WorldWideScience

Sample records for source category small

  1. 40 CFR 98.410 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Industrial Greenhouse Gases § 98.410 Definition of the source category. (a) The industrial gas supplier source category consists of any facility that...

  2. 40 CFR 98.110 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Ferroalloy Production § 98.110 Definition of the source category. The ferroalloy production source category consists of any facility that uses pyrometallurgical techniques to produce any of the following metals: ferrochromium, ferromanganese, ferromolybdenum...

  3. 6 Source Categories - Boilers (Proposed Action)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is proposing options to simplify the Clean Air Act permitting process for certain smaller sources of air pollution commonly found in Indian country. This action would ensure that air quality in Indian country is protected.

  4. 40 CFR 98.360 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... this rule. (b) A manure management system (MMS) is a system that stabilizes and/or stores livestock... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Manure Management § 98.360 Definition of the source category. (a) This source category consists of livestock facilities with manure management systems that emit 25...

  5. 40 CFR 98.70 - Definition of source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of source category. 98.70... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Ammonia Manufacturing § 98.70 Definition of source category...-based feedstock produced via steam reforming of a hydrocarbon. (b) Ammonia manufacturing processes in...

  6. 40 CFR 98.40 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of the source category. 98... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Electricity Generation § 98.40 Definition of the source... category does not include portable equipment, emergency equipment, or emergency generators, as defined in...

  7. 40 CFR 98.420 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of the source category. 98.420 Section 98.420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... distribution of CO2. (4) Purification, compression, or processing of CO2. (5) On-site use of CO2 captured on...

  8. Task-Modulated Cortical Representations of Natural Sound Source Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens; Kassuba, Tanja; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard

    2018-01-01

    In everyday sound environments, we recognize sound sources and events by attending to relevant aspects of an acoustic input. Evidence about the cortical mechanisms involved in extracting relevant category information from natural sounds is, however, limited to speech. Here, we used functional MRI...

  9. 40 CFR 98.240 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... makes methanol, hydrogen, and/or ammonia from synthesis gas is part of the petrochemical source category... hydrogen recovered as product and ammonia. The facility is part of subpart P of this part (Hydrogen... levels of both methanol and ammonia. The facility is part of subpart G of this part (Ammonia...

  10. IS CATEGORY MANAGEMENT IN SMALL SUPERMARKETS WORTH THE EFFORT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Angotti Guissoni

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Category management (CM is an important tool to strengthen the relationship between manufacturers and retailers. This process has been associated with large corporate retailers; however, some recent researches show that CM is open to companies of any type or size. This possibility is important in emerging markets, where neighborhood supermarkets are still representative and are often considered an alternative for manufacturers to achieve higher margins compared to big chains. In this context, the aim of this research was to analyze the results of a CM initiative in small neighborhood supermarkets from a manufacturer perspective. Data for the study comes from a food manufacturer in Brazil that implemented a CM process with 180 small retailers. A quantitative analysis was conducted in order to analyze the effect of the program on the food manufacturer’s sales and market share. Our analysis suggests an overall positive effect of the program on both, sales and market share

  11. 76 FR 4155 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories: Gasoline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... 63 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories: Gasoline Distribution Bulk Terminals, Bulk Plants, and Pipeline Facilities; and Gasoline Dispensing Facilities; Final...] RIN 2060-AP16 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories: Gasoline...

  12. Characteristics and Categories of Risk in the Small Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bera

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article risk typology in a small enterprise has been presented. In the aspect of a small enterprise’s characteristic features that have been synthetically described, the author has tried to define the crux and position of individual risk types in the operation of small market entities. In economy practice, identification and risk management conduct of risk categorization facilitates.

  13. 14 CFR 135.399 - Small nontransport category airplane performance operating limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small nontransport category airplane... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.399 Small nontransport category airplane performance operating limitations. (a) No person may operate a reciprocating engine or...

  14. 14 CFR 135.397 - Small transport category airplane performance operating limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small transport category airplane... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.397 Small transport category airplane performance operating limitations. (a) No person may operate a reciprocating engine...

  15. Preliminary data summary for the hospitals point-source category

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strassler, E.; Hund, F.H.

    1989-09-01

    The summaries were prepared in order to allow EPA to respond to the mandate of Section 304(m) of the Clean Water Act. Summaries for categories already subject to rulemaking were developed for comparison purposes, and contain only the minimum amount of data needed to provide some perspective on the relative magnitude of the pollution problems created across the categories. The document summarizes the most current information available regarding the discharge of wastewater and solid wastes containing priority and hazardous non-priority pollutants by hospitals. The document provides a technical basis for determining whether additional national regulations should be developed pursuant to the Clean Water Act (CWA), and makes available preliminary information regarding the discharge of priority and hazardous non-priority pollutants by the hospital industry

  16. Category, narrative and value in the governance of small-scale fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, D.S.

    2006-01-01

    Since the 1970s, small-scale fisheries have had an important place in fisheries social science and in fisheries management. While there has been substantial discussion of what constitutes the category of small-scale fisheries, its considerable ambiguity is nevertheless often passed over. This paper

  17. Tactics at the category level of purchasing and supply management: sourcing levers, contingencies and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Hesping, Frank

    2015-01-01

    For the ‘front-line’ purchasing agent, it is obvious that not all categories of products and supplier relationships should be managed in the same way. Rather, in a modern category management approach, firms group similar products into ‘sourcing categories’ forming coherent supply markets (e.g., ‘metal sheets’, ‘leather’, ‘displays’, ‘cables’, etc.). Thus, to achieve cost reduction targets, a tailored mix of tactical sourcing levers for each sourcing category may be required. The fundamental q...

  18. The Role of External Sources of Information in Children's Evaluative Food Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Simone P.

    2012-01-01

    Evaluative food categories are value-laden assessments, which reflect the healthfulness and palatability of foods (e.g. healthy/unhealthy, yummy/yucky). In a series of three studies, this research examines how 3- to 4-year-old children (N?=?147) form evaluative food categories based on input from external sources of information. The results…

  19. Tactics at the category level of purchasing and supply management: sourcing levers, contingencies and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesping, Frank

    2015-01-01

    For the ‘front-line’ purchasing agent, it is obvious that not all categories of products and supplier relationships should be managed in the same way. Rather, in a modern category management approach, firms group similar products into ‘sourcing categories’ forming coherent supply markets (e.g.,

  20. Domain Independent Vocabulary Generation and Its Use in Category-based Small Footprint Language Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIM, K.-H.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The work in this paper pertains to domain independent vocabulary generation and its use in category-based small footprint Language Model (LM. Two major constraints of the conventional LMs in the embedded environment are memory capacity limitation and data sparsity for the domain-specific application. This data sparsity adversely affects vocabulary coverage and LM performance. To overcome these constraints, we define a set of domain independent categories using a Part-Of-Speech (POS tagged corpus. Also, we generate a domain independent vocabulary based on this set using the corpus and knowledge base. Then, we propose a mathematical framework for a category-based LM using this set. In this LM, one word can be assigned assign multiple categories. In order to reduce its memory requirements, we propose a tree-based data structure. In addition, we determine the history length of a category n-gram, and the independent assumption applying to a category history generation. The proposed vocabulary generation method illustrates at least 13.68% relative improvement in coverage for a SMS text corpus, where data are sparse due to the difficulties in data collection. The proposed category-based LM requires only 215KB which is 55% and 13% compared to the conventional category-based LM and the word-based LM, respectively. It successively improves the performance, achieving 54.9% and 60.6% perplexity reduction compared to the conventional category-based LM and the word-based LM in terms of normalized perplexity.

  1. 77 FR 11390 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories; Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... Source Categories. Subpart ZZZZZZ--NESHAP: Area Source Standards for Aluminum, Copper, and Other... Perchloroethylene Dry X X X Cleaning. N Hard and Decorative X X X Chromium Electroplating and Chromium Anodizing... Publishing X X X Industry. LL Primary Aluminum Reduction X X Plants. MM Chemical Recovery X X Combustion...

  2. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Xxxxxx... - Description of Source Categories Affected by This Subpart

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... heating units, combination gas-oil burners, oil or gas swimming pool heaters, heating apparatus (except... supplies industry sector of this source category includes establishments primarily engaged in high energy...), coke and gas burning salamanders, liquid or gas solar energy collectors, solar heaters, space heaters...

  3. Current status of securing Category 1 and 2 radioactive sources in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Y-F.; Tsai, C-H. [Atomic Energy Council of Executive Yuan of Taiwan (China)

    2014-07-01

    For enhancing safe and secure management of Category 1 and 2 radioactive sources against theft or unauthorized removal, AEC (Atomic Energy Council) of Taiwan have been regulating the import/export of the sources ever since 2005, in compliance with the IAEA's (International Atomic Energy Agency) 'Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources'. Furthermore in consulting the IAEA Nuclear Security Series No.11 report, administrative regulations on the program of securing the sources have been embodied into AECL's regulatory system since 2012, for the purpose of enforcing medical and non-medical licensees and industrial radiographers to establish their own radioactive source security programs. Regulations require that security functions such as access control, detection, delay, response and communication and security management measures are to be implemented within the programs. This paper is to introduce the current status in implementing the security control measures in Taiwan. (author)

  4. Safety issues in the handling of radiation sources in category IV gamma radiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohli, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    There is potential for incidents/accidents related to handling of radiation sources. This is increasing due to the fact that more number of plants that too with much larger levels of activity are now coming up. Such facilities produce very high levels of exposure rates during irradiation. A person accidentally present in the irradiation cell can receive a lethal dose within a very short time. Apart from safety requirements during operation and maintenance of these facilities, safety during loading and unloading of sources is important. Category IV type irradiators are the most common. Doubly encapsulated Co-60 slugs are employed to form the source pencils. These irradiators employ a water pool for safely storing the source pencils when irradiation of the products is not going on or when human access is needed into the irradiation cell for some maintenance or source loading/unloading operations. Safety during loading/unloading operations of source pencils is important. In design itself care needs to be taken such that all such operations are convenient and any incident will not lead to a situation where it becomes difficult to come out. Different situations, which can arise during handling of radiation sources and suggested designs to obviate such tight situations, are discussed. (Author)

  5. Anthropogenic Sulfur Dioxide Emissions, 1850-2005: National and Regional Data Set by Source Category, Version 2.86

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Anthropogenic Sulfur Dioxide Emissions, 1850-2005: National and Regional Data Set by Source Category, Version 2.86 provides annual estimates of anthropogenic...

  6. Anaerobic biodegradability of Category 2 animal by-products: methane potential and inoculum source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozdniakova, Tatiana A; Costa, José C; Santos, Ricardo J; Alves, M M; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2012-11-01

    Category 2 animal by-products that need to be sterilized with steam pressure according Regulation (EC) 1774/2002 are studied. In this work, 2 sets of experiments were performed in mesophilic conditions: (i) biomethane potential determination testing 0.5%, 2.0% and 5.0% total solids (TS), using sludge from the anaerobic digester of a wastewater treatment plant as inoculum; (ii) biodegradability tests at a constant TS concentration of 2.0% and different inoculum sources (digested sludge from a wastewater treatment plant; granular sludge from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor; leachate from a municipal solid waste landfill; and sludge from the slaughterhouse wastewater treatment anaerobic lagoon) to select the more adapted inoculum to the substrate in study. The higher specific methane production was of 317 mL CH(4)g(-1) VS(substrate) for 2.0% TS. The digested sludge from the wastewater treatment plant led to the lowest lag-phase period and higher methane potential rate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Journey of a Package: Category 1 Source (Co-60) Shipment with Several Border Crossings, Multiple Modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive materials (RAM) are used extensively in a vast array of industries and in an even wider breadth of applications on a truly global basis each and every day. Over the past 50 years, these applications and the quantity (activity) of RAM shipped has grown significantly, with the next 50 years expected to show a continuing trend. The movement of these goods occurs in all regions of the world, and must therefore be conducted in a manner which will not adversely impact people or the environment. Industry and regulators have jointly met this challenge, so much so that RAM shipments are amongst the safest of any product. How has this level of performance been achieved? What is involved in shipping RAM from one corner of the world to another, often via a number of in-transit locations and often utilizing multiple modes of transport in any single shipment? This paper reviews one such journey, of Category 1 Cobalt-60 sources, as they move from point of manufacture through to point of use including the detailed and multi-approval process, the stringent regulatory requirements in place, the extensive communications required throughout, and the practical aspects needed to simply offer such a product for sale and transport. Upon completion, the rationale for such an exemplary safety and security record will be readily apparent. (author)

  8. Applications of Open Source 3-D Printing on Small Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M. Pearce

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that low-cost open-source 3-D printers can reduce costs by enabling distributed manufacturing of substitutes for both specialty equipment and conventional mass-manufactured products. The rate of 3-D printable designs under open licenses is growing exponentially and there arealready hundreds of designs applicable to small-scale organic farming. It has also been hypothesized that this technology could assist sustainable development in rural communities that rely on small-scale organic agriculture. To gauge the present utility of open-source 3-D printers in this organic farm context both in the developed and developing world, this paper reviews the current open-source designs available and evaluates the ability of low-cost 3-D printers to be effective at reducing the economic costs of farming.This study limits the evaluation of open-source 3-D printers to only the most-developed fused filament fabrication of the bioplastic polylactic acid (PLA. PLA is a strong biodegradable and recyclable thermoplastic appropriate for a range of representative products, which are grouped into five categories of prints: handtools, food processing, animal management, water management and hydroponics. The advantages and shortcomings of applying 3-D printing to each technology are evaluated. The results show a general izabletechnical viability and economic benefit to adopting open-source 3-D printing for any of the technologies, although the individual economic impact is highly dependent on needs and frequency of use on a specific farm. Capital costs of a 3-D printer may be saved from on-farm printing of a single advanced analytical instrument in a day or replacing hundreds of inexpensive products over a year. In order for the full potential of open-source 3-D printing to be realized to assist organic farm economic resiliency and self-sufficiency, future work is outlined in five core areas: designs of 3-D printable objects, 3-D printing

  9. Spectral and temporal cues for perception of material and action categories in impacted sound sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens; McAdams, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments, similarity ratings and categorization performance with recorded impact sounds representing three material categories (wood, metal, glass) being manipulated by three different categories of action (drop, strike, rattle) were examined. Previous research focusing on single impact...... correlated with the pattern of confusion in categorization judgments. Listeners tended to confuse materials with similar spectral centroids, and actions with similar temporal centroids and onset densities. To confirm the influence of these different features, spectral cues were removed by applying...

  10. Small accelerator-based pulsed cold neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanza, Richard C.

    1997-09-01

    Small neutron sources could be used by individual researchers with the convenience of an adequate local facility. Although these sources would produce lower fluxes than the national facilities, for selected applications, the convenience and availability may overcome the limitations on source strength. Such sources might also be useful for preliminary testing of ideas before going to a larger facility. Recent developments in small, high-current pulsed accelerators makes possible such a local source for pulsed cold neutrons.

  11. 48 CFR 319.202-2 - Locating small business sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locating small business... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 319.202-2 Locating small business sources. (a) OPDIVs shall foster, to the extent practicable, maximum participation by small businesses in HHS acquisitions...

  12. 48 CFR 2919.202-2 - Locating small business sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locating small business... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS AND SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS CONCERNS Policies 2919.202-2 Locating small business sources. Any procurement conducted on an unrestricted basis will include solicitations to...

  13. 48 CFR 19.202-2 - Locating small business sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locating small business... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 19.202-2 Locating small business sources. The contracting officer must, to the extent practicable, encourage maximum participation by small business...

  14. Source placement for equalization in small enclosures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefanakis, Nick; Sarris, J.; Cambourakis, G.

    2008-01-01

    ) but not with those that will deteriorate it (the "undesired" modes). Simulation results in rectangular rooms and in a car cavity show the benefits of source placement in terms of reduced overall error and increased spatial robustness in the equalization process. Additional benefits, which can be derived by proper...

  15. Source term estimation for small sized HTRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moormann, R.

    1992-08-01

    Accidents which have to be considered are core heat-up, reactivity transients, water of air ingress and primary circuit depressurization. The main effort of this paper belongs to water/air ingress and depressurization, which requires consideration of fission product plateout under normal operation conditions; for the latter it is clearly shown, that absorption (penetration) mechanisms are much less important than assumed sometimes in the past. Source term estimation procedures for core heat-up events are shortly reviewed; reactivity transients are apparently covered by them. Besides a general literature survey including identification of areas with insufficient knowledge this paper contains some estimations on the thermomechanical behaviour of fission products in water in air ingress accidents. Typical source term examples are also presented. In an appendix, evaluations of the AVR experiments VAMPYR-I and -II with respect to plateout and fission product filter efficiency are outlined and used for a validation step of the new plateout code SPATRA. (orig.)

  16. Design of small ECR ion source for neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Changgeng; Lou Benchao; Zu Xiulan; Yang Haisu; Xiong Riheng

    2003-01-01

    The principles, structures and characteristics of small ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) ion source used in the neutron generator are introduced. The processes of the design and key technique and innovations are described. (authors)

  17. Facilities for small-molecule crystallography at synchrotron sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Sarah A; Nowell, Harriott; Warren, Mark R; Wilcox, Andrian; Allan, David R

    2016-01-01

    Although macromolecular crystallography is a widely supported technique at synchrotron radiation facilities throughout the world, there are, in comparison, only very few beamlines dedicated to small-molecule crystallography. This limited provision is despite the increasing demand for beamtime from the chemical crystallography community and the ever greater overlap between systems that can be classed as either small macromolecules or large small molecules. In this article, a very brief overview of beamlines that support small-molecule single-crystal diffraction techniques will be given along with a more detailed description of beamline I19, a dedicated facility for small-molecule crystallography at Diamond Light Source.

  18. Methodologies for estimating air emissions from three non-traditional source categories: Oil spills, petroleum vessel loading and unloading, and cooling towers. Final report, October 1991-March 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, W.; Sleva, S.; Dufner, K.; Snow, S.; Kersteter, S.L.

    1993-04-01

    The report discusses part of EPA's program to identify and characterize emissions sources not currently accounted for by either the existing Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) or State Implementation Plan (SIP) area source methodologies and to develop appropriate emissions estimation methodologies and emission factors for a group of these source categories. Based on the results of the identification and characterization portions of this research, three source categories were selected for methodology and emission factor development: oil spills, petroleum vessel loading and unloading, and cooling towers. The report describes the category selection process and presents emissions estimation methodologies and emission factor data for the selected source categories. The discussions for each category include general background information, emissions generation activities, pollutants emitted, sources of activity and pollutant data, emissions estimation methodologies and data issues. The information used in these discussions was derived from various sources including available literature, industrial and trade association publications and contracts, experts on the category and activity, and knowledgeable federal and state personnel

  19. Small compact pulsed electron source for radiation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, Sergey

    2002-01-01

    The small compact pulsed electron source for radiation technologies is considered in the report. The electron source consists of pulsed high voltage Marx generator and vacuum diode with explosive emission cathode. The main parameters of electron source are next: kinetic energy is 100-150 keV, beam current is 5-200 A and pulse duration is 100-400 nsec. The distribution of absorbed doses in irradiated materials is considered. The physical feasibility of pulsed low energy electron beam for applications is considered

  20. Small-angle neutron scattering at pulsed spallation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeger, P.A.; Hjelm, R.P. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The importance of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) in biological, chemical, physical and engineering research mandates that all intense neutron sources be equipped with SANS instruments. Four existing instruments at pulsed sources are described and the general differences between pulsed-source and reactor-based instrument designs are discussed. The basic geometries are identical, but dynamic range is generally achieved by using a broad band of wavelengths (with time-of-flight analysis) rather than by moving the detector. This allows optimization for maximum beam intensity at a given beam size over the full dynamic range with fixed collimation. Data-acquisition requirements at a pulsed source are more severe, requiring large fast histrograming memories. Data reduction is also more complex, as all wavelength-dependent and angle-dependent backgrounds and nonlinearities must be accounted for before data can be transformed to intensity vs momentum transfer (Q). A comparison is shown between the Los Alamos pulsed instrument and D11 (Institut Laue-Langevin) and examples from the four major topics of the conference are shown. The general conclusion is that reactor-based instruments remain superior at very low Q or if only a narrow range of Q is required, but that the current generation of pulsed-source instruments is competitive of moderate Q and may be faster when a wide range of Q is required. (orig.)

  1. Characterizing Sources of Small DC Motor Noise and Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Thung Cho

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Small direct current (DC motors are widely used due to their low cost and compact structure. Small DC motors of various designs are available on the market in different sizes. The smaller the motor, the more closely it may be used by individuals. Contrary to the size and simplicity of these motors in terms of structural design, sources of motor noise and vibration can be quite diverse and complicated. In this study, the source of motor noise and vibration was visualized over a very wide range of frequencies. The particle velocity of the motor was reconstructed from nearfield sound pressure measurements of motor noise. In addition to noncontact measurements conducted on a motor running at constant speed, the particle velocity of a stationary motor due to the impulse of an impact hammer was measured with an accelerometer. Furthermore, motor noise was measured under motor run-up conditions with different rotational speeds. As a result, by combination of these three methods, the sources of motor noise were accurately identified over a wide range of frequencies.

  2. Contested Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drawing on social science perspectives, Contested Categories presents a series of empirical studies that engage with the often shifting and day-to-day realities of life sciences categories. In doing so, it shows how such categories remain contested and dynamic, and that the boundaries they create...

  3. Preparation of very small point sources for high resolution radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case, F.N.

    1976-01-01

    The need for very small point sources of high specific activity 192 Ir, 169 Yb, 170 Tm, and 60 Co in non-destructive testing has motivated the development of techniques for the fabrication of these sources. To prepare 192 Ir point sources for use in examination of tube sheet welds in LMFBR heat exchangers, 191 Ir enriched to greater than 90 percent was melted in a helium blanketed arc to form spheres as small as 0.38 mm in diameter. Methods were developed to form the roughly spherical shaped arc product into nearly symmetrical spheres that could be used for high resolution radiography. Similar methods were used for spherical shaped sources of 169 Yb and 170 Tm. The oxides were arc melted to form rough spheres followed by grinding to precise dimensions, neutron irradiation of the spheres at a flux of 2 to 3 x 10 15 nv, and use of enriched 168 Yb to provide the maximum specific activity. Cobalt-60 with a specific activity of greater than 1100 Ci/g was prepared by processing 59 Co that had been neutron irradiated to nearly complete burnup of the 59 Co target to produce 60 Co, 61 Ni, and 62 Ni. Ion exchange methods were used to separate the cobalt from the nickel. The cobalt was reduced to metal by plating either onto aluminum foil which was dissolved away from the cobalt plate, or by plating onto mercury to prepare amalgam that could be easily formed into a pellet of cobalt with exclusion of the mercury. Both methods are discussed

  4. Small-angle neutron scattering at pulsed sources compared to reactor sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjelm, R.P. Jr.; Seeger, P.A.; Thiyagarajan, P.

    1990-01-01

    Detailed comparisons of measurements made on small-angle neutron scattering instruments at pulsed spallation and reactor sources show that the results from the two types of instruments are comparable. It is further demonstrated that spallation instruments are preferable for measurements in the mid-momentum transfer domain or when a large domain is needed. 8 refs., 2 figs

  5. Small-angle neutron scattering at pulsed spallation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeger, P.A.; Hjelm, R.P. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The importance of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) in biological, chemical, physical, and engineering research mandates that all intense neutron sources be equipped with SANS instruments. Four existing instruments are described, and the general differences between pulsed-source and reactor-based instrument designs are discussed. The basic geometries are identical, but dynamic range is achieved by using a broad band of wavelengths (with time-of-flight analysis) rather than by moving the detector. This allows a more optimized collimation system. Data acquisition requirements at a pulsed source are more severe, requiring large, fast histogramming memories. Data reduction is also more complex, as all wave length-dependent and angle-dependent backgrounds and non-linearities must be accounted for before data can be transformed to intensity vs Q. A comparison is shown between the Los Alamos pulsed instrument and D-11 (Institute Laue-Langevin), and examples from the four major topics of the conference are shown. The general conclusion is that reactor-based instruments remain superior at very low Q or if only a narrow range of Q is required, but that the current generation of pulsed-source instruments is competitive at moderate Q and may be faster when a wide range of Q is required. In principle, a user should choose which facility to use on the basis of optimizing the experiment; in practice the tradeoffs are not severe and the choice is usually made on the basis of availability

  6. Small neutron sources as centers for innovation and science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, D.V.

    2009-01-01

    The education and training of the next generation of scientists who will form the user base for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) remains a significant issue for the future success of this national facility. These scientists will be drawn from a wide variety of disciplines (physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering) and therefore the development of an effective interdisciplinary training program represents a significant challenge. In addition, effective test facilities to develop the full potential of pulsed neutron sources for science do not exist. Each of these problems represents a significant hurdle for the future health of neutron science in this country. An essential part of the solution to both problems is to get neutron sources of useful intensities into the hands of researchers and students at universities, where faculty can teach students about neutron production and the utility of neutrons for solving scientific problems. Due to a combination of developments in proton accelerator technology, neutron optics, cold neutron moderators, computer technology, and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) instrumentation, it is now technically possible and cost effective to construct a pulsed cold neutron source suitable for use in a university setting and devoted to studies of nano structures in the fields of materials science, polymers, microemulsions, and biology. Such a source, based on (p,n) reactions in light nuclei induced by a few MeV pulsed proton beam coupled to a cold neutron moderator, would also be ideal for the study of a number of technical issues which are essential for the development of neutron science such as cold and perhaps ultracold neutron moderators, neutron optical devices, neutron detector technology, and transparent DAQ/user interfaces. At the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) we possess almost all of the required instrumentation and expertise to efficiently launch the first serious attempt to develop an intense pulsed cold

  7. Small farmers and agricultural extension : surviving on a small farm in the Netherlands and possibilities for agricultural extension to reach a hard-to-reach category

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somers, B.M.

    1991-01-01

    This dissertation reports the results of the research project "Employment in Agriculture and Extension". Primary aims of the project were: a) to identify categories of farmers who are homogeneous in their survival strategies and b) to indicate ways agricultural extension could help farmers

  8. Vrancea seismic source analysis using a small-aperture array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, E.; Popa, M.; Radulian, M.; Placinta, A.O.

    2005-01-01

    A small-aperture seismic array (BURAR) was installed in 1999 in the northern part of the Romanian territory (Bucovina area). Since then, the array has been in operation under a joint cooperation programme between Romania and USA. The array consists of 10 stations installed in boreholes (nine short period instruments and one broadband instrument) with enough high sensitivity to properly detect earthquakes generated in Vrancea subcrustal domain (at about 250 km epicentral distance) with magnitude M w below 3. Our main purpose is to investigate and calibrate the source parameters of the Vrancea intermediate-depth earthquakes using specific techniques provided by the BURAR array data. Forty earthquakes with magnitudes between 2.9 and 6.0 were selected, including the recent events of September 27, 2004 (45.70 angle N, 26.45 angle E, h = 166 km, M w = 4.7), October 27, 2004 (45.84 angle N, 26.63 angle E, h = 105 km, M w = 6.0) and May 14, 2005 (45.66 angle N, 26.52 angle E, h = 146 km, M w = 5.1), which are the best ever recorded earthquakes on the Romanian territory: Empirical Green's function deconvolution and spectral ratio methods are applied for pairs of collocated events with similar focal mechanism. Stability tests are performed for the retrieved source time function using the array elements. Empirical scaling and calibration relationships are also determined. Our study shows the capability of the BURAR array to determine the source parameters of the Vrancea intermediate-depth earthquakes as a stand alone station and proves that the recordings of this array alone provides reliable and useful tools to efficiently constrain the source parameters and consequently source scaling properties. (authors)

  9. Development of a hydrogen analysis using a small neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, I.; Tachikawa, N.; Tominaga, H.

    1998-01-01

    Most of industrial nuclear gauges are based on the use of radiation transmission through matter. This document presents new techniques to measure hydrogen using a small neutron source. A new technique has been developed for measuring the thickness of a thin layer of 30-200 μm thick plastic, which is sandwiched between two sheets of 0.6-4.2 mm in total thickness. Another technique allows to monitor residual moisture in wet refractory newly coated on the inner surface of a steel vessel from its outside through a thick steel plate. For saving on the use of coke and for strict control of furnace heating in the iron making process a new type moisture gauge was developed using simultaneous measurement of transmission rates of both fast neutrons and gamma rays from 252 Cf

  10. NEED TO DEFINE SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTREPRISES AS ECONOMIC CATEGORY IN THE CONTEXT OF EUROPEAN UNION INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana DOGA-MÎRZAC

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently with particular attention of small and medium enterprises, whose existence in the economic structure of a country is absolutely indispensable. We know that they always represent a special role in economic and social life of society, being out in the revival of many economies. With the emergence and assertion of small and medium business in economies that are in the process of developing a new phenomenon and a central component of any program of economic reform, accepting a global perspective on the phenomenon, represents an essential condition to achieve a relevant research. A central point of departure in research problems of small and medium enterprises presents how they are defined, comparing definitions, the role of this type of business and health policies in different countries and that type of business impact analysis macroeconomic structure. The fundamental purpose of this research is focused on the development of contributions to the foundation of small and middle business in the context of integration into the European Union.

  11. Liver transplantation from maastricht category 2 non-heart-beating donors: a source to increase the donor pool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, A; Gómez-Gutiérrez, M; Suárez, F; Arnal, F; Fernández-García, A; Aguirrezabalaga, J; García-Buitrón, J; Alvarez, J; Máñez, R

    2004-04-01

    The demand for liver transplantation has increasingly exceeded the supply of cadaver donor organs. Non-heart-beating donors (NHBDs) may be an alternative to increase the cadaver donor pool. The outcome of 20 liver transplants from Maastricht category 2 NHBD was compared with that of 40 liver transplants from heart-beating donors (HBDs). After unsuccessful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), cardiopulmonary support with simultaneous application of chest and abdominal compression (CPS; n = 6) or cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB; n = 14) was used to maintain the donors. At a minimum follow-up of 2 years, actuarial patient and graft survival rates with livers from Maastricht category 2 NHBD were 80% and 55%, respectively. Transplantation of organs from these donors was associated with a significantly higher incidence of primary nonfunction, biliary complications, and more severe initial liver dysfunction compared with organs from HBDs. The graft survival rates was 83% for livers from NHBDs preserved with CPS and 42% in those maintained with CPB.

  12. Category I structures program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endebrock, E.G.; Dove, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    The objective of the Category I Structure Program is to supply experimental and analytical information needed to assess the structural capacity of Category I structures (excluding the reactor cntainment building). Because the shear wall is a principal element of a Category I structure, and because relatively little experimental information is available on the shear walls, it was selected as the test element for the experimental program. The large load capacities of shear walls in Category I structures dictates that the experimental tests be conducted on small size shear wall structures that incorporates the general construction details and characteristics of as-built shear walls

  13. Neutron gauging applications using a small 252Cf source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helf, S.

    1975-01-01

    The use of a small 252 Cf source, in the 3 to 4 μg range, for neutron gauging applications is described. Emphasis is placed on determination of low concentrations of moisture in homogeneous media, e.g., solvents, explosives, dried food products, etc. and on measurement of charge or fill weight of hydrogenous materials in sealed items, e.g., propellant in a cartridge case. Both moderation of fast neutrons and attenuation of thermalized neutrons have been explored for these applications. Parameters related to the attainment of optimum sensitivity for each method are discussed. Fast neutron moderation is superior for low level moisture measurement whereas thermal neutron attenuation is more sensitive for ''neutron weighing'' applications. Under optimum conditions, sensitivity for moisture measurement approaches 0.1 weight percent whereas ''neutron weighing'' can detect changes in hydrogeneous material content as little as a fraction of a gram. Examples are given for each technique. A number of different thermal neutron detectors are compared for neutron gauging measurements. A 6 LiI (Eu) scintillation detector is judged to be superior with regard to high thermal neutron detection efficiency and low fast neutron and gamma ray response. In this study, emphasis is placed on the use of simple, portable equipment easily adaptable to field or plant use and for on-line process or quality control. (U.S.)

  14. NBS SURF 11: A small versatile synchrotron light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakowsky, G.

    1981-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation sources do not have to be large multi-megadollar installations. SURF II is based on a compact electron storage ring with a radius of only 0.84 m, an operating energy of 250 MeV, and useful light output down to 5 nm. Small beam size, high brightness and wide-angle light ports give SURF II unique capabilities. Presently five beamlines are instrumented and operational, supporting experiments in atomic and molecular physics, surface science and materials studies, as well as providing optical calibration services. Nearing completion is a large facility for calibrating optical instruments, especially those intended for space flight. The capability of determining the absolute light flux emitted by SURF II has recently been improved and is now operational. The technique employs ultralinear silicon photodiodes to detect and count individual electrons in the stored beam. Other user conveniences include close access to the machine, flexible scheduling and close interaction with the operations staff. The machine's simplicity contributes to reliability and a high ratio of beamtime to downtime

  15. Evaluating sources and processing of nonpoint source nitrate in a small suburban watershed in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Li; Huang, Minsheng; Ma, Minghai; Wei, Jinbao; Hu, Wei; Chouhan, Seema

    2018-04-01

    Identifying nonpoint sources of nitrate has been a long-term challenge in mixed land-use watershed. In the present study, we combine dual nitrate isotope, runoff and stream water monitoring to elucidate the nonpoint nitrate sources across land use, and determine the relative importance of biogeochemical processes for nitrate export in a small suburban watershed, Longhongjian watershed, China. Our study suggested that NH4+ fertilizer, soil NH4+, litter fall and groundwater were the main nitrate sources in Longhongjian Stream. There were large changes in nitrate sources in response to season and land use. Runoff analysis illustrated that the tea plantation and forest areas contributed to a dominated proportion of the TN export. Spatial analysis illustrated that NO3- concentration was high in the tea plantation and forest areas, and δ15N-NO3 and δ18O-NO3 were enriched in the step ponds. Temporal analysis showed high NO3- level in spring, and nitrate isotopes were enriched in summer. Study as well showed that the step ponds played an important role in mitigating nitrate pollution. Nitrification and plant uptake were the significant biogeochemical processes contributing to the nitrogen transformation, and denitrification hardly occurred in the stream.

  16. Development document for the effluent limitations and guidelines for the ore mining and dressing point source category. Volume I. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarrett, B.M.; Kirby, R.G.

    1978-07-01

    To establish effluent limitation guidelines and standards of performance, the ore mining and dressing industry was divided into 41 separate categories and subcategories for which separate limitations were recommended. This report deals with the entire metal-ore mining and dressing industry and examines the industry by ten major categories: iron ore; copper ore; lead and zinc ores; gold ore; silver ore; bauxite ore; ferroalloy-metal ores; mercury ores; uranium, radium and vanadium ores; and metal ores, not elsewhere classified ((ores of antimony, beryllium, pltinum, rare earths, tin, titanium, and zirconium). The subcategorization of the ore categories is based primarily upon ore mineralogy and processing or extraction methods employed; however, other factors (such as size, climate or location, and method of mining) are used in some instances. With the best available technology economically achievable, facilities in 21 of the 41 subcategories can be operated with no discharge of process wastewater to navigable waters. No discharge of process wastewater is also achievable as a new source performance standard for facilities in 21 of the 41 subcategories

  17. Organizational Categories as Viewing Categories

    OpenAIRE

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores how two Danish rehabilitation organizations textual guidelines for assessment of clients’ personality traits influence the actual evaluation of clients. The analysis will show how staff members produce institutional identities corresponding to organizational categories, which very often have little or no relevance for the clients evaluated. The goal of the article is to demonstrate how the institutional complex that frames the work of the organizations produces the client ...

  18. Attribution of aerosol radiative forcing over India during the winter monsoon to emissions from source categories and geographical regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S.; Venkataraman, C.; Boucher, O.

    2011-08-01

    We examine the aerosol radiative effects due to aerosols emitted from different emission sectors (anthropogenic and natural) and originating from different geographical regions within and outside India during the northeast (NE) Indian winter monsoon (January-March). These studies are carried out through aerosol transport simulations in the general circulation (GCM) model of the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (LMD). The model estimates of aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA) show lower values (0.86-0.92) over the region north to 10°N comprising of the Indian subcontinent, Bay of Bengal, and parts of the Arabian Sea compared to the region south to 10°N where the estimated SSA values lie in the range 0.94-0.98. The model estimated SSA is consistent with the SSA values inferred through measurements on various platforms. Aerosols of anthropogenic origin reduce the incoming solar radiation at the surface by a factor of 10-20 times the reduction due to natural aerosols. At the top-of-atmosphere (TOA), aerosols from biofuel use cause positive forcing compared to the negative forcing from fossil fuel and natural sources in correspondence with the distribution of SSA which is estimated to be the lowest (0.7-0.78) from biofuel combustion emissions. Aerosols originating from India and Africa-west Asia lead to the reduction in surface radiation (-3 to -8 W m -2) by 40-60% of the total reduction in surface radiation due to all aerosols over the Indian subcontinent and adjoining ocean. Aerosols originating from India and Africa-west Asia also lead to positive radiative effects at TOA over the Arabian Sea, central India (CNI), with the highest positive radiative effects over the Bay of Bengal and cause either negative or positive effects over the Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP).

  19. Quasiballistic heat removal from small sources studied from first principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeersch, Bjorn; Mingo, Natalio

    2018-01-01

    Heat sources whose characteristic dimension R is comparable to phonon mean free paths display thermal resistances that exceed conventional diffusive predictions. This has direct implications to (opto)electronics thermal management and phonon spectroscopy. Theoretical analyses have so far limited themselves to particular experimental configurations. Here, we build upon the multidimensional Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) to derive universal expressions for the apparent conductivity suppression S (R ) =κeff(R ) /κbulk experienced by radially symmetric 2D and 3D sources. In striking analogy to cross-plane heat conduction in thin films, a distinct quasiballistic regime emerges between ballistic (κeff˜R ) and diffusive (κeff≃κbulk ) asymptotes that displays a logarithmic dependence κeff˜ln(R ) in single crystals and fractional power dependence κeff˜R2 -α in alloys (with α the Lévy superdiffusion exponent). Analytical solutions and Monte Carlo simulations for spherical and circular heat sources in Si, GaAs, Si0.99Ge0.01 , and Si0.82Ge0.18 , all carried out from first principles, confirm the predicted generic tendencies. Contrary to the thin film case, common approximations like kinetic theory estimates κeff≃∑Sωgreyκω and modified Fourier temperature curves perform relatively poorly. Up to threefold deviations from the BTE solutions for sub-100 nm sources underline the need for rigorous treatment of multidimensional nondiffusive transport.

  20. Polymer and small molecule based hybrid light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, Vi-En; Choulis, Stelios; Krummacher, Benjamin Claus; Mathai, Mathew; So, Franky

    2010-03-16

    An organic electroluminescent device, includes: a substrate; a hole-injecting electrode (anode) coated over the substrate; a hole injection layer coated over the anode; a hole transporting layer coated over the hole injection layer; a polymer based light emitting layer, coated over the hole transporting layer; a small molecule based light emitting layer, thermally evaporated over the polymer based light emitting layer; and an electron-injecting electrode (cathode) deposited over the electroluminescent polymer layer.

  1. Small Area Model-Based Estimators Using Big Data Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchetti Stefano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The timely, accurate monitoring of social indicators, such as poverty or inequality, on a finegrained spatial and temporal scale is a crucial tool for understanding social phenomena and policymaking, but poses a great challenge to official statistics. This article argues that an interdisciplinary approach, combining the body of statistical research in small area estimation with the body of research in social data mining based on Big Data, can provide novel means to tackle this problem successfully. Big Data derived from the digital crumbs that humans leave behind in their daily activities are in fact providing ever more accurate proxies of social life. Social data mining from these data, coupled with advanced model-based techniques for fine-grained estimates, have the potential to provide a novel microscope through which to view and understand social complexity. This article suggests three ways to use Big Data together with small area estimation techniques, and shows how Big Data has the potential to mirror aspects of well-being and other socioeconomic phenomena.

  2. Energy harvesting: small scale energy production from ambient sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeatman, Eric M.

    2009-03-01

    Energy harvesting - the collection of otherwise unexploited energy in the local environment - is attracting increasing attention for the powering of electronic devices. While the power levels that can be reached are typically modest (microwatts to milliwatts), the key motivation is to avoid the need for battery replacement or recharging in portable or inaccessible devices. Wireless sensor networks are a particularly important application: the availability of essentially maintenance free sensor nodes, as enabled by energy harvesting, will greatly increase the feasibility of large scale networks, in the paradigm often known as pervasive sensing. Such pervasive sensing networks, used to monitor buildings, structures, outdoor environments or the human body, offer significant benefits for large scale energy efficiency, health and safety, and many other areas. Sources of energy for harvesting include light, temperature differences, and ambient motion, and a wide range of miniature energy harvesters based on these sources have been proposed or demonstrated. This paper reviews the principles and practice in miniature energy harvesters, and discusses trends, suitable applications, and possible future developments.

  3. Consumer Product Category Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use information is compiled from multiple sources while product information is gathered from publicly available Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS). EPA researchers are evaluating the possibility of expanding the database with additional product and use information.

  4. Volumetric dispenser for small particles from plural sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, R.A.; Miller, W.H.; Sease, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    Apparatus is described for rapidly and accurately dispensing measured volumes of small particles from a supply hopper. The apparatus includes an adjustable, vertically oriented measuring tube and orifice member defining the volume to be dispensed, a ball plug valve for selectively closing the bottom end of the orifice member, and a compression valve for selectively closing the top end of the measuring tube. A supply hopper is disposed above and in gravity flow communication with the measuring tube. Properly sequenced opening and closing of the two valves provides accurate volumetric discharge through the ball plug valve. A dispensing system is described wherein several appropriately sized measuring tubes, orifice members, and associated valves are arranged to operate contemporaneously to facilitate blending of different particles

  5. The impact of municipal waste combustion in small heat sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantúch, Martin; Kaduchová, Katarína; Lenhard, Richard

    2016-06-01

    At present there is a tendency to make greater use for heating houses for burning solid fuel, such as pieces of wood, coal, coke, local sources of heat to burn natural gas. This tendency is given both the high price of natural gas as well as the availability of cheaper solid fuel. In many cases, in the context saving heating costs, respectively in the context of the disposal of waste is co-incinerated with municipal solid fuels and wastes of different composition. This co entails increased production emissions such as CO (carbon monoxide), NOx (nitrogen oxides), particulate matter (particulate matter), PM10, HCl (hydrogen chloride), PCDD/F (polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans), PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) and others. The experiment was focused on the emission factors from the combustion of fossil fuels in combination with municipal waste in conventional boilers designed to burn solid fuel.

  6. Identification and characterization of five non-traditional-source categories: Catastrophic/accidental releases, vehicle repair facilities, recycling, pesticide application, and agricultural operations. Final report, September 1991-September 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sleva, S.; Pendola, J.A.; McCutcheon, J.; Jones, K.; Kersteter, S.L.

    1993-03-01

    The work is part of EPA's program to identify and characterize emissions sources not currently accounted for by either the existing Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) or State Implementation Plans (SIP) area source methodologies and to develop appropriate emissions estimation methodologies and emission factors for a group of these source categories. Based on the results of the identification and characterization portions of the research, five source categories were selected for methodology and emission factor development: catastrophic/accidental releases, vehicle repair facilities, recycling, pesticide application and agricultural operations. The report presents emissions estimation methodologies and emission factor data for the selected source categories. The discussions for each selected category include general background information, emissions generation activities, pollutants emitted, sources of activity and pollutant data, emissions estimation methodologies, issues to be considered and recommendations. The information used in these discussions was derived from various sources including available literature, industrial and trade association publications and contracts, experts on the category and activity, and knowledgeable federal and state personnel

  7. Sediment sources in a small agricultural catchment: A composite fingerprinting approach based on the selection of potential sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huiping; Chang, Weina; Zhang, Longjiang

    2016-08-01

    Fingerprinting techniques have been widely used as a reasonable and reliable means for investigating sediment sources, especially in relatively large catchments in which there are significant differences in surface materials. However, the discrimination power of fingerprint properties for small catchments, in which the surface materials are relatively homogeneous and human interference is marked, may be affected by fragmentary or confused source information. Using fingerprinting techniques can be difficult, and there is still a need for further studies to verify the effectiveness of such techniques in these small catchments. A composite fingerprinting approach was used in this study to investigate the main sources of sediment output, as well as their relative contributions, from a small catchment (30 km2) with high levels of farming and mining activities. The impact of the selection of different potential sediment sources on the derivation of composite fingerprints and its discrimination power were also investigated by comparing the results from different combinations of potential source types. The initial source types and several samples that could cause confusion were adjusted. These adjustments improved the discrimination power of the composite fingerprints. The results showed that the composite fingerprinting approach used in this study had a discriminatory efficiency of 89.2% for different sediment sources and that the model had a mean goodness of fit of 0.90. Cultivated lands were the main sediment source. The sediment contribution of the studied cultivated lands ranged from 39.9% to 87.8%, with a mean of 76.6%, for multiple deposited sediment samples. The mean contribution of woodlands was 21.7%. Overall, the sediment contribution from mining and road areas was relatively low. The selection of potential sources is an important factor in the application of fingerprinting techniques and warrants more attention in future studies, as is the case with other

  8. Anthropogenic nutrient sources rival natural sources on small scales in the coastal waters of the Southern California Bight

    KAUST Repository

    Howard, Meredith D. A.

    2014-01-26

    Anthropogenic nutrients have been shown to provide significant sources of nitrogen (N) that have been linked to increased primary production and harmful algal blooms worldwide. There is a general perception that in upwelling regions, the flux of anthropogenic nutrient inputs is small relative to upwelling flux, and therefore anthropogenic inputs have relatively little effect on the productivity of coastal waters. To test the hypothesis that natural sources (e.g., upwelling) greatly exceed anthropogenic nutrient sources to the Southern California Bight (SCB), this study compared the source contributions of N from four major nutrient sources: (1) upwelling, (2) treated wastewater effluent discharged to ocean outfalls, (3) riverine runoff, and (4) atmospheric deposition. This comparison was made using large regional data sets combined with modeling on both regional and local scales. At the regional bight-wide spatial scale, upwelling was the largest source of N by an order of magnitude to effluent and two orders of magnitude to riverine runoff. However, at smaller spatial scales, more relevant to algal bloom development, natural and anthropogenic contributions were equivalent. In particular, wastewater effluent and upwelling contributed the same quantity of N in several subregions of the SCB. These findings contradict the currently held perception that in upwelling-dominated regions anthropogenic nutrient inputs are negligible, and suggest that anthropogenic nutrients, mainly wastewater effluent, can provide a significant source of nitrogen for nearshore productivity in Southern California coastal waters.

