal stability. Coupling agent did not have a significant effect on thermal stability but it improved the degree of crystallinity of the composites.Surface roughness of wood fiber increased after treatment. Extraction of hemicellulose increased the degree of crystallinity but it was not significant except for samples from treated wood flour at 170°C and with MAPP.

  10. Demand and supply of wood fuels in the emission trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranta, T.; Lahtinen, P.; Laitila, J.

    2005-01-01

    The emission trade according to the EU directive on greenhouse gas emission allowance started at the beginning of the year 2005. This will boost the demand for wood fuels because of the addition-al value of CO 2 neutrality compared to fossil fuels. This bulletin covers the development of the demand and supply of wood fuels from 2002 to 2010 both at a national and a provincial level. The demand and supply balance of wood fuels will be evaluated both without the effect of emission trade and when the emission trade price level is 20 euro/ton- CO 2 for emission rights in 2010. The evaluations of fuel consumption for individual boilers were made with the help of the databases of Electrowatt-Ekono Ltd. The demand for wood fuels was estimated to double by the year 2010, being almost 50 TWh. The share of forest chips of the demand was one third, i.e. 17 TWh. The supply potential was divided into forest chips and solid by-products from forest industry. Forest chip sources included small diameter wood from young forests and logging residues and stumps from re-generation felling sites. The supply potential calculations of logging residues and stump biomass were based on databases of regeneration felling stands. The biomass potential from small diamreter wood was evaluated on the basis of field measurements of NFI 8 and 9 at a provincial level and multi-source data at a municipal level. In 2010, the supply potential of by-products was estimated to be 28 TWh of which 11 TWh was marketable out-side of the internal use of forest industry. Correspondingly, the theoretical potential of forest chips was estimated to be 51 TWh and the techno-economical potential 24 TWh. As a result of the regional optimization model, the energy use of wood fuels was 29 TWh, which was 59 % of the potential demand. In emission trade the demand was 33 TWh, which was 68 % of the potential demand. Regionally, the potential demand for wood fuels for energy use was higher than the supply in all provinces

  11. Radiation protection in category III large gamma irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Neivaldo; Furlan, Gilberto Ribeiro; Itepan, Natanael Marcio

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the advantages of category III large gamma irradiator compared to the others, with emphasis on aspects of radiological protection, in the industrial sector. This category is a kind of irradiators almost unknown to the regulators authorities and the industrial community, despite its simple construction and greater radiation safety intrinsic to the model, able to maintain an efficiency of productivity comparable to those of category IV. Worldwide, there are installed more than 200 category IV irradiators and there is none of a category III irradiator in operation. In a category III gamma irradiator, the source remains fixed in the bottom of the tank, always shielded by water, negating the exposition risk. Taking into account the benefits in relation to radiation safety, the category III large irradiators are highly recommended for industrial, commercial purposes or scientific research. (author)

  12. Lignin-Retaining Transparent Wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Fu, Qiliang; Rojas, Ramiro; Yan, Min; Lawoko, Martin; Berglund, Lars

    2017-09-11

    Optically transparent wood, combining optical and mechanical performance, is an emerging new material for light-transmitting structures in buildings with the aim of reducing energy consumption. One of the main obstacles for transparent wood fabrication is delignification, where around 30 wt % of wood tissue is removed to reduce light absorption and refractive index mismatch. This step is time consuming and not environmentally benign. Moreover, lignin removal weakens the wood structure, limiting the fabrication of large structures. A green and industrially feasible method has now been developed to prepare transparent wood. Up to 80 wt % of lignin is preserved, leading to a stronger wood template compared to the delignified alternative. After polymer infiltration, a high-lignin-content transparent wood with transmittance of 83 %, haze of 75 %, thermal conductivity of 0.23 W mK -1 , and work-tofracture of 1.2 MJ m -3 (a magnitude higher than glass) was obtained. This transparent wood preparation method is efficient and applicable to various wood species. The transparent wood obtained shows potential for application in energy-saving buildings. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  13. Modeling decay rates of dead wood in a neotropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hérault, Bruno; Beauchêne, Jacques; Muller, Félix; Wagner, Fabien; Baraloto, Christopher; Blanc, Lilian; Martin, Jean-Michel

    2010-09-01

    Variation of dead wood decay rates among tropical trees remains one source of uncertainty in global models of the carbon cycle. Taking advantage of a broad forest plot network surveyed for tree mortality over a 23-year period, we measured the remaining fraction of boles from 367 dead trees from 26 neotropical species widely varying in wood density (0.23-1.24 g cm(-3)) and tree circumference at death time (31.5-272.0 cm). We modeled decay rates within a Bayesian framework assuming a first order differential equation to model the decomposition process and tested for the effects of forest management (selective logging vs. unexploited), of mode of death (standing vs. downed) and of topographical levels (bottomlands vs. hillsides vs. hilltops) on wood decay rates. The general decay model predicts the observed remaining fraction of dead wood (R2 = 60%) with only two biological predictors: tree circumference at death time and wood specific density. Neither selective logging nor local topography had a differential effect on wood decay rates. Including the mode of death into the model revealed that standing dead trees decomposed faster than downed dead trees, but the gain of model accuracy remains rather marginal. Overall, these results suggest that the release of carbon from tropical dead trees to the atmosphere can be simply estimated using tree circumference at death time and wood density.

  14. Wood products trade and foreign markets. Annual production, consumption, and trade issue. Principal countries impacting US trade in wood products. Foreign agriculture circular

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The Forest Products Division has compiled production, consumption, and trade data on selected wood products for twenty eight significant countries. The data, collected from various sources, is not necessarily compatible with US export and import data normally published in this circular, which comes from the US Census Bureau. To supplement this data, the following perspectives offer a comparative snapshot of conditions in these countries, both in the general economy and the wood products sector. Economic information was extracted from the 1992 World Factbook; Central Intelligence Agency

  15. Wood as a raw commodity and energy carrier; Holz als Rohstoff und Energietraeger. Dynamisches Holzmarktmodell und Zukunftsszenarien - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauli, B.; Buergi, P.; Bruehlhard, S. [Schweizerische Hochschule fuer Landwirtschaft, Zollikofen (Switzerland); Thees, O.; Lemm, R.; Rosset, Ch. [Eidg. Forschungsanstalt fuer Wald, Schnee und Landschaft, WSL, Birmensdorf (Switzerland)

    2010-05-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at a dynamic wood-market model and the future prospects for the use of wood as a raw commodity and energy carrier. As an introduction, an overview of Swiss and international wood markets is provided. Various sorts of timber - from whole tree-trunks to waste wood for use as an energy source - are discussed. The international wood market is looked at and future developments are discussed. The report goes on to deal with four project stages which help provide an information basis in order to be able to review the current situation and the future developments in the Swiss wood industry. The first stage of the project involved the elaboration of a material-flow matrix for the year 2005. The sources of the data are discussed. Inconsistencies in the data are looked at and the Swiss wood market is analysed. This material-flow matrix provided the basis for a second step, the development of a product-oriented, dynamic wood market model. Here, all sources of wood from forests to waste wood are looked at and their use for building and as an energy resource is considered. Model development, variants and modelling factors are discussed. An expert-aided model is looked at. The market models developed were used for the third step, the development of scenarios for future development. Five scenarios were developed, including higher energy costs, a large, heavy storm event, increased per capita wood use, increasing global timber prices as well as the installation of a new, large-scale sawmill. In a final step, based on knowledge gained from the previous steps, suggestions for further action to be taken by politics were elaborated. Here, measures that would have an effect on supply and demand are suggested that could help decrease the costs for the harvesting of wood resources and support changes in the market behaviour of forest owners.

  16. Evaluation of challenges of wood imports to Iran using Fuzzy Delphi Analytical Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    amin arian

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Considering the increasing consumption of wood and wood products in Iran and limited domestic sources of wood and shortage of wood raw material in Iran, wood raw material imports is a solution for Iranian developing wood industries' wood procurement.But, wood imports to Iran, always faced with a lot of challenges. The aim of this research is to determine and evaluate the challenges in the way of wood imports to Iran. The research method used in this study is a descriptive-analytic method. The analytic method used in the study to evaluate the challenges is the Fuzzy Delphi Analytical Hierarchy Process (FDAHP. First the findings of previous researches in the field and the literature were studied and doing interviews with industry experts, the challenges in the way of wood imports to Iran were extracted and classified in 5 groups and 35 factors and were evaluated.The results shows that in the first level (groups the regulation, economic, politic, infrastructure and management groups have the most importance respectively. In second level (challenges, plant protection regulations have the most importance. After that, exchange rate tolerance, oil income, banking support and GDP have most importance respectively.

  17. Wood is burning in capital city area's fireplaces as well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luoma, H.

    1998-01-01

    The firewood market situation in the capital city area was examined by a mail questionnaire in the spring of 1997. The questionnaire form was distributed to 800 single-family houses in Espoo, Helsinki and Vantaa. The responses to the questionnaire numbered 297 (37 %). Wood was found to be the main source of heat energy in the households of 2 % of the respondents and as an alternative source of heat energy in 58 % of the households. The most common fireplace in the respondents' homes was a wood-fired sauna stove. Heat-accumulating fireplaces were in the second place and open fireplaces in the third place. The installation of heat-accumulating fireplaces has become more popular while wood-fired sauna stoves and open fireplaces have lost some of their popularity during the past few years. Thirteen percent of the owners responding to the questionnaire intend to install new fireplaces. Half of the respondents were of the opinion that there is nothing to restrict the use of their fireplaces. Those who felt that there were restrictions stated that the high cost of firewood was the most significant restricting factor. Other restricting factors were the difficulty of getting firewood and the shortcomings of wood storage facilities. The storage problem can be dealt with by, for example, resorting to joint purchases, in which case the batch of wood for one house can be smaller in size. One quarter of the interviewers showed interest in concerted purchasing and deliveries of wood. An average of 3.6 m 3 of wood was used in the single-family houses in the capital city area in 1996. This wood was obtained either by purchasing it, from one's own forest/block of land or by some other independent means (not by purchasing). These three forms of acquiring wood were almost equally important. Typically, firewood was bought the form of logging residues. The greatest demand is for bulk batches of chopped firewood. When firewood is purchased, the customer typically prefers to have it

  18. Availability and conversion to energy potentials of wood-based industry residues in Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simo, A.; Siyam Siew, S.

    2000-01-01

    The importance of biomass as the most accessible primary energy source in Cameroon is presented. The valorization of wood wastes and residues is seen as a way of implementing the sustainable use of biomass resources. A recent survey of wood-based industries in Cameroon reveals that large volumes of industrial wood residues are generated in the rain forest areas and are inefficiently used. Important quantities are lost in the form of burning in the four main forestry provinces, while other parts of the country suffer from fuelwood shortage. With the exception of the plywood factories, the wood industry is essentially dependent on commercial energy. An analysis made to show the economic and environmental benefits of converting wood residues to energy for industrial and domestic use is presented. (author)

  19. The genotoxic contribution of wood smoke to indoor respirable suspended particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boone, P.M. (John B. Pierce Foundation Laboratory, New Haven, CT (USA)); Rossman, T.G. (New York Univ. Medical Center, New York (USA)); Daisey, J.M. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (USA))

    1989-01-01

    The effect of wood burning stoves on the genotoxicity of indoor respirable organic matter was investigated for four homes during the winter and spring of 1986. Paired samples, one collected when the stove was not used and one when wood was burned, were extracted with dichloromethane and acetone. Aliquots of the dichloromethane extracts were analyzed with and without metabolic activation using the Microscreen bioassay. The Microscreen is a rapid, sensitive bioassay which measures a broad genotoxic endpoint, {lambda}-prophage induction. Per nanogram of organic material, wood smoke proved to be a major source of indirect (observed with metabolic activation) but not direct genotoxins in homes. The increase in indirect genotoxicity for extracts from aerosol containing wood smoke is probably due to higher concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the wood smoke aerosol as well as other unidentified classes. The direct genotoxicity observed for extracts of aerosol not containing wood smoke decreased with metabolic activation. This direct genotoxicity may be related to cooking activities in the homes. The trends in genotoxicity observed per nanogram of organic material are more pronounced when expressed per m{sup 3} of air due to the higher percentage of extractable material in aerosol containing wood smoke.

  20. Response of Microtermes mycophagus (Isoptera: Termitidae to twenty one wood species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeem Iqbal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The responses of termite species to bait depend upon the quality of the food used in the stations. Woods are the most common food sources for termites but different termite species behave differently to different wood species and types. The knowledge of the preference status of different wood species to a termite species helps in effective monitoring and baiting program. The current study was carried out to evaluate the preference of 21 wood species to the termite, Microtermes mycophagus in the field by no-choice and choice feeding tests. The results indicated silk cotton tree and sacred fig woods as the most preferred wood species with mean mass losses of 71.21 ± 5.09% and 68.38 ± 7.27% in no-choice test and 95.02 ± 1.65% and 91.69 ± 2.07% in choice tests, respectively. White cedar was the least preferred wood species with mean mass losses of 7.49 ± 1.64% and 13.92 ± 1.89% in no choice and choice feeding tests, respectively. Based on present studies, sapwood of silk cotton tree and sacred fig may be used in effective monitoring and baiting program against M. mycophagus.

  1. Soil-wood interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der Annemieke; klein Gunnewiek, Paulien; Boer, de Wietse

    2017-01-01

    Wood-inhabiting fungi may affect soil fungal communities directly underneath decaying wood via their exploratory hyphae. In addition, differences in wood leachates between decaying tree species may influence soil fungal communities. We determined the composition of fungi in 4-yr old decaying logs

  2. URBAN WOOD/COAL CO-FIRING IN THE NIOSH BOILER PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb Jr.

    2005-02-10

    Phase I of this project began by obtaining R&D variances for permits at the NIOSH boilerplant (NBP), Emery Tree Service (ETS) and the J. A. Rutter Company (JARC) for their portions of the project. Wood for the test burn was obtained from the JARC inventory (pallets), Thompson Properties and Seven D Corporation (construction wood), and the Arlington Heights Housing Project (demolition wood). The wood was ground at ETS and JARC, delivered to the Three Rivers Terminal and blended with coal. Three one-day tests using wood/coal blends of 33% wood by volume (both construction wood and demolition wood) were conducted at the NBP. Blends using hammermilled wood were operationally successful. Emissions of SO{sub 2} and NOx decreased and that of CO increased when compared with combusting coal alone. Mercury emissions were measured and evaluated. During the first year of Phase II the principal work focused upon searching for a replacement boilerplant and developing a commercial supply of demolition wood. The NBP withdrew from the project and a search began for another stoker boilerplant in Pennsylvania to replace it on the project. Three potential commercial demolition wood providers were contacted. Two were not be able to supply wood. At the end of the first year of Phase II, discussions were continuing with the third one, a commercial demolition wood provider from northern New Jersey. During the two-and-a-third years of the contract extension it was determined that the demolition wood from northern New Jersey was impractical for use in Pittsburgh, in another power plant in central New Jersey, and in a new wood gasifier being planned in Philadelphia. However, the project team did identify sufficient wood from other sources for the gasifier project. The Principal Investigator of this project assisted a feasibility study of wood gasification in Clarion County, Pennsylvania. As a result of the study, an independent power producer in the county has initiated a small wood

  3. Wood ash treatment, a cost-effective way to deactivate tannins in Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. foliage and to improve digestion by Barbarine sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Salem, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie (INRAT), Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)]. E-mail: bensalem.hichem@iresa.agrinet.tn; Abidi, S. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie (INRAT), Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Ecole Superieure d' Agriculture de Mateur, Mateur (Tunisia); Makkar, H.P.S. [Animal Production and Health Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Nefzaoui, A. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie (INRAT), Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)

    2005-08-19

    Three in vitro experiments and one in vivo experiment were carried out to study the effect of wood ash sources (6 L wood ash solution/kg fresh plant leaves) and levels and treatment duration on the nutritive value of acacia leaves. In Experiment 1, samples of fresh (F), dried (D), or dried and ground (DG) acacia were soaked for 6 h in water or acacia wood ash solution (120 g of wood ash dry matter/L of water). Soaking acacia in water decreased total extractable phenols (TP), total extractable tannins (TT) and extractable condensed tannins (CT). Wood ash treatment led to a further decrease of these phenolic compounds and was highest with DG acacia. Experiment 2 investigated different levels of acacia wood ash (0, 120, 180 and 240 g wood ash dry matter/L of water) and treatment duration (1, 2 and 3 days). The higher the level of wood ash, the lower proportion of TP and CT in acacia was noted. In Experiment 3, two sources of wood ash (i.e., acacia and Aleppo pine) and the same solution of each source of wood ash were used eight times. The two sources of wood ash had similar deactivating effect on TP and CT. The rate of decrease of TP and CT was highest when the same wood ash solution was used four consecutive times and decreased progressively thereafter. In these three experiments, water and wood ash treatment reduced organic matter and crude protein content but substantially increased the neutral detergent fibre (NDFom) content of treated acacia. In the fourth experiment, we treated acacia with acacia wood ash (180 g/L of water for 2 days) and the same solution was used five times. Treated and untreated acacia were air-dried and fed ad libitum to two groups, each of four Barbarine rams together with 300 g of concentrate. Wood ash treatment did not affect intake and OM digestibility of the diet but increased crude protein and NDFom digestibility (P < 0.05). Feeding untreated acacia resulted in negative N balances but with wood ash treatment, N balance was positive

  4. Wood energy-commercial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    Wood energy is being widely investigated in many areas of the country because of the many obvious benefits of wood fuel such as the low price per million Btus relative to coal, oil, and gas; the wide availability of noncommercial wood and the proven ability to harvest it; established technology which is reliable and free of pollution; renewable resources; better conservation for harvested land; and the potential for jobs creation. The Southeastern United States has a specific leadership role in wood energy based on its established forest products industry experience and the potential application of wood energy to other industries and institutions. Significant questions about the widespread usage of wood energy are being answered in demonstrations around the country as well as the Southeast in areas of wood storage and bulk handling; high capitalization costs for harvesting and combustion equipment; long term supply and demand contracts; and the economic feasibility of wood energy outside the forest products industry.

  5. Combustion of Waste Wood. Second phase of the collaboration project on waste wood combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Annika; Andersson, Christer; Eriksson, Jan; Hemstroem, Bengt; Jungstedt, Jenny; Kling, Aasa; Bahr, Bo von; Ekvall, Annika; Eskilsson, David; Tullin, Claes; Harnevie, Henrik; Sieurin, Jan; Keihaes, Juha; Mueller, Christian; Berg, Magnus; Wikman, Karin

    2003-08-01

    Combustion of waste wood has during the last decade increased dramatically and this has resulted in a number of Swedish plants using this fuel, e.g. Handeloe P11 (Norrkoeping) and ldbaecken P3 (Nykoeping), and yet other plants that are under construction (e.g. Nynaeshamn). The experience from these plants are that waste wood combustion results in a number of operational problems. To some extent these problems are different compared with the problems related to combustion of other biofuels but the situation is not directly comparable to waste incinerators. The problems are mainly related to slagging and fouling of heat exchanger surfaces and accelerated corrosion at relatively low temperature compared to the situation for ordinary biofuels. In some cases an increase in the emissions of specific substances can also result in difficulties to fulfil the EC-directive on waste combustion. Within previous projects the main problems related to combustion of waste wood have been identified and to some extent the cause of these problems has been clarified. One result of this reported investigation is a deeper understanding of the actual causes of these problems. However, the most important result is a number of recommendations for different measures on how to achieve disturbance-free combustion of waste wood. These recommendations actually summarises the most important possible solutions on how to achieve a disturbance-free operation and a lower maintenance cost for boilers combusting waste wood and can thereby be regarded as a short summery of the whole project: 1) Improving fuel quality by Improved sorting at the source and Sieving of the fuel -> Reducing the amount of metals and chlorine and Separation of fines and thereby reducing the amount of metals. 2) Combustion modifications by Avoiding reducing conditions at the heat exchanger surfaces -> Minimising slagging, fouling and corrosion. 3) Additives or co-combustion by Addition of sulphur with the fuel; Injection of

  6. HIGH RESOLUTION MICROTOMOGRAPHY FOR DENSITY AND SPATIAL INFORMATION ABOUT WOOD STRUCTURES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ILLMAN,B.

    1999-07-22

    Microtomography has successfully been used to characterize loss of structural integrity of wood. Tomographic images were generated with the newly developed third generation x-ray computed microtomography (XCMT) instrument at the X27A beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The beamline is equipped with high-flux x-ray monochromator based on multilayer optics developed for this application. The sample is mounted on a translation stage with which to center the sample rotation, a rotation stage to perform the rotation during data collection and a motorized goniometer head for small alignment motions. The absorption image is recorded by a single-crystal scintillator, an optical microscope and a cooled CCD array detector. Data reconstruction has provided three-dimensional geometry of the heterogeneous wood matrix in microtomographic images. Wood is a heterogeneous material composed of long lignocellulose vessels. Although wood is a strong natural product, fungi have evolved chemical systems that weaken the strength properties of wood by degrading structural vessels. Tomographic images with a resolution of three microns were obtained nonintrusively to characterize the compromised structural integrity of wood. Computational tools developed by Lindquist et al (1996) applied to characterize the microstructure of the tomographic volumes.

  7. Who's Counting Dead Wood ?

    OpenAIRE

    Woodall, C. W.; Verkerk, H.; Rondeux, Jacques; Ståhl, G.

    2009-01-01

    Dead wood in forests is a critical component of biodiversity, carbon and nutrient cycles, stand structure, and fuel loadings. Until recently, very few countries have conducted systematic inventories of dead wood resources across their forest lands. This may be changing as an increasing number of countries implement dead wood inventories. A recent survey looks at the status and attributes of forest dead wood inventories in over 60 countries. About 13 percent of countries inventory dead wood gl...

  8. Evaluation of the absorption Ångström exponents for traffic and wood burning in the Aethalometer-based source apportionment using radiocarbon measurements of ambient aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotter, Peter; Herich, Hanna; Gysel, Martin; El-Haddad, Imad; Zhang, Yanlin; Močnik, Griša; Hüglin, Christoph; Baltensperger, Urs; Szidat, Sönke; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2017-03-01

    Equivalent black carbon (EBC) measured by a multi-wavelength Aethalometer can be apportioned to traffic and wood burning. The method is based on the differences in the dependence of aerosol absorption on the wavelength of light used to investigate the sample, parameterized by the source-specific absorption Ångström exponent (α). While the spectral dependence (defined as α values) of the traffic-related EBC light absorption is low, wood smoke particles feature enhanced light absorption in the blue and near ultraviolet. Source apportionment results using this methodology are hence strongly dependent on the α values assumed for both types of emissions: traffic αTR, and wood burning αWB. Most studies use a single αTR and αWB pair in the Aethalometer model, derived from previous work. However, an accurate determination of the source specific α values is currently lacking and in some recent publications the applicability of the Aethalometer model was questioned.Here we present an indirect methodology for the determination of αWB and αTR by comparing the source apportionment of EBC using the Aethalometer model with 14C measurements of the EC fraction on 16 to 40 h filter samples from several locations and campaigns across Switzerland during 2005-2012, mainly in winter. The data obtained at eight stations with different source characteristics also enabled the evaluation of the performance and the uncertainties of the Aethalometer model in different environments. The best combination of αTR and αWB (0.9 and 1.68, respectively) was obtained by fitting the Aethalometer model outputs (calculated with the absorption coefficients at 470 and 950 nm) against the fossil fraction of EC (ECF / EC) derived from 14C measurements. Aethalometer and 14C source apportionment results are well correlated (r = 0.81) and the fitting residuals exhibit only a minor positive bias of 1.6 % and an average precision of 9.3 %. This indicates that the Aethalometer model reproduces

  9. Occurrence patterns of dead wood and wood-dependent lichens in managed boreal forest landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Måns

    2013-01-01

    Dead wood is a key resource for biodiversity, on which thousands of forest organisms are dependent. Because of current forest management, there has been a large-scale change in dead wood amounts and qualities, and consequently, many wood-dependent species are threatened. The general aim of this thesis is to increase our understanding of habitat requirements and occurrence patterns of wood-dependent lichens in managed, boreal forest landscapes. We surveyed dead wood and wood-dependent lichens ...

  10. Energy from wood - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussbaumer, T.

    2000-01-01

    The present publication is the introduction to a series of papers on fundamentals and applications of wood energy. It summarizes figures and data of the actual situation of fuel wood utilization in Switzerland and its potential for the future. Further, the advantages of bio-energy are discussed and the possibilities of funding for bio-energy in Switzerland are described. Wood contributes with 2.5% to the total energy demand in Switzerland nowadays. However, the utilization of wood energy can be more than doubled, which is one of the targets of the Swiss energy policy. The supply chains for the different types of fuel wood are described and specifications and prices of log wood, forestry wood chips and wood residues are presented. The main applications of wood energy are residential heating with manually operated wood boilers and stoves, on the one hand, and heat production with automatic wood furnaces in industry and communities, on the other hand. Automatic furnaces have been promoted in the past ten years and hence they contribute nowadays with more than 50% to the energy supply from wood with a further growing share. As an assistance for further information, a list of institutions and addresses in the field of wood energy in Switzerland is given in the paper. (author)

  11. Inventory of contaminants in waste wood; Inventering av foeroreningar i returtrae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jermer, Joeran; Ekvall, Annika; Tullin, Claes [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2001-03-01

    Waste wood is increasingly used as fuel in Sweden. It is of Swedish origin as well as imported, mainly from Germany and the Netherlands. The waste wood is contaminated by e.g. paint and wood preservatives and objects of metal, glass, plastics etc. The contaminants may cause technical problems such as deposits and corrosion as well as plugging of air openings. The present study has focussed on potential contaminants in waste wood that could cause problems of technical as well as environmental nature. The major chemical contaminants are surface treatments (paints etc) and wood preservatives. The surface treatments contribute in particular to contaminants of zinc and lead. In some cases zinc has been found to cause severe deposits in the furnaces. Surface treatments also contribute to increased levels of sodium, chlorine, sulphur and nitrogen. Preservative-treated wood is the most important source of increased levels of copper, chromium and arsenic in the waste wood. Waste wood imported from Germany contains less arsenic but the same amount of copper and chromium as Swedish waste wood. The contents of mercury in German waste wood can be expected to be higher than in waste wood of Swedish origin. The fraction consisting of wood-based panels is comparably free from contaminants but as a result of the high contents of adhesives wood-based panels contribute to a higher proportion of nitrogen in waste wood than in forest residues. A great number of non-wood compounds (such as plastics and metals) do also contaminate waste wood. By careful and selective demolition and various sorting procedures most non-wood compounds will be separated from the waste wood. Waste sorting analyses carried out indicate that the waste wood contains approximately 1% non-wood compounds, mainly plastic and metal compounds, glass, dirt, concrete, bricks and gypsum. This may seem to be a small proportion, but if large amounts of waste wood are incinerated the non-wood compounds will inevitably cause

  12. Wood preservative testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca Ibach; Stan T. Lebow

    2012-01-01

    Most wood species used in commercial and residential construction have little natural biological durability and will suffer from biodeterioration when exposed to moisture. Historically, this problem has been overcome by treating wood for outdoor use with toxic wood preservatives. As societal acceptance of chemical use changes, there is continual pressure to develop and...

  13. Consumer Product Category Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use information is compiled from multiple sources while product information is gathered from publicly available Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS). EPA researchers are evaluating the possibility of expanding the database with additional product and use information.

  14. Anaerobic biodegradability of Category 2 animal by-products: methane potential and inoculum source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozdniakova, Tatiana A; Costa, José C; Santos, Ricardo J; Alves, M M; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2012-11-01

    Category 2 animal by-products that need to be sterilized with steam pressure according Regulation (EC) 1774/2002 are studied. In this work, 2 sets of experiments were performed in mesophilic conditions: (i) biomethane potential determination testing 0.5%, 2.0% and 5.0% total solids (TS), using sludge from the anaerobic digester of a wastewater treatment plant as inoculum; (ii) biodegradability tests at a constant TS concentration of 2.0% and different inoculum sources (digested sludge from a wastewater treatment plant; granular sludge from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor; leachate from a municipal solid waste landfill; and sludge from the slaughterhouse wastewater treatment anaerobic lagoon) to select the more adapted inoculum to the substrate in study. The higher specific methane production was of 317 mL CH(4)g(-1) VS(substrate) for 2.0% TS. The digested sludge from the wastewater treatment plant led to the lowest lag-phase period and higher methane potential rate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Wood Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about wood dust, which can raise the risk of cancers of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. High amounts of wood dust are produced in sawmills, and in the furniture-making, cabinet-making, and carpentry industries.

  16. Wood Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoke is made up of a complex mixture of gases and fine, microscopic particles produced when wood and other organic matter burn. The biggest health threat from wood smoke comes from fine particles (also called particulate matter).

  17. The wood industry in Atlantic Canada: A focus on value-added

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-11-01

    This report prepared by the Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency in consultation with the four Atlantic provinces focuses on the value-added aspects of the wood products industry in Atlantic Canada. It also examines the state of the resource, the state of the industry, productivity and economic benefits, products and markets, trade and regulations, and needs, challenges and targets. The analysis was undertaken to determine the possibility of further utilization of forest resources in the region for value-added products, and to assess the possibilities for the wood products industry of Atlantic Canada exploring world markets for its products. The inventory of resources found 1.4 billion cubic meter of wood-growing productive forest land in the region, with softwoods accounting for 76 per cent of the forests. Concern was expressed about forest stands at regeneration levels. Total Annual Allowable Cut (AAC) for the Atlantic Provinces in 1995 was almost 20 million cubic meter, approximately 10 per cent of the national total. Although total harvests are below the AAC for the region, softwood harvesting in 1994 and in 1995 was well above the AAC. The analysis concluded that given the current level of harvesting, sustained growth in Atlantic Canada's wood industries will have to rely on access to external fibre sources and better use of the existing fibre source. At the same time, since many value-added manufacturers in the region rely on imported wood resources, the health of the value-added wood industry does not appear to be completely dependent on the sustainability of forest resources in the Atlantic region. Part Two of the report provides an economic profile of the industry, including brief reviews on employment, wages and salaries, exports and imports, transportation, education and training, research and technology and marketing. refs., tabs

  18. Wood pole overhead lines

    CERN Document Server

    Wareing, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This new book concentrates on the mechanical aspects of distribution wood pole lines, including live line working, environmental influences, climate change and international standards. Other topics include statutory requirements, safety, profiling, traditional and probabilistic design, weather loads, bare and covered conductors, different types of overhead systems, conductor choice, construction and maintenance. A section has also been devoted to the topic of lightning, which is one of the major sources of faults on overhead lines. The book focuses on the effects of this problem and the strate

  19. Kraft cooking of gamma irradiated wood, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Masamitsu; Meshitsuka, Gyosuke; Nakano, Junzo

    1979-01-01

    Studies have been made of kraft cooking of gamma irradiated wood. Beech (Fagus crenata Blume) wood meal suspended in aqueous alkaline alcohol was irradiated up to 1.5 KGy (0.15 Mrad) with gamma rays from a Co-60 source in the presence or absence of oxygen. The irradiated wood meals were washed thoroughly with fresh water, air dried and cooked under the ordinary cooking conditions. The results are summarized as follows: (1) Pre-irradiation in aqueous alkali have negligible effect on kraft cooking. (2) In the case of ethanol addition (50 g/l), pre-irradiation in vacuo shows acceleration of delignification and stabilization of carbohydrates during kraft cooking. Cooked yield gain by pre-irradiation was about 1.2% in all over the range of delignification from 80 to 90%. Aqueous ethanol without alkali also shows positive but smaller effect than that with alkali. (3) Propanol, iso-propanol and butanol show positive but smaller effects than ethanol. However, methanol does not show any positive effect. (4) Irradiation in the presence of oxygen does not show any attractive effect on kraft cooking. (author)

  20. Carbon sequestration via wood burial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Ning

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It is estimated that a sustainable long-term carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 ± 5 GtC y-1, and currently about 65 GtC is on the world's forest floors in the form of coarse woody debris suitable for burial. The potential is largest in tropical forests (4.2 GtC y-1, followed by temperate (3.7 GtC y-1 and boreal forests (2.1 GtC y-1. Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized. Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be $14/tCO2($50/tC, lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is low because CO2 is removed from the atmosphere by the natural process of photosynthesis at little cost. The technique is low tech, distributed, easy to monitor, safe, and reversible, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market.

  1. Wood thermoplastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel F. Caulfield; Craig Clemons; Roger M. Rowell

    2010-01-01

    The wood industry can expand into new sustainable markets with the formation of a new class of composites with the marriage of the wood industry and the plastics industry. The wood component, usually a flour or fiber, is combined with a thermoplastic to form an extrudable, injectable or thermoformable composite that can be used in many non-structural applications....

  2. 6 Source Categories - Boilers (Proposed Action)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is proposing options to simplify the Clean Air Act permitting process for certain smaller sources of air pollution commonly found in Indian country. This action would ensure that air quality in Indian country is protected.

  3. Consequences of bioenergy wood extraction for landscape-level availability of habitat for dead wood-dependent organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiron, Matthew; Jonsell, Mats; Kubart, Ariana; Thor, Göran; Schroeder, Martin; Dahlberg, Anders; Johansson, Victor; Ranius, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    Stumps and slash resulting from forest clearcutting is used as a source of low-net-carbon energy, but there are concerns about the consequences of biofuel extraction on biodiversity. Logging residues constitute potentially important habitats, since a large part of forest biodiversity is dependent on dead wood. Here we used snapshot field data from a managed forest landscape (25 000 ha) to predict landscape scale population changes of dead wood dependent organisms after extraction of stumps and slash after clearcutting. We did this by estimating habitat availability for all observed dead wood-dependent beetles, macrofungi, and lichens (380 species) in the whole landscape. We found that 53% of species occurred in slash or stumps. For most species, population declines after moderate extraction (≤30%) were small (dead wood types. However, some species were only recorded in slash and stumps. Red listed species were affected by slash and stump extraction (12 species), but less often than other species. Beetles and fungi were more affected by stump extraction, while lichens were more affected by slash extraction. For beetles and lichens, extraction of a combination of spruce, pine and birch resulted in larger negative effects than if only extracting spruce, while for fungi tree species had little effect. We conclude that extensive extraction decreases the amount of habitat to such extent that it may have negative consequences on species persistence at the landscape level. The negative consequences can be limited by extracting only slash, or only logging residues from spruce stands. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. How spectroscopy and microspectroscopy of degraded wood contribute to understand fungal wood decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fackler, Karin; Schwanninger, Manfred

    2012-11-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance, mid and near infrared, and ultra violet (UV) spectra of wood contain information on its chemistry and composition. When solid wood samples are analysed, information on the molecular structure of the lignocellulose complex of wood e.g. crystallinity of polysaccharides and the orientation of the polymers in wood cell walls can also be gained. UV and infrared spectroscopy allow also for spatially resolved spectroscopy, and state-of-the-art mapping and imaging systems have been able to provide local information on wood chemistry and structure at the level of wood cells (with IR) or cell wall layers (with UV). During the last decades, these methods have also proven useful to follow alterations of the composition, chemistry and physics of the substrate wood after fungi had grown on it as well as changes of the interactions between the wood polymers within the lignocellulose complex caused by decay fungi. This review provides an overview on how molecular spectroscopic methods could contribute to understand these degradation processes and were able to characterise and localise fungal wood decay in its various stages starting from the incipient and early ones even if the major share of research focussed on advanced decay. Practical issues such as requirements in terms of sample preparation and sample form and present examples of optimised data analysis will also be addressed to be able to detect and characterise the generally highly variable microbial degradation processes within their highly variable substrate wood.

  5. Emissions from fireplace and woodstove combustion of prevalent Portuguese woods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Célia

    2010-05-01

    P. Fernandes, C. Gonçalves, C.A. Alves, L. Tarelho, F. Mirante, T. Nunes and C. Pio Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies, Department of Environment, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal In Portugal, it was estimated that around 390000 ton/year of wood is burned in fireplaces, although the chemical characterisation of emission profiles has not yet been performed. Emission inventories and source apportionment, photochemistry and climate change models use values obtained for American or Alpine wood-fuels, uncommon in South Europe. Previous work has suggested that the species of wood used can have a huge influence on the particle emissions. Since the distribution of compounds emitted differs by species and burning conditions and there are many variations among published profiles, it is desirable to obtain specific data at a regional level on the chemical characterisation of wood smoke. A series of source tests was performed to compare the emission profiles from the woodstove combustion to those of fireplaces. Eight types of biomass were burned in the laboratory: seven species of wood grown in Portugal (Pinus pinaster, Eucalyptus globulus, Quercus suber, Acacia longifolia, Quercus faginea, Olea europea, Quercus ilex rotundifolia), and briquettes of biomass residues. The gas sampling was carried out in the exhaust ducts of both combustion systems. The collection of particles (PM2.5) was conducted in the dilution tunnel that was directly coupled to the chimney. Dilution sampling was used to characterise fine particle emissions from the combustion sources because it simulates the rapid cooling and dilution that occurs as exhaust mixes with the atmosphere. During each burning cycle, the concentrations of O2, CO2 and CO, as well as operational parameters (e.g. temperatures, flows, etc.), were automatically monitored. The PM2.5 samples were analysed by a thermal optical technique in order to obtain their organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) content

  6. Report of the Task Force on Sawmill Wood Residue Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    The Sawmill Wood Residue Task Force was established in 1993 to seek solutions to managing wood residue at sawmills, shingle mills, and log sort yards in British Columbia without burning or landfilling. In particular, the Task Force was formed to address the phaseout of beehive-type wood waste burners by January 1, 1996. The Task Force was formed at the forest product industry's request and included representatives from industry associations and government. It reviewed existing information on the quantities of mill residues and the options available for reducing, reusing, and recycling the residues. Nearly half of all the province's residues of 5 million bone dry tonnes/y is disposed of by burning with no energy recovery, or by landfilling. It was recognized that the total volume of wood residue cannot be handled by any one method suitable for all sources but that in the near term, electricity generation could deal with a significant percentage of wood currently being burned. The most immediate technically viable opportnity by industry in this area may be in cogeneration of electricity for load displacement at pulp mills. Other opportunities exist such as conversion of wood residue to liquid fuels but these require greater commitments to research and development. The need to handle bark and sawdust was identified as a critical requirement for alternate uses. Small niche uses for wood residue must be examined on a case by case basis for each company or group of companies in a region. The provincial government can also promote better use of wood wastes through policies such as social costing of power generation options and sales tax exemption for ethanol fuel. 1 tab

  7. Determination of gamma radiation shielding characteristics of some tropical woods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aigbosuria, E. F.

    2011-01-01

    This study compares the shielding characteristics of twenty-two tropical woods by using gamma scintillation detection method. Woods sourced are Anogeisus Leiocarpus(Ayin), Nesogordonia Papverifera(Oro), Entandrophragma Microphyllum(Anunje), Brachystagia Eurycoma(Ako), Cassia Alata(Asunrun), Afzelia Africana(Apa-Igbo), Khaya Grandifoliala(Gedu), Piptadenistrum Africana(Agbonyin), Nanclea Diderrehii(Opepe), Khaya Ivorensis(Oganwo), Chlorophora Excelsa(Iroko), Masonia altissima(Odogi), Entandrophragma Angolense(Ijebo), Altium Sativum(Ayo), Albizia Zygia(Ayunre), Terminalia Superba(Afara), Cordia Millenii(Omo), Melania(Melania), Pycnanthus Angolensis(Akomu), Triplochitons Scleroxylon(Arere), Pine(Pine), Ceiba Pentradra(Araba). The intensities of the emergent radiation were measured, when each of these woods were placed between a scintillation detector and a standard radioactive source. Analysis of result obtained shows an appreciable evidence of radiation attenuation due to the changes in the chemical composition of the woods and the dependence of the attenuation coefficient on energy and densities of these woods. The descending order of attenuation coefficient determined are; Ayin, Oro, Anuje, Ako, Asunrun, Apa-igbo Gedu, Agbonyin, Opepe Oganwo, Iroko Odogi , Ayo, Ayunre, Afara, Omo, Melania, Akomu, Arere, Pine, Araba. For a constant energy of 0.101MeV, the attenuation coefficient are 0.190cm -1 , 0.165cm -1 , 0.163cm -1 , 0.156cm -1 , 0.149cm -1 , 0.143cm -1 , 0.133cm -1 , 0.132cm -1 , 0.127cm -1 , 0.124cm -1 , 0.085cm -1 , 0.123cm -1 , 0.122cm -1 , 0.113cm -1 , 0.101cm -1 , 0.088cm -1 , 0.087cm -1 , 0.086cm -1 , 0.082cm -1 respectively. The wood in descending order of dependence of attenuation coefficient on density are: Ayin,Oro, Anunje,Ako,Asunrun,Apa-Igbo, Gedu, Agbonyin, Opepe, Oganwo, Iroko, Odogi, Ijebo, Ayo, Ayunre, Afara, Omo, Melania, Akomu, Arere, Pine and Araba. The half value layer shows the thickness at various energy regions.

  8. Determination of gamma radiation shielding characteristics of some tropical woods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aigbosuria, E F [Department of Computer Electronics/Physics, Lead City University, Ibadan (Nigeria)

    2011-10-24

    This study compares the shielding characteristics of twenty-two tropical woods by using gamma scintillation detection method. Woods sourced are Anogeisus Leiocarpus(Ayin), Nesogordonia Papverifera(Oro), Entandrophragma Microphyllum(Anunje), Brachystagia Eurycoma(Ako), Cassia Alata(Asunrun), Afzelia Africana(Apa-Igbo), Khaya Grandifoliala(Gedu), Piptadenistrum Africana(Agbonyin), Nanclea Diderrehii(Opepe), Khaya Ivorensis(Oganwo), Chlorophora Excelsa(Iroko), Masonia altissima(Odogi), Entandrophragma Angolense(Ijebo), Altium Sativum(Ayo), Albizia Zygia(Ayunre), Terminalia Superba(Afara), Cordia Millenii(Omo), Melania(Melania), Pycnanthus Angolensis(Akomu), Triplochitons Scleroxylon(Arere), Pine(Pine), Ceiba Pentradra(Araba). The intensities of the emergent radiation were measured, when each of these woods were placed between a scintillation detector and a standard radioactive source. Analysis of result obtained shows an appreciable evidence of radiation attenuation due to the changes in the chemical composition of the woods and the dependence of the attenuation coefficient on energy and densities of these woods. The descending order of attenuation coefficient determined are; Ayin, Oro, Anuje, Ako, Asunrun, Apa-igbo Gedu, Agbonyin, Opepe Oganwo, Iroko Odogi , Ayo, Ayunre, Afara, Omo, Melania, Akomu, Arere, Pine, Araba. For a constant energy of 0.101MeV, the attenuation coefficient are 0.190cm{sup -1}, 0.165cm{sup -1}, 0.163cm{sup -1}, 0.156cm{sup -1}, 0.149cm{sup -1}, 0.143cm{sup -1}, 0.133cm{sup -1}, 0.132cm{sup -1}, 0.127cm{sup -1}, 0.124cm{sup -1}, 0.085cm{sup -1}, 0.123cm{sup -1}, 0.122cm{sup -1}, 0.113cm{sup -1}, 0.101cm{sup -1}, 0.088cm{sup -1}, 0.087cm{sup -1}, 0.086cm{sup -1}, 0.082cm{sup -1} respectively. The wood in descending order of dependence of attenuation coefficient on density are: Ayin,Oro, Anunje,Ako,Asunrun,Apa-Igbo, Gedu, Agbonyin, Opepe, Oganwo, Iroko, Odogi, Ijebo, Ayo, Ayunre, Afara, Omo, Melania, Akomu, Arere, Pine and Araba. The half value

  9. Fogwater chemistry in a wood-burning community, western Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muir, P.S. (Oregon State Univ. (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Fogwater chemistry in Corvallis, Oregon, a wood-burning community (pop. approximately 43,000) was compared with the chemistry of fogwater collected in more remote and in more highly industrialized areas. The fogwater was not acidic (median pH = 5.7) and was usually dominated by SO4=, NO3-, and NH4+ whose concentrations were generally lower than in fogwater in other urban areas but higher than in remote areas. Concentrations of formic and acetic acids (medians = 61 and 52 microN, respectively) were comparable to those in fogwater in Los Angeles, California and were typically much higher than concentrations in fogwater from more remote areas. Formate and acetate concentrations were often comparable to those of SO4= and NO3-. Formaldehyde concentrations (range = 0.4-3.0 mg L-1) were comparable to those in fogwater in some urban areas of southern California, yet lower than concentrations in highly industrialized areas of southern California. Because concentrations of organic compounds in Corvallis fogwater were often comparable to those in larger urban areas, sources in addition to motor vehicles must be important in Corvallis. Additional sources may be natural and anthropogenic, the latter including residential wood burning and wood products industries.

  10. Fogwater chemistry in a wood-burning community, western Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, P S

    1991-01-01

    Fogwater chemistry in Corvallis, Oregon, a wood-burning community (pop. approximately 43,000) was compared with the chemistry of fogwater collected in more remote and in more highly industrialized areas. The fogwater was not acidic (median pH = 5.7) and was usually dominated by SO4=, NO3-, and NH4+ whose concentrations were generally lower than in fogwater in other urban areas but higher than in remote areas. Concentrations of formic and acetic acids (medians = 61 and 52 microN, respectively) were comparable to those in fogwater in Los Angeles, California and were typically much higher than concentrations in fogwater from more remote areas. Formate and acetate concentrations were often comparable to those of SO4= and NO3-. Formaldehyde concentrations (range = 0.4-3.0 mg L-1) were comparable to those in fogwater in some urban areas of southern California, yet lower than concentrations in highly industrialized areas of southern California. Because concentrations of organic compounds in Corvallis fogwater were often comparable to those in larger urban areas, sources in addition to motor vehicles must be important in Corvallis. Additional sources may be natural and anthropogenic, the latter including residential wood burning and wood products industries.

  11. Mildew and mildew control for wood surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Bussjaeger; George Daisey; R. Simmons; Saul Spindel; Sam Williams

    1999-01-01

    Mildew growth is an ongoing problem. Fungal spores land on surface and, under the environmental conditions, grow. Ideal conditions are warm, moist climates, oxygen, and a substrate that serves as a nutrient source for mildew. Mildew growth on finishes cause discoloration and premature failure of the finish. Prevention of mildew can be done by pretreating the wood with...

  12. On token reinforcement and stuttering therapy: Another view on findings reported by Howie and Woods (1982)

    OpenAIRE

    Ingham, Roger J.

    1983-01-01

    Howie and Woods (1982) have provided data that, they claim, indicate that a token reinforcement system is redundant in instating and shaping fluent speech within a stuttering treatment program developed by Ingham and Andrews (1973a, b). However, there were substantial procedural differences between the treatment programs referred to in both studies, as well as methodological weaknesses in Howie and Woods' study. These factors provide ample sources of explanation for Howie and Woods' failure t...

  13. Mathematical Simulation of Temperature Profiles within Microwave Heated Wood Made for Wood-Based Nano composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.; He, X.; Lv, J.; Wu, Y.; Luo, Y.; Chen, H.

    2013-01-01

    High intensive microwave pretreatment is a new method to modify wood for the fabrication of wood-based nano composites. Based on the physical law on heat transfer, a mathematical model to describe the temperature profiles within wood heated by high intensive microwave was established and simulated in this research. The results showed that the temperature profiles within wood were related to microwave heating methods; The temperature inside wood firstly increased and then gradually decreased along the direction of microwave transmission when the unilateral microwave heating was applied, and the temperature difference along the thickness direction of wood was very significant; The temperature with wood firstly increased and then gradually decreased from the wood surface to interior when the bilateral microwave heating was applied. Compared with the unilateral microwave heating, bilateral microwave heating is a better microwave heating method for the more uniform wood microwave pretreatment.

  14. Many Roles of Wood Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2014-01-01

    Although wood bonding is one of the oldest applications of adhesives, going back to early recorded history (1), some aspects of wood bonds are still not fully understood. Most books in the general area of adhesives and adhesion do not cover wood bonding. However, a clearer understanding of wood bonding and wood adhesives can lead to improved products. This is important...

  15. Exposure assessment of residents living near a wood treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlgren, James; Warshaw, Raphael; Horsak, Randy D.; Parker, Frank M. III; Takhar, Harpreet

    2003-01-01

    We report the results of environmental sampling and modeling in a neighborhood adjacent to a wood processing plant. This plant used creosote and pentachlorophenol (PCP) to treat wood for over 70 years. Between 1999 and 2001, environmental samples were obtained to quantify the level of environmental contamination from the wood processing plant. Blood from 10 residents was measured for chlorinated dioxins and dibenzofurans. Soil sediment samples from drainage ditches and attic/dust samples from nearby residents' homes were tested for polychlorinated dioxins, furans, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The dioxin congeners analysis of the 10 residents revealed elevated valued for octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin compatible with PCP as the source. The levels of carcinogenic PAHs were higher than background levels and were similar to soil contamination on wood preserving sites. Wipe sampling in the kitchens of 11 homes revealed that 20 of the 33 samples were positive for octachlorinated dioxins with a mean value of 10.27 ng/m 2 . The soil, ditch samples, and positive wipe samples from the homes indicate a possible ongoing route of exposure to the contaminants in the homes of these residents. Modeled air exposure estimated for the wood processing waste chemicals indicate some air exposure to combustion products. The estimated air levels for benzo(a)pyrene and tetrachlorodibenzodiozin in this neighborhood exceeded the recommended levels for these compounds in some states. The quantitative data presented suggest a significant contamination of a neighborhood by wood processing waste chemicals. These findings suggest the need for more stringent regulations on waste discharges from wood treatment plants

  16. Swedish recovered wood waste: linking regulation and contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krook, J; Mårtensson, A; Eklund, M; Libiseller, C

    2008-01-01

    In Sweden, large amounts of wood waste are generated annually from construction and demolition activities, but also from other discarded products such as packaging and furniture. A large share of this waste is today recovered and used for heat production. However, previous research has found that recovered wood waste (RWW) contains hazardous substances, which has significant implications for the environmental performance of recycling. Improved sorting is often suggested as a proper strategy to decrease such implications. In this study, we aim to analyse the impacts of waste regulation on the contamination of RWW. The occurrence of industrial preservative-treated wood, which contains several hazardous substances, was used as an indicator for contamination. First the management of RWW during 1995-2004 was studied through interviews with involved actors. We then determined the occurrence of industrial preservative-treated wood in RWW for that time period for each supplier (actor). From the results, it can be concluded that a substantially less contaminated RWW today relies on extensive source separation. The good news is that some actors, despite several obstacles for such upstream efforts, have already today proved capable of achieving relatively efficient separation. In most cases, however, the existing waste regulation has not succeeded in establishing strong enough incentives for less contaminated waste in general, nor for extensive source separation in particular. One important factor for this outcome is that the current market forces encourage involved actors to practice weak quality requirements and to rely on end-of-pipe solutions, rather than put pressure for improvements on upstream actors. Another important reason is that there is a lack of communication and oversight of existing waste regulations. Without such steering mechanisms, the inherent pressure from regulations becomes neutralized.

  17. Health effects of wood smoke. A literature review; Gezondheidseffecten van houtrook. Een literatuurstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagens, W.I.; Van Overveld, A.J.P.; Fischer, P.H.; Gerlofs-Nijland, M.E.; Cassee, F.R.

    2012-02-15

    In the Netherlands, the most commonly cited source of odour nuisance in the surrounding environment is the burning of wood in fireplaces and wood burning stoves. Fears concerning the health effects of inhaled wood smoke may also be an issue. Various chemical substances are emitted when wood is burnt in fireplaces and wood burning stoves, such as particulate matter, carbon monoxide, different volatile organic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). However, based on the research available, it is not possible to accurately estimate the extent to which these emissions can cause health effects. One reason for this is the large variation in the composition of wood smoke which is linked to the type of wood burning stove or fireplace, the type of fuel and heating behaviour. The results of the many different studies investigating the effects of wood burning on human health vary. While some studies have found an association between exposure to wood smoke and increased (hospital admissions for) cardiovascular disease, respiratory symptoms and decreased lung function, other studies have not found an association between health effects and wood smoke. Currently, particulate matter originating from the burning of wood is not considered more detrimental to human health than that from other sources of combustion, such as traffic. These are the most important results of a literature review carried out by the RIVM on the potential health effects of exposure to wood smoke. The studies included in the literature review were primarily performed in areas where wood burning fireplaces and stoves are the only source of domestic heating. As this situation rarely occurs in the Netherlands, extrapolation of the results of these studies to the situation in the Netherlands is problematic. An extensive survey of local exposure to harmful substances due to wood burning in the Netherlands is necessary to obtain more insight into the contribution of wood burning to local air

  18. Radioactivity of Wood and Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hus, M.; Kosutic, K.; Lulic, S.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear experiments in the atmosphere and nuclear accidents caused global deposition of artificial radionuclides in the soil of Earth's northern hemisphere, the territory of the Republic of Croatia included. Soil contamination by radionuclides resulted in their deposition in plants growing on the contaminated soil as well as in the trees. Large area of the Republic of Croatia is covered with wood, which is exploited in manufacture of industrial wood and for firewood. From approximately 3 million cubic metres of wood exploited annually, nearly one third serves for firewood. In the process of burning a smaller portion of radionuclides deposited in the wood evaporates and goes to atmosphere while a larger portion is retained in the ash. In this paper are presented the results of natural radionuclides 4 0K , 2 32T h and 2 38U as well as of artificial radionuclide 1 37C s content determination in the wood, wood briquette, charcoal and in ash remained after burning the wood, wood briquette and charcoal. The obtained results are discussed from wood radiocontamination aspect and from the aspect of potential environmental radiocontamination by the products from wood burning process. (author)

  19. Production of plastified wood with stronger static bending strength means of polymerization induced by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Filho, Elias

    1999-01-01

    The use of gamma radiation to obtain wood-polymer composites is one of the applications of radiation that presents the most commercial interest. The process, denominated radiopolymerization, comprises the impregnation of monomers into the completely dried wood followed by exposure to gamma radiation to induce polymerization of the impregnated monomers. I this context, the present work aimed the application of this process to seven kinds of wood existing in the brazilian forests. The considered monomer is styrene and the gamma source is Cobalt-60. The obtained wood-polystyrene composites were found to have stronger static bending strength. (author)

  20. Wood construction under cold climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Hagman, Olle; Sundqvist, Bror

    2014-01-01

    As wood constructions increasingly use engineered wood products worldwide, concerns arise about the integrity of the wood and adhesives system. The glueline stability is a crucial issue for engineered wood application, especially under cold climate. In this study, Norway spruce (Picea abies...... affected shear strength of wood joints. As temperature decreased, the shear strength decreased. PUR resin resulted in the strongest shear strength at all temperatures tested. MF resin responded to temperature changes in a similar ways as the PUR resin. The shear strength of wood joints with EPI resins...... specimens need to be tested in further work to more completely present the issue. The EN 301 and EN 302 may need to be specified based on wood species....

  1. Thermochemical Modeling and Experimental Validation of Wood Pyrolysis Occurring During Pre-ignition Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawaz, M.; Lautenberger, C.; Bond, T. C.

    2017-12-01

    The use of wood as a solid fuel for cooking and heating is associated with high particle emission which largely contribute to the dispersion of particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere. The majority of those particles are released during the "pre-ignition" phase, i.e., before flaming of the wood occurs. In this work, we investigate the factors that influence the emission of PM during pre-ignition and lead to high particle emission to the atmosphere. During this combustion phase, at elevated temperature, pyrolysis is responsible for wood degradation and the production of gaseous materials that travel and exit the wood. We model the thermal degradation using Gpyro, an open source finite volume method numerical model to simulate heat, mass, and momentum transfer in the wood. In our analysis, we study factors that vary during combustion and that influence emission of PM: wood sample size and boundary conditions. In a fire the boundary conditions represent the thermal energy a piece of wood receives from the surrounding in the form of heat flux. We find that heat transfer is the limiting process governing the production and transport of gas from the wood, and that the amount of emitted PM is dependent on the size of the wood. The dependence of heat transfer from the boundaries on PM emission becomes more important with increasing wood log size. The model shows that a small log of wood (6cm by 2cm) emits close values of total mass of gas at low and high heat fluxes. For a large log of wood (20cm by 5cm) the total mass of gas emitted increases by 30% between low and high heat flux. We validate the model results with a controlled-temperature reactor that accommodates centimeter scale wood samples. The size of the wood used, indicates the abundance of wood in the region where wood is used a solid fuel. Understanding those factors will allow for defining conditions that result in reducing particle emissions during combustion.

  2. European wood-fuel trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, B.; Vinterbaeck, J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses research carried out during the l990s on European wood fuel trade at the Department of Forest Management and Products, SLU, in Sweden. Utilisation of wood-fuels and other biofuels increased very rapidly in some regions during that period. Biofuels are replacing fossil fuels which is an effective way to reduce the future influence of green house gases on the climate. The results indicate a rapid increase in wood-fuel trade in Europe from low levels and with a limited number of countries involved. The chief products traded are wood pellets, wood chips and recycled wood. The main trading countries are, for export, Germany and the Baltic states and, for import, Sweden, Denmark and to some extent the Netherlands. In the future, the increased use of biofuel in European countries is expected to intensify activity in this trade. (orig.)

  3. Controversy. The wood war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, O.

    2010-01-01

    The author comments the conflict emerging in France between industries exploiting wood for construction and those exploiting it as a heating material for power generation. The first ones accuse the others to steal their raw material, to pull the prices up, and to destabilize the sector. This conflict takes place notably around sawmill wastes which are used either by wood panel fabricators or by wood pellets producers. Both sectors are claiming they are creating more jobs than the other. The French forest indeed offers good opportunities for both sectors, but other countries which are lacking forest surfaces, are buying wood in France. Several issues are matter of discussion: burning wood seems to go against the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, subsidies awarded to big heater projects. The situation of the wood sector in Austria, Finland and Poland is briefly presented

  4. Chemical characterization and stable carbon isotopic composition of particulate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons issued from combustion of 10 Mediterranean woods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Guillon

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to characterize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from particulate matter emitted during wood combustion and to determine, for the first time, the isotopic signature of PAHs from nine wood species and Moroccan coal from the Mediterranean Basin. In order to differentiate sources of particulate-PAHs, molecular and isotopic measurements of PAHs were performed on the set of wood samples for a large panel of compounds. Molecular profiles and diagnostic ratios were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS and molecular isotopic compositions (δ13C of particulate-PAHs were determined by gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS. Wood species present similar molecular profiles with benz(aanthracene and chrysene as dominant PAHs, whereas levels of concentrations range from 1.8 to 11.4 mg g−1 OC (sum of PAHs. Diagnostic ratios are consistent with reference ratios from literature but are not sufficient to differentiate the species of woods. Concerning isotopic methodology, PAH molecular isotopic compositions are specific for each species and contrary to molecular fingerprints, significant variations of δ13C are observed for the panel of PAHs. This work allows differentiating wood combustion (with δ13CPAH = −28.7 to −26.6‰ from others origins of particulate matter (like vehicular exhaust using isotopic measurements but also confirms the necessity to investigate source characterisation at the emission in order to help and complete source assessment models. These first results on woodburnings will be useful for the isotopic approach to source tracking.

  5. Development of wood fuel delivery logistics; Puupolttoaineiden hankintalogistiikan kehittaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laitinen, H

    1997-12-31

    The main aim of the project is to model the energy wood business and total logistics in a certain large region. First, wood utilisation locations inside this area are examined; the most important ones are the wood processing factories, and the heating- and power plants. After that, wood potentials in the forests of the area are evaluated in sub-areas suitable in size and sufficiently detailed for further evaluations. For that purpose, the most valuable source data are forest management plans, up to ten years forward, on which basis the wood fuel potentials can be evaluated following sustainable development. In Finland there are extensive and detailed data bases storing forest information and it is possible to collect necessary data for a data base applicable to our calculations. In logistical sense it is important to know, by which delivery chains the economically best and desired results are achieved. The software prototype based on data base is modelled and developed at VTT Energy, for facilitating these planning activities. The starting point of the planning system in delivery logistics is the implementation of an easy tool for versatile planning so that with this tool model different delivery chains can be flexiblyed, create usage scenarios, make alternative examinations, and calculate impacts of different factors on energy wood amounts yielded and delivery costs. With planning system in delivery logistics we calculate production costs and amounts delivered to different utilisation locations. The system offers tools for definitions of utilisation locations, calculation parameters, and delivery chains

  6. Development of wood fuel delivery logistics; Puupolttoaineiden hankintalogistiikan kehittaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laitinen, H.

    1996-12-31

    The main aim of the project is to model the energy wood business and total logistics in a certain large region. First, wood utilisation locations inside this area are examined; the most important ones are the wood processing factories, and the heating- and power plants. After that, wood potentials in the forests of the area are evaluated in sub-areas suitable in size and sufficiently detailed for further evaluations. For that purpose, the most valuable source data are forest management plans, up to ten years forward, on which basis the wood fuel potentials can be evaluated following sustainable development. In Finland there are extensive and detailed data bases storing forest information and it is possible to collect necessary data for a data base applicable to our calculations. In logistical sense it is important to know, by which delivery chains the economically best and desired results are achieved. The software prototype based on data base is modelled and developed at VTT Energy, for facilitating these planning activities. The starting point of the planning system in delivery logistics is the implementation of an easy tool for versatile planning so that with this tool model different delivery chains can be flexiblyed, create usage scenarios, make alternative examinations, and calculate impacts of different factors on energy wood amounts yielded and delivery costs. With planning system in delivery logistics we calculate production costs and amounts delivered to different utilisation locations. The system offers tools for definitions of utilisation locations, calculation parameters, and delivery chains

  7. Biological detoxification of Cr(VI) using wood-husk immobilized Acinetobacter haemolyticus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaria, Zainul Akmar; Zakaria, Zainoha; Surif, Salmijah; Ahmad, Wan Azlina

    2007-01-01

    Acinetobacter haemolyticus, a Gram-negative aerobic locally isolated bacterium, immobilized on wood-husk showed the ability to detoxify Cr(VI) to Cr(III). Wood-husk, a natural cellulose-based support material, packed in an upward-flow column was used as support material for bacterial attachment. Around 97% of the Cr(VI) in wastewater containing 15 mg L -1 of Cr(VI) was reduced at a flow rate of 8.0 mL min -1 . The wastewater containing Cr(VI) was added with liquid pineapple wastewater as nutrient source for the bacteria. Electron microscopic examinations of the wood-husk after 42 days of column operation showed gradual colonization of the wood-husk by bacterial biofilm. The use of 0.1% (v/v) formaldehyde as a disinfecting agent inhibited growth of bacteria present in the final wastewater discharge. This finding is important in view of the ethical code regarding possible introduction of exogenous bacterial species into the environment

  8. Biological detoxification of Cr(VI) using wood-husk immobilized Acinetobacter haemolyticus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakaria, Zainul Akmar; Zakaria, Zainoha [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Surif, Salmijah [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Ahmad, Wan Azlina [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia)], E-mail: azlina@kimia.fs.utm.my

    2007-09-05

    Acinetobacter haemolyticus, a Gram-negative aerobic locally isolated bacterium, immobilized on wood-husk showed the ability to detoxify Cr(VI) to Cr(III). Wood-husk, a natural cellulose-based support material, packed in an upward-flow column was used as support material for bacterial attachment. Around 97% of the Cr(VI) in wastewater containing 15 mg L{sup -1} of Cr(VI) was reduced at a flow rate of 8.0 mL min{sup -1}. The wastewater containing Cr(VI) was added with liquid pineapple wastewater as nutrient source for the bacteria. Electron microscopic examinations of the wood-husk after 42 days of column operation showed gradual colonization of the wood-husk by bacterial biofilm. The use of 0.1% (v/v) formaldehyde as a disinfecting agent inhibited growth of bacteria present in the final wastewater discharge. This finding is important in view of the ethical code regarding possible introduction of exogenous bacterial species into the environment.

  9. Hippocampal activation during episodic and semantic memory retrieval: comparing category production and category cued recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Lee; Cox, Christine; Hayes, Scott M; Nadel, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    Whether or not the hippocampus participates in semantic memory retrieval has been the focus of much debate in the literature. However, few neuroimaging studies have directly compared hippocampal activation during semantic and episodic retrieval tasks that are well matched in all respects other than the source of the retrieved information. In Experiment 1, we compared hippocampal fMRI activation during a classic semantic memory task, category production, and an episodic version of the same task, category cued recall. Left hippocampal activation was observed in both episodic and semantic conditions, although other regions of the brain clearly distinguished the two tasks. Interestingly, participants reported using retrieval strategies during the semantic retrieval task that relied on autobiographical and spatial information; for example, visualizing themselves in their kitchen while producing items for the category kitchen utensils. In Experiment 2, we considered whether the use of these spatial and autobiographical retrieval strategies could have accounted for the hippocampal activation observed in Experiment 1. Categories were presented that elicited one of three retrieval strategy types, autobiographical and spatial, autobiographical and nonspatial, and neither autobiographical nor spatial. Once again, similar hippocampal activation was observed for all three category types, regardless of the inclusion of spatial or autobiographical content. We conclude that the distinction between semantic and episodic memory is more complex than classic memory models suggest.