  9. Anthropogenic nutrient sources rival natural sources on small scales in the coastal waters of the Southern California Bight

    KAUST Repository

    Howard, Meredith D. A.; Sutula, Martha; Caron, David A.; Chao, Yi; Farrara, John D.; Frenzel, Hartmut; Jones, Burton; Robertson, George; McLaughlin, Karen; Sengupta, Ashmita

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic nutrients have been shown to provide significant sources of nitrogen (N) that have been linked to increased primary production and harmful algal blooms worldwide. There is a general perception that in upwelling regions, the flux of anthropogenic nutrient inputs is small relative to upwelling flux, and therefore anthropogenic inputs have relatively little effect on the productivity of coastal waters. To test the hypothesis that natural sources (e.g., upwelling) greatly exceed anthropogenic nutrient sources to the Southern California Bight (SCB), this study compared the source contributions of N from four major nutrient sources: (1) upwelling, (2) treated wastewater effluent discharged to ocean outfalls, (3) riverine runoff, and (4) atmospheric deposition. This comparison was made using large regional data sets combined with modeling on both regional and local scales. At the regional bight-wide spatial scale, upwelling was the largest source of N by an order of magnitude to effluent and two orders of magnitude to riverine runoff. However, at smaller spatial scales, more relevant to algal bloom development, natural and anthropogenic contributions were equivalent. In particular, wastewater effluent and upwelling contributed the same quantity of N in several subregions of the SCB. These findings contradict the currently held perception that in upwelling-dominated regions anthropogenic nutrient inputs are negligible, and suggest that anthropogenic nutrients, mainly wastewater effluent, can provide a significant source of nitrogen for nearshore productivity in Southern California coastal waters.

  10. Source Distribution Method for Unsteady One-Dimensional Flows With Small Mass, Momentum, and Heat Addition and Small Area Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirels, Harold

    1959-01-01

    A source distribution method is presented for obtaining flow perturbations due to small unsteady area variations, mass, momentum, and heat additions in a basic uniform (or piecewise uniform) one-dimensional flow. First, the perturbations due to an elemental area variation, mass, momentum, and heat addition are found. The general solution is then represented by a spatial and temporal distribution of these elemental (source) solutions. Emphasis is placed on discussing the physical nature of the flow phenomena. The method is illustrated by several examples. These include the determination of perturbations in basic flows consisting of (1) a shock propagating through a nonuniform tube, (2) a constant-velocity piston driving a shock, (3) ideal shock-tube flows, and (4) deflagrations initiated at a closed end. The method is particularly applicable for finding the perturbations due to relatively thin wall boundary layers.

  11. A mechanical velocity selector for a small angle scattering instrument on a pulsed neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meardon, B.H.; Stewart, R.J.; Williams, W.G.

    1978-11-01

    Design parameters and performance calculations are given for a straight-slot velocity selector which can be used for discriminating between elastic and inelastic scattering events in small angle scattering experiments on a pulsed neutron source. The selector has a high transmittance over the wavelength range 3 A 5%. (author)

  12. Nanofiltration Membranes for Removal of Color and Pathogens in Small Public Drinking Water Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small public water supplies that use surface water as a source for drinking water are frequently faced with elevated levels of color and natural organic matter (NOM) that are precursors for chlorinated disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation. Nanofiltration (NF) systems can preve...

  13. Computational Acoustic Beamforming for Noise Source Identification for Small Wind Turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ping; Lien, Fue-Sang; Yee, Eugene

    2017-01-01

    This paper develops a computational acoustic beamforming (CAB) methodology for identification of sources of small wind turbine noise. This methodology is validated using the case of the NACA 0012 airfoil trailing edge noise. For this validation case, the predicted acoustic maps were in excellent conformance with the results of the measurements obtained from the acoustic beamforming experiment. Following this validation study, the CAB methodology was applied to the identification of noise sources generated by a commercial small wind turbine. The simulated acoustic maps revealed that the blade tower interaction and the wind turbine nacelle were the two primary mechanisms for sound generation for this small wind turbine at frequencies between 100 and 630 Hz.

  14. Acoustic Source Localization via Subspace Based Method Using Small Aperture MEMS Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Small aperture microphone arrays provide many advantages for portable devices and hearing aid equipment. In this paper, a subspace based localization method is proposed for acoustic source using small aperture arrays. The effects of array aperture on localization are analyzed by using array response (array manifold. Besides array aperture, the frequency of acoustic source and the variance of signal power are simulated to demonstrate how to optimize localization performance, which is carried out by introducing frequency error with the proposed method. The proposed method for 5 mm array aperture is validated by simulations and experiments with MEMS microphone arrays. Different types of acoustic sources can be localized with the highest precision of 6 degrees even in the presence of wind noise and other noises. Furthermore, the proposed method reduces the computational complexity compared with other methods.

  15. Size of nuclear sources from measurements of proton-proton correlations at small relative momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebreyend, D.; Kox, S.; Merchez, F.; Noren, B.; Perrin, C.; Khelfaoui, B.; Gondrand, J.C.; Bondorf, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    This contribution will present recent measurements performed on light heavy ion reactions at intermediate energies. Nuclear source sizes were determined by measuring the correlation at small relative momentum, between two protons detected in the EMRIC set-up. This technique allows the determination of the extent of the emitting source by constructing a correlation function for the coincident protons and analyzing it in the framework of a final state interaction model. We found the apparent source size to be large compared to the dimension of the studied system and low sensitivity of the extracted radii as a function of the target mass and detection angle. We will show that simulations may be needed to fully estimate the correlation induced by detectors with small angular acceptance

  16. Development opportunities for small and medium scale accelerator driven neutron sources. Proceedings of a technical meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    Neutron applications in the life sciences will be a rapidly growing research area in the near future, as neutrons can provide unique information on the reaction dynamics of complex biomolecular systems, complementing other analytical techniques such as electron microscopy, X rays and nuclear magnetic resonance. Small and medium power spallation neutron sources will become more important, as many small neutron producing research reactors are being phased out. Recent developments in accelerator technology have made it possible to produce useful neutron fluxes at accelerator facilities suitable for universities and industrial laboratories. In addition to basic research these alternative neutron sources will be important for educational and training purposes. In a wider perspective this technology should make it possible to introduce neutron research and applications to industrial and national research centres in IAEA Member States that are unable to afford a high energy spallation neutron source and have no access to a research reactor

  17. A small-scale modular reactor for electric source for remote places

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    Use of a small-scale modular reactor (SMR) as an electric source for remote places is one of scenarios for actual use of SMR parallel to alternative source of present nuclear power stations and co-generation source at urban suburbs, there is not only an actual experience to construct and operate for power source for military use in U.S.A. on 1950s to 1960s, but also four nuclear reactors (LWGR, 12 MW) in Vilyvino Nuclear Power Station in far northern district in Russia are under operation. Recently, Department of Energy in U.S.A. prepared the 'Report to Congress on Small Modular Nuclear Reactors' evaluating on feasibility of SMR as a power source for remote places according to requirement of the Congress. This report evaluated a feasibility study on nine SMRs in the world with 10 to 50 MW of output as electric source for remote places on economical efficiency and so on, together with analysis of their design concepts, to conclude that 'they could perform beginning of operations on 2000s because of no large technical problems and keeping a level capable of competing with power generation cost at remote place on its present economical efficiency'. Here was introduced on outlines of this report. (G.K.)

  18. Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, L.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the sources of radiation in the narrow perspective of radioactivity and the even narrow perspective of those sources that concern environmental management and restoration activities at DOE facilities, as well as a few related sources. Sources of irritation, Sources of inflammatory jingoism, and Sources of information. First, the sources of irritation fall into three categories: No reliable scientific ombudsman to speak without bias and prejudice for the public good, Technical jargon with unclear definitions exists within the radioactive nomenclature, and Scientific community keeps a low-profile with regard to public information. The next area of personal concern are the sources of inflammation. This include such things as: Plutonium being described as the most dangerous substance known to man, The amount of plutonium required to make a bomb, Talk of transuranic waste containing plutonium and its health affects, TMI-2 and Chernobyl being described as Siamese twins, Inadequate information on low-level disposal sites and current regulatory requirements under 10 CFR 61, Enhanced engineered waste disposal not being presented to the public accurately. Numerous sources of disinformation regarding low level radiation high-level radiation, Elusive nature of the scientific community, The Federal and State Health Agencies resources to address comparative risk, and Regulatory agencies speaking out without the support of the scientific community

  19. Small-scale hydroelectric power in the Pacific Northwest: new impetus for an old energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    Energy supply is one of the most important issues facing Northwestern legislators today. To meet the challenge, state legislatures must address the development of alternative energy sources. The Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Policy Project of the National Conference of State Legislators (NCSL) was designed to assist state legislators in looking at the benefits of one alternative, small-scale hydro. Because of the need for state legislative support in the development of small-scale hydroelectric, NCSL, as part of its contract with the Department of Energy, conducted the following conference on small-scale hydro in the Pacific Northwest. The conference was designed to identify state obstacles to development and to explore options for change available to policymakers. A summary of the conference proceedings is presented.

  20. Example Annual Certification & Compliance Reports for Sources with and without Visible Emissions Testing: NESHAP Area Source Standards for Nine Metal Fabrication and Finishing Source Categories 40 CFR 63 Subpart XXXXXX

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains examples of the type of information that must be submitted to fulfill the Notification of Compliance Status requirement of 40 CFR 63, subpart XXXXXX for sources reporting and not reporting visible emissions information.

  1. Small-angle scattering at a pulsed neutron source: comparison with a steady-state reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borso, C S; Carpenter, J M; Williamson, F S; Holmblad, G L; Mueller, M H; Faber, J Jr; Epperson, J E; Danyluk, S S [Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)

    1982-08-01

    A time-of-flight small-angle diffractometer employing seven tapered collimator elements and a two-dimensional gas proportional counter was successfully utilized to collect small-angle scattering data from a solution sample of the lipid salt cetylpyridinium chloride, C/sub 21/H/sub 38/N/sup +/.Cl/sup -/, at the Argonne National Laboratory prototype pulsed spallation neutron source, ZING-P'. Comparison of the small-angle scattering observed from the same compound at the University of Missouri Research Reactor corroborated the ZING-P' results. The results are used to compare the neutron flux available from the ZING-P' source relative to the well characterized University of Missouri source. Calculations based on experimentally determined parameters indicated the time-averaged rate of detected neutrons at the ZING-P' pulsed spallation source to have been at least 33% higher than the steady-state count rate from the same sample. Differences between time-of-flight techniques and conventional steady-state techniques are discussed.

  2. Global sourcing risk management approaches: A study of small clothing and textile retailers in Gauteng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Niemann

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Global sourcing has increased as buyers searched for new markets that offered better pricing, quality, variety and delivery lead times than their local markets. However, the increase in global sourcing has also exposed businesses to many supply risks. Purpose: The purpose of this descriptive qualitative study was to explore the global sourcing supply risks encountered by small clothing and textile retailers in Gauteng and to determine what supply risk identification and management approaches they utilise. Method: This study utilised semi-structured interviews conducted with 12 small clothing and textile retail owners. Results: The study found that the three major supply risks encountered by these retailers were fluctuating exchange rates, communication barriers and costly and complicated logistics, which included high customs costs. Furthermore, although aware of the supply risks, none of the small clothing and textile retailers had formal identification and management approaches in place. Instead, risks are dealt with at the sole discretion of the owner as and when they occur. The study also found that informal identification and management approaches were being applied by some of the retailers. These included factoring exchange rate fluctuations into the profit margins and using translators to combat communication barriers. Contribution: The study is one of the first empirical studies conducted on global supply risks and the associated identification and management approaches in the South African small business context, specifically focused on clothing and textile retailers. Conclusion: Small clothing and textile retailers need to proactively identify and manage global sourcing risk using the identified approaches in order to reduce and mitigate potential supply disruptions.

  3. Open-Source Medical Devices (OSMD) Design of a Small Animal Radiotherapy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, S.; Mackie, T. R.; Jeraj, R.

    2014-03-01

    Open-Source Medical Devices (OSMD) was initiated with the goal of facilitating medical research by developing medical technologies including both hardware and software on an open-source platform. Our first project was to develop an integrated imaging and radiotherapy device for small animals that includes computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET) and radiation therapy (RT) modalities for which technical specifications were defined in the first OSMD conference held in Madison, Wisconsin, USA in December 2011. This paper specifically focuses on the development of a small animal RT (micro-RT) system by designing a binary micro multileaf collimator (bmMLC) and a small animal treatment planning system (SATPS) to enable intensity modulated RT (IMRT). Both hardware and software projects are currently under development and their current progresses are described. After the development, both bmMLC and TPS will be validated and commissioned for a micro-RT system. Both hardware design and software development will be open-sourced after completion.

  4. BENEFITS AND SUCCESS FACTORS OF OPEN-SOURCE WEB SERVICES DEVELOPMENT PLATFORMS FOR SMALL SOFTWARE HOUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter de Assis Moreno Jr.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It is usually difficult for companies to keep up with the development of new information technologies and adapt to them in face of the opportunities and threats their advances may represent. This is especially true for small and medium enterprises (SME in emerging economies, where resources tend to be scarce and markets more volatile. This paper describes an action research conducted in a small Brazilian software house that adopted an open-source Web Services development platform in order to improve its software development process. Data analysis revealed critical success factors (CSF in the adoption process, as well as specific benefits and barriers prone to be faced by small software houses in their adoption efforts. In the process of overcoming such barriers, SME may acquire intellectual capital that represents an essential resource to ensure their competitiveness and survival in emerging economies.

  5. Assessment of the sources of error affecting the quantitative accuracy of SPECT imaging in small animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joint Graduate Group in Bioengineering, University of California, San Francisco and University of California, Berkeley; Department of Radiology, University of California; Gullberg, Grant T; Hwang, Andrew B.; Franc, Benjamin L.; Gullberg, Grant T.; Hasegawa, Bruce H.

    2008-02-15

    Small animal SPECT imaging systems have multiple potential applications in biomedical research. Whereas SPECT data are commonly interpreted qualitatively in a clinical setting, the ability to accurately quantify measurements will increase the utility of the SPECT data for laboratory measurements involving small animals. In this work, we assess the effect of photon attenuation, scatter and partial volume errors on the quantitative accuracy of small animal SPECT measurements, first with Monte Carlo simulation and then confirmed with experimental measurements. The simulations modeled the imaging geometry of a commercially available small animal SPECT system. We simulated the imaging of a radioactive source within a cylinder of water, and reconstructed the projection data using iterative reconstruction algorithms. The size of the source and the size of the surrounding cylinder were varied to evaluate the effects of photon attenuation and scatter on quantitative accuracy. We found that photon attenuation can reduce the measured concentration of radioactivity in a volume of interest in the center of a rat-sized cylinder of water by up to 50percent when imaging with iodine-125, and up to 25percent when imaging with technetium-99m. When imaging with iodine-125, the scatter-to-primary ratio can reach up to approximately 30percent, and can cause overestimation of the radioactivity concentration when reconstructing data with attenuation correction. We varied the size of the source to evaluate partial volume errors, which we found to be a strong function of the size of the volume of interest and the spatial resolution. These errors can result in large (>50percent) changes in the measured amount of radioactivity. The simulation results were compared with and found to agree with experimental measurements. The inclusion of attenuation correction in the reconstruction algorithm improved quantitative accuracy. We also found that an improvement of the spatial resolution through the

  6. IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FIVE NON- TRADITIONAL SOURCE CATEGORIES: CATASTROPHIC/ACCIDENTAL RELEASES, VEHICLE REPAIR FACILITIES, RECYCLING, PESTICIDE APPLICATION, AND AGRICULTURAL OPERATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of work that is part of EPA's program to identify and characterize emissions sources not currently accounted for by either the existing Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) or State Implementation Plan (SIP) area source methodologies and to deve...

  7. Optimization and control of a small angle ion source using an adaptive neural network controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, S.K.; Mead, W.C.; Bowling, P.S.; Jones, R.D.; Barnes, C.W.

    1993-09-01

    This project developed an automated controller based on an artificial neural network and evaluated its applicability in a real-time environment. This capability was developed within the context of a small angle negative ion source on the Discharge Test Stand at Los Alamos. The controller processes information obtained from the beam current waveform, developing a figure of merit (fom) to determine the ion source operating conditions. The fom is composed of the magnitude of the beam current, the stability of operation, and the quietness of the beam. Using no knowledge of operating conditions, the controller begins by making of rough scan of the four-dimensional operating surface. This surface uses as independent variables the anode and cathode temperatures, the hydrogen flow rate, and the arc voltage. `Me dependent variable is the fom described above. Once the rough approximation of the surface has been determined, the network formulates a model from which it determines the best operating point. The controller takes the ion source to that operating point for a reality check. As real data is fed in, the model of the operating surface is updated until the neural network`s model agrees with reality. The controller then uses a gradient ascent method to optimize the operation of the ion source. Initial tests of the controller indicate that it is remarkably capable. It has optimized the operation of the ion source on six different occasions bringing the beam to excellent quality and stability.

  8. Distributions, Sources, and Backward Trajectories of Atmospheric Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons at Lake Small Baiyangdian, Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Qin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Air samples were collected seasonally at Lake Small Baiyangdian, a shallow lake in northern China, between October 2007 and September 2008. Gas phase, particulate phase and dust fall concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were measured using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS. The distribution and partitioning of atmospheric PAHs were studied, and the major sources were identified; the backward trajectories of air masses starting from the center of Lake Small Baiyangdian were calculated for the entire year. The following results were obtained: (1 The total concentration of 16 priority controlled PAHs (PAH16 in the gas phase was 417.2±299.8 ng·m−3, in the particulate phase was 150.9±99.2 ng·m−3, and in dust fall was 6930.2±3206.5 ng·g−1. (2 Vehicle emission, coal combustion, and biomass combustion were the major sources in the Small Baiyangdian atmosphere and accounted for 28.9%, 45.1% and 26.0% of the total PAHs, respectively. (3 Winter was dominated by relatively greater PAHs polluted northwesterly air mass pathways. Summer showed a dominant relatively clean southern pathway, whereas the trajectories in autumn and spring might be associated with high pollution from Shanxi or Henan province.

  9. Categories from scratch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poss, R.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of category from mathematics happens to be useful to computer programmers in many ways. Unfortunately, all "good" explanations of categories so far have been designed by mathematicians, or at least theoreticians with a strong background in mathematics, and this makes categories

  10. Distinguishing spatiotemporal variability of sediment sources in small urbanized catchment as a response to urban expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, Vladimir; Feoktistov, Artem; Huygens, Dries; Shamshurina, Eugenia; Golosov, Valentin

    2014-05-01

    for distinguishing contributions of different sediment sources into catchment sediment budgets on a reliable quantitative basis. In combination with microstratigraphic differentiation and dating of sediment in continuous deposition zones by 137Cs depth distribution curves and available land use records, spatial and temporal variability of sediment sources and sinks can be reconstructed for the last several decades. That is especially important for catchments which experienced profound land use changes such as transition from pristine or agriculture-dominated to urbanized environment. The example presented here describes the results of reconstruction of changing sediment source types, contributions and spatial patterns for small reservoir catchment within the city of Kursk (Sredenerusskaya Upland, Central European Russia). Combination of compound specific stable isotopes, 137Cs, sediment grain size composition, land use information for several time intervals and daily rainfall record for the Kursk meteorological station (conveniently located within the study catchment) have been employed in order to evaluate major sediment sources within the catchment, their spatial pattern and temporal changes and compare those to history of reservoir sedimentation. The reservoir is situated on the Kur River - small river which gave its name to the city itself. The dam and reservoir were constructed and put into operation in 1969, thus the beginning of its infill is located stratigraphically later than the main peak of the global 137Cs fallout. It has been found that transition from dominantly agricultural land use to urbanized conditions caused decrease of contribution of soil erosion from cultivated land and increase of that of the active gullies into reservoir sedimentation. However, it is important to note that during extreme runoff events contribution of sediment originated from soil erosion on arable land still remains dominant, even though its area within the catchment recently

  11. I19, the small-molecule single-crystal diffraction beamline at Diamond Light Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowell, Harriott; Barnett, Sarah A; Christensen, Kirsten E; Teat, Simon J; Allan, David R

    2012-05-01

    The dedicated small-molecule single-crystal X-ray diffraction beamline (I19) at Diamond Light Source has been operational and supporting users for over three years. I19 is a high-flux tunable-wavelength beamline and its key details are described in this article. Much of the work performed on the beamline involves structure determination from small and weakly diffracting crystals. Other experiments that have been supported to date include structural studies at high pressure, studies of metastable species, variable-temperature crystallography, studies involving gas exchange in porous materials and structural characterizations that require analysis of the diffuse scattering between Bragg reflections. A range of sample environments to facilitate crystallographic studies under non-ambient conditions are available as well as a number of options for automation. An indication of the scope of the science carried out on the beamline is provided by the range of highlights selected for this paper.

  12. Case study of open-source enterprise resource planning implementation in a small business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, David L.; Staley, Jesse

    2012-02-01

    Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems have been recognised as offering great benefit to some organisations, although they are expensive and problematic to implement. The cost and risk make well-developed proprietorial systems unaffordable to small businesses. Open-source software (OSS) has become a viable means of producing ERP system products. The question this paper addresses is the feasibility of OSS ERP systems for small businesses. A case is reported involving two efforts to implement freely distributed ERP software products in a small US make-to-order engineering firm. The case emphasises the potential of freely distributed ERP systems, as well as some of the hurdles involved in their implementation. The paper briefly reviews highlights of OSS ERP systems, with the primary focus on reporting the case experiences for efforts to implement ERPLite software and xTuple software. While both systems worked from a technical perspective, both failed due to economic factors. While these economic conditions led to imperfect results, the case demonstrates the feasibility of OSS ERP for small businesses. Both experiences are evaluated in terms of risk dimension.

  13. Time-of-flight small-angle scattering spectrometers on pulsed neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostanevich, Yu.M.

    1987-01-01

    The operation principles, constructions, advantages and shortcomings of known time-of-flight small angle neutron scattering (TOF SANS) spectrometers built up with pulsed neutron sources are reviewed. The most important characteristics of TOF SANS apparatuses are rather a high luminosity and the possibility for the measurement in an extremely wide range of scattering vector at a single exposure. This is achieved by simultaneous employment of white beam, TOF technique for wave length-scan and the commonly known angle-scan. However, the electronic equipment, data-matching programs, and the measurement procedure, necessary for accurate normalization of experimental data and their transformation into absolute cross-section scale, they all become more complex, as compared with those for SANS apparatuses operating on steady-state neutron sources, where only angle-scan is used

  14. Multiple Spectral Ratio Analyses Reveal Earthquake Source Spectra of Small Earthquakes and Moment Magnitudes of Microearthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchide, T.; Imanishi, K.

    2016-12-01

    Spectral studies for macroscopic earthquake source parameters are helpful for characterizing earthquake rupture process and hence understanding earthquake source physics and fault properties. Those studies require us mute wave propagation path and site effects in spectra of seismograms to accentuate source effect. We have recently developed the multiple spectral ratio method [Uchide and Imanishi, BSSA, 2016] employing many empirical Green's function (EGF) events to reduce errors from the choice of EGF events. This method helps us estimate source spectra more accurately as well as moment ratios among reference and EGF events, which are useful to constrain the seismic moment of microearthquakes. First, we focus on earthquake source spectra. The source spectra have generally been thought to obey the omega-square model with single corner-frequency. However recent studies imply the existence of another corner frequency for some earthquakes. We analyzed small shallow inland earthquakes (3.5 multiple spectral ratio analyses. For 20000 microearthquakes in Fukushima Hamadori and northern Ibaraki prefecture area, we found that the JMA magnitudes (Mj) based on displacement or velocity amplitude are systematically below Mw. The slope of the Mj-Mw relation is 0.5 for Mj 5. We propose a fitting curve for the obtained relationship as Mw = (1/2)Mj + (1/2)(Mjγ + Mcorγ)1/γ+ c, where Mcor is a corner magnitude, γ determines the sharpness of the corner, and c denotes an offset. We obtained Mcor = 4.1, γ = 5.6, and c = -0.47 to fit the observation. The parameters are useful for characterizing the Mj-Mw relationship. This non-linear relationship affects the b-value of the Gutenberg-Richter law. Quantitative discussions on b-values are affected by the definition of magnitude to use.

  15. A small-plane heat source method for measuring the thermal conductivities of anisotropic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liang; Yue, Kai; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Xinxin

    2017-07-01

    A new small-plane heat source method was proposed in this study to simultaneously measure the in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities of anisotropic insulating materials. In this method the size of the heat source element is smaller than the sample size and the boundary condition is thermal insulation due to no heat flux at the edge of the sample during the experiment. A three-dimensional model in a rectangular coordinate system was established to exactly describe the heat transfer process of the measurement system. Using the Laplace transform, variable separation, and Laplace inverse transform methods, the analytical solution of the temperature rise of the sample was derived. The temperature rises calculated by the analytical solution agree well with the results of numerical calculation. The result of the sensitivity analysis shows that the sensitivity coefficients of the estimated thermal conductivities are high and uncorrelated to each other. At room temperature and in a high-temperature environment, experimental measurements of anisotropic silica aerogel were carried out using the traditional one-dimensional plane heat source method and the proposed method, respectively. The results demonstrate that the measurement method developed in this study is effective and feasible for simultaneously obtaining the in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities of the anisotropic materials.

  16. Opportunities of energy supply of farm holdings on the basis of small-scale renewable energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efendiev, A. M.; Nikolaev, Yu. E.; Evstaf'ev, D. P.

    2016-02-01

    One of the major national economic problems of Russia is raising of agricultural production, which will provide strategic security and sustainable supply of the population with provisions. Creation of subsidiary small holdings, farm holdings, and peasant farm holdings will require addressing issues of energy supply. At considerable distance of small farms from centralized energy systems (by fuel, electricity and thermal energy) it is proposed to create a system of local energy networks on the basis of low-powered power plants using renewable energy sources (RES). There is economic unreasonableness of use of imported components of small power plants. Creation of new combined small power plants on renewable energy sources produced by domestic manufacturers is recommended. Schemes of arrangements of small power plants based on renewable energy sources are proposed, variants and characteristics of a basic source are provided—biogas plants developed by the authors. Calculations revealed that heat and power supply of self-contained farms distant from small power plants based on renewable energy sources is 2.5-2.6 times cheaper than from centralized networks. Production of biogas through anaerobic fermentation of organic waste of cattle complexes is considered as the basis. The analysis of biowaste output in various cattle farms is carried out, and the volume of biogas is determined to meet the requirements of these farms in electrical and thermal energy. The objective of the present article is to study the possibility of creating small combined power plants in Russia based on renewable sources of energy for independent consumers.

  17. Blocking in Category Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bott, Lewis; Hoffman, Aaron B.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2007-01-01

    Many theories of category learning assume that learning is driven by a need to minimize classification error. When there is no classification error, therefore, learning of individual features should be negligible. We tested this hypothesis by conducting three category learning experiments adapted from an associative learning blocking paradigm. Contrary to an error-driven account of learning, participants learned a wide range of information when they learned about categories, and blocking effe...

  18. Anthropogenic water sources and the effects on Sonoran Desert small mammal communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron B. Switalski

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic water sources (AWS are developed water sources used as a management tool for desert wildlife species. Studies documenting the effects of AWS are often focused on game species; whereas, the effects on non-target wildlife are less understood. We used live trapping techniques to investigate rodent abundance, biomass, and diversity metrics near AWS and paired control sites; we sampled vegetation to determine rodent-habitat associations in the Sauceda Mountains of the Sonoran Desert in Arizona. A total of 370 individual mammals representing three genera and eight species were captured in 4,800 trap nights from winter 2011 to spring 2012. A multi-response permutation procedure was used to identify differences in small mammal community abundance and biomass by season and treatment. Rodent abundance, biomass, and richness were greater at AWS compared to control sites. Patterns of abundance and biomass were driven by the desert pocket mouse (Chaetodipus penicillatus which was the most common capture and two times more numerous at AWS compared to controls. Vegetation characteristics, explored using principal components analysis, were similar between AWS and controls. Two species that prefer vegetation structure, Bailey’s pocket mouse (C. baileyi and white-throated woodrat (Neotoma albigula, had greater abundances and biomass near AWS and were associated with habitat having high cactus density. Although small mammals do not drink free-water, perhaps higher abundances of some species of desert rodents at AWS could be related to artificial structure associated with construction or other resources. Compared to the 30-year average of precipitation for the area, the period of our study occurred during a dry winter. During dry periods, perhaps AWS provide resources to rodents related to moisture.

  19. Anthropogenic water sources and the effects on Sonoran Desert small mammal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switalski, Aaron B; Bateman, Heather L

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic water sources (AWS) are developed water sources used as a management tool for desert wildlife species. Studies documenting the effects of AWS are often focused on game species; whereas, the effects on non-target wildlife are less understood. We used live trapping techniques to investigate rodent abundance, biomass, and diversity metrics near AWS and paired control sites; we sampled vegetation to determine rodent-habitat associations in the Sauceda Mountains of the Sonoran Desert in Arizona. A total of 370 individual mammals representing three genera and eight species were captured in 4,800 trap nights from winter 2011 to spring 2012. A multi-response permutation procedure was used to identify differences in small mammal community abundance and biomass by season and treatment. Rodent abundance, biomass, and richness were greater at AWS compared to control sites. Patterns of abundance and biomass were driven by the desert pocket mouse ( Chaetodipus penicillatus ) which was the most common capture and two times more numerous at AWS compared to controls. Vegetation characteristics, explored using principal components analysis, were similar between AWS and controls. Two species that prefer vegetation structure, Bailey's pocket mouse ( C. baileyi ) and white-throated woodrat ( Neotoma albigula) , had greater abundances and biomass near AWS and were associated with habitat having high cactus density. Although small mammals do not drink free-water, perhaps higher abundances of some species of desert rodents at AWS could be related to artificial structure associated with construction or other resources. Compared to the 30-year average of precipitation for the area, the period of our study occurred during a dry winter. During dry periods, perhaps AWS provide resources to rodents related to moisture.

  20. Categories and logical syntax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klev, Ansten Morch

    2014-01-01

    The notions of category and type are here studied through the lens of logical syntax: Aristotle's as well as Kant's categories through the traditional form of proposition `S is P', and modern doctrines of type through the Fregean form of proposition `F(a)', function applied to argument. Topics

  1. Computing color categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yendrikhovskij, S.N.; Rogowitz, B.E.; Pappas, T.N.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to develop a coherent framework for understanding, modeling, and computing color categories. The main assumption is that the structure of color category systems originates from the statistical structure of the perceived color environment. This environment can be modeled as

  2. The current status of small-angle x-ray scattering beamline at Diamond Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Katsuaki; Doutch, James; Terrill, Nick

    2013-01-01

    The small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) covers the major disciplines of biology, chemistry and physics delivering structural and dynamic information in nanoscience, mesoscopic architectures, supramolecular structures, and nucleation/growth of crystals. SAXS is also proving to be important in archaeological, environmental, and conservation sciences, and has further indicated its ability to span wide-ranging scientific disciplines. Thus, strong needs for SAXS studies are increasing significantly in a broad range of scientific fields year by year. Based on such a background, the demand for high throughput SAXS experiments is increasing. At the synchrotron facility, Diamond Light Source, one SAXS beamline, Non-crystalline diffraction I22 is now operational and highly automated throughput small-angle X-ray scattering (HATSAXS) beamline B21 is now under construction. I22 is the Undulator beamline and wide varieties of experiments, including time-resolved experiments are attempted. Based on the concept of HATSAXS, the key feature of B21 will focuses on the automation of end-station equipment. A automated sample changer has been purchased for solution SAXS measurements on biomolecules. A robotic-arm-type automated sample changer that is capable of handling several kinds of samples in material science is also being constructed. B21 is expected to successfully provide all users highly automated throughput measurements with the highest possible reliability and accuracy. Construction of this beamline will end in the second half of 2012, and will be open for users in the early summer of 2013 after commissioning. (author)

  3. Noise Source Identification of Small Fan-BLDC Motor System for Refrigerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Han Kim

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise levels in household appliances are increasingly attracting attention from manufacturers and customers. Legislation is becoming more severe on acceptable noise levels and low noise is a major marketing point for many products. The latest trend in the refrigerator manufacturing industry is to use brushless DC (BLDC motors instead of induction motors in order to reduce energy consumption and noise radiation. However, cogging torque from BLDC motor is an undesirable effect that prevents the smooth rotation of the rotor and results in noise. This paper presents a practical approach for identifying the source of excessive noise in the small fan-motor system for household refrigerators. The source is presumed to a mechanical resonance excited by torque ripple of the BLDC motor. By using finite element analysis, natural frequencies and mode shapes of the rotating part of the system are obtained and they are compared with experimental mode shapes obtained by electronic torsional excitation test which uses BLDC motor itself as an exciter. Two experimental validations are carried out to confirm the reduction of excessive noise.

  4. Small-angle scattering instruments on a 1 MW long pulse spallation source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olah, G.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., Chemical Science and Tehcnology Div., Biosciences and Biotechnology Group, Los aalamos, NM (United States); Hjelm, R.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., Neutron Scattering Center, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Seeger, P.A.

    1995-11-01

    We have designed and optimized two small-angle neutron scattering instruments for installation at a 1 MW long pulse spallation source. The first of these instruments measures a Q-domain from 0.002 to 0.44 A{sup -1}, and the second instrument from 0.00069-0.17 A{sup -1}, Design characteristics were determined and optimization was done using a Monte Carlo instrument simulation package under development at Los alamos. A performance comparison was made between these instruments with D11 at the ILL by evaluating the scattered intensity and rms resolution for the instrument response function at different Q values for various instrument configurations needed to spn a Q-range of 0.0007-0.44 A{sup -1}. We concluded that the first of these instruments outperforms D11 in both intensity and resolution over most of the Q-domain and that the second is comparable to D11. Comparisons were also made of the performance of the optimized long pulse instruments with different reflectors and with a short pulse source, from which we concluded that there is an optimal moderator-reflector combination, and that a short pulse does not substantially improve the instrument performance. (author) 7 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs.

  5. Small-angle scattering instruments on a 1 MW long pulse spallation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olah, G.A.; Hjelm, R.P.; Seeger, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    We have designed and optimized two small-angle neutron scattering instruments for installation at a 1 MW long pulse spallation source. The first of these instruments measures a Q-domain from 0.002 to 0.44 A -1 , and the second instrument from 0.00069-0.17 A -1 , Design characteristics were determined and optimization was done using a Monte Carlo instrument simulation package under development at Los alamos. A performance comparison was made between these instruments with D11 at the ILL by evaluating the scattered intensity and rms resolution for the instrument response function at different Q values for various instrument configurations needed to spn a Q-range of 0.0007-0.44 A -1 . We concluded that the first of these instruments outperforms D11 in both intensity and resolution over most of the Q-domain and that the second is comparable to D11. Comparisons were also made of the performance of the optimized long pulse instruments with different reflectors and with a short pulse source, from which we concluded that there is an optimal moderator-reflector combination, and that a short pulse does not substantially improve the instrument performance. (author) 7 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs

  6. Neutron beam design for low intensity neutron and gamma-ray radioscopy using small neutron sources

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, T

    2003-01-01

    Two small neutron sources of sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf and sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am-Be radioisotopes were used for design of neutron beams applicable to low intensity neutron and gamma ray radioscopy (LINGR). In the design, Monte Carlo code (MCNP) was employed to generate neutron and gamma ray beams suited to LINGR. With a view to variable neutron spectrum and neutron intensity, various arrangements were first examined, and neutron-filter, gamma-ray shield and beam collimator were verified. Monte Carlo calculations indicated that with a suitable filter-shield-collimator arrangement, thermal neutron beam of 3,900 ncm sup - sup 2 s sup - sup 1 with neutron/gamma ratio of 7x10 sup 7 , and 25 ncm sup - sup 2 s sup - sup 1 with very large neutron/gamma ratio, respectively, could be produced by using sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf(122 mu g) and a sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am-Be(37GBq)radioisotopes at the irradiation port of 35 cm from the neutron sources.

  7. Open-source, small-animal magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorman, Megan E; Chaplin, Vandiver L; Wilkens, Ken; Dockery, Mary D; Giorgio, Todd D; Grissom, William A; Caskey, Charles F

    2016-01-01

    MR-guided focused ultrasound or high-intensity focused ultrasound (MRgFUS/MRgHIFU) is a non-invasive therapeutic modality with many potential applications in areas such as cancer therapy, drug delivery, and blood-brain barrier opening. However, the large financial costs involved in developing preclinical MRgFUS systems represent a barrier to research groups interested in developing new techniques and applications. We aim to mitigate these challenges by detailing a validated, open-source preclinical MRgFUS system capable of delivering thermal and mechanical FUS in a quantifiable and repeatable manner under real-time MRI guidance. A hardware and software package was developed that includes closed-loop feedback controlled thermometry code and CAD drawings for a therapy table designed for a preclinical MRI scanner. For thermal treatments, the modular software uses a proportional integral derivative controller to maintain a precise focal temperature rise in the target given input from MR phase images obtained concurrently. The software computes the required voltage output and transmits it to a FUS transducer that is embedded in the delivery table within the magnet bore. The delivery table holds the FUS transducer, a small animal and its monitoring equipment, and a transmit/receive RF coil. The transducer is coupled to the animal via a water bath and is translatable in two dimensions from outside the magnet. The transducer is driven by a waveform generator and amplifier controlled by real-time software in Matlab. MR acoustic radiation force imaging is also implemented to confirm the position of the focus for mechanical and thermal treatments. The system was validated in tissue-mimicking phantoms and in vivo during murine tumor hyperthermia treatments. Sonications were successfully controlled over a range of temperatures and thermal doses for up to 20 min with minimal temperature overshoot. MR thermometry was validated with an optical temperature probe, and focus

  8. CHARACTERIZING THE POPULATION OF BRIGHT INFRARED SOURCES IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, K. E.; Sloan, G. C.; Wood, P. R.; Jones, O. C.; Egan, M. P.

    2017-01-01

    We have used the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope to observe stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) selected from the Point Source Catalog of the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX). We concentrate on the dust properties of the oxygen-rich evolved stars. The dust composition has smaller contributions from alumina compared to the Galaxy. This difference may arise from the lower metallicity in the SMC, but it could be a selection effect, as the SMC sample includes more stars that are brighter and thus more massive. The distribution of the SMC stars along the silicate sequence looks more like the Galactic sample of red supergiants than asymptotic giant branch stars (AGBs). While many of the SMC stars are definitively on the AGB, several also show evidence of hot bottom burning. Three of the supergiants show PAH emission at 11.3 μ m. Two other sources show mixed chemistry, with both carbon-rich and oxygen-rich spectral features. One, MSX SMC 134, may be the first confirmed silicate/carbon star in the SMC. The other, MSX SMC 049, is a candidate post-AGB star. MSX SMC 145, previously considered a candidate OH/IR star, is actually an AGB star with a background galaxy at z  = 0.16 along the same line of sight. We consider the overall characteristics of all the MSX sources, the most infrared-bright objects in the SMC, in light of the higher sensitivity and resolution of Spitzer , and compare them with the object types expected from the original selection criteria. This population represents what will be seen in more distant galaxies by the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope ( JWST ). Color–color diagrams generated from the IRS spectra and the mid-infrared filters on JWST show how one can separate evolved stars from young stellar objects (YSOs) and distinguish among different classes of YSOs.

  9. CHARACTERIZING THE POPULATION OF BRIGHT INFRARED SOURCES IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraemer, K. E. [Institute for Scientific Research, Boston College, 140 Commonwealth Avenue, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467 (United States); Sloan, G. C. [Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Wood, P. R. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek ACT 2611 (Australia); Jones, O. C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Egan, M. P., E-mail: kathleen.kraemer@bc.edu, E-mail: sloan@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: wood@mso.anu.edu.au, E-mail: michael.p.egan@nga.mil [National Geospatial Intelligence Agency, 7500 GEOINT Drive, Springfield, VA 22150 (United States)

    2017-01-10

    We have used the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope to observe stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) selected from the Point Source Catalog of the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX). We concentrate on the dust properties of the oxygen-rich evolved stars. The dust composition has smaller contributions from alumina compared to the Galaxy. This difference may arise from the lower metallicity in the SMC, but it could be a selection effect, as the SMC sample includes more stars that are brighter and thus more massive. The distribution of the SMC stars along the silicate sequence looks more like the Galactic sample of red supergiants than asymptotic giant branch stars (AGBs). While many of the SMC stars are definitively on the AGB, several also show evidence of hot bottom burning. Three of the supergiants show PAH emission at 11.3 μ m. Two other sources show mixed chemistry, with both carbon-rich and oxygen-rich spectral features. One, MSX SMC 134, may be the first confirmed silicate/carbon star in the SMC. The other, MSX SMC 049, is a candidate post-AGB star. MSX SMC 145, previously considered a candidate OH/IR star, is actually an AGB star with a background galaxy at z  = 0.16 along the same line of sight. We consider the overall characteristics of all the MSX sources, the most infrared-bright objects in the SMC, in light of the higher sensitivity and resolution of Spitzer , and compare them with the object types expected from the original selection criteria. This population represents what will be seen in more distant galaxies by the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope ( JWST ). Color–color diagrams generated from the IRS spectra and the mid-infrared filters on JWST show how one can separate evolved stars from young stellar objects (YSOs) and distinguish among different classes of YSOs.

  10. Triangulated categories (AM-148)

    CERN Document Server

    Neeman, Amnon

    2014-01-01

    The first two chapters of this book offer a modern, self-contained exposition of the elementary theory of triangulated categories and their quotients. The simple, elegant presentation of these known results makes these chapters eminently suitable as a text for graduate students. The remainder of the book is devoted to new research, providing, among other material, some remarkable improvements on Brown''s classical representability theorem. In addition, the author introduces a class of triangulated categories""--the ""well generated triangulated categories""--and studies their properties. This

  11. Analysis of rare categories

    CERN Document Server

    He, Jingrui

    2012-01-01

    This book focuses on rare category analysis where the majority classes have smooth distributions and the minority classes exhibit the compactness property. It focuses on challenging cases where the support regions of the majority and minority classes overlap.

  12. Consumer Product Category Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use...

  13. Product Category Management Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Żukowska, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to present the issues related to category management. It includes the overview of category management definitions and the correct process of exercising it. Moreover, attention is paid to the advantages of brand management, the benefits the supplier and retailer may obtain in this way. The risk element related to this topics is also presented herein. Joanna Żukowska

  14. Source term estimation for small sized HTRs: status and further needs - a german approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moormann, R.; Schenk, W.; Verfondern, K.

    2000-01-01

    The main results of German studies on source term estimation for small pebble-bed HTRs with their strict safety demands are outlined. Core heat-up events are no longer dominant for modern high quality fuel, but fission product transport during water ingress accidents (steam cycle plants) and depressurization is relevant, mainly due to remobilization of fission products which were plated-out in the course of normal operation or became dust borne. An important lack of knowledge was identified as concerns data on plate-out under normal operation, as well as on the behaviour of dust borne activity as a whole. Improved knowledge in this field is also important for maintenance/repair and design/shielding. For core heat-up events the influence of burn-up on temperature induced fission product release has to be measured for future high burn-up fuel. Also, transport mechanisms out of the He circuit into the environment require further examination. For water/steam ingress events mobilization of plated-out fission products by steam or water has to be considered in detail, along with steam interaction with kernels of particles with defective coatings. For source terms of depressurization, a more detailed knowledge of the flow pattern and shear forces on the various surfaces is necessary. In order to improve the knowledge on plate-out and dust in normal operation and to generate specimens for experimental remobilization studies, planning/design of plate-out/dust examination facilities which could be added to the next generation of HTRs (HTR10,HTTR) is proposed. For severe air ingress and reactivity accidents, behaviour of future advanced fuel elements has to be experimentally tested. (authors)

  15. A Formal Calculus for Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cáccamo, Mario José

    This dissertation studies the logic underlying category theory. In particular we present a formal calculus for reasoning about universal properties. The aim is to systematise judgements about functoriality and naturality central to categorical reasoning. The calculus is based on a language which...... extends the typed lambda calculus with new binders to represent universal constructions. The types of the languages are interpreted as locally small categories and the expressions represent functors. The logic supports a syntactic treatment of universality and duality. Contravariance requires a definition...... of universality generous enough to deal with functors of mixed variance. Ends generalise limits to cover these kinds of functors and moreover provide the basis for a very convenient algebraic manipulation of expressions. The equational theory of the lambda calculus is extended with new rules for the definitions...

  16. Design parameters for a small storage ring optimized as an x-ray lithography source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grobman, W.D.

    1983-01-01

    This paper examines the design parameters for a ''compact storage ring'' which is matched well to x-ray lithographic requirements, but is as small as possible. This calculation uses a model of a lithographic system which obtains its input parameters from a technology of mask, resist and beam line based on the IBM program at the Brookhaven National Laboratory vacuum ultraviolet electron storage ring. Based on this lithographic system, we model exposure throughput as a function of storage ring parameters to understand which storage ring designs provide adequate but not excessive soft x-ray flux in the lithographically important region. Our scan of storage ring sources will cover a wide range of energies and magnetic fields, to permit consideration of superconducting as well as more standard strong- or weak-focusing designs. Furthermore, we will show that the results of the calculations presented here can be scaled in a simple way to cover a wide range of x-ray lithography system assumptions

  17. FIMTrack: An open source tracking and locomotion analysis software for small animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Risse

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Imaging and analyzing the locomotion behavior of small animals such as Drosophila larvae or C. elegans worms has become an integral subject of biological research. In the past we have introduced FIM, a novel imaging system feasible to extract high contrast images. This system in combination with the associated tracking software FIMTrack is already used by many groups all over the world. However, so far there has not been an in-depth discussion of the technical aspects. Here we elaborate on the implementation details of FIMTrack and give an in-depth explanation of the used algorithms. Among others, the software offers several tracking strategies to cover a wide range of different model organisms, locomotion types, and camera properties. Furthermore, the software facilitates stimuli-based analysis in combination with built-in manual tracking and correction functionalities. All features are integrated in an easy-to-use graphical user interface. To demonstrate the potential of FIMTrack we provide an evaluation of its accuracy using manually labeled data. The source code is available under the GNU GPLv3 at https://github.com/i-git/FIMTrack and pre-compiled binaries for Windows and Mac are available at http://fim.uni-muenster.de.

  18. Models as Relational Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkonen, Tommi

    2017-11-01

    Model-based learning (MBL) has an established position within science education. It has been found to enhance conceptual understanding and provide a way for engaging students in authentic scientific activity. Despite ample research, few studies have examined the cognitive processes regarding learning scientific concepts within MBL. On the other hand, recent research within cognitive science has examined the learning of so-called relational categories. Relational categories are categories whose membership is determined on the basis of the common relational structure. In this theoretical paper, I argue that viewing models as relational categories provides a well-motivated cognitive basis for MBL. I discuss the different roles of models and modeling within MBL (using ready-made models, constructive modeling, and generative modeling) and discern the related cognitive aspects brought forward by the reinterpretation of models as relational categories. I will argue that relational knowledge is vital in learning novel models and in the transfer of learning. Moreover, relational knowledge underlies the coherent, hierarchical knowledge of experts. Lastly, I will examine how the format of external representations may affect the learning of models and the relevant relations. The nature of the learning mechanisms underlying students' mental representations of models is an interesting open question to be examined. Furthermore, the ways in which the expert-like knowledge develops and how to best support it is in need of more research. The discussion and conceptualization of models as relational categories allows discerning students' mental representations of models in terms of evolving relational structures in greater detail than previously done.