  10. AFBnet - Wood and field energy information from Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alakangas, E.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of EU's ALTENER program is to promote the use of renewable energy sources. The European bioenergy network AFBnet produces and delivers information on bioenergy research and utilization of them in different countries. Import and export of biofuels, as well as the prices of biofuels in twenty European countries have been studied during past two years. The potential of combined heat and power generation with biofuels has also been estimated. The network has evaluated these projects and the factors, which have affected the successfulness and unsuccessfulness of the projects in different countries. In Finland the promotion of the utilization of wood fuels in municipal projects was evaluated in a 'Heat Entrepreneur competition' carried out first time in 2000. AFBnet analyzed the operation of 21 plants using mixed fuels as energy sources. One of the objectives was to collect information on experiences of production and processing phase of fuels at district heating and power plants in Finland, Italy, Austria, Portugal, Sweden, Germany and Denmark. The plants consumed different kinds of biofuels (industrial wood residues, straw and other agricultural wastes) and the mixture of them. Plants using different combustion technologies (grate, fluidized bed and pulverized fuel combustion, and biomass gasifiers). The consumption rate of wood and agricultural biofuels in plants was about 30% of the total fuel consumption. The main mixed fuel was coal, the share of which was 28% of the total. A detailed report has been published on all the plants. The reports analyze the fuel production and processing chains of the plants up to the boiler. Data was gathered also from the investments and maintenance costs of the plants. In EU countries there is no comprehensive survey on the prices of biofuels. Only Sweden publishes the prices of biofuels regularly. AFBnet collected in 1999 data on fuel prices, import and export of the fuels, and present utilization and potential of

  11. Manufacture of wood-pellets doubles. Biowatti Oy started a wood pellet plant in Turenki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantanen, M.

    1999-01-01

    Wood pellets have many advantages compared to other fuels. It is longest processed biofuel with favorable energy content. It is simple to use, transport and store. Heating with wood pellets is cheaper than with light fuel oil, and approximately as cheap as utilization of heavy fuel oil, about 110 FIM/MWh. The taxable price of wood pellets is about 550 FIM/t. Stokers and American iron stoves are equally suitable for combustion of wood pellets. Chip fueled stokers are preferred in Finland, but they are also suitable for the combustion of wood pellets. Wood pellets is an environmentally friendly product, because it does not increase the CO 2 load in the atmosphere, and its sulfur and soot emissions are relatively small. The wood pelletizing plant of Biowatti Oy in Turenki was started in an old sugar mill. The Turenki sugar mill was chosen because the technology of the closed sugar factory was suitable for production of wood pellets nearly as such, and required only by slight modifications. A press, designed for briquetting of sugar beat clippings makes the pellets. The Turenki mill will double the volume of wood pellet manufacture in Finland during the next few years. At the start the annual wood pellet production will be 20 000 tons, but the environmental permit allows the production to be increased to 70 000 tons. At first the mill uses planing machine chips as a raw material in the production. It is the most suitable raw material, because it is already dry (moisture content 8-10%), and all it needs is milling and pelletizing. Another possible raw material is sawdust, which moisture content is higher than with planing machine chips. Most of the wood pellets produced are exported e.g. to Sweden, Denmark and Middle Europe. In Sweden there are over 10 000 single-family houses using wood pellets. Biowatti's largest customer is a power plant located in Stockholm, which combusts annually about 200 000 tons of wood pellets

  12. Reliable and non-destructive positioning of larvae of wood-destroying beetles in wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerner, G.; Thiele, H.; Unger, W.

    1980-01-01

    Living larvae of wood-destroying insects (house longhorn beetle, deathwatch) can be determined in wood by both X-ray technique and vibration measurements. For such examinations convenient commercial devices were used and tested under laboratory conditions. The methods complement each other and lead to a rationalization of the tests of wood preservatives against wood-destroying insects. It seems to be promising to apply the test methods also to timber already used for building

  13. Characteristics of wood chip fuel demand and supply in south-west Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teraoka, Y.; Sato, M.; Ijichi, S. [Faculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima Univ., Kagoshima (Japan)

    2012-11-01

    Although fossil fuel has been still important energy source in Japan, business managers who examine to sift energy source from oil to bio-fuels would increase for reducing CO{sub 2} emission and high energy cost. It would be quite reasonable choice for Japanese people to use woody biomass for energy sources but woody biomass fuel market hasn't been expanded. One of the reasons is that the Japanese timber production, processing and distribution sectors haven't considered the wood fuel production as by-product. Therefore, this study investigated a potential wood chip boiler demand in south-west Japan through a questionnaire survey for industrial sectors. Second aim is to explain the importance of management information such as a quantity of chip fuel production or distribution and a moisture content of chips from the example cases of installed chip boiler facilities. Expected facilities that would introduce a chip boiler are a hotel, a large hospital, a liquor factory and an aquaculture pool. There will be an annual wood chip fuel demand of 0.756 million green-ton (6.0 PJ) in Kagoshima Prefecture. Problems in more chip boilers introduction are a stable fuel supply and fuel moisture control in addition to the reduction of an initial and operational running cost.

  14. An evaluation of the contributions of the wood industry to Ghana's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The wood industry in Ghana has over the years contributed immensely to the GDP of Ghana. The industry has been one of the main sources of foreign exchange for Ghana. Furthermore, it has over the years been a source of employment to many Ghanaians. However, some recent studies and report seem to suggest that ...

  15. Emission factors of particulate matter, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and levoglucosan from wood combustion in south-central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Jorge; Farias, Oscar; Quiroz, Roberto; Yañez, Jorge

    2017-07-01

    In south-central Chile, wood stoves have been identified as an important source of air pollution in populated areas. Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), Chilean oak (Nothofagus oblique), and mimosa (Acacia dealbata) were burned in a single-chamber slow-combustion wood stove at a controlled testing facility located at the University of Concepción, Chile. In each experiment, 2.7-3.1 kg of firewood were combusted while continuously monitoring temperature, exhaust gases, burn rate, and collecting particulate matter samples in Teflon filters under isokinetic conditions for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and levoglucosan analyses. Mean particulate matter emission factors were 2.03, 4.06, and 3.84 g/kg dry wood for eucalyptus, oak, and mimosa, respectively. The emission factors were inversely correlated with combustion efficiency. The mean emission factors of the sums of 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in particle phases were 1472.5, 2134.0, and 747.5 μg/kg for eucalyptus, oak, and mimosa, respectively. Fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, and chrysene were present in the particle phase in higher proportions compared with other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that were analyzed. Mean levoglucosan emission factors were 854.9, 202.3, and 328.0 mg/kg for eucalyptus, oak, and mimosa, respectively. Since the emissions of particulate matter and other pollutants were inversely correlated with combustion efficiency, implementing more efficient technologies would help to reduce air pollutant emissions from wood combustion. Residential wood burning has been identified as a significant source of air pollution in populated areas. Local wood species are combusted for home cooking and heating, which releases several toxic air pollutants, including particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Air pollutant emissions depend on the type of wood and the technology and operational conditions of the wood stove. A better understanding of emissions from

  16. Development document for the effluent limitations and guidelines for the ore mining and dressing point source category. Volume I. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarrett, B.M.; Kirby, R.G.

    1978-07-01

    To establish effluent limitation guidelines and standards of performance, the ore mining and dressing industry was divided into 41 separate categories and subcategories for which separate limitations were recommended. This report deals with the entire metal-ore mining and dressing industry and examines the industry by ten major categories: iron ore; copper ore; lead and zinc ores; gold ore; silver ore; bauxite ore; ferroalloy-metal ores; mercury ores; uranium, radium and vanadium ores; and metal ores, not elsewhere classified ((ores of antimony, beryllium, pltinum, rare earths, tin, titanium, and zirconium). The subcategorization of the ore categories is based primarily upon ore mineralogy and processing or extraction methods employed; however, other factors (such as size, climate or location, and method of mining) are used in some instances. With the best available technology economically achievable, facilities in 21 of the 41 subcategories can be operated with no discharge of process wastewater to navigable waters. No discharge of process wastewater is also achievable as a new source performance standard for facilities in 21 of the 41 subcategories

  17. Request for wood samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1977-01-01

    In recent years the wood collection at the Rijksherbarium was greatly expanded following a renewed interest in wood anatomy as an aid for solving classification problems. Staff members of the Rijksherbarium added to the collection by taking interesting wood samples with them from their expeditions

  18. The renewable energies sources in France 1970-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this report is to describe the energy production from renewable sources in France since 1970. In France the rate of using renewable energy sources is unequal. Some of them as hydro energy show a confirmed industrial and commercial interest when other techniques have not still reach the same level of maturity. The renewable energy sources chosen to calculate the electric and thermal production of France are: for electric power, hydro energy, wind energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, the urban wastes, the wood wastes, the harvesting residues, the biogas. For the thermal production, the thermal solar energy, the geothermal energy, the urban wastes, the wood and wood wastes, the harvesting residues, the biogas and bio fuels. The figures are marked in thirty tables. (N.C.)

  19. Scaling housing interventions for wood-burning stoves worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo; Jensen, Ole Michael; da Cruz Tarelho, Luís António

    2013-01-01

    The wood-burning stove is the most popular energy technology in the world since about 3 billion people rely on it for both domestic cooking and heating purposes. It is estimated that in 2030 more than 200 million people will be affected by this abundant energy source. Large-scale clean stove prog...

  20. Impact of wood burning on outdoor air quality: existing French data and current studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leoz-Garziandia, E.; Mandin, C.; Collet, S.; Besombes, J.L.; Pissot, N.; Allemand, N.; Riberon, J.; Jaffrezo, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    French source apportionment studies of air quality including the wood combustion source become widespread. Quantify a single source contribution to air quality requires to be provided with a specific measurable data to this source. For that reason, numerous studies have focused on the determination, in the atmospheric samples, of the source-specific compounds, usually called molecular tracers. Since 2000, trend works focused on the 'wood combustion' contribution to air quality have been based on the use of some tracers such as levoglucosan and metoxyphenols. Obtained results have been compared to atmospheric particles global characteristics: organic carbon (OC), elementary carbon (EC), PM 10 , PM 2.5 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The results presented in this article show not only the interest but also the limits of such an approach, as well as the need to develop and complete the current studies in order to quantify the different sources contribution to air quality. (author)

  1. Radon reduction in wood foundation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Radon, an issue of growing concern to the building industry. Silently, invisibly, it invades existing structures as it will future foundation structures. This paper addresses the nature and causes of radon, and cost-effective prevention and retrofit techniques used for wood foundation systems. Radon also can enter homes with foundations that use the under-floor as an air distribution system. These building practices will be shown; even materials used in construction may release radon, for example, this may be a problem in a house that has a solar heating system in which its heat is stored in large beds of stone. Stone is most often used in wood foundation construction. The common radon entry points will be looked at, and the latest prevention techniques will be illustrated, such as natural and forced ventilation, sealing major radon sources and entry routes, and sub-slab and sump crock ventilations

  2. Environmental assessment of wood industrial and collective (with heat network) heating. Synthetic report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-12-01

    This report proposes a synthesis of the results of an environmental assessment of wood industrial and collective heating. This study is based on a life cycle analysis which quantifies the impacts on the environment of all the related activities: fuel extraction, retailing, final use, and so on. Environmental impacts are assessed by means of different indicators: energetic assessment, greenhouse effect assessment, air pollution (acidification), water pollution (eutrophication), toxic material emissions in air and into the soils. Wood is compared to other heating sources (gas, fuel, electricity). Ways to improve this environmental assessment are discussed with respect to wood supply, boiler auxiliary equipment, boiler and combustion

  3. Climate, economic, and environmental impacts of producing wood for bioenergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsey, Richard; Duffy, Philip; Smyth, Carolyn; Kurz, Werner A.; Dugan, Alexa J.; Houghton, Richard

    2018-05-01

    Increasing combustion of woody biomass for electricity has raised concerns and produced conflicting statements about impacts on atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations, climate, and other forest values such as timber supply and biodiversity. The purposes of this concise review of current literature are to (1) examine impacts on net GHG emissions and climate from increasing bioenergy production from forests and exporting wood pellets to Europe from North America, (2) develop a set of science-based recommendations about the circumstances that would result in GHG reductions or increases in the atmosphere, and (3) identify economic and environmental impacts of increasing bioenergy use of forests. We find that increasing bioenergy production and pellet exports often increase net emissions of GHGs for decades or longer, depending on source of feedstock and its alternate fate, time horizon of analysis, energy emissions associated with the supply chain and fuel substitution, and impacts on carbon cycling of forest ecosystems. Alternative uses of roundwood often offer larger reductions in GHGs, in particular long-lived wood products that store carbon for longer periods of time and can achieve greater substitution benefits than bioenergy. Other effects of using wood for bioenergy may be considerable including induced land-use change, changes in supplies of wood and other materials for construction, albedo and non-radiative effects of land-cover change on climate, and long-term impacts on soil productivity. Changes in biodiversity and other ecosystem attributes may be strongly affected by increasing biofuel production, depending on source of material and the projected scale of biofuel production increases.

  4. Wood fuel and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to try and demonstrate the role that the use of Wood as a Fuel can play in our environment. The term ''Wood Fuel'', for the purposes of these proceedings, refers to the use of wood obtained from the forest or the farm. It does not refer to waste wood from for example buildings. The role of wood fuel in the environment can be assessed at many different levels. In this paper three different scales of ''Environment'' and the role of wood fuel in each, will be considered. These three scales are namely the global environment, the local environment, and the National (community) environment. (Author)

  5. On token reinforcement and stuttering therapy: another view on findings reported by Howie and Woods (1982).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, R J

    1983-01-01

    Howie and Woods (1982) have provided data that, they claim, indicate that a token reinforcement system is redundant in instating and shaping fluent speech within a stuttering treatment program developed by Ingham and Andrews (1973a, b). However, there were substantial procedural differences between the treatment programs referred to in both studies, as well as methodological weaknesses in Howie and Woods' study. These factors provide ample sources of explanation for Howie and Woods' failure to demonstrate benefits from their token reinforcement system.

  6. Energy production from renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    This table summarizes the electricity and heat produced in France and in overseas departments from renewable energy sources for 1998 (revised), 1999 (temporary) and 2000 (estimated): hydraulic, wind, solar photovoltaic and thermal, geothermal, solid municipal wastes, wood and wood wastes, biogas, ethanol and ester bio-fuels. (J.S.)

  7. Wood-plastic combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaudy, R.

    1978-02-01

    A review on wood-plastic combinations is given including the production (wood and plastic component, radiation hardening, curing), the obtained properties, present applications and prospects for the future of these materials. (author)

  8. Morphology, composition, and mixing state of primary particles from combustion sources ? crop residue, wood, and solid waste

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Lei; Kong, Shaofei; Zhang, Yinxiao; Wang, Yuanyuan; Xu, Liang; Yan, Qin; Lingaswamy, A. P.; Shi, Zongbo; Lv, Senlin; Niu, Hongya; Shao, Longyi; Hu, Min; Zhang, Daizhou; Chen, Jianmin; Zhang, Xiaoye

    2017-01-01

    Morphology, composition, and mixing state of individual particles emitted from crop residue, wood, and solid waste combustion in a residential stove were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our study showed that particles from crop residue and apple wood combustion were mainly organic matter (OM) in smoldering phase, whereas soot-OM internally mixed with K in flaming phase. Wild grass combustion in flaming phase released some Cl-rich-OM/soot particles and cardboard combusti...

  9. DNA barcoding of vouchered xylarium wood specimens of nine endangered Dalbergia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Min; Jiao, Lichao; Guo, Juan; Wiedenhoeft, Alex C; He, Tuo; Jiang, Xiaomei; Yin, Yafang

    2017-12-01

    ITS2+ trnH - psbA was the best combination of DNA barcode to resolve the Dalbergia wood species studied. We demonstrate the feasibility of building a DNA barcode reference database using xylarium wood specimens. The increase in illegal logging and timber trade of CITES-listed tropical species necessitates the development of unambiguous identification methods at the species level. For these methods to be fully functional and deployable for law enforcement, they must work using wood or wood products. DNA barcoding of wood has been promoted as a promising tool for species identification; however, the main barrier to extensive application of DNA barcoding to wood is the lack of a comprehensive and reliable DNA reference library of barcodes from wood. In this study, xylarium wood specimens of nine Dalbergia species were selected from the Wood Collection of the Chinese Academy of Forestry and DNA was then extracted from them for further PCR amplification of eight potential DNA barcode sequences (ITS2, matK, trnL, trnH-psbA, trnV-trnM1, trnV-trnM2, trnC-petN, and trnS-trnG). The barcodes were tested singly and in combination for species-level discrimination ability by tree-based [neighbor-joining (NJ)] and distance-based (TaxonDNA) methods. We found that the discrimination ability of DNA barcodes in combination was higher than any single DNA marker among the Dalbergia species studied, with the best two-marker combination of ITS2+trnH-psbA analyzed with NJ trees performing the best (100% accuracy). These barcodes are relatively short regions (wood as the source material, a necessary factor to apply DNA barcoding to timber trade. The present results demonstrate the feasibility of using vouchered xylarium specimens to build DNA barcoding reference databases.

  10. An Analysis of the U.S. Wood Products Import Sector: Prospects for Tropical Wood Products Exporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.A.R.T.W. Bandara

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. has dramatically altered its wood product imports and exports during the past few years,and at present, it is the second largest wood product importer in the world. Hence, an understanding ofmarket structures, factors in selecting foreign suppliers, and the emphasis placed on environmentalissues/certification are critical to understand from the perspective of wood products importers in the U.S.This study provides an analysis of the U.S. wood products import sector with special emphasis on currentand future opportunities for tropical wood products exporters to the U.S. market.In this study, 158 wood products importers in the U.S. were surveyed using a mailingquestionnaire. The adjusted response rate was 40.6 percent. Results indicated that most of the respondentswere small to medium scale firms, but major importers of wood products. According to respondents,wood products to the U.S. mainly come from Brazil, Chile, and China. From the importers’ perspective,Brazilian wood products ranked first for its quality followed by wood products from Chile and Finland.Product quality, long term customer relationships, on-time delivery of orders, fair prices, and supplierreputation were the factors deemed important in selecting overseas suppliers. Majority of respondentswere importing certified wood products. FSC, SFI, and ISO 14000 were the mostly accepted certificationprograms. However, certification was not a major factor in foreign supplier selection criteria. Whenconsidered the U.S. wood products importers’ tendency to diversify their products and species imported,attractive opportunities exist for wood products suppliers from tropical countries.

  11. Wood's lamp examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003386.htm Wood lamp examination To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A Wood lamp examination is a test that uses ultraviolet ( ...

  12. Wood preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach

    1999-01-01

    When left untreated in many outdoor applications, wood becomes subject to degradation by a variety of natural causes. Although some trees possess naturally occurring resistance to decay (Ch. 3, Decay Resistance), many are in short supply or are not grown in ready proximity to markets. Because most commonly used wood species, such as Southern Pine, ponderosa pine, and...

  13. The use of new, aqueous chemical wood modifications to improve the durability of wood-plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Craig M. Clemons; George C. Chen

    2017-01-01

    The wood flour used in wood-plastic composites (WPCs) can biologically deteriorate and thus the overall mechanical performance of WPCs decrease when exposed to moisture and fungal decay. Protecting the wood flour by chemical modification can improve the durability of the wood in a nontoxic way so it is not harmful to the environment. WPCs were made with modified wood...

  14. Moisture Transport in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    2005-01-01

    Modelling of moisture transport in wood is of great importance as most mechanical and physical properties of wood depend on moisture content. Moisture transport in porous materials is often described by Ficks second law, but several observations indicate that this does not apply very well to wood....... Recently at the Technical University of Denmark, Department of Civil Engineering, a new model for moisture transport in wood has been developed. The model divides the transport into two phases, namely water vapour in the cell lumens and bound water in the cell walls....

  15. Once upon a time... Dead wood in french forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartoli, Michel; Geny, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    For many centuries in France, dead wood was an essential source of energy for households. Harvesting dead wood was both authorised - in particular, through allocation of rights of use - and highly regulated. Restrictions on its employment were established by texts ranging from the 1515 royal decree to an implementation decree of 1853 that is still applicable today - its owner must have formally released the wood. It must be dry and lying on the ground. It can be broken only by hand and no means other than human labour can be used to transport it. Furthermore, it cannot be the outcome of an act that caused a stem to dry while standing. In the 19. century, the huge number of trials, some of which went as far as the supreme court, shows just how important dead wood was socially, and much coveted by the paupers who were confronted with increasingly repressive forest police. These trials provide an excellent reflection of a society that harvested all the proceeds of felling. From the end of the 18. century to the middle of the 20., forestry treatises always dealt with removal of dead trees as a priority. Dead wood was for a long time and up to very recently abhorred but latterly has begun to be considered as an important compartment of biodiversity. History shows that it is no surprise that for the time being there is little of it to be found in our forests. (authors)

  16. Sources of mutagenic activity in urban fine particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.K.; Lewis, C.W.; Dzubay, T.G.; Cupitt, L.T.; Lewtas, J.

    1990-01-01

    Samples were collected during the winter of 1984-1985 in the cities of Albuquerque, NM and Raleigh NC as part of a US Environmental Protection Agency study to evaluate methods to determine the emission sources contributing to the mutagenic properties of extractable organic matter (EOM) present in fine particles. Data derived from the analysis of the composition of these fine particles served as input to a multi-linear regression (MLR) model used to calculate the relative contribution of wood burning and motor vehicle sources to mutagenic activity observed in the extractable organic matter. At both sites the mutagenic potency of EOM was found to be greater (3-5 times) for mobile sources when compared to wood smoke extractable organics. Carbon-14 measurements which give a direct determination of the amount of EOM that originated from wood burning were in close agreement with the source apportionment results derived from the MLR model

  17. Migration of vascular plant species to a recent wood adjoining ancient woodland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Dzwonko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Woodland communities can be restored by natural succession in sites adjoining ancient woodlands which can act as seed sources for trees, shrubs and woodland herbs. The influence of dominant tree species and the distance from an adjacent ancient oak-hornbeam woodland upon the floristic composition of species in a recent pine wood planted on dry rendzina soil were studied. It was found that, in spite of a 52-year long succession, the border between woods was sharp and the composition of species in the recent wood were significantly different than in the adjacent ancient woodland. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA showed that the distance to the ancient woodland had a significant influence on species distributions in the recent wood. The numbers of species from the Querco-Fagetea class, vegetatively reproducing species and myrmecochores decreased with this distance, whereas the numbers of anemochores increased. The migration rate of many woodland species, calculated on occurrence of the farthest individuals was very slow, varying from 0.0 m year-1 to 0.38 m year-1. The restoration of the field layer vegetation in the studied pine wood was much slower than in recent deciduous woods on rich and moist soils where the migration rate of some species exceeded 1.50 m year-1. Recent woods adjacent to ancient woodlands can be more effectively colonised by woodland species only when they are dominated by broad-leaved trees with quickly decomposing litter, and the spatial continuity of these woods persists for a long period.

  18. Comparison of methods for evaluation of wood smoke and estimation of UK ambient concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Harrison

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Airborne concentrations of the wood smoke tracers, levoglucosan and fine potassium have been measured at urban and rural sites in the United Kingdom alongside measurements with a multi-wavelength aethalometer. The UK sites, and especially those in cities, show low ratios of levoglucosan to potassium in comparison to the majority of published data. It is concluded that there may be two distinct source types, one from wood stoves and fireplaces with a high organic carbon content, best represented by levoglucosan, the other from larger, modern appliances with a very high burn-out efficiency, best represented by potassium. Based upon levoglucosan concentrations and a conversion factor of 11.2 from levoglucosan to wood smoke mass, average concentrations of wood smoke including winter and summer sampling periods are 0.23 μg m−3 in Birmingham and 0.33 μg m−3 in London, well below concentrations typical of other northern European urban areas. There may be a further contribution from sources of potassium-rich emissions amounting to an estimated 0.08 μg m−3 in Birmingham and 0.30 μg m−3 in London. Concentrations were highly correlated between two London sites separated by 4 km suggesting that a regional source is responsible. Data from the aethalometer are either supportive of these conclusions or suggest higher concentrations, depending upon the way in which the data are analysed.

  19. Inside the guts of wood-eating catfishes: can they digest wood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Donovan P

    2009-11-01

    To better understand the structure and function of the gastrointestinal (GI) tracts of wood-eating catfishes, the gross morphology, length, and microvilli surface area (MVSA) of the intestines of wild-caught Panaque nocturnus, P. cf. nigrolineatus "Marañon", and Hypostomus pyrineusi were measured, and contrasted against these same metrics of a closely related detritivore, Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus. All four species had anatomically unspecialized intestines with no kinks, valves, or ceca of any kind. The wood-eating catfishes had body size-corrected intestinal lengths that were 35% shorter than the detritivore. The MVSA of all four species decreased distally in the intestine, indicating that nutrient absorption preferentially takes place in the proximal and mid-intestine, consistent with digestive enzyme activity and luminal carbohydrate profiles for these same species. Wild-caught Pt. disjunctivus, and P. nigrolineatus obtained via the aquarium trade, poorly digested wood cellulose (<33% digestibility) in laboratory feeding trials, lost weight when consuming wood, and passed stained wood through their digestive tracts in less than 4 h. Furthermore, no selective retention of small particles was observed in either species in any region of the gut. Collectively, these results corroborate digestive enzyme activity profiles and gastrointestinal fermentation levels in the fishes' GI tracts, suggesting that the wood-eating catfishes are not true xylivores such as beavers and termites, but rather, are detritivores like so many other fishes from the family Loricariidae.

  20. LCA-based optimization of wood utilization under special consideration of a cascading use of wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höglmeier, Karin; Steubing, Bernhard; Weber-Blaschke, Gabriele; Richter, Klaus

    2015-04-01

    Cascading, the use of the same unit of a resource in multiple successional applications, is considered as a viable means to improve the efficiency of resource utilization and to decrease environmental impacts. Wood, as a regrowing but nevertheless limited and increasingly in demand resource, can be used in cascades, thereby increasing the potential efficiency per unit of wood. This study aims to assess the influence of cascading wood utilization on optimizing the overall environmental impact of wood utilization. By combining a material flow model of existing wood applications - both for materials provision and energy production - with an algebraic optimization tool, the effects of the use of wood in cascades can be modelled and quantified based on life cycle impact assessment results for all production processes. To identify the most efficient wood allocation, the effects of a potential substitution of non-wood products were taken into account in a part of the model runs. The considered environmental indicators were global warming potential, particulate matter formation, land occupation and an aggregated single score indicator. We found that optimizing either the overall global warming potential or the value of the single score indicator of the system leads to a simultaneous relative decrease of all other considered environmental impacts. The relative differences between the impacts of the model run with and without the possibility of a cascading use of wood were 7% for global warming potential and the single score indicator, despite cascading only influencing a small part of the overall system, namely wood panel production. Cascading led to savings of up to 14% of the annual primary wood supply of the study area. We conclude that cascading can improve the overall performance of a wood utilization system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Creation of Wood Dust during Wood Processing: Size Analysis, Dust Separation, and Occupational Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Mračková

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical separators and fabric filters are being used to remove airborne fine particles generated during the processing and handling of wood. Such particles might have a harmful effect on employee health, not only in small- but also in large-scale wood processing facilities. The amount of wood dust and its dispersion conditions vary according to geometric boundary conditions. Thus, the dispersion conditions could be changed by changing the linear size of the particles. Moreover, the smaller the particles are, the more harmful they can be. It is necessary to become familiar with properties, from a health point of view, of wood dust generated from processing. Wood dust has to be sucked away from the processing area. The fractional separation efficiency of wood dust can be improved using exhaust and filtering devices. Filtration efficiency depends on moisture content, particle size, and device performance. Because of the carcinogenicity of wood dust, the concentration of wood dust in air has to be monitored regularly. Based on the results hereof, a conclusion can be made that both mechanical separators of types SEA and SEB as well as the fabric filters with FINET PES 1 textile are suitable for the separation of wet saw dust from all types of wooden waste produced within the process.

  2. Bio-based rigid polyurethane foam from liquefied products of wood in the presence of polyhydric alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhifeng Zheng; Hui Pan; Yuanbo Huang; Chung Y. Hse

    2011-01-01

    Rigid polyurethane foams were prepared from the liquefied wood polyols, which was obtained by the liquefaction of southern pine wood in the presence of polyhydric alcohols with sulfuric acid catalyst by using microwave-assistant as an energy source. The properties of liquefied biomass-based polyols and the rigid polyurethane foams were investigated. The results...

  3. Reactivity and burnout of wood fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall'Ora, Michelangelo

    This thesis deals with the combustion of wood in pulverised fuel power plants. In this type of boiler, the slowest step in the wood conversion process is char combustion, which is one of the factors that not only determine the degree of fuel burnout, but also affect the heat release profile...... of different aspects relevant to wood combustion, including wood structure and composition, wood pyrolysis, wood char properties and wood char oxidation. The full scale campaign, which is the subject of Chapter 3, included sampling of wood fuel before and after milling and sampling of gas and particles...... at the top of the combustion chamber. The collected samples and data are used to obtain an evaluation of the mills in operation at the power plant, the particle size distribution of the wood fuel, as well as the char conversion attained in the furnace. In Chapter 4 an experimental investigation...

  4. Application of molecular genetic methods for identification of wood-decaying fungi in wood constructions

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Bobeková; Michal Tomšovský; Petr Horáček

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to evaluate the utilization of molecular biology methods for detection of wood decaying fungi directly from decomposed wood using a commercial DNA extraction kit developed for soil substrates (PowerSoil™ DNA isolation kit). The experiment based on dry rot fungus (Serpula lacrymans) detection from inoculated wooden pieces under laboratory conditions was followed by field detection of wood-decaying fungi from wood structures on building constructions. Fungal DNA was ide...

  5. Adhesive interactions with wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2004-01-01

    While the chemistry for the polymerization of wood adhesives has been studied systematically and extensively, the critical aspects of the interaction of adhesives with wood are less clearly understood. General theories of bond formation need to be modified to take into account the porosity of wood and the ability of chemicals to be absorbed into the cell wall....

  6. Composite structure of wood cells in petrified wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, Jakub; Florek, Marek; Kwiatek, Wojciech; Lekki, Janusz; Chevallier, Pierre; Zieba, Emil; Mestres, Narcis; Dutkiewicz, E.M.; Kuczumow, Andrzej

    2005-01-01

    Special kinds of petrified wood of complex structure were investigated. All the samples were composed of at least two different inorganic substances. The original cell structure was preserved in each case. The remnants of the original biological material were detected in some locations, especially in the cell walls. The complex inorganic structure was superimposed on the remnant organic network. The first inorganic component was located in the lumena (l.) of the cells while another one in the walls (w.) of the cells. The investigated arrangements were as follows: calcite (l.)-goethite-hematite (w.)-wood from Dunarobba, Italy; pyrite (l.)-calcite (w.)-wood from Lukow, Poland; goethite (l.)-silica (w.)-wood from Kwaczala, Poland. The inorganic composition was analysed and spatially located by the use of three spectral methods: electron microprobe, X-ray synchrotron-based microprobe, μ-PIXE microprobe. The accurate mappings presenting 2D distribution of the chemical species were presented for each case. Trace elements were detected and correlated with the distribution of the main elements. In addition, the identification of phases was done by the use of μ-Raman and μ-XRD techniques for selected and representative points. The possible mechanisms of the described arrangements are considered. The potential synthesis of similar structures and their possible applications are suggested

  7. Composite structure of wood cells in petrified wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Jakub [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Florek, Marek [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Kwiatek, Wojciech [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Lekki, Janusz [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Chevallier, Pierre [LPS, CEN Saclay et LURE, Universite Paris-Sud, Bat 209D, F-91405 Orsay (France); Zieba, Emil [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Mestres, Narcis [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB), Campus de la UAB, E-08193-Bellaterra (Spain); Dutkiewicz, E.M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Kuczumow, Andrzej [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland)

    2005-04-28

    Special kinds of petrified wood of complex structure were investigated. All the samples were composed of at least two different inorganic substances. The original cell structure was preserved in each case. The remnants of the original biological material were detected in some locations, especially in the cell walls. The complex inorganic structure was superimposed on the remnant organic network. The first inorganic component was located in the lumena (l.) of the cells while another one in the walls (w.) of the cells. The investigated arrangements were as follows: calcite (l.)-goethite-hematite (w.)-wood from Dunarobba, Italy; pyrite (l.)-calcite (w.)-wood from Lukow, Poland; goethite (l.)-silica (w.)-wood from Kwaczala, Poland. The inorganic composition was analysed and spatially located by the use of three spectral methods: electron microprobe, X-ray synchrotron-based microprobe, {mu}-PIXE microprobe. The accurate mappings presenting 2D distribution of the chemical species were presented for each case. Trace elements were detected and correlated with the distribution of the main elements. In addition, the identification of phases was done by the use of {mu}-Raman and {mu}-XRD techniques for selected and representative points. The possible mechanisms of the described arrangements are considered. The potential synthesis of similar structures and their possible applications are suggested.

  8. Sustainable wood waste management in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owoyemi Jacob Mayowa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Wood industries produce large volumes of residues which must be utilized, marketed or properly disposed of. Heaps of wood residues are common features in wood industries throughout the year. In Nigeria, this residue is generally regarded as waste and this has led to open burning practices, dumping in water bodies or dumping in an open area which constitutes environmental pollution. Sawmills in Nigeria generated over 1,000,000 m3 of wood waste in 2010 while about 5000 m3 of waste was generated in plywood mills. Nigeria generates about 1.8 million tons of sawdust annually and 5.2 million tons of wood wastes. The impact of improper disposal of waste wood on the environment affects both the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Also burning of waste wood releases greenhouse gases into the atmosphere causing various health issues. Reuse/recycling of these wood residues in Nigeria will reduce the pressure on our ever decreasing forests, reduce environmental pollution, create wealth and employment. The literature available on this subject was reviewed and this article, therefore, focuses on the various methods of wood waste disposal and its utilization in Nigerian wood industries, the effects of wood waste on the environment as well as on human health and the benefits of proper wood waste management practices.

  9. Structure and function of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex Wiedenhoeft

    2010-01-01

    Wood is a complex biological structure, a composite of many chemistries and cell types acting together to serve the needs of a living plant. Attempting to understand wood in the context of wood technology, we have often overlooked the key and basic fact that wood evolved over the course of millions of years to serve three main functions in plants― conduction of water...

  10. Wood pellets : a worldwide fuel commodity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melin, S.

    2005-01-01

    Aspects of the wood pellet industry were discussed in this PowerPoint presentation. Details of wood pellets specifications were presented, and the wood pellet manufacturing process was outlined. An overview of research and development activities for wood pellets was presented, and issues concerning quality control were discussed. A chart of the effective calorific value of various fuels was provided. Data for wood pellet mill production in Canada, the United States and the European Union were provided, and various markets for Canadian wood pellets were evaluated. Residential sales as well as Canadian overseas exports were reviewed. Production revenues for British Columbia and Alberta were provided. Wood pellet heat and electricity production were discussed with reference to prefabricated boilers, stoves and fireplaces. Consumption rates, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and fuel ratios for wood pellets and fossil fuels were compared. Price regulating policies for electricity and fossil fuels have prevented the domestic expansion of the wood pellet industry. There are currently no incentives for advanced biomass combustion to enter British Columbia markets, and this has led to the export of wood pellets. It was concluded that climate change mitigation policies will be a driving force behind market expansion for wood pellets. tabs., figs

  11. Surface coatings of unsaturated polyester resin Kamper wood (Dry obalan ops spp.) by using UV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiarto Danu; Yusuf Sudo Hadi; Novi Eka Putri

    1999-01-01

    Kamper wood (Dryobalanops spp.) has high contribution in wood working industry and most of them need surface coating process. Radiation curing of surface coating, especially the use of ultra-violet (UV) light have potential to give contribution in the wood finishing. The experiment on surface coating of kamper wood has been conducted by using UV-radiation. Unsaturated polyester resin with the commercial name of Yucalac type 157 was used as coating materials after being added with styrene monomer, some fillers and radical photoinitiator of 2-hydroxy-2-2-methyl-l- phenyl propanone. Four photoinitiator concentration levels of 1.5 ; 2 ; 2.5 and 3 % by weight of resin were used. The coating materials were coated onto the wood panel samples by using high pressure sprayer. The wood samples were then exposed to irradiation by using 80 Watts/cm UV-source with variable conveyor speed of 3 ; 4 ; 5 and 5.8 m/min. Formulation of coating materials, pendulum hardness, adhesion, and gloss of cured films were evaluated

  12. Acoustic and adsorption properties of submerged wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilde, Calvin Patrick

    Wood is a common material for the manufacture of many products. Submerged wood, in particular, is used in niche markets, such as the creation of musical instruments. An initial study performed on submerged wood from Ootsa Lake, British Columbia, provided results that showed that the wood was not suitable for musical instruments. This thesis re-examined the submerged wood samples. After allowing the wood to age unabated in a laboratory setting, the wood was retested under the hypothesis that the physical acoustic characteristics would improve. It was shown, however, that the acoustic properties became less adequate after being left to sit. The adsorption properties of the submerged wood were examined to show that the submerged wood had a larger accessible area of wood than that of control wood samples. This implied a lower amount of crystalline area within the submerged wood. From the combined adsorption and acoustic data for the submerged wood, relationships between the moisture content and speed of sound were created and combined with previous research to create a proposed model to describe how the speed of sound varies with temperature, moisture content and the moisture content corresponding to complete hydration of sorption sites within the wood.

  13. Potential risk to wood storks (Mycteria americana) from mercury in Carolina Bay fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brant, H.A.; Jagoe, C.H.; Snodgrass, J.W.; Bryan, A.L.; Gariboldi, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Fish mercury levels from some Carolina bays pose risk to wood stork. - Carolina bays are freshwater wetlands that serve as important feeding habitats for the endangered wood stork (Mycteria americana). Water levels in these bays fluctuate greatly and tend to be acidic and rich in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), factors that favor mercury (Hg) methylation and bioaccumulation in fish. To assess potential risks to wood storks consuming mercury contaminated fish in bays, we sampled fish from 10 bays on the Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, an area with documented use by wood storks. Whole body mercury concentrations in 258 fishes of three species (Erimyzon sucetta, Acantharchus pomotis and Esox americanus) commonly consumed by wood storks were determined. Risk factors for nestlings and free-ranging adults were calculated using published no and lowest observable adverse effect concentration (NOAEC and LOAEC) values for birds. Fish from higher trophic levels and those from wetlands with relatively shallow maximum depths and fluctuating water levels were more likely to exceed NOAEC and LOAEC values. Calculation of exposure rates of nestling wood storks indicated they are at highest risk during the first 10 days of the nestling period. These calculations suggest that there is potential concern for wood storks foraging in relatively shallow bays with fluctuating water levels, even though there is no obvious local source of mercury to these wetlands

  14. Natural Durability of Citharexylum spinosum and Morus alba Woods Against Three Mold Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisa M. A. Mansour

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The natural durability of wood to mold fungi was tested under laboratory conditions with locally sourced Citharexylum spinosum and Morus alba woods. The mold fungi were Penicillium selerotigenum, Paecilomyces variotii, and Aspergillus niger. Changes in surface elemental composition were evaluated with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX and the biodeterioration of wood surfaces by scanning electron microscope (SEM. The C peak element of C. spinosum wood was affected significantly (P = 0.0004 and decreased from 49.91% in the control specimens to 47%, 40.1%, and 40% with P. selerotigenum, A. niger, and P. variotii, respectively. Also, the C peak element of M. alba heartwood significantly decreased (P < 0.0001 from 51.33% in the control specimens to 41.49%, 45.66%, and 43.66% in wood inoculated with A. niger, P. variotii, and P. selerotigenum, respectively. The elements Al and Cu were observed in high percentages with M. alba heartwood inoculated by P. variotii. The methanol extract from M. alba heartwood showed good inhibition against the growth of A. niger at a concentration of 32 μg/mL, and the methanol extract from C. spinosum wood showed remarkable inhibition against the growth of P. variotii at a concentration of 8 μg/mL. The results of this study clearly showed the changes that occur in wood samples as a result of fungal infestation.

  15. Moisture Performance of wood-plastic composites reinforced with extracted and delignified wood flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao Chen; Nicole M. Stark; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Jianmin Gao; Yongming Fan

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of using extracted and delignified wood flour on water sorption properties of wood–plastic composites. Wood flour (WF) extraction was performed with three solvent systems: toluene/ethanol (TE), acetone/water (AW), and hot water (HW); delignification was conducted using sodium chlorite/acetic acid solution. A 24 full-factorial...

  16. Survival, growth, wood basic density and wood biomass of seven ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A performance comparison of seven-year-old individuals of 13 Casuarina species/provenances in terms of survival, growth (diameter, height and volume), wood basic density and wood biomass was undertaken at Kongowe, Kibaha, Tanzania. The trial was laid out using a randomised complete block design with four ...

  17. Iron Stain on Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Iron stain, an unsightly blue–black or gray discoloration, can occur on nearly all woods. Oak, redwood, cypress, and cedar are particularly prone to iron stain because these woods contain large amounts of tannin-like extractives. The discoloration is caused by a chemical reaction between extractives in the wood and iron in steel products, such as nails, screws, and...

  18. 40 CFR 63.4682 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Surface Coating of Wood Building... surface coating of wood building products: (1) All coating operations as defined in § 63.4781; (2) All... affected source if its construction commenced after June 21, 2002, and the construction is of a completely...

  19. Overall ecologic evaluation of cascading use of wood. Environmental impacts of substantial and energetic systems for utilization of wood in comparison; Gesamtoekologische Bewertung der Kaskadennutzung von Holz. Umweltauswirkungen stofflicher und energetischer Holznutzungssysteme im Vergleich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaertner, Sven; Hienz, Gunnar; Keller, Heiko; Mueller-Lindenlauf, Maria

    2013-01-15

    Wood demand is rising and its production can only be extended to a certain degree. This requires a prioritisation of wood use options. Therefore, the environmental aspects of using wood for energy production or as a material with and without cascading recycling steps of stepwise lower value are studied in a comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA). In addition, the environmental impacts of tapping new wood resources are assessed qualitatively. The results show that under most conditions the environmental impacts are the lower the more steps of a high-value material use are performed before the wood is used for energy production. One has to consider, though, that extended material use cascades can cause decades of delays of the energy recovery step, which may lead to the replacement of cleaner energy sources in the future and thus impair the results for the long-lived wood products. At the same time, wood products can represent a temporary or even - if material wood use generally increases - a long-term carbon stock. This leads to a delay of the greenhouse effect. Depending on the assessment method, these opposing effects result in unchanged to diminished impacts of long-lived wood products on the climate. Nevertheless, from an environmental point of view, high-value material use is advantageous compared to a direct use of wood for energy production independent of the assessment method. When comparing material use options of wood, especially the high-quality use of high-value wood assortments (e.g. solid wood as construction wood) is associated with positive results from an environmental perspective. In this context, the main effects on the LCA results come from the choice of the non-wood reference product and its associated environmental impacts. Regarding the direct use of wood for energy production, the most advantageous option from an environmental point of view is a combined heat and power plant (CHP) with a high overall efficiency.

  20. On-line automatic detection of wood pellets in pneumatically conveyed wood dust flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Duo; Yan, Yong; Carter, Robert M.; Gao, Lingjun; Qian, Xiangchen; Lu, Gang

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a piezoelectric transducer based system for on-line automatic detection of wood pellets in wood dust flow in pneumatic conveying pipelines. The piezoelectric transducer senses non-intrusively the collisions between wood pellets and the pipe wall. Wavelet-based denoising is adopted to eliminate environmental noise and recover the collision events. Then the wood pellets are identified by sliding a time window through the denoised signal with a suitable threshold. Experiments were carried out on a laboratory test rig and on an industrial pneumatic conveying pipeline to assess the effectiveness and operability of the system.

  1. Modelling and simulation of wood chip combustion in a hot air generator system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajika, J K A T; Narayana, Mahinsasa

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on modelling and simulation of horizontal moving bed/grate wood chip combustor. A standalone finite volume based 2-D steady state Euler-Euler Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model was developed for packed bed combustion. Packed bed combustion of a medium scale biomass combustor, which was retrofitted from wood log to wood chip feeding for Tea drying in Sri Lanka, was evaluated by a CFD simulation study. The model was validated by the experimental results of an industrial biomass combustor for a hot air generation system in tea industry. Open-source CFD tool; OpenFOAM was used to generate CFD model source code for the packed bed combustion and simulated along with an available solver for free board region modelling in the CFD tool. Height of the packed bed is about 20 cm and biomass particles are assumed to be spherical shape with constant surface area to volume ratio. Temperature measurements of the combustor are well agreed with simulation results while gas phase compositions have discrepancies. Combustion efficiency of the validated hot air generator is around 52.2 %.

  2. Comparisons of four categories of waste recycling in China’s paper industry based on physical input–output life-cycle assessment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Sai; Zhang, Tianzhu; Xu Yijian

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Using crop straws and wood wastes for paper production should be promoted. ► Bagasse and textile waste recycling should be properly limited. ► Imports of scrap paper should be encouraged. ► Sensitivity analysis, uncertainties and policy implications are discussed. - Abstract: Waste recycling for paper production is an important component of waste management. This study constructs a physical input–output life-cycle assessment (PIO-LCA) model. The PIO-LCA model is used to investigate environmental impacts of four categories of waste recycling in China’s paper industry: crop straws, bagasse, textile wastes and scrap paper. Crop straw recycling and wood utilization for paper production have small total intensity of environmental impacts. Moreover, environmental impacts reduction of crop straw recycling and wood utilization benefits the most from technology development. Thus, using crop straws and wood (including wood wastes) for paper production should be promoted. Technology development has small effects on environmental impacts reduction of bagasse recycling, textile waste recycling and scrap paper recycling. In addition, bagasse recycling and textile waste recycling have big total intensity of environmental impacts. Thus, the development of bagasse recycling and textile waste recycling should be properly limited. Other pathways for reusing bagasse and textile wastes should be explored and evaluated. Moreover, imports of scrap paper should be encouraged to reduce large indirect impacts of scrap paper recycling on domestic environment.

  3. Theoretical-and experimental analysis of the errors involved in the wood moisture determination by gamma-ray attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar, O.

    1983-01-01

    The sources of errors in wood moisture determination by gamma-ray attenuation were sought. Equations were proposed for determining errors and for ideal sample thickness. A series of measurements of moisture content in wood samples of Pinus oocarpa was made and the experimental errors were compared with the theoretical errors. (Author) [pt

  4. Wood ash to treat sewage sludge for agricultural use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, R.K. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    About 90% of the three million tons of wood ash generated in the United States from wood burning facilities is being landfilled. Many landfills are initiated tipping fees and/or restrictions on the disposal of special wastes such as ash. The purpose of this work was to evaluate (1) the feasibility of using wood ash to stabilize sewage sludge and (2) the fertilizer and liming value of the sludge/ash mixture on plant response and soil pH. Research showed that wood ash, when mixed with sludge, will produce a pH above 12.0, which meets US EPA criteria for pathogen reduction for land application on non-direct food chain crops. Different ratios of wood ash to sludge mixtures were tested and the 1:1 ratio (by weight) was found to be optimal. Five replications of wood ash from four sources were tested for moisture content, pH and fertilizer nutrients. The pH of the ash/sludge mixture (1:1) on day one ranged from 12.4 to 13.2. In most cases the pH remained the same over a 21 day test or only dropped 0.1 to 0.3 units. Analyses of the mixtures showed that heavy metal concentrations (As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, S, Se, Zn) were low. The 1:1 ash/sludge mixture had a calcium carbonate equivalency of 17%. Green house pot studies using tall fescue grass were loadings of 300 to 750 pounds per acre of TKN-N than for 500 lb/acre of 10-10-10 commercial fertilizer. Plant tissue analysis showed N, P, K, Ca, and Mg levels to be within the sufficiency range for tall fescue.

  5. Feature-Based versus Category-Based Induction with Uncertain Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Oren; Hayes, Brett K.; Newell, Ben R.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that when feature inferences have to be made about an instance whose category membership is uncertain, feature-based inductive reasoning is used to the exclusion of category-based induction. These results contrast with the observation that people can and do use category-based induction when category membership is…

  6. The Wood-Growth-and-Burial Process (WGBP) Permanent Wood Sequestration to Solve the Global Carbon Dioxide Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, F.; Hasse, U.

    2008-12-01

    , or/and via very slightly increased energy prices. It is a great advantage of the WGBP that it will not be competitive with the agriculture, as the areas most suitable for the process are not attractive for the growth of food or energy plants. The WGBP does not need fertilizers and irrigation, and it does not need genetically engineered plants. It is completely ecological and environmentally friendly. The WGBP can be performed at almost any place of the world, and it is not necessary to perform the process at the sites of carbon dioxide emission. The WGBP will contribute to a fair international trade. The WGBP will be equally available to all countries and societies of the world. There is no discrimination of poorer or less advanced societies. The WGBP will produce wood deposits for future generation, which once may become sources for biomass processing technologies, be it for the production of chemicals of energy. The burial sites will be saving banks of precious material. Ref.: F. Scholz, U. Hasse: ChemSusChem 1 (2008) 381-384 greifswald.de/~analytik/

  7. Minimizing fuel wood consumption through the evolution of hot ston ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The central objective of this paper is to minimize fuelwood consumption through evolving alternative domestic energy. Data on alternative domestic energy sources, and use fuel wood consumption during scarcity of petroleum were collected using structured questionnaires. Data on time spent to cook yam, race and beans ...

  8. Wood Flour Moulding Technology: Implications for Technical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intent of this article is to demonstrate how wood waste called sawdust or wood flour can be transformed by plastic moulding machine into items of economic value. Wood flour is wood reduced to very fine particle form. It can be waste product from saw mills, wood working plants or produced from selected dry wood by ...

  9. Wood wastes: Uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cipro, A.

    1993-01-01

    The 1,500 industrial firms manufacturing furniture in the Italian Province of Treviso can generate up to 190,000 tonnes of wood wastes annually. In line with the energy conservation-environmental protection measures contained in Italian Law No. 475/88, this paper indicates convenient uses for these wood wastes - as a raw material for fibreboards or as a fuel to be used in the furniture manufacturing plants themselves and in kilns producing lime. Reference is made to the wood wastes gasification/power generation system being developed by ENEA (the Italian Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment)

  10. Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2006-01-01

    Lecture Notes on Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures including charring of wood and load bearing capacity of beams, columns, and connections.......Lecture Notes on Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures including charring of wood and load bearing capacity of beams, columns, and connections....

  11. Corrosion of Fasteners in Wood Treated with Newer Wood Preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka

    2013-01-01

    This document compiles recent research findings related to corrosion of metals in preservative treated wood into a single report on corrosion of metals in wood. The research was conducted as part of the Research, Technology and Education portion of the National Historic Covered Bridge Preservation (NHCBP) Program administered by the Federal Highway Administration. The...

  12. Wood fuel from early thinning and plantation cleaning. Summary of an international review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puttock, D.

    1998-01-01

    This paper summaries the results of an international of wood fuel from early thinning and plantation cleaning. The economic and biological benefits from early thinning have been well documented. However, removing forest biomass during early stages of stand development from sites which are low in one or more nutrients may contribute a loss of nutrients and organic matter. Depending on the pre-thinning density and the thinning intensity, the potential yield of wood fuel from early thinning may be as much as 79 dry tons per hectare. Thus, wood fuel from the thinnings could be an important source of revenue to forest owners and would contribute to domestic energy requirements. Motor-manual felling predominates in early thinning, mainly due to the lack of appropriate technology for thinning small trees. However, the productivity of motor-manual felling is greatly affected by the initial stand density and declines dramatically at densities greater than 10 000 stems per ha. Under these conditions, purpose-built wood fuel harvesters with small-tree harvesting capability offer the greatest potential for increasing felling productivity and reducing the cost of wood fuel. The cost of wood fuel from early thinnings varies widely between countries from USD 25.00 - 87.50 per dry ton depending on stand conditions, harvesting system, transport distance, domestic tax rates, and stumpage prices. At the low end of this range, wood fuel chips from early thinning are competitive with wood fuel produced from mill waste, the residues from clearfell operations, or from later thinnings

  13. Power generation from waste wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitsche, H

    1980-04-18

    Since the energy crisis, power generation from waste wood has become increasingly important. The most profitable way to use waste wood in woodworking plants with an annual production of 100 to 150,000 m/sup 3/ solid measure of wood chips and bark is by combustion and thermal energy recovery. In plants with an annual production of 10,000 m/sup 3/ solid measure of wood chips and bark, electric power generation is a suitable application.

  14. Polyphenolic profile as a useful tool to identify the wood used in wine aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Miriam; Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Cadahía, Estrella; Esteruelas, Enrique; Muñoz, Angel Ma; Hernández, Ma Teresa; Estrella, Isabel

    2012-06-30

    Although oak wood is the main material used in cooperage, other species are being considered as possible sources of wood for the production of wines and their derived products. In this work we have compared the phenolic composition of acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia), chestnut (Castanea sativa), cherry (Prunus avium) and ash (Fraxinus excelsior and F. americana) heartwoods, by using HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS/MS (some of these data have been showed in previous paper), as well as the changes that toasting intensity at cooperage produce in each polyphenolic profile. Before toasting, each wood shows a different and specific polyphenolic profile, with both qualitative and quantitative differences among them. Toasting notably changed these profiles, in general, proportionally to toasting intensity and led to a minor differentiation among species in toasted woods, although we also found phenolic markers in toasted woods. Thus, methyl syringate, benzoic acid, methyl vanillate, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, 3,4,5-trimethylphenol and p-coumaric acid, condensed tannins of the procyanidin type, and the flavonoids naringenin, aromadendrin, isosakuranetin and taxifolin will be a good tool to identify cherry wood. In acacia wood the chemical markers will be the aldehydes gallic and β-resorcylic and two not fully identified hydroxycinnamic compounds, condensed tannins of the prorobinetin type, and when using untoasted wood, dihydrorobinetin, and in toasted acacia wood, robinetin. In untoasted ash wood, the presence of secoiridoids, phenylethanoid glycosides, or di and oligolignols will be a good tool, especially oleuropein, ligstroside and olivil, together verbascoside and isoverbascoside in F. excelsior, and oleoside in F. americana. In toasted ash wood, tyrosol, syringaresinol, cyclolovil, verbascoside and olivil, could be used to identify the botanical origin. In addition, in ash wood, seasoned and toasted, neither hydrolysable nor condensed tannins were detected. Lastly, in chestnut wood, gallic

  15. Status of wood energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerbe, J.I.

    1991-01-01

    In this address, the potential of wood and wood residues to supply future energy needs is examined. In addition, the possible environmental impact of the use of wood fuels on global climate change is discussed. Technologies for the development of new fuels are described

  16. Choosing Wood Burning Appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information to assist consumers in choosing a wood burning appliance, including types of appliances, the differences between certified and non-certified appliances, and alternative wood heating options.

  17. Bacterial Community Succession in Pine-Wood Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielak, Anna M; Scheublin, Tanja R; Mendes, Lucas W; van Veen, Johannes A; Kuramae, Eiko E

    2016-01-01

    Though bacteria and fungi are common inhabitants of decaying wood, little is known about the relationship between bacterial and fungal community dynamics during natural wood decay. Based on previous studies involving inoculated wood blocks, strong fungal selection on bacteria abundance and community composition was expected to occur during natural wood decay. Here, we focused on bacterial and fungal community compositions in pine wood samples collected from dead trees in different stages of decomposition. We showed that bacterial communities undergo less drastic changes than fungal communities during wood decay. Furthermore, we found that bacterial community assembly was a stochastic process at initial stage of wood decay and became more deterministic in later stages, likely due to environmental factors. Moreover, composition of bacterial communities did not respond to the changes in the major fungal species present in the wood but rather to the stage of decay reflected by the wood density. We concluded that the shifts in the bacterial communities were a result of the changes in wood properties during decomposition and largely independent of the composition of the wood-decaying fungal communities.

  18. Wood power in North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, J.G.; Guessous, L. [Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    North Carolina (NC) is one of the most forested states, and supports a major wood products industry. The NC Department of Natural Resources sponsored a study by Research Triangle Institute to examine new, productive uses of the State`s wood resources, especially electric power generation by co-firing with coal. This paper summarizes our research of the main factors influencing wood power generation opportunities, i.e., (1) electricity demand; (2) initiative and experience of developers; (3) available fuel resources; (4) incentives for alternate fuels; and (5) power plant technology and economics. The results cover NC forests, short rotation woody crops, existing wood energy facilities, electrical power requirements, and environmental regulations/incentives. Quantitative assessments are based on the interests of government agencies, utilities, electric cooperatives, developers and independent power producers, forest products industries, and the general public. Several specific, new opportunities for wood-to-electricity in the State are identified and described. Comparisons are made with nationwide resources and wood energy operations. Preferred approaches in NC are co-generation in existing or modified boilers and in dedicated wood power plants in forest industry regions. Co-firing is mainly an option for supplementing unreliable primary fuel supplies to existing boilers.

  19. The Carbon Impacts of Wood Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Bergman; Maureen Puettmann; Adam Taylor; Kenneth E. Skog

    2014-01-01

    Wood products have many environmental advantages over nonwood alternatives. Documenting and publicizing these merits helps the future competitiveness of wood when climate change impacts are being considered. The manufacture of wood products requires less fossil fuel than nonwood alternative building materials such as concrete, metals, or plastics. By nature, wood is...

  20. The influence of irradiated wood filler on some properties of polypropylene - wood composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Điporović-Momčilović Milanka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of compatibility between the wood filler and thermoplastic matrix is of essential importance in composite production. Numerous methods have been developed for increasing this compatibility, which is still representing a challenging objective of composite research throughout the world. The research into these methods is primarily directed towards their efficiency from the viewpoint of the composite performance and their economical acceptability. The latter is of particular importance for the composite production in the developing countries with respect to the shortage of the corresponding funds. With this respect, the utilization of ionizing radiation might have considerable advantages. In this research, the beech wood flour was irradiated by a dose of 10 kGy of 60Co gamma rays for purpose of provoking the changes by the ionizing effect. The effects of ionizing radiation upon the properties of wood particles have been examined by IR spectroscopy and by determination of contents of hydroxyl groups in wood by acetylating as an indirect method. All these methods have been expected to reveal the chemical effects of the applied radiation treatment. The irradiated and the control wood flour were used in order to produce the samples of composite with polypropylene. The polypropylene-wood flour (PP-WF composites were produced with 40% of wood particles having fraction size 0.3 mm. The melt-blended composites were modified with amido-acrylic acid (AMACA as a new coupling agent synthesized for this propose in amount of 6 wt.% (based on wood filler and successively with 0.05 wt.% (based on PP of organic peroxide during mixing step. The composites containing coupling agents showed superior mechanical properties, compared to the untreated one. The highest extent of improvement of tensile was achieved in PP-WFl composites modified with AMACA coupling agent.

  1. Methane from wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, T. F.; Barreto, L.; Kypreos, S.; Stucki, S

    2005-07-15

    The role of wood-based energy technologies in the Swiss energy system in the long-term is examined using the energy-system Swiss MARKAL model. The Swiss MARKAL model is a 'bottom-up' energy-systems optimization model that allows a detailed representation of energy technologies. The model has been developed as a joint effort between the Energy Economics Group (EEG) at Paul Scherrer Institute PSI) and the University of Geneva and is currently used at PSI-EEG. Using the Swiss MARKAL model, this study examines the conditions under which wood-based energy technologies could play a role in the Swiss energy system, the most attractive pathways for their use and the policy measures that could support them. Given the involvement of PSI in the ECOGAS project, especial emphasis is put on the production of bio-SNG from wood via gasification and methanation of syngas and on hydrothermal gasification of woody biomass. Of specific interest as weIl is the fraction of fuel used in passenger cars that could be produced by locally harvested wood. The report is organized as follows: Section 2 presents a brief description of the MARKAL model. Section 3 describes the results of the base case scenario, which represents a plausible, 'middle-of-the-road' development of the Swiss energy system. Section 4 discusses results illustrating the conditions under which the wood-based methanation technology could become competitive in the Swiss energy market, the role of oil and gas prices, subsidies to methanation technologies and the introduction of a competing technology, namely the wood-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. FinaIly, section 5 outlines some conclusions from this analysis. (author)

  2. Methane from wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, T. F.; Barreto, L.; Kypreos, S.; Stucki, S.

    2005-07-01

    The role of wood-based energy technologies in the Swiss energy system in the long-term is examined using the energy-system Swiss MARKAL model. The Swiss MARKAL model is a 'bottom-up' energy-systems optimization model that allows a detailed representation of energy technologies. The model has been developed as a joint effort between the Energy Economics Group (EEG) at Paul Scherrer Institute PSI) and the University of Geneva and is currently used at PSI-EEG. Using the Swiss MARKAL model, this study examines the conditions under which wood-based energy technologies could play a role in the Swiss energy system, the most attractive pathways for their use and the policy measures that could support them. Given the involvement of PSI in the ECOGAS project, especial emphasis is put on the production of bio-SNG from wood via gasification and methanation of syngas and on hydrothermal gasification of woody biomass. Of specific interest as weIl is the fraction of fuel used in passenger cars that could be produced by locally harvested wood. The report is organized as follows: Section 2 presents a brief description of the MARKAL model. Section 3 describes the results of the base case scenario, which represents a plausible, 'middle-of-the-road' development of the Swiss energy system. Section 4 discusses results illustrating the conditions under which the wood-based methanation technology could become competitive in the Swiss energy market, the role of oil and gas prices, subsidies to methanation technologies and the introduction of a competing technology, namely the wood-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. FinaIly, section 5 outlines some conclusions from this analysis. (author)

  3. Temperature effects on wood anatomy, wood density, photosynthesis and biomass partitioning of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D S; Montagu, K D; Conroy, J P

    2007-02-01

    Wood density, a gross measure of wood mass relative to wood volume, is important in our understanding of stem volume growth, carbon sequestration and leaf water supply. Disproportionate changes in the ratio of wood mass to volume may occur at the level of the whole stem or the individual cell. In general, there is a positive relationship between temperature and wood density of eucalypts, although this relationship has broken down in recent years with wood density decreasing as global temperatures have risen. To determine the anatomical causes of the effects of temperature on wood density, Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden seedlings were grown in controlled-environment cabinets at constant temperatures from 10 to 35 degrees C. The 20% increase in wood density of E. grandis seedlings grown at the higher temperatures was variously related to a 40% reduction in lumen area of xylem vessels, a 10% reduction in the lumen area of fiber cells and a 10% increase in fiber cell wall thickness. The changes in cell wall characteristics could be considered analogous to changes in carbon supply. Lumen area of fiber cells declined because of reduced fiber cell expansion and increased fiber cell wall thickening. Fiber cell wall thickness was positively related to canopy CO2 assimilation rate (Ac), which increased 26-fold because of a 24-fold increase in leaf area and a doubling in leaf CO2 assimilation rate from minima at 10 and 35 degrees C to maxima at 25 and 30 degrees C. Increased Ac increased seedling volume, biomass and wood density; but increased wood density was also related to a shift in partitioning of seedling biomass from roots to stems as temperature increased.