  19. Categories of transactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter discusses the types of wholesale sales made by utilities. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), which regulates inter-utility sales, divides these sales into two broad categories: requirements and coordination. A variety of wholesale sales do not fall neatly into either category. For example, power purchased to replace the Three Mile Island outage is in a sense a reliability purchase, since it is bought on a long-term firm basis to meet basic load requirements. However, it does not fit the traditional model of a sale considered as part of each utility's long range planning. In addition, this chapter discusses transmission services, with a particular emphasis on wheeling

  20. Potentials and economic viability of small grain residue use as a source of energy in Serbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zekic, Vladislav; Rodic, Vesna; Jovanovic, Milenko [University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology, Trg Dositeja Obradovica 8, 21000 Novi Sad, Vojvodina (RS)

    2010-12-15

    One of the numerous challenges awaiting Serbia in the process of European integration is the increase in use of renewable sources of energy. The reason for such an increase is not merely a formal acceptance of European goals but the high energy import dependence, a relatively developed agricultural sector, with insufficiently exploited potentials of biomass, accompanied by an ever-growing awareness of the need for establishing long-lasting sustainable development. Serbia has a relatively undeveloped livestock sector which can absorb a limited portion of the biomass produced. Additionally, insufficient awareness on the part of farmers and the preconception of the low cost-effectiveness of biomass utilisation for the purpose of energy production are factors which, unsurprisingly, contribute to the current practice of burning the largest portion of the biomass produced on site, which is economically and ecologically unacceptable. This paper analyses the amounts of biomass available in Serbia and the prospects of its economically viable utilisation. The cost analysis conducted indicates that the energy obtained from small rectangular straw bales (the most widespread way of utilisation), is less costly by 28%, than the energy obtained from coal, whereas the energy obtained from round bales is cheaper by 34%. Sensitivity analysis has shown that the results obtained are relatively resistant to price changes in the most important inputs. The sensitivity is higher towards the efficiency of the machinery used; therefore, insistent efforts should be made for creating conditions where the introduction of more up-to-date technical solutions, already existing in developed countries, will become feasible. (author)

  1. Basic category theory

    CERN Document Server

    Leinster, Tom

    2014-01-01

    At the heart of this short introduction to category theory is the idea of a universal property, important throughout mathematics. After an introductory chapter giving the basic definitions, separate chapters explain three ways of expressing universal properties: via adjoint functors, representable functors, and limits. A final chapter ties all three together. The book is suitable for use in courses or for independent study. Assuming relatively little mathematical background, it is ideal for beginning graduate students or advanced undergraduates learning category theory for the first time. For each new categorical concept, a generous supply of examples is provided, taken from different parts of mathematics. At points where the leap in abstraction is particularly great (such as the Yoneda lemma), the reader will find careful and extensive explanations. Copious exercises are included.

  2. Calculation of economic viability of alternative energy sources considering its environmental costs for small communities of Northeast Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stecher, Luiza Chourkalo

    2014-01-01

    There has been an increasing concern about current environmental issues caused by human activity, as the world searches for development. The production of electricity is an extremely relevant factor in this scenario since it is responsible for a large portion of the emissions that cause the greenhouse effect. Due to this fact, a sustainable development with alternative energy sources, which are attractive for such purpose, must be proposed, especially in places that are not supplied by the conventional electricity grid such as many communities in the Northeast Brazil. This work aims to calculate the environmental cost for the alternative sources of energy - solar, wind and biomass - during electricity generation, and to estimate the economic feasibility of those sources in small communities of Northeast Brazil, considering the avoided costs. The externalities must be properly identified and valued so the costs or benefits can be internalized and reflect accurately the economic feasibility or infeasibility of those sources. For this, the method of avoided costs was adopted for the calculation of externalities. This variable was included in the equation developed for all considered alternative energy sources. The calculations of economic feasibility were performed taking the new configurations in consideration, and the new equation was reprogrammed in the Programa de Calculo de Custos de Energias Alternativas, Solar, Eolica e Biomassa (PEASEB). The results demonstrated that the solar photovoltaic energy in isolated systems is the most feasible and broadly applicable source for small communities of Northeast Brazil. (author)

  3. CHURCH, Category, and Speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinderknecht Jakob Karl

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Roman Catholic definition of “church”, especially as applied to groups of Protestant Christians, creates a number of well-known difficulties. The similarly complex category, “species,” provides a model for applying this term so as to neither lose the centrality of certain examples nor draw a hard boundary to rule out border cases. In this way, it can help us to more adequately apply the complex ecclesiology of the Second Vatican Council. This article draws parallels between the understanding of speciation and categorization and the definition of Church since the council. In doing so, it applies the work of cognitive linguists, including George Lakoff, Zoltan Kovecses, Giles Fauconnier and Mark Turner on categorization. We tend to think of categories as containers into which we sort objects according to essential criteria. However, categories are actually built inductively by making associations between objects. This means that natural categories, including species, are more porous than we assume, but nevertheless bear real meaning about the natural world. Taxonomists dispute the border between “zebras” and “wild asses,” but this distinction arises out of genetic and evolutionary reality; it is not merely arbitrary. Genetic descriptions of species has also led recently to the conviction that there are four species of giraffe, not one. This engagement will ground a vantage point from which the Council‘s complex ecclesiology can be more easily described so as to authentically integrate its noncompetitive vision vis-a-vis other Christians with its sense of the unique place held by Catholic Church.

  4. Visual memory needs categories

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Henrik; Poom, Leo

    2005-01-01

    Capacity limitations in the way humans store and process information in working memory have been extensively studied, and several memory systems have been distinguished. In line with previous capacity estimates for verbal memory and memory for spatial information, recent studies suggest that it is possible to retain up to four objects in visual working memory. The objects used have typically been categorically different colors and shapes. Because knowledge about categories is stored in long-t...

  5. Libertarianism & Category-Mistake

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos G. Patarroyo G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers a defense against two accusations according to which libertarianism incurs in a category-mistake. The philosophy of Gilbert Ryle will be used to explain the reasons which ground these accusations. Further, it will be shown why, although certain sorts of libertarianism based on agent-causation or Cartesian dualism incur in these mistakes, there is at least one version of libertarianism to which this criticism does not necessarily apply: the version that seeks to find in physi...

  6. Convergence semigroup categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Richardson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Properties of the category consisting of all objects of the form (X, S, λ are investigated, where X is a convergence space, S is a commutative semigroup, and λ: X × S → X is a continuous action. A “generalized quotient” of each object is defined without making the usual assumption that for each fixed g ∈ S, λ(., g : X  → X is an injection.

  7. Categories and Commutative Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Salmon, P

    2011-01-01

    L. Badescu: Sur certaines singularites des varietes algebriques.- D.A. Buchsbaum: Homological and commutative algebra.- S. Greco: Anelli Henseliani.- C. Lair: Morphismes et structures algebriques.- B.A. Mitchell: Introduction to category theory and homological algebra.- R. Rivet: Anneaux de series formelles et anneaux henseliens.- P. Salmon: Applicazioni della K-teoria all'algebra commutativa.- M. Tierney: Axiomatic sheaf theory: some constructions and applications.- C.B. Winters: An elementary lecture on algebraic spaces.

  8. Pollutant source identification model for water pollution incidents in small straight rivers based on genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shou-ping; Xin, Xiao-kang

    2017-07-01

    Identification of pollutant sources for river pollution incidents is an important and difficult task in the emergency rescue, and an intelligent optimization method can effectively compensate for the weakness of traditional methods. An intelligent model for pollutant source identification has been established using the basic genetic algorithm (BGA) as an optimization search tool and applying an analytic solution formula of one-dimensional unsteady water quality equation to construct the objective function. Experimental tests show that the identification model is effective and efficient: the model can accurately figure out the pollutant amounts or positions no matter single pollution source or multiple sources. Especially when the population size of BGA is set as 10, the computing results are sound agree with analytic results for a single source amount and position identification, the relative errors are no more than 5 %. For cases of multi-point sources and multi-variable, there are some errors in computing results for the reasons that there exist many possible combinations of the pollution sources. But, with the help of previous experience to narrow the search scope, the relative errors of the identification results are less than 5 %, which proves the established source identification model can be used to direct emergency responses.

  9. An active electrode for biopotential recording from small localized bio-sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallikarakis Nicolas E

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laser bio-stimulation is a well-established procedure in Medical Acupuncture. Nevertheless there is still a confusion as to whether it works or the effect is just placebo. Although a plethora of scientific papers published, showing positive clinical results, there is still a lack of objective scientific proofs about the bio-stimulation effect of lasers used in Acupuncture. The objective of this work was to design and build a body surface electrode and an amplifier for biopotential recording from acupuncture points, considered here as small localized bio-sources (SLB. The design is aimed for studying SLB potentials provoked by laser stimulus, in search for objective proofs of the bio-stimulation effect of lasers used in Medical Acupuncture. Methods The active electrode presented features a new adjustable anchoring system and fractionation of the biopotential amplifier between the electrode and the cabinet's location. The new adjustable electrode anchoring system is designed to reduce the electrode-skin contact impedance, its variation and motion artifacts. That is achieved by increasing the electrode-skin tension and decreasing its relative movement. Additionally the sensing element provides local constant skin stretching thus eliminating the contribution of the skin potential artifact. The electrode is attached to the skin by a double-sided adhesive pad, where the sensing element is a stainless steel, 4 mm in diameter. The fractionation of the biopotential amplifier is done by incorporating the amplifier's front-end op-amps at the electrodes, thus avoiding the use of extra buffers. The biopotential amplifier features two selectable modes of operation: semi-AC-mode with a -3 dB bandwidth of 0.32–1000 Hz and AC-mode with a bandwidth of 0.16–1000 Hz. Results The average measured DC electrode-skin contact impedance of the proposed electrode was 450 kΩ, with electrode tension of 0.3 kg/cm2 on an unprepared skin of the inner

  10. Anthropogenic water sources and the effects on Sonoran Desert small mammal communities

    OpenAIRE

    Aaron B. Switalski; Heather L. Bateman

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic water sources (AWS) are developed water sources used as a management tool for desert wildlife species. Studies documenting the effects of AWS are often focused on game species; whereas, the effects on non-target wildlife are less understood. We used live trapping techniques to investigate rodent abundance, biomass, and diversity metrics near AWS and paired control sites; we sampled vegetation to determine rodent-habitat associations in the Sauceda Mountains of the Sonoran Desert...

  11. LIBERTARISMO & ERROR CATEGORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos G. Patarroyo G.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se ofrece una defensa del libertarismo frente a dos acusaciones según las cuales éste comete un error categorial. Para ello, se utiliza la filosofía de Gilbert Ryle como herramienta para explicar las razones que fundamentan estas acusaciones y para mostrar por qué, pese a que ciertas versiones del libertarismo que acuden a la causalidad de agentes o al dualismo cartesiano cometen estos errores, un libertarismo que busque en el indeterminismo fisicalista la base de la posibilidad de la libertad humana no necesariamente puede ser acusado de incurrir en ellos.

  12. Libertarianism & Category-Mistake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos G. Patarroyo G.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a defense against two accusations according to which libertarianism incurs in a category-mistake. The philosophy of Gilbert Ryle will be used to explain the reasons which ground these accusations. Further, it will be shown why, although certain sorts of libertarianism based on agent-causation or Cartesian dualism incur in these mistakes, there is at least one version of libertarianism to which this criticism does not necessarily apply: the version that seeks to find in physical indeterminism the grounding of human free will.

  13. Libertarismo & Error Categorial

    OpenAIRE

    PATARROYO G, CARLOS G

    2009-01-01

    En este artículo se ofrece una defensa del libertarismo frente a dos acusaciones según las cuales éste comete un error categorial. Para ello, se utiliza la filosofía de Gilbert Ryle como herramienta para explicar las razones que fundamentan estas acusaciones y para mostrar por qué, pese a que ciertas versiones del libertarismo que acuden a la causalidad de agentes o al dualismo cartesiano cometen estos errores, un libertarismo que busque en el indeterminismo fisicalista la base de la posibili...

  14. Potential of small nuclear reactors for future clean and safe energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimoto, H.

    1992-01-01

    To cope with the various kinds of energy demands expected in the 21st century, it is necessary to explore the potential of small nuclear reactors and to find a way of promoting their introduction to society. The main goal of current research activities is 'the constitution of the self-consistent nuclear energy system'. These activities can be understood by realizing that the nuclear community is facing a turning point for its survival in the 21st century. Self-consistency can be manifested by investigating and developing the potential advantages of the nuclear fission reaction and lessening the potential disadvantages. The contributions in this volume discuss concepts of small reactors, applications of small reactors, and consistency with conventional energy supply systems

  15. Credit Participation and Credit Source Selection of Vietnam Small and Medium Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Anh Hoang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is an attempt to investigate the motivation behind the decision to participate in the credit market of SMEs from perspectives of behavioral finance and social capital theories. In addi- tion, the study also examines the effect of behavioral finance and social capital factors on the credit source selection among SMEs. This study’s design strategy involves conducting questionnaire sur- veys to SMEs owners and statistical techniques to analyze the determinants of credit participation and credit source selection of borrowers. The findings showed that personal traits of SMEs owners/ managers in terms of behavioral finance factors such as debt and risk attitudes, present biased and overconfidence and firms networking also have impacts on the firms’ credit participation and credit source selection. The research is one of the few studies that consider the influence of behavioral finance factors on firms financing decision. Furthermore, our result also contributes to explain the common use of informal credit market in developing countries.

  16. Cultivating sources of competitive advantage : Opportunities for small-scale African farmers in global value chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthaar, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Small-scale farmers in developing countries often appropriate little of the value created in global value chains. The farmers typically receive only a fraction of what consumers pay for a certain product. In the current thesis we studied which resources farmers have access to that enable them to

  17. Mixed analytical-stochastic simulation method for the recovery of a Brownian gradient source from probability fluxes to small windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobramysl, U; Holcman, D

    2018-02-15

    Is it possible to recover the position of a source from the steady-state fluxes of Brownian particles to small absorbing windows located on the boundary of a domain? To address this question, we develop a numerical procedure to avoid tracking Brownian trajectories in the entire infinite space. Instead, we generate particles near the absorbing windows, computed from the analytical expression of the exit probability. When the Brownian particles are generated by a steady-state gradient at a single point, we compute asymptotically the fluxes to small absorbing holes distributed on the boundary of half-space and on a disk in two dimensions, which agree with stochastic simulations. We also derive an expression for the splitting probability between small windows using the matched asymptotic method. Finally, when there are more than two small absorbing windows, we show how to reconstruct the position of the source from the diffusion fluxes. The present approach provides a computational first principle for the mechanism of sensing a gradient of diffusing particles, a ubiquitous problem in cell biology.

  18. 48 CFR 37.108 - Small business Certificate of Competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Small business Certificate... proposal and a resultant technical evaluation and source selection, the small business Certificate of... REGULATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Service Contracts-General 37.108 Small...

  19. Beyond the Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Jeffrey

    2015-07-01

    Shushu is a Turkish Cypriot drag performance artist and the article begins with a discussion of a short film about him by a Greek Cypriot playwright, film maker, and gay activist. The film is interesting in its own right as a documentary about a complex personality, but it is also relevant to wider discussion of sexual and gender identity and categorization in a country divided by history, religion, politics, and military occupation. Shushu rejects easy identification as gay or transgender, or anything else. He is his own self. But refusing a recognized and recognizable identity brings problems, and I detected a pervasive mood of melancholy in his portrayal. The article builds from this starting point to explore the problematic nature of identities and categorizations in the contemporary world. The analysis opens with the power of words and language in defining and classifying sexuality. The early sexologists set in motion a whole catalogue of categories which continue to shape sexual thinking, believing that they were providing a scientific basis for a more humane treatment of sexual variations. This logic continues in DSM-5. The historical effect, however, has been more complex. Categorizations have often fixed individuals into a narrow band of definitions and identities that marginalize and pathologize. The emergence of radical sexual-social movements from the late 1960s offered new forms of grassroots knowledge in opposition to the sexological tradition, but at first these movements worked to affirm rather than challenge the significance of identity categories. Increasingly, however, identities have been problematized and challenged for limiting sexual and gender possibilities, leading to the apparently paradoxical situation where sexual identities are seen as both necessary and impossible. There are emotional costs both in affirming a fixed identity and in rejecting one. Shushu is caught in this dilemma, leading to the pervasive sense of loss that shapes the

  20. Using 137Cs and 210Pbex and other sediment source fingerprints to document suspended sediment sources in small forested catchments in south-central Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuller, P.; Walling, D.E.; Iroumé, A.; Quilodrán, C.; Castillo, A.; Navas, A.

    2013-01-01

    A study of the impact of forest harvesting operations on sediment mobilization from forested catchments has been undertaken in south-central Chile. The study focused on two sets of small paired catchments (treatment and control), with similar soil type, but contrasting mean annual rainfall, located about 400 km apart at Nacimiento (1200 mm yr −1 ) and Los Ulmos (2500 mm yr −1 ). The objective was to study the changes in the relative contribution of the primary sources of fine sediment caused by forestry operations. Attention focused on the pre-harvest and post-harvest periods and the post-replanting period was included for the Nacimiento treatment catchment. The sediment source fingerprinting technique was used to document the contributions of the potential sources. Emphasis was placed on discriminating between the forest slopes, forest roads and channel erosion as potential sources of fine sediment and on assessing the relative contributions of these three sources to the sediment yield from the catchments. The fallout radionuclides (FRNs) 137 Cs and excess lead-210, the environmental radionuclides 226 Ra and 40 K and soil organic matter (SOM) were tested as possible fingerprints for discriminating between potential sediment sources. The Kruskal–Wallis test and discriminant function analysis were used to guide the selection of the optimum fingerprint set for each catchment and observation period. Either one or both of the FRNs were selected for inclusion in the optimum fingerprint for all datasets. The relative contribution of each sediment source to the target sediment load was estimated using the selected fingerprint properties, and a mixing model coupled with a Monte Carlo simulation technique that takes account of uncertainty in characterizing sediment source properties. The goodness of fit of the mixing model was tested by comparing the measured and simulated fingerprint properties for the target sediment samples. In the Nacimiento treatment catchment

  1. Source brightness and useful beam current of carbon nanotubes and other very small emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruit, P.; Bezuijen, M.; Barth, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    The potential application of carbon nanotubes as electron sources in electron microscopes is analyzed. The resolution and probe current that can be obtained from a carbon nanotube emitter in a low-voltage scanning electron microscope are calculated and compared to the state of the art using Schottky electron sources. Many analytical equations for probe-size versus probe-current relations in different parameter regimes are obtained. It is shown that for most carbon nanotube emitters, the gun lens aberrations are larger than the emitters' virtual source size and thus restrict the microscope's performance. The result is that the advantages of the higher brightness of nanotube emitters are limited unless the angular emission current is increased over present day values or the gun lens aberrations are decreased. For some nanotubes with a closed cap, it is known that the emitted electron beam is coherent over the full emission cone. We argue that for such emitters the parameter ''brightness'' becomes meaningless. The influence of phase variations in the electron wave front emitted from such a nanotube emitter on the focusing of the electron beam is analyzed

  2. The sources of streamwater to small mountainous rivers in Taiwan during typhoon and non-typhoon seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tsung-Yu; Hong, Nien-Ming; Shih, Yu-Ting; Huang, Jr-Chuan; Kao, Shuh-Ji

    2017-12-01

    The dynamics and behaviors of streamwater chemistry are rarely documented for subtropical small mountainous rivers. A 1-year detailed time series of streamwater chemistry, using non-typhoon and typhoon samples, was monitored in two watersheds, with and without cultivation, in central Taiwan. Rainwater, soil leachate, and well water were supplemented to explain the streamwater chemistry. The concentrations of fluoride, chloride, sulfate, magnesium, potassium, calcium, strontium, silicon, and barium of all the water samples were measured. Principal component analysis and residual analysis were applied to examine the mechanisms of solute transport and investigate possible sources contributing to the streamwater chemistry. In addition to the influence of well water and soil leachate on streamwater chemistry during non-typhoon period, overland flow and surface erosion affect streamwater chemistry during the typhoon period. The latter has not been discussed in previous studies. Surface erosion is likely to be an end member and non-conservatively mixed with other end members, resulting in a previously unobserved blank zone in the mixing space. This has a particularly great impact on small mountainous watersheds, which suffer from rapid erosion. Moreover, fertilizer contaminates agricultural soil, making soil water end members more identifiable. To our knowledge, this study is the first to clearly illustrate the dynamics and sources of streamwater chemistry of small mountainous rivers that are analogous to rivers in Oceania.

  3. US-Japan IEC Workshop on Small Plasma and Accelerator Neutron Sources. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, George H.

    2008-01-01

    The history of IEC development will be briefly described, and some speculation about future directions will be offered. The origin of IEC is due to the brilliance of Phil Farnsworth, inventor of electronic TV in the US. Early experiments were pioneered in the late 1960s by Robert Hirsch who later became head of the DOE fusion program. At that time studies of IEC physics quickly followed at the University of Illinois and at Penn State University. However, despite many successes in this early work, IEC research died as DOE funding stopped in the mid 1980s. In the early 90's, R. W. Bussard of EMC revived work with a new major project based on a magnetic assisted IEC. While doing supportive studies for that project, G. Miley proposed a grided 'STAR mode' IEC as a neutron source for NAA. This concept was later used commercially by Daimler-Benz in Germany to analysis impurities in incoming ores. This represented a first practical application of the IEC. During this period other research groups at LANL, U of Wisconsin and Kyoto University entered IEC research with innovative new concepts and approaches to IEC physics and applications. Much of this work is documented in the present and in past US-Japan Workshops. At present we stand on the threshold of a new area of IEC applications as neutron source, for isotope production, and as a plasma source. These applications provide a way to continue IEC understanding and technology development with the ultimate goal being a fusion power plant. Indeed, a distinguishing feature of the IEC vs. other fusion confinement approaches is the unique opportunity for 'spin off' applications along the way to a power producing plant.

  4. Small streams, diverse sources: Who invests in renewable energy in Finland during the financial downturn?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiskanen, Eva; Jalas, Mikko; Juntunen, Jouni K.; Nissilä, Heli

    2017-01-01

    This article addresses the investment gap in renewable energy sources identified by several authors. Examining the case of a country, Finland, which introduced policy measures to diversify its renewable energy portfolio, we analyse the development of investments in renewable heat and power in response to new policy measures and contextual factors during the downturn period 2009–2013. We investigate investor heterogeneity, i.e., the diversity of logics employed by different types of RES investors. In spite of a severe financial recession, we find an emergence of new sources of investment. Among these new investor types, we find diversity in investment drivers and available options. These include investors mobilized by the feed-in-tariff to seek profitable targets and investors such as real estate owners investing in heat pumps for their own use and benefiting from low interest rates. We find that the diversification of investors supports the diversification in RES sources, and brings in new investors undeterred by the financial downturn. Our findings imply that policy-makers should recognize that the responses to distinct incentives and pressures vary by investor types. This also means that a mix of policies is required to maximize the contribution of different sectors to filling the renewable energy investment gap. - Highlights: • Diversified policies prompt new types of investors and growth in renewable energy. • New investors have a range of motives with different expectations for returns. • New investments stem from a range of policies beyond energy policy. • Investor diversity contributes to steady overall investment across economic cycles. • A diverse mix of policy is needed to fill the renewable energy investment gap.

  5. MetaLIMS, a simple open-source laboratory information management system for small metagenomic labs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinle, Cassie Elizabeth; Gaultier, Nicolas Paul Eugène; Miller, Dana; Purbojati, Rikky Wenang; Lauro, Federico M

    2017-06-01

    As the cost of sequencing continues to fall, smaller groups increasingly initiate and manage larger sequencing projects and take on the complexity of data storage for high volumes of samples. This has created a need for low-cost laboratory information management systems (LIMS) that contain flexible fields to accommodate the unique nature of individual labs. Many labs do not have a dedicated information technology position, so LIMS must also be easy to setup and maintain with minimal technical proficiency. MetaLIMS is a free and open-source web-based application available via GitHub. The focus of MetaLIMS is to store sample metadata prior to sequencing and analysis pipelines. Initially designed for environmental metagenomics labs, in addition to storing generic sample collection information and DNA/RNA processing information, the user can also add fields specific to the user's lab. MetaLIMS can also produce a basic sequencing submission form compatible with the proprietary Clarity LIMS system used by some sequencing facilities. To help ease the technical burden associated with web deployment, MetaLIMS options the use of commercial web hosting combined with MetaLIMS bash scripts for ease of setup. MetaLIMS overcomes key challenges common in LIMS by giving labs access to a low-cost and open-source tool that also has the flexibility to meet individual lab needs and an option for easy deployment. By making the web application open source and hosting it on GitHub, we hope to encourage the community to build upon MetaLIMS, making it more robust and tailored to the needs of more researchers. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  6. Small Works, Big Stories. Methodological approaches to photogrammetry through crowd-sourcing experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seren Griffiths

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A recent digital public archaeology project (HeritageTogether sought to build a series of 3D ditigal models using photogrammetry from crowd-sourced images. The project saw over 13000 digital images being donated, and resulted in models of some 78 sites, providing resources for researchers, and condition surveys. The project demonstrated that digital public archaeology does not stop at the 'trowel's edge', and that collaborative post-excavation analysis and generation of research processes are as important as time in the field. We emphasise in this contribution that our methodologies, as much as our research outputs, can be fruitfully co-produced in public archaeology projects.

  7. Investigation of fingerprints for small polar molecules by using a tunable monochromatic THz source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongqian

    Over the past 20 years, considerable efforts have been dedicated to the generation and the application of electromagnetic waves in the Terahertz (THz) regime. Among all of the proposed applications, the THz spectroscopy is probably the most mature and promising one. According to the previous reports, the THz spectroscopy has been extensively applied into many analysis fields, including the investigation of vibrational modes for the crystalline solids, the characterization of electron transport in the condense matters and the identification of explosive materials at a standoff distance. More interestingly, since most gas phase chemicals exhibit unique transition peaks in the THz spectra, one could in principle achieve highly accurate molecular fingerprinting and chemical sensing as well. However, all of the practical THz spectroscopy applications were still greatly hampered by the lack of suitable sources and detectors. In this thesis, a unique approach to measure the THz spectrum is developed based on a novel tunable narrowband source. Unlike the previous THz systems, high power THz pulses were generated by the difference frequency generation processes between two collinearly propagated near infrared laser beams. To tune the output THz signal frequency, one can simply adjust one of the incident beam frequencies. Therefore, based on a convenient wavelength tuning scheme, the transmission spectra can be measured for a series of polar gases with either similar or distinct molecular structures. According to the measured spectra, it is found that the obtained transition frequencies, absorption intensities and molecular constants are all in good agreement with the theoretical results tabulated in the molecular spectroscopic databases, such as the HITRAN database. By further analyzing the transition frequencies, it is also discovered that one can confidently identify each polar molecule and differentiate between various isotopic variants based on their characteristic

  8. Categories for Observing Language Arts Instruction (COLAI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benterud, Julianna G.

    Designed to study individual use of time spent in reading during regularly scheduled language arts instruction in a natural classroom setting, this coding sheet consists of nine categories: (1) engagement, (2) area of language arts, (3) instructional setting, (4) partner (teacher or pupil(s)), (5) source of content, (6) type of unit, (7) assigned…

  9. Language categories in Russian morphology

    OpenAIRE

    زهرایی زهرایی

    2009-01-01

    When studying Russian morphology, one can distinguish two categories. These categories are “grammatical” and “lexico-grammatical”. Grammatical categories can be specified through a series of grammatical features of words. Considering different criteria, Russian grammarians and linguists divide grammatical categories of their language into different types. In determining lexico-grammatical types, in addition to a series of grammatical features, they also consider a series of lexico-semantic fe...

  10. Interactive effects of large- and small-scale sources of feral honey-bees for sunflower in the Argentine Pampas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Sáez

    Full Text Available Pollinators for animal pollinated crops can be provided by natural and semi-natural habitats, ranging from large vegetation remnants to small areas of non-crop land in an otherwise highly modified landscape. It is unknown, however, how different small- and large-scale habitat patches interact as pollinator sources. In the intensively managed Argentine Pampas, we studied the additive and interactive effects of large expanses (up to 2200 ha of natural habitat, represented by untilled isolated "sierras", and narrow (3-7 m wide strips of semi-natural habitat, represented by field margins, as pollinator sources for sunflower (Helianthus annus. We estimated visitation rates by feral honey-bees, Apis mellifera, and native flower visitors (as a group at 1, 5, 25, 50 and 100 m from a field margin in 17 sunflower fields 0-10 km distant from the nearest sierra. Honey-bees dominated the pollinator assemblage accounting for >90% of all visits to sunflower inflorescences. Honey-bee visitation was strongly affected by proximity to the sierras decreasing by about 70% in the most isolated fields. There was also a decline in honey-bee visitation with distance from the field margin, which was apparent with increasing field isolation, but undetected in fields nearby large expanses of natural habitat. The probability of observing a native visitor decreased with isolation from the sierras, but in other respects visitation by flower visitors other than honey-bees was mostly unaffected by the habitat factors assessed in this study. Overall, we found strong hierarchical and interactive effects between the study large and small-scale pollinator sources. These results emphasize the importance of preserving natural habitats and managing actively field verges in the absence of large remnants of natural habitat for improving pollinator services.

  11. Interactive effects of large- and small-scale sources of feral honey-bees for sunflower in the Argentine Pampas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez, Agustín; Sabatino, Malena; Aizen, Marcelo A

    2012-01-01

    Pollinators for animal pollinated crops can be provided by natural and semi-natural habitats, ranging from large vegetation remnants to small areas of non-crop land in an otherwise highly modified landscape. It is unknown, however, how different small- and large-scale habitat patches interact as pollinator sources. In the intensively managed Argentine Pampas, we studied the additive and interactive effects of large expanses (up to 2200 ha) of natural habitat, represented by untilled isolated "sierras", and narrow (3-7 m wide) strips of semi-natural habitat, represented by field margins, as pollinator sources for sunflower (Helianthus annus). We estimated visitation rates by feral honey-bees, Apis mellifera, and native flower visitors (as a group) at 1, 5, 25, 50 and 100 m from a field margin in 17 sunflower fields 0-10 km distant from the nearest sierra. Honey-bees dominated the pollinator assemblage accounting for >90% of all visits to sunflower inflorescences. Honey-bee visitation was strongly affected by proximity to the sierras decreasing by about 70% in the most isolated fields. There was also a decline in honey-bee visitation with distance from the field margin, which was apparent with increasing field isolation, but undetected in fields nearby large expanses of natural habitat. The probability of observing a native visitor decreased with isolation from the sierras, but in other respects visitation by flower visitors other than honey-bees was mostly unaffected by the habitat factors assessed in this study. Overall, we found strong hierarchical and interactive effects between the study large and small-scale pollinator sources. These results emphasize the importance of preserving natural habitats and managing actively field verges in the absence of large remnants of natural habitat for improving pollinator services.

  12. Semilogarithmic Nonuniform Vector Quantization of Two-Dimensional Laplacean Source for Small Variance Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Peric

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper high dynamic range nonuniform two-dimensional vector quantization model for Laplacean source was provided. Semilogarithmic A-law compression characteristic was used as radial scalar compression characteristic of two-dimensional vector quantization. Optimal number value of concentric quantization domains (amplitude levels is expressed in the function of parameter A. Exact distortion analysis with obtained closed form expressions is provided. It has been shown that proposed model provides high SQNR values in wide range of variances, and overachieves quality obtained by scalar A-law quantization at same bit rate, so it can be used in various switching and adaptation implementations for realization of high quality signal compression.

  13. Simultaneous usage of pinhole and penumbral apertures for imaging small scale neutron sources from inertial confinement fusion experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, N; Volegov, P; Danly, C R; Grim, G P; Merrill, F E; Wilde, C H

    2012-10-01

    Inertial confinement fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility are designed to understand the basic principles of creating self-sustaining fusion reactions by laser driven compression of deuterium-tritium (DT) filled cryogenic plastic capsules. The neutron imaging diagnostic provides information on the distribution of the central fusion reaction region and the surrounding DT fuel by observing neutron images in two different energy bands for primary (13-17 MeV) and down-scattered (6-12 MeV) neutrons. From this, the final shape and size of the compressed capsule can be estimated and the symmetry of the compression can be inferred. These experiments provide small sources with high yield neutron flux. An aperture design that includes an array of pinholes and penumbral apertures has provided the opportunity to image the same source with two different techniques. This allows for an evaluation of these different aperture designs and reconstruction algorithms.

  14. On the Nature of Bright Infrared Sources in the Small Magellanic Cloud: Interpreting MSX through the Lens of Spitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Kathleen E.; Sloan, G. C.

    2015-01-01

    We compare infrared observations of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) by the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) and the Spitzer Space Telescope to better understand what components of a metal-poor galaxy dominate radiative processes in the infrared. The SMC, at a distance of ~60 kpc and with a metallicity of ~0.1-0.2 solar, can serve as a nearby proxy for metal-poor galaxies at high redshift. The MSX Point Source Catalog contains 243 objects in the SMC that were detected at 8.3 microns, the most sensitive MSX band. Multi-epoch, multi-band mapping with Spitzer, supplemented with observations from the Two-Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), provides variability information, and, together with spectra from Spitzer for ~15% of the sample, enables us to determine what these luminous sources are. How many remain simple point sources? What fraction break up into multiple stars? Which are star forming regions, with both bright diffuse emission and point sources? How do evolved stars and stellar remnants contribute at these wavelengths? What role do young stellar objects and HII regions play? Answering these questions sets the stage for understanding what we will see with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST).

  15. A Multiagent Energy Management System for a Small Microgrid Equipped with Power Sources and Energy Storage Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziszewska, Weronika; Nahorski, Zbigniew

    An Energy Management System (EMS) for a small microgrid is presented, with both demand and production side management. The microgrid is equipped with renewable and controllable power sources (like a micro gas turbine), energy storage units (batteries and flywheels). Energy load is partially scheduled to avoid extreme peaks of power demand and to possibly match forecasted energy supply from the renewable power sources. To balance the energy in the network on line, a multiagent system is used. Intelligent agents of each device are proactively acting towards balancing the energy in the network, and at the same time optimizing the cost of operation of the whole system. A semi-market mechanism is used to match a demand and a production of the energy. Simulations show that the time of reaching a balanced state does not exceed 1 s, which is fast enough to let execute proper balancing actions, e.g. change an operating point of a controllable energy source. Simulators of sources and consumption devices were implemented in order to carry out exhaustive tests.

  16. Proposal for the design of a small-angle neutron scattering facility at a pulsed neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kley, W.

    1980-01-01

    The intensity-resolution-background considerations of an optimized small angle neutron scattering facility are reviewed for the special case of a pulsed neutron source. In the present proposal we conclude that for 'true elastic scattering experiments' filters can be used instead of expensive neutron guide tubes since low background conditions can be achieved by a combined action of filters as well as a proper time gating of the twodimensional detector. The impinging neutron beam is monochromatized by phasing a disk chopper to the neutron source pulses and in the scattered beam a second disk chopper is used to eliminate the inelastically scattered neutrons. Therefore, no time of fligh analysis is necessary for the scattered neutron intensity and true-elastic conditions are obtained by simply gating the two-dimensional detector. Considering a 4 m thick shield for the pulsed neutron source and choosing for optimum conditions a detector area element of (2.5 cm) 2 and a sample area of (1.25 cm) 2 , than for a minimum sample-detector-distance of 1.5 m, a maximum neutron source diameter of 6.67 cm is required in order to maintain always the optimum intensity- and resolution requirements

  17. Study of X-ray source based on a small marx generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Wei; Li Junna; Chen Weiqing; Tang Junping; He Xiaoping

    2014-01-01

    A 600 kV Marx generator accompanied with a water compression line, an output switch and a diode component is designed to generate the X ray with low energy level and low dose rate. The diode parameters are follows: gap space of anode and cathode is 3∼5 mm; cathode with ring structure is a graphite electrode which diameter is 40 mm; the anode is a tantalum target with a thickness of l.5 mm and a diameter of 200 mm. The study results show that: when the output voltage of Marx generator reaches to 550 kV, the voltage drop of the diode is 196 kV. And a low energy level, small dose rate X ray can be obtained in front of the anode. The X ray at the distance of 30 mm before the anode surface has a half width of 20 ns. The total energy dose of the X ray on the center of anode surface is 8 rad and dose rate is 4 × lO"8 rad/s, which have been measured by the method of thermoluminescence dosimetry. (authors)

  18. Financial sources of small and medium enterprises for agribusiness and eco-tourism in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Pero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Financing business growth of the SME sector and entrepreneurship, due to its characteristics, is in a specific position. The previously dominant model of financing and the lack of specific funding sources in Serbia, further complicate the possible solutions that lead to accelerated growth. In order to solve the accumulated problems of the transition process, it is essential that countries improve economic policy towards SMEs in the agribusiness and eco-tourism activities, and to facilitate the conditions for starting a business for entrepreneurs. In order for someone to invest capital he requires a guarantees from the state, since the state is not able to give them it's necessary to open agencies whose task would be to monitor the activities of these companies, to collect accounting information on the status and trends of invested capital, income and expenses, the number of employees and trends by sectors and to provide such information to entrepreneurs. Other than that, the state has to work on solving all barriers, as for domestic, so for foreign enterprises and work on the plan of safe realization of products and services, in country and outside, which will automatically increase the number of SME and the number of employed. This will increase the life standard of citizens in the long run.

  19. Payments for Environmental Services as source of development funding for small-scale farmers in northern Namibia: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angombe, Simon; Bloemertz, Lena; Käch, Simon; Asino, Josefina; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2013-04-01

    Studies in Africa suggest that improving Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) on cropland soils increases yields, but also offers the opportunity of earning carbon credits. Further potential for earning carbon credits and generating Payments for Environmental Services (PES) lies in an integrated approach to landscape carbon management, including shrubland and pasture used for grazing and timber supply. These studies indicate that funds raised from PES could be used to foster the development of small-scale farming in northern Namibia. However, the limited information on soil quality and the rationale for particular soil management and land use practices applied by small-scale farmers in Namibia prohibits a conclusive assessment of the potential of Payment for PES as a source of income or funding opportunity for development initiatives in Northern Central Regions of Namibia. Therefore, the aim of this study is the identification of potential intervention mechanisms to improve the livelihood of small scale-farmers and reducing land degradation with the support of PES in the communal regions of northern Namibia. The work in Namibia aimed at identifying existing soil management and land use practices as well as soil quality, including carbon stocks, on land used by small-scale farmers in the densely populated northern central region. The main objective of the first part of the field work was to develop an overview of farming practices and soil quality as well as sampling and interviewing approaches. Four settlements were selected for the field work based on their distance to the urbanized road corridor between Oshakati and the Angolan border. Initial results confirm the potential to increase productivity on land used by small-scale farmers as well as the opportunity to develop landscape carbon stocks. However, limits to earning PES might be the lack of a market, and thus incentive for the farmers, to shift from subsistence to commercial farming.

  20. Small Coronal Holes Near Active Regions as Sources of Slow Solar Wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.-M., E-mail: yi.wang@nrl.navy.mil [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    We discuss the nature of the small areas of rapidly diverging, open magnetic flux that form in the strong unipolar fields at the peripheries of active regions (ARs), according to coronal extrapolations of photospheric field measurements. Because such regions usually have dark counterparts in extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) images, we refer to them as coronal holes, even when they appear as narrow lanes or contain sunspots. Revisiting previously identified “AR sources” of slow solar wind from 1998 and 1999, we find that they are all associated with EUV coronal holes; the absence of well-defined He i 1083.0 nm counterparts to some of these holes is attributed to the large flux of photoionizing radiation from neighboring AR loops. Examining a number of AR-associated EUV holes during the 2014 activity maximum, we confirm that they are characterized by wind speeds of ∼300–450 km s{sup −1}, O{sup 7+}/O{sup 6+} ratios of ∼0.05–0.4, and footpoint field strengths typically of order 30 G. The close spacing between ARs at sunspot maximum limits the widths of unipolar regions and their embedded holes, while the continual emergence of new flux leads to rapid changes in the hole boundaries. Because of the highly nonradial nature of AR fields, the smaller EUV holes are often masked by the overlying canopy of loops, and may be more visible toward one solar limb than at central meridian. As sunspot activity declines, the AR remnants merge to form much larger, weaker, and longer-lived unipolar regions, which harbor the “classical” coronal holes that produce recurrent high-speed streams.

  1. Variations in the small-scale galactic magnetic field and short time-scale intensity variations of extragalactic radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonetti, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Structure functions of the Faraday rotation measures (RMs) of extragalactic radio sources are used to investigate variations in the interstellar magnetic field on length scales of approx.0.01 to 100 pc. Model structure functions derived assuming a power-law power spectrum of irregularities in n/sub e/B, are compared with those observed. The results indicate an outer angular scale for RM variations of approximately less than or equal to 5 0 and evidence for RM variations on scales as small as 1'. Differences in the variance of n/sub e/B fluctuations for various lines of sight through the Galaxy are found. Comparison of pulsar scintillations in right- and left-circular polarizations yield an upper limit to the variations in n/sub e/ on a length scale of approx.10 11 cm. RMs were determined through high-velocity molecular flows in galactic star-formation regions, with the goal of constraining magnetic fields in and near the flows. RMs of 7 extragalactic sources with a approx.20 arcmin wide area seen through Cep A, fall in two groups separated by approx.150 rad m -2 - large given our knowledge of RM variations on small angular scales and possibly a result of the anisotropy of the high-velocity material

  2. The Labor-saving Kitchen: Sources for Designs of the Architects’ Small Home Service Bureau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Tucker

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The history of the kitchen has received much attention from designers and design historians. Since the writings of Catharine Beecher, designers, household engineers, and others have written about the importance of the kitchen as the center of the home. This research traces the impact of the writings of theorists such as Frederick Taylor, Georgie Boynton Child, Helen Binkerd Young, and Christine Frederick on the designs produced by the architects in the first quarter of the 20th century.  Frederick’s work took the concept of an efficient kitchen to a new level applying movement studies and introducing new ideas to the kitchen layout and arrangement.  In a properly laid out and equipped kitchen, steps were saved by placing kitchen cabinets, ovens and stoves, refrigerators and sinks where they were needed in the sequence of food preparation and delivery to dining table as well as clean up after the meal.  In her books, she also provided advice on a variety of considerations, such as appliances and accessories, lighting and ventilation; materials, finishes and color; and appliances and equipment.  In 1919 a group of architects dedicated to improving the housing stock in the United States through good design banded together to form the Architects’ Small House Service Bureau (ASHSB.  Their first plan book, How to Plan Finance and Build your Home published in 1921, also encouraged labor-saving kitchen design and provided advice on kitchen design. The research reported here assesses how the influence of Frederick and Boyton’s advice as reflected in the work of and interpreted by Helen Binkerd Young is demonstrated in the kitchen designs of the ASHSB’s first plan book. A plan content analysis instrument, developed using Frederick’s writings and edited to include other variables from Young and Child, is used to analyze the 99 kitchens and two essays in the ASHSB’s plan book.  The plans and accompanying comments evidence enthusiasm for

  3. Measurement of disintegration rates of small [60Co]Co sources in lead containers by the sum-peak method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Takao; Ebihara, Hiroshi

    1991-01-01

    The sum-peak method has been applied to determine the disintegration rates of two small [ 60 Co]Co sources (30 and 350 kBq) in lead containers with several thickness by using a NaI(Tl) detector. The experimental results showed that the sum-peak method was perfectly effective for the determination of the disintegration rates (unrelated to the thicknesses of the containers) of the 350 kBq source. The sum-peak method was also absolutely effective for the 30 kBq source in the case of containers with thicknesses of 15 mm and less, but in the cases of those with thicknesses of 21, 27 and 33 mm, the disintegration rates were under-estimated and the deviations from the true disintegration rate increased rapidly with increasing thicknesses of the containers. We presume that the under-estimation of the disintegration rates was the result of the over-estimation of the areas under the sum peaks, caused by the interference of the γ-ray (2614 keV) emitted from the naturally occurring radionuclide 208 Tl. (author)

  4. Mangroves act as a small methane source: an investigation on 5 pathways of methane emissions from mangroves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.; Peng, C.; Guan, W.; Liao, B.; Hu, J.

    2017-12-01

    The methane (CH4) source strength of mangroves is not well understood, especially for integrating all CH4 pathways. This study measured CH4 fluxes by five pathways (sediments, pneumatophores, water surface, leaves, and stems) from four typical mangrove forests in Changning River of Hainan Island, China, including Kandelia candel , Sonneratia apetala, Laguncularia racemosa and Bruguiera gymnoihiza-Bruguiera sexangula. The CH4 fluxes (mean ± SE) from sediments were 4.82 ± 1.46 mg CH4 m-2 h-1 for those without pneumatophores and 1.36 ± 0.17 mg CH4 m-2 h-1 for those with pneumatophores. Among the three communities with pneumatophores, S. apetala community had significantly greater emission rate than the other two. Pneumatophores in S. apetala were found to significantly decrease CH4 emission from sediments (P duck farming. Leaves of mangroves except for K. candel were a weak CH4 sink while stems a weak source. As a whole the 72 ha of mangroves in the Changning river basin emitted about 8.10 Gg CH4 yr-1 with a weighted emission rate of about 1.29 mg CH4 m-2 h-1, therefore only a small methane source to the atmosphere compared to other reported ones. Keywords: Greenhouse Gases; Biogeochemistry; Tropical ecosystems; Methane budget

  5. Analysis and simulation of a small-angle neutron scattering instrument on a 1 MW long pulse spallation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olah, G.A.; Hjelm, R.P.; Lujan, M. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    We studied the design and performance of a small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) instrument for a proposed 1 MW, 60 Hz long pulsed spallation source at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). An analysis of the effects of source characteristics and chopper performance combined with instrument simulations using the LANSCE Monte Carlo instrument simulations package shows that the T 0 chopper should be no more than 5 m from the source with the frame overlap and frame definition choppers at 5.6 and greater than 7 m, respectively. The study showed that an optimal pulse structure has an exponential decaying tail with τ ∼ 750 μs. The Monte Carlo simulations were used to optimize the LPSS SANS, showing that an optimal length is 18 m. The simulations show that an instrument with variable length is best to match the needs of a given measurement. The performance of the optimized LPSS instrument was found to be comparable with present world standard instruments

  6. Study on development and actual application of scientific crime detection technique using small scale neutron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Kishi, Toru; Tachikawa, Noboru; Ishikawa, Isamu.