  4. Wood fuel consumption and mortality rates in Sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from a dynamic panel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Chindo; Abdul-Rahim, A S; Chin, Lee; Mohd-Shahwahid, H O

    2017-06-01

    This study examined the impact of wood fuel consumption on health outcomes, specifically under-five and adult mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa, where wood usage for cooking and heating is on the increase. Generalized method of moment (GMM) estimators were used to estimate the impact of wood fuel consumption on under-five and adult mortality (and also male and female mortality) in the region. The findings revealed that wood fuel consumption had significant positive impact on under-five and adult mortality. It suggests that over the studied period, an increase in wood fuel consumption has increased the mortality of under-five and adult. Importantly, it indicated that the magnitude of the effect of wood fuel consumption was more on the under-five than the adults. Similarly, assessing the effect on a gender basis, it was revealed that the effect was more on female than male adults. This finding suggests that the resultant mortality from wood smoke related infections is more on under-five children than adults, and also are more on female adults than male adults. We, therefore, recommended that an alternative affordable, clean energy source for cooking and heating should be provided to reduce the wood fuel consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Bacteria associated with decomposing dead wood in a natural temperate forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tláskal, Vojtech; Zrustová, Petra; Vrška, Tomáš; Baldrian, Petr

    2017-12-01

    Dead wood represents an important pool of organic matter in forests and is one of the sources of soil formation. It has been shown to harbour diverse communities of bacteria, but their roles in this habitat are still poorly understood. Here, we describe the bacterial communities in the dead wood of Abies alba, Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica in a temperate natural forest in Central Europe. An analysis of environmental factors showed that decomposing time along with pH and water content was the strongest drivers of community composition. Bacterial biomass positively correlated with N content and increased with decomposition along with the concurrent decrease in the fungal/bacterial biomass ratio. Rhizobiales and Acidobacteriales were abundant bacterial orders throughout the whole decay process, but many bacterial taxa were specific either for young (<15 years) or old dead wood. During early decomposition, bacterial genera able to fix N2 and to use simple C1 compounds (e.g. Yersinia and Methylomonas) were frequent, while wood in advanced decay was rich in taxa typical of forest soils (e.g. Bradyrhizobium and Rhodoplanes). Although the bacterial contribution to dead wood turnover remains unclear, the community composition appears to reflect the changing conditions of the substrate and suggests broad metabolic capacities of its members. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The central role of wood biology in understanding the durability of wood-coating interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex C. Wiedenhoeft

    2007-01-01

    To design effectively for durability, one must actively and honestly assess the material properties and limitations of each of the components in the design system; wood or wood composite, and the coating. Inasmuch as wood coatings are manufactured to specified tolerances from known materials, we have control of that component of the system. Compared to manmade...

  7. Wood as a home heating fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, K.

    1991-01-01

    This article describes the development of clean-burning technology in three types of wood-burning appliances: catalytic, non-catalytic, and pellet stoves. A recent study by the Washington State Energy Extension Office concluded that in homes that use both electricity and wood, 73 megawatts of electricity/yr were saved by using wood. Since wood-burning stoves can now meet air quality standards, wood could be considered to be a greenhouse-neutral fuel if more trees are planted as they are consumed

  8. Microbial Communities in Sunken Wood Are Structured by Wood-Boring Bivalves and Location in a Submarine Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagervold, Sonja K.; Romano, Chiara; Kalenitchenko, Dimitri; Borowski, Christian; Nunes-Jorge, Amandine; Martin, Daniel; Galand, Pierre E.

    2014-01-01

    The cornerstones of sunken wood ecosystems are microorganisms involved in cellulose degradation. These can either be free-living microorganisms in the wood matrix or symbiotic bacteria associated with wood-boring bivalves such as emblematic species of Xylophaga, the most common deep-sea woodborer. Here we use experimentally submerged pine wood, placed in and outside the Mediterranean submarine Blanes Canyon, to compare the microbial communities on the wood, in fecal pellets of Xylophaga spp. and associated with the gills of these animals. Analyses based on tag pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA bacterial gene showed that sunken wood contained three distinct microbial communities. Wood and pellet communities were different from each other suggesting that Xylophaga spp. create new microbial niches by excreting fecal pellets into their burrows. In turn, gills of Xylophaga spp. contain potential bacterial symbionts, as illustrated by the presence of sequences closely related to symbiotic bacteria found in other wood eating marine invertebrates. Finally, we found that sunken wood communities inside the canyon were different and more diverse than the ones outside the canyon. This finding extends to the microbial world the view that submarine canyons are sites of diverse marine life. PMID:24805961

  9. Application of molecular genetic methods for identification of wood-decaying fungi in wood constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bobeková

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to evaluate the utilization of molecular biology methods for detection of wood decaying fungi directly from decomposed wood using a commercial DNA extraction kit developed for soil substrates (PowerSoil™ DNA isolation kit. The experiment based on dry rot fungus (Serpula lacrymans detection from inoculated wooden pieces under laboratory conditions was followed by field detection of wood-decaying fungi from wood structures on building constructions. Fungal DNA was identified using the PCR–based methods including species-specific PCR and sequencing of amplified ITS region of ribosomal DNA.

  10. FLEXURAL TESTING OF WOOD-CONCRETE COMPOSITE BEAM MADE FROM KAMPER AND BANGKIRAI WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengky Satria Yoresta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Certain wood has a tensile strength that almost equal with steel rebar in reinforced concrete beams. This research aims to understand the capacity and flexural behavior of concrete beams reinforced by wood (wood-concrete composite beam. Two different types of beams based on placement positions of wood layers are proposed in this study. Two kinds of wood used are consisted of Bangkirai (Shorea laevifolia and Kamper (Cinnamomum camphora, meanwhile the concrete mix ratio for all beams is 1 cement : 2 fine aggregates : 3 coarse aggregates. Bending test is conducted by using one-point loading method. The results show that composite beam using Bangkirai wood is stronger than beams using Kamper wood. More thicker wood layer in tensile area will increase the flexural strength of beams. Crack patterns identified could be classified into flexural cracks, shear cracks, and split on wood layer   Beberapa jenis kayu tertentu memiliki kekuatan tarik yang hampir sama dengan tulangan baja pada balok beton bertulang. Penelitian ini bertujuan memahami kapasitas dan perilaku lentur balok beton bertulang yang diperkuat menggunakan kayu (balok komposit beton-kayu. Dua tipe balok yang berbeda berdasarkan posisi penempatan kayu digunakan dalam penelitian ini. Dua jenis kayu yang digunakan adalah kayu Bangkirai (Shorea laevifolia and Kamper (Cinnamomum camphora, sementara itu rasio campuran beton untuk semua balok menggunakan perbandingan 1 semen : 2 agregat halus : 3 agregat kasar. Pengujian lentur dilakukan menggunakan metode one-point loading. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa balok komposit dengan kayu Bangkirai lebih kuat dibandingkan balok dengan kayu Kamper. Semakin tebal lapisan kayu yang berada di daerah tarik akan meningkatkan kekuatan lentur balok. Pola kerusakan yang teridentifikasi dapat diklasifikasikan menjadi retak lentur, retak geser, dan pecah pada kayu REFERENCES Boen T. (2010. Retrofitting Simple Buildings Damaged by Earthquakes. World Seismic

  11. The case for wood-fuelled heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bent, Ewan

    2001-01-01

    This article looks at the wood heating industry in the UK and examines the heat market and the growth potential in the domestic, public, agricultural and commercial sectors. The current status of wood-fueled heating technology is considered, along with log and chip boilers, and the use of pellet fuel. The economics of wood-fuelled heating, the higher level of utilisation of wood-fuelled heating by utilities in northern European countries compared with the UK, and the barriers to the exploitation of wood fuelled heating are examined

  12. Procedural-Based Category Learning in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: Impact of Category Number and Category Continuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vincent eFiloteo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Previously we found that Parkinson's disease (PD patients are impaired in procedural-based category learning when category membership is defined by a nonlinear relationship between stimulus dimensions, but these same patients are normal when the rule is defined by a linear relationship (Filoteo et al., 2005; Maddox & Filoteo, 2001. We suggested that PD patients' impairment was due to a deficit in recruiting ‘striatal units' to represent complex nonlinear rules. In the present study, we further examined the nature of PD patients' procedural-based deficit in two experiments designed to examine the impact of (1 the number of categories, and (2 category discontinuity on learning. Results indicated that PD patients were impaired only under discontinuous category conditions but were normal when the number of categories was increased from two to four. The lack of impairment in the four-category condition suggests normal integrity of striatal medium spiny cells involved in procedural-based category learning. In contrast, and consistent with our previous observation of a nonlinear deficit, the finding that PD patients were impaired in the discontinuous condition suggests that these patients are impaired when they have to associate perceptually distinct exemplars with the same category. Theoretically, this deficit might be related to dysfunctional communication among medium spiny neurons within the striatum, particularly given that these are cholinergic neurons and a cholinergic deficiency could underlie some of PD patients’ cognitive impairment.

  13. Bacterial community succession in pine-wood decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eKielak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Though bacteria and fungi are common inhabitants of decaying wood, little is known about the relationship between bacterial and fungal community dynamics during natural wood decay. Based on previous studies involving inoculated wood blocks, strong fungal selection on bacteria abundance and community composition was expected to occur during natural wood decay. Here we focused on bacterial and fungal community compositions in pine wood samples collected from dead trees in different stages of decomposition. We showed that bacterial communities undergo less drastic changes than fungal communities during wood decay. Furthermore, we found that bacterial community assembly was a stochastic process at initial stage of wood decay and became more deterministic in later stages, likely due to environmental factors. Moreover, composition of bacterial communities did not respond to the changes in the major fungal species present in the wood but rather to the stage of decay reflected by the wood density. We concluded that the shifts in the bacterial communities were a result of the changes in wood properties during decomposition and largely independent of the composition of the wood-decaying fungal communities.

  14. Macrophotographic wood atlas of Annonaceae.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Westra, L.I.T.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, a general description of the microscopic wood anatomy of Annonaceae is given. We provide a description of the wood anatomical features of the family and of all subfamilies and tribes, all from material in the Utrecht Wood collection. Hand-lens images can be an important help in

  15. The challenge of bonding treated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2004-01-01

    Wood products are quite durable if exposure to moisture is minimized; however, most uses of wood involve considerable exposure to moisture. To preserve the wood, chemicals are used to minimize moisture pickup, to prevent insect attack, and/or to resist microbial growth. The chemicals used as preservatives can interfere with adhesive bonds to wood. Given the many...

  16. FIRE INSURANCE AND WOOD SCHOOL BUILDINGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PURCELL, FRANK X.

    A COMPARISON OF FIRE INSURANCE COSTS OF WOOD, MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE STRUCTURES SHOWS FIRE INSURANCE PREMIMUMS ON WOOD STRUCTURES TEND TO BE HIGHER THAN PREMIUMS ON MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE BUILDINGS, HOWEVER, THE INITIAL COST OF THE WOOD BUILDINGS IS LOWER. DATA SHOW THAT THE SAVINGS ACHIEVED IN THE INITIAL COST OF WOOD STRUCTURES OFFSET…

  17. Contested Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drawing on social science perspectives, Contested Categories presents a series of empirical studies that engage with the often shifting and day-to-day realities of life sciences categories. In doing so, it shows how such categories remain contested and dynamic, and that the boundaries they create...

  18. Physical and mechanical properties of bio-composites from wood particles and liquefied wood resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui Pan; Todd F. Shupe; Chung-Yun Hse

    2009-01-01

    Compression molded composites were made from wood particles and a liquefied wood/phenol/formaldehyde co-condensed resin. Based on our previous research, a phenol to wood (P/W) ratio of 2/1 was chosen for this study. The two experimental variables selected were: 1) liquefaction temperature (150o and 180oC) and 2) cooking method (atmospheric and sealed). Panels were...

  19. The wood energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douard, F.; Oremus, Y.; Garsault-Fabbi, A.

    2007-01-01

    The program law fixing the energy policy (POPE Law of the 13 july 2005) fixes an objective of 50% of growth for the renewable heat. As this renewable heat is today generated by the biomass, it seems necessary to adjust all the efforts on this sector. This document proposes to takes stock on the wood energy in France. It presents the wood fuels, an evaluation of the Wood-Energy Plan decided by the ADEME in 2000, the wood heat networks, and some example of installations. (A.L.B.)

  20. Evolution of novel wood decay mechanisms in Agaricales revealed by the genome sequences of Fistulina hepatica and Cylindrobasidium torrendii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floudas, Dimitrios; Held, Benjamin W.; Riley, Robert; Nagy, Laszlo G.; Koehler, Gage; Ransdell, Anthony S.; Younus, Hina; Chow, Julianna; Chiniquy, Jennifer; Lipzen, Anna; Tritt, Andrew; Sun, Hui; Haridas, Sajeet; LaButti, Kurt; Ohm, Robin A.; Kües, Ursula; Blanchette, Robert A.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Minto, Robert E.; Hibbett, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Wood decay mechanisms in Agaricomycotina have been traditionally separated in two categories termed white and brown rot. Recently the accuracy of such a dichotomy has been questioned. Here, we present the genome sequences of the white rot fungus Cylindrobasidium torrendii and the brown rot fungus Fistulina hepatica both members of Agaricales, combining comparative genomics and wood decay experiments. Cylindrobasidium torrendii is closely related to the white-rot root pathogen Armillaria mellea, while F. hepatica is related to Schizophyllum commune, which has been reported to cause white rot. Our results suggest that C. torrendii and S. commune are intermediate between white-rot and brown-rot fungi, but at the same time they show characteristics of decay that resembles soft rot. Both species cause weak wood decay and degrade all wood components but leave the middle lamella intact. Their gene content related to lignin degradation is reduced, similar to brown-rot fungi, but both have maintained a rich array of genes related to carbohydrate degradation, similar to white-rot fungi. These characteristics appear to have evolved from white-rot ancestors with stronger ligninolytic ability. Fistulina hepatica shows characteristics of brown rot both in terms of wood decay genes found in its genome and the decay that it causes. However, genes related to cellulose degradation are still present, which is a plesiomorphic characteristic shared with its white-rot ancestors. Four wood degradation-related genes, homologs of which are frequently lost in brown-rot fungi, show signs of pseudogenization in the genome of F. hepatica. These results suggest that transition towards a brown rot lifestyle could be an ongoing process in F. hepatica. Our results reinforce the idea that wood decay mechanisms are more diverse than initially thought and that the dichotomous separation of wood decay mechanisms in Agaricomycotina into white rot and brown rot should be revisited. PMID:25683379

  1. Wood torrefaction. Pilot tests and utilisation prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Jukola, P.; Jarvinen, T.; Sipila, K. [VTT Technical Reseach Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Verhoeff, F.; Kiel, J. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands, LE Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15

    operation. The market is expected to move forward but the available public information is very limited, especially concerning the technologies used and volumes produced. Woody feedstocks will be the main raw material source. The utilisation rate of forest industry residues and by-products is relatively high in the EU and wood supply in Central Europe remains more or less stable, hence the price of the raw material is at a fairly high level. The utilities' capability to pay for the product depends mainly on the national feed-in tariffs of green electricity. The energy price for the user is at least twice as high as that of coal. (orig.)

  2. Arctic Bowyery – The Use of Compression Wood in Bows in the Subarctic and Arctic Regions of Eurasia and America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Lepola

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a study of the traditional use of a special kind of wood in bow construction in Eurasia and North America. This special kind of wood, called compression wood and coming from coniferous trees, has unique qualities that makes it suitable for bow construction. Bows made using this special wood have been referred to as Finno-Ugric bows, Sámi bows, Two-Wood bows and Eurasia laminated bows. These bows appear to have developed from archaic forms of compression wood self bows that were made from a single piece of wood. Recently features similar to the Eurasian compression wood bows have been discovered in bows originating from Alaska, and the use of compression wood for bow manufacture has been known to some Canadian Inuit groups. This paper addresses the origin and possible diffusion pattern of this innovation in bow technology in Eurasia and suggests a timeframe and a possible source for the transfer of this knowledge to North America. This paper also discusses the role of the Asiatic composite bow in the development of bows in Eurasia.

  3. Complex geometries in wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Riiber Nielsen, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The versatility of wood constructions and traditional wood joints for the production of non standard elements was in focus of a design based research. Herein we established a seamless process from digital design to fabrication. A first research phase centered on the development of a robust...... parametric model and a generic design language a later explored the possibilities to construct complex shaped geometries with self registering joints on modern wood crafting machines. The research was carried out as collaboration with industrial partners....

  4. How to make a beetle out of wood: multi-elemental stoichiometry of wood decay, xylophagy and fungivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipiak, Michał; Weiner, January

    2014-01-01

    The majority of terrestrial biomass is wood, but the elemental composition of its potential consumers, xylophages, differs hugely from that of wood. This causes a severe nutritional imbalance. We studied the stoichiometric relationships of 11 elements (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Na) in three species of pine-xylem-feeding insects, Stictoleptura rubra, Arhopalus rusticus (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) and Chalcophora mariana (Coleoptera, Buprestidae), to elucidate their mechanisms of tissue growth and to match their life histories to their dietary constraints. These beetles do not differ from other Coleoptera in their absolute elemental compositions, which are approximately 1000 (N), 100 (P, Cu) and 50 (K, Na) times higher than in dead but undecayed pine wood. This discrepancy diminishes along the wood decay gradient, but the elemental concentrations remain higher by an order of magnitude in beetles than in highly decayed wood. Numerical simulation of the life history of S. rubra shows that feeding on nutrient-poor undecayed wood would extend its development time to implausible values, whereas feeding on highly decomposed wood (heavily infected with fungi) would barely balance its nutritional budget during the long development period of this species. The changes in stoichiometry indicate that the relative change in the nutrient levels in decaying wood cannot be attributed solely to carbon loss resulting from decomposer respiration: the action of fungi substantially enriches the decaying wood with nutritional elements imported from the outside of the system, making it a suitable food for wood-eating invertebrates.

  5. Photodegradation of wood and depth profile analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Photochemical degradation is a key process of the weathering that occurs when wood is exposed outdoors. It is also a major cause of the discoloration of wood in indoor applications. The effects of sunlight on the chemical composition of wood are superficial in nature, but estimates of the depth at which photodegradation occurs in wood vary greatly from 80 microm to as much as 2540 mic rom. Better understanding of the photodegradation of wood through depth profile analysis is desirable because it would allow the development of more effective photo-protective treatments that target the surface layers of wood most susceptible to photodegradation. This paper briefly describes fundamental aspects of photodegradation of wood and reviews progress made in the field of depth profile study on the photodegradation of wood. (author)

  6. Robert Williams Wood: pioneer of invisible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shruti; Sharma, Amit

    2016-03-01

    The Wood's lamp aids in the diagnosis of multiple infectious, inflammatory and neoplastic dermatologic conditions. Although the Wood's lamp has many applications, which have improved both the diagnosis and management of disease, the man credited for its invention is relatively unknown in medicine. Robert Williams Wood, a prominent physicist of the early 20th century, is credited for the invention of the Wood's lamp. Wood was the father of infrared and ultraviolet photography and made significant contributions to other areas in optics and spectroscopy. Wood's work encompassed the formative years of American Physics; he published over 200 original papers over his lifetime. A few years after the invention of the Wood's lamp for ultraviolet photography, physicians in Europe adopted the Wood's lamp for dermatologic applications. Wood's lamp remains popular in clinics globally, given its ease of use and ability to improve diagnostic precision. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Production of dry wood chips in connection with a district heating plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yrjölä Jukka

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Moisture and its variation in wood chips make the control of burning in small scale heating appliances difficult resulting in emissions and loss of efficiency. If the quality of wood chips would be better, i. e. dried and sieved fuel with more uniform size distribution would be avail able, the burning could be much cleaner and efficiency higher. In addition higher power out put could be obtained and the investment costs of the burning appliances would be lower. The production of sieved and dried wood chip with good quality could be accomplished in connection with a district heating plant. Then the plant would make profit, in addition to the district heat, from the dried wood chips sold to the neighboring buildings and enterprises sep a rated from the district heating net using wood chips in energy production. The peak power of a district heating plant is required only a short time during the coldest days of the winter. Then the excess capacity during the milder days can be used as heat source for drying of wood chips to be marketed. Then wood chips are sieved and the fuel with best quality is sold and the reject is used as fuel in the plant it self. In a larger district heating plant, quality of the fuel does not need to be so high In this paper the effect of moisture on the fuel chain and on the boiler is discussed. Energy and mass balance calculations as a tool of system design is described and the characteristics of proposed dry chips production method is discussed.

  8. Quality of the surface of Coffea arabica wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Paulo de Carvalho Braga

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The wood of Coffea arabica L. is considered a a residue of the coffee industry and is widely used as a source of energy. Few studies have shown other destinations such as the manufacture of small objects and furniture with rustic design. The objective of this work was to find the best fit in cutting speed during machining planer trowel the wood of Coffea arabica, taking into consideration the quality of the machined surface. The wood from the Coffea arabica came from an 15 years planting, spacing 3 x 2 m, of the municipality of Machado / MG. The tree was pruned, unfolded and flattened, in order for getting cut-proof of 30 mm thick, with variables length and width. The machining tests were performed at the Laboratory of Wood Machining (DCF / UFLA, varying the cutting speed in plane trowel. The qualification of the machined surface was performed by the feed per tooth (fz, visual analysis (ASTM D 1666-87 and roughness Ra and Rz. It was used a completely randomized design with 30 repetitions. We conducted the analysis of variance test and the average of Scott-Knott, at 5% significance level. It was calculated the percentage of marks obtained for the feed per tooth. The results showed that the quality of machined surface with cutting speeds of 19 and 21 m∙s-1 and forward speed of 6 m∙min-1 were satisfactory with small surveys of fiber and low values of feed per tooth ( fz and roughness Ra and Rz.

  9. Solutions for wood-based bio-energy price discovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teraes, Timo [FOEX Indexes Ltd., Helsinki (Finland)], e-mail: timo@foex.fi

    2012-11-01

    Energy prices are highly volatile. This volatility can have serious ill-effects on the profitability of companies engaged in the energy business. There are, however, a number of price risk management tools which can be used to reduce the problems caused by price volatility. International trade of wood pellets and wood chips is rapidly growing. A good price transparency helps in developing the trade further. In order to meet the renewable energy targets within the EU, further growth of volumes is needed, at least within Europe and from overseas supply sources to the European markets. Reliable price indices are a central element in price risk management and in general price discovery. Exchanges have provided, in the past, the most widely known price discovery systems. Since 1990's, an increasing number of price risk management tools has been based on cash settlement concept. Cash settlement requires high quality benchmark price indices. These have been developed by the exchanges themselves, by trade press and by independent price benchmark provider companies. The best known of these benchmarks in forest industry and now also in wood-based bioenergy products are the PIX indices, provided by FOEX Indexes Ltd. This presentation discusses the key requirements for a good price index and the different ways of using the indices. Price relationships between wood chip prices and pellet prices are also discussed as will be the outlook for the future volume growth and trade flows in woodchips and pellets mainly from the European perspective.

  10. Influence of large wood on channel morphology and sediment storage in headwater mountain streams, Fraser Experimental Forest, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandra E. Ryan; Erica L. Bishop; J. Michael Daniels

    2014-01-01

    Large fallen wood can have a significant impact on channel form and process in forested mountain streams. In this study, four small channels on the Fraser Experimental Forest near Fraser, Colorado, USA, were surveyed for channel geometries and large wood loading, including the size, source, and characteristics of individual pieces. The study is part of a larger effort...

  11. Preservation of forest wood chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofman, P.D.; Thomsen, I.M.; Ohlsson, C.; Leer, E.; Ravn Schmidt, E.; Soerensen, M.; Knudsen, P.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the Danish Energy Research Programme on biomass utilisation for energy production (EFP), this project concerns problems connected to the handling and storing of wood chips. In this project, the possibility of preserving wood chips of the Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) is addressed, and the potential improvements by anaerobic storage are tested. Preservation of wood chips aims at reducing dry matter losses from extensive heating during storage and to reduce production of fungal spores. Fungal spores pose a health hazards to workers handling the chips. Further the producers of wood chips are interested in such a method since it would enable them to give a guarantee for the delivery of homogeneous wood chips also during the winter period. Three different types of wood chips were stored airtight and further one of these was stored in accordance with normal practise and use as reference. The results showed that airtight storage had a beneficial impact on the quality of the chips: no redistribution of moisture, low dry matter losses, unfavourable conditions for microbial activity of most fungi, and the promotion of yeasts instead of fungi with airborne spores. Likewise the firing tests showed that no combustion problems, and no increased risk to the environment or to the health of staff is caused by anaerobic storage of wood chips. In all, the tests of the anaerobic storage method of forest wood chips were a success and a large-scale test of the method will be carried out in 1999. (au)

  12. Wood pellets in a power plant - mixed combustion of coal and wood pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nupponen, M.

    2001-01-01

    The author reviews in his presentation the development of Turku Energia, the organization of the company, the key figures of the company in 2000, as well as the purchase of energy in 2000. He also presents the purchase of basic heat load, the energy production plants of the company, the sales of heat in 2000, the emissions of the plants, and the fuel consumption of the plants in 2000. The operating experiences of the plants are also presented. The experiences gained in Turku Energia on mixed combustion of coal and wood pellets show that the mixing ratios, used at the plants, have no effect on the burning properties of the boiler, and the use of wood pellets with coal reduce the SO 2 and NO x emissions slightly. Simultaneously the CO 2 share of the wood pellets is removed from the emissions calculations. Several positive effects were observed, including the disappearance of the coal smell of the bunker, positive publicity of the utilization of wood pellets, and the subsidies for utilization of indigenous fuels in power generation. The problems seen include the tendency of wood pellets to arc the silos, especially when the pellets include high quantities of dust, and the loading of the trucks and the pneumatic unloading of the trucks break the pellets. Additionally the wood pellets bounce on the conveyor so they drop easily from the conveyor, the screw conveyors designed for conveying grain are too weak and they get stuck easily, and static electricity is easily generated in the plastic pipe used as the discharge pipe for wood pellet (sparkling tendency). This disadvantage has been overcome by using metal net and grounding

  13. Continued growth expected for wood energy despite turbulence of the economic crisis : wood energy markets, 2008-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rens Hartkamp; Bengt Hillring; Warren Mabee; Olle Olsson; Kenneth Skog; Henry Spelter; Johan Vinterback; Antje Wahl

    2009-01-01

    The economic crisis has not reduced the demand for wood energy, which is expected to continue to grow. The downturn in sawmill production caused a shortage of raw material supply for wood pellet producers. With decreased demand for pulpwood-quality roundwood for wood and paper products in 2009, some pulpwood is being converted into wood energy. Economies of scale are...

  14. Occupational exposure to the personnel regarded by NRB-76/87 to B category

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubatova, D; Balode, G; Nemiro, E [Medical Institute, Riga (USSR)

    1990-01-01

    During the decades use of radioactive sources in all branches of national economy has increased. Due to this tendency the number of exposed individuals from artificial sources including those exposed only occasionally (the so-called B category) increases. For this category the personnel dosimetry is not obligatory, and radioactive monitoring of their working and living places would do. Nevertheless, the thermoluminescent personnel monitoring data derived by us show that occupational exposure of this category is near, and occasionally even higher than B category exposure limit. So, for example, anesthesiologists annual exposure makes 4.5 mSv, that of surgeons 6.5 mSv, of anesthetic nurses 4.0 mSv (Traumatological and Orthopedic Institute personnel). Annual exposure of 'Medtekhnika' factory electromechanics ought to repair, set up and check up X-ray devices in 1987 was 5 mSv. (author).

  15. Wood's lamp illumination (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Wood's lamp emits ultraviolet light and can be a diagnostic aid in determining if someone has a fungal ... is an infection on the area where the Wood's lamp is illuminating, the area will fluoresce. Normally ...

  16. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Search How We Work Our Focus Areas About RWJF Search Menu How We Work Grants ... Learn more For Grantees and Grantseekers The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation funds a wide array of programs ...

  17. Advantages of the use of energy wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaerhae, K.; Aarnio, J.; Maekinen, P.

    2000-01-01

    According to the Regional Forestry Associations it would be possible to develop the harvesting of energy wood by increasing the use of it. The study was made at the areas of 34 regional forestry associations as an inquiry to the executive managers, as well as the persons responsible for timber trade, harvesting or regional affairs. The inquiries studied the use of energy wood and the user of them at the areas of the associations, as well as the amounts of harvesting and the realization of it. Only a third of the associations have large energy wood consuming plants (using more than 500 m 3 energy wood per year). The closest large energy wood consuming plant was in the average 31 km from the office of the association. The average energy wood use of the plant was 20 000 m 3 /a, the variation being 700 - 200 000 m 3 /a. The energy wood purchase range of the plants varied from few kilometers to hundred kilometers, the average being 47 km. Most of the energy wood was harvested from forest regeneration areas. Some of the energy wood is also harvested from young forest maintenance and thinning areas. The estimated harvesting of energy wood in 1999 was 6300 m 3 . A part of the energy wood is used for heating the farms and other small real estates, and a part is used for heating larger buildings like schools, hospitals, factories. The fees to the associations for purchase of energy wood varied significantly. The range was 2.00 - 11.00 FIM/m 3 . One association charged 300 FIM/parcel, and in one association the price depend on the amount of wood acquired from the lot, the unit price being 0.5 FIM/m 3 . It appeared that the associations estimated the use of energy wood to increase. The level in 1999 was 6300 m 3 and it is estimated to increase to 14 300 m 3 in 2005. The associations estimated that the levels can only be achieved if the stumpage price of energy wood may not be 0.0 FIM. Even a marginal price would lead to an increased harvesting of energy wood. The associations

  18. Inoculation Expedition of Agar wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, C.S.; Mohd Fajri Osman; Rusli Zakaria

    2015-01-01

    Inoculation expedition of agar wood is a main field works for researcher in Nuclear Malaysia to prove the real inoculation of agar wood in real jungle. These expeditions was conducted fourth times in the jungles of Malaysia including Gunung Tebu in Terengganu, Murum in Belaga, Sarawak, Kampung Timbang in Kota Belud, Sabah and Nuclear Malaysia itself. This expedition starts from preparation of samples and equipment, transportation into the jungle, searching and recognition of agar wood and lastly, inoculation of the agar wood. Safety aspects precedence set out in the preparation and implementation of this expedition. (author)

  19. Harvesting and consumption of fuel and timber wood in rural area of district tank, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badshah, L.; Hussain, F.; Burni, T.

    2014-01-01

    The study revealed that 90% of the rural people with different age group of District Tank, Pakistan depended upon firewood for catering. The total annual wood consumption for fueling by brick brewers, food sellers and domestic utilization was 18371 metric tons in this remote region. The saw machines also convert 13650 metric tons of timber wood yearly into logs and boards of various grades. The total wood consumption exceeds the quantity of wood harvested by tree fellers, farmers and wood sellers. Therefore the balance of over 13000 metric tons is sourced from neighboring forest of Tehsil Kulachi and Dera Ismail Khan. The quantity of wood removed and consumed for various purposes did not show a significant difference at (0.05) among the six locations. However student t-test showed significant difference existed in the mean annual removal and consumption of wood in the area. The study also enumerated Acacia nilotica, Tamarix aphylla, and Sueda fruticosa as the best and preferred fuel species. While Acacia nilotica, Prosopis farcta and Dalbergia sisso as the frequently used timber species in the region. The criterion of firewood and lumber consumption was very conventional like durability in blaze and opposed to termite. Consequently, it is recommended scientific vegetation conservation strategies meant at improved burning of fuel wood and maximized used of timber products as a complimentary efforts to enforced tree planting for conservation of plant resources. (author)

  20. Factors affecting wood energy consumption by U.S. households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nianfu Song; Francisco X. Aguilar; Stephen R. Shifley; Michael E. Goerndt

    2012-01-01

    About 23% of energy derived from woody sources in the U.S. was consumed by households, of which 70% was used by households in rural areas in 2005. We investigated factors affecting household-level wood energy consumption in the four continental U.S. regions using data from the U.S. Residential Energy Consumption Survey. To account for a large number of zero...

  1. Characterisation of wood combustion ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresca, Alberto

    The combustion of wood chips and wood pellets for the production of renewable energy in Denmark increased from 5.7 PJ to 16 PJ during the period 2000-2015, and further increases are expected to occur within the coming years. In 2012, about 22,300 tonnes of wood ashes were generated in Denmark....... Currently, these ashes are mainly landfilled, despite Danish legislation allowing their application onto forest and agricultural soils for fertilising and/or liming purposes. During this PhD work, 16 wood ash samples generated at ten different Danish combustion plants were collected and characterised...... for their composition and leaching properties. Despite the relatively large variations in the contents of nutrients and trace metals, the overall levels were comparable to typical ranges reported in the literature for other wood combustion ashes, as well as with regards to leaching. In general, the composition...