    1997-01-01

    PGA (Prompt γ-ray Analysis) is an analytic method of γ-ray generated from atomic nuclei of elements in the specimen just after irradiation (within 10(exp-14)sec.) of neutron to it. As using neutron with excellent transmission for an exciting source, this method can be used for inspecting the matters in closed containers non-destructively, and can also detect non-destructively light elements such as boron, nitrogen and others difficult by other non-destructive analysis. Especially, it is found that this method can detect such high concentration of nitrogen, chlorine and others which are characteristic elements for the explosives. However, as there are a number of limitations at the nuclear reactor site, development of an analytical apparatus for small scale neutron radiation source was begun, at first. In this fiscal year, analysis of the light elements such as nitrogen, chlorine and others using PGA was attempted by using 252-Cf as the simplest neutron source in its operation. As the 252-Cf neutron flux was considerably lower than that of nuclear reactor, its analytical sensitivity was also investigated. (G.K.)

  7. A Bulk Microphysics Parameterization with Multiple Ice Precipitation Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straka, Jerry M.; Mansell, Edward R.

    2005-04-01

    A single-moment bulk microphysics scheme with multiple ice precipitation categories is described. It has 2 liquid hydrometeor categories (cloud droplets and rain) and 10 ice categories that are characterized by habit, size, and density—two ice crystal habits (column and plate), rimed cloud ice, snow (ice crystal aggregates), three categories of graupel with different densities and intercepts, frozen drops, small hail, and large hail. The concept of riming history is implemented for conversions among the graupel and frozen drops categories. The multiple precipitation ice categories allow a range of particle densities and fall velocities for simulating a variety of convective storms with minimal parameter tuning. The scheme is applied to two cases—an idealized continental multicell storm that demonstrates the ice precipitation process, and a small Florida maritime storm in which the warm rain process is important.

  8. Experimental investigation on a small pumpless ORC (organic rankine cycle) system driven by the low temperature heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, P.; Wang, L.W.; Wang, R.Z.; Jiang, L.; Zhou, Z.S.

    2015-01-01

    A small pumpless ORC (organic rankine cycle) system with different scroll expanders modified from compressors of the automobile air-conditioner is established, and the refrigerant R245fa is chosen as the working fluid. Different hot water temperatures of 80, 85, 90 and 95 °C are employed to drive the pumpless ORC system. Experimental results show that a maximum shaft power of 361.0 W is obtained under the hot water temperature of 95 °C, whereas the average shaft power is 155.8 W. The maximum energy efficiency of 2.3% and the maximum exergy efficiency of 12.8% are obtained at the hot water temperature of 90 °C. Meanwhile a test rig for investigating the mechanical loss of the scroll expander is established. The torque caused by the internal mechanical friction of the expander is about 0.4 N m. Additionally, another scroll expander with a displacement of 86 ml/r is also employed to investigate how scroll expander displacement influences the performance of the pumpless ORC system. Finally, the performance of the pumpless ORC system is compared with that of the conventional ORC system, and experimental results show that the small pumpless ORC system has more advantages for the low-grade heat recovery. - Highlights: • A small pumpless ORC (organic rankine cycle) system is established, and different scroll expanders are tested. • The maximum energy and exergy efficiency are 2.3% and 12.8% respectively. • A maximum shaft power of 361.0 W is obtained under the heat source temperature of 95 °C. • The small pumpless ORC system has characteristics of the high efficiency.

  9. sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yin Chiang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the simplified models of the ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode multiplexer network with Bernoulli random traffic sources. Based on the model, the performance measures are analyzed by the different output service schemes.

  10. EEG in Silent Small Vessel Disease : sLORETA Mapping Reveals Cortical Sources of Vascular Cognitive Impairment No Dementia in the Default Mode Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheorajpanday, Rishi V. A.; Marien, Peter; Weeren, Arie J. T. M.; Nagels, Guy; Saerens, Jos; van Putten, Michel J. A. M.; De Deyn, Peter P.

    Introduction: Vascular cognitive impairment, no dementia (vCIND) is a prevalent and potentially preventable disorder. Clinical presof the small vessel subcortical subtype may be insidious and difficult to diagnose in the initial stage. We investigated electroencephalographic sources of subcortical

  11. Subject categories and scope descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is one in a series of publications known as the ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series. It defines the subject categories and provides the scope descriptions to be used for categorization of the nuclear literature for the preparation of INIS and ETDE input by national and regional centres. Together with the other volumes of the INIS Reference Series it defines the rules, standards and practices and provides the authorities to be used in the International Nuclear Information System and ETDE. A complete list of the volumes published in the INIS Reference Series may be found on the inside front cover of this publication. This INIS/ETDE Reference Series document is intended to serve two purposes: to define the subject scope of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) and the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and to define the subject classification scheme of INIS and ETDE. It is thus the guide to the inputting centres in determining which items of literature should be reported, and in determining where the full bibliographic entry and abstract of each item should be included in INIS or ETDE database. Each category is identified by a category code consisting of three alphanumeric characters. A scope description is given for each subject category. The scope of INIS is the sum of the scopes of all the categories. With most categories cross references are provided to other categories where appropriate. Cross references should be of assistance in finding the appropriate category; in fact, by indicating topics that are excluded from the category in question, the cross references help to clarify and define the scope of the category to which they are appended. A Subject Index is included as an aid to subject classifiers, but it is only an aid and not a means for subject classification. It facilitates the use of this document, but is no substitute for the description of the scope of the subject categories

  12. Source of the Vrancea, Romania intermediate-depth earthquakes: variability test of the source time function using a small-aperture array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, E.; Radulian, M.; Popa, M.; Placinta, A.O.; Cioflan, C. O.; Grecu, B.

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of the present work is to investigate the possibility to detect and calibrate the source parameters of the Vrancea intermediate-depth earthquakes using a small-aperture array, Bucovina Seismic Array (BURAR). BURAR array was installed in 1999 in joint cooperation between Romania and USA. The array is situated in the northern part of Romania, in Eastern Carpathians, at about 250 km distance from the Vrancea epicentral area. The array consists of 10 stations (nine short period and one broad band instruments installed in boreholes). For our study we selected 30 earthquakes (3.8 iU MD iU 6.0) occurred between 2002 and 2004, including two recent Vrancea events, which are the best ever recorded earthquakes on the Romanian territory: September 27, 2004 (45.70 angle N, 26.45 angle E, h = 166 km, M w = 4.7) and October 27, 2004 (45.84 angle N, 26.63 angle E, h = 105 km, M w 6.0). Empirical Green function deconvolution and spectral ratio methods are applied for pairs of collocated events with similar focal mechanism. Stability tests are performed for the retrieved source time function using the array elements. Empirical scaling and calibration relationships are also determined. Possible variation with depth along the subducting slab, in agreement with assumed differences in the seismic and tectonic regime between the upper (h = 60 -110 km) and lower (h = 110 - 180 km) lithospheric seismic active segments, and variation in the attenuation of the seismic waves propagating toward BURAR site, are also investigated. (authors)

  13. Radiation protection in category III large gamma irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Neivaldo; Furlan, Gilberto Ribeiro; Itepan, Natanael Marcio

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the advantages of category III large gamma irradiator compared to the others, with emphasis on aspects of radiological protection, in the industrial sector. This category is a kind of irradiators almost unknown to the regulators authorities and the industrial community, despite its simple construction and greater radiation safety intrinsic to the model, able to maintain an efficiency of productivity comparable to those of category IV. Worldwide, there are installed more than 200 category IV irradiators and there is none of a category III irradiator in operation. In a category III gamma irradiator, the source remains fixed in the bottom of the tank, always shielded by water, negating the exposition risk. Taking into account the benefits in relation to radiation safety, the category III large irradiators are highly recommended for industrial, commercial purposes or scientific research. (author)

  14. A small electron beam ion trap/source facility for electron/neutral–ion collisional spectroscopy in astrophysical plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Gui-Yun; Wei, Hui-Gang; Yuan, Da-Wei; Wang, Fei-Lu; Peng, Ji-Min; Zhong, Jia-Yong; Zhu, Xiao-Long; Schmidt, Mike; Zschornack, Günter; Ma, Xin-Wen; Zhao, Gang

    2018-01-01

    Spectra are fundamental observation data used for astronomical research, but understanding them strongly depends on theoretical models with many fundamental parameters from theoretical calculations. Different models give different insights for understanding a specific object. Hence, laboratory benchmarks for these theoretical models become necessary. An electron beam ion trap is an ideal facility for spectroscopic benchmarks due to its similar conditions of electron density and temperature compared to astrophysical plasmas in stellar coronae, supernova remnants and so on. In this paper, we will describe the performance of a small electron beam ion trap/source facility installed at National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences.We present some preliminary experimental results on X-ray emission, ion production, the ionization process of trapped ions as well as the effects of charge exchange on the ionization.

  15. The sustainable management of renewable energy sources installations: legal aspects of their environmental impact in small Greek islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maria, Efpraxia; Tsoutsos, Theocharis

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays, an attractive legislative and financing framework has been established in Greece for the development of renewable energy sources. This has resulted in a strong increase of investors' interest, especially in the islands, mainly due to their high renewable energy potential all year round. However, the typical characteristics of the small Greek island, which constitute sensitive ecosystems with unique attributes of a natural and cultural heritage, impose a limitation on the development of energy generation plants using renewables. In order to adopt the principles of sustainable development of these island regions, the application of the proportionality principle in relation to other general principles of environmental law is proposed as a suitable legislative tool for resolution of the foreseeable conflicts

  16. 75 FR 63259 - Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources and Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources and Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources: Sewage... performance standards for new units and emission guidelines for existing units for specific categories of... standards and emission guidelines for large municipal waste combustion units, small municipal waste...

  17. How categories come to matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leahu, Lucian; Cohn, Marisa; March, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    In a study of users' interactions with Siri, the iPhone personal assistant application, we noticed the emergence of overlaps and blurrings between explanatory categories such as "human" and "machine". We found that users work to purify these categories, thus resolving the tensions related to the ...... initial data analysis, due to our own forms of latent purification, and outline the particular analytic techniques that helped lead to this discovery. We thus provide an illustrative case of how categories come to matter in HCI research and design.......In a study of users' interactions with Siri, the iPhone personal assistant application, we noticed the emergence of overlaps and blurrings between explanatory categories such as "human" and "machine". We found that users work to purify these categories, thus resolving the tensions related...

  18. The composition of category conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Russell R C; Crisp, Richard J

    2005-05-01

    In three experiments, the authors investigated the impression formation process resulting from the perception of familiar or unfamiliar social category combinations. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to generate attributes associated with either a familiar or unfamiliar social category conjunction. Compared to familiar combinations, the authors found that when the conjunction was unfamiliar, participants formed their impression less from the individual constituent categories and relatively more from novel emergent attributes. In Experiment 2, the authors replicated this effect using alternative experimental materials. In Experiment 3, the effect generalized to additional (orthogonally combined) gender and occupation categories. The implications of these findings for understanding the processes involved in the conjunction of social categories, and the formation of new stereotypes, are discussed.

  19. High-energy fusion: A quest for a simple, small and environmentally acceptable colliding-beam fusion power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maglich, B.

    1978-01-01

    Fusion goals should be lowered for a speedier research and development of a less ambitious but a workable 'low-gain fusion power amplifier', based on proven technologies and concepts. The aim of the Migma Program of Controlled Fusion is a small (10-15 liters) fusion power source based on colliding beams instead of plasma or laser heating. Its scientific and technological 'philosophy' is radically different from that of the governmental fusion programs of the USA and USSR. Migmacell uses radiation-free fuels, ('advanced fuels'), rather than tritium. Economic projections show that such a smaller power cell can be econonomically competitive in spite of its low power gain, because it can be mass produced. Power stations could be made either large or small and the power transmission and distribution pattern in the nation would change. An interspersion of energy resources would result. Minifusion opens the possibility to smaller countries (and medium size institutions of large countries), for participation in fusion research; this resource of research talent is presently excluded from fusion by the high cost of the mainline governmental research (over $ 200 million for one experimental fusion device, as compared to $ 1 million for migmacell). The time-scale for obtaining experimental results is reduced from decades to years. Experimental accomplishments to date and the further research needed, are presented. (orig.) [de

  20. Comparative Assessment of Heavy Metals in Drinking Water Sources in Two Small-Scale Mining Communities in Northern Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbina, Samuel J.; Duwiejuah, Abudu B.; Quansah, Reginald; Obiri, Samuel; Bakobie, Noel

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed levels of heavy metals in drinking water sources in two small-scale mining communities (Nangodi and Tinga) in northern Ghana. Seventy-two (72) water samples were collected from boreholes, hand dug wells, dug-out, and a stream in the two mining communities. The levels of mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Mean levels (mg/l) of heavy metals in water samples from Nangodi and Tinga communities were 0.038 and 0.064 (Hg), 0.031 and 0.002 (As), 0.250 and 0.031 (Pb), 0.034 and 0.002 (Zn), and 0.534 and 0.023 (Cd), respectively, for each community. Generally, levels of Hg, As, Pb, Zn, and Cd in water from Nangodi exceeded the World Health Organisation (WHO) stipulated limits of 0.010 for Hg, As, and Pb, 3.0 for Zn and 0.003 for Cd for drinking water, and levels of Hg, Pb, and Cd recorded in Tinga, exceeded the stipulated WHO limits. Ingestion of water, containing elevated levels of Hg, As, and Cd by residents in these mining communities may pose significant health risks. Continuous monitoring of the quality of drinking water sources in these two communities is recommended. PMID:26343702

  1. Comparative Assessment of Heavy Metals in Drinking Water Sources in Two Small-Scale Mining Communities in Northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel J. Cobbina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed levels of heavy metals in drinking water sources in two small-scale mining communities (Nangodi and Tinga in northern Ghana. Seventy-two (72 water samples were collected from boreholes, hand dug wells, dug-out, and a stream in the two mining communities. The levels of mercury (Hg, arsenic (As, lead (Pb, zinc (Zn, and cadmium (Cd were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS. Mean levels (mg/l of heavy metals in water samples from Nangodi and Tinga communities were 0.038 and 0.064 (Hg, 0.031 and 0.002 (As, 0.250 and 0.031 (Pb, 0.034 and 0.002 (Zn, and 0.534 and 0.023 (Cd, respectively, for each community. Generally, levels of Hg, As, Pb, Zn, and Cd in water from Nangodi exceeded the World Health Organisation (WHO stipulated limits of 0.010 for Hg, As, and Pb, 3.0 for Zn and 0.003 for Cd for drinking water, and levels of Hg, Pb, and Cd recorded in Tinga, exceeded the stipulated WHO limits. Ingestion of water, containing elevated levels of Hg, As, and Cd by residents in these mining communities may pose significant health risks. Continuous monitoring of the quality of drinking water sources in these two communities is recommended.

  2. THE DUST BUDGET OF THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD: ARE ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STARS THE PRIMARY DUST SOURCE AT LOW METALLICITY?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, M. L.; Gordon, K. D.; Meixner, M.; Sargent, B. A.; Srinivasan, S.; Riebel, D.; McDonald, I.; Van Loon, J. Th.; Clayton, G. C.; Sloan, G. C.

    2012-01-01

    We estimate the total dust input from the cool evolved stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud, using the 8 μm excess emission as a proxy for the dust-production rate (DPR). We find that asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and red supergiant (RSG) stars produce (8.6-9.5) × 10 –7 M ☉ yr –1 of dust, depending on the fraction of far-infrared sources that belong to the evolved star population (with 10%-50% uncertainty in individual DPRs). RSGs contribute the least ( –3 M ☉ of dust each, then the total SN dust input and AGB input are roughly equivalent. We consider several scenarios of SN dust production and destruction and find that the interstellar medium (ISM) dust can be accounted for solely by stellar sources if all SNe produce dust in the quantities seen around the dustiest examples and if most SNe explode in dense regions where much of the ISM dust is shielded from the shocks. We find that AGB stars contribute only 2.1% of the ISM dust. Without a net positive contribution from SNe to the dust budget, this suggests that dust must grow in the ISM or be formed by another unknown mechanism.

  3. Comparative Assessment of Heavy Metals in Drinking Water Sources in Two Small-Scale Mining Communities in Northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbina, Samuel J; Duwiejuah, Abudu B; Quansah, Reginald; Obiri, Samuel; Bakobie, Noel

    2015-08-28

    The study assessed levels of heavy metals in drinking water sources in two small-scale mining communities (Nangodi and Tinga) in northern Ghana. Seventy-two (72) water samples were collected from boreholes, hand dug wells, dug-out, and a stream in the two mining communities. The levels of mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Mean levels (mg/l) of heavy metals in water samples from Nangodi and Tinga communities were 0.038 and 0.064 (Hg), 0.031 and 0.002 (As), 0.250 and 0.031 (Pb), 0.034 and 0.002 (Zn), and 0.534 and 0.023 (Cd), respectively, for each community. Generally, levels of Hg, As, Pb, Zn, and Cd in water from Nangodi exceeded the World Health Organisation (WHO) stipulated limits of 0.010 for Hg, As, and Pb, 3.0 for Zn and 0.003 for Cd for drinking water, and levels of Hg, Pb, and Cd recorded in Tinga, exceeded the stipulated WHO limits. Ingestion of water, containing elevated levels of Hg, As, and Cd by residents in these mining communities may pose significant health risks. Continuous monitoring of the quality of drinking water sources in these two communities is recommended.

  4. A compact time-of-flight SANS instrument optimised for measurements of small sample volumes at the European Spallation Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kynde, Søren, E-mail: kynde@nbi.ku.dk [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Hewitt Klenø, Kaspar [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Nagy, Gergely [SINQ, Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland); Mortensen, Kell; Lefmann, Kim [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Kohlbrecher, Joachim, E-mail: Joachim.kohlbrecher@psi.ch [SINQ, Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland); Arleth, Lise, E-mail: arleth@nbi.ku.dk [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2014-11-11

    The high flux at European Spallation Source (ESS) will allow for performing experiments with relatively small beam-sizes while maintaining a high intensity of the incoming beam. The pulsed nature of the source makes the facility optimal for time-of-flight small-angle neutron scattering (ToF-SANS). We find that a relatively compact SANS instrument becomes the optimal choice in order to obtain the widest possible q-range in a single setting and the best possible exploitation of the neutrons in each pulse and hence obtaining the highest possible flux at the sample position. The instrument proposed in the present article is optimised for performing fast measurements of small scattering volumes, typically down to 2×2×2 mm{sup 3}, while covering a broad q-range from about 0.005 1/Å to 0.5 1/Å in a single instrument setting. This q-range corresponds to that available at a typical good BioSAXS instrument and is relevant for a wide set of biomacromolecular samples. A central advantage of covering the whole q-range in a single setting is that each sample has to be loaded only once. This makes it convenient to use the fully automated high-throughput flow-through sample changers commonly applied at modern synchrotron BioSAXS-facilities. The central drawback of choosing a very compact instrument is that the resolution in terms of δλ/λ obtained with the short wavelength neutrons becomes worse than what is usually the standard at state-of-the-art SANS instruments. Our McStas based simulations of the instrument performance for a set of characteristic biomacromolecular samples show that the resulting smearing effects still have relatively minor effects on the obtained data and can be compensated for in the data analysis. However, in cases where a better resolution is required in combination with the large simultaneous q-range characteristic of the instrument, we show that this can be obtained by inserting a set of choppers.

  5. Temperate mangrove and salt marsh sediments are a small methane and nitrous oxide source but important carbon store

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livesley, Stephen J.; Andrusiak, Sascha M.

    2012-01-01

    Tidal saline wetlands (TSW), such as mangrove and salt marsh systems, provide many valuable ecosystem services, but continue to suffer disturbance, degradation and deforestation. Tropical mangroves perform a critical role in the exchange and storage of terrestrial-marine carbon but can function as a source of methane (CH 4) and nitrous oxide (N 2O). However, little is known of biogeochemical processes in temperate mangrove and salt marsh systems in the southern hemisphere. In this study, the soil/sediment exchange of CO 2, CH 4 and N 2O was measured seasonally along a natural transition from melaleuca woodland, salt marsh and into mangroves along the Mornington Peninsula edge of Westernport Bay, Victoria, Australia. Soil/sediment physiochemical properties and sediment C density were measured concurrently. The melaleuca woodland soil was a constant CH 4 sink of approximately -25 μg C m -2 h -1 but along the transect this rapidly switched to a weak CH 4 source (mangrove sediments where emissions of up to 375 μg C m -2 h -1 were measured in summer. Sediment CH 4 exchange correlated with salinity, pneumatophore number and the redox potential of sediment water at depth. All three ecosystems were a small N 2O source of ecosystem and season along with soil temperature and salinity. Sediment C density was significantly greater in the salt marsh than the mangrove. Salt marsh sediment C density was 168 Mg C ha -1 which is comparable with that measured globally, whereas the mangrove sediment C density of 145 Mg C ha -1 is among the lowest reported. Contrary to global patterns in terrestrial soil C content and salt marsh sediment C content, data from our study indicate that mangrove sediments from a cooler, drier temperate latitude may store less C than mangroves in warmer and wetter tropical latitudes. Understanding both C storage and the greenhouse gas balance of TSWs will help us to better value these vulnerable ecosystems and manage them accordingly.

  6. How do Category Managers Manage?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft; Sigurbjornsson, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to explore the managerial role of category managers in purchasing. A network management perspective is adopted. A case based research methodology is applied, and three category managers managing a diverse set of component and service categories in a global production...... firm is observed while providing accounts of their progress and results in meetings. We conclude that the network management classification scheme originally deve loped by Harland and Knight (2001) and Knight and Harland (2005) is a valuable and fertile theoretical framework for the analysis...

  7. Homological algebra in -abelian categories

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deren Luo

    2017-08-16

    Aug 16, 2017 ... Homological algebra in n-abelian categories. 627. We recall the Comparison lemma, together with its dual, plays a central role in the sequel. Lemma 2.1 [13, Comparison lemma 2.1]. Let C be an additive category and X ∈ Ch. ≥0(C) a complex such that for all k ≥ 0the morphism dk+1. X is a weak cokernel ...

  8. Sewage sludge ash (SSA) from large and small incineration plants as a potential source of phosphorus - Polish case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smol, Marzena; Kulczycka, Joanna; Kowalski, Zygmunt

    2016-12-15

    The aim of this research is to present the possibility of using the sewage sludge ash (SSA) generated in incineration plants as a secondary source of phosphorus (P). The importance of issues related to P recovery from waste materials results from European Union (UE) legislation, which indicated phosphorus as a critical raw material (CRM). Due to the risks of a shortage of supply and its impact on the economy, which is greater than other raw materials, the proper management of phosphorus resources is required in order to achieve global P security. Based on available databases and literature, an analysis of the potential use of SSA for P-recovery in Poland was conducted. Currently, approx. 43,000 Mg/year of SSA is produced in large and small incineration plants and according to in the Polish National Waste Management Plan 2014 (NWMP) further steady growth is predicted. This indicates a great potential to recycle phosphorus from SSA and to reintroduce it again into the value chain as a component of fertilisers which can be applied directly on fields. The amount of SSA generated in installations, both large and small, varies and this contributes to the fact that new and different P recovery technology solutions must be developed and put into use in the years to come (e.g. mobile/stationary P recovery installations). The creation of a database focused on the collection and sharing of data about the amount of P recovered in EU and Polish installations is identified as a helpful tool in the development of an efficient P management model for Poland. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Three dimensional optimization of small-scale axial turbine for low temperature heat source driven organic Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Jubori, Ayad; Al-Dadah, Raya K.; Mahmoud, Saad; Bahr Ennil, A.S.; Rahbar, Kiyarash

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Three-dimensional optimization of axial turbine stage is presented. • Six organic fluids suitable for low-temperature heat source are considered. • Three-dimensional optimization has been done for each working fluid. • The results showed highlight the potential of optimization technique. • The performance of optimized turbine has been improved off-design conditions. - Abstract: Advances in optimization techniques can be used to enhance the performance of turbines in various applications. However, limited work has been reported on using such optimization techniques to develop small-scale turbines for organic Rankine cycles. This paper investigates the use of multi-objective genetic algorithm to optimize the stage geometry of a small-axial subsonic turbine. This optimization is integrated with organic Rankine cycle analysis using wide range of high density organic working fluids like R123, R134a, R141b, R152a, R245fa and isobutane suitable for low temperature heat sources <100 °C such as solar energy to achieve the best turbine design and highest organic Rankine cycle efficiency. The isentropic efficiency of the turbine in most of the reported organic Rankine cycle studies was assumed constant, while the current work allows the turbine isentropic efficiency to change (dynamic value) with both operating conditions and working fluids. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics analysis and multi-objective genetic algorithm optimization were performed using three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with k-omega shear stress transport turbulence model in ANSYS"R"1"7-CFX and design exploration for various working fluids. The optimization was carried out using eight design parameters for the turbine stage geometry optimization including stator and rotor number of blades, rotor leading edge beta angle, trailing edge beta angle, stagger angle, throat width, trailing half wedge angle and shroud tip clearance. Results showed that

  10. Data categories for marine planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightsom, Frances L.; Cicchetti, Giancarlo; Wahle, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. National Ocean Policy calls for a science- and ecosystem-based approach to comprehensive planning and management of human activities and their impacts on America’s oceans. The Ocean Community in Data.gov is an outcome of 2010–2011 work by an interagency working group charged with designing a national information management system to support ocean planning. Within the working group, a smaller team developed a list of the data categories specifically relevant to marine planning. This set of categories is an important consensus statement of the breadth of information types required for ocean planning from a national, multidisciplinary perspective. Although the categories were described in a working document in 2011, they have not yet been fully implemented explicitly in online services or geospatial metadata, in part because authoritative definitions were not created formally. This document describes the purpose of the data categories, provides definitions, and identifies relations among the categories and between the categories and external standards. It is intended to be used by ocean data providers, managers, and users in order to provide a transparent and consistent framework for organizing and describing complex information about marine ecosystems and their connections to humans.

  11. Category O for quantum groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henning Haahr; Mazorchuk, Volodymyr

    2015-01-01

    We study the BGG-categories O_q associated to quantum groups. We prove that many properties of the ordinary BGG-category O for a semisimple complex Lie algebra carry over to the quantum case. Of particular interest is the case when q is a complex root of unity. Here we prove a tensor decomposition...... for simple modules, projective modules, and indecomposable tilting modules. Using the known Kazhdan–Lusztig conjectures for O and for finite-dimensional U_q-modules we are able to determine all irreducible characters as well as the characters of all indecomposable tilting modules in O_q . As a consequence......, we also recover the known result that the generic quantum case behaves like the classical category O....

  12. Hippocampal activation during episodic and semantic memory retrieval: comparing category production and category cued recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Lee; Cox, Christine; Hayes, Scott M; Nadel, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    Whether or not the hippocampus participates in semantic memory retrieval has been the focus of much debate in the literature. However, few neuroimaging studies have directly compared hippocampal activation during semantic and episodic retrieval tasks that are well matched in all respects other than the source of the retrieved information. In Experiment 1, we compared hippocampal fMRI activation during a classic semantic memory task, category production, and an episodic version of the same task, category cued recall. Left hippocampal activation was observed in both episodic and semantic conditions, although other regions of the brain clearly distinguished the two tasks. Interestingly, participants reported using retrieval strategies during the semantic retrieval task that relied on autobiographical and spatial information; for example, visualizing themselves in their kitchen while producing items for the category kitchen utensils. In Experiment 2, we considered whether the use of these spatial and autobiographical retrieval strategies could have accounted for the hippocampal activation observed in Experiment 1. Categories were presented that elicited one of three retrieval strategy types, autobiographical and spatial, autobiographical and nonspatial, and neither autobiographical nor spatial. Once again, similar hippocampal activation was observed for all three category types, regardless of the inclusion of spatial or autobiographical content. We conclude that the distinction between semantic and episodic memory is more complex than classic memory models suggest.

  13. FINANCIAL CONTROL AS A CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Yu. Volkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the basics of “financial control” as a category. The main attention is concentrated on the “control” itself (asa term, multiplicity of interpretation of“financial control” term and its juristic-practical matching. The duality of financial control category is detected. The identity of terms “financial control” and “state financial control” is justified. The article also offers ways of development of financial control juristical regulation.

  14. Project of SVBR-75/100 reactor plant with improved safety for nuclear sources of small and medium power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragunov, Yu. G.; Stepanov, V. S.; Klimov, N. N.; Dedul, A. V.; Bolvanchikov, S. N.; Zrodnikov, A. V.; Tolhinsky, G. I.; Komlev, O. G.

    2004-01-01

    As a result of the joint work performed recently by FSUE OKB Gidropress, SNC RF-IPPE and other organizations the technical feasibility is shown for creation and usage in nuclear power engineering of the unified reactor plant (RP) SVBR-75/100 with fast neutron reactor core and lead-bismuth coolant (LBC) in the primary circuit. Technical design of SVBR-75/100 reactor plant is based on the following: 50-year operation experience in development and operation of RP with LBC for nuclear submarines; experience in development and operation of fast reactor with sodium coolant; experience in optimization of LBC technology at nuclear submarines and ground-based test benches; conceptual design of SVBR-75 reactor plant (for renovation of Units 2, 3 and 4 of Novovoronezh NPP). Technical solutions laid down in the basis of SVBR-75/100 reactor plant design are oriented towards the industrial basis, structural materials existing in Russia, as well as the unique LBC technology with experimental and practical support. The concept of SVBR-75/100 reactor plant safety assurance is based on the following provisions: maximum usage of inherent safety supported by physical features of fast neutron reactor, chemically inert LBC in the primary circuit, integral layout and special design solutions; maximum possible combination of normal operation and safety functions in RP systems. Small power of SVBR-75/100 RP makes it possible to manufacture the complete set of RP main equipment at the factory and delivery it to NPP site as-finished practically using any transport including railway. Possible fields of application of SVBR-75/100 reactor plants: modular NPPs of different power; renovation of NPPs with light water reactors exhausted their service life; independent nuclear power sources for different applications (ground-based nuclear water-desalinating plants, etc. )(author)

  15. Formation of amino acid precursors in the Solar System small bodies using Aluminium-26 as an energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebukawa, Yoko; Kobayashi, Kensei; Kawai, Jun; Mita, Hajime; Tachibana, Shogo; Yoda, Isao; Misawa, Shusuke

    2016-07-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites contain various organic matter including amino acids that may have played an important role for origin of life on the early Earth. The parent bodies of the chondritic meteorites likely formed from silicate dust grains containing some water ice and organic compounds. These planetesimals are known to contain short-lived radio isotopes such as ^{26}Al, and the heat generated from the decay of ^{26}Al was considered to be used for melting ice. The liquid water, for example, changed anhydrous silicates into hydrous silicates, i.e., aqueous alteration. The liquid water would act also as an ideal reaction medium for various organic chemistry. Cody et al. [1] proposed IOM formation via formose reaction starting with formaldehyde and glycolaldehyde during aqueous activity in the small bodies. Additional hydrothermal experiments showed that ammonia enhanced the yields of IOM like organic solids [2]. Formaldehyde and ammonia are ubiquitous in the Solar System and beyond, e.g., comets contain H _{2}CO : NH _{3} : H _{2}O = 0.4-4 : 0.5-1.5 : 100 [3]. Thus these molecules can be expected to have existed in some Solar System small bodies. We study the liquid phase chemistry of the formaldehyde and ammonia, including formations of amino acid precursor molecules, via hydrothermal experiments at isothermal temperatures of 90 °C to 200 °C. We also evaluate the effects of gamma-ray which is released from the decay of ^{26}Al with gamma-ray irradiation experiments using a ^{60}Co gamma-ray source at Tokyo Institute of Technology. Amino acids were detected mostly after acid hydrolysis of heated or irradiated solutions, indicating that most of the amino acids in the products exist as precursors. Some samples contained 'free' amino acids that were detected without acid hydrolysis, but much lower abundance than after acid hydrolysis. Kendrick mass defect (KMD) analyses of High resolution mass spectra obtained using ESI-MS revealed that various CHO and CHNO

  16. First application of liquid-metal-jet sources for small-animal imaging: High-resolution CT and phase-contrast tumor demarcation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Daniel H.; Lundstroem, Ulf; Burvall, Anna; Hertz, Hans M. [Department of Applied Physics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology/Albanova, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Westermark, Ulrica K.; Arsenian Henriksson, Marie [Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology (MTC), Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: Small-animal studies require images with high spatial resolution and high contrast due to the small scale of the structures. X-ray imaging systems for small animals are often limited by the microfocus source. Here, the authors investigate the applicability of liquid-metal-jet x-ray sources for such high-resolution small-animal imaging, both in tomography based on absorption and in soft-tissue tumor imaging based on in-line phase contrast. Methods: The experimental arrangement consists of a liquid-metal-jet x-ray source, the small-animal object on a rotating stage, and an imaging detector. The source-to-object and object-to-detector distances are adjusted for the preferred contrast mechanism. Two different liquid-metal-jet sources are used, one circulating a Ga/In/Sn alloy and the other an In/Ga alloy for higher penetration through thick tissue. Both sources are operated at 40-50 W electron-beam power with {approx}7 {mu}m x-ray spots, providing high spatial resolution in absorption imaging and high spatial coherence for the phase-contrast imaging. Results: High-resolution absorption imaging is demonstrated on mice with CT, showing 50 {mu}m bone details in the reconstructed slices. High-resolution phase-contrast soft-tissue imaging shows clear demarcation of mm-sized tumors at much lower dose than is required in absorption. Conclusions: This is the first application of liquid-metal-jet x-ray sources for whole-body small-animal x-ray imaging. In absorption, the method allows high-resolution tomographic skeletal imaging with potential for significantly shorter exposure times due to the power scalability of liquid-metal-jet sources. In phase contrast, the authors use a simple in-line arrangement to show distinct tumor demarcation of few-mm-sized tumors. This is, to their knowledge, the first small-animal tumor visualization with a laboratory phase-contrast system.

  17. International Conference on Category Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Pedicchio, Maria; Rosolini, Guiseppe

    1991-01-01

    With one exception, these papers are original and fully refereed research articles on various applications of Category Theory to Algebraic Topology, Logic and Computer Science. The exception is an outstanding and lengthy survey paper by Joyal/Street (80 pp) on a growing subject: it gives an account of classical Tannaka duality in such a way as to be accessible to the general mathematical reader, and to provide a key for entry to more recent developments and quantum groups. No expertise in either representation theory or category theory is assumed. Topics such as the Fourier cotransform, Tannaka duality for homogeneous spaces, braided tensor categories, Yang-Baxter operators, Knot invariants and quantum groups are introduced and studies. From the Contents: P.J. Freyd: Algebraically complete categories.- J.M.E. Hyland: First steps in synthetic domain theory.- G. Janelidze, W. Tholen: How algebraic is the change-of-base functor?.- A. Joyal, R. Street: An introduction to Tannaka duality and quantum groups.- A. Jo...

  18. Learnable Classes of Categorial Grammars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Makoto

    Learnability theory is an attempt to illuminate the concept of learnability using a mathematical model of learning. Two models of learning of categorial grammars are examined here: the standard model, in which sentences presented to the learner are flat strings of words, and one in which sentences are presented in the form of functor-argument…

  19. Language universals without universal categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croft, W.; van Lier, E.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors present their views on an article by author Sandra Chung related to lexical categories. According to them, Chung's article critiques an analysis of word classes in Chamorro by author Donald M. Topping. They discuss the restatements made by Chung on Topping's criteria for

  20. Auditory and phonetic category formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudbeek, Martijn; Cutler, A.; Smits, R.; Swingley, D.; Cohen, Henri; Lefebvre, Claire

    2017-01-01

    Among infants' first steps in language acquisition is learning the relevant contrasts of the language-specific phonemic repertoire. This learning is viewed as the formation of categories in a multidimensional psychophysical space. Research in the visual modality has shown that for adults, some kinds

  1. Micro-electrodeposition techniques for the preparation of small actinide counting sources for ultra-high resolution alpha spectrometry by microcalorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plionis, A.A.; Hastings, E.P.; LaMont, S.P.; Dry, D.E.; Bacrania, M.K.; Rabin, M.W.; Rim, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    Special considerations and techniques are desired for the preparation of small actinide counting sources. Counting sources have been prepared on metal disk substrates (planchets) with an active area of only 0.079 mm 2 . This represents a 93.75% reduction in deposition area from standard electrodeposition methods. The actinide distribution upon the smaller planchet must remain thin and uniform to allow alpha particle emissions to escape the counting source with a minimal amount of self-attenuation. This work describes the development of micro-electrodeposition methods and optimization of the technique with respect to deposition time and current density for various planchet sizes. (author)

  2. 小企业融资缺口及来源特征分析%Analysis on Financing Gap and Financing Source in Small Businesses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡真

    2012-01-01

    According to the investigation of financing gap and financing source of small businesses, we find that the business size and age are typical factors impacting financing of small business.Comparing the current financing source and willingness of small businesses with their start-up period,we can find that the problem of financing difficulty is still serious,although the choices of small businesses' financing expand with their growth age.The analysis on loan's source shows that small business get more proportions of loan from big banks than from small ones for the development of small businesses' loan technology based on "hard information". However,big banks scarcely provide long-term capital for small businesses.%根据对小企业融资缺口和来源特征的调查分析,小企业融资难存在典型的规模和年龄特征。对小企业初创和当前融资来源以及融资意愿的比较发现,尽管伴随企业成长,融资方式的选择有所扩展,但依然存在深度的融资难问题。对贷款来源的分析表明,基于"硬信息"的小企业贷款技术的发展,大银行对小企业的融资比例超过小银行,但小企业依然很难从大银行获得长期资金。

  3. Sediment source detection by stable isotope analysis, carbon and nitrogen content and CSSI in a small river of the Swiss Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    SchindlerWildhaber, Yael; Alewell, Christine; Birkholz, Axel

    2014-05-01

    Suspended sediment (SS) and organic matter in rivers can harm the fauna by affecting health and fitness of free swimming fish and by causing siltation of the riverbed. The temporal and spatial dynamics of sediment, carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) during the brown trout spawning season in a small river of the Swiss Plateau were assessed and C isotopes as well as the C/N atomic ratio were used to distinguish autochthonous and allochthonous sources of organic matter in SS loads. The visual basic program IsoSource with 13Ctot and 15N as input isotopes was used to quantify the temporal and spatial sources of SS. We determined compound specific stable carbon isotopes (CSSI) in fatty acids of possible sediment source areas to the stream in addition and compared them to SS from selected high flow and low flow events. Organic matter concentrations in the infiltrated and suspended sediment were highest during low flow periods with small sediment loads and lowest during high flow periods with high sediment loads. Peak values in nitrate and dissolved organic C were measured during high flow and high rainfall, probably due to leaching from pasture and arable land. The organic matter was of allochthonous sources as indicated by the C/N atomic ratio and δ13Corg. Organic matter in SS increased from up- to downstream due to an increase in sediment delivery from pasture and arable land downstream of the river. While the major sources of SS are pasture and arable land during base flow conditions, SS from forest soils increased during heavy rain events and warmer winter periods most likely due to snow melt which triggered erosion. Preliminary results of CSSI analysis of sediment source areas and comparison to SS of selected events indicate that differences in d13C values of individual fatty acids are too small to differentiate unambiguously between sediment sources.

  4. Grammatical Constructions as Relational Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwater, Micah B

    2017-07-01

    This paper argues that grammatical constructions, specifically argument structure constructions that determine the "who did what to whom" part of sentence meaning and how this meaning is expressed syntactically, can be considered a kind of relational category. That is, grammatical constructions are represented as the abstraction of the syntactic and semantic relations of the exemplar utterances that are expressed in that construction, and it enables the generation of novel exemplars. To support this argument, I review evidence that there are parallel behavioral patterns between how children learn relational categories generally and how they learn grammatical constructions specifically. Then, I discuss computational simulations of how grammatical constructions are abstracted from exemplar sentences using a domain-general relational cognitive architecture. Last, I review evidence from adult language processing that shows parallel behavioral patterns with expert behavior from other cognitive domains. After reviewing the evidence, I consider how to integrate this account with other theories of language development. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  5. Seismic Category I Structures Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endebrock, E.G.; Dove, R.C.; Anderson, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    The Seismic Category I Structures Program currently being carried out at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is sponsored by the Mechanical/Structural Engineering Branch, Division of Engineering Technology of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This project is part of a program designed to increase confidence in the assessment of Category I nuclear power plant structural behavior beyond the design limit. The program involves the design, construction, and testing of heavily reinforced concrete models of auxiliary buildings, fuel-handling buildings, etc., but doe not include the reactor containment building. The overall goal of the program is to supply to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission experimental information and a validated procedure to establish the sensitivity of the dynamic response of these structures to earthquakes of magnitude beyond the design basis earthquake

  6. Different Categories of Business Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona-Valeria TOMA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Every business organisation involves some element of risk. Unmitigated risks can result in lost opportunity, financial losses, loss of reputation, or loss of the right to operate in a jurisdiction. Like any other risk type, understanding business risks is quite important for every business to garner profits instead of facing losses. A business risk is a universal risk type; this means that every business in the world faces business risks. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the different categories of business risk in order to create the appropriate strategies. The aim of this paper is to describe the most important categories of business risks and to make sure that every type of risk receives equal treatment and consideration.

  7. Virtue Ethics: The Misleading Category

    OpenAIRE

    Martha Nussbaum

    1998-01-01

    Virtue ethics is frequently considered to be a single category of ethical theory, and a rival to Kantianismand Utilitarianism. I argue that this approach is a mistake, because both Kantians and Utilitarians can, and do, have an interest in the virtues and the forrnation of character. But even if we focus on the group of ethical theorists who are most commonly called "virtue theorists" because they reject the guidance of both Kantianism and Utilitarianism, and derive inspiration from ancient G...

  8. Virtue Ethics: The Misleading Category

    OpenAIRE

    Nussbaum, Martha

    2013-01-01

    Virtue ethics is frequently considered to be a single category of ethical theory, and a rival to Kantianismand Utilitarianism. I argue that this approach is a mistake, because both Kantians and Utilitarians can, and do, have an interest in the virtues and the forrnation of character. But even if we focus on the group of ethical theorists who are most commonly called "virtue theorists" because they reject the guidance of both Kantianism and Utilitarianism, and derive inspiration from ancient G...

  9. 1999 who's who category index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A classified index and alphabetical directory of Canadian corporate entities involved in the production, manufacturing, conversion, service, retail sales, research and development, transportation, insurance, legal and communications aspects of propane in Canada is provided. The alphabetical directory section provides the usual business information (name, postal address, phone, fax, e-mail and Internet addresses), names of principal officers, affiliations, products or services produced or marketed, and the category under which the company is listed in the classified index

  10. AC Small Signal Modeling of PWM Y-Source Converter by Circuit Averaging and Averaged Switch Modeling Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forouzesh, Mojtaba; Siwakoti, Yam Prasad; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    Magnetically coupled Y-source impedance network is a newly proposed structure with versatile features intended for various power converter applications e.g. in the renewable energy technologies. The voltage gain of the Y-source impedance network rises exponentially as a function of turns ratio, w...

  11. A category of its own?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Jørgen; Roberts, Nigel S.

    1996-01-01

    of these systems on the proportionality of the representation of political parties are, indeed, comparable. The four electoral systems were the basis of their countries' general elections during 1994. The results of these elections are used for analyses and discussions of the relative importance of the differences......At first sight, the electoral systems in Denmark, Germany, South Africa and Sweden may seem different and attaempt to categorize them together odd. All four, however, belong to the same category, which Arend Lijphart calls 'proportional representation two-tier districting systems', and the effects...

  12. Functional categories in comparative linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    , Roger M. 1979. Linguistic knowledge and cultural knowledge: some doubts and speculation. American Anthropologist 81-1, 14-36. Levinson, Stephen C. 1997. From outer to inner space: linguistic categories and non-linguistic thinking. In J. Nuyts and E. Pederson (eds.), Language and Conceptualization, 13......). Furthermore certain ‘ontological categories’ are language-specific (Malt 1995). For example, speakers of Kalam (New Guinea) do not classify the cassowary as a bird, because they believe it has a mythical kinship relation with humans (Bulmer 1967).       In this talk I will discuss the role of functional...

  13. A small, lightweight multipollutant sensor system for ground-mobile and aerial emission sampling from open area sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characterizing highly dynamic, transient, and vertically lofted emissions from open area sources poses unique measurement challenges. This study developed and applied a multipollutant sensor and integrated sampler system for use on mobile applications including tethered balloons ...

  14. 14 CFR 23.3 - Airplane categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane categories. 23.3 Section 23.3... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES General § 23.3 Airplane categories. (a) The normal category is limited to airplanes that have a seating configuration, excluding pilot...

  15. Aspect as a Communicative Category

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durst-Andersen, Per

    2018-01-01

    On the basis of internal evidence from primarily the use of imperfective forms and external evidence from primarily first language acquisition, it is argued that English, Russian, and French aspect differ from one another, because they go back to an obligatory choice among three possible communic......On the basis of internal evidence from primarily the use of imperfective forms and external evidence from primarily first language acquisition, it is argued that English, Russian, and French aspect differ from one another, because they go back to an obligatory choice among three possible...... communicative directions: should a grammatical category be grounded in the speaker's experience of a situation, in the situation referred to or in the hearer as information about the situation? The progressive vs. non-progressive distinction in English is acquired in the present tense of atelic (simplex) verbs...... to the meta-distinction between atelic (simplex) and telic (complex) verbs. It is second-person oriented. The specific order arrived at reflects the Peircean categories of Firstness, Secondness, and Thirdness and their predictions. This can account for the fact that the English and Russian types can be found...

  16. Monoidal categories and the Gerstenhaber bracket in Hochschild cohomology

    CERN Document Server

    Hermann, Reiner

    2016-01-01

    In this monograph, the author extends S. Schwede's exact sequence interpretation of the Gerstenhaber bracket in Hochschild cohomology to certain exact and monoidal categories. Therefore the author establishes an explicit description of an isomorphism by A. Neeman and V. Retakh, which links \\mathrm{Ext}-groups with fundamental groups of categories of extensions and relies on expressing the fundamental group of a (small) category by means of the associated Quillen groupoid. As a main result, the author shows that his construction behaves well with respect to structure preserving functors between exact monoidal categories. The author uses his main result to conclude, that the graded Lie bracket in Hochschild cohomology is an invariant under Morita equivalence. For quasi-triangular bialgebras, he further determines a significant part of the Lie bracket's kernel, and thereby proves a conjecture by L. Menichi. Along the way, the author introduces n-extension closed and entirely extension closed subcategories of abe...

  17. Sourcing methane and carbon dioxide emissions from a small city: Influence of natural gas leakage and combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Samuel D; Ingraffea, Anthony R; Sparks, Jed P

    2016-11-01

    Natural gas leakage and combustion are major sources of methane (CH 4 ) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), respectively; however, our understanding of emissions from cities is limited. We mapped distribution pipeline leakage using a mobile CH 4 detection system, and continuously monitored atmospheric CO 2 and CH 4 concentrations and carbon isotopes (δ 13 C-CO 2 and δ 13 C-CH 4 ) for one-year above Ithaca, New York. Pipeline leakage rates were low (emission source in that wind sector. Our results demonstrate pipeline leakage rates are low in cities with a low extent of leak prone pipe, and natural gas power facilities may be an important source of urban and suburban emissions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Decree No. 79-623 of 13 July 1979 publishing the Decision on the exclusion of certain categories of nuclear substances from the scope of the Convention of 29 July 1960 on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy and the Decision (with an annex) on the exclusion of small quantities of nuclear substances from the scope of the Convention of 29 July 1960 on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy, adopted on 27 October 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This decree lays down that certain specified quantities and categories of nuclear substances are excluded from the nuclear operator's liability. This implements in France two Decisions taken by the NEA Steering Committee under the Paris Convention which enables the Committee to exclude from the operator's liability, nuclear installations, fuel or substances if the small extent of the risks involved so warrants. Both Decisions are reproduced in the Decree. (NEA) [fr

  19. Standardization of radioactive waste categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    A large amount of information about most aspects of radioactive waste management has been accumulated and made available to interested nations in recent years. The efficiency of this service has been somewhat hampered because the terminology used to describe the different types of radioactive waste has varied from country to country and indeed from installation to installation within a given country. This publication is the outcome of a panel meeting on Standardization of Radioactive Waste Categories. It presents a simple standard to be used as a common language between people working in the field of waste management at nuclear installations. The purpose of the standard is only to act as a practical tool for increasing efficiency in communicating, collecting and assessing technical and economical information in the common interest of all nations and the developing countries in particular. 20 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  20. 40 CFR 152.403 - Definitions of fee categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions of fee categories. 152.403 Section 152.403 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS... small-scale field testing of microbial pest control agents (40 CFR 172.3). [53 FR 19114, May 26, 1988...

  1. SU-F-T-670: From the OR to the Radiobiology Lab: The Journey of a Small X-Ray Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, J [Calvary Mater, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia); The University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Barry, M; Jones, R; Fay, M [Calvary Mater, Newcastle, NSW (Australia)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Irradiation of small animal tumor models within laboratories is vital to radiobiological experiments. Often the animals are not able to be brought back into the lab after being taken out for irradiation. Cell biology laboratories benefit from irradiation capability available around the clock without regard to patient load in an associated radiotherapy clinic. Commercial systems are available, but bulky and expensive. Methods: An intraoperative kV irradiation system (IntraBeam™) designed to deliver spherical dose distributions to surgical cavities has been repurposed for the irradiation of cell plates and small laboratory animals. An applicator has been altered to allow for simple, open fields. Special collimators are being developed. BEAMnrc Monte Carlo simulations with the “NRC swept BEAM” source model have been performed to characterize the dose distributions, to develop optimal collimators and as basis for dose prescription. Measurements with radiochromic film and with an ionization chamber were performed to characterize the beam and to validate the simulations. Results: Using its highest setting (50 kV and 40 µA) the x-ray unit is capable of delivering dose rates over 1 Gy/min homogeneously to standard cell plates even without an optimized collimator. Smaller areas (tumors in animals) can be irradiated with significantly higher dose rates (> 20 Gy/min) depending on distance of the source to the tumor. The HVL was found to be 0.21 mm Al which means the shielding requirements for the device are easily achievable in the lab. Conclusion: A mobile irradiation facility is feasible. It will allow easier access to radiation for radiobiology experiments. The modified system is versatile in that for cell plates homogenous irradiations can be achieved through distance from the source, while for high dose rate small field irradiations the source can be brought in close proximity to the target.

  2. 40 CFR 98.190 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (a) Lime manufacturing plants (LMPs) engage in the manufacture of a lime product (e.g., calcium oxide, high-calcium quicklime, calcium hydroxide, hydrated lime, dolomitic quicklime, dolomitic hydrate, or... kraft pulp mill, soda pulp mill, sulfite pulp mill, or only processes sludge containing calcium...

  3. 40 CFR 98.250 - Definition of source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; asphalt blowing operations; blowdown systems; storage tanks; process equipment components (compressors... plants (i.e., hydrogen plants that are owned or under the direct control of the refinery owner and...

  4. 40 CFR 98.270 - Definition of source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... this section: (1) Chemical recovery furnaces at kraft and soda mills (including recovery furnaces that burn spent pulping liquor produced by both the kraft and semichemical process). (2) Chemical recovery... into paperboard products (e.g., containers), or operate coating and laminating processes. (b) The...

  5. Monte Carlo modeling of small photon fields: Quantifying the impact of focal spot size on source occlusion and output factors, and exploring miniphantom design for small-field measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Alison J. D.; Nahum, Alan E.; Fenwick, John D.

    2009-01-01

    The accuracy with which Monte Carlo models of photon beams generated by linear accelerators (linacs) can describe small-field dose distributions depends on the modeled width of the electron beam profile incident on the linac target. It is known that the electron focal spot width affects penumbra and cross-field profiles; here, the authors explore the extent to which source occlusion reduces linac output for smaller fields and larger spot sizes. A BEAMnrc Monte Carlo linac model has been used to investigate the variation in penumbra widths and small-field output factors with electron spot size. A formalism is developed separating head scatter factors into source occlusion and flattening filter factors. Differences between head scatter factors defined in terms of in-air energy fluence, collision kerma, and terma are explored using Monte Carlo calculations. Estimates of changes in kerma-based source occlusion and flattening filter factors with field size and focal spot width are obtained by calculating doses deposited in a narrow 2 mm wide virtual ''milliphantom'' geometry. The impact of focal spot size on phantom scatter is also explored. Modeled electron spot sizes of 0.4-0.7 mm FWHM generate acceptable matches to measured penumbra widths. However the 0.5 cm field output factor is quite sensitive to electron spot width, the measured output only being matched by calculations for a 0.7 mm spot width. Because the spectra of the unscattered primary (Ψ Π ) and head-scattered (Ψ Σ ) photon energy fluences differ, miniphantom-based collision kerma measurements do not scale precisely with total in-air energy fluence Ψ=(Ψ Π +Ψ Σ ) but with (Ψ Π +1.2Ψ Σ ). For most field sizes, on-axis collision kerma is independent of the focal spot size; but for a 0.5 cm field size and 1.0 mm spot width, it is reduced by around 7% mostly due to source occlusion. The phantom scatter factor of the 0.5 cm field also shows some spot size dependence, decreasing by 6% (relative) as

  6. Simulation of Supply-Chain Networks: A Source of Innovation and Competitive Advantage for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Liotta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available On a daily basis, enterprises of all sizes cope with the turbulence and volatility of market demands, cost variability, and severe pressure from globally distributed competitors. Managing uncertainty about future demand requirements and volumes in supply-chain networks has become a priority. One of the ways to deal with uncertainty is the utilization of simulation techniques and tools, which provide greater predictability of decision-making outcomes. For example, simulation has been widely applied in decision-making processes related to global logistics and production networks at the strategic, tactical, and operational levels, where it is used to predict the impact of decisions before their implementation in complex and uncertain environments. Large enterprises are inclined to use simulation tools whereas small and medium-sized enterprises seem to underestimate its advantages. The objective of this article is to emphasize the relevance of simulation for the design and management of supply-chain networks from the perspective of small and medium-sized firms.

  7. Color categories and color appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue–green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary were perceptually exaggerated. This task did not require overt judgments of the perceived colors, and the tendency to group showed only a weak and inconsistent categorical bias. In a second case, we analyzed results from two prior studies of hue scaling of chromatic stimuli (De Valois, De Valois, Switkes, & Mahon, 1997; Malkoc, Kay, & Webster, 2005), to test whether color appearance changed more rapidly around the blue–green boundary. In this task observers directly judge the perceived color of the stimuli and these judgments tended to show much stronger categorical effects. The differences between these tasks could arise either because different signals mediate color grouping and color appearance, or because linguistic categories might differentially intrude on the response to color and/or on the perception of color. Our results suggest that the interaction between language and color processing may be highly dependent on the specific task and cognitive demands and strategies of the observer, and also highlight pronounced individual differences in the tendency to exhibit categorical responses. PMID:22176751

  8. Major and Trace Element Fluxes to the Ganges River: Significance of Small Flood Plain Tributary as Non-Point Pollution Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, V.; Sen, I. S.; Mishra, G.

    2017-12-01

    There has been much discussion amongst biologists, ecologists, chemists, geologists, environmental firms, and science policy makers about the impact of human activities on river health. As a result, multiple river restoration projects are on going on many large river basins around the world. In the Indian subcontinent, the Ganges River is the focal point of all restoration actions as it provides food and water security to half a billion people. Serious concerns have been raised about the quality of Ganga water as toxic chemicals and many more enters the river system through point-sources such as direct wastewater discharge to rivers, or non-point-sources. Point source pollution can be easily identified and remedial actions can be taken; however, non-point pollution sources are harder to quantify and mitigate. A large non-point pollution source in the Indo-Gangetic floodplain is the network of small floodplain rivers. However, these rivers are rarely studied since they are small in catchment area ( 1000-10,000 km2) and discharge (knowledge gap we have monitored the Pandu River for one year between February 2015 and April 2016. Pandu river is 242 km long and is a right bank tributary of Ganges with a total catchment area of 1495 km2. Water samples were collected every month for dissolved major and trace elements. Here we show that the concentration of heavy metals in river Pandu is in higher range as compared to the world river average, and all the dissolved elements shows a large spatial-temporal variation. We show that the Pandu river exports 192170, 168517, 57802, 32769, 29663, 1043, 279, 241, 225, 162, 97, 28, 25, 22, 20, 8, 4 Kg/yr of Ca, Na, Mg, K, Si, Sr, Zn, B, Ba, Mn, Al, Li, Rb, Mo, U, Cu, and Sb, respectively, to the Ganga river, and the exported chemical flux effects the water chemistry of the Ganga river downstream of its confluence point. We further speculate that small floodplain rivers is an important source that contributes to the dissolved chemical

  9. The Micro-Category Account of Analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Adam E.; Fugelsang, Jonathan A.; Kraemer, David J. M.; Dunbar, Kevin N.

    2008-01-01

    Here, we investigate how activation of mental representations of categories during analogical reasoning influences subsequent cognitive processing. Specifically, we present and test the central predictions of the "Micro-Category" account of analogy. This account emphasizes the role of categories in aligning terms for analogical mapping. In a…

  10. Individual differences in attention during category learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, M.D.; Wetzels, R.

    2010-01-01

    A central idea in many successful models of category learning—including the Generalized Context Model (GCM)—is that people selectively attend to those dimensions of stimuli that are relevant for dividing them into categories. We use the GCM to re-examine some previously analyzed category learning

  11. Small, mobile, persistent: Trifluoroacetate in the water cycle - Overlooked sources, pathways, and consequences for drinking water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheurer, Marco; Nödler, Karsten; Freeling, Finnian; Janda, Joachim; Happel, Oliver; Riegel, Marcel; Müller, Uwe; Storck, Florian Rüdiger; Fleig, Michael; Lange, Frank Thomas; Brunsch, Andrea; Brauch, Heinz-Jürgen

    2017-12-01

    Elevated concentrations of trifluoroacetate (TFA) of more than 100 μg/L in a major German river led to the occurrence of more than 20 μg/L TFA in bank filtration based tap waters. Several spatially resolved monitoring programs were conducted and discharges from an industrial company were identified as the point source of TFA contamination. Treatment options for TFA removal were investigated at full-scale waterworks and in laboratory batch tests. Commonly applied techniques like ozonation or granulated activated carbon filtration are inappropriate for TFA removal, whereas TFA was partly removed by ion exchange and completely retained by reverse osmosis. Further investigations identified wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as additional TFA dischargers into the aquatic environment. TFA was neither removed by biological wastewater treatment, nor by a retention soil filter used for the treatment of combined sewer overflows. WWTP influents can even bear a TFA formation potential, when appropriate CF 3 -containing precursors are present. Biological degradation and ozonation batch experiments with chemicals of different classes (flurtamone, fluopyram, tembotrione, flufenacet, fluoxetine, sitagliptine and 4:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate) proved that there are yet overlooked sources and pathways of TFA, which need to be addressed in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Connecting the small scale to the large scale: young massive stars and their environments from the Red MSX Source Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figura, Charles C.; Urquhart, James S.; Morgan, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    We have conducted a detailed multi-wavelength investigation of a variety of massive star forming regions in order to characterise the impact of the interactions between the substructure of the dense protostellar clumps and their local environment, including feedback from the embedded proto-cluster.A selection of 70 MYSOs and HII regions identified by the RMS survey have been followed up with observations of the ammonia (1,1) and (2,2) inversion transitions made with the KFPA on the GBT. These maps have been combined with archival CO data to investigate the thermal and kinematic structure of the extended envelopes down to the dense clumps. We complement this larger-scale picture with high resolution near- and mid-infrared images to probe the properties of the embedded objects themselves.We present an overview of several sources from this sample that illustrate some of the the interactions that we observe. We find that high molecular column densities and kinetic temperatures are coincident with embedded sources and with shocks and outflows as exhibited in gas kinematics.

  13. Multi-stage-flash desalination plants of relative small performance with integrated pressurized water reactors as a nuclear heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, G.; Peltzer, M.

    1977-01-01

    In the Krupp-GKSS joint study MINIPLEX the requirements for seawater-desalination plants with a performance in the range of 10 000 to 80 000 m 3 distillate per day heated by a nuclear reactor are investigated. The reactor concept is similar to the Integrated Pressurized Water Reactor (IPWR) of the nuclear ship OTTO HAHN. The design study shows that IPWR systems have specific advantages up to 200 MWth compared to other reactor types at least being adapted for single- and dual-purpose desalination plants. The calculated costs of the desalinated water show that due to fuel cost advantages of reactors small and medium nuclear desalination plants are economically competetive with oil-fired plants since the steep rise of oil price in autumn 1973. (author)

  14. Traffic represents the main source of pollution in small Mediterranean urban areas as seen by lichen functional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llop, Esteve; Pinho, Pedro; Ribeiro, Manuel C; Pereira, Maria João; Branquinho, Cristina

    2017-05-01

    The land-use type (residential, green areas, and traffic) within relatively small Mediterranean urban areas determines significant changes on lichen diversity, considering species richness and functional groups related to different ecological factors. Those areas with larger volume of traffic hold lower species diversity, in terms of species richness and lichen diversity value (LDV). Traffic areas also affect the composition of the lichen community, which is evidenced by sensitive species. The abundance of species of lichens tolerant to low levels of eutrophication diminishes in traffic areas; oppositely, those areas show a higher abundance of species of lichens tolerating high levels of eutrophication. On the other hand, residential and green areas have an opposite pattern, mainly with species highly tolerant to eutrophication being less abundant than low or moderate ones. The characteristics of tree bark do not seem to affect excessively on lichen composition; however, tree species shows some effect that should be considered in further studies.

  15. Size and importance of small electrical end uses in households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broderick, J R; Zogg, R A; Alberino, D L

    1998-07-01

    Miscellaneous end uses (an energy-consumption category in the residential sector) has recently emerged with more importance than ever before. Miscellaneous end uses are a collection of numerous end uses (often unrelated in technology or market characteristics) that individually are small consumers but when grouped together can become notable in size. The Annual Energy Outlook 1998, published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), suggests that about 32% of residential electricity use in 1996 is attributable to miscellaneous end uses (21% from the Other Uses category and 11% from other miscellaneous categories). The EIA predicts this consumption will grow to about 47% of residential electricity use by 2010. Other studies have shown substantial consumption in this category, and forecast substantial future growth as well. However, it is not clear that the current accounting structure of the miscellaneous category is the most appropriate one, nor that the forecast growth in consumption will materialize. A bottom-up study on a collection of miscellaneous electric end uses was performed to better understand this complex, ill-defined category. Initial results show that many end uses can be categorized more appropriately, such as furnace fans, which belong in Space Heating. A recommended categorization reduces the Other Uses category from 21% to 12% of electric consumption estimated in 1996. Thus, the consumption from miscellaneous end uses is not nearly as large as thought. Furthermore, the growth rate associated with small end uses is projected to be lower relative to projections from other sources.

  16. In vivo quantitative imaging of point-like bioluminescent and fluorescent sources: Validation studies in phantoms and small animals post mortem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comsa, Daria Craita

    2008-10-01

    There is a real need for improved small animal imaging techniques to enhance the development of therapies in which animal models of disease are used. Optical methods for imaging have been extensively studied in recent years, due to their high sensitivity and specificity. Methods like bioluminescence and fluorescence tomography report promising results for 3D reconstructions of source distributions in vivo. However, no standard methodology exists for optical tomography, and various groups are pursuing different approaches. In a number of studies on small animals, the bioluminescent or fluorescent sources can be reasonably approximated as point or line sources. Examples include images of bone metastases confined to the bone marrow. Starting with this premise, we propose a simpler, faster, and inexpensive technique to quantify optical images of point-like sources. The technique avoids the computational burden of a tomographic method by using planar images and a mathematical model based on diffusion theory. The model employs in situ optical properties estimated from video reflectometry measurements. Modeled and measured images are compared iteratively using a Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm to improve estimates of the depth and strength of the bioluminescent or fluorescent inclusion. The performance of the technique to quantify bioluminescence images was first evaluated on Monte Carlo simulated data. Simulated data also facilitated a methodical investigation of the effect of errors in tissue optical properties on the retrieved source depth and strength. It was found that, for example, an error of 4 % in the effective attenuation coefficient led to 4 % error in the retrieved depth for source depths of up to 12mm, while the error in the retrieved source strength increased from 5.5 % at 2mm depth, to 18 % at 12mm depth. Experiments conducted on images from homogeneous tissue-simulating phantoms showed that depths up to 10mm could be estimated within 8 %, and the relative

  17. Comparative analysis among the small RNA populations of source, sink and conductive tissues in two different plant-virus pathosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herranz, Mari Carmen; Navarro, Jose Antonio; Sommen, Evelien; Pallas, Vicente

    2015-02-22

    In plants, RNA silencing plays a fundamental role as defence mechanism against viruses. During last years deep-sequencing technology has allowed to analyze the sRNA profile of a large variety of virus-infected tissues. Nevertheless, the majority of these studies have been restricted to a unique tissue and no comparative analysis between phloem and source/sink tissues has been conducted. In the present work, we compared the sRNA populations of source, sink and conductive (phloem) tissues in two different plant virus pathosystems. We chose two cucurbit species infected with two viruses very different in genome organization and replication strategy; Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV) and Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV). Our findings showed, in both systems, an increase of the 21-nt total sRNAs together with a decrease of those with a size of 24-nt in all the infected tissues, except for the phloem where the ratio of 21/24-nt sRNA species remained constant. Comparing the vsRNAs, both PNRSV- and MNSV-infected plants share the same vsRNA size distribution in all the analyzed tissues. Similar accumulation levels of sense and antisense vsRNAs were observed in both systems except for roots that showed a prevalence of (+) vsRNAs in both pathosystems. Additionally, the presence of overrepresented discrete sites along the viral genome, hot spots, were identified and validated by stem-loop RT-PCR. Despite that in PNRSV-infected plants the presence of vsRNAs was scarce both viruses modulated the host sRNA profile. We compare for the first time the sRNA profile of four different tissues, including source, sink and conductive (phloem) tissues, in two plant-virus pathosystems. Our results indicate that antiviral silencing machinery in melon and cucumber acts mainly through DCL4. Upon infection, the total sRNA pattern in phloem remains unchanged in contrast to the rest of the analyzed tissues indicating a certain tissue-tropism to this polulation. Independently of the

  18. A Catalog of Moment Tensors and Source-type Characterization for Small Events at Uturuncu Volcano, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvizuri, C. R.; Tape, C.

    2015-12-01

    We present a catalog of full seismic moment tensors for 63 events from Uturuncu volcano in Bolivia. The events were recorded during 2011-2012 in the PLUTONS seismic array of 24 broadband stations. Most events had magnitudes between 0.5 and 2.0 and did not generate discernible surface waves; the largest event was Mw 2.8. For each event we computed the misfit between observed and synthetic waveforms, and we also used first-motion polarity measurements to reduce the number of possible solutions. Each moment tensor solution was obtained using a grid search over the six-dimensional space of moment tensors. For each event we characterize the variation of moment tensor source type by plotting the misfit function in eigenvalue space, represented by a lune. We plot the optimal solutions for the 63 events on the lune in order to identify three subsets of the catalog: (1) a set of isotropic events, (2) a set of tensional crack events, and (3) a swarm of events southeast of the volcanic center that appear to be double couples. The occurrence of positively isotropic events is consistent with other published results from volcanic and geothermal regions. Several of these previous results, as well as our results, cannot be interpreted within the context of either an oblique opening crack or a crack-plus-double-couple model; instead they require a multiple-process source model. Our study emphasizes the importance of characterizing uncertainties for full moment tensors, and it provides strong support for isotropic events at Uturuncu volcano.

  19. Bundles of C*-categories and duality

    OpenAIRE

    Vasselli, Ezio

    2005-01-01

    We introduce the notions of multiplier C*-category and continuous bundle of C*-categories, as the categorical analogues of the corresponding C*-algebraic notions. Every symmetric tensor C*-category with conjugates is a continuous bundle of C*-categories, with base space the spectrum of the C*-algebra associated with the identity object. We classify tensor C*-categories with fibre the dual of a compact Lie group in terms of suitable principal bundles. This also provides a classification for ce...

  20. Experimental results and first {sup 22}Na source image reconstruction by two prototype modules in coincidence of a liquid xenon positron emission tomograph for small animal imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallin-Martel, M.-L., E-mail: mlgallin@lpsc.in2p3.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble, 53 avenue des Martyrs 38026 Grenoble Cedex (France); Grondin, Y. [Laboratoire TIMC/IMAG, CNRS et Universite Joseph Fourier, Pavillon Taillefer 38706 La Tronche Cedex (France); Gac, N. [Laboratoire L2S, UMR 8506 CNRS - SUPELEC - Univ Paris-Sud, Gif sur Yvette F-91192 (France); Carcagno, Y.; Gallin-Martel, L.; Grondin, D.; Marton, M.; Muraz, J.-F; Rossetto, O.; Vezzu, F. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble, 53 avenue des Martyrs 38026 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2012-08-01

    A detector with a very specific design using liquid Xenon (LXe) in the scintillation mode is studied for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) of small animals. Two prototype modules equipped with Position Sensitive Photo Multiplier Tubes (PSPMTs) operating in the VUV range (178 nm) and at 165 K were built and studied in coincidence. This paper reports on energy, time and spatial resolution capabilities of this experimental test bench. Furthermore, these experimental results were used to perform the first image reconstruction of a {sup 22}Na source placed in the experimental setup.

  1. Experimental results and first 22Na source image reconstruction by two prototype modules in coincidence of a liquid xenon positron emission tomograph for small animal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallin-Martel, M.-L.; Grondin, Y.; Gac, N.; Carcagno, Y.; Gallin-Martel, L.; Grondin, D.; Marton, M.; Muraz, J.-F; Rossetto, O.; Vezzu, F.

    2012-01-01

    A detector with a very specific design using liquid Xenon (LXe) in the scintillation mode is studied for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) of small animals. Two prototype modules equipped with Position Sensitive Photo Multiplier Tubes (PSPMTs) operating in the VUV range (178 nm) and at 165 K were built and studied in coincidence. This paper reports on energy, time and spatial resolution capabilities of this experimental test bench. Furthermore, these experimental results were used to perform the first image reconstruction of a 22 Na source placed in the experimental setup.

  2. Upstream Freshwater and Terrestrial Sources Are Differentially Reflected in the Bacterial Community Structure along a Small Arctic River and Its Estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauptmann, Aviaja Zenia Edna Lyberth; Markussen, Thor N; Stibal, Marek

    2016-01-01

    of different water sources on the microbial communities in Arctic rivers and estuaries remains unknown. In this study we used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to assess a small river and its estuary on the Disko Island, West Greenland (69°N). Samples were taken in August when there is maximum precipitation...... and temperatures are high in the Disko Bay area. We describe the bacterial community through a river into the estuary, including communities originating in a glacier and a proglacial lake. Our results show that water from the glacier and lake transports distinct communities into the river in terms of diversity...

  3. High throughput screening for small molecule therapy for Gaucher disease using patient tissue as the source of mutant glucocerebrosidase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehud Goldin

    Full Text Available Gaucher disease (GD, the most common lysosomal storage disorder, results from the inherited deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase (GCase. Previously, wildtype GCase was used for high throughput screening (HTS of large collections of compounds to identify small molecule chaperones that could be developed as new therapies for GD. However, the compounds identified from HTS usually showed reduced potency later in confirmatory cell-based assays. An alternate strategy is to perform HTS on mutant enzyme to identify different lead compounds, including those enhancing mutant enzyme activities. We developed a new screening assay using enzyme extract prepared from the spleen of a patient with Gaucher disease with genotype N370S/N370S. In tissue extracts, GCase is in a more native physiological environment, and is present with the native activator saposin C and other potential cofactors. Using this assay, we screened a library of 250,000 compounds and identified novel modulators of mutant GCase including 14 new lead inhibitors and 30 lead activators. The activities of some of the primary hits were confirmed in subsequent cell-based assays using patient-derived fibroblasts. These results suggest that primary screening assays using enzyme extracted from tissues is an alternative approach to identify high quality, physiologically relevant lead compounds for drug development.

  4. Sources of variance in BC mass measurements from a small marine engine: Influence of the instruments, fuels and loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu; Yang, Jiacheng; Gagné, Stéphanie; Chan, Tak W.; Thomson, Kevin; Fofie, Emmanuel; Cary, Robert A.; Rutherford, Dan; Comer, Bryan; Swanson, Jacob; Lin, Yue; Van Rooy, Paul; Asa-Awuku, Akua; Jung, Heejung; Barsanti, Kelley; Karavalakis, Georgios; Cocker, David; Durbin, Thomas D.; Miller, J. Wayne; Johnson, Kent C.

    2018-06-01

    Knowledge of black carbon (BC) emission factors from ships is important from human health and environmental perspectives. A study of instruments measuring BC and fuels typically used in marine operation was carried out on a small marine engine. Six analytical methods measured the BC emissions in the exhaust of the marine engine operated at two load points (25% and 75%) while burning one of three fuels: a distillate marine (DMA), a low sulfur, residual marine (RMB-30) and a high-sulfur residual marine (RMG-380). The average emission factors with all instruments increased from 0.08 to 1.88 gBC/kg fuel in going from 25 to 75% load. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) tested BC emissions against instrument, load, and combined fuel properties and showed that both engine load and fuels had a statistically significant impact on BC emission factors. While BC emissions were impacted by the fuels used, none of the fuel properties investigated (sulfur content, viscosity, carbon residue and CCAI) was a primary driver for BC emissions. Of the two residual fuels, RMB-30 with the lower sulfur content, lower viscosity and lower residual carbon, had the highest BC emission factors. BC emission factors determined with the different instruments showed a good correlation with the PAS values with correlation coefficients R2 >0.95. A key finding of this research is the relative BC measured values were mostly independent of load and fuel, except for some instruments in certain fuel and load combinations.

  5. PRECEDENCE AS A PSYCHOLINGUISTIC CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panarina Nadezhda Sergeevna

    2015-06-01

    . In summary, any speech act assumes particular correlation and content of meaning components. Presence of culturological component in meaning structure represents specific nature of speech activity structural elements. Therefore, precedence is a psycholinguistic category, which must be considered taking into account structural features of a particular speech activity.

  6. Research results from a prototype for power generation from low temperature heat sources in small and medium sized sawmills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tveit, Tor-Martin; Hoeeg, Arne; Asphjell, Trond-Atle; Horn, Henning

    2010-07-01

    In this paper we present research results from a low temperature power generation unit prototype, SPP 2-67A, installed at the timber company Moelven Eidsvold Vaerk in Norway. The power generation unit is a Stirling cycle reciprocating engine connected to a generator, which is designed to combine the mature technology for high temperature Stirling engines (as seen for instance as air independent propulsion (AIP) units in submarines) and recent academic work on low temperature Stirling engines. The power generation unit is installed in a boiler room at the Moelven Eidsvold Vaerk plant and uses steam at approximately 1.5 bar pressure as a heat source. The steam is generated in the 5.5 MW biomass-fuelled boiler, where bark of Norway spruce (Picea abies) is the main biofuel. The installation has been intended both to use hot water as a heat sink to demonstrate CHP operation, and cold water from the grid to demonstrate maximum power generation from surplus steam. The installation is part of a research project partly financed by the Research Council of Norway, with the goal of testing new technology to improve the use of bioenergy resources and conversion of heat from biofuels to power. (Author)

  7. [Composition characteristics and source analysis of major ions in four small lake-watersheds on the Tibetan Plateau, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, He; Li, Jun; Liu, Xiao-Long; Yang, Xi; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Jie; Niu, Ying-Quan

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the ionic compositions of small lake-watersheds on the Tibetan Plateau, water samples from the brackish lakes (Pung Co (lake), Angrenjin Co and Dajia Co), the freshwater lake (Daggyaima Co), their inflowing rivers and the hot spring (Dagejia Geothermal Field), were collected during July-August 2013. The results showed that the major anions and cations of the brackish lakes were HCO3-, SO4(2-) and Na+, respectively, and the hydrochemical types were HCO3-SO4-Na and HCO3-Na. The major anions and cations of the inflowing rivers and the freshwater lake were HCO3-, SO4(2-) and Ca2+, Mg2+, respectively, and the hydrochemical types were HCO3-Ca, HCO3-Ca-Mg, HCO3-Mg-Ca, HCO3-SO4-Ca and SO4-HCO3- Ca. The major anions and cations of the hot spring were HCO3- and Na+, respectively, and the hydrochemical type was HCO3-Na. Water chemistry in the brackish lakes was primarily dominated by evaporation-crystallization processes, while the inflowing rivers and the freshwater lake were mainly influenced by carbonate weathering, and the hot spring was mainly controlled by hot water-granite interaction. Ca2+ was preferentially removed over Mg2+ from the water when carbonate minerals precipitation occured, which resulted in the high Mg2+/Ca2+ molar ratios of the brackish lakes. In the contribution of cation compositions, the largest contribution was carbonate weathering (54% - 79%), followed by silicate weathering (13% -29%) and evaperite dissolution (4% -23%), and the smallest was atmospheric input (3% - 7%).

  8. EXTINCTION MAP OF THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD BASED ON THE SIRIUS AND 6X 2MASS POINT SOURCE CATALOGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobashi, Kazuhito; Egusa, Fumi; Bernard, Jean-Philippe; Paradis, Deborah; Kawamura, Akiko; Hughes, Annie; Bot, Caroline; Reach, William T.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present the first extinction map of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) constructed using the color excess at near-infrared wavelengths. Using a new technique named X percentile method , which we developed recently to measure the color excess of dark clouds embedded within a star distribution, we have derived an E(J - H) map based on the SIRIUS and 6X Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) star catalogs. Several dark clouds are detected in the map derived from the SIRIUS star catalog, which is deeper than the 6X 2MASS catalog. We have compared the E(J - H) map with a model calculation in order to infer the locations of the clouds along the line of sight, and found that many of them are likely to be located in or elongated toward the far side of the SMC. Most of the dark clouds found in the E(J - H) map have counterparts in the CO clouds detected by Mizuno et al. with the NANTEN telescope. A comparison of the E(J - H) map with the virial mass derived from the CO data indicates that the dust-to-gas ratio in the SMC varies in the range A V /N H = 1-2 x 10 -22 mag H -1 cm 2 with a mean value of ∼1.5 x 10 -22 mag H -1 cm 2 . If the virial mass underestimates the true cloud mass by a factor of ∼2, as recently suggested by Bot et al., the mean value would decrease to ∼8x10 -23 mag H -1 cm 2 , in good agreement with the value reported by Gordon et al., 7.59 x 10 -23 mag H -1 cm 2 .

  9. Energy, Exergy and Economic Evaluation Comparison of Small-Scale Single and Dual Pressure Organic Rankine Cycles Integrated with Low-Grade Heat Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Fontalvo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Low-grade heat sources such as solar thermal, geothermal, exhaust gases and industrial waste heat are suitable alternatives for power generation which can be exploited by means of small-scale Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC. This paper combines thermodynamic optimization and economic analysis to assess the performance of single and dual pressure ORC operating with different organic fluids and targeting small-scale applications. Maximum power output is lower than 45 KW while the temperature of the heat source varies in the range 100–200 °C. The studied working fluids, namely R1234yf, R1234ze(E and R1234ze(Z, are selected based on environmental, safety and thermal performance criteria. Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE and Specific Investment Cost (SIC for two operation conditions are presented: maximum power output and maximum thermal efficiency. Results showed that R1234ze(Z achieves the highest net power output (up to 44 kW when net power output is optimized. Regenerative ORC achieves the highest performance when thermal efficiency is optimized (up to 18%. Simple ORC is the most cost-effective among the studied cycle configurations, requiring a selling price of energy of 0.3 USD/kWh to obtain a payback period of 8 years. According to SIC results, the working fluid R1234ze(Z exhibits great potential for simple ORC when compared to conventional R245fa.

  10. Procedural-Based Category Learning in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: Impact of Category Number and Category Continuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vincent eFiloteo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Previously we found that Parkinson's disease (PD patients are impaired in procedural-based category learning when category membership is defined by a nonlinear relationship between stimulus dimensions, but these same patients are normal when the rule is defined by a linear relationship (Filoteo et al., 2005; Maddox & Filoteo, 2001. We suggested that PD patients' impairment was due to a deficit in recruiting ‘striatal units' to represent complex nonlinear rules. In the present study, we further examined the nature of PD patients' procedural-based deficit in two experiments designed to examine the impact of (1 the number of categories, and (2 category discontinuity on learning. Results indicated that PD patients were impaired only under discontinuous category conditions but were normal when the number of categories was increased from two to four. The lack of impairment in the four-category condition suggests normal integrity of striatal medium spiny cells involved in procedural-based category learning. In contrast, and consistent with our previous observation of a nonlinear deficit, the finding that PD patients were impaired in the discontinuous condition suggests that these patients are impaired when they have to associate perceptually distinct exemplars with the same category. Theoretically, this deficit might be related to dysfunctional communication among medium spiny neurons within the striatum, particularly given that these are cholinergic neurons and a cholinergic deficiency could underlie some of PD patients’ cognitive impairment.

  11. Feature-Based versus Category-Based Induction with Uncertain Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Oren; Hayes, Brett K.; Newell, Ben R.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that when feature inferences have to be made about an instance whose category membership is uncertain, feature-based inductive reasoning is used to the exclusion of category-based induction. These results contrast with the observation that people can and do use category-based induction when category membership is…

  12. Cultural categories of energy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, S.

    1983-06-01

    Energy use patterns and attitudes are tied to more general cultural patterns, not simply to an economic or engineering rationality. To illustrate this, sharply contrasting use patterns and attitudes toward nuclear energy, coal and alternative forms of energy will be compared for India and the United States. This comparison, focussing on different perceptions of risks associated with developing energy technologies, future energy requirements, environmental concerns, and conservation patterns, will be used to develop a more extensive discussion of the above energy sources in western Europe and South America. The talk will conclude with some conjectures about the implications of cultural differences and political environments for world energy development patterns in the proximate future. Likely cultural and political influences on the direction of energy use (efficiency, rates of adoption of new technology), and energy needs for industrialization and reindustrialization will be described for North America, western Europe, and selected LDC's

  13. Understanding the Impacts of Land Uses on the Source Apportionment of Atmospheric Contamination By Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons throughout a Small State in the Northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifman, L. A.; Boving, T. B.

    2014-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are ubiquitous contaminants that enter the environment through combustion processes and are often found in higher concentration of urban areas. However, once released, these compounds can travel long distances via transport through the atmosphere and can be deposited on the landscape far away from their original source. This PAH deposition pattern can slowly lead to the diffuse contamination of whole landscapes. Since most of the air masses entering the northeastern United States originate from the Midwest where coal burning power plants are plentiful, several atmospheric pollutants are introduced to the region in addition to local sources. Here, atmospheric deposition of PAHs in six different locations throughout Rhode Island was measured using passive bulk-deposition samplers for 3 years. The data were analyzed statistically by principal component analysis and factor analysis to identify the source of contamination and respective apportionment. The data clearly show that an urban-to- rural gradient exists where deposition rates are significantly higher in urban areas (up to 12325 ng/d m2 ∑PAH) compared to rural areas (as low as 11 ng/d m2 ∑PAH) and also follow seasonal trends that show higher deposition rates in the fall and winter compared to the summer and spring time. Further, based on PAH source apportionment ratios, contamination origins differ spatially. For example, fossil fuel, coal, and vehicle combustion is present in all samples; however fossil fuel combustion is dominant in urban samples. In Rural areas biomass combustion is much more prevalent and is not as greatly represented in urban or suburban areas. Therefore, even in a small state such as Rhode Island airborne PAH contamination can be fingerprinted readily for different sampling areas, indicating that distant emission sources have a widespread impact on regional air quality.

  14. TV MEDIA ANALYSIS FOR BANKING CATEGORY (2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Elena POȘTOACĂ; Dorian – Laurențiu FLOREA

    2014-01-01

    This article represents a short overview of the media landscape for the banking category in Romania in 2012. Unlike the other categories (for example FMCG – fast moving consumer goods), the banking category is more complex because every bank can communicate for a wider range of products (credits, deposits, packages dedicated to students, pensioners and other types of banking products). In the first part of this paper, there will be presented some theoretical notions about media planning a...

  15. Misremembering emotion: Inductive category effects for complex emotional stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Jonathan C; Crawford, L Elizabeth; Vavra, Dylan T

    2017-07-01

    Memories of objects are biased toward what is typical of the category to which they belong. Prior research on memory for emotional facial expressions has demonstrated a bias towards an emotional expression prototype (e.g., slightly happy faces are remembered as happier). We investigate an alternate source of bias in memory for emotional expressions - the central tendency bias. The central tendency bias skews reconstruction of a memory trace towards the center of the distribution for a particular attribute. This bias has been attributed to a Bayesian combination of an imprecise memory for a particular object with prior information about its category. Until now, studies examining the central tendency bias have focused on simple stimuli. We extend this work to socially relevant, complex, emotional facial expressions. We morphed facial expressions on a continuum from sad to happy. Different ranges of emotion were used in four experiments in which participants viewed individual expressions and, after a variable delay, reproduced each face by adjusting a morph to match it. Estimates were biased toward the center of the presented stimulus range, and the bias increased at longer memory delays, consistent with the Bayesian prediction that as trace memory loses precision, category knowledge is given more weight. The central tendency effect persisted within and across emotion categories (sad, neutral, and happy). This article expands the scope of work on inductive category effects to memory for complex, emotional stimuli.

  16. Biased Allocation of Faces to Social Categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dotsch, R.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Knippenberg, A.F.M. van

    2011-01-01

    Three studies show that social categorization is biased at the level of category allocation. In all studies, participants categorized faces. In Studies 1 and 2, participants overallocated faces with criminal features-a stereotypical negative trait-to the stigmatized Moroccan category, especially if

  17. The ethnic category from a linguistic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan Săftoiu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I put forward an analysis from a linguistic perspective of an ethnic category in Romania that is defined by at least two terms: gypsy and Romany. The concept of category refers to the members of a particular group that sets apart from other groups by a set of specific elements acknowledged at the level of a larger community. In interaction, individuals frequently use categories and the set of features that a certain category is characterized by, since it is easier to deal with sets of knowledge than with references for each individual separately. The analysis is based on a series of expressions and phrases, proverbs and jokes which were (or still are getting about in the Romanian space and which delineated, at the level of the collective mentality, the image of an ethnic category whose name (still oscillates between two terms. The texts were grouped depending on the different stereotypes associated with the ethnic category under discussion, by highlighting the pejorative connotations of the uses of the term gypsy in relation to the ethnic category Romany, a significance-free category that can be ‘filled up’ by elements that can sketch a positive image.

  18. Shape configuration and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B.

    2006-01-01

    a recent account of category-specificity and lends support to the notion that category-specific impairments can occur for both natural objects and artefacts following damage to pre-semantic stages in visual object recognition. The implications of the present findings are discussed in relation to theories...

  19. Conformal field theories and tensor categories. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Chengming [Nankai Univ., Tianjin (China). Chern Institute of Mathematics; Fuchs, Juergen [Karlstad Univ. (Sweden). Theoretical Physics; Huang, Yi-Zhi [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Kong, Liang [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Inst. for Advanced Study; Runkel, Ingo; Schweigert, Christoph (eds.) [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Mathematics

    2014-08-01

    First book devoted completely to the mathematics of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications. Contributors include both mathematicians and physicists. Some long expository articles are especially suitable for beginners. The present volume is a collection of seven papers that are either based on the talks presented at the workshop ''Conformal field theories and tensor categories'' held June 13 to June 17, 2011 at the Beijing International Center for Mathematical Research, Peking University, or are extensions of the material presented in the talks at the workshop. These papers present new developments beyond rational conformal field theories and modular tensor categories and new applications in mathematics and physics. The topics covered include tensor categories from representation categories of Hopf algebras, applications of conformal field theories and tensor categories to topological phases and gapped systems, logarithmic conformal field theories and the corresponding non-semisimple tensor categories, and new developments in the representation theory of vertex operator algebras. Some of the papers contain detailed introductory material that is helpful for graduate students and researchers looking for an introduction to these research directions. The papers also discuss exciting recent developments in the area of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications and will be extremely useful for researchers working in these areas.

  20. Color descriptors for object category recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Sande, K.E.A.; Gevers, T.; Snoek, C.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Category recognition is important to access visual information on the level of objects. A common approach is to compute image descriptors first and then to apply machine learning to achieve category recognition from annotated examples. As a consequence, the choice of image descriptors is of great

  1. Operadic categories and duoidal Deligne's conjecture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Batanin, M.; Markl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 285, 5 November (2015), s. 1630-1687 ISSN 0001-8708 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : operadic category * duoidal category * Deligne's conjecture Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.405, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0001870815002467

  2. Conformal field theories and tensor categories. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Chengming; Fuchs, Juergen; Huang, Yi-Zhi; Kong, Liang; Runkel, Ingo; Schweigert, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    First book devoted completely to the mathematics of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications. Contributors include both mathematicians and physicists. Some long expository articles are especially suitable for beginners. The present volume is a collection of seven papers that are either based on the talks presented at the workshop ''Conformal field theories and tensor categories'' held June 13 to June 17, 2011 at the Beijing International Center for Mathematical Research, Peking University, or are extensions of the material presented in the talks at the workshop. These papers present new developments beyond rational conformal field theories and modular tensor categories and new applications in mathematics and physics. The topics covered include tensor categories from representation categories of Hopf algebras, applications of conformal field theories and tensor categories to topological phases and gapped systems, logarithmic conformal field theories and the corresponding non-semisimple tensor categories, and new developments in the representation theory of vertex operator algebras. Some of the papers contain detailed introductory material that is helpful for graduate students and researchers looking for an introduction to these research directions. The papers also discuss exciting recent developments in the area of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications and will be extremely useful for researchers working in these areas.

  3. Connections between realcompactifications in various categories ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The author gives a detailed analysis of the relation between the theories of realcompactications and compactications in the category of ditopological texture spaces and in the categories of bitopological spaces and topological spaces. Keywords: Bitopology, texture, ditopology, Stone-Čech compactication, Hewitt real- ...

  4. Finding biomedical categories in Medline®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeganova Lana

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are several humanly defined ontologies relevant to Medline. However, Medline is a fast growing collection of biomedical documents which creates difficulties in updating and expanding these humanly defined ontologies. Automatically identifying meaningful categories of entities in a large text corpus is useful for information extraction, construction of machine learning features, and development of semantic representations. In this paper we describe and compare two methods for automatically learning meaningful biomedical categories in Medline. The first approach is a simple statistical method that uses part-of-speech and frequency information to extract a list of frequent nouns from Medline. The second method implements an alignment-based technique to learn frequent generic patterns that indicate a hyponymy/hypernymy relationship between a pair of noun phrases. We then apply these patterns to Medline to collect frequent hypernyms as potential biomedical categories. Results We study and compare these two alternative sets of terms to identify semantic categories in Medline. We find that both approaches produce reasonable terms as potential categories. We also find that there is a significant agreement between the two sets of terms. The overlap between the two methods improves our confidence regarding categories predicted by these independent methods. Conclusions This study is an initial attempt to extract categories that are discussed in Medline. Rather than imposing external ontologies on Medline, our methods allow categories to emerge from the text.

  5. Appropriate Pupilness: Social Categories Intersecting in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofoed, Jette

    2008-01-01

    The analytical focus in this article is on how social categories intersect in daily school life and how intersections intertwine with other empirically relevant categories such as normality, pupilness and (in)appropriatedness. The point of empirical departure is a daily ritual where teams for football are selected. The article opens up for a…

  6. Upstream Freshwater and Terrestrial Sources Are Differentially Reflected in the Bacterial Community Structure along a Small Arctic River and Its Estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauptmann, Aviaja Zenia Edna Lyberth; Markussen, Thor N; Stibal, Marek

    2016-01-01

    of different water sources on the microbial communities in Arctic rivers and estuaries remains unknown. In this study we used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to assess a small river and its estuary on the Disko Island, West Greenland (69°N). Samples were taken in August when there is maximum precipitation......Glacier melting and altered precipitation patterns influence Arctic freshwater and coastal ecosystems. Arctic rivers are central to Arctic water ecosystems by linking glacier meltwaters and precipitation with the ocean through transport of particulate matter and microorganisms. However, the impact...... and temperatures are high in the Disko Bay area. We describe the bacterial community through a river into the estuary, including communities originating in a glacier and a proglacial lake. Our results show that water from the glacier and lake transports distinct communities into the river in terms of diversity...

  7. Modular design of processing and storage facilities for small volumes of low and intermediate level radioactive waste including disused sealed sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-06-15

    A number of IAEA Member States generate relatively small quantities of radioactive waste and/or disused sealed sources in research or in the application of nuclear techniques in medicine and industry. This publication presents a modular approach to the design of waste processing and storage facilities to address the needs of such Member States with a cost effective and flexible solution that allows easy adjustment to changing needs in terms of capacity and variety of waste streams. The key feature of the publication is the provision of practical guidance to enable the users to determine their waste processing and storage requirements, specify those requirements to allow the procurement of the appropriate processing and storage modules and to install and eventually operate those modules.

  8. Feasibility and applications of the spin-echo modulation option for a small angle neutron scattering instrument at the European Spallation Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusmin, A.; Bouwman, W. G.; van Well, A. A.; Pappas, C.

    2017-06-01

    We describe theoretical and practical aspects of spin-echo modulated small-angle neutron scattering (SEMSANS) as well as the potential combination with SANS. Based on the preliminary technical designs of SKADI (a SANS instrument proposed for the European Spallation Source) and a SEMSANS add-on, we assess the practicability, feasibility and scientific merit of a combined SANS and SEMSANS setup by calculating tentative SANS and SEMSANS results for soft matter, geology and advanced material samples that have been previously studied by scattering methods. We conclude that lengths from 1 nm up to 0.01 mm can be observed simultaneously in a single measurement. Thus, the combination of SANS and SEMSANS instrument is suited for the simultaneous observation of a wide range of length scales, e.g. for time-resolved studies of kinetic processes in complex multiscale systems.