  2. P.E.I. wood fuel survey, 1990-91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    In 1991 a wood fuel survey of 450 randomly selected households, representing 1% of the total number of households in Prince Edward Island, was conducted. The survey indicated that 49.8% of the households burned wood, up from 42.1% of households in the 1988-1989 survey. The wood burning households consumed an average of 4.92 cords of wood, consistent with the 4.90 cords in the 1989 survey. The total residential wood consumption was estimated at ca 100,377 cords, an increase from the 89,000 cords used in 1988-89. Wood cutters represented 23.4% of respondents, with buyers representing 25.4% of respondents. The wood burning appliances used by the respondents were: airtight wood stove 39.9%, wood furnace 22.5%, kitchen wood stove 15.7%, combined wood/oil furnace 8.9%, Franklin/non-airtight 4.4%, Kemac unit 4.4%, fireplace insert 3.1%, and open fireplace 1%. The most frequent response among rural wood users cited price as an advantage of wood fuel, while the most frequent response of urban users cited the quality of the heat. 9 figs., 47 tabs

  3. Drying wood waste with a pulse combustion dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchkowski, A.G. [Spectrum Engineering Corp., Ltd., Peterborough, Ontario (Canada); Kitchen, J.A. [John A. Kitchen, Ltd., Hastings, Ontario (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    There is a vast amount of wood waste available to be used as an alternate fuel if its moisture could be reduced efficiently. Tests have been conducted to assess an industrial dryer using pulse combustion as a heating source for drying wood waste; specifically sawdust and pulverized wet hog fuel. Pulse combustion offers the advantage of high heat transfer, efficient combustion, and low NO{sub x} emissions. The material is injected into the exhaust gases in the tailpipe of the combustor which uses natural gas or propane as a fuel. The turbulence created by the pulsations enhance the drying process by reducing the boundary layer thicknesses. The materials is further dried in a rotary drum. The material has been dried without scorching or burning in tests where the inlet moisture content has been as high as 60% on a wet basis. The outlet moisture contents achieved have typically been 10%. Analysis of the test data and cost estimates of the equipment indicate that the pulse combustion drying system is at least comparable to existing systems in terms of operating costs, and offers very significant savings in capital costs. Testing with various other materials such as wood pulp, sludges and peat is continuing to further assess the equipment`s performance.

  4. Wood for the trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Garbutt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Our paper focuses on the materiality, cultural history and cultural relations of selected artworks in the exhibition Wood for the trees (Lismore Regional Gallery, New South Wales, Australia, 10 June – 17 July 2011. The title of the exhibition, intentionally misreading the aphorism “Can’t see the wood for the trees”, by reading the wood for the resource rather than the collective wood[s], implies conservation, preservation, and the need for sustaining the originating resource. These ideas have particular resonance on the NSW far north coast, a region once rich in rainforest. While the Indigenous population had sustainable practices of forest and land management, the colonists deployed felling and harvesting in order to convert the value of the local, abundant rainforest trees into high-value timber. By the late twentieth century, however, a new wave of settlers launched a protest movements against the proposed logging of remnant rainforest at Terania Creek and elsewhere in the region. Wood for the trees, curated by Gallery Director Brett Adlington, plays on this dynamic relationship between wood, trees and people. We discuss the way selected artworks give expression to the themes or concepts of productive labour, nature and culture, conservation and sustainability, and memory. The artworks include Watjinbuy Marrawilil’s (1980 Carved ancestral figure ceremonial pole, Elizabeth Stops’ (2009/10 Explorations into colonisation, Hossein Valamanesh’s (2008 Memory stick, and AñA Wojak’s (2008 Unread book (in a forgotten language. Our art writing on the works, a practice informed by Bal (2002, Muecke (2008 and Papastergiadis (2004, becomes a conversation between the works and the themes or concepts. As a form of material excess of the most productive kind (Grosz, 2008, p. 7, art seeds a response to that which is in the air waiting to be said of the past, present and future.

  5. EFFECTS OF BURN RATE, WOOD SPECIES, MOISTURE CONTENT AND WEIGHT OF WOOD LOADED ON WOODSTOVE EMISSIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of tests of four woodstove operating parameters (burn rate, wood moisture, wood load, and wood species) at two levels each using a half factorial experimental test design to determine statistically significant effects on the emission components CO, CO2, p...

  6. Detection of wood failure by image processing method: influence of algorithm, adhesive and wood species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanying Lin; Sheng He; Feng Fu; Xiping Wang

    2015-01-01

    Wood failure percentage (WFP) is an important index for evaluating the bond strength of plywood. Currently, the method used for detecting WFP is visual inspection, which lacks efficiency. In order to improve it, image processing methods are applied to wood failure detection. The present study used thresholding and K-means clustering algorithms in wood failure detection...

  7. Improvement of wood quality used in Syria by irradiation polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakarji, E. H.

    2002-06-01

    Wood plastic composites (WPC) have been prepared with five low-grade woods, native to Syria, and with Okoume (aucoumea klaineana pierre) imported to Syria in large quantities. Three monomer systems; acrylamide, butylmethacrylate, and styrene were used. polymerization was induced at various radiation doses (10, 20, and 30 kGy) to study the role of radiation doses using a 60 Co gamma radiation source. Some physical properties of WPC, namely polymer loading and compression strength or tensile strength of the obtained wood polymer composites (WPC) were studied. The effect of the additives, sulfuric acid (H + ), N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP), trimethyolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA), urea (U), lithium nitrate (LiNo 3 ), copper sulfate (CuSO 4 ) and co-additives on monomer system polymerization were also investigated. Methanol, water and water/methanol mixtures were used as the swelling agents. In general, the use of additives and co-additives brought about an enhancement of tensile strength or compression strength and polymer loading of the composites. In some cases, additives also lowered the monomer concentration and the gamma radiation dose required for polymerization (author)

  8. Wood products used in constructing conservation and development projects by the Corps of Engineers in the United States, 1962 and 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. H. Reid; D. B. McKeever

    Estimates of the amounts of wood products used in constructing civil conservation and development projects by the Corps of Engineers in the United States are presented for the years 1962 and 1978. Amounts of lumber, laminated lumber, poles and piling, and plywood used in construction are stratified by five construction categories, and three types of uses. Estimates of...

  9. Energy wood procurement in connection with conventional wood procurement; Energiapuun hankinnan organisointi muun puunhankinnan yhteydessae - PUUT02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekinen, P. [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa (Finland)

    2001-07-01

    The research consisted of two sub-projects. The present role of forestry associations in procurement of energy wood was investigated in the first sub- project. The possibilities and willingness of them to increase the energy wood procurement were also studied. The role of forest machine and forestry service entrepreneurs in procurement of energy wood was investigated in the second sub-project. The effects of energy wood procurement on the operation of the forest machine companies in general were also studied in this sub-project. The sub-project three studied the requirements of the customer companies for the energy wood suppliers. All the material of the sub-projects was collected by personal inquiries. According to the executive directors of the forestry associations the role of the forestry associations in energy wood procurement varied between a by-stander and active participant. Active forestry associations announced the companies for stands available for cutting. They told also that they directed the harvesting to correct sites and deliver stems at the roadside. The role of the forestry association was emphasised especially when the associations on the basis of a letter of attorney carried out the timber trade. It was estimated that in the near future the operation of forest machine entrepreneurs in harvesting of energy wood would increase significantly. From the employment and turnover point of view the role of harvesting of energy wood was not seen as a significant matter. On the other hand, that harvesting of energy wood impede the harvesting of commercial timber was seen as a more significant matter. In the future the end-users of energy wood would like to have more competition in the energy wood markets. However, the energy wood suppliers were desired to be relative large so that the reliability of deliveries could be ensured. Simultaneously as the end-users wanted to decrease the price of forest chips, the machine entrepreneurs estimated the price to

  10. Strength loss in decayed wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Patricia K. Lebow

    2014-01-01

    Wood is a durable engineering material when used in an appropriate manner, but it is susceptible to biological decay when a log, sawn product, or final product is not stored, handled, or designed properly. Even before the biological decay of wood becomes visually apparent, the decay can cause the wood to become structurally unsound. The progression of decay to that...

  11. Application of fire-retardant treatment to the wood in Type A unirradiated nuclear fuel outer containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitlow, J.D.; Luna, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    Packagings for transporting unirradiated nuclear fuel assemblies in the United States are commonly constructed as rectangular boxes consisting of a metal inner container, a wooden outer container, and cushioning material separating the two. The wood in the outer container is a potential source of fuel for fire. Use of a fire-retardant treatment on the wood may reduce or eliminate the damage to nuclear fuel assemblies in some types of accidents involving fire. The applicability of using fire-retardant treatments on the wood of outer containers is addressed. An approximate cost-benefit analysis to determine if fire-retardant treatments are economically justified is presented. (Author)

  12. Wood thermoplastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel F. Caulfield; Craig Clemons; Rodney E. Jacobson; Roger M. Rowell

    2005-01-01

    The term “wood-plastic composites” refers to any number of composites that contain wood (of any form) and either thermoset or thermoplastic polymers. Thermosets or thermoset polymers are plastics that, once cured, cannot be remelted by heating. These include cured resins, such as epoxies and phenolics, plastics with which the forest products industry is most familiar (...

  13. Variation of Ring Width and Wood Density in Two Unmanaged Stands of the Mediterranean Oak Quercus faginea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicelina B. Sousa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ring width and wood density variation were studied from pith-to-bark and along the stem in two naturally regenerated stands of Quercus faginea Lam. in Portugal. Ring width was significantly different between sites, in both heartwood and sapwood rings, ranging from 1.83 mm to 2.52 mm and from 0.77 mm to 2.11 mm, respectively. Wood density was significantly different between sites only in the heartwood, i.e., 914 kg m−3 and 1037 kg m−3. Site effects were the main source of variation for ring width and wood density within the heartwood as well as for sapwood ring width, while the between-tree effects explained more the density variation within the sapwood. Wood density showed within-tree uniformity that was not affected by site. The stand characteristics such as basal area and tree age may override the environmental growth conditions. There was also a weak correlation between wood density and ring width components therefore suggesting the possibility of forestry management for both fast tree growth and high wood density.

  14. Cellulolytic activities of wild type fungi isolated from decayed wood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mycological profile of decayed wood cuttings sourced from a saw mill located at Uwasota Road, Benin City was investigated using serial dilution and pour plate techniques. The mean fungal counts ranged from 0.9 ×106 cfu/g to 2.7 ×106 cfu/g respectively. Four fungal species were identified; Aspergillus niger, ...

  15. Effect of Alternative Wood Species and First Thinning Wood on Oriented Strand Board Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Salles Ferro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using and influence of alternative wood species such as Cambará, Paricá, Pinus, and wood from first thinning operations on oriented strand board (OSB physical and mechanical properties. Besides that, an alternative resin, castor oil-based polyurethane, was used to bond the particles, due to the better environmental performance when compared to other resins commonly used worldwide in OSB production. Physical properties such as the moisture content, thickness swelling, and water absorption, both after 2 and 24 hours of water immersion, and mechanical properties such as the modulus of elasticity and resistance in static bending, in major and minor axes, and internal bonding were investigated. All tests were performed according to European code EN 300:2006. Results showed the influence of wood species on physical and mechanical properties. Panels made with higher density woods such as Cambará presented better physical performance, while those made with lower density woods such as Pinus presented better mechanical properties. Besides that, strand particle geometry was also influenced on all physical and mechanical properties investigated. Therefore, the feasibility of using alternative species and wood from first thinning and with castor oil-based polyurethane resin in OSB production was verified.

  16. The environmental assessment of the wood combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinca, Cristian; Badea, Adrian; Apostol, Tiberiu

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the authors analysed the emissions from residential boilers burning wood logs, bark pellets, wood briquettes and wood pellets. Three boilers, selected with respect to age, design, connection to heat storage tank, and type of biofuel, were included in the study. The emissions captured comprised carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), oxygen (O 2 ), total organic carbons (TOC), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAC) and 33 volatile organic compounds (VOC). We have used the Life Cycle Inventory method in order to identify the main stressors generated by the wood combustion stage. In this purpose, we have analysed one type of old boiler, one type of modern boiler and a multi-fuel boiler, which can burn wood logs, bark pellets, wood briquettes and wood pellets. In this article, we selected only the wood combustion stage because it is the most important according to the emissions produced. (authors)

  17. Wood-energy - The sector get worried

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mary, Olivier; Signoret, Stephane; Bohlinger, Philippe; Guilhem, Jean; De Santis, Audrey; Sredojevic, Alexandre; Defaye, Serge; Maindrault, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Wood energy is, today and certainly also tomorrow, one of the most important renewable energies in France. However, the wood-energy sector seems to slow down as hydrocarbon prices stay extremely low. This document presents 8 articles, describing the context and the characteristics of this evolution, plus some examples of developments in France. The themes of the articles are: the activity of the wood-energy sector should be reinforced to meet the objectives of the French energy multi-year plan; The 2035 prospective of the wood yield in the French forest will meet the future demand, however this evaluation does not take into consideration the effects of the climatic change; the conversion to biomass of the 'Fort de l'Est' (near Paris) heating system (equipped with a boiling fluidized bed boiler) has enabled the heat network to beat the 50 pc share of renewable energy; wood-energy professionals use the 'quality' lever to challenge their fossil fuel competitors; the city of Orleans is now equipped with an innovative biomass cogeneration plant; the example of wood waste valorization in a French sawmill; the French ONF (Forest Administration) Wood-Energy actor has just inaugurated its largest biomass dryer, in order to develop the domestic market for wood as a fuel; analysis of the technical and economical feasibility of using wood to generate electric power or replacing electric space heating by heat network

  18. Finishes checklist : a guide to achieving optimum coating performance on exterior wood surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony Bonura; Steve Bussjeager; Lynne Christensen; George Daisey; Tom Daniels; Mark Hirsch; Charles J. Jourdain; D. Douglas Mall; Bob Springate; Louis E. Wagner; Warren Harry; R. Sam Williams

    2004-01-01

    When the time comes for a consumer to select the wood and finish types for a given outdoor project, there is a wide variety of sources of information, articles, and opinions available. Occasionally, these sources will conflict, mostly due to the data available at the time of publication, or practical experience based on a snapshot of conditions at a given time period....

  19. Mineralogy of Non-Silicified Fossil Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E. Mustoe

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The best-known and most-studied petrified wood specimens are those that are mineralized with polymorphs of silica: opal-A, opal-C, chalcedony, and quartz. Less familiar are fossil woods preserved with non-silica minerals. This report reviews discoveries of woods mineralized with calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate, various iron and copper minerals, manganese oxide, fluorite, barite, natrolite, and smectite clay. Regardless of composition, the processes of mineralization involve the same factors: availability of dissolved elements, pH, Eh, and burial temperature. Permeability of the wood and anatomical features also plays important roles in determining mineralization. When precipitation occurs in several episodes, fossil wood may have complex mineralogy.

  20. Plasticity of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) wood-forming tissues during a growing season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, J A P; Garnier-Géré, P H; Rodrigues, J C; Alves, A; Santos, S; Graça, J; Le Provost, G; Chaumeil, G; Da Silva-Perez, D; Bosc, A; Fevereiro, P; Plomion, C

    2008-01-01

    The seasonal effect is the most significant external source of variation affecting vascular cambial activity and the development of newly divided cells, and hence wood properties. Here, the effect of edapho-climatic conditions on the phenotypic and molecular plasticity of differentiating secondary xylem during a growing season was investigated. Wood-forming tissues of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) were collected from the beginning to the end of the growing season in 2003. Data from examination of fibre morphology, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), analytical pyrolysis, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were combined to characterize the samples. Strong variation was observed in response to changes in edapho-climatic conditions. A genomic approach was used to identify genes differentially expressed during this growing season. Out of 3512 studied genes, 19% showed a significant seasonal effect. These genes were clustered into five distinct groups, the largest two representing genes over-expressed in the early- or late-wood-forming tissues, respectively. The other three clusters were characterized by responses to specific edapho-climatic conditions. This work provides new insights into the plasticity of the molecular machinery involved in wood formation, and reveals candidate genes potentially responsible for the phenotypic differences found between early- and late-wood.

  1. Recycling of wood products. Final report of the preliminary study project partly financed by the Finnish Wood Research Oy; Puutuotteiden kierraetys. Finnish Wood Research Oy:n osarahoittaman esiselvityshankkeen loppuraportti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirhonen, I.; Heraejaervi, H.; Saukkola, P.; Raety, T.; Verkasalo, E., Email: henrik.herajarvi@metla.fi

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this preliminary study was to clarify the present state of recycling of wood in Finland and Europe. In the work the control measures of recycling were examined. In Finland there will be a total amount of 850 000 tons of waste wood per year. Of this amount 670 000 tons is from construction and demolishing of buildings. Burning the wood to energy is technically and economically the most reasonable use of waste wood in Finland and in several other European countries where there is a long heating season. A lot of work has been done to find new ways of utilization. The objective of the European Union to increase the use of renewable natural resources in the energy production creates an additional demand to all kinds of wood, including waste wood. The waste legislation of Finland and EU is directing to recycling, not restricting it. Furthermore, the systems to try to create markets for products containing recycled materials are under development. In the future it is expected that the legislation is tightening and the burning of waste wood is no longer calculated as acceptable recycling. Other ways to utilize wood waste should then already be developed. Furthermore, the development and introduction of new recycling methods are of important significance also when marketing wood and wood products. The recycling should be taken into consideration already at the planning stage of the building

  2. Surface characterization of weathered wood-plastic composites produced from modified wood flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Fabiyi; Armando G. McDonald; Nicole M. Stark

    2007-01-01

    The effects of weathering on the surface properties of wood-plastic composites (WPC) were examined. High-density polyethylene (HDPE) based WPCs made from modified wood flour (untreated, extractives free, and holocellulose (delignified) fibers) were subjected to accelerated (xenon-arc) weathering. Colorimetry and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy were employed to...

  3. Quantifying arthropod contributions to wood decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Ulyshen; Terry Wagner

    2013-01-01

    Termites carry large amounts of soil into dead wood, and this behaviour complicates efforts to measure their contributions to wood decay. A novel method for isolating termite soil by burning the wood is described, and some preliminary results are presented.

  4. Chapter 6: Above Ground Deterioration of Wood and Wood-Based Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant Kirker; Jerrold Winandy

    2014-01-01

    Wood as a material has unique properties that make it ideal for above ground exposure in a wide range of structural and non-strucutral applications. However, no material is without limitations. Wood is a bio-polymer which is subject to degradative processes, both abiotic and biotic. This chapter is a general summary of the abiotic and biotic factors that impact service...

  5. Categories for Observing Language Arts Instruction (COLAI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benterud, Julianna G.

    Designed to study individual use of time spent in reading during regularly scheduled language arts instruction in a natural classroom setting, this coding sheet consists of nine categories: (1) engagement, (2) area of language arts, (3) instructional setting, (4) partner (teacher or pupil(s)), (5) source of content, (6) type of unit, (7) assigned…

  6. X-ray initiated polymerization of wood impregnants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, Marshall R.; Galloway, Richard A. [IBA Industrial, Inc., Edgewood, NY (United States); Berejka, Anthony J. [Ionicorp, Huntington, NY 11743 (United States)], E-mail: berejka@msn.com; Montoney, Daniel [Strathmore Products, Syracuse, NY (United States); Driscoll, Mark; Smith, Leonard; Scott Larsen, L. [State University of New York, SUNY-ESF, Syracuse, NY (United States)

    2009-07-15

    X-rays, derived from a high energy, high-current electron beam (EB), initiated in-situ polymerization of a unique class of monomers that were found to penetrate the cell walls of wood. X-rays initiated an auto-catalytic acrylic polymerization and penetrated through thick pieces of wood. The final cured product having the polymerizate, a polymer, both in the wood cell lumens and in the cell walls is called wood impregnated with a wood-polymer penetrant (WPP). The controlled lower dose rate of X-rays overcame disproportionation encountered when using higher dose-rate electron beam initiation. With X-rays, the in-situ polymerization took place in one exposure of modest dose. With EB, multiple passes were needed to avoid excessive heat build-up and monomer volatilization. Having entered the cell walls of the wood and then being polymerized within the cell walls, these radiation-cured unique monomers imparted outstanding dimensional stability upon exposure of the impregnated wood to humidity cycling. The preferred monomer system was also chemically modified prior to impregnation with agents that would remain in the wood and prevent the growth of fungi and other microbials. This technique differs from historic uses of monomers that merely filled the lumens of the wood (historic wood-polymer composites), which are only suitable for indoor use. The WPP impregnated wood that was either X-ray cured or EB cured demonstrated enhanced structural properties, dimensional stability, and decay resistance.

  7. X-ray initiated polymerization of wood impregnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, Marshall R.; Galloway, Richard A.; Berejka, Anthony J.; Montoney, Daniel; Driscoll, Mark; Smith, Leonard; Scott Larsen, L.

    2009-01-01

    X-rays, derived from a high energy, high-current electron beam (EB), initiated in-situ polymerization of a unique class of monomers that were found to penetrate the cell walls of wood. X-rays initiated an auto-catalytic acrylic polymerization and penetrated through thick pieces of wood. The final cured product having the polymerizate, a polymer, both in the wood cell lumens and in the cell walls is called wood impregnated with a wood-polymer penetrant (WPP). The controlled lower dose rate of X-rays overcame disproportionation encountered when using higher dose-rate electron beam initiation. With X-rays, the in-situ polymerization took place in one exposure of modest dose. With EB, multiple passes were needed to avoid excessive heat build-up and monomer volatilization. Having entered the cell walls of the wood and then being polymerized within the cell walls, these radiation-cured unique monomers imparted outstanding dimensional stability upon exposure of the impregnated wood to humidity cycling. The preferred monomer system was also chemically modified prior to impregnation with agents that would remain in the wood and prevent the growth of fungi and other microbials. This technique differs from historic uses of monomers that merely filled the lumens of the wood (historic wood-polymer composites), which are only suitable for indoor use. The WPP impregnated wood that was either X-ray cured or EB cured demonstrated enhanced structural properties, dimensional stability, and decay resistance.

  8. On Erdos–Wood's conjecture

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this article, we prove that infinite number of integers satsify Erdős–Woods conjecture. Moreover, it follows that the number of natural numbers ≤ satisfies Erdős–Woods conjecture with = 2 is at least /(log ) for some positive constant > 2.

  9. Displacement based seismic design of symmetric single-storey wood-frame buildings with the aid of N2 method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis eMergos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new methodology for the displacement-based seismic design of symmetric single-storey wood-frame buildings. Previous displacement-based design efforts were based on the direct displacement-based design (DDBD approach, which uses a substitute linear system with an appropriate stiffness and viscous damping combination. Despite the fact that this method has shown to produce promising results for wood structures, it does not fit into the framework of the Eurocode 8 (EC8 provisions. The methodology presented herein is based on the N2 method, which is incorporated in EC8 and combines the non-linear pushover analysis with the response spectrum method. The N2 method has been mostly applied to reinforced concrete and steel structures. In order to properly implement the N2 method for the case of wood-frame buildings new behavior factor – displacement ductility relationships are proposed. These relationships were derived from inelastic time history analyses of 35 SDOF systems subjected to 80 different ground motion records. Furthermore, the validity of the N2 method is examined for the case of a timber shear wall tested on a shake table and satisfactory predictions are obtained. Last, the proposed design methodology is applied to the displacement-based seismic design of a realistic symmetric single-storey wood-frame building in order to meet the performance objectives of EC8. It is concluded that the simplicity and computational efficiency of the adopted methodology make it a valuable tool for the seismic design of this category of wood-frame buildings, while the need for extending the method to more complex wood-frame buildings is also highlighted.

  10. Users guide for WoodCite, a product cost quotation tool for wood component manufacturers [computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeff Palmer; Adrienn Andersch; Jan Wiedenbeck; Urs. Buehlmann

    2014-01-01

    WoodCite is a Microsoft® Access-based application that allows wood component manufacturers to develop product price quotations for their current and potential customers. The application was developed by the U.S. Forest Service and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, in cooperation with the Wood Components Manufacturers Association.

  11. Wood energy x 2 - Scenario for the development of wood energy use in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This study for the Swiss Agency for the Environment, Forests and Landscapes (SAEFL) and the Swiss wood-energy association (Holzenergie Schweiz) presents the results of a scenario-study that examined if, and under what conditions, doubling the use of wood energy in Switzerland could help reach carbon dioxide reduction targets. Two scenarios are presented that are based on high and low rates of growth for the number of automatic wood-chipping or pellets-fired installations. For both scenarios, figures are presented on the amount of wood used and the heating energy generated. The political and financial prerequisites for the scenarios are discussed and other boundary conditions are defined. The report draws conclusions from the study of the two scenarios and summarises the political action deemed necessary

  12. Domestic Wood Burning in a Residential Area: PM2.5 Trace Elements and Black Smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnar, P.; Gustafson, P.; Johannesson, S.; Barregaard, L.; Saellsten, G.; Boman, J.

    2005-01-01

    Indoor and outdoor levels of PM2.5 have been studied in a residential area in Hagfors, a small town in Sweden. The sampling took place during typical Swedish winter conditions with sub-zero temperatures and full snow cover between February 10th and Mars 6th, 2003. The area consists of single houses having different heating systems. Some of the houses are heated by burning wood; some use heat pumps while others use direct electrical heating. 13 houses burning wood in boilers or similar for heating and 10 houses heated by other means but situated in the same area were selected for this study. Only houses without tobacco smoke were selected since this is one of the major sources of indoor particles. The objectives of the study were to identify levels and differences in composition of aerosol particles outdoors and inside houses with boilers using wood as fuel and houses heated in other ways. For K, Ca, Mn, Zn and Rb significantly higher (p < 0.05) indoor concentration for wood burners were found. The elements most often referred to as markers for wood burning are K and Zn. In addition, Si, S, Cl, Br and Rb are also mentioned as markers (Hedberg et al., 2002, Moloi et al., 2003). Black smoke was linked to wood burning, although not fully significant (p-value 0.07), as seen in figure 1a. Within the wood-burning group, some houses have concentrations comparable to the concentrations in the houses where no wood is used, while the others have much higher concentrations. These houses also have higher concentrations of K compared to the other wood burners. The possible reasons are different types of wood burning appliances and their placement in the houses as well as possible leakage. Sulphur, although sometimes linked to wood burning, shows no relationship to wood burning in this study. In figure 1b it can be seen that the indoor concentrations of sulphur is clearly lower compared to outdoor concentrations and that the levels indoors do not differ between wood and non-wood

  13. Implementation of new technologies in wood industry and their effect in wood products quality

    OpenAIRE

    ELVA ÇAUSHI; PANDELI MARKU

    2014-01-01

    There are about 300 companies producing furniture and about 250 small and medium enterprises (SME) producing sawn timber, which operate in the field of wood industry in Albania. This wood industry production is being challenged by the increasing demand in the domestic market, ranging from kitchen furniture to office and schools furniture, bedroom furniture, doors, windows, and saw timber in different dimensions. The production from the wood industry can fulfill about 80% of the domestic mark...

  14. Refraction and absorption of microwaves in wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziherl, Saša; Bajc, Jurij; Čepič, Mojca

    2013-01-01

    A demonstration experiment for physics students showing the dependence of the refractive index and absorption coefficient of wood on the direction of microwaves is presented. Wood and microwaves enable study of anisotropic properties, which are typically found in crystals. Wood is used as the persuasive representative of uniaxial anisotropic materials due to its visible structure and its consequent anisotropic properties. Wood can be cut in a general direction and wooden plates a few centimetres thick with well-defined fibre orientation are easily prepared. Microwaves are used because wood is transparent for microwaves and their centimetre-scale wavelength is comparable to the wood structure. (paper)

  15. Wood for fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaton, D

    1986-01-01

    Growing wood for energy could contribute three million tonnes of coal equivalent per year by the end of the century. Research programmes in the UK involved with energy forestry are reported. Three systems of wood energy, modified conventional forestry, single stem timber cropping and short rotation coppicing are being investigated. The short rotation coppicing requires inputs similar to those of agricultural crops and the machinery geared towards agricultural operations is compatible with it. Single stem forestry has a medium rotation period of 20 years. The production of coppice wood fuels is discussed in further detail for different parts of the UK with recommendations for species selection and adaption of existing farming practices. A coppice willow harvester has been developed for harvesting during November - February. Weed control and fertilizer application are also briefly mentioned.

  16. [Wood manufacture and dioxins: a case prospective study on maintenance of boilers powered by wood chips and shavings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitelli, Marco; Paciaccioni, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    to verify if a carpenter using wood scraps, treated or not, to operate the heating system may involve an exposure to dioxins in a given target of workers. the research was structured on literature sources analysis, study on field of the most relevant exposure, occurs through sampling. The results were recorded and plotted, and compared with the data available in literature. the study has involved maintenance workers of the heating system by means of wood refuse incineration. These workers were informed of the methods and aims of the sample. the results confirm a potential exposure to ash containing dioxins, presumably also in other similar situations, in this case not even evaluated by the employer. the average exposure to the light ash during the maintenance operations of the plant dust abatement in emissive phase is about 5 mg/m(3), with a consequent exposure to dioxins inferred, at about 20 pg. operators are exposed to dioxins: this implies that in some operations it is crucial to review the risk assessment and consequently the measures on prevention and health protection to activate.

  17. Fatigue Damage in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Fatigue failure is found to depend both on the total time under load and on the number of cycles.Recent accelerated fatigue research on wood is reviewed, and a discrepancy between...... to 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation between stiffness reduction...

  18. Wood and Sediment Dynamics in River Corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, E.; Scott, D.

    2015-12-01

    Large wood along rivers influences entrainment, transport, and storage of mineral sediment and particulate organic matter. We review how wood alters sediment dynamics and explore patterns among volumes of instream wood, sediment storage, and residual pools for dispersed pieces of wood, logjams, and beaver dams. We hypothesized that: volume of sediment per unit area of channel stored in association with wood is inversely proportional to drainage area; the form of sediment storage changes downstream; sediment storage correlates most strongly with wood load; and volume of sediment stored behind beaver dams correlates with pond area. Lack of data from larger drainage areas limits tests of these hypotheses, but analyses suggest a negative correlation between sediment volume and drainage area and a positive correlation between wood and sediment volume. The form of sediment storage in relation to wood changes downstream, with wedges of sediment upstream from jammed steps most prevalent in small, steep channels and more dispersed sediment storage in lower gradient channels. Use of a published relation between sediment volume, channel width, and gradient predicted about half of the variation in sediment stored upstream from jammed steps. Sediment volume correlates well with beaver pond area. Historically more abundant instream wood and beaver populations likely equated to greater sediment storage within river corridors. This review of the existing literature on wood and sediment dynamics highlights the lack of studies on larger rivers.

  19. Management alternatives of energy wood thinning stands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkilae, Jani; Siren, Matti; Aeijaelae, Olli

    2007-01-01

    Energy wood thinning has become a feasible treatment alternative of young stands in Finland. Energy wood thinnings have been carried out mainly in stands where precommercial thinning has been neglected and the harvesting conditions for industrial wood thinning are difficult. Despite of its positive effects on harvesting costs and on renewable energy potential, whole-tree harvesting has been constantly criticized for causing growth loss. In this paper, the profitability of energy wood thinning was studied in 20 Scots pine-dominated stands where energy wood thinning was carried out. The growth of the stands after thinning was predicted with the help of Motti-stand simulator. Entire rotation time of the stands was simulated with different management alternatives. The intensity of first thinning and recovery level of logging residues varied between alternatives. In order to attain acceptable harvesting conditions, industrial wood thinning had to be delayed. The effect of energy wood thinning on subsequent stem wood growth was almost the same as in conventional thinning. Whole-tree harvesting for energy proved to be profitable alternative if the stumpage price is around 3EUR m -3 , the interest rate is 3% or 5% and the removal of pulpwood is less than 20 m 3 ha -1 . If the harvestable pulpwood yield is over 20 m 3 ha -1 , integrated harvesting of industrial and energy wood or delayed industrial wood harvesting becomes more profitable. (author)

  20. Impregnating Systems for Producing Wood-Plastic Composite Materials and Resinified Woods by Radiochemical Means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laizier, J.; Laroche, R.; Marchand, J.