  9. The Small Area Health Statistics Unit: a national facility for investigating health around point sources of environmental pollution in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, P; Westlake, A J; Hills, M; Kleinschmidt, I; Rodrigues, L; McGale, P; Marshall, K; Rose, G

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The Small Area Health Statistics Unit (SAHSU) was established at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine in response to a recommendation of the enquiry into the increased incidence of childhood leukaemia near Sellafield, the nuclear reprocessing plant in West Cumbria. The aim of this paper was to describe the Unit's methods for the investigation of health around point sources of environmental pollution in the United Kingdom. DESIGN--Routine data currently including deaths and cancer registrations are held in a large national database which uses a post code based retrieval system to locate cases geographically and link them to the underlying census enumeration districts, and hence to their populations at risk. Main outcome measures were comparison of observed/expected ratios (based on national rates) within bands delineated by concentric circles around point sources of environmental pollution located anywhere in Britain. MAIN RESULTS--The system is illustrated by a study of mortality from mesothelioma and asbestosis near the Plymouth naval dockyards during 1981-87. Within a 3 km radius of the docks the mortality rate for mesothelioma was higher than the national rate by a factor of 8.4, and that for asbestosis was higher by a factor of 13.6. CONCLUSIONS--SAHSU is a new national facility which is rapidly able to provide rates of mortality and cancer incidence for arbitrary circles drawn around any point in Britain. The example around Plymouth of mesothelioma and asbestosis demonstrates the ability of the system to detect an unusual excess of disease in a small locality, although in this case the findings are likely to be related to occupational rather than environmental exposure. PMID:1431704

  10. Nuclear Knowledge and Competence: Fundamental Prerequisites for the Safe Utilization of Radiation Sources in a Small Non-Nuclear Country — Experience of Montenegro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, S.; Dlabac, A.

    2016-01-01

    Provision of adequate knowledge, competence and expertise represents a major concern when addressing nuclear and radiation safety issues in small countries — if inadequate, safety will eventually be jeopardized. Montenegro is such a small, developing and “nonnuclear” country—the use of radiation sources being modest and limited to a few ordinary applications (primarily in health care). Even though, there is (or will be in the foreseeable future) a significant need in nuclear knowledge, competence and expertise — directly or indirectly related to nuclear/radiation safety and security issues. It goes about the following, the list being not exhaustive: (i) medical applications (diagnostics, radiotherapy, palliation, sterilization of equipment, consumables, blood products, etc.), (ii) radiation protection, including various dosimetry services and QC/QA of radiation sources; (iii) environmental protection (radioecology, analytical and monitoring services, etc.), (iv) low and medium activity radioactive waste management (including a newly licenced storage), (v) industrial, geological, hydrological, agricultural, biochemical and archaeological applications (non-destructive testing, various gauges, radioisotope labeling, harmful insects sterilization, etc.), (vi) scientific and educational uses, (vii) cultural heritage preservation and investigation, (viii) legislative and regulatory aspects, including complying to international safety/security norms and joining international conventions in the field, (ix) preparedness and response to radiological and nuclear emergency situations, (x) combating illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials, (xi) nuclear forensics, (xii) security systems based on X-ray and other nuclear methods, (xiii) introduction of some future topics (e.g., nuclear power for electricity generation and sea water desalination), (xiv) public information and communication with media, etc.

  11. Diagnostic Categories in Autobiographical Accounts of Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Working within frameworks drawn from the writings of Immanuel Kant, Alfred Schutz, and Kenneth Burke, this article examines the role that diagnostic categories play in autobiographical accounts of illness, with a special focus on chronic disease. Four lay diagnostic categories, each with different connections to formal medical diagnostic categories, serve as typifications to make sense of the way the lifeworld changes over the course of chronic illness. These diagnostic categories are used in conjunction with another set of typifications: lay epidemiologies, lay etiologies, lay prognostics, and lay therapeutics. Together these serve to construct and reconstruct the self at the center of the lifeworld. Embedded within the lay diagnostic categories are narratives of progression, regression, or stability, forms of typification derived from literary and storytelling genres. These narratives are developed by the self in autobiographical accounts of illness.

  12. Modular categories and 3-manifold invariants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tureav, V.G.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give a concise introduction to the theory of knot invariants and 3-manifold invariants which generalize the Jones polynomial and which may be considered as a mathematical version of the Witten invariants. Such a theory was introduced by N. Reshetikhin and the author on the ground of the theory of quantum groups. here we use more general algebraic objects, specifically, ribbon and modular categories. Such categories in particular arise as the categories of representations of quantum groups. The notion of modular category, interesting in itself, is closely related to the notion of modular tensor category in the sense of G. Moore and N. Seiberg. For simplicity we restrict ourselves in this paper to the case of closed 3-manifolds

  13. SUSTAIN: a network model of category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Bradley C; Medin, Douglas L; Gureckis, Todd M

    2004-04-01

    SUSTAIN (Supervised and Unsupervised STratified Adaptive Incremental Network) is a model of how humans learn categories from examples. SUSTAIN initially assumes a simple category structure. If simple solutions prove inadequate and SUSTAIN is confronted with a surprising event (e.g., it is told that a bat is a mammal instead of a bird), SUSTAIN recruits an additional cluster to represent the surprising event. Newly recruited clusters are available to explain future events and can themselves evolve into prototypes-attractors-rules. SUSTAIN's discovery of category substructure is affected not only by the structure of the world but by the nature of the learning task and the learner's goals. SUSTAIN successfully extends category learning models to studies of inference learning, unsupervised learning, category construction, and contexts in which identification learning is faster than classification learning.

  14. Methodological Aspects of Depreciation as an Economic Category

    OpenAIRE

    Sigidov, Yuriy I.; Rybyantseva, Maria S.; Adamenko, Alexandr A.; Yarushkina, Elena A.

    2016-01-01

    Depreciation is a complex economic category, the essence of which is manifested in the duality: this cost element, and its own source of reproduction of fixed assets and intangible assets. The depreciation laid relationship with asset and liability balance sheet; it touches on aspects such as formation costs, taxation issues, and reproductive process. That is why a methodological study of the depreciation essence, the allocation of the classification of bases, principles and functions seems u...

  15. Social Vision: Visual cues communicate categories to observers

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Kerri L

    2009-01-01

    This information ranges from appreciating category membership to evaluating more enduring traits and dispositions. These aspects of social perception appear to be highly automated, some would even call them obligatory, and they are heavily influenced by two sources of information: the face and the body. From minimal information such as brief exposure to the face or degraded images of dynamic body motion, social judgments are made with remarkable efficiency and, at times, surprising accuracy.

  16. Can height categories replace weight categories in striking martial arts competitions? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Mashiach-Arazi, Yael; Nouriel, Ariella; Raz, Raanan; Constantini, Naama W

    2015-09-29

    In most combat sports and martial arts, athletes compete within weight categories. Disordered eating behaviors and intentional pre-competition rapid weight loss are commonly seen in this population, attributed to weight categorization. We examined if height categories can be used as an alternative to weight categories for competition, in order to protect the health of athletes. Height and weight of 169 child and adolescent competitive karate athletes were measured. Participants were divided into eleven hypothetical weight categories of 5 kg increments, and eleven hypothetical height categories of 5 cm increments. We calculated the coefficient of variation of height and weight by each division method. We also calculated how many participants fit into corresponding categories of both height and weight, and how many would shift a category if divided by height. There was a high correlation between height and weight (r = 0.91, p<0.001). The mean range of heights seen within current weight categories was reduced by 83% when participants were divided by height. When allocating athletes by height categories, 74% of athletes would shift up or down one weight category at most, compared with the current categorization method. We conclude that dividing young karate athletes by height categories significantly reduced the range of heights of competitors within the category. Such categorization would not cause athletes to compete against much heavier opponents in most cases. Using height categories as a means to reduce eating disorders in combat sports should be further examined.

  17. BioXTAS RAW: improvements to a free open-source program for small-angle X-ray scattering data reduction and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Jesse Bennett; Gillilan, Richard E; Skou, Soren

    2017-10-01

    BioXTAS RAW is a graphical-user-interface-based free open-source Python program for reduction and analysis of small-angle X-ray solution scattering (SAXS) data. The software is designed for biological SAXS data and enables creation and plotting of one-dimensional scattering profiles from two-dimensional detector images, standard data operations such as averaging and subtraction and analysis of radius of gyration and molecular weight, and advanced analysis such as calculation of inverse Fourier transforms and envelopes. It also allows easy processing of inline size-exclusion chromatography coupled SAXS data and data deconvolution using the evolving factor analysis method. It provides an alternative to closed-source programs such as Primus and ScÅtter for primary data analysis. Because it can calibrate, mask and integrate images it also provides an alternative to synchrotron beamline pipelines that scientists can install on their own computers and use both at home and at the beamline.

  18. Development and small-scale validation of a novel pigeon-associated mitochondrial DNA source tracking marker for the detection of fecal contamination in harvested rainwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waso, M; Khan, S; Khan, W

    2018-02-15

    The current study was aimed at designing and validating (on a small-scale) a novel pigeon mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) microbial source tracking (MST) marker for the detection of pigeon fecal matter in harvested rainwater. The pigeon mtDNA MST marker was designed to target the mtDNA Cytochrome b gene by employing mismatch amplification mutation assay kinetics. The pigeon marker was validated by screening 69 non-pigeon and 9 pigeon fecal samples. The host-sensitivity of the assay was determined as 1.00 while the host-specificity of the assay was 0.96. Harvested rainwater samples (n=60) were screened for the prevalence of the marker with the mtDNA Cytochrome b marker detected in 78% of the samples. Bayes' theorem was applied to calculate the conditional probability of the marker detecting true pigeon contamination and the marker subsequently displayed a 99% probability of detecting true pigeon contamination in the harvested rainwater samples. In addition, the mtDNA Cytochrome b marker displayed high concurrence frequencies versus heterotrophic bacteria (78.3%), E. coli (73.3%), total coliforms (71.1%) and fecal coliforms (66.7%). This study thus validates that targeting mtDNA for the design of source tracking markers may be a valuable tool to detect avian fecal contamination in environmental waters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A Mo-anode-based in-house source for small-angle X-ray scattering measurements of biological macromolecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruetzel, Linda K.; Fischer, Stefan; Salditt, Annalena; Sedlak, Steffen M.; Nickel, Bert; Lipfert, Jan, E-mail: Jan.Lipfert@lmu.de [Department of Physics, Nanosystems Initiative Munich, and Center for Nanoscience, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Amalienstr. 54, 80799 Munich, Germany and Geschwister-Scholl Platz 1, 80539 Munich (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    We demonstrate the use of a molybdenum-anode-based in-house small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) setup to study biological macromolecules in solution. Our system consists of a microfocus X-ray tube delivering a highly collimated flux of 2.5 × 10{sup 6} photons/s at a beam size of 1.2 × 1.2 mm{sup 2} at the collimation path exit and a maximum beam divergence of 0.16 mrad. The resulting observable scattering vectors q are in the range of 0.38 Å{sup −1} down to 0.009 Å{sup −1} in SAXS configuration and of 0.26 Å{sup −1} up to 5.7 Å{sup −1} in wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) mode. To determine the capabilities of the instrument, we collected SAXS data on weakly scattering biological macromolecules including proteins and a nucleic acid sample with molecular weights varying from ∼12 to 69 kDa and concentrations of 1.5–24 mg/ml. The measured scattering data display a high signal-to-noise ratio up to q-values of ∼0.2 Å{sup −1} allowing for an accurate structural characterization of the samples. Moreover, the in-house source data are of sufficient quality to perform ab initio 3D structure reconstructions that are in excellent agreement with the available crystallographic structures. In addition, measurements for the detergent decyl-maltoside show that the setup can be used to determine the size, shape, and interactions (as characterized by the second virial coefficient) of detergent micelles. This demonstrates that the use of a Mo-anode based in-house source is sufficient to determine basic geometric parameters and 3D shapes of biomolecules and presents a viable alternative to valuable beam time at third generation synchrotron sources.

  20. Piped water consumption in Ghana: A case study of temporal and spatial patterns of clean water demand relative to alternative water sources in rural small towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinkina, Alexandra V; Kosinski, Karen C; Liss, Alexander; Adjei, Michael N; Ayamgah, Gilbert A; Webb, Patrick; Gute, David M; Plummer, Jeanine D; Naumova, Elena N

    2016-07-15

    Continuous access to adequate quantities of safe water is essential for human health and socioeconomic development. Piped water systems (PWSs) are an increasingly common type of water supply in rural African small towns. We assessed temporal and spatial patterns in water consumption from public standpipes of four PWSs in Ghana in order to assess clean water demand relative to other available water sources. Low water consumption was evident in all study towns, which manifested temporally and spatially. Temporal variability in water consumption that is negatively correlated with rainfall is an indicator of rainwater preference when it is available. Furthermore, our findings show that standpipes in close proximity to alternative water sources such as streams and hand-dug wells suffer further reductions in water consumption. Qualitative data suggest that consumer demand in the study towns appears to be driven more by water quantity, accessibility, and perceived aesthetic water quality, as compared to microbiological water quality or price. In settings with chronic under-utilization of improved water sources, increasing water demand through household connections, improving water quality with respect to taste and appropriateness for laundry, and educating residents about health benefits of using piped water should be prioritized. Continued consumer demand and sufficient revenue generation are important attributes of a water service that ensure its function over time. Our findings suggest that analyzing water consumption of existing metered PWSs in combination with qualitative approaches may enable more efficient planning of community-based water supplies and support sustainable development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Observation versus classification in supervised category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levering, Kimery R; Kurtz, Kenneth J

    2015-02-01

    The traditional supervised classification paradigm encourages learners to acquire only the knowledge needed to predict category membership (a discriminative approach). An alternative that aligns with important aspects of real-world concept formation is learning with a broader focus to acquire knowledge of the internal structure of each category (a generative approach). Our work addresses the impact of a particular component of the traditional classification task: the guess-and-correct cycle. We compare classification learning to a supervised observational learning task in which learners are shown labeled examples but make no classification response. The goals of this work sit at two levels: (1) testing for differences in the nature of the category representations that arise from two basic learning modes; and (2) evaluating the generative/discriminative continuum as a theoretical tool for understand learning modes and their outcomes. Specifically, we view the guess-and-correct cycle as consistent with a more discriminative approach and therefore expected it to lead to narrower category knowledge. Across two experiments, the observational mode led to greater sensitivity to distributional properties of features and correlations between features. We conclude that a relatively subtle procedural difference in supervised category learning substantially impacts what learners come to know about the categories. The results demonstrate the value of the generative/discriminative continuum as a tool for advancing the psychology of category learning and also provide a valuable constraint for formal models and associated theories.

  2. The impact of category structure and training methodology on learning and generalizing within-category representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ell, Shawn W; Smith, David B; Peralta, Gabriela; Hélie, Sébastien

    2017-08-01

    When interacting with categories, representations focused on within-category relationships are often learned, but the conditions promoting within-category representations and their generalizability are unclear. We report the results of three experiments investigating the impact of category structure and training methodology on the learning and generalization of within-category representations (i.e., correlational structure). Participants were trained on either rule-based or information-integration structures using classification (Is the stimulus a member of Category A or Category B?), concept (e.g., Is the stimulus a member of Category A, Yes or No?), or inference (infer the missing component of the stimulus from a given category) and then tested on either an inference task (Experiments 1 and 2) or a classification task (Experiment 3). For the information-integration structure, within-category representations were consistently learned, could be generalized to novel stimuli, and could be generalized to support inference at test. For the rule-based structure, extended inference training resulted in generalization to novel stimuli (Experiment 2) and inference training resulted in generalization to classification (Experiment 3). These data help to clarify the conditions under which within-category representations can be learned. Moreover, these results make an important contribution in highlighting the impact of category structure and training methodology on the generalization of categorical knowledge.

  3. A Higher-Order Calculus for Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cáccamo, Mario José; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A calculus for a fragment of category theory is presented. The types in the language denote categories and the expressions functors. The judgements of the calculus systematise categorical arguments such as: an expression is functorial in its free variables; two expressions are naturally isomorphic...... in their free variables. There are special binders for limits and more general ends. The rules for limits and ends support an algebraic manipulation of universal constructions as opposed to a more traditional diagrammatic approach. Duality within the calculus and applications in proving continuity are discussed...... with examples. The calculus gives a basis for mechanising a theory of categories in a generic theorem prover like Isabelle....

  4. Kuranishi spaces as a 2-category

    OpenAIRE

    Joyce, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    This is a survey of the author's in-progress book arXiv:1409.6908. 'Kuranishi spaces' were introduced in the work of Fukaya, Oh, Ohta and Ono in symplectic geometry (see e.g. arXiv:1503.07631), as the geometric structure on moduli spaces of $J$-holomorphic curves. We propose a new definition of Kuranishi space, which has the nice property that they form a 2-category $\\bf Kur$. Thus the homotopy category Ho$({\\bf Kur})$ is an ordinary category of Kuranishi spaces. Any Fukaya-Oh-Ohta-Ono (FOOO)...

  5. Categories of space in music and lifestyles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Pavle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the connection between categories of space in music, music production and lifestyles. The relations between the symbolic space of social connections and musical contents in the social space of various status interactions is complex and contradictory. Category of space in the music exists in four forms. Categories of space in the description of the experience of the musical works, as well as in the way of music production (spacing are the integral part of the special way of consumption of these works (home Hi-Fi, and represent the social status, ways of cultural consumption and habitus in general.

  6. Dose mapping in category I irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, Sandip; Shinde, S.H.; Mhatre, S.G.V.

    2012-01-01

    Category I irradiators such as Gamma Chambers and Blood Irradiators are compact self shielded, dry source storage gamma irradiators offering irradiation volume of few hundred cubic centimeters. In the present work, dose distribution profiles along the central vertical plane of the irradiation volume of Gamma Chamber 900 and Blood Irradiator 2000 were measured using Fricke, FBX, and alanine dosimeters. Measured dose distribution profiles in Gamma Chamber 900 differed from the typical generic dose distribution pattern whereas that in Blood Irradiator 2000 was in agreement with the typical pattern. All reagents used were of analytical reagent grade and were used without further purification. Preparation and dose estimations of Fricke and FBX were carried out as recommended. Alanine pellets were directly placed in precleaned polystyrene container having dimensions 6.5 mm o.d., 32 mm height and 3 mm wall thickness. For these dosimeters, dose measurements were made using e-scan Bruker BioSpin alanine dedicated ESR spectrometer. Specially designed perspex jigs were used during irradiation in Gamma Chamber 900 and Blood Irradiator 2000. These jigs provided the reproducible geometry during irradiation, Absorbance measurements were made using a spectrophotometer calibrated as per the recommended procedure. In Gamma Chamber 900, there is a dose distribution variation of about 34% from top to the center, 18% from center to the bottom, and 15% from center to the periphery. Such a dose distribution profile is largely deviating from the typical profile wherein 15% variation is observed from center to the periphery on all sides. Further investigation showed that there was a nonalignment in the source and sample chamber. However, in Blood Irradiator 2000, there is a dose distribution variation of about 20% from top to the center, 15% from center to the bottom, and 12% from center to the periphery. This pattern is very much similar to the typical profile. Hence it is recommended

  7. Words can slow down category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brojde, Chandra L; Porter, Chelsea; Colunga, Eliana

    2011-08-01

    Words have been shown to influence many cognitive tasks, including category learning. Most demonstrations of these effects have focused on instances in which words facilitate performance. One possibility is that words augment representations, predicting an across the-board benefit of words during category learning. We propose that words shift attention to dimensions that have been historically predictive in similar contexts. Under this account, there should be cases in which words are detrimental to performance. The results from two experiments show that words impair learning of object categories under some conditions. Experiment 1 shows that words hurt performance when learning to categorize by texture. Experiment 2 shows that words also hurt when learning to categorize by brightness, leading to selectively attending to shape when both shape and hue could be used to correctly categorize stimuli. We suggest that both the positive and negative effects of words have developmental origins in the history of word usage while learning categories. [corrected

  8. Category-specificity in visual object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Are all categories of objects recognized in the same manner visually? Evidence from neuropsychology suggests they are not: some brain damaged patients are more impaired in recognizing natural objects than artefacts whereas others show the opposite impairment. Category-effects have also been...... demonstrated in neurologically intact subjects, but the findings are contradictory and there is no agreement as to why category-effects arise. This article presents a Pre-semantic Account of Category Effects (PACE) in visual object recognition. PACE assumes two processing stages: shape configuration (the...... binding of shape elements into elaborate shape descriptions) and selection (among competing representations in visual long-term memory), which are held to be differentially affected by the structural similarity between objects. Drawing on evidence from clinical studies, experimental studies...

  9. Visual object recognition and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    This thesis is based on seven published papers. The majority of the papers address two topics in visual object recognition: (i) category-effects at pre-semantic stages, and (ii) the integration of visual elements into elaborate shape descriptions corresponding to whole objects or large object parts...... (shape configuration). In the early writings these two topics were examined more or less independently. In later works, findings concerning category-effects and shape configuration merge into an integrated model, termed RACE, advanced to explain category-effects arising at pre-semantic stages in visual...... in visual long-term memory. In the thesis it is described how this simple model can account for a wide range of findings on category-specificity in both patients with brain damage and normal subjects. Finally, two hypotheses regarding the neural substrates of the model's components - and how activation...

  10. Uniform Reserve Training and Retirement Category Administration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kohner, D

    1997-01-01

    This Instruction implement policy as provided in DoD Directive 1215.6, assigns responsibilities and prescribes procedures that pertain to the designation and use of uniform Reserve component (RC) categories (RCCs...

  11. Topoi the categorial analysis of logic

    CERN Document Server

    Goldblatt, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A classic exposition of a branch of mathematical logic that uses category theory, this text is suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students and accessible to both philosophically and mathematically oriented readers.

  12. Comparing two K-category assignments by a K-category correlation coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorodkin, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Predicted assignments of biological sequences are often evaluated by Matthews correlation coefficient. However, Matthews correlation coefficient applies only to cases where the assignments belong to two categories, and cases with more than two categories are often artificially forced into two...... categories by considering what belongs and what does not belong to one of the categories, leading to the loss of information. Here, an extended correlation coefficient that applies to K-categories is proposed, and this measure is shown to be highly applicable for evaluating prediction of RNA secondary...

  13. Mixed quantum states in higher categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Heunen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There are two ways to describe the interaction between classical and quantum information categorically: one based on completely positive maps between Frobenius algebras, the other using symmetric monoidal 2-categories. This paper makes a first step towards combining the two. The integrated approach allows a unified description of quantum teleportation and classical encryption in a single 2-category, as well as a universal security proof applicable simultaneously to both scenarios.

  14. Derivation of plutonium-239 materials disposition categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brough, W.G.

    1995-01-01

    At this time, the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition within the DOE, is assessing alternatives for the disposition of excess fissile materials. To facilitate the assessment, the Plutonium-Bearing Materials Feed Report for the DOE Fissile Materials Disposition Program Alternatives report was written. The development of the material categories and the derivation of the inventory quantities associated with those categories is documented in this report

  15. Monoidal categories and topological field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Turaev, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to monoidal categories and their connections with 3-dimensional topological field theories. Starting with basic definitions, it proceeds to the forefront of current research. Part 1 introduces monoidal categories and several of their classes, including rigid, pivotal, spherical, fusion, braided, and modular categories. It then presents deep theorems of Müger on the center of a pivotal fusion category. These theorems are proved in Part 2 using the theory of Hopf monads. In Part 3 the authors define the notion of a topological quantum field theory (TQFT) and construct a Turaev-Viro-type 3-dimensional state sum TQFT from a spherical fusion category. Lastly, in Part 4 this construction is extended to 3-manifolds with colored ribbon graphs, yielding a so-called graph TQFT (and, consequently, a 3-2-1 extended TQFT). The authors then prove the main result of the monograph: the state sum graph TQFT derived from any spherical fusion category is isomorphic to the Reshetikhin-Turaev surgery gr...

  16. Spatial and temporal variations in non-point source losses of nitrogen and phosphorus in a small agricultural catchment in the Three Gorges Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chenglong; Gao, Ming; Xie, Deti; Ni, Jiupai

    2016-04-01

    Losses of agricultural pollutants from small catchments are a major issue for water quality in the Three Gorges Region. Solutions are urgently needed. However, before pollutant losses can be controlled, information about spatial and temporal variations in pollutant losses is needed. The study was carried out in the Wangjiagou catchment, a small agricultural catchment in Fuling District, Chongqing, and the data about non-point source losses of nitrogen and phosphorus was collected here. Water samples were collected daily by an automatic water sampler at the outlets of two subcatchments from 2012 to 2014. Also, samples of surface runoff from 28 sampling sites distributed through the subcatchments were collected during 12 rainfall events in 2014. A range of water quality variables were analyzed for all samples and were used to demonstrate the variation in non-point losses of nitrogen and phosphorus over a range of temporal and spatial scales and in different types of rainfall in the catchment. Results showed that there was a significant linear correlation between the mass concentrations of total nitrogen (TN) and nitrate (NO3-N) in surface runoff and that the relationship was maintained with changes in time. Concentrations of TN and NO3-N peaked after fertilizer was applied to crops in spring and autumn; concentrations decreased rapidly after the peak values in spring but declined slowly in autumn. N and P concentrations fluctuated more and showed a greater degree of dispersion during the spring crop cultivation period than those in autumn. Concentrations of TN and NO3-N in surface runoff were significantly and positively correlated with the proportion of the area that was planted with corn and mustard tubers, but were negatively correlated with the proportion of the area taken up with rice and mulberry plantations. The average concentrations of TN and NO3-N in surface runoff reached the highest level from the sampling points at the bottom of the land used for corn

  17. SU-F-T-667: Development and Validation of Dose Calculation for An Open-Source KV Treatment Planning System for Small Animal Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prajapati, S [M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Mo, X; Bednarz, B; Lawless, M; Hammer, C; Jeraj, R; Mackie, T [University of Wisconsin- Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Flynn, R [University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA (United States); Westerly, D [University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: An open-source, convolution/superposition based kV-treatment planning system(TPS) was developed for small animal radiotherapy from previously existed in-house MV-TPS. It is flexible and applicable to both step and shoot and helical tomotherapy treatment delivery. For initial commissioning process, the dose calculation from kV-TPS was compared with measurements and Monte Carlo(MC) simulations. Methods: High resolution, low energy kernels were simulated using EGSnrc user code EDKnrc, which was used as an input in kV-TPS together with MC-simulated x-ray beam spectrum. The Blue Water™ homogeneous phantom (with film inserts) and heterogeneous phantom (with film and TLD inserts) were fabricated. Phantom was placed at 100cm SSD, and was irradiated with 250 kVp beam for 10mins with 1.1cm × 1.1cm open field (at 100cm) created by newly designed binary micro-MLC assembly positioned at 90cm SSD. Gafchromic™ EBT3 film was calibrated in-phantom following AAPM TG-61 guidelines, and were used for measurement at 5 different depths in phantom. Calibrated TLD-100s were obtained from ADCL. EGS and MNCP5 simulation were used to model experimental irradiation set up calculation of dose in phantom. Results: Using the homogeneous phantom, dose difference between film and kV-TPS was calculated: mean(x)=0.9%; maximum difference(MD)=3.1%; standard deviation(σ)=1.1%. Dose difference between MCNP5 and kV-TPS was: x=1.5%; MD=4.6%; σ=1.9%. Dose difference between EGS and kV-TPS was: x=0.8%; MD=1.9%; σ=0.8%. Using the heterogeneous phantom, dose difference between film and kV-TPS was: x=2.6%; MD=3%; σ=1.1%; and dose difference between TLD and kV-TPS was: x=2.9%; MD=6.4%; σ=2.5%. Conclusion: The inhouse, open-source kV-TPS dose calculation system was comparable within 5% of measurements and MC simulations in both homogeneous and heterogeneous phantoms. The dose calculation system of the kV-TPS is validated as a part of initial commissioning process for small animal radiotherapy

  18. Upstream Freshwater and Terrestrial Sources Are Differentially Reflected in the Bacterial Community Structure along a Small Arctic River and Its Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptmann, Aviaja L.; Markussen, Thor N.; Stibal, Marek; Olsen, Nikoline S.; Elberling, Bo; Bælum, Jacob; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas; Jacobsen, Carsten S.

    2016-01-01

    Glacier melting and altered precipitation patterns influence Arctic freshwater and coastal ecosystems. Arctic rivers are central to Arctic water ecosystems by linking glacier meltwaters and precipitation with the ocean through transport of particulate matter and microorganisms. However, the impact of different water sources on the microbial communities in Arctic rivers and estuaries remains unknown. In this study we used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to assess a small river and its estuary on the Disko Island, West Greenland (69°N). Samples were taken in August when there is maximum precipitation and temperatures are high in the Disko Bay area. We describe the bacterial community through a river into the estuary, including communities originating in a glacier and a proglacial lake. Our results show that water from the glacier and lake transports distinct communities into the river in terms of diversity and community composition. Bacteria of terrestrial origin were among the dominating OTUs in the main river, while the glacier and lake supplied the river with water containing fewer terrestrial organisms. Also, more psychrophilic taxa were found in the community supplied by the lake. At the river mouth, the presence of dominant bacterial taxa from the lake and glacier was unnoticeable, but these taxa increased their abundances again further into the estuary. On average 23% of the estuary community consisted of indicator OTUs from different sites along the river. Environmental variables showed only weak correlations with community composition, suggesting that hydrology largely influences the observed patterns. PMID:27708629

  19. Upstream freshwater and terrestrial sources are differentially reflected in the bacterial community structure along a small Arctic river and its estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviaja Lyberth Hauptmann

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Glacier melting and altered precipitation patterns influence Arctic freshwater and coastal ecosystems. Arctic rivers are central to Arctic water ecosystems by linking glacier meltwaters and precipitation with the ocean through transport of particulate matter and microorganisms. However, the impact of different water sources on the microbial communities in Arctic rivers and estuaries remains unknown. In this study we used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to assess a small river and its estuary on the Disko Island, West Greenland (69°N. Samples were taken in August when there is maximum precipitation and temperatures are high in the Disko Bay area. We describe the bacterial community through a river into the estuary, including communities originating in a glacier and a proglacial lake. Our results show that water from the glacier and lake transports distinct communities into the river in terms of diversity and community composition. Bacteria of terrestrial origin were among the dominating OTUs in the main river, while the glacier and lake supplied the river with water containing fewer terrestrial organisms. Also, more psychrophilic taxa were found in the community supplied by the lake. At the river mouth, the presence of dominant bacterial taxa from the lake and glacier was unnoticeable, but these taxa increased their abundances again further into the estuary. On average 23% of the estuary community consisted of indicator OTUs from different sites along the river. Environmental variables showed only weak correlations with community composition, suggesting that hydrology largely influences the observed patterns.

  20. 40 CFR 427.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.34 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source subject to...

  1. 40 CFR 427.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Elastomeric Binder) Subcategory § 427.44 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source subject to...

  2. 40 CFR 417.84 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Soaps Subcategory § 417.84 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source...

  3. Energy information data base: energy categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-03-01

    Citations entered into DOE's computerized bibliographic information system are assigned six-digit subject category numbers to group information broadly for storage, retrieval, and manipulation. These numbers are used in the preparation of printed documents, such as bibliographies and abstract journals, to arrange the citations and as searching aids in the on-line system, DOE/RECON. This document has been prepared for use by those individuals responsible for the assignment of category numbers to documents being entered into the Technical Information Center (TIC) system, those individuals and organizations processing magnetic tape copies of the files, those individuals doing on-line searching for information in TIC-created files, and others who, having no access to RECON, need printed copy. The six-digit numbers assigned to documents are listed, along with the category names and text to define the scope of interest. Asterisks highlight those categories added or changed since the previous printing, and a subject index further details the subject content of each category

  4. When does fading enhance perceptual category learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashler, Harold; Mozer, Michael C

    2013-07-01

    Training that uses exaggerated versions of a stimulus discrimination (fading) has sometimes been found to enhance category learning, mostly in studies involving animals and impaired populations. However, little is known about whether and when fading facilitates learning for typical individuals. This issue was explored in 7 experiments. In Experiments 1 and 2, observers discriminated stimuli based on a single sensory continuum (time duration and line length, respectively). Adaptive fading dramatically improved performance in training (unsurprisingly) but did not enhance learning as assessed in a final test. The same was true for nonadaptive linear fading (Experiment 3). However, when variation in length (predicting category membership) was embedded among other (category-irrelevant) variation, fading dramatically enhanced not only performance in training but also learning as assessed in a final test (Experiments 4 and 5). Fading also helped learners to acquire a color saturation discrimination amid category-irrelevant variation in hue and brightness, although this learning proved transitory after feedback was withdrawn (Experiment 7). Theoretical implications are discussed, and we argue that fading should have practical utility in naturalistic category learning tasks, which involve extremely high dimensional stimuli and many irrelevant dimensions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. TV MEDIA ANALYSIS FOR BANKING CATEGORY (2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Elena POȘTOACĂ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article represents a short overview of the media landscape for the banking category in Romania in 2012. Unlike the other categories (for example FMCG – fast moving consumer goods, the banking category is more complex because every bank can communicate for a wider range of products (credits, deposits, packages dedicated to students, pensioners and other types of banking products. In the first part of this paper, there will be presented some theoretical notions about media planning and media analyses in order for the lecturer to easily go through the second part of the article. The second part of the paper will only refer to TV analyses. This media channel owns the highest budget share in our category, and also in the media mix of every important player, active in the Romanian market. The analyses will show which bank communicated most effectively, which is the most important spender on TV, what banking products had the largest budget allocated, which is the pattern for this category when it comes to allocating audience points for each day interval and so on. The starting point of this analyses is based on the secondary data obtained from InfoSys+ which is the world’s leading TV analyses software, used in more than 29 countries by 8000+ users.

  6. Grammatical category dissociation in multilingual aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Waked, Arifi N

    2010-03-01

    Word retrieval deficits for specific grammatical categories, such as verbs versus nouns, occur as a consequence of brain damage. Such deficits are informative about the nature of lexical organization in the human brain. This study examined retrieval of grammatical categories across three languages in a trilingual person with aphasia who spoke Arabic, French, and English. In order to delineate the nature of word production difficulty, comprehension was tested, and a variety of concomitant lexical-semantic variables were analysed. The patient demonstrated a consistent noun-verb dissociation in picture naming and narrative speech, with severely impaired production of verbs across all three languages. The cross-linguistically similar noun-verb dissociation, coupled with little evidence of semantic impairment, suggests that (a) the patient has a true "nonsemantic" grammatical category specific deficit, and (b) lexical organization in multilingual speakers shares grammatical class information between languages. The findings of this study contribute to our understanding of the architecture of lexical organization in bilinguals.

  7. From Perceptual Categories to Concepts: What Develops?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloutsky, Vladimir M.

    2010-01-01

    People are remarkably smart: they use language, possess complex motor skills, make non-trivial inferences, develop and use scientific theories, make laws, and adapt to complex dynamic environments. Much of this knowledge requires concepts and this paper focuses on how people acquire concepts. It is argued that conceptual development progresses from simple perceptual grouping to highly abstract scientific concepts. This proposal of conceptual development has four parts. First, it is argued that categories in the world have different structure. Second, there might be different learning systems (sub-served by different brain mechanisms) that evolved to learn categories of differing structures. Third, these systems exhibit differential maturational course, which affects how categories of different structures are learned in the course of development. And finally, an interaction of these components may result in the developmental transition from perceptual groupings to more abstract concepts. This paper reviews a large body of empirical evidence supporting this proposal. PMID:21116483

  8. Lectures on tensor categories and modular functors

    CERN Document Server

    Bakalov, Bojko

    2000-01-01

    This book gives an exposition of the relations among the following three topics: monoidal tensor categories (such as a category of representations of a quantum group), 3-dimensional topological quantum field theory, and 2-dimensional modular functors (which naturally arise in 2-dimensional conformal field theory). The following examples are discussed in detail: the category of representations of a quantum group at a root of unity and the Wess-Zumino-Witten modular functor. The idea that these topics are related first appeared in the physics literature in the study of quantum field theory. Pioneering works of Witten and Moore-Seiberg triggered an avalanche of papers, both physical and mathematical, exploring various aspects of these relations. Upon preparing to lecture on the topic at MIT, however, the authors discovered that the existing literature was difficult and that there were gaps to fill. The text is wholly expository and finely succinct. It gathers results, fills existing gaps, and simplifies some pro...

  9. Multimedia category preferences of working engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baukal, Charles E.; Ausburn, Lynna J.

    2016-09-01

    Many have argued for the importance of continuing engineering education (CEE), but relatively few recommendations were found in the literature for how to use multimedia technologies to deliver it most effectively. The study reported here addressed this gap by investigating the multimedia category preferences of working engineers. Four categories of multimedia, with two types in each category, were studied: verbal (text and narration), static graphics (drawing and photograph), dynamic non-interactive graphics (animation and video), and dynamic interactive graphics (simulated virtual reality (VR) and photo-real VR). The results showed that working engineers strongly preferred text over narration and somewhat preferred drawing over photograph, animation over video, and simulated VR over photo-real VR. These results suggest that a variety of multimedia types should be used in the instructional design of CEE content.

  10. Shape configuration and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, I; Paulson, Olaf B.

    2006-01-01

    and fragmented drawings. We also examined whether fragmentation had different impact on the recognition of natural objects and artefacts and found that recognition of artefacts was more affected by fragmentation than recognition of natural objects. Thus, the usual finding of an advantage for artefacts...... in difficult object decision tasks, which is also found in the present experiments with outlines, is reversed when the stimuli are fragmented. This interaction between category (natural versus artefacts) and stimulus type (outlines versus fragmented forms) is in accordance with predictions derived from...... a recent account of category-specificity and lends support to the notion that category-specific impairments can occur for both natural objects and artefacts following damage to pre-semantic stages in visual object recognition. The implications of the present findings are discussed in relation to theories...

  11. Working towards a universal container for category B waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallec, M.

    2002-01-01

    Long-lived, intermediate-level waste, known as category 8 waste, accounts for most long lived waste (> 90%), although it only accounts for a very small fraction of radiotoxicity (< 10%). It comes in a wide variety of forms. The first step to be taken is to classify it into a few families and define a standard management mode for each one. Research teams are therefore seeking to propose a range of universal containers for existing packages and waste still to be conditioned. (author)

  12. Household income differences in food sources and food items purchased.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Simone A; Wall, Melanie; Mitchell, Nathan R

    2010-10-26

    The present study examined income-related household food purchases among a sample of 90 households from the community. Annotated food purchase receipts were collected for a four-week period by the primary household shopper. Receipt food source and foods items were classified into specific categories, and food quantities in ounces were recorded by research staff. For home sources, a limited number of food/beverage categories were recorded. For eating out sources, all food/beverage items were recorded. Median monthly per person dollars spent and per person ounces purchased were computed. Food sources and food categories were examined by household income tertile. A community-based sample of 90 households. Higher income households spent significantly more dollars per person per month from both home and eating out sources compared with lower income households ($163 versus $100, p income households, higher income households spent significantly more home source dollars on both fruits/vegetables (21.5 versus 10.2, p income households (45% versus 26%, p sources, lower income households spent a significantly greater percent of dollars per person at carry out places (54% versus 37%, p income differences were observed for dollars spent at discount grocery stores, small grocery stores or convenience stores. Higher income households spent more money on both healthy and less healthy foods from a wide range of sources. Lower income households spent a larger proportion of their eating out dollars at carry out places, and a larger proportion of their home beverage purchases were sugar sweetened beverages.

  13. Functional categories in agrammatism: evidence from Greek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrakaki, Stavroula; Kouvava, Sofia

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study is twofold. First, to investigate the use of functional categories by two Greek agrammatic aphasics. Second, to discuss the implications of our findings for the characterization of the deficit in agrammatism. The functional categories under investigation were the following: definite and indefinite articles, personal pronouns, aspect, tense, subject-verb agreement, wh-pronouns, complementizers and the mood marker na (=to). Based on data collected through different methods, it is argued that the deficit in agrammatism cannot be described in terms of a structural account but rather by means of difficulties in the implementation of grammatical knowledge.

  14. How to Do Things with Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbe, Anders Dahl

    Consumers and other audiences draw upon cognitive categories when evaluating technological products (Clark, 1985; Kaplan and Tripsas, 2008). Categories such as “mini-van” or “computer” provide labels and conceptual meaning structures that consumers and other market actors draw upon in making sense...... the majority of archival data was collected. Finally, to trace consumer reception of innovations in the design of products and technological innovations, I constructed a data set based on posts from an online hearing aid consumer forum. The initial analysis each spawned into three distinct trajectories...

  15. Proportion of categories of associates and structure of the mental lexicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Irena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a systematic distinction between associate pairs that constitute categories of lexical relations (e.g. synonyms, antonyms, hyponyms etc. and categories of associate pairs that have no obvious lexical relation. Proportion of categories of associates were estimated on 80 nouns from "Associative Dictionary of Serbian Language" (Piper, Dragićević & Stefanović, 2005, while frequencies of associates were estimated from "Frequency Dictionary of Contemporary Serbian Language" (Kostić, Đ., 1999. Categories of associates were divided into two groups: group of categories that included standard lexical relations and group that included idiosyncratic associates. Proportions of categories were analyzed with respect to a frequency of a noun to which associates were generated and b whether it was an abstract or concrete noun. Three measures were used to estimate proportion of categories: a number of associates, b sum frequency of associates and c the average frequency per associate. When estimated with respect to number of associates and sum frequency of associates proportion of categories that included standard lexical relations were negligible (6% and 18%, but they become dominant when estimated with respect to the average frequency per associate. Such an outcome suggests that categories that include standard lexical relations are characterized by small number of associates (due to the fact that they are closed classes with high frequency associates. Distinction between abstract and concrete nouns did not affect number of associates per category, which was not the case when proportions were estimated with respect to sum frequency of associates. Frequency of a noun to which associates were generated has no effect on productivity of associates, nor does it affects sum frequency per category. However, it has significant effect on the average frequency per associate within a given category.

  16. Language specific bootstraps for UG categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kampen, N.J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper argues that the universal categories N/V are not applied to content words before the grammatical markings for reference D(eterminers) and predication I(nflection) have been acquired (van Kampen, 1997, contra Pinker, 1984). Child grammar starts as proto-grammar with language-specific

  17. Quantum logic in dagger kernel categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heunen, C.; Jacobs, B.P.F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates quantum logic from the perspective of categorical logic, and starts from minimal assumptions, namely the existence of involutions/daggers and kernels. The resulting structures turn out to (1) encompass many examples of interest, such as categories of relations, partial

  18. Quantum logic in dagger kernel categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heunen, C.; Jacobs, B.P.F.; Coecke, B.; Panangaden, P.; Selinger, P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates quantum logic from the perspective of categorical logic, and starts from minimal assumptions, namely the existence of involutions/daggers and kernels. The resulting structures turn out to (1) encompass many examples of interest, such as categories of relations, partial

  19. New Evidence for Infant Colour Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Anna; Davies, Ian R. L.

    2004-01-01

    Bornstein, Kessen, and Weiskopf (1976) reported that pre-linguistic infants perceive colour categorically for primary boundaries: Following habituation, dishabituation only occurred if the test stimulus was from a different adult category to the original. Here, we replicated this important study and extended it to include secondary boundaries,…

  20. Ethnicity in censuses: Changeable and inconstant category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrđen Snježana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of ethnicity was set in all censuses of SFRY, as well as in the first censuses in countries that were created after its disintegration. When analyzing the censuses it can be concluded that it is a changeable category. Not only was the manner of forming the question in censuses changing, but also the number of categories of nationality and their order in published census' results. It depended on state policy and the political situation preceding the censuses. Since the answer on the issues of ethnicity is a subjective criterion, and it was written down according to the freely declared statement of the residents, guaranteed by the Constitution. It has often happened that same individuals have declared themselves differently from one census to another, and also some categories of ethnicity have vanished and some others were created. Although in SFRY nations and ethnicities were equal, still indirectly in published results, existence of these two categories was indicated. But, in newly created countries, the manner of forming the question of ethnicity was changed, their number and order were also changed and the notion of 'minority' was again introduced, indicating, beyond doubt, a different status of nationality (except the majority from the one in the former Yugoslavia.

  1. 40 CFR 2.105 - Exemption categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the mandatory disclosure requirements of 5 U.S.C. 552(a): (1)(i) Specifically authorized under... enforcement investigations or prosecutions if such disclosure could reasonably be expected to risk... for Disclosure of Records Under the Freedom of Information Act § 2.105 Exemption categories. (a) The...

  2. Reliability of Multi-Category Rating Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard I.; Vannest, Kimberly J.; Davis, John L.

    2013-01-01

    The use of multi-category scales is increasing for the monitoring of IEP goals, classroom and school rules, and Behavior Improvement Plans (BIPs). Although they require greater inference than traditional data counting, little is known about the inter-rater reliability of these scales. This simulation study examined the performance of nine…

  3. 21 CFR 330.5 - Drug categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug categories. 330.5 Section 330.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN...) Stimulants. (r) Antitussives. (s) Allergy treatment products. (t) Cold remedies. (u) Antirheumatic products...

  4. Shape configuration and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B

    2006-01-01

    in difficult object decision tasks, which is also found in the present experiments with outlines, is reversed when the stimuli are fragmented. This interaction between category (natural versus artefacts) and stimulus type (outlines versus fragmented forms) is in accordance with predictions derived from...

  5. Structural similarity and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that category-specific recognition disorders for natural objects may reflect that natural objects are more structurally (visually) similar than artefacts and therefore more difficult to recognize following brain damage. On this account one might expect a positive relationshi...

  6. Ontological semantics in modified categorial grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymczak, Bartlomiej Antoni

    2009-01-01

    Categorial Grammar is a well established tool for describing natural language semantics. In the current paper we discuss some of its drawbacks and how it could be extended to overcome them. We use the extended version for deriving ontological semantics from text. A proof-of-concept implementation...

  7. Semantic category interference in overt picture naming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maess, B.; Friederici, A.D.; Damian, M.F.; Meyer, A.S.; Levelt, W.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    The study investigated the neuronal basis of the retrieval of words from the mental lexicon. The semantic category interference effect was used to locate lexical retrieval processes in time and space. This effect reflects the finding that, for overt naming, volunteers are slower when naming pictures

  8. Multimedia Category Preferences of Working Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baukal, Charles E., Jr.; Ausburn, Lynna J.

    2016-01-01

    Many have argued for the importance of continuing engineering education (CEE), but relatively few recommendations were found in the literature for how to use multimedia technologies to deliver it most effectively. The study reported here addressed this gap by investigating the multimedia category preferences of working engineers. Four categories…

  9. Focal colors across languages are representative members of color categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Joshua T; Griffiths, Thomas L; Regier, Terry

    2016-10-04

    Focal colors, or best examples of color terms, have traditionally been viewed as either the underlying source of cross-language color-naming universals or derived from category boundaries that vary widely across languages. Existing data partially support and partially challenge each of these views. Here, we advance a position that synthesizes aspects of these two traditionally opposed positions and accounts for existing data. We do so by linking this debate to more general principles. We show that best examples of named color categories across 112 languages are well-predicted from category extensions by a statistical model of how representative a sample is of a distribution, independently shown to account for patterns of human inference. This model accounts for both universal tendencies and variation in focal colors across languages. We conclude that categorization in the contested semantic domain of color may be governed by principles that apply more broadly in cognition and that these principles clarify the interplay of universal and language-specific forces in color naming.

  10. Typicality Mediates Performance during Category Verification in Both Ad-Hoc and Well-Defined Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Chaleece; Sebastian, Rajani; Kiran, Swathi

    2012-01-01

    Background: The typicality effect is present in neurologically intact populations for natural, ad-hoc, and well-defined categories. Although sparse, there is evidence of typicality effects in persons with chronic stroke aphasia for natural and ad-hoc categories. However, it is unknown exactly what influences the typicality effect in this…

  11. Uncovering Contrast Categories in Categorization with a Probabilistic Threshold Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheyen, Steven; De Deyne, Simon; Dry, Matthew J.; Storms, Gert

    2011-01-01

    A contrast category effect on categorization occurs when the decision to apply a category term to an entity not only involves a comparison between the entity and the target category but is also influenced by a comparison of the entity with 1 or more alternative categories from the same domain as the target. Establishing a contrast category effect…

  12. Correspondence between Grammatical Categories and Grammatical Functions in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Fu

    1993-01-01

    A correspondence is shown between grammatical categories and grammatical functions in Chinese. Some syntactic properties distinguish finite verbs from nonfinite verbs, nominals from other categories, and verbs from other categories. (Contains seven references.) (LB)

  13. Aspects related to the testing of sealed radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olteanu, C. M.; Nistor, V.; Valeca, S. C.

    2016-01-01

    Sealed radioactive sources are commonly used in a wide range of applications, such as: medical, industrial, agricultural and scientific research. The radioactive material is contained within the sealed source and the device allows the radiation to be used in a controlled way. Accidents can result if the control over a small fraction of those sources is lost. Sealed nuclear sources fall under the category of special form radioactive material, therefore they must meet safety requirements during transport according to regulations. Testing sealed radioactive sources is an important step in the conformity assessment process in order to obtain the design approval. In ICN Pitesti, the Reliability and Testing Laboratory is notified by CNCAN to perform tests on sealed radioactive sources. This paper wants to present aspects of the verifying tests on sealed capsules for Iridium-192 sources in order to demonstrate the compliance with the regulatory requirements and the program of quality assurance of the tests performed. (authors)

  14. Category-length and category-strength effects using images of scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Oliver; Vromen, Joyce M G; Boddy, Adam C; Crawshaw, Eloise; Humphreys, Michael S

    2018-06-21

    Global matching models have provided an important theoretical framework for recognition memory. Key predictions of this class of models are that (1) increasing the number of occurrences in a study list of some items affects the performance on other items (list-strength effect) and that (2) adding new items results in a deterioration of performance on the other items (list-length effect). Experimental confirmation of these predictions has been difficult, and the results have been inconsistent. A review of the existing literature, however, suggests that robust length and strength effects do occur when sufficiently similar hard-to-label items are used. In an effort to investigate this further, we had participants study lists containing one or more members of visual scene categories (bathrooms, beaches, etc.). Experiments 1 and 2 replicated and extended previous findings showing that the study of additional category members decreased accuracy, providing confirmation of the category-length effect. Experiment 3 showed that repeating some category members decreased the accuracy of nonrepeated members, providing evidence for a category-strength effect. Experiment 4 eliminated a potential challenge to these results. Taken together, these findings provide robust support for global matching models of recognition memory. The overall list lengths, the category sizes, and the number of repetitions used demonstrated that scene categories are well-suited to testing the fundamental assumptions of global matching models. These include (A) interference from memories for similar items and contexts, (B) nondestructive interference, and (C) that conjunctive information is made available through a matching operation.

  15. Occupational exposure to the personnel regarded by NRB-76/87 to B category

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubatova, D; Balode, G; Nemiro, E [Medical Institute, Riga (USSR)

    1990-01-01

    During the decades use of radioactive sources in all branches of national economy has increased. Due to this tendency the number of exposed individuals from artificial sources including those exposed only occasionally (the so-called B category) increases. For this category the personnel dosimetry is not obligatory, and radioactive monitoring of their working and living places would do. Nevertheless, the thermoluminescent personnel monitoring data derived by us show that occupational exposure of this category is near, and occasionally even higher than B category exposure limit. So, for example, anesthesiologists annual exposure makes 4.5 mSv, that of surgeons 6.5 mSv, of anesthetic nurses 4.0 mSv (Traumatological and Orthopedic Institute personnel). Annual exposure of 'Medtekhnika' factory electromechanics ought to repair, set up and check up X-ray devices in 1987 was 5 mSv. (author).

  16. Modeling runoff and erosion risk in a~small steep cultivated watershed using different data sources: from on-site measurements to farmers' perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvet, B.; Lidon, B.; Kartiwa, B.; Le Bissonnais, Y.; Poussin, J.-C.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents an approach to model runoff and erosion risk in a context of data scarcity, whereas the majority of available models require large quantities of physical data that are frequently not accessible. To overcome this problem, our approach uses different sources of data, particularly on agricultural practices (tillage and land cover) and farmers' perceptions of runoff and erosion. The model was developed on a small (5 ha) cultivated watershed characterized by extreme conditions (slopes of up to 55 %, extreme rainfall events) on the Merapi volcano in Indonesia. Runoff was modelled using two versions of STREAM. First, a lumped version was used to determine the global parameters of the watershed. Second, a distributed version used three parameters for the production of runoff (slope, land cover and roughness), a precise DEM, and the position of waterways for runoff distribution. This information was derived from field observations and interviews with farmers. Both surface runoff models accurately reproduced runoff at the outlet. However, the distributed model (Nash-Sutcliffe = 0.94) was more accurate than the adjusted lumped model (N-S = 0.85), especially for the smallest and biggest runoff events, and produced accurate spatial distribution of runoff production and concentration. Different types of erosion processes (landslides, linear inter-ridge erosion, linear erosion in main waterways) were modelled as a combination of a hazard map (the spatial distribution of runoff/infiltration volume provided by the distributed model), and a susceptibility map combining slope, land cover and tillage, derived from in situ observations and interviews with farmers. Each erosion risk map gives a spatial representation of the different erosion processes including risk intensities and frequencies that were validated by the farmers and by in situ observations. Maps of erosion risk confirmed the impact of the concentration of runoff, the high susceptibility of long steep

  17. TO THE QUESTION OF PROFIT CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Myamlin

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The economic category “profit” is considered. The discrepancies and inconsistency of the existing financial-andeconomic model of management based only upon the “profitable” paradigm is demonstrated. It is shown how a “profit” affects a discrepancy between the supply of goods and the related solvent demand. It is suggested to build the laws of economics starting not from the private interests of separate social groups but from the universal laws of the Nature. The transition from “profit” maximization to wages/salary maximization is recommended. It is proposed to exclude a category “profit” from the financial-and-economic model of management as an unnecessary and imaginary one that continuously leads the economic system to crisis.

  18. Energy Data Base: subject categories and scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bost, D.E.

    1985-03-01

    The subject scope of the Energy Data Base (EDB) encompasses all DOE-sponsored research. Broadly defined, EDB subject scope includes all technological aspects of energy production, conversion, and efficient utilization, and the economic, social, and political aspects as well. Scope notes are provided to define the extent of interest in certain subject areas, particularly areas of basic research. Cross references between categories are provided to aid both the categorization of information and its retrieval. Citations entered into DOE's computerized bibliographic information system are assigned six-digit subject category numbers to broadly group information for storage, retrieval, and manipulation. These numbers are used in the preparation of printed documents, such as bibliographies and abstract journals, to arrange the citations and to aid searching on the DOE/RECON on-line system

  19. Subject categories with scope definitions and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bost, D.E.

    1983-08-01

    Citations entered into DOE's computerized bibliographic information system are assigned six-digit subject category numbers to broadly group information for storage, retrieval, and manipulation. These numbers are used in the preparation of printed documents, such as bibliographies and abstract journals, to arrange the citations and to aid searching on the DOE/RECON on-line system. This document has been prepared for use by (1) those individuals responsible for the assignment of category numbers to documents being entered into the Technical Information Center (TIC) system, (2) those individuals and organizations processing magnetic tape copies of the files, (3) those individuals doing on-line searching for information in TIC-created files, and (4) others who, having no access to RECON, need a printed copy

  20. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

    1983-10-01

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research

  1. Sacrality and worldmaking: new categorial perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    William E. Paden

    1999-01-01

    The category of the sacred in particular and the role of transcultural concept-formation in general have undergone an obvious crisis. For the most part, "the sacred," if not an empty label, has been linked with theologism, and transcultural concepts have been condemned for their general non-comparability and colonialist intent. The author approaches the matter of transcultural templates through an analysis of certain concepts of sacrality. With some exceptions, the discourse of sacrality has ...

  2. 40 CFR 156.62 - Toxicity Category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Acute Toxicity Categories for Pesticide Products Hazard Indicators I II III IV Oral LD50 Up to and including 50 mg/kg >50 thru 500 mg/kg >500 thru 5,000 mg/kg >5,000 mg/kg Dermal LD50 Up to and including 200 mg/kg >200 thru 2000 mg/kg >2000 thru 20,000 mg/kg >20,000 mg/kg Inhalation LC50 Up to and including...

  3. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

    1983-10-01

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research.

  4. Metacognitive control of categorial neurobehavioral decision systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Robert Foxall

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The competing neuro-behavioral decision systems (CNDS model proposes that the degree to which an individual discounts the future is a function of the relative hyperactivity of an impulsive system based on the limbic and paralimbic brain regions and the relative hypoactivity of an executive system based in prefrontal cortex (PFC. The model depicts the relationship between these categorial systems in terms of the antipodal neurophysiological, behavioral, and decision (cognitive functions that engender classes normal and addictive responding. However, a case may be made for construing several components of the impulsive and executive systems depicted in the model as categories (elements of additional systems that are concerned with the metacognitive control of behavior. Hence, this paper proposes a category-based structure for understanding the effects on behavior of CNDS, which includes not only the impulsive and executive systems of the basic model but, a superordinate level of reflective or rational decision-making. Following recent developments in the modeling of cognitive control which contrasts Type 1 (rapid, autonomous, parallel processing with Type 2 (slower, computationally-demanding, sequential processing, the proposed model incorporates an arena in which the potentially conflicting imperatives of impulsive and executive systems are examined and from which a more appropriate behavioral response than impulsive choice emerges. This configuration suggests a forum in which the interaction of picoeconomic interests, which provide a cognitive dimension for CNDS, can be conceptualized. This proposition is examined in light of the resolution of conflict by means of bundling.

  5. Calculation of economic viability of alternative energy sources considering its environmental costs for small communities of Northeast Brazil; Calculo de viabilidade economica de fontes alternativas de energia considerando seus custos ambientais para pequenas comuidades da regiao nordeste brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stecher, Luiza Chourkalo

    2014-09-01

    There has been an increasing concern about current environmental issues caused by human activity, as the world searches for development. The production of electricity is an extremely relevant factor in this scenario since it is responsible for a large portion of the emissions that cause the greenhouse effect. Due to this fact, a sustainable development with alternative energy sources, which are attractive for such purpose, must be proposed, especially in places that are not supplied by the conventional electricity grid such as many communities in the Northeast Brazil. This work aims to calculate the environmental cost for the alternative sources of energy - solar, wind and biomass - during electricity generation, and to estimate the economic feasibility of those sources in small communities of Northeast Brazil, considering the avoided costs. The externalities must be properly identified and valued so the costs or benefits can be internalized and reflect accurately the economic feasibility or infeasibility of those sources. For this, the method of avoided costs was adopted for the calculation of externalities. This variable was included in the equation developed for all considered alternative energy sources. The calculations of economic feasibility were performed taking the new configurations in consideration, and the new equation was reprogrammed in the Programa de Calculo de Custos de Energias Alternativas, Solar, Eolica e Biomassa (PEASEB). The results demonstrated that the solar photovoltaic energy in isolated systems is the most feasible and broadly applicable source for small communities of Northeast Brazil. (author)

  6. Semantic category interference in overt picture naming: sharpening current density localization by PCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maess, Burkhard; Friederici, Angela D; Damian, Markus; Meyer, Antje S; Levelt, Willem J M

    2002-04-01

    The study investigated the neuronal basis of the retrieval of words from the mental lexicon. The semantic category interference effect was used to locate lexical retrieval processes in time and space. This effect reflects the finding that, for overt naming, volunteers are slower when naming pictures out of a sequence of items from the same semantic category than from different categories. Participants named pictures blockwise either in the context of same- or mixed-category items while the brain response was registered using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Fifteen out of 20 participants showed longer response latencies in the same-category compared to the mixed-category condition. Event-related MEG signals for the participants demonstrating the interference effect were submitted to a current source density (CSD) analysis. As a new approach, a principal component analysis was applied to decompose the grand average CSD distribution into spatial subcomponents (factors). The spatial factor indicating left temporal activity revealed significantly different activation for the same-category compared to the mixed-category condition in the time window between 150 and 225 msec post picture onset. These findings indicate a major involvement of the left temporal cortex in the semantic interference effect. As this effect has been shown to take place at the level of lexical selection, the data suggest that the left temporal cortex supports processes of lexical retrieval during production.

  7. Radiation protection in category III large gamma irradiators; Radioprotecao em irradiadores de grande porte de categoria III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Neivaldo; Furlan, Gilberto Ribeiro, E-mail: neivaldo@cena.usp.b, E-mail: gilfurlan@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Itepan, Natanael Marcio, E-mail: natanael.itepan@unianhanguera.edu.b [Universidade Anhanguera, Goiania, GO (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This article discusses the advantages of category III large gamma irradiator compared to the others, with emphasis on aspects of radiological protection, in the industrial sector. This category is a kind of irradiators almost unknown to the regulators authorities and the industrial community, despite its simple construction and greater radiation safety intrinsic to the model, able to maintain an efficiency of productivity comparable to those of category IV. Worldwide, there are installed more than 200 category IV irradiators and there is none of a category III irradiator in operation. In a category III gamma irradiator, the source remains fixed in the bottom of the tank, always shielded by water, negating the exposition risk. Taking into account the benefits in relation to radiation safety, the category III large irradiators are highly recommended for industrial, commercial purposes or scientific research. (author)

  8. Setters and samoyeds: the emergence of subordinate level categories as a basis for inductive inference in preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, S R; Lynch, E B; Casey, K L; Baer, L

    1997-11-01

    Basic level categories are a rich source of inductive inference for children and adults. These 3 experiments examine how preschool-age children partition their inductively rich basic level categories to form subordinate level categories and whether these have inductive potential. Children were taught a novel property about an individual member of a familiar basic level category (e.g., a collie). Then, children's extensions of that property to other objects from the same subordinate (e.g., other collies), basic (e.g., other dogs), and superordinate (e.g., other animals) level categories were examined. The results suggest (a) that contrastive information promotes the emergence of subordinate categories as a basis of inductive inference and (b) that newly established subordinate categories can retain their inductive potential in subsequent reasoning over a week's time.

  9. When will bigger be (recalled) better? The influence of category size on JOLs depends on test format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourihan, Kathleen L; Tullis, Jonathan G

    2015-08-01

    Although it is well known that organized lists of words (e.g., categories) are recalled better than unrelated lists, little research has examined whether participants can predict how categorical relatedness influences recall. In two experiments, participants studied lists of words that included items from big categories (12 items), small categories (4 items), and unrelated items, and provided immediate JOLs. In Experiment 1, free recall was highest for items from large categories and lowest for unrelated items. Importantly, participants were sensitive to the effects of category size on recall, with JOLs to items from big categories actually increasing over the study list. In Experiment 2, one group of participants was cued to recall all exemplars from the categories in a blocked manner, whereas the other group was cued in a random order. As expected, the random group did not show the recall benefit for big categories over small categories observed in free recall, while the blocked group did. Critically, the pattern of metacognitive judgments closely matched actual cued recall performance. Participants' JOLs were sensitive to the interaction between category size and output order, demonstrating a relatively sophisticated strategy that incorporates the interaction of multiple extrinsic cues in predicting recall.

  10. From groups to categorial algebra introduction to protomodular and mal’tsev categories

    CERN Document Server

    Bourn, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    This book gives a thorough and entirely self-contained, in-depth introduction to a specific approach to group theory, in a large sense of that word. The focus lie on the relationships which a group may have with other groups, via “universal properties”, a view on that group “from the outside”. This method of categorical algebra, is actually not limited to the study of groups alone, but applies equally well to other similar categories of algebraic objects. By introducing protomodular categories and Mal’tsev categories, which form a larger class, the structural properties of the category Gp of groups, show how they emerge from four very basic observations about the algebraic litteral calculus and how, studied for themselves at the conceptual categorical level, they lead to the main striking features of the category Gp of groups. Hardly any previous knowledge of category theory is assumed, and just a little experience with standard algebraic structures such as groups and monoids. Examples and exercises...

  11. IAEA news: • Newcomer countries face common challenges in nuclear infrastructure development. • Safety and licensing requirements for small modular reactors: IAEA hosts first workshop for regulators. • IAEA reaches milestone in disposal of radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollar, Lenka; Dyck, Elisabeth; Dixit, Aabha; Gaspar, Miklos; Gil, Laura

    2016-01-01

    • Newcomer countries face common challenges in nuclear infrastructure development: Countries embarking on a nuclear power programme need to make sure that the development of their legal, regulatory and support infrastructure keeps pace with the construction of the power plant itself. This is the only way to ensure that the programme proceeds in a safe, secure and sustainable way, concluded participants of a workshop on nuclear power infrastructure development hosted at the IAEA last February. • Safety and licensing requirements for small modular reactors: IAEA hosts first workshop for regulators: A new generation of advanced, prefab nuclear power reactors called small modular reactors (SMRs) could be licensed and hit the market as early as 2020, and the IAEA is helping regulators prepare for their debut. In a series of workshops that began earlier this year, the IAEA is working closely with regulators on approaches to safety and licensing ahead of potential SMR deployment worldwide. • IAEA reaches milestone in disposal of radioactive sources: Successful tests of a promising technology for moving and storing low level radioactive sealed sources are paving the way for a new disposal method for dealing with small volumes of radioactive waste around the world. The method, which involves placing and covering sealed sources in a narrow hole a few hundred metres deep, would allow countries to safely and securely take charge of their own disused radioactive sources. The proof of concept for the technology was tested in Croatia late last year — without the use of actual radioactive material.

  12. Order of Presentation Effects in Learning Color Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhofer, Catherine M.; Doumas, Leonidas A. A.

    2008-01-01

    Two studies, an experimental category learning task and a computational simulation, examined how sequencing training instances to maximize comparison and memory affects category learning. In Study 1, 2-year-old children learned color categories with three training conditions that varied in how categories were distributed throughout training and…

  13. Supervised and Unsupervised Learning of Multidimensional Acoustic Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudbeek, Martijn; Swingley, Daniel; Smits, Roel

    2009-01-01

    Learning to recognize the contrasts of a language-specific phonemic repertoire can be viewed as forming categories in a multidimensional psychophysical space. Research on the learning of distributionally defined visual categories has shown that categories defined over 1 dimension are easy to learn and that learning multidimensional categories is…

  14. Electrification of small rural properties in the Cangucu-Brazil city using alternative sources for electricity generation; Eletrificacao de pequenas propriedades rurais do municipio de Cangucu empregando fontes alternativas para a producao de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecktheuer, Lucio Almeida [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Nucleo de Energia

    1998-12-31

    This paper aims at specifying and measuring the main alternative electrification system components, such as solar and eolic, which make use of the property`s energetical potential that, to a small extent, do not represent pollution sources to the environment. The results indicated that, the small rural properties of Cangucu country, which present a low daily electric energy consumption, these alternative systems are able to technically and economically supply electric energy and provide reasonable subsidies to electrification projects which can eventually be developed in the country. (author) 4 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Source Monitoring in Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haj, Mohamad; Fasotti, Luciano; Allain, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Source monitoring is the process of making judgments about the origin of memories. There are three categories of source monitoring: reality monitoring (discrimination between self- versus other-generated sources), external monitoring (discrimination between several external sources), and internal monitoring (discrimination between two types of…

  16. Combining land use information and small stream sampling with PCR-based methods for better characterization of diffuse sources of human fecal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peed, Lindsay A; Nietch, Christopher T; Kelty, Catherine A; Meckes, Mark; Mooney, Thomas; Sivaganesan, Mano; Shanks, Orin C

    2011-07-01

    Diffuse sources of human fecal pollution allow for the direct discharge of waste into receiving waters with minimal or no treatment. Traditional culture-based methods are commonly used to characterize fecal pollution in ambient waters, however these methods do not discern between human and other animal sources of fecal pollution making it difficult to identify diffuse pollution sources. Human-associated quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) methods in combination with low-order headwatershed sampling, precipitation information, and high-resolution geographic information system land use data can be useful for identifying diffuse source of human fecal pollution in receiving waters. To test this assertion, this study monitored nine headwatersheds over a two-year period potentially impacted by faulty septic systems and leaky sanitary sewer lines. Human fecal pollution was measured using three different human-associated qPCR methods and a positive significant correlation was seen between abundance of human-associated genetic markers and septic systems following wet weather events. In contrast, a negative correlation was observed with sanitary sewer line densities suggesting septic systems are the predominant diffuse source of human fecal pollution in the study area. These results demonstrate the advantages of combining water sampling, climate information, land-use computer-based modeling, and molecular biology disciplines to better characterize diffuse sources of human fecal pollution in environmental waters.

  17. Antisocial behavior: Dimension or category(ies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biro Mikloš

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Classificatory systems (DSM-IV, ICD-10 use different criteria for defining a rather common antisocial disorder, traditionally referred as psychopathy. Most empirical studies of this phenomenon use Cleckley's operational definition that was applied and amended in Hare's revised Psychopathy Checklist (PCL-R. In modern literature, the fact that there is less than a perfect correspondence between classificatory systems and Hare's PCL-R is often cited as an indication that antisocial behavior is not confined to a distinct category of people but is rather a continuous personality dimension. In order to further elucidate the nosology of antisocial behaviors, a Psychopathy Assessment Questionnaire (PAQ based on Cleckley - Hare's criteria and consisting of 40 binary items was administered to 339 men (135 prisoners and 204 members of the general population. Four distinct clusters of respondents were identified by means of hierarchical cluster analysis: Psychopathic type (characterized by high positive scores on dimension of Unemotionality; Antisocial type (characterized by high positive scores on Social deviance dimension; Adapted type (characterized by negative scores on all dimensions; and Hyper-controlled type (characterized by extremely negative scores on dimension Social deviance accompanied with positive scores on Unemotionality dimension. Additional comparison with MMPI profiles which classified prison sample in two groups ("Psychopathic profiles" and "Non- Psychopathic profiles" shows that there is no expected compatibility between MMPI and PAQ. We conclude that Antisocial type can be treated as a distinct category, while Psychopathic type displays characteristics of dimensional distribution.

  18. Encoding tasks dissociate the effects of divided attention on category-cued recall and category-exemplar generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Andrew; Dagnall, Neil; Munley, Gary

    2012-01-01

    The combined effects of encoding tasks and divided attention upon category-exemplar generation and category-cued recall were examined. Participants were presented with pairs of words each comprising a category name and potential example of that category. They were then asked to indicate either (i) their liking for both of the words or (ii) if the exemplar was a member of the category. It was found that divided attention reduced performance on the category-cued recall task under both encoding conditions. However, performance on the category-exemplar generation task remained invariant across the attention manipulation following the category judgment task. This provides further evidence that the processes underlying performance on conceptual explicit and implicit memory tasks can be dissociated, and that the intentional formation of category-exemplar associations attenuates the effects of divided attention on category-exemplar generation.

  19. The helpfulness of category labels in semi-supervised learning depends on category structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vong, Wai Keen; Navarro, Daniel J; Perfors, Amy

    2016-02-01

    The study of semi-supervised category learning has generally focused on how additional unlabeled information with given labeled information might benefit category learning. The literature is also somewhat contradictory, sometimes appearing to show a benefit to unlabeled information and sometimes not. In this paper, we frame the problem differently, focusing on when labels might be helpful to a learner who has access to lots of unlabeled information. Using an unconstrained free-sorting categorization experiment, we show that labels are useful to participants only when the category structure is ambiguous and that people's responses are driven by the specific set of labels they see. We present an extension of Anderson's Rational Model of Categorization that captures this effect.

  20. 40 CFR 407.74 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Canned and Preserved Vegetables Subcategory § 407.74 Pretreatment standards for existing sources...

  1. 40 CFR 415.115 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Metal Production... achieve the following new source performance standards (NSPS): There shall be no discharge of process...

  2. Impact of Top Management Team on Firm Performance in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Adopting Commercial Open-Source Enterprise Resource Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cereola, Sandra J.; Wier, Benson; Norman, Carolyn Strand

    2012-01-01

    Based on the large number of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the United States, their increasing interest in enterprise-wide software systems and their impact on the US economy, it is important to understand the determinants that can facilitate the successful implementation and assimilation of such technology into these firms' daily…

  3. Japanese Small Business Owners/Managers: A Study of Business Information Sources and Training Programs Revisited- Twenty Years Later Part I

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuye,Kenneth I.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates training procedures in Japanese SME 1) (small medium enterprises), asking the following questions: How will business owners/managers rate the perceived importance of training programs they have attended? What relationships exist between the perceived importance of the training programs and demographic variables?

  4. On the (possible range of the category house

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilparić Branislava M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a study whose aim was to determine whether / confirm that the category house also includes those buildings divided into (many separate dwelling units and consisted of a (very large number of storeys and whether / that they can also serve as a whole decomposed in the research on the house meronomy. The study was based on general dictionaries of the English language, picture dictionaries, dictionaries of architecture and building construction, as well as various non-dictionary sources dealing with houses, buildings, structures and/or offering examples of use of the lexeme house in its basic sense. The results of the study show that 'house' is indifferent to the observed physical features of the structures made for human habitation.

  5. Sacrality and worldmaking: new categorial perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Paden

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The category of the sacred in particular and the role of transcultural concept-formation in general have undergone an obvious crisis. For the most part, "the sacred," if not an empty label, has been linked with theologism, and transcultural concepts have been condemned for their general non-comparability and colonialist intent. The author approaches the matter of transcultural templates through an analysis of certain concepts of sacrality. With some exceptions, the discourse of sacrality has indeed been dominated by a single model, where "the sacred" became a reified noun—a substantive term for a supernatural reality, a label for the transcendent, or even an epithet for divinity, mystery, the wholly other. As such, the expression has functioned to bestow a sense of unity to the diversity of cultures, link that unity with a transcendent reality, and offer a simple way of making sense of otherwise foreign beliefs and practices by giving them a familiar, generic referent.

  6. The structure and formation of natural categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Douglas; Langley, Pat

    1990-01-01

    Categorization and concept formation are critical activities of intelligence. These processes and the conceptual structures that support them raise important issues at the interface of cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence. The work presumes that advances in these and other areas are best facilitated by research methodologies that reward interdisciplinary interaction. In particular, a computational model is described of concept formation and categorization that exploits a rational analysis of basic level effects by Gluck and Corter. Their work provides a clean prescription of human category preferences that is adapted to the task of concept learning. Also, their analysis was extended to account for typicality and fan effects, and speculate on how the concept formation strategies might be extended to other facets of intelligence, such as problem solving.

  7. Radiation hardness assurances categories for COTS technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hash, G.L.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Sexton, F.W.; Winokur, P.S.

    1997-01-01

    A comparison of the radiation tolerance of three commercial, and one radiation hardened SRAM is presented for four radiation environments. This work has shown the difficulty associated with strictly categorizing a device based solely on its radiation response, since its category depends on the specific radiation environment considered. For example, the 3.3-V Paradigm SRAM could be considered a radiation-tolerant device except for its SEU response. A more useful classification depends on the methods the manufacturer uses to ensure radiation hardness, i.e. whether specific design and process techniques have been used to harden the device. Finally, this work has shown that burned-in devices may fail functionally as much as 50% lower in total dose environments than non-burned-in devices. No burn-in effect was seen in dose-rate upset, latchup, or SEE environments. The user must ensure that total dose lot acceptance testing was performed on burned-in devices

  8. Housekeeping category corrective action unit work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this Corrective Action Unit (CAU) Work Plan is to provide a strategy to be used by the US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), the US Department of Defense (DoD) Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA) (formerly the Defense Nuclear Agency), and contractor personnel for conducting corrective actions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and Nevada off-site locations including the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), the Project Shoal Area, and the Central Nevada Test Area. This Work Plan applies to housekeeping category CAUs already listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) Appendices (FFACO, 1996) as well as newly identified Corrective Action Sites (CASs) that will follow the housekeeping process

  9. Classification versus inference learning contrasted with real-world categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Erin L; Ross, Brian H

    2011-07-01

    Categories are learned and used in a variety of ways, but the research focus has been on classification learning. Recent work contrasting classification with inference learning of categories found important later differences in category performance. However, theoretical accounts differ on whether this is due to an inherent difference between the tasks or to the implementation decisions. The inherent-difference explanation argues that inference learners focus on the internal structure of the categories--what each category is like--while classification learners focus on diagnostic information to predict category membership. In two experiments, using real-world categories and controlling for earlier methodological differences, inference learners learned more about what each category was like than did classification learners, as evidenced by higher performance on a novel classification test. These results suggest that there is an inherent difference between learning new categories by classifying an item versus inferring a feature.

  10. Estimation of critical CO2 values when planning the power source in water desalination: The case of the small Aegean islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karagiannis, Ioannis C.; Soldatos, Peter G.

    2010-01-01

    Climate change is one of the most important issues our world faces today and it is responsible for a number of natural disasters that threaten human life and existence. Carbon dioxide, produced from almost every energy consuming activity, is the dominant greenhouse gas responsible for global warming. Water desalination is an energy intensive activity, and when it is powered by conventional energy sources, significant amounts of CO 2 are released. For every cubic metre of fresh water produced, there is a 2 kg of CO 2 reduction if renewable energy sources (RES) are used instead of electricity from the local grid. On the other hand, the cost of fresh water produced by desalination is much less if conventional sources of energy are used. Making appropriate policy choices require information on both costs and benefits. So here we estimate the critical CO 2 cost, above which desalination units should use renewable energy instead of conventional energy sources. It was found that the critical CO 2 emissions cost can be close to the CO 2 capture cost and in many cases less than the penalties imposed by the European Commission. Several case studies of water desalination in the Aegean islands verify the conclusions.

  11. The role of grammatical category information in spoken word retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duràn, Carolina Palma; Pillon, Agnesa

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the role of lexical syntactic information such as grammatical gender and category in spoken word retrieval processes by using a blocking paradigm in picture and written word naming experiments. In Experiments 1, 3, and 4, we found that the naming of target words (nouns) from pictures or written words was faster when these target words were named within a list where only words from the same grammatical category had to be produced (homogeneous category list: all nouns) than when they had to be produced within a list comprising also words from another grammatical category (heterogeneous category list: nouns and verbs). On the other hand, we detected no significant facilitation effect when the target words had to be named within a homogeneous gender list (all masculine nouns) compared to a heterogeneous gender list (both masculine and feminine nouns). In Experiment 2, using the same blocking paradigm by manipulating the semantic category of the items, we found that naming latencies were significantly slower in the semantic category homogeneous in comparison with the semantic category heterogeneous condition. Thus semantic category homogeneity caused an interference, not a facilitation effect like grammatical category homogeneity. Finally, in Experiment 5, nouns in the heterogeneous category condition had to be named just after a verb (category-switching position) or a noun (same-category position). We found a facilitation effect of category homogeneity but no significant effect of position, which showed that the effect of category homogeneity found in Experiments 1, 3, and 4 was not due to a cost of switching between grammatical categories in the heterogeneous grammatical category list. These findings supported the hypothesis that grammatical category information impacts word retrieval processes in speech production, even when words are to be produced in isolation. They are discussed within the context of extant theories of lexical production.

  12. Investigating cross-category brand loyalty behavior in FMCG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boztug, Yasemin; Hildebrandt, Lutz; Silberhorn, Nadja

    category depend on purchases in other categories. The aspect of cross-category related brand loyalty has been somewhat neglected so far. We concentrate on cross-category relationships of strong national brands and on how customers' brand choice decisions are related across several product categories.......In competitive markets, customer retention is more efficient than trying to attract new customers. Brand loyalty is an intrinsic commitment to repeatedly purchase a particular brand. But most analyses have been conducted in one specific category only. It has been shown that product purchases in one...

  13. Piped water consumption in Ghana: A case study of temporal and spatial patterns of clean water demand relative to alternative water sources in rural small towns

    OpenAIRE

    Kulinkina, Alexandra V.; Kosinski, Karen C.; Liss, Alexander; Adjei, Michael N.; Ayamgah, Gilbert A.; Webb, Patrick; Gute, David M.; Plummer, Jeanine D.; Naumova, Elena N.

    2016-01-01

    Continuous access to adequate quantities of safe water is essential for human health and socioeconomic development. Piped water systems (PWSs) are an increasingly common type of water supply in rural African small towns. Despite providing the highest and most flexible level of service with better microbiological water quality to their users, these systems remain vulnerable to rural water sustainability challenges. We assessed temporal and spatial patterns in water consumption from public stan...

  14. Utilization of small-amount of radioactive isotope. Report of Technical Committee for Using Minor Radioactive Sources, Section of Physical Science and Industry, JRIAS. (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The report of this series is a summary of considerations made by the committee which was founded in January, 1991, for stimulating the utilization of small-amount radioactive isotopes. The present report (1) is composed of three chapters concerning the purpose above mentioned and achievement of the committee, and reasonable regulation for the sealed isotopes. For the purpose, analysis was made for the present states of small-amount radioisotope utilization and of legal regulation and proposals were done by the committee. In the past, the first (1/1, 1991-5/31, 1992) and second (6/1, 1992 5/31, 1994) terms of the committee investigated the present states of utilization and safety handling in Japan and foreign countries, methods for stimulation, education and re-evaluation of the past trials for technology of those sub-legal isotopes together with translation of IAEA SAFETY SERIES No. 104 into Japanese, which was published in the journal Radioisotopes vol.44 (1995), for reference of the present states in Japan and foreign countries. In the chapter of proposal for the reasonable regulation for the sealed isotopes, the present committee investigated the present states of utilization of the industrial instruments and daily necessities which are equipped with small-amount radioisotopes, their legal and safety problems involved and the basis of calculation of exemption level, and made proposals for reasonable regulation. (K.H.)

  15. Renewable energy projects in small island countries funded under the United Nation trust found for new and renewable source of energy (NRSE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gururaja, J.

    1999-01-01

    The NRSE trust fund established with financial support from the Italian Government has succeeded in catalyzing a number of energy projects in small island developing countries. These projects have elicited a great deal of interest by local communities and opened up prospects for further utilization of locally available energy resources. The projects have created a positive impact on the quality of life of people in dispersed locations in small island developing countries by focusing on provision of renewable energy based electricity services such as solar PV lighting for homes, schools, and hospitals; radio, TV, VCR as well as medicine refrigerators. Thus it has become evident that renewable energy technologies such as solar and wind systems can have an important role to play in improving the quality of life of people in these small island countries. Market potential for these technologies is indeed substantial. However constraints and barriers still exist. One of the principal barriers is still the high initial cost of solar devices. Innovative financing including microcredit facilities needs to be explored. Efforts are also needed to strengthen local capacity to undertake assembly of components and systems, and also in the installation, maintenance, and service of renewable energy devices. Entrepreneurial activities need to be fostered through further strengthening of skills in this area. (EHS)

  16. Renewable energy projects in small island countries funded under the United Nation trust found for new and renewable source of energy (NRSE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gururaja, J. [Energy and Transport Branch, Division for Sustainabel Development, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations, NY (United States)

    1999-11-01

    The NRSE trust fund established with financial support from the Italian Government has succeeded in catalyzing a number of energy projects in small island developing countries. These projects have elicited a great deal of interest by local communities and opened up prospects for further utilization of locally available energy resources. The projects have created a positive impact on the quality of life of people in dispersed locations in small island developing countries by focusing on provision of renewable energy based electricity services such as solar PV lighting for homes, schools, and hospitals; radio, TV, VCR as well as medicine refrigerators. Thus it has become evident that renewable energy technologies such as solar and wind systems can have an important role to play in improving the quality of life of people in these small island countries. Market potential for these technologies is indeed substantial. However constraints and barriers still exist. One of the principal barriers is still the high initial cost of solar devices. Innovative financing including microcredit facilities needs to be explored. Efforts are also needed to strengthen local capacity to undertake assembly of components and systems, and also in the installation, maintenance, and service of renewable energy devices. Entrepreneurial activities need to be fostered through further strengthening of skills in this area. (EHS)

  17. Ad Hoc Categories and False Memories: Memory Illusions for Categories Created On-The-Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soro, Jerônimo C.; Ferreira, Mário B.; Semin, Gün R.; Mata, André; Carneiro, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Three experiments were designed to test whether experimentally created ad hoc associative networks evoke false memories. We used the DRM (Deese, Roediger, McDermott) paradigm with lists of ad hoc categories composed of exemplars aggregated toward specific goals (e.g., going for a picnic) that do not share any consistent set of features. Experiment…

  18. Category Specificity in Normal Episodic Learning: Applications to Object Recognition and Category-Specific Agnosia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukach, Cindy M.; Bub, Daniel N.; Masson, Michael E. J.; Lindsay, D. Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Studies of patients with category-specific agnosia (CSA) have given rise to multiple theories of object recognition, most of which assume the existence of a stable, abstract semantic memory system. We applied an episodic view of memory to questions raised by CSA in a series of studies examining normal observers' recall of newly learned attributes…

  19. Category Formation in Autism: Can Individuals with Autism Form Categories and Prototypes of Dot Patterns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastgeb, Holly Zajac; Dundas, Eva M.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Strauss, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing amount of evidence suggesting that individuals with autism have difficulty with categorization. One basic cognitive ability that may underlie this difficulty is the ability to abstract a prototype. The current study examined prototype and category formation with dot patterns in high-functioning adults with autism and matched…

  20. Dietary protein sources differentially affect microbiota, mTOR activity and transcription of mTOR signaling pathways in the small intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya K Kar

    Full Text Available Dietary protein sources can have profound effects on host-microbe interactions in the gut that are critically important for immune resilience. However more knowledge is needed to assess the impact of different protein sources on gut and animal health. Thirty-six wildtype male C57BL/6J mice of 35 d age (n = 6/group; mean ± SEM body weight 21.9 ± 0.25 g were randomly assigned to groups fed for four weeks with semi synthetic diets prepared with one of the following protein sources containing (300 g/kg as fed basis: soybean meal (SBM, casein, partially delactosed whey powder, spray dried plasma protein, wheat gluten meal and yellow meal worm. At the end of the experiment, mice were sacrificed to collect ileal tissue to acquire gene expression data, and mammalian (mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR activity, ileal digesta to study changes in microbiota and serum to measure cytokines and chemokines. By genome-wide transcriptome analysis, we identified fourteen high level regulatory genes that are strongly affected in SBM-fed mice compared to the other experimental groups. They mostly related to the mTOR pathway. In addition, an increased (P < 0.05 concentration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor was observed in serum of SBM-fed mice compared to other dietary groups. Moreover, by 16S rRNA sequencing, we observed that SBM-fed mice had higher (P < 0.05 abundances of Bacteroidales family S24-7, compared to the other dietary groups. We showed that measurements of genome-wide expression and microbiota composition in the mouse ileum reveal divergent responses to diets containing different protein sources, in particular for a diet based on SBM.

  1. Correlation of the verb transitivity with other grammatical categories

    OpenAIRE

    LIUBCHENKO TATIANA VIKTOROVNA

    2016-01-01

    The correlation of the verb transitivity with other categories, including voice and aspect is specified in investigation. The article also deals with interpretation of categories “voice” and “diathesis” in linguistics.

  2. School based assessment module for invasion games category in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    School based assessment module for invasion games category in physical education. ... This study identify the level of basic skills of invasion games category when using School Based Assessment Module. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  3. A multi-stage-flash desalination plant of relative small performance with an integrated pressurized water reactor as a nuclear heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltzer, M.; Petersen, G.

    1976-01-01

    In the Krupp-GKSS joint study MINIPLEX the requirements for seawater-desalination-plants with a performance in the range of 10,000 to 80,000 m 3 /d heated by a nuclear reactor are investigated. The reactor concept is similar to the integrated pressurized water reactor (IPWR) of the nuclear ship OTTO HAHN. The calculated costs of the desalinated water show, that due to the fuel cost advantages of reactors small and medium nuclear desalination plants are economically competetive with oil-fired plants since the steep rise of oil price in autumn 1973. (orig.) [de

  4. AMUC: Associated Motion capture User Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Sally Jane; Lawson, Sian E M; Olivier, Patrick; Watson, Paul; Chan, Anita M-A; Dade-Robertson, Martyn; Dunphy, Paul; Green, Dave; Hiden, Hugo; Hook, Jonathan; Jackson, Daniel G

    2009-07-13

    The AMUC (Associated Motion capture User Categories) project consisted of building a prototype sketch retrieval client for exploring motion capture archives. High-dimensional datasets reflect the dynamic process of motion capture and comprise high-rate sampled data of a performer's joint angles; in response to multiple query criteria, these data can potentially yield different kinds of information. The AMUC prototype harnesses graphic input via an electronic tablet as a query mechanism, time and position signals obtained from the sketch being mapped to the properties of data streams stored in the motion capture repository. As well as proposing a pragmatic solution for exploring motion capture datasets, the project demonstrates the conceptual value of iterative prototyping in innovative interdisciplinary design. The AMUC team was composed of live performance practitioners and theorists conversant with a variety of movement techniques, bioengineers who recorded and processed motion data for integration into the retrieval tool, and computer scientists who designed and implemented the retrieval system and server architecture, scoped for Grid-based applications. Creative input on information system design and navigation, and digital image processing, underpinned implementation of the prototype, which has undergone preliminary trials with diverse users, allowing identification of rich potential development areas.

  5. Health and morality: two conceptually distinct categories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengland, Per-Anders

    2012-03-01

    When seeing immoral actions, criminal or not, we sometimes deem the people who perform them unhealthy. This is especially so if the actions are of a serious nature, e.g. involving murder, assault, or rape. We turn our moral evaluation into an evaluation about health and illness. This tendency is partly supported by some diagnoses found in the DMS-IV, such as Antisocial personality disorder, and the ICD-10, such as Dissocial personality disorder. The aim of the paper is to answer the question: How analytically sound is the inclusion of morality into a theory of health? The holistic theory of Lennart Nordenfelt is used as a starting point, and it is used as an example of a theory where morality and health are conceptually distinct categories. Several versions of a pluralistic holistic theory are then discussed in order to see if, and if so, how, morality can be conceptually related to health. It is concluded that moral abilities (and dispositions) can be seen as being part of the individual's health. It is harder to incorporate moral virtues and moral actions into such a theory. However, if immoral actions "cluster" in an individual, and are of a severe kind, causing serious harm to other people, it is more likely that the person, for those reasons only, be deemed unhealthy.

  6. Licensing system for primary category radioactive installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez Riquelme, Angelica Beatriz

    1997-01-01

    The development of a licensing system for primary category radioactive installations is described, which aims to satisfy the needs of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission's Department of Nuclear and Radiological Safety, particularly the sections for Licensing Outside Radioactive Installations and Safety Control. This system involves the identification, control and inspection of the installations, their personnel and connected activities, for the purpose of protecting the population's health and the environment. Following the basic cycle methodology, a systems analysis and engineering stage was prepared, establishing the functions of the system's elements and defining the requirements, based on interviews with the users. This stage was followed by the design stage, focusing on the data structure, the software architecture and the procedural detail. The codification stage followed, which translated the design into legible machine-readable format. In the testing stage, the entries that were defined were proven to produce the expected data. Finally and operational and maintenance stage was developed, when the system was installed and put to use. All the above generated a useful system for the Licensing section of the Department of Nuclear and Radiological Safety, since it provides faster and easier access to information. A project is described that introduces new development tools in the Computer department following standards established by the C.CH.E.N. (author)

  7. Time-slicing subsystem of the biology small-angle x-ray scattering station at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubblefield, F.W.

    1985-11-01

    The time-slicing subsystem of the Biology Small-Angle X-ray Scattering divides the time period during which the data for small-angle x-ray diffraction patterns from biological samples is collected into time slices (or frames). The subsystem, being part of a multiprocessor experiment control and data acquisition system, has its own dedicated processor; it also has special-purpose front-end electronics sufficient to generate the gating and other control signals required to produce a sequence of as many as 256 time slices, measured with a basic time unit of 1 μsec. The electronics also synchronizes with execution of the time slice sequence the application of stimuli to the biological sample, the measurement of voltages generated by the sample, and the application of auxiliary device trigger pulses and routes detector data and auxiliary scaler data into appropriate time-slice-indexed buffers in a large external data memory array. The structure of the entire experiment control and data acquisition system is briefly reviewed. Details of the structure and operation of the time slice subsystem are presented. 7 refs., 5 figs

  8. Sediment Sources Change for the Past 42 Years in a Small Watershed Located in the Black Soil Region of Northeastern China Based on Fingerprinting Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, P.; Huang, D.; Ning, D.

    2017-12-01

    The temporal change of sediment source in watershed is very helpful for evaluating the adopted soil conservation measures and the implemented land management practices. For this purpose, a sediment profile from Hebei watershed outlet and 59 samples from the three potential sediment sources were collected. The rediounuclide Pb-210 was then measured to obtain sedimentation rate for the past 42 years. Generally, the sedimentation rate was gradually decreased from 10.83 cm yr-1 in the 1970's to 1.50 cm yr-1in the 2010's. Taken the radiounulide Cs-137 as a fingerprinting identifying tracer, the mean contribution of sediment from cultivated lands, woodlands, and channel banks were 50.60%, 22.26%, and 26.74%, while the ranges varying from 20.16% to 84.02%, from 2.22% to 36.85%, and from 11.61% to 53.28%, respectively. The percentage of sediment sources from cultivated lands was decreased, whereas the percentages from woodlands and channel banks were both increased in the past 42 years. The results indicate that soil conservation measures adopted in the cultivated lands have been played a very important role in reducing erosion, however, more attention on land management practices implementation should be paid to maintain current woodland and to control serious gully erosion in the black soil region. (This paper is a contribution to the project of National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41501299), and the non-profit project of Ministry of Water Resources of China (No. 201501045).)