    1969-01-01

    The effect of the nature of the components in the impregnation mixture on the characteristics of wood-plastic combinations has been studied in the case of beech by applying a wide variety of compositions. In particular, the effect of water (in the impregnator, and in the form of moisture in the wood) on the characteristics of the products obtained has been determined. It has been shown that, in place of the conventional method for preparing resinified woods (using a ternary monomer-solvent-water mixture), it is possible to use a method involving comonomers, which obviate the need to dry the wood after treatment. The evaluation of the results obtained is based on the value of the impregnation rate and on the modifications in microscopic structure; these emphasize the differences between the types of filler and enable comparisons to be drawn with the dimensional stabilities observed. Measurements of variations in dimensions and the recurrence of moisture have made it possible to establish a classification based on the types of monomer used and the operating conditions. It is shown that a whole range of products is obtained, the properties of which differ widely and are comparatively easily adaptable to the purpose specified. These properties illustrate clearly the differences and characteristics of resinified woods as opposed to conventional wood-plastic materials. (author) [fr

  1. NorWood: a gene expression resource for evo-devo studies of conifer wood development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokipii-Lukkari, Soile; Sundell, David; Nilsson, Ove; Hvidsten, Torgeir R; Street, Nathaniel R; Tuominen, Hannele

    2017-10-01

    The secondary xylem of conifers is composed mainly of tracheids that differ anatomically and chemically from angiosperm xylem cells. There is currently no high-spatial-resolution data available profiling gene expression during wood formation for any coniferous species, which limits insight into tracheid development. RNA-sequencing data from replicated, high-spatial-resolution section series throughout the cambial and woody tissues of Picea abies were used to generate the NorWood.conGenIE.org web resource, which facilitates exploration of the associated gene expression profiles and co-expression networks. Integration within PlantGenIE.org enabled a comparative regulomics analysis, revealing divergent co-expression networks between P. abies and the two angiosperm species Arabidopsis thaliana and Populus tremula for the secondary cell wall (SCW) master regulator NAC Class IIB transcription factors. The SCW cellulose synthase genes (CesAs) were located in the neighbourhoods of the NAC factors in A. thaliana and P. tremula, but not in P. abies. The NorWood co-expression network enabled identification of potential SCW CesA regulators in P. abies. The NorWood web resource represents a powerful community tool for generating evo-devo insights into the divergence of wood formation between angiosperms and gymnosperms and for advancing understanding of the regulation of wood development in P. abies. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Assessing radiation doses to the public from radionuclides in timber and wood products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-10-01

    In the event of a nuclear accident involving the release of radionuclides to the biosphere the radioactive contamination of forests can become a significant potential source of public radiation exposure. Two of these accidents - the Kyshtim accident, Urals, USSR (now Russian Federation) in 1957 and the Chernobyl accident, USSR (now Ukraine), in 1986 - resulted in significant contamination of thousands of square kilometres of forested areas with mixtures of radionuclides including long lived fission products such as {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr. Measurements and modelling of forest ecosystems after both accidents have shown that, following initial contamination, the activity concentration of long lived radionuclides in wood gradually increases over one to two decades and then slowly decreases in the subsequent period. The longevity of the contamination is due to the slow migration and persistent bioavailability of radionuclides in the forest soil profile, which results in long term transfer into wood through the root system of the trees. Another source of contamination is from global radioactive fallout after nuclear weapons tests, but the level of contamination is much lower than that from, for example, the Chernobyl accident. For instance, the level of {sup 137}Cs in wood in Sweden is about 2-5 Bq kg{sup -1} from global fallout. Global values are very similar to the Swedish levels. In contrast, the level of {sup 137}Cs in Swedish wood due to Chernobyl is around 50 Bq kg{sup -1}. Levels in wood from some contaminated areas located in countries of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) are about one to two orders of magnitude higher than this. The data on {sup 137}Cs soil contamination within European territories, originating mainly from the Chernobyl accident, illustrate the scale of the problem. For comparison, residual {sup 137}Cs soil deposition in Europe from global radioactive fallout was in the range 1-4 kBq m{sup -2}. There is concern in several countries about the

  3. Heating with wood. A guide to clean and proper heating; Heizen mit Holz. Ein Ratgeber zum richtigen und sauberen Heizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnke, Anja [Umweltbundesamt, Dessau (Germany); Kemper, Bernd-Michael [Landesanstalt fuer Umwelt, Messungen und Naturschutz Baden-Wuerttemberg (LUBW), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    When correctly used, wood is an eco-friendly fuel. By using well-processed wood from local sources in a properly handled modern fireplace, you can enjoy the cosy warmth from your wood-burning stove or boiler without causing significant environmental damage. The environment and your neighbours will be grateful for this. This brochure is intended to give you tips on how to properly operate a wood-based heating system - in technical terms referred to as a small combustion installation. Especially the burning of poor quality wood in old and insufficiently maintained stoves and unfavourable combustion conditions will result in the emission of unnecessarily high levels of greenhouse gases having adverse effects on the climate, and pollutants detrimental to your health. Particularly in urban agglomerations and valleys, the air quality is affected by wood heating systems due to low chimneys. Often, neighbours will feel annoyed.

  4. Nutritional ecology of the Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae): growth and survival of incipient colonies feeding on preferred wood species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ramos, Juan A; Rojas, M Guadalupe

    2003-02-01

    The wood of 11 plant species was evaluated as a food source significantly impacting the growth and survival of incipient colonies of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Colonies of C. formosanus feeding on pecan, Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.), and red gum, Liquidambar styraciflua L., produced significantly more progeny than colonies feeding on other wood species tested. Progeny of colonies feeding on pecan and American ash, Fraxinus americana L., had significantly greater survival than progeny of colonies feeding on other wood species. Colonies feeding on a nutritionally supplemented cellulose based matrix showed similar fitness characteristics as colonies feeding on the best wood treatments. These results indicate that differences observed in colony fitness can be partially explained by nutritional value of the food treatment, raising the possibility that wood from different tree species have different nutritional values to the Formosan subterranean termites. Colonies feeding on loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., and ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Laws., had significantly lower survival and produced significantly fewer workers and soldiers than colonies feeding on other wood species. Colony survival from 90 to 180 d of age and from 90 to 360 d of age was significantly correlated with the number of workers present at 90 d of colony age, indicating that colony survival depends on the presence of workers. Wood consumption in a multiple-choice study was significantly correlated with colony fitness value. This suggests that feeding preference of C. formosanus is at least partially influenced by the nutritional value of the food source.

  5. Oxidative stress, inflammation, and DNA damage in rats after intratracheal instillation or oral exposure to ambient air and wood smoke particulate matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Pernille Høgh; Loft, Steffen; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun

    2010-01-01

    Wood combustion is a significant source of ambient particulate matter (PM) in many regions of the world. Exposure occurs through inhalation or ingestion after deposition of wood smoke particulate matter (WSPM) on crops and food. We investigated effects of ambient PM and WSPM by intragastric...

  6. Manufacturing methods and magnetic characteristics of magnetic wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, H.; Hojo, A.; Osada, H.; Namizaki, Y.; Taniuchi, H.

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between wood construction and DC magnetic characteristics for three types of magnetic wood was experimentally investigated. The results show that the magnetic characteristics of each type of magnetic wood are dependent on the magnetic materials, the density of the magnetic material and the construction of the wood. Furthermore, it was determined that the relationship between the fiber direction and the magnetic path direction of the magnetic wood influenced the wood's magnetic characteristics

  7. Assessment and management of dead-wood habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagar, Joan

    2007-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is in the process of revising its resource management plans for six districts in western and southern Oregon as the result of the settlement of a lawsuit brought by the American Forest Resource Council. A range of management alternatives is being considered and evaluated including at least one that will minimize reserves on O&C lands. In order to develop the bases for evaluating management alternatives, the agency needs to derive a reasonable range of objectives for key issues and resources. Dead-wood habitat for wildlife has been identified as a key resource for which decision-making tools and techniques need to be refined and clarified. Under the Northwest Forest Plan, reserves were to play an important role in providing habitat for species associated with dead wood (U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service and U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management, 1994). Thus, the BLM needs to: 1) address the question of how dead wood will be provided if reserves are not included as a management strategy in the revised Resource Management Plan, and 2) be able to evaluate the effects of alternative land management approaches. Dead wood has become an increasingly important conservation issue in managed forests, as awareness of its function in providing wildlife habitat and in basic ecological processes has dramatically increased over the last several decades (Laudenslayer et al., 2002). A major concern of forest managers is providing dead wood habitat for terrestrial wildlife. Wildlife in Pacific Northwest forests have evolved with disturbances that create large amounts of dead wood; so, it is not surprising that many species are closely associated with standing (snags) or down, dead wood. In general, the occurrence or abundance of one-quarter to one-third of forest-dwelling vertebrate wildlife species, is strongly associated with availability of suitable dead-wood habitat (Bunnell et al., 1999; Rose et al., 2001). In

  8. Radiation processing of wood-plastic composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czvikovszky, T.

    1992-01-01

    There are three main types of radiation-processed composite material derived from plastics and fibrous natural polymers. The first are the monomer-impregnated, radiation-treated wood-plastic composites (WPC). They became a commercial success in the early 1970s. More recently, work has focused on improving the WPCs by creating in them interpenetrating network (IPN) systems by the use of appropriate multifunctional oligomers and monomers. The main kinetic features of radiation-initiated chain polymerization remain applicable even in impregnated wood. The second type are the plastics filled or reinforced with dispersed wood fiber or other cellulosics (WFRP). In their case, radiation processing offers a new opportunity to apply radiation-reactive adhesion promoters between wood or cellulosic fibers and the thermoplastic matrices. The third type are the laminar composites made by electron beam coating of wood-based agglomerate sheets and boards. This chapter reviews the industrial applications and the radiation processing of the three types of the wood-plastic composites and indicates future trends. (orig.)

  9. Long term durability of wood-plastic composites made with chemically modified wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Craig M. Clemons

    2017-01-01

    Wood-plastic composites (WPCs) have slower moisture sorption than solid wood, but over time moisture can impact the strength, stiffness, and decay of the composite. These changes will become increasingly important if WPCs are used in more challenging environments such as in ground-contact applications. There are several options for mitigating the moisture sorption of...

  10. Catalysts for cleaner combustion of coal, wood and briquettes sulfur dioxide reduction options for low emission sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.V. [Global Environmental Solutions, Inc., Morton Grove, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Coal fired, low emission sources are a major factor in the air quality problems facing eastern European cities. These sources include: stoker-fired boilers which feed district heating systems and also meet local industrial steam demand, hand-fired boilers which provide heat for one building or a small group of buildings, and masonary tile stoves which heat individual rooms. Global Environmental Systems is marketing through Global Environmental Systems of Polane, Inc. catalysts to improve the combustion of coal, wood or fuel oils in these combustion systems. PCCL-II Combustion Catalysts promotes more complete combustion, reduces or eliminates slag formations, soot, corrosion and some air pollution emissions and is especially effective on high sulfur-high vanadium residual oils. Glo-Klen is a semi-dry powder continuous acting catalyst that is injected directly into the furnace of boilers by operating personnel. It is a multi-purpose catalyst that is a furnace combustion catalyst that saves fuel by increasing combustion efficiency, a cleaner of heat transfer surfaces that saves additional fuel by increasing the absorption of heat, a corrosion-inhibiting catalyst that reduces costly corrosion damage and an air pollution reducing catalyst that reduces air pollution type stack emissions. The reduction of sulfur dioxides from coal or oil-fired boilers of the hand fired stoker design and larger, can be controlled by the induction of the Glo-Klen combustion catalyst and either hydrated lime or pulverized limestone.

  11. Substitution potentials of recycled HDPE and wood particles from post-consumer packaging waste in Wood-Plastic Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerhuber, Philipp F; Welling, Johannes; Krause, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    The market share of Wood-Plastic Composites (WPC) is small but expected to grow sharply in Europe. This raises some concerns about suitable wood particles needed in the wood-based panels industry in Europe. Concerns are stimulated by the competition between the promotion of wooden products through the European Bioeconomy Strategy and wood as an energy carrier through the Renewable Energy Directive. Cascade use of resources and valorisation of waste are potential strategies to overcome resource scarcity. Under experimental design conditions, WPC made from post-consumer recycled wood and plastic (HDPE) were compared to WPC made from virgin resources. Wood content in the polymer matrix was raised in two steps from 0% to 30% and 60%. Mechanical and physical properties and colour differences were characterized. The feasibility of using cascaded resources for WPC is discussed. Results indicate the technical and economic feasibility of using recycled HDPE from packaging waste for WPC. Based on technical properties, 30% recycled wood content for WPC is feasible, but economic and political barriers of efficient cascading of biomass need to be overcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mechanical Behaviour of the Wood Masonry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazia FOUCHAL

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the walls wood masonry behaviour. First, we propose a regulatory validation of the walls wood masonry behaviour subjected to vertical and horizontal loads according to Eurocode 5. Then we present the numerical application on the wall wood supported two floors level.

  13. Use of nanofillers in wood coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolic, Miroslav; Lawther, John Mark; Sanadi, Anand Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Wood has been used for thousands of years and remains an important material in the construction industry, most often protected with coatings. Development of nanotechnology allows further improvements or new performance properties to be achieved in wood coatings. Increased UV protection...... with nanometal oxides that allow wood texture to remain seen and higher resilience to scratch and abrasion with use of different nanoparticle shapes are some of the applications that are reviewed here. A variety of possible applications together with a high level of improvements, alongside commercial factors...... like a low level of loading, have already established nanoparticles in some areas of wood coatings. This article is a comprehensive scientific review of the published work in the use of nanofillers in wood coatings....

  14. Moisture relations and physical properties of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel V. Glass; Samuel L. Zelinka

    2010-01-01

    Wood, like many natural materials, is hygroscopic; it takes on moisture from the surrounding environment. Moisture exchange between wood and air depends on the relative humidity and temperature of the air and the current amount of water in the wood. This moisture relationship has an important influence on wood properties and performance. Many of the challenges of using...

  15. Adhesives for Achieving Durable Bonds with Acetylated Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles Frihart; Rishawn Brandon; James Beecher; Rebecca Ibach

    2017-01-01

    Acetylation of wood imparts moisture durability, decay resistance, and dimensional stability to wood; however, making durable adhesive bonds with acetylated wood can be more difficult than with unmodified wood. The usual explanation is that the acetylated surface has fewer hydroxyl groups, resulting in a harder-to-wet surface and in fewer hydrogen bonds between wood...

  16. Comparative study on liquefaction of creosote and chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood and untreated southern pine wood: effects of acid catalyst content, liquefaction time, temperature, and phenol to wood ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui Pan; Chung-Yun Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2009-01-01

    Creosote- and chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood waste and untreated southern pine wood were liquefied with phenol and sulfuric acid. The effects of sulfuric acid content, liquefaction time, liquefaction temperature, and phenol to wood ratio on liquefaction rate (i.e., wood residue content) were investigated and analyzed by analysis of variance (...

  17. Method of stabilizing wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesek, M.; Jarkovsky, J.

    1973-01-01

    Wood is impregnated with a mixture of a vinyl or an allyl monomer (20 - 90 wt. %) and unsaturated polyester resins. The impregnated wood is then exposed to ionizing radiation at doses of 0.1 to 20 Mrad at a temperature of 60 to 180 degC. (B.S.)

  18. Switzerland's largest wood-pellet factory in Balsthal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stohler, F.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes how a small Swiss electricity utility has broken out of its traditional role in power generation and the distribution of electricity and gone into the production of wood pellets. The pellets, which are made from waste wood (sawdust) available from wood processing companies, are produced on a large scale in one of Europe's largest pellets production facilities. The boom in the use of wood pellets for heating purposes is discussed. The article discusses this unusual approach for a Swiss power utility, which also operates a wood-fired power station and is even involved in an incineration plant for household wastes. The markets being aimed for in Switzerland and in Europe are described, including modern low-energy-consumption housing projects. A further project is described that is to use waste wood available from a large wood processing facility planned in the utility's own region

  19. RESISTANCE TO THE ATTACK OF DRY-WOOD TERMITES (Cryptotermes brevis) OF SIX WOOD SPECIES

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrício Gomes Gonçalves; José Tarcísio da Silva Oliveira

    2006-01-01

    The dry wood termites are one of the largest causes of damages in wood used in Brazil. This work analyzed the attackof the Cryptotermes brevis in six commercials wood species in the north of the Rio de Janeiro and south of the Espírito Santo. The testobserved the number of holes, the percentage of died individuals and the damage of the pieces. When compared to the Pinus sp(reference), the species with less susceptibility to the attack were Cedrela fissilis, Cariocar brasiliense and Goupia gla...

  20. Chapter 02: Basic wood biology—Anatomy for identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex Wiedenhoeft

    2011-01-01

    Before the topics of using a hand lens, preparing wood for observation, and understanding the characters used in wood identification can be tackled, a general introduction to the biology of wood must be undertaken. The woods in commercial trade in Central America come almost exclusively from trees, so the discussion of wood biology is restricted to trees here, though...

  1. Wood for sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegst, Ulrike G K

    2006-10-01

    The unique mechanical and acoustical properties of wood and its aesthetic appeal still make it the material of choice for musical instruments and the interior of concert halls. Worldwide, several hundred wood species are available for making wind, string, or percussion instruments. Over generations, first by trial and error and more recently by scientific approach, the most appropriate species were found for each instrument and application. Using material property charts on which acoustic properties such as the speed of sound, the characteristic impedance, the sound radiation coefficient, and the loss coefficient are plotted against one another for woods. We analyze and explain why spruce is the preferred choice for soundboards, why tropical species are favored for xylophone bars and woodwind instruments, why violinists still prefer pernambuco over other species as a bow material, and why hornbeam and birch are used in piano actions.

  2. Comparing two K-category assignments by a K-category correlation coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorodkin, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Predicted assignments of biological sequences are often evaluated by Matthews correlation coefficient. However, Matthews correlation coefficient applies only to cases where the assignments belong to two categories, and cases with more than two categories are often artificially forced into two...... categories by considering what belongs and what does not belong to one of the categories, leading to the loss of information. Here, an extended correlation coefficient that applies to K-categories is proposed, and this measure is shown to be highly applicable for evaluating prediction of RNA secondary...

  3. Moisture measurement in wood, wood-based materials and building materials - a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kober, A.; Mehlhorn, L.; Plinke, B.

    1989-10-01

    Methods of moisture measurement in solid substances, especially on wood, wood-based materials and building materials were examined and evaluated according to the literature available. The question was which methods of examining the moisture distribution in building elements at climate loading offer the best accuracy and spatial resolution as well as which methods are the most appropriate at present and in future for the solution of measurement problems in the wood and wood-based industry. The most common methods are electric measurement methods which are utilizing either the moisture-depending conductivity or the dielectric constant or the reflectivity of the material for infrared radiation but they offer only a limited accuracy. The same is valid for the rarely used microwave methods or X-ray and NMR tomography. Simple electric methods will further on play an important role in the industrial process measuring technique. For the examination of building elements, methods using nuclear radiation still offer possibilities for a further development. (orig.) With 207 refs., 13 figs [de

  4. Regulatory Promotion of Waste Wood Reused as an Energy Source and the Environmental Concerns about Ash Residue in the Industrial Sector of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tien Tsai

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to provide a preliminary analysis of the utilization of energy derived from waste wood in Taiwan, a highly industrialized country with a high dependence (over 99% on imported energy. The discussion focuses on the status of waste wood generation and its management over the past decade. Findings show that the quantities of biomass waste collected for reuse purposes in the industrial sectors of Taiwan has exhibited an increasing trend, from about 4000 tons in 2001 to over 52,000 tons in 2010. Although waste wood can be reused as a fuel and raw material for a variety of applications based on regulatory promotion, the most commonly used end use is to directly utilize it as an auxiliary fuel in industrial utilities (e.g., boilers, heaters and furnaces for the purpose of co-firing with coal/fuel oil. The most progressive measure for promoting biomass-to-power is to introduce the feed-in tariff (FIT mechanism according to the Renewable Energy Development Act passed in June 2009. The financial support for biomass power generation has been increasing over the years from 0.070 US$/kWh in 2010 to 0.094 US$/kWh in 2012. On the other hand, the environmental regulations in Taiwan regarding the hazard identification of wood-combusted ash (especially in filter fly-ash and its options for disposal and utilization are further discussed in the paper, suggesting that waste wood impregnated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA and other copper-based preservatives should be excluded from the wood-to-energy system. Finally, some recommendations for promoting wood-to-energy in the near future of Taiwan are addressed.

  5. Estimated health impact of a shift from light fuel to residential wood-burning in Upper Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluza, Daniela; Kaiser, August; Moshammer, Hanns; Flandorfer, Claudia; Kundi, Michael; Neuberger, Manfred

    2012-07-01

    The dependency on carbon-based fossil energy and growing awareness of climate change issues has induced ambitious policy initiatives to promote renewable energy sources for indoor heating. Combustion of regionally available material such as wood is considered a carbon-neutral alternative for oil and gas, but unregulated revival of wood stoves may cause detrimental health effects. For the prognosis of the health impact of air pollution due to the use of wood stoves, Upper Austria served for a case study. On the basis of recent measurements of particulate matter fuel oil by either fossil gas or biomass, and for scenario 3, replacement of light fuel oil by biomass only. Compared with the current exposure from scenario 1, the increased annual mean PM10 levels are estimated to lead to 101 (95% CI 56;146) and 174 (95% CI 92;257) additional deaths among 1.4 million inhabitants per year for scenarios 2 and 3, respectively. Without adequate strategies for reducing the emissions of domestic heating facilities, replacement of fossil energy sources could lead to an increased health risk.

  6. Application of a CCA-treated wood waste decontamination process to other copper-based preservative-treated wood after disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janin, Amelie, E-mail: amelie.janin@ete.inrs.ca [University of Toronto, Faculty of Forestry, 33, Willcocks St., Toronto, ON, M5S 3B3 (Canada); Coudert, Lucie, E-mail: lucie.coudert@ete.inrs.ca [Institut national de la recherche scientifique (Centre Eau, Terre et Environnement), Universite du Quebec, 490 rue de la Couronne, Quebec, QC, G1K 9A9 (Canada); Riche, Pauline, E-mail: pauline.riche@ete.inrs.ca [Institut national de la recherche scientifique (Centre Eau, Terre et Environnement), Universite du Quebec, 490 rue de la Couronne, Quebec, QC, G1K 9A9 (Canada); Mercier, Guy, E-mail: guy_mercier@ete.inrs.ca [Institut national de la recherche scientifique (Centre Eau, Terre et Environnement), Universite du Quebec, 490 rue de la Couronne, Quebec, QC, G1K 9A9 (Canada); Cooper, Paul, E-mail: p.cooper@utoronto.ca [University of Toronto, Faculty of Forestry, 33, Willcocks St., Toronto, ON, M5S 3B3 (Canada); Blais, Jean-Francois, E-mail: blaisjf@ete.inrs.ca [Institut national de la recherche scientifique (Centre Eau, Terre et Environnement), Universite du Quebec, 490 rue de la Couronne, Quebec, QC, G1K 9A9 (Canada)

    2011-02-28

    Research highlights: {yields} This paper describes a process for the metal removal from treated (CA-, ACQ- or MCQ-) wood wastes. {yields} This sulfuric acid leaching process is simple and economic. {yields} The remediated wood could be recycled in the industry. - Abstract: Chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood was widely used until 2004 for residential and industrial applications. Since 2004, CCA was replaced by alternative copper preservatives such as alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ), copper azole (CA) and micronized copper quaternary (MCQ), for residential applications due to health concerns. Treated wood waste disposal is becoming an issue. Previous studies identified a chemical process for decontaminating CCA-treated wood waste based on sulfuric acid leaching. The potential application of this process to wood treated with the copper-based preservatives (alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ), copper azole (CA) and micronized copper quaternary (MCQ)) is investigated here. Three consecutive leaching steps with 0.1 M sulfuric acid at 75 deg, C for 2 h were successful for all the types of treated wood and achieved more than 98% copper solubilisation. The different acidic leachates produced were successively treated by coagulation using ferric chloride and precipitation (pH = 7) using sodium hydroxide. Between 94 and 99% of copper in leachates could be recovered by electrodeposition after 90 min using 2 A electrical current. Thus, the process previously developed for CCA-treated wood waste decontamination could be efficiently applied for CA-, ACQ- or MCQ-treated wood.

  7. The influence of technological parameters on the dynamic behavior of "liquid wood" samples obtained by injection molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavanescu Mazurchevici, Simona; Carausu, Constantin; Comaneci, Radu; Nedelcu, Dumitru

    2017-10-01

    The plastic products contribute to environmental pollution. Replacing the plastic materials with biodegradable materials with superior properties is an absolute necessity and important research direction for the near future. The first steps in this regard were the creation of composite materials containing natural fibers with positive effects on the environment that have penetrated in different fields. The bioplastics and biocomposites made from natural fibers is a topical solution. The next step was made towards obtaining biodegradable and recyclable materials based on cellulose, lignin and no carcinogens. In this category fall the "liquid wood" with a use up to five times without affecting the mechanical properties. "Liquid wood" is a high quality thermoplastic biocomposite. "Liquid wood" is a biopolymer composite divided in three categories, ARBOFORM®, ARBOBLEND® and ARBOFILL®, which have differed composition in terms of lignin percentage, being delivered by Tecnaro, as granules, [1]. The paper's research was focus on Arboform L V3 Nature and Arboform L V3 Nature reinforced with aramid fiber. In the experimental plan were taken into account six parameters (Dinj - direction of injection [°]; Ttop - melting temperature [°C]; Pinj - injection pressure [MPa] Ss - speed [m/min]; tinj - injection time [s] and tc - cooling time [s]) each with two levels, research carried on by Taguchi methodology. Processing Taguchi method allowed both Taguchi setting work parameters influence on storage modulus and damping as the size and influence their ranking. Experimental research concerning the influence technological parameters on storage modulus of samples obtained by injection from Arboform L V3 Nature yielded an average of 6055MPa and descending order as follows: Trac, Ss, Pinj, Dinj and Ttop. The average of model for reinforced material was 6419MPa and descending order of parameters influence such as: Dinj, Trac, Ttop, tinj, Ss and Pinj.

  8. Bioremediation of treated wood with fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara L. Illman; Vina W. Yang

    2006-01-01

    The authors have developed technologies for fungal bioremediation of waste wood treated with oilborne or metal-based preservatives. The technologies are based on specially formulated inoculum of wood-decay fungi, obtained through strain selection to obtain preservative-tolerant fungi. This waste management approach provides a product with reduced wood volume and the...

  9. Weathering methods for preservative treated wood and their applicability for fire retarded wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voss, A.

    1999-01-01

    preservative treated wood. The aim of the presentation is to inform you about current testing methods and to discuss their applicability to test fire retarded wood in outdoor use. Assuming that fire retardants will only be used in out of ground contact, only those methods are mentioned, which fit

  10. Model development for spatial variation of PM2.5 emissions from residential wood burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong Q, Tian; Peng Gong; Qian Yu; Radke, John D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary research result of spatially quantifying and allocating the potential activity of residential wood burning (RWB) by using demographic, hypsographic, climatic and topographic information as independent variables. We also introduce the method for calculating PM 2.5 emission from residential wood combustion with the potential activity as primary variable. A linear regression model was generated to describe spatial and temporal distribution of the potential activity of wood burning as primary heating source. In order to improve the estimation, the classifications of urban, suburban and rural were redefined to meet the specifications of this application. Also, a unique way of defining forest accessibility is found useful in estimating the activity potential of RWB. The results suggest that the potential activity of wood burning is mostly determined by elevation of a location, forest accessibility, urban/non-urban position, climatic conditions and several demographic variables. The analysis results were validated using survey data collected through face-to-face and telephone interviews over the study area in central California. The linear regression model can explain approximately 86% of the variation of surveyed wood burning activity potential. The total PM 2.5 emitted from woodstoves and fireplaces is analyzed for the study region at county level. (Author)

  11. Wood quality changes caused by mineral fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Sette Jr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The diverse and important use of wood from fast growth eucalyptus plantations requires the analysis of the effect of mineral fertilizers on wood quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anatomical characteristics and wood density from Eucalyptus grandis trees (3 m x 2 m spacing fertilized with potassium and sodium (at planting, 6 th and 12th month. Fifteen (15 6 years old eucalyptus trees were selected (5 trees/treatment, cut and wood samples at DBH (1,3 m were taken for anatomical characteristics (fiber and vessels and wood density analysis. Results showed that eucalyptus trees treated with mineral fertilizers did not show significant alteration in average wood density, with radial profile model common to all three treatments, characterized by a values increase in the region next to the pith, toward to bark. Mineral fertilization influenced wood anatomical characteristics: treatment with sodium was characterized by thinner walls and lumen larger diameter; in treatment with potassium, larger vessels were detected.

  12. Changes in mass and nutrient content of wood during decomposition in a south Florida mangrove forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, L.M.; Smith, T. J.; Fourqurean, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    a short-term source of N for the ecosystem but, by the end of 2 years, had become a net sink. Wood, however, remained a source of P for the ecosystem. 7 As in other forested ecosystems, coarse woody debris can have a significant impact on carbon and nutrient dynamics in mangrove forests. The prevalence of disturbances, such as hurricanes, that can deposit large amounts of wood on the forest floor accentuates the importance of downed wood in these forests. ?? 2005 British Ecological Society.

  13. A Planning Guide for Small and Medium Size Wood Products Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeff Howe; Stephen Bratkovich

    2005-01-01

    At the beginning of the 21st century, North American wood products companies are facing competitive pressure from numerous sources. Traditional products are being manufactured in new regions (e.g., China and the developing nations), and substitute products are being developed by competing industries (e.g., plastics and composites). The bottom line is strained by...

  14. Still rethinking the value of high wood density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larjavaara, Markku; Muller-Landau, Helene C

    2012-01-01

    In a previous paper, we questioned the traditional interpretation of the advantages and disadvantages of high wood density (Functional Ecology 24: 701-705). Niklas and Spatz (American Journal of Botany 97: 1587-1594) challenged the biomechanical relevance of studying properties of dry wood, including dry wood density, and stated that we erred in our claims regarding scaling. We first present the full derivation of our previous claims regarding scaling. We then examine how the fresh modulus of rupture and the elastic modulus scale with dry wood density and compare these scaling relationships with those for dry mechanical properties, using almost exactly the same data set analyzed by Niklas and Spatz. The derivation shows that given our assumptions that the modulus of rupture and elastic modulus are both proportional to wood density, the resistance to bending is inversely proportional to wood density and strength is inversely proportional with the square root of wood density, exactly as we previously claimed. The analyses show that the elastic modulus of fresh wood scales proportionally with wood density (exponent 1.05, 95% CI 0.90-1.11) but that the modulus of rupture of fresh wood does not, scaling instead with the 1.25 power of wood density (CI 1.18-1.31). The deviation from proportional scaling for modulus of rupture is so small that our central conclusion remains correct: for a given construction cost, trees with lower wood density have higher strength and higher resistance to bending.

  15. Decay of oak Wood provoked by fungus Stereum hirsutum (Willd. ex Fr. S. F. Gray. and its' essential physiological requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirić Milenko

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available White rot fungi usually decompose cell walls of attacked wood destroying tissue elements (i.e. parenchyma cells, wood fibres, tension wood, tracheas etc in different amount, depending to wood-species as well as to its' zones. Different fungi secrete specific enzymes that are responsible for certain damages. As consequence, the wood structure use to be significantly and unfixable decomposed and changed. Microscopical analyses that have been run provided clear and indicative information relating to effects of fungal activity on wood tissue. Physiological requirements of fungi are for shore of the highest importance in understanding of mechanism of decaying process in the wood. The most important factors as like temperature and concentration of H ions, as well as main nutrients as sources of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus can affect the behaviour of wood decaying fungi. The impacts of these factors on the growth and production on mycelial mass of Stereum hirsutum (Willd. ex Fr. S.F. Gray., have been investigated. This fungus is one of the most frequent appearing on the Sessile- and Pedunculate Oak weakened trees or felled logs, behaving as parasite as well as saprophyte. As a causer of Oak sapwood white rot S. hirsutum causes significant damages of wood at forest- as well as at industrial storages.

  16. CO2 abatement potential of wood utilisation. Wood as an energy carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegener, G.; Fruehwald, A.

    1994-01-01

    Forests as ecosystems not only supply the raw material wood but also exert an influence on soils, water resources and many other ecological factors; provide animals with a habitat; and offer as humans a place for recreation. Recently, forests and wood have become of interest to human civilisation from yet another aspect: they constitute a carbon storage. This means that forestry and the forest industries can help moderate the increase of atmospheric CO 2 concentrations, which is essentially the result of energetic utilisation of fossil fuels and considered the decisive factor underlying the greenhouse effect. Besides constituting a carbon storage, forests hold an additional CO 2 abatement potential which can be realised by continuous utilisation of wood. (orig./EF) [de

  17. Development of wood decay in wound-initiated discolored wood of eastern red cedar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter C. Shortle; Kenneth R. Dudzik; Kevin T. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Logs of eastern red cedar, Juniperus virginiana L., with well-developed bands of light-colored wood ("included sapwood") within heartwood can be unsuitable for sawn wood products. This finding is in contrast to published information that the "included sapwood" is (1) a heartwood anomaly rather than sapwood and (2) its occurrence...

  18. The extractives of Pinus pinaster wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Hemingway; W. E. Hillis; L. S. Lau

    1973-01-01

    The extractives in Pinus pinaster wood grown in South Australia were examined as part of an assessment of the suitability of this wood for manufacture of absorbent tissues from bisulphite pulps. The average petroleum solubility of the wood was 2.0% but the amount and composition of the petroleum extract varied widely depending upon the age of the...

  19. Wood supply : what bioenergy resources are available as harvest residue and non-merchantable wood in New Brunswick?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forgrave, K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines resources available for bioenergy production in New Brunswick. An estimate of New Brunswick harvest levels, based on New Brunswick Forest Products Association web site figures was presented. Private wood lots harvest levels were also provided, with all estimates based on volume per year. Market conditions were discussed, with an emphasis on the dictates of price and availability for private wood lot owners. Market conditions and unused volume statistics were discussed. Various forest management options include the use of veneer, saw log, stud wood and pulp wood. Details of bioenergy percentages and potential were presented and general silviculture issues were discussed. It was concluded that many of the trade-offs of bioenergy involve placing more demands on forests, and that purchase prices will increasingly dictate volumes obtained from private wood lots. tabs, figs

  20. Categories from scratch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poss, R.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of category from mathematics happens to be useful to computer programmers in many ways. Unfortunately, all "good" explanations of categories so far have been designed by mathematicians, or at least theoreticians with a strong background in mathematics, and this makes categories

  1. Potential recovery of industrial wood and energy wood raw material in different cutting and climate scenarios for Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaerkkaeinen, Leena; Nuutinen, Tuula; Matala, Juho; Kellomaeki, Seppo; Haerkoenen, Kari

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the simultaneous recovery of industrial wood and raw material for energy wood from cuttings in Finland during the next 50 years. Two cutting scenarios (maximum and sustainable cuttings) and two climate scenarios (current and changing climate) were analysed to determine their impacts on harvesting potential. The analysis was carried out using sample plot and tree data from the ninth National Forest Inventory and a management-oriented large-scale forestry model (MELA) into which the transfer functions based on physiological modelling were incorporated to describe the impacts of climate change. Depending on the climate scenario, the volume of potential recovery of industrial wood in the maximum cutting scenario during the period 2003-2013 varied from 103 to 105 million m 3 a -1 , while the amount of potential energy wood raw material was 35 Tg a -1 . During the period 2043-2053, in the current climate scenario, the potential recovery of industrial wood was 64 million m 3 a -1 and energy wood raw material 22 Tg a -1 , and in the changing climate scenario, 85 million m 3 a -1 and 29 Tg a -1 , respectively. In the sustainable cutting scenario, depending on the climate scenario used, the potential recovery of industrial wood during the period 2003-2013 varied from 74 to 76 million m 3 a -1 , while the amount of potential energy wood was 25 Tg a -1 . During the period 2043-2053, in the current climate scenario, the potential recovery of industrial wood was 80 million m 3 a -1 and energy wood raw material 26 Tg a -1 , and in the changing climate scenario, 88 million m 3 a -1 and 29 Tg a -1 , respectively. (author)

  2. Wood-based composite materials : panel products, glued-laminated timber, structural composite lumber, and wood-nonwood composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole M. Stark; Zhiyong Cai; Charles Carll

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the general types and composition of wood-based composite products and the materials and processes used to manufacture them. It describes conventional wood-based composite panels and structural composite materials intended for general construction, interior use, or both. This chapter also describes wood–nonwood composites. Mechanical...

  3. Wood energy 2000; Bois energie 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druette, L [Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment, (CSTB), 44 - Nantes (France); Lacome, T [AFNOR, 75 - Paris (France); Roy, C [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, ADEME, 75 - Paris (France); and others

    2000-07-01

    The deregulation of the Electric Market and the opening of the Green Certificate exchange market force the set up of renewable energies. The wood, which is for most of european countries an important part of renewable fuel, should see the increase of its utilization. This conference on the wood energy deals the main aspects of this energy development. The papers present the wood burning furnaces technology assessment, the wood fuel market and the standardization of the appliances in this domain. Some papers also include the consequences of the big storms of december 1999. (A.L.B.)

  4. Environmental assessment of domestic wood heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labouze, E.; Le Guerin, Y.

    2009-01-01

    In France, more than 6 million families are concerned with the domestic use of wood energy. The wood energy plan of ADEME aims at encouraging the development of wood energy in three sectors: domestic, collective/tertiary, industrial. In that context, ADEME commissioned BIO Intelligence Service a life cycle assessment of collective and industrial heating in order to give objective environmental information and to analyse the strength and weakness of wood heating. Three scenarios were defined according to the origin of wood: firewood, granules and sawmill chips. The study also proposes a comparison to other heating systems: gas, fuel oil and electricity. The life cycle analysis applied to domestic heating consists in quantifying the environmental impacts of the whole linked steps: extraction of fuel, distribution, final use... Every system under study has been divided according to three main stages: - Extraction of raw materials; - Transport of fuels until the place of storage or distribution; - Use (combustion or upstream production of energy in the case of electricity). The environmental impacts are estimated with the following indicators: - Non renewable primary energy balance sheet; - Global warming potential; - Air acidification potential; - Eutrophication potential; - Emissions of toxic metals in air and in soils. The results show that wood heating have the best energy and global warming balance sheets. For air acidification, the combustion stage is pre-dominant regardless of the energy resource. This is mainly due to nitrogen and sulphur oxides airborne emissions. For wood heating, preparation requires fuel consumption which also contributes significantly to nitrogen oxides emissions. The comparison with conventional energy shows that the wood scenarios are well positioned in relation to fuel and electricity for this indicator. Gas appears to be the best heating option for this indicator. The contribution eutrophication is also due to nitrogen oxides airborne

  5. Precision wood particle feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-07-30

    Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

  6. Optimising hydrogen bonding in solid wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Emil Tang

    2009-01-01

    The chemical bonds of wood are both covalent bonds within the wood polymers and hydrogen bonds within and between the polymers. Both types of bonds are responsible for the coherence, strength and stiffness of the material. The hydrogen bonds are more easily modified by changes in load, moisture...... and temperature distorting the internal bonding state. A problem arises when studying hydrogen bonding in wood since matched wood specimens of the same species will have very different internal bonding states. Thus, possible changes in the bonding state due to some applied treatment such as conditioning...... maintaining 100 % moisture content of the wood. The hypothesis was that this would enable a fast stress relaxation as a result of reorganization of bonds, since moisture plasticizes the material and temperature promotes faster kinetics. Hereby, all past bond distortions caused by various moisture, temperature...

  7. Science supporting the economic and environmental benefits of using wood and wood products in green building construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Ritter; Kenneth Skog; Richard Bergman

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this report is to summarize the scientific findings that support the environmental and economic benefits of using wood and wood products in green building construction. Despite documented advantages in many peer-reviewed scientific articles, most building professionals and members of the public do not recognize wood as a renewable resource or the role...

  8. Heat sterilization of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang

    2010-01-01

    Two important questions should be considered in heat sterilizing solid wood materials: First, what temperature–time regime is required to kill a particular pest? Second, how much time is required to heat the center of any wood configuration to the kill temperature? The entomology research on the first question has facilitated the development of international standards...

  9. How James Wood Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Evan R., Comp.

    2008-01-01

    Reading through news-media clippings about James Wood, one might reasonably conclude that "pre-eminent critic" is his official job title. In fact, Wood is a staff writer for "The New Yorker" and a professor of the practice of literary criticism at Harvard University. But at a time when there is much hand-wringing about the death of the…

  10. Waste-wood resource supply assessment. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    The report documents and analyzes the availability and supply of wood waste in New York State to determine the type and amount currently generated to estimate its potential future use as a fuel. Detailed, current information is included on the availability, quantity and price of wood waste. Topics include wood waste markets; the harvesting and supply infrastructure; current and project prices; competing markets; environmental impacts of harvesting, processing and burning wood waste for fuel; and factors affecting long-term availability and supply. New York State's waste wood resource was evaluated to complete the Energy Authority's recent investigation of the potential role of wood in producing electric power. In 1989 approximately 11.8 million tons of wood waste were generated in New York State. More than 8 million tons or 68 percent, were disposed of by municipal solid waste and construction and demolition debris facilities. Just under 3.8 million tons or 32 percent, were reused and/or recycled. More than 25.7 million tons of wood waste could be available annually for fuel. Of the amount, more than 17.2 million tons per year, or 67 percent, could be produced by silvicultural activities that improve the health and productivity of forests

  11. WGDB: Wood Gene Database with search interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Neha; Ginwal, H S

    2014-01-01

    Wood quality can be defined in terms of particular end use with the involvement of several traits. Over the last fifteen years researchers have assessed the wood quality traits in forest trees. The wood quality was categorized as: cell wall biochemical traits, fibre properties include the microfibril angle, density and stiffness in loblolly pine [1]. The user friendly and an open-access database has been developed named Wood Gene Database (WGDB) for describing the wood genes along the information of protein and published research articles. It contains 720 wood genes from species namely Pinus, Deodar, fast growing trees namely Poplar, Eucalyptus. WGDB designed to encompass the majority of publicly accessible genes codes for cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in tree species which are responsive to wood formation and quality. It is an interactive platform for collecting, managing and searching the specific wood genes; it also enables the data mining relate to the genomic information specifically in Arabidopsis thaliana, Populus trichocarpa, Eucalyptus grandis, Pinus taeda, Pinus radiata, Cedrus deodara, Cedrus atlantica. For user convenience, this database is cross linked with public databases namely NCBI, EMBL & Dendrome with the search engine Google for making it more informative and provides bioinformatics tools named BLAST,COBALT. The database is freely available on www.wgdb.in.

  12. Assessing radiation doses to the public from radionuclides in timber and wood products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-10-01

    In the event of a nuclear accident involving the release of radionuclides to the biosphere the radioactive contamination of forests can become a significant potential source of public radiation exposure. Two of these accidents - the Kyshtim accident, Urals, USSR (now Russian Federation) in 1957 and the Chernobyl accident, USSR (now Ukraine), in 1986 - resulted in significant contamination of thousands of square kilometres of forested areas with mixtures of radionuclides including long lived fission products such as 137 Cs and 90 Sr. Measurements and modelling of forest ecosystems after both accidents have shown that, following initial contamination, the activity concentration of long lived radionuclides in wood gradually increases over one to two decades and then slowly decreases in the subsequent period. The longevity of the contamination is due to the slow migration and persistent bioavailability of radionuclides in the forest soil profile, which results in long term transfer into wood through the root system of the trees. Another source of contamination is from global radioactive fallout after nuclear weapons tests, but the level of contamination is much lower than that from, for example, the Chernobyl accident. For instance, the level of 137 Cs in wood in Sweden is about 2-5 Bq kg -1 from global fallout. Global values are very similar to the Swedish levels. In contrast, the level of 137 Cs in Swedish wood due to Chernobyl is around 50 Bq kg -1 . Levels in wood from some contaminated areas located in countries of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) are about one to two orders of magnitude higher than this. The data on 137 Cs soil contamination within European territories, originating mainly from the Chernobyl accident, illustrate the scale of the problem. For comparison, residual 137 Cs soil deposition in Europe from global radioactive fallout was in the range 1-4 kBq m -2 . There is concern in several countries about the potential radiation exposure of people from

  13. Southern Woods-Burners: A Descriptive Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.L. Doolittle; M.L. Lightsey

    1979-01-01

    About 40 percent of the South's nearly 60,000 wildfires yearly are set by woods-burners. A survey of 14 problem areas in four southern States found three distinct sets of woods-burners. Most active woods-burners are young, white males whose activities are supported by their peers. An older but less active group have probably retired from active participation but...

  14. Cone calorimeter tests of wood composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. White; Kuma Sumathipala

    2013-01-01

    The cone calorimeter is widely used for the determination of the heat release rate (HRR) of building products and other materials. As part of an effort to increase the availability of cone calorimeter data on wood products, the U.S. Forest Products Laboratory and the American Wood Council conducted this study on composite wood products in cooperation with the Composite...

  15. Western Canadian wood residue production and consumption trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCloy, B.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation considered various trends in western Canadian wood residue production and consumption. Potential markets for wood residue products were also discussed. Trends were reviewed by province for the years 2000-2004. British Columbia (BC) is currently the largest producer of residue in the country, and also retains the largest surpluses of bark, sawdust and shavings. Wood residues in BC are used in pulp and plywood mill production, as well as in the creation of particleboard and MDF. Surplus mill wood residue production in the province has greatly increased due to the Mountain Pine Beetle (MPB) infestation, which has in turn spurred expansion of the BC interior sawmill industry. The infestation has also resulted in a glut of pulp chips. Current wood residue products in Alberta are mostly used in pulp mill combined heat and power (CHP) systems, as well as for wood pellet production and the creation of particleboard and MDF. It was noted that surplus residues are rapidly declining in the province. Saskatchewan's wood residue storage piles are estimated to contain 2,900,000 BDt, while Manitoba surpluses are relatively minor. It was suggested that high natural gas prices have increased the payback on wood energy systems to approximately 2 years. The value of wood residue is now greater than $100/BDt as a substitute for natural gas once the wood energy system has been fully depreciated. Sawmills may now wish to consider equipping themselves to sell wood residue products, as most sawmills only require 20 per cent of their residues for heating purposes. It was concluded that markets for hog fuel wood pellets should be developed in Canada and internationally. Future markets may also develop if natural gas currently used in pulp mill power boilers and lime kilns is replaced with wood residue energy systems. refs., tabs., figs

  16. Decay resistance of wood-plastic composites reinforced with extracted or delignified wood flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Yao Chen; Nicole M. Stark; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Yongming Fan; Jianmin Gao

    2014-01-01

    The moisture and decay resistance of wood-plastic composites (WPCs) reinforced with extracted or delignified wood flour (WF) was investigated. Three different extractions were preformed: toluene/ethanol (TE), acetone/water (AW), and hot water (HW). Delignification (DL) was performed using a sodium chlorite/acetic acid solution. All WPCs specimens were made with 50% by...

  17. 5000 sustainable workplaces - Wood energy provides work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keel, A.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study made by the Swiss Wood Energy Association on the regional and national added value resulting from large wood-fired installations in Switzerland. The number of workplaces created by these installations is also noted. Wood energy is quoted as not only being a way of using forest wastes but also as being a creator of employment. Large wood-fired heating installations are commented on and efforts to promote this type of energy supply even further are discussed. The study indicates which professions benefit from the use of wood energy and quantifies the number of workplaces per megawatt of installed power that result.

  18. Corrosion of metals in wood : comparing the results of a rapid test method with long-term exposure tests across six wood treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Donald S. Stone

    2011-01-01

    This paper compares two methods of measuring the corrosion of steel and galvanized steel in wood: a long-term exposure test in solid wood and a rapid test method where fasteners are electrochemically polarized in extracts of wood treated with six different treatments. For traditional wood preservatives, the electrochemical extract method correlates with solid wood...

  19. Wood energy barometer. 43 million toe produced in 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    The use of wood in the form of energy contributes in fighting global warming since, unlike fossil energies, the carbon dioxide emitted by its combustion is reabsorbed by the forests. These environmental and energetic advantages explain why the European Union large wood countries are preparing programmes to develop both wood energy technologies and wood energy consumption; This document takes stock or gives information on the breakdown of valorization of wood energy origin primary energy, the gross electricity generation from wood energy in the 15 european union countries and Poland, the primary energy from wood energy, the comparative between different wood energy fuel prices in Europe, the number of direct and indirect job created in different sectors, the wood energy sector industrialists and a comparison between current trend and white paper objectives. (A.L.B.)

  20. Forest biomass flow for fuel wood, fodder and timber security among tribal communities of Jharkhand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M A; Quli, S M S; Rai, R; Ali, Angrej; Gangoo, S A

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated extraction and consumption pattern of fuel wood, fodder and timber and forest biomass flow for fuel wood, fodder and timber security among tribal communities in Bundu block of Ranchi district in Jharkhand (India). The study is based on personal interviews of the selected respondents through structured interview schedule, personal observations and participatory rural appraisal tools i.e. key informant interviews and focus group discussions carried out in the sample villages, using multi-stage random sampling technique. The study revealed that the total extraction of fuel wood from different sources in villages was 2978.40 tons annum(-1), at the rate of 0.68 tons per capita annum(-1), which was mostly consumed in cooking followed by cottage industries, heating, community functions and others. The average fodder requirement per household was around 47.77 kg day(-1) with a total requirement of 14227.34 tons annum(-1). The average timber requirement per household was computed to be 0.346 m3 annum(-1) accounting for a total timber demand of 282.49 m3 annum(-1), which is mostly utilized in housing, followed by agricultural implements, rural furniture, carts and carriages, fencing, cattle shed/ store house and others. Forest biomass is the major source of fuel wood, fodder and timber for the primitive societies of the area contributing 1533.28 tons annum(-1) (51.48%) of the total fuel wood requirement, 6971.55 tons annum(-1) (49.00%) of the total fodder requirement and 136.36 m3 annum(-1) (48.27%) of the total timber requirement. The forest biomass is exposed to enormous pressure for securing the needs by the aboriginal people, posing great threat to biodiversity and environment of the region. Therefore, forest biomass conservation through intervention of alternative avenues is imperative to keep pace with the current development and future challenges in the area.

  1. Wood-Based Nanotechnologies toward Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Feng; Li, Tian; Li, Yiju; Zhang, Ying; Gong, Amy; Dai, Jiaqi; Hitz, Emily; Luo, Wei; Hu, Liangbing

    2018-01-01

    With over 30% global land coverage, the forest is one of nature's most generous gifts to human beings, providing shelters and materials for all living beings. Apart from being sustainable, renewable, and biodegradable, wood and its derivative materials are also extremely fascinating from a materials aspect, with numerous advantages including porous and hierarchical structure, excellent mechanical performance, and versatile chemistry. Here, strategies for designing novel wood-based materials via advanced nanotechnologies are summarized, including both the controllable bottom-up assembly from the highly crystalline nanocellulose building block and the more efficient top-down approaches directly from wood. Beyond material design, recent advances regarding the sustainable applications of these novel wood-based materials are also presented, focusing on areas that are traditionally dominated by man-made nonrenewable materials such as plastic, glass, and metals, as well as more advanced applications in the areas of energy storage, wastewater treatment and solar-steam-assisted desalination. With all recent progress pertaining to materials' design and sustainable applications presented, a vision for the future engineering of wood-based materials to promote continuous and healthy progress toward true sustainability is outlined. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Use of residential wood heating in a context of climate change: a population survey in Québec (Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valois Pierre

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wood heating is recommended in several countries as a climate change (CC adaptation measure, mainly to increase the autonomy of households during power outages due to extreme climatic events. The aim of this study was to examine various perceptions and individual characteristics associated with wood heating through a survey about CC adaptations. Methods A telephone survey (n = 2,545 of adults living in the southern part of the province of Québec (Canada was conducted in the early fall season of 2005. The questionnaire used closed questions and measured the respondents' beliefs and current adaptations about CC. Calibration weighting was used to adjust the data analysis for the respondent's age and language under stratified sampling based on health regions. Results More than three out of four respondents had access to a single source of energy at home, which was mainly electricity; 22.2% combined two sources or more; 18.5% heated with wood occasionally or daily during the winter. The prevalence of wood heating was higher in the peripheral regions than in the more urban regions, where there was a higher proportion of respondents living in apartments. The prevalence was also higher with participants completely disagreeing (38.5% with the eventual prohibition of wood heating when there is smog in winter, compared to respondents somewhat disagreeing (24.2% or agreeing (somewhat: 17.5%; completely: 10.4% with the adoption of this strategy. It appears that the perception of living in a region susceptible to winter smog, smog warnings in the media, or the belief in the human contribution to CC, did not influence significantly wood heating practices. Conclusion Increased residential wood heating could very well become a maladaptation to climate change, given its known consequences on winter smog and respiratory health. It would thus be appropriate to implement a long-term national program on improved and controlled residential wood

  3. Wood decomposition as influenced by invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulyshen, Michael D

    2016-02-01

    The diversity and habitat requirements of invertebrates associated with dead wood have been the subjects of hundreds of studies in recent years but we still know very little about the ecological or economic importance of these organisms. The purpose of this review is to examine whether, how and to what extent invertebrates affect wood decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems. Three broad conclusions can be reached from the available literature. First, wood decomposition is largely driven by microbial activity but invertebrates also play a significant role in both temperate and tropical environments. Primary mechanisms include enzymatic digestion (involving both endogenous enzymes and those produced by endo- and ectosymbionts), substrate alteration (tunnelling and fragmentation), biotic interactions and nitrogen fertilization (i.e. promoting nitrogen fixation by endosymbiotic and free-living bacteria). Second, the effects of individual invertebrate taxa or functional groups can be accelerative or inhibitory but the cumulative effect of the entire community is generally to accelerate wood decomposition, at least during the early stages of the process (most studies are limited to the first 2-3 years). Although methodological differences and design limitations preclude meta-analysis, studies aimed at quantifying the contributions of invertebrates to wood decomposition commonly attribute 10-20% of wood loss to these organisms. Finally, some taxa appear to be particularly influential with respect to promoting wood decomposition. These include large wood-boring beetles (Coleoptera) and termites (Termitoidae), especially fungus-farming macrotermitines. The presence or absence of these species may be more consequential than species richness and the influence of invertebrates is likely to vary biogeographically. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. Wood Programs. Courseware Evaluation for Vocational and Technical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaylor, Robert; And Others

    This courseware evaluation rates the Wood Programs software developed by the Iowa Department of Public Instruction. (These programs--not contained in this document--include understanding board feet, wood characteristics, wood safety drill, wood dimensions, wood moisture, operating the table saw, radial arm, measurement drill, fraction drill, and…

  5. COMBUSTION PROPERTIES OF EUCALYPTUS WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın ÖRS

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the combustion properties of some impregnation materials (abiotic and biotic factors used for eucalyptus wood in interior or exterior environments were investigated. The experimental samples were prepared from Eucalyptus wood based on ASTM-D-1413-76 Tanalith-CBC, boric acid, borax, vacsol-WR, immersol-WR, polyethylen glycole-400 and ammonium sulphate were used as an impregnation material. The results indicated that, vacuum treatment on Eucalyptus gave the lowest retention value of salts. Compounds containing boron+salt increased fire resistance however water repellents decreased the wood flammability.

  6. European wood-pastures in transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood-pastures are important elements of European cultural identity and have an exceptional ecological value, yet they are in decline all over Europe. The structure of wood-pastures is strongly influenced by grazing and multiple other land uses and by local and regional environmental conditions....... This book examines the diverse expressions of wood-pastures across Europe. It provides a new perspective, using a social-ecological framework to explore social and ecological values, governing institutions, threats and conservation approaches. It explores the major drivers of decline, which are shown...

  7. Variation in root wood anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    Variability in the anatomy of root wood of selected specimens particularly Fraxinus excelsior L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the Kew reference microscope slide collection is discussed in relation to generalised statements in the literature on root wood anatomy.

  8. Properties of wood-plastic composites (WPCs) reinforced with extracted and delignified wood flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao Chen; Nicole M. Stark; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Jianmin Gao; Yongming Fan

    2014-01-01

    The water sorption and mechanical properties of wood-plastic composites (WPCs) made of extracted and delignified wood flour (WF) has been investigated. WF was prepared by extraction with the solvent systems toluene/ethanol (TE), acetone/water (AW), and hot water (HW), and its delignification was conducted by means of sodium chlorite/acetic acid (AA) solution. A 2 4...

  9. Willow wood production on radionuclide polluted areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodkin Oleg I.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: One of the key environmental problems in Belarus is effective use of agricultural lands contaminated by radionuclide due to the Chernobyl disaster. The alternative method to traditional agricultural crops is fast growing willow cultivation. It is possible to use biomass of willow as renewable energy source. The goal of our investigation was the estimation of environmental aspects of willow wood production on polluted areas. The field study experiments (2007-2010 were conducted at Krichev district of Mogilev region in eastern Belarus. This region characterized by high level of Cs-137 contamination as well as high level of heavy metals pollution. In the first stage of experiments, the concentration of cesium-137 in different parts of willow biomass had been measured and transfer factor calculated. The measuring had been done for leaves, roots, and wood. To control cesium-137 accumulation in willow biomass we apply different types (nitrogen N, phosphorus P and potassium K and dose of fertilizer. The experiments show that potassium mineral fertilizer is the key factor for radionuclide accumulation control. The optimal dose of potassium is 90 kg per hectare. On the base of experimental results the model of cesium-137 accumulation in the wood for a 21 year has been developed. In accordance with calculation to the end of willow cultivation (21 year concentration of cesium-137 in wood will not be higher than permitted even with the level of cesium-137 contamination in the soil 1480 kBq/m2 (maximum 140 kqB/m2 with permitted level for firewood is 740 Bq/kg.. The concentration of cesium-137 in the roots increases gradually and get maximum in 21 year (3000 kqB/m2. Our results confirm that in the sum about 0.8 million hectares of radionuclide polluted arable lands partly excluded from agricultural practice in Belarus could be used for willow biomass production.

  10. Wood energy in Switzerland - fillet steaks and sausages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keel, A.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the increasing use of wood energy to help meet Switzerland's energy needs. The increasing interest in wood-fired systems in comparison with fossil fuels is commented on. The article presents figures on energy carriers and the shares of the energy supply they meet as well as the development of wood-fired systems between 1991 and 2003. The influence of Swiss regional identities on the market for wood heating systems is discussed, as are difficulties resulting from stop-and-go governmental promotional funding. The importance of wood-fired energy systems for local authorities with difficulties in selling wood from their communal forestry departments is also discussed

  11. Forest biomass and wood waste resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Skog; P. Lebow; D.. Dykstra; P.. Miles; B.J. Stokes; R.D. Perlack; M. Buford; J. Barbour; D. McKeever

    2011-01-01

    This chapter provides estimates of forest biomass and wood waste quantities, as well as roadside costs (i.e., supply curves) for each county in the contiguous United States. Roadside price is the price a buyer pays for wood chips at a roadside in the forest, at a processing mill location in the case of mill residue, or at a landfill for urban wood wastes prior to any...

  12. Selected mechanical properties of modified beech wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Holan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This thesis deals with an examination of mechanical properties of ammonia treated beach wood with a trademark Lignamon. For determination mechanical properties were used procedures especially based on ČSN. From the results is noticeable increased density of wood by 22% in comparison with untreated beach wood, which makes considerable increase of the most mechanical wood properties. Considering failure strength was raised by 32% and modulus of elasticity was raised at average about 46%.

  13. The wood, renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acket, C.

    2006-12-01

    This document evaluates the french forest situation and its future. Indeed, the wood energy constitutes in France the first renewable energy after the hydraulic. It presents the today situation of the french forest providing statistical data, evaluation of the energy estimation, the carbon fixation, the resources, the perspectives wood energy for 2050, the biofuels and an economic analysis. (A.L.B.)

  14. Wood supply and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; David B. McKeever

    2011-01-01

    At times in history, there have been concerns that demand for wood (timber) would be greater than the ability to supply it, but that concern has recently dissipated. The wood supply and demand situation has changed because of market transitions, economic downturns, and continued forest growth. This article provides a concise overview of this change as it relates to the...

  15. Chemical modification of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger M. Rowell

    2007-01-01

    After millions of years of evolution, wood was designed to perform in a wet environment, and nature is programmed to recycle it, in a timely way, back to the basic building blocks of carbon dioxide and water through biological, thermal, aqueous, photochemical, chemical, and mechanical degradation. The properties of wood are, for the most part, a result of the chemistry...

  16. A geographical analysis of the Swedish wood fuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, Anders; Bohlin, Folke; Hektor, Bo; Hillring, Bengt; Parikka, Matti

    2000-01-01

    The geographical variation in Swedish wood fuel market characteristics for the district heating sector has been studied using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and cross-sectional Tobit analysis. The results indicate that local availability and competition for wood fuels influence the wood fuel consumption at inland heating plants. The factors affecting the decision to use wood fuel at heating plants close to seaports, however, were not captured by the model, suggesting that coastal location reduces dependency on the local wood fuel market. The effects of changes in local wood fuel availability on wood fuel use by an inland heating plant are presented and discussed

  17. DNA Barcode Authentication and Library Development for the Wood of Six Commercial Pterocarpus Species: the Critical Role of Xylarium Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Lichao; Yu, Min; Wiedenhoeft, Alex C; He, Tuo; Li, Jianing; Liu, Bo; Jiang, Xiaomei; Yin, Yafang

    2018-01-31

    DNA barcoding has been proposed as a useful tool for forensic wood identification and development of a reliable DNA reference library is an essential first step. Xylaria (wood collections) are potentially enormous data repositories if DNA information could be extracted from wood specimens. In this study, 31 xylarium wood specimens and 8 leaf specimens of six important commercial species of Pterocarpus were selected to investigate the reliability of DNA barcodes for authentication at the species level and to determine the feasibility of building wood DNA barcode reference libraries from xylarium specimens. Four DNA barcodes (ITS2, matK, ndhF-rpl32 and rbcL) and their combination were tested to evaluate their discrimination ability for Pterocarpus species with both TaxonDNA and tree-based analytical methods. The results indicated that the combination barcode of matK + ndhF-rpl32 + ITS2 yielded the best discrimination for the Pterocarpus species studied. The mini-barcode ndhF-rpl32 (167-173 bps) performed well distinguishing P. santalinus from its wood anatomically inseparable species P. tinctorius. Results from this study verified not only the feasibility of building DNA barcode libraries using xylarium wood specimens, but the importance of using wood rather than leaves as the source tissue, when wood is the botanical material to be identified.

  18. Construction of Hydrophobic Wood Surface and Mechanical Property of Wood Cell Wall on Nanoscale Modified by Dimethyldichlorosilane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui; Wang, Siqun; Zhou, Dingguo; Zhang, Jie; Lan, Ping; Jia, Chong

    2018-01-01

    Dimethyldichlorosilane was used to improve the hydrophobicity of wood surface. The water contact angle of the treated wood surface increased from 85° to 143°, which indicated increased hydrophobicity. The nanomechanical properties of the wood cell wall were evaluated using a nanoindentation test to analyse the hydrophobic mechanism on the nano scale. The elastic modulus of the cell wall was significantly affected by the concentration but the influence of treatment time is insignificant. The hardness of the cell wall for treated samples was significantly affected by both treatment time and concentration. The interaction between treatment time and concentration was extremely significant for the elastic modulus of the wood cell wall.

  19. Wood pellets for stoker burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nykaenen, S.

    2000-01-01

    The author of this article has had a stoker for several years. Wood chips and sod peat has been used as fuels in the stoker, either separately or mixed. Last winter there occurred problems with the sod peat due to poor quality. Wood pellets, delivered by Vapo Oy were tested in the stoker. The price of the pellets seemed to be a little high 400 FIM/500 kg large sack. If the sack is returned in good condition 50 FIM deposit will be repaid to the customer. However, Vapo Oy informed that the calorific value of wood pellets is three times higher than that of sod peat so it should not be more expensive than sod peat. When testing the wood pellets in the stoker, the silo of the stoker was filled with wood pellets. The adjustments were first left to position used for sod peat. However, after the fire had ignited well, the adjustments had to be decreased. The content of the silo was combusted totally. The combustion of the content of the 400 litter silo took 4 days and 22 hours. Respectively combustion of 400 l silo of good quality sod peat took 2 days. The water temperature with wood pellets remained at 80 deg C, while with sod peat it dropped to 70 deg C. The main disadvantage of peat with small loads is the unhomogenous composition of the peat. The results of this test showed that wood pellets will give better efficiency than peat, especially when using small burner heads. The utilization of them is easier, and the amount of ash formed in combustion is significantly smaller than with peat. Wood pellets are always homogenous and dry if you do not spoil it with unproper storage. Pellets do not require large storages, the storage volume needed being less than a half of the volume needed for sod peat. When using large sacks the amount needed can even be transported at the trunk of a passenger car. Depending on the area to be heated, a large sack is sufficient for heating for 2-3 weeks. Filling of stoker every 2-5 day is not an enormous task

  20. Water repellents and water-repellent preservatives for wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam. Williams; William C. Feist

    1999-01-01

    Water repellents and water-repellent preservatives increase the durability of wood by enabling the wood to repel liquid water. This report focuses on water-repellent finishes for wood exposed outdoors above ground. The report includes a discussion of the effects of outdoor exposure on wood, the characteristics of water repellent and water-repellent preservative...