  9. Identifying demand effects in a large network of product categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelper, S.E.C.; Wilms, I.; Croux, C.

    2016-01-01

    Planning marketing mix strategies requires retailers to understand within- as well as cross-category demand effects. Most retailers carry products in a large variety of categories, leading to a high number of such demand effects to be estimated. At the same time, we do not expect cross-category

  10. A note on thick subcategories of stable derived categories

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Henning; Stevenson, Greg

    2013-01-01

    For an exact category having enough projective objects, we establish a bijection between thick subcategories containing the projective objects and thick subcategories of the stable derived category. Using this bijection, we classify thick subcategories of finitely generated modules over strict local complete intersections and produce generators for the category of coherent sheaves on a separated Noetherian scheme with an ample family of line bundles.

  11. 14 CFR 61.159 - Aeronautical experience: Airplane category rating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aeronautical experience: Airplane category... Transport Pilots § 61.159 Aeronautical experience: Airplane category rating. (a) Except as provided in... certificate with an airplane category and class rating must have at least 1,500 hours of total time as a pilot...

  12. 47 CFR 36.126 - Circuit equipment-Category 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... separating property associated with special services, circuit equipment included in Categories 4.12 (other... Equipment Excluding Wideband—Category 4.13—The cost of Circuit Equipment associated with exchange line plant... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit equipment-Category 4. 36.126 Section 36...

  13. Quasi-coherent Hecke category and Demazure descent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arkhipov, Sergey; Kanstrup, Tina

    2015-01-01

    Let G be a reductive algebraic group with a Borel subgroup B. We define the quasi-coherent Hecke category for the pair (G,B). For any regular Noetherian G- scheme X we construct a monoidal action of the Hecke category on the derived category of B-equivariant quasi-coherent sheaves on X. Using the...

  14. An Analysis of Category Management of Service Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    comprised of four steps to guide future category management teams in analyzing data and applying Category Management principles through the use of...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT AN ANALYSIS OF CATEGORY MANAGEMENT OF SERVICE CONTRACTS December 2017...Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project

  15. High Source Levels and Small Active Space of High-Pitched Song in Bowhead Whales (Balaena mysticetus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tervo, Outi M.; Christoffersen, Mads F.; Simon, Malene

    2012-01-01

    The low frequency, powerful vocalizations of blue and fin whales may potentially be detected by conspecifics across entire ocean basins. In contrast, humpback and bowhead whales produce equally loud, but more complex broadband vocalizations composed of higher frequencies that suffer from higher...... notes is between 40 and 130 km, an order of magnitude smaller than the estimated active space of low frequency blue and fin whale songs produced at similar source levels and for similar noise conditions. We propose that bowhead whales spatially compensate for their smaller communication range through...

  16. Systematic review of the diagnostic category muscle dysmorphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Filho, Celso Alves dos; Tirico, Patrícia Passarelli; Stefano, Sergio Carlos; Touyz, Stephen W; Claudino, Angélica Medeiros

    2016-04-01

    (1) To collect, analyze and synthetize the evidence on muscle dysmorphia diagnosis as defined by Pope et al. and (2) To discuss its appropriate nosology and inclusion as a specific category in psychiatric classificatory systems. A systematic search in the MEDLINE, the PsycNET, the LILACS and SciELO databases and in the International Journal of Eating Disorders was conducted looking for articles published between January 1997 and October 2014 and in EMBASE database between January 1997 and August 2013. Only epidemiological and analytical studies were considered for selection. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed according to the Evidence-Based Mental Health and the National Health and Medical Research Council's guidelines. The support for inclusion of muscle dysmorphia in psychiatric classificatory systems was examined against Blashfield et al.'s criteria. Thirty-four articles were considered eligible out of 5136. Most of the studies were cross-sectional and enrolled small, non-clinical samples. The methodological quality of all selected papers was graded at the lowest hierarchical level due to studies' designs. Forty-one percent of the publications considered the available evidence insufficient to support the inclusion of muscle dysmorphia in any existing category of psychiatric disorders. The current literature does not fulfill Blashfield et al.'s criteria for the inclusion of muscle dysmorphia as a specific entity in psychiatric diagnostic manuals. The current evidence does not ensure the validity, clinical utility, nosological classification and inclusion of muscle dysmorphia as a new disorder in classificatory systems of mental disorders. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  17. Determination of Informal Sector as Urban Pollution Source : Fume Characterization of Small-scale Manual Metal Arc Welding using Factor Analysis in Bandung City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nastiti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, the informal sector, particularly small-scale welding activities, are considered to be an important contributor to urban air pollution although studies in this sector are limited. This study aims to identify the composition of small-scale welding fume in order to further investigate the effects and set control strategies and urban pollution abatement policies. Breathing zone air samples were collected from 30 mild steel manual metal arc welders and 17 non-welders in Bandung City, West Java, Indonesia. The respirable particulates in air samples were analyzed using gravimetric method, and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA was employed to identify characteristic of welding fume. It was found that respirable particulates concentration in welders (range : 315.6 and 3,735.93 µgm-3; average 1,545.436 µgm-3 were significantly higher than in non-welders (range : 41.84 and 1,688.03 µgm-3; average : 375.783 µgm-3. Welders’ breathing zones contain Fe>Na>K>Mn>Al >Cr>Ti>Cl>Br>I>Zn>Sb>V>Co>Sc; while non-welders’ breathing zones contain Cr>F>Al>Ti>Na>Br>I>Mn>Cl>Co>Zn>Sc. Inter-species correlation analysis conducted using Statgraphic Ver. 4.0 shows that Fe (range : n.d. – 775.19 µgm-3; average: 0.1674 µgm-3, Co (range : n.d. – 0.51 µgm-3; average: 0.000082 µgm-3, Mn (range : 0.39 – 148.37 µgm-3; average: 0.0374 µgm-3, Na (range: 0.17 and 623.85 µgm-3; average: 0.0973 µgm-3 and K (range : n.d. – 301.15 µgm-3; average: 0.0535 µgm-3 were emitted from welding activity, and thus are considered as components of welding fume which contribute to urban air pollution. Although welding fume and the identified species in welding fume were still below permissible limit, small-scale welding activities have great potential in emitting higher fume concentration due to due to high variability of welding activities, such as welding frequency, materials being welded, and varied environmental conditions

  18. Determination of Informal Sector as Urban Pollution Source : Fume Characterization of Small-scale Manual Metal Arc Welding using Factor Analysis in Bandung City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nastiti, A.; Pramudyastuti, D.Y.; Oginawati, K.; Santoso, M.

    2012-01-01

    In developing countries, the informal sector, particularly small-scale welding activities, are considered to be an important contributor to urban air pollution although studies in this sector are limited. This study aims to identify the composition of small-scale welding fume in order to further investigate the effects and set control strategies and urban pollution abatement policies. Breathing zone air samples were collected from 30 mild steel manual metal arc welders and 17 non-welders in Bandung City, West Java, Indonesia. The respirable particulates in air samples were analyzed using gravimetric method, and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was employed to identify characteristic of welding fume. It was found that respirable particulates concentration in welders (range : 315.6 and 3,735.93 µgm -3 ; average 1,545.436 µgm -3 ) were significantly higher than in non-welders (range : 41.84 and 1,688.03 µgm -3 ; average : 375.783 µgm -3 ). Welders' breathing zones contain Fe>Na>K>Mn>Al >Cr>Ti>Cl>Br>I>Zn>Sb>V>Co>Sc; while non-welders' breathing zones contain Cr>F>Al>Ti>Na>Br>I>Mn>Cl>Co>Zn>Sc. Inter-species correlation analysis conducted using Statgraphic Ver. 4.0 shows that Fe (range : n.d. - 775.19 µgm -3 ; average: 0.1674µgm -3 ), Co (range : n.d. - 0.51 µgm -3 ; average: 0.000082 µgm -3 ), Mn (range : 0.39 - 148.37 µgm -3 ; average: 0.0374 µgm -3 ), Na (range: 0.17 and 623.85 µgm -3 ; average: 0.0973 µgm -3 ) and K (range : n.d. - 301.15 µgm -3 ; average: 0.0535 µgm -3 ) were emitted from welding activity, and thus are considered as components of welding fume which contribute to urban air pollution. Although welding fume and the identified species in welding fume were still below permissible limit, small-scale welding activities have great potential in emitting higher fume concentration due to due to high variability of welding activities, such as welding frequency, materials being welded, and varied environmental conditions. (author)

  19. Prior knowledge of category size impacts visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rachel; McGee, Brianna; Echiverri, Chelsea; Zinszer, Benjamin D

    2018-03-30

    Prior research has shown that category search can be similar to one-item search (as measured by the N2pc ERP marker of attentional selection) for highly familiar, smaller categories (e.g., letters and numbers) because the finite set of items in a category can be grouped into one unit to guide search. Other studies have shown that larger, more broadly defined categories (e.g., healthy food) also can elicit N2pc components during category search, but the amplitude of these components is typically attenuated. Two experiments investigated whether the perceived size of a familiar category impacts category and exemplar search. We presented participants with 16 familiar company logos: 8 from a smaller category (social media companies) and 8 from a larger category (entertainment/recreation manufacturing companies). The ERP results from Experiment 1 revealed that, in a two-item search array, search was more efficient for the smaller category of logos compared to the larger category. In a four-item search array (Experiment 2), where two of the four items were placeholders, search was largely similar between the category types, but there was more attentional capture by nontarget members from the same category as the target for smaller rather than larger categories. These results support a growing literature on how prior knowledge of categories affects attentional selection and capture during visual search. We discuss the implications of these findings in relation to assessing cognitive abilities across the lifespan, given that prior knowledge typically increases with age. © 2018 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  20. Predicting Success Study Using Students GPA Category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awan Setiawan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Maintaining student graduation rates are the main tasks of a University. High rates of student graduation and the quality of graduates is a success indicator of a university, which will have an impact on public confidence as stakeholders of higher education and the National Accreditation Board as a regulator (government. Making predictions of student graduation and determine the factors that hinders will be a valuable input for University. Data mining system facilitates the University to create the segmentation of students’ performance and prediction of their graduation. Segmentation of student by their performance can be classified in a quadrant chart is divided into 4 segments based on grade point average and the growth rate of students performance index per semester. Standard methodology in data mining i.e CRISP-DM (Cross Industry Standard Procedure for Data Mining will be implemented in this research. Making predictions, graduation can be done through the modeling process by utilizing the college database. Some algorithms such as C5, C & R Tree, CHAID, and Logistic Regression tested in order to find the best model. This research utilizes student performance data for several classes. Parameters used in addition to GPA also included the master's students data are expected to build the student profile data. The outcome of the study is the student category based on their study performance and prediction of graduation. Based on this prediction, the  university may recommend actions to be taken to improve the student  achievement index and graduation rates.Keywords: graduation, segmentation, quadrant GPA, data mining, modeling algorithms

  1. Predicting Success Study Using Students GPA Category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awan Setiawan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Maintaining student graduation rates are the main tasks of a University. High rates of student graduation and the quality of graduates is a success indicator of a university, which will have an impact on public confidence as stakeholders of higher education and the National Accreditation Board as a regulator (government. Making predictions of student graduation and determine the factors that hinders will be a valuable input for University. Data mining system facilitates the University to create the segmentation of students’ performance and prediction of their graduation. Segmentation of student by their performance can be classified in a quadrant chart is divided into 4 segments based on grade point average and the growth rate of students performance index per semester. Standard methodology in data mining i.e CRISP-DM (Cross Industry Standard Procedure for Data Mining will be implemented in this research. Making predictions, graduation can be done through the modeling process by utilizing the college database. Some algorithms such as C5, C & R Tree, CHAID, and Logistic Regression tested in order to find the best model. This research utilizes student performance data for several classes. Parameters used in addition to GPA also included the master's students data are expected to build the student profile data. The outcome of the study is the student category based on their study performance and prediction of graduation. Based on this prediction, the university may recommend actions to be taken to improve the student achievement index and graduation rates. Keywords: graduation, segmentation, quadrant GPA, data mining, modeling algorithms

  2. EDUCATIONAL EVENT AS THE PEDAGOGICAL CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor V. Lobanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to reveal the essence of the educational event as a pedagogical category. The reason to study the issue is the methodological generality of the term that came into pedagogical everyday life, but which semantic content is still not clear enough. Methods. The methods involve a theoretical analysis of the philosophical and pedagogical literature on the study, the categorical analysis, surveys of students and teachers. Results. The concept content of «event» is looked upon in both historical scholarship and pedagogy, «educational event» is analyzed in unity with the «educational situation» and «educational process». The attitude of students and teachers to educational events was clarified through the surveys; emotional and rational responses of the respondents were differentiated and the peculiarities of events organization in the education system were classified. While teachers and students are considered as subjects of educational events, their goals are delineated. Scientific novelty. The author's own definition of is given. Educational event is defined as a specially organized and unique pedagogical fact limited, but not rigidly determined by the educational situation, and capable of changing the educational process going beyond the boundaries of its conformism. The formulation above is the result of analysis how the concepts of «event», «situation» and «process» may interact in pedagogical discourse. Practical significance. The results can be used while designing the educational programs and projects, as well as in the development of academic courses of innovative pedagogy. 

  3. 2-Cosemisimplicial objects in a 2-category, permutohedra and deformations of pseudofunctors

    OpenAIRE

    Elgueta, Josep

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we take up again the deformation theory for $K$-linear pseudofunctors initiated in a previous work (Adv. Math. 182 (2004) 204-277). We start by introducing a notion of a 2-cosemisimplicial object in an arbitrary 2-category and analyzing the corresponding coherence question, where the permutohedra make their appearence. We then describe a general method to obtain cochain complexes of K-modules from (enhanced) 2-cosemisimplicial objects in the 2-category ${\\bf Cat}_K$ of small $K$...

  4. Preschool Children Differentiation According to the Lingua- Grammatical Categories Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. V. Polivara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The parallel existence of languages and cultures brings forward the necessity of studying this linguistic phenomenon and designing special methods of speech development for the bilingual children. The particular attention should be given to the preschool age, for according to A. A. Leontyev’s study, the parallel acquiring of two languages often results in insufficient development of socio-linguistic speech standards. The research is devoted to the phenomenon of the two language systems coexistence in a bilingual person’s consciousness, both of them functioning and encoding the same subjects and phenomena. The peculiarities of language interference are described with the reference to the Russian-Tatar bilingual environment. The author believes that the bilingual interference problems are not caused by the phonetic and grammar system differences of the two languages. To find out the potential source of inter-language transition and interrelations between the native and non-native languages, it is necessary to identify the cognitive, neurolinguistic and psycho-linguistic aspects. Therefore, the regional phenomenon of mass bilingualism among the Tatar population is examined by the author in the framework of the psycho-linguistic and cognitive approaches. The paper presents the model of the lexical and grammar categories formation based on differentiated preschool teaching of the bilingual children. The proposed model makes it possible to overcome the limited viewpoint on the general speech dysfunctions, as well as the specifics of lexical and grammar categories development. It can be used for the further development of educational programs in psycho-linguistics, ethno-linguistics, onto-linguistics, cognitive linguistics, social-linguistics, contrastive linguistics and the language theory by means of extending the teaching course content. 

  5. Risk as economic category: systematics scientific approach and refinement contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Vygovskyy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the categorical-conceptual apparatus of risk and its refinement based on a critical analysis of existing systematic scientific approaches. Determined that in the refinement of the economic nature of the risk of a number of controversial issues: the definition of the objective or subjective nature of risk; matching of concepts such as «risk», «danger», «loss», «probability of loss»; definition of negative or positive consequences of risk; identification of risk with its consequences, or source of origin, which makes the relevance of research topics. As a result of scientific research has been refined interpretation of risk as an economic category, the characteristics of the company associated with the probability of unforeseen situations that may lead to negative and positive impacts, assessment of which requires the development of alternatives for management decisions. Clarification of the definition focuses on the possibility (probability of a favorable (unfavorable events which require certain corrective action management unit of the enterprise. The author emphasizes the mandatory features of the category of «risk», in particular: the concept of risk is always associated with the uncertainty of the future; event occurring has implications for the enterprise (both negative and positive; consequences for necessitates the development of a number of alternative solutions to the possible elimination of the negative consequences of risky events; risk – a mandatory attribute of modern management (its value is enhanced in terms of market conditions; subject to risk assessment and management by the company. Dedicated and updated features contribute to the clarification of the nature of the economic risk and categorical conceptual apparatus of risk management.

  6. Prescriptions for category D and X drugs during pregnancy in Taiwan: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Li-Ting; Chen, Yi-Hua; Lin, Herng-Ching; Chung, Shiu-Dong

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the most prescribed medications and principle diagnoses for category D and X drugs during pregnancy using a population-based dataset in Taiwan. The data for the present study were sourced from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000. We selected 14 125 women who had live singleton births between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2011. In total, 217 226 prescriptions prescribed to these pregnant women were identified. Of the total 217 226 prescriptions, 1.1% were category D or X drugs; in the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy, 1.8%, 0.7%, and 0.5% of prescriptions were category D or X drugs, respectively. Progestins (15.3%) and propylthiouracil (10.7%) were the two most frequently prescribed category D or X drugs during pregnancy. In particular, progestins (20.4%) and estrogens (15.6%) were the most frequently prescribed category D or X drug in the first trimester of pregnancy. Propylthiouracil was the most prescribed category D or X drug in the second (20.3%) and third trimesters (23.1%) of pregnancy, respectively. The most common principal diagnosis during pregnancy was "disorders of menstruation and other abnormal bleeding from the female genital tract" (22% of all principal diagnoses for prescribing category D and X drugs). Our study found that the physicians obviously reduced the use of category D and X drugs for women after becoming aware that they were pregnant. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Source mechanism of small long-period events at Mount St. Helens in July 2005 using template matching, phase-weighted stacking, and full-waveform inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoza, Robin S.; Chouet, Bernard A.; Dawson, Phillip B.; Shearer, Peter M.; Haney, Matthew M.; Waite, Gregory P.; Moran, Seth C.; Mikesell, T. Dylan

    2015-01-01

    Long-period (LP, 0.5-5 Hz) seismicity, observed at volcanoes worldwide, is a recognized signature of unrest and eruption. Cyclic LP “drumbeating” was the characteristic seismicity accompanying the sustained dome-building phase of the 2004–2008 eruption of Mount St. Helens (MSH), WA. However, together with the LP drumbeating was a near-continuous, randomly occurring series of tiny LP seismic events (LP “subevents”), which may hold important additional information on the mechanism of seismogenesis at restless volcanoes. We employ template matching, phase-weighted stacking, and full-waveform inversion to image the source mechanism of one multiplet of these LP subevents at MSH in July 2005. The signal-to-noise ratios of the individual events are too low to produce reliable waveform-inversion results, but the events are repetitive and can be stacked. We apply network-based template matching to 8 days of continuous velocity waveform data from 29 June to 7 July 2005 using a master event to detect 822 network triggers. We stack waveforms for 359 high-quality triggers at each station and component, using a combination of linear and phase-weighted stacking to produce clean stacks for use in waveform inversion. The derived source mechanism pointsto the volumetric oscillation (~10 m3) of a subhorizontal crack located at shallow depth (~30 m) in an area to the south of Crater Glacier in the southern portion of the breached MSH crater. A possible excitation mechanism is the sudden condensation of metastable steam from a shallow pressurized hydrothermal system as it encounters cool meteoric water in the outer parts of the edifice, perhaps supplied from snow melt.

  8. Chromatic Perceptual Learning but No Category Effects without Linguistic Input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandison, Alexandra; Sowden, Paul T; Drivonikou, Vicky G; Notman, Leslie A; Alexander, Iona; Davies, Ian R L

    2016-01-01

    Perceptual learning involves an improvement in perceptual judgment with practice, which is often specific to stimulus or task factors. Perceptual learning has been shown on a range of visual tasks but very little research has explored chromatic perceptual learning. Here, we use two low level perceptual threshold tasks and a supra-threshold target detection task to assess chromatic perceptual learning and category effects. Experiment 1 investigates whether chromatic thresholds reduce as a result of training and at what level of analysis learning effects occur. Experiment 2 explores the effect of category training on chromatic thresholds, whether training of this nature is category specific and whether it can induce categorical responding. Experiment 3 investigates the effect of category training on a higher level, lateralized target detection task, previously found to be sensitive to category effects. The findings indicate that performance on a perceptual threshold task improves following training but improvements do not transfer across retinal location or hue. Therefore, chromatic perceptual learning is category specific and can occur at relatively early stages of visual analysis. Additionally, category training does not induce category effects on a low level perceptual threshold task, as indicated by comparable discrimination thresholds at the newly learned hue boundary and adjacent test points. However, category training does induce emerging category effects on a supra-threshold target detection task. Whilst chromatic perceptual learning is possible, learnt category effects appear to be a product of left hemisphere processing, and may require the input of higher level linguistic coding processes in order to manifest.

  9. An introduction to the language of category theory

    CERN Document Server

    Roman, Steven

    2017-01-01

    This textbook provides an introduction to elementary category theory, with the aim of making what can be a confusing and sometimes overwhelming subject more accessible. In writing about this challenging subject, the author has brought to bear all of the experience he has gained in authoring over 30 books in university-level mathematics. The goal of this book is to present the five major ideas of category theory: categories, functors, natural transformations, universality, and adjoints in as friendly and relaxed a manner as possible while at the same time not sacrificing rigor. These topics are developed in a straightforward, step-by-step manner and are accompanied by numerous examples and exercises, most of which are drawn from abstract algebra. The first chapter of the book introduces the definitions of category and functor and discusses diagrams, duality, initial and terminal objects, special types of morphisms, and some special types of categories, particularly comma categories and hom-set categories. Chap...

  10. Sources of Finance for Entrepreneurship Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaban Mladenka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is one of the most important categories that are now associated with small and medium-sized enterprises, employment and the creation of new jobs and new business category. Entrepreneurial behavior in finance implies a readiness to take risk and a taste for independence and self-fulfillment. It can develop in any sector of the economy and in any type of business. Through entrepreneurship strengthen personal resources - not only the material but also the motives of self-realization, freedom, independence, challenge. Large number of small and medium enterprises provide a huge range of products, and the customers or service users increased choice and lower prices. Considering that entrepreneurship represents the futurethis work is aimed to highlight the role the financial sector plays in its development. The authors suggest that the financial sector has very important role for the development of entrepreneurship, pointing to the different possibilities of cheaper funding development of guidelines for small and medium enterprises, but in other hand in some cases financial sector has negativ impact for growing through expensive sources of financing of development.

  11. What drives consumer involvement? The relative impact of product category and product attribute

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; Scholderer, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    , foods, household appliances, alcoholic beverages) and on two involvement dimensions (interest and importance). The results indicate that in three of the four super-categories the predominant source of variation in product involvement were the attributes of the products, not the product category...... they belong to. Only for foods, the traditional conceptualisation of involvement held. The findings suggest that parts of previous research on involvement may have to be re-interpreted and that future research should adopt more complex conceptualisations of involvement. From a managerial point of view...

  12. AN EXTREME ANALOGUE OF ϵ AURIGAE: AN M-GIANT ECLIPSED EVERY 69 YEARS BY A LARGE OPAQUE DISK SURROUNDING A SMALL HOT SOURCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Lund, Michael B.; Conroy, Kyle E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, 6301 Stevenson Center, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Siverd, Robert J. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States); Pepper, Joshua [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, 16 Memorial Drive East, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States); Tang, Sumin [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kafka, Stella [American Association of Variable Star Observers, 49 Bay State Road, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Gaudi, B. Scott; Stevens, Daniel J.; Kochanek, Christopher S. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Beatty, Thomas G. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Shappee, Benjamin J. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2016-05-01

    We present TYC 2505-672-1 as a newly discovered and remarkable eclipsing system comprising an M-type red giant that undergoes a ∼3.45 year long, near-total eclipse (depth of ∼4.5 mag) with a very long period of ∼69.1 years. TYC 2505-672-1 is now the longest-period eclipsing binary system yet discovered, more than twice as long as that of the currently longest-period system, ϵ Aurigae. We show from analysis of the light curve including both our own data and historical data spanning more than 120 years and from modeling of the spectral energy distribution, both before and during eclipse, that the red giant primary is orbited by a moderately hot source ( T {sub eff} ≈ 8000 K) that is itself surrounded by an extended, opaque circumstellar disk. From the measured ratio of luminosities, the radius of the hot companion must be in the range of 0.1–0.5 R {sub ⊙} (depending on the assumed radius of the red giant primary), which is an order of magnitude smaller than that for a main sequence A star and 1–2 orders of magnitude larger than that for a white dwarf. The companion is therefore most likely a “stripped red giant” subdwarf-B type star destined to become a He white dwarf. It is, however, somewhat cooler than most sdB stars, implying a very low mass for this “pre-He-WD” star. The opaque disk surrounding this hot source may be a remnant of the stripping of its former hydrogen envelope. However, it is puzzling how this object became stripped, given that it is at present so distant (orbital semimajor axis of ∼24 au) from the current red giant primary star. Extrapolating from our calculated ephemeris, the next eclipse should begin in early UT 2080 April and end in mid UT 2083 September (eclipse center UT 2081 December 24). In the meantime, radial velocity observations would establish the masses of the components, and high-cadence UV observations could potentially reveal oscillations of the hot companion that would further constrain its evolutionary

  13. A pilot study to image the vascular network of small melanocytic choroidal tumors with speckle noise-free 1050-nm swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT choroidal angiography).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloca, Peter; Gyger, Cyrill; Hasler, Pascal W

    2016-06-01

    To visualize and measure the vascular network of melanocytic choroidal tumors with speckle noise-free swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT choroidal angiography). Melanocytic choroidal tumors from 24 eyes were imaged with 1050-nm optical coherence tomography (Topcon DRI OCT-1 Atlantis). A semi-automated algorithm was developed to remove speckle noise and to extract and measure the volume of the choroidal vessels from the obtained OCT data. In all cases, analysis of the choroidal vessels could be performed with SS-OCT without the need for pupillary dilation. The proposed method allows speckle noise-free, structure-guided visualization and measurement of the larger choroidal vessels in three dimensions. The obtained data suggest that speckle noise-free OCT may be more effective at identifying choroidal structures than traditional OCT methods. The measured volume of the extracted choroidal vessels of Haller's layer and Sattler's layer in the examined tumorous eyes was on average 0.982463955 mm(3) /982463956 μm(3) (range of 0.209764406 mm(3) /209764405.9 μm(3)to 1.78105544 mm(3) /1781055440 μm(3)). Full thickness obstruction of the choroidal vasculature by the tumor was found in 18 cases (72 %). In seven cases (18 %), choroidal vessel architecture did not show pronounced morphological abnormalities (18 %). Speckle noise-free OCT may serve as a new illustrative imaging technology and enhance visualization of the choroidal vessels without the need for dye injection. OCT can be used to identify and evaluate the choroidal vessels of melanocytic choroidal tumors, and may represent a potentially useful tool for imaging and monitoring of choroidal nevi and melanoma.

  14. None of the above: A Bayesian account of the detection of novel categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Daniel J; Kemp, Charles

    2017-10-01

    Every time we encounter a new object, action, or event, there is some chance that we will need to assign it to a novel category. We describe and evaluate a class of probabilistic models that detect when an object belongs to a category that has not previously been encountered. The models incorporate a prior distribution that is influenced by the distribution of previous objects among categories, and we present 2 experiments that demonstrate that people are also sensitive to this distributional information. Two additional experiments confirm that distributional information is combined with similarity when both sources of information are available. We compare our approach to previous models of unsupervised categorization and to several heuristic-based models, and find that a hierarchical Bayesian approach provides the best account of our data. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Practising family history: 'identity' as a category of social practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottero, Wendy

    2015-09-01

    Research on family history argues it performs the task of anchoring a sense of 'self' through tracing ancestral connection and cultural belonging, seeing it as a form of storied 'identity-work'. This paper draws on a small-scale qualitative study to think further on the identity-work of family history. Using practice theory, and a disaggregated notion of 'identity', it explores how the storying of family histories relates to genealogy as a leisure hobby, a form of historical research, and an information-processing activity; and examines the social organization of that narrativity, where various practical engagements render certain kinds of genealogical information more, or less, 'storyable'. Key features of 'identity-work' in family history, such as the construction of genealogy as a personal journey of discovery and identification with particular ancestors, emerge as a consequence of the procedures of family history, organized as a set of practical tasks. The paper explores 'identity-work' as a consequence of people's engagement in specific social practices which provide an internal logic to their actions, with various components of 'identity' emerging as categories of practice shaped within, and for, use. Focusing on 'identity' as something produced when we are engaged in doing other things, the paper examines how the practical organization of 'doing other things' helps produce 'identity' in particular ways. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2015.

  16. Social categories as markers of intrinsic interpersonal obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Marjorie; Chalik, Lisa

    2013-06-01

    Social categorization is an early-developing feature of human social cognition, yet the role that social categories play in children's understanding of and predictions about human behavior has been unclear. In the studies reported here, we tested whether a foundational functional role of social categories is to mark people as intrinsically obligated to one another (e.g., obligated to protect rather than harm). In three studies, children (aged 3-9, N = 124) viewed only within-category harm as violating intrinsic obligations; in contrast, they viewed between-category harm as violating extrinsic obligations defined by explicit rules. These data indicate that children view social categories as marking patterns of intrinsic interpersonal obligations, suggesting that a key function of social categories is to support inferences about how people will relate to members of their own and other groups.

  17. Category mistakes: A barrier to effective environmental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ken J; Jago, Mark

    2017-09-01

    How entities, the things that exist, are defined and categorised affects all aspects of environmental management including technical descriptions, quantitative analyses, participatory processes, planning, and decisions. Consequently, ambiguous definitions and wrongly assigning entities to categories, referred to as category mistakes, are barriers to effective management. Confusion caused by treating the term 'biodiversity' variously as the property of an area, the biota of an area, and a preferred end state (a value) - quite different categories of entities - is one example. To overcome such difficulties, we develop and define four entity categories - elements, processes, properties, and values - and two derived categories - states and systems. We argue that adoption of these categories and definitions will significantly improve environmental communication and analysis, and thus strengthen planning and decision-making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Categorial compositionality: a category theory explanation for the systematicity of human cognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Phillips

    Full Text Available Classical and Connectionist theories of cognitive architecture seek to explain systematicity (i.e., the property of human cognition whereby cognitive capacity comes in groups of related behaviours as a consequence of syntactically and functionally compositional representations, respectively. However, both theories depend on ad hoc assumptions to exclude specific instances of these forms of compositionality (e.g. grammars, networks that do not account for systematicity. By analogy with the Ptolemaic (i.e. geocentric theory of planetary motion, although either theory can be made to be consistent with the data, both nonetheless fail to fully explain it. Category theory, a branch of mathematics, provides an alternative explanation based on the formal concept of adjunction, which relates a pair of structure-preserving maps, called functors. A functor generalizes the notion of a map between representational states to include a map between state transformations (or processes. In a formal sense, systematicity is a necessary consequence of a higher-order theory of cognitive architecture, in contrast to the first-order theories derived from Classicism or Connectionism. Category theory offers a re-conceptualization for cognitive science, analogous to the one that Copernicus provided for astronomy, where representational states are no longer the center of the cognitive universe--replaced by the relationships between the maps that transform them.

  19. Categorial compositionality: a category theory explanation for the systematicity of human cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Steven; Wilson, William H

    2010-07-22

    Classical and Connectionist theories of cognitive architecture seek to explain systematicity (i.e., the property of human cognition whereby cognitive capacity comes in groups of related behaviours) as a consequence of syntactically and functionally compositional representations, respectively. However, both theories depend on ad hoc assumptions to exclude specific instances of these forms of compositionality (e.g. grammars, networks) that do not account for systematicity. By analogy with the Ptolemaic (i.e. geocentric) theory of planetary motion, although either theory can be made to be consistent with the data, both nonetheless fail to fully explain it. Category theory, a branch of mathematics, provides an alternative explanation based on the formal concept of adjunction, which relates a pair of structure-preserving maps, called functors. A functor generalizes the notion of a map between representational states to include a map between state transformations (or processes). In a formal sense, systematicity is a necessary consequence of a higher-order theory of cognitive architecture, in contrast to the first-order theories derived from Classicism or Connectionism. Category theory offers a re-conceptualization for cognitive science, analogous to the one that Copernicus provided for astronomy, where representational states are no longer the center of the cognitive universe--replaced by the relationships between the maps that transform them.

  20. Application of Monte-Carlo method in definition of key categories of most radioactive polluted soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmudov, H.M.; Valibeyova, G.; Jafarov, Y.D.; Musaeva, Sh.Z.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The principle of analysis by Monte Carlo method consists of a choice of random variables of coefficients of an exposition doze capacities of radiation and data on activity within the boundaries of their individual density of frequency distribution upon corresponding sizes of exposition doses capacities. This procedure repeats for many times using computer and results of each round of calculations create universal density of frequency distribution of exposition doses capacities. The analysis using Monte Carlo method can be carried out at the level of radiation polluted soil categories. The analysis by Monte Carlo method is useful for realization of sensitivity analysis of measured capacity amount of an exposition dose in order to define the major factors causing uncertainty in reports. Reception of such conceptions can be valuable for definition of key categories of radiation polluted soil and establishment of priorities to use resources for enhancement of the report. Relative uncertainty of radiation polluted soil categories determined with the help of the analysis by Monte Carlo method in case of their availability can be applied using more significant divergence between average value and a confidential limit in case when borders of a confidential interval are asymmetric. It is important to determine key categories of radiation polluted soil to establish priorities to use reports of resources available for preparation and to prepare possible estimations for the most significant categories of sources. Usage of the notion u ncertainty i n reports also allows to set threshold value for a key category of sources, if it is necessary, for exact reflection of 90 percent uncertainty in reports. According to radiation safety norms level of radiation background exceeding 33 mkR/hour is considered dangerous. By calculated Monte Carlo method much more dangerous sites and sites frequently imposed to disposals and utilization were chosen from analyzed samples of

  1. Application of Monte-Carlo method in definition of key categories of most radioactive polluted soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmudov, H M; Valibeyova, G; Jafarov, Y D; Musaeva, Sh Z [Institute of Radiation Problems, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku (Azerbaijan)

    2006-11-15

    Full text: The principle of analysis by Monte Carlo method consists of a choice of random variables of coefficients of an exposition doze capacities of radiation and data on activity within the boundaries of their individual density of frequency distribution upon corresponding sizes of exposition doses capacities. This procedure repeats for many times using computer and results of each round of calculations create universal density of frequency distribution of exposition doses capacities. The analysis using Monte Carlo method can be carried out at the level of radiation polluted soil categories. The analysis by Monte Carlo method is useful for realization of sensitivity analysis of measured capacity amount of an exposition dose in order to define the major factors causing uncertainty in reports. Reception of such conceptions can be valuable for definition of key categories of radiation polluted soil and establishment of priorities to use resources for enhancement of the report. Relative uncertainty of radiation polluted soil categories determined with the help of the analysis by Monte Carlo method in case of their availability can be applied using more significant divergence between average value and a confidential limit in case when borders of a confidential interval are asymmetric. It is important to determine key categories of radiation polluted soil to establish priorities to use reports of resources available for preparation and to prepare possible estimations for the most significant categories of sources. Usage of the notion {sup u}ncertainty{sup i}n reports also allows to set threshold value for a key category of sources, if it is necessary, for exact reflection of 90 percent uncertainty in reports. According to radiation safety norms level of radiation background exceeding 33 mkR/hour is considered dangerous. By calted Monte Carlo method much more dangerous sites and sites frequently imposed to disposals and utilization were chosen from analyzed samples of

  2. Right away: A late, right-lateralized category effect complements an early, left-lateralized category effect in visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, Merryn D; Becker, Stefanie I

    2017-10-01

    According to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, learned semantic categories can influence early perceptual processes. A central finding in support of this view is the lateralized category effect-namely, the finding that categorically different colors (e.g., blue and green hues) can be discriminated faster than colors within the same color category (e.g., different hues of green), especially when they are presented in the right visual field. Because the right visual field projects to the left hemisphere, this finding has been popularly couched in terms of the left-lateralization of language. However, other studies have reported bilateral category effects, which has led some researchers to question the linguistic origins of the effect. Here we examined the time course of lateralized and bilateral category effects in the classical visual search paradigm by means of eyetracking and RT distribution analyses. Our results show a bilateral category effect in the manual responses, which is combined of an early, left-lateralized category effect and a later, right-lateralized category effect. The newly discovered late, right-lateralized category effect occurred only when observers had difficulty locating the target, indicating a specialization of the right hemisphere to find categorically different targets after an initial error. The finding that early and late stages of visual search show different lateralized category effects can explain a wide range of previously discrepant findings.

  3. Categorical perception of color: evidence from secondary category boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-rasheed AS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abdulrahman Saud Al-rasheed Department of Psychology, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Abstract: Despite a plethora of behavioral research exploring the phenomenon of color categorical perception (CP known as "better discrimination between pair of colors stimuli from different categories and pair of colors stimuli from the same category even when the stimulus differences between the pairs of stimuli are equal", most of the evidence for the CP of color was derived from Roman or top-to-down script readers and very rarely from right-to-left script readers in primary category. To date, no studies of color CP have been conducted on right-to-left script readers in secondary category boundary to support this theory. Three experiments have been conducted: Experiments 1 and 2 established the Arabic blue–purple secondary category boundary, and Experiment 3 tested the CP of color in the blue–purple category boundary. Sixty participants (30 men and 30 women took part in this study. All spoke Arabic as their first language, and all were undergraduate or postgraduate students at King Saud University. Their ages ranged from 18–35 years with a mean age of 21.9 years (SD =5.2. The result indicated that for Experiments 1 and 2, it appeared that the Arabic blue–purple category boundary was approximately 10PB and it is in the same location as for English. For Experiment 3, reaction times in the between-categories condition were significantly faster than those in the within-category condition; this suggested that CP of color was shown in the Arabic's blue–purple secondary category boundary. Keywords: categorical perception, CP of color, categorization, blue–purple category boundary, secondary category boundary

  4. Generic task problem descriptions: Category B, C, and D tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-06-01

    This document contains information relating to Category B, C, and D generic technical activities. The specific information provided for each task includes the reactor type to which the generic issue applies, the NRC division with lead responsibility and a description of the problem to be addressed by the task. Also provided in this document is a listing of Category A generic technical activities and definitions of Priority Categories A, B, C, and D

  5. Nature of Emotion Categories: Comment on Cowen and Keltner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Khan, Zulqarnain; Dy, Jennifer; Brooks, Dana

    2017-12-22

    Cowen and Keltner (2017) published the latest installment in a longstanding debate about whether measures of emotion organize themselves into categories or array themselves more continuously along affective dimensions. We discuss several notable features of the study and suggest future studies should consider asking questions more directly about physical and psychological variation within emotion categories as well as similarities between categories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Category Based Threat Evaluation Model Using Platform Kinematics Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Çöçelli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Command and control (C2 systems direct operators to make accurate decisions in the stressful atmosphere of the battlefield at the earliest. There are powerful tools that fuse various instant piece of information and brings summary of those in front of operators. Threat evaluation is one of the important fusion method that provides these assistance to military people. However, C2 systems could be deprived of valuable data source due to the absence of capable equipment. This situation has a bad unfavorable influence on the quality of tactical picture in front of C2 operators. In this paper, we study on the threat evaluation model that take into account these deficiencies. Our method extracts threat level of various targets mostly from their kinematics in two dimensional space. In the meantime, classification of entities around battlefield is unavailable. Only, category of targets are determined as a result of sensors process, which is the information of whether entities belong to air or surface environment. Hereby, threat evaluation model is consist of three fundamental steps that runs on entities belongs to different environment separately: the extraction of threat assessment cues, threat selection based on Bayesian Inference and the calculation of threat assessment rating. We have evaluated performance of proposed model by simulating a set of synthetic scenarios.

  7. Categories of relations as models of quantum theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Heunen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Categories of relations over a regular category form a family of models of quantum theory. Using regular logic, many properties of relations over sets lift to these models, including the correspondence between Frobenius structures and internal groupoids. Over compact Hausdorff spaces, this lifting gives continuous symmetric encryption. Over a regular Mal'cev category, this correspondence gives a characterization of categories of completely positive maps, enabling the formulation of quantum features. These models are closer to Hilbert spaces than relations over sets in several respects: Heisenberg uncertainty, impossibility of broadcasting, and behavedness of rank one morphisms.

  8. Abrupt category shifts during real-time person perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jonathan B

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies have suggested that real-time person perception relies on continuous competition, in which partially active categories smoothly compete over time. Here, two studies demonstrated the involvement of a different kind of competition. In Study 1, before participants selected the correct sex category for morphed faces, their mouse trajectories often exhibited a continuous attraction toward the incorrect category that increased with sex-category ambiguity, indicating continuous competition. On other trials, however, trajectories initially pursued the incorrect category and then abruptly redirected toward the correct category, suggesting early incorrect category activation that was rapidly reversed later in processing. These abrupt category reversals also increased with ambiguity. In Study 2, participants were presented with faces containing a sex-typical or sex-atypical hair cue, in a context in which the norm was either sex-typical targets (normative context) or sex-atypical targets (counternormative context). Sex-atypical targets induced greater competition in the normative context, but sex-typical targets induced greater competition in the counternormative context. Together, these results demonstrate that categorizing others involves both smooth competition and abrupt category shifts, and that these flexibly adapt to the social context.

  9. On Anaphora and the Binding Principles in Categorial Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, Glyn; Valentín, Oriol

    In type logical categorial grammar the analysis of an expression is a resource-conscious proof. Anaphora represents a particular challenge to this approach in that the antecedent resource is multiplied in the semantics. This duplication, which corresponds logically to the structural rule of contraction, may be treated lexically or syntactically. Furthermore, anaphora is subject to constraints, which Chomsky (1981) formulated as Binding Principles A, B, and C. In this paper we consider English anaphora in categorial grammar including reference to the binding principles. We invoke displacement calculus, modal categorial calculus, categorial calculus with limited contraction, and entertain addition of negation as failure.

  10. On the (un)suitability of semantic categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Since Greenberg’s groundbreaking publication on universals of grammar, typologists have used semantic categories to investigate (constraints on) morphological and syntactic variation in the world’s languages and this tradition has been continued in the WALS project. It is argued here that the emp......Since Greenberg’s groundbreaking publication on universals of grammar, typologists have used semantic categories to investigate (constraints on) morphological and syntactic variation in the world’s languages and this tradition has been continued in the WALS project. It is argued here...... that the employment of semantic categories has some serious drawbacks, however, suggesting that semantic categories, just like formal categories, cannot be equated across languages in morphosyntactic typology. Whereas formal categories are too narrow in that they do not cover all structural variants attested across...... languages, semantic categories can be too wide, including too many structural variants. Furthermore, it appears that in some major typological studies semantic categories have been confused with formal categories. A possible solution is pointed out: typologists first need to make sure that the forms...

  11. MOST SOLD CATEGORIES FOOD SUPPLEMENTS IN BULGARIAN PHARMACIES - RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Elina Petkova1, Kalin Ivanov2, Stanislava Ivanova2*, Stanislav Gueorguiev3, Radiana Staynova3

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate which are the most sold categories food supplements in Bulgarian pharmacies. The survey covers 820 pharmacies across the country. We have found that the leading category of food supplements is “Immune and digestive health” (41.5%). The second place is for the “Bone and joint health” (12.9%). The “Urology” category (consisted mainly by plant extracts) is about 7.9%. Food supplements in the “Urology” category are not only recommended by pharmacists but of...

  12. Mere exposure alters category learning of novel objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R Folstein

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated how mere exposure to complex objects with correlated or uncorrelated object features affects later category learning of new objects not seen during exposure. Correlations among pre-exposed object dimensions influenced later category learning. Unlike other published studies, the collection of pre-exposed objects provided no information regarding the categories to be learned, ruling out unsupervised or incidental category learning during pre-exposure. Instead, results are interpreted with respect to statistical learning mechanisms, providing one of the first demonstrations of how statistical learning can influence visual object learning.

  13. Mere exposure alters category learning of novel objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folstein, Jonathan R; Gauthier, Isabel; Palmeri, Thomas J

    2010-01-01

    We investigated how mere exposure to complex objects with correlated or uncorrelated object features affects later category learning of new objects not seen during exposure. Correlations among pre-exposed object dimensions influenced later category learning. Unlike other published studies, the collection of pre-exposed objects provided no information regarding the categories to be learned, ruling out unsupervised or incidental category learning during pre-exposure. Instead, results are interpreted with respect to statistical learning mechanisms, providing one of the first demonstrations of how statistical learning can influence visual object learning.

  14. Color categories only affect post-perceptual processes when same- and different-category colors are equally discriminable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xun; Witzel, Christoph; Forder, Lewis; Clifford, Alexandra; Franklin, Anna

    2014-04-01

    Prior claims that color categories affect color perception are confounded by inequalities in the color space used to equate same- and different-category colors. Here, we equate same- and different-category colors in the number of just-noticeable differences, and measure event-related potentials (ERPs) to these colors on a visual oddball task to establish if color categories affect perceptual or post-perceptual stages of processing. Category effects were found from 200 ms after color presentation, only in ERP components that reflect post-perceptual processes (e.g., N2, P3). The findings suggest that color categories affect post-perceptual processing, but do not affect the perceptual representation of color.

  15. Application of monte-carlo method in definition of key categories of most radioactive polluted soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmudov, H M; Valibeyova, G; Jafarov, Y D; Musaeva, Sh Z [Institute of Radiation Problems, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku (Azerbaijan); others, and

    2006-10-15

    Full text: The principle of analysis by Monte Carlo method consists of a choice of random variables of coefficients of an exposition doze capasites of radiation and data on activity within the boundaries of their individual density of frequency distribution of exposition doses capacities.The analysis using Monte Carlo method is useful for realization of sensitivity analysis of measured capacity amount of an exposition dose in order to define the major factors causing uncertainly in reports.Reception of such conceptions can be valuable for definition of key categories of radiation polluted soil and establishment of priorities to use resources for enhancement of the report.Relative uncertainly of radiation polluted soil categories determined with the help of the analysis by Monte Carlo method in case of their availability can be applied using more significant divergence between average value and a confidential limit in case when borders of resources available for preparation and to prepare possible estimations for the most significant categories of sources.Usage of the notion {sup u}ncertainty{sup i}n reports also allows to set threshold value for a key category of sources, if it necessary, for exact reflection of 90 per cent uncertainty in reports.According to radiation safety norms level of radiation backgrounds exceeding 33 mkR/hour is considered dangerous.By calculated Monte Carlo method much more dangerous sites and sites frequently imposed to disposals and utilization were chosen from analyzed samples of polluted soil.

  16. Application of monte-carlo method in definition of key categories of most radioactive polluted soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmudov, H.M; Valibeyova, G.; Jafarov, Y.D; Musaeva, Sh.Z

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The principle of analysis by Monte Carlo method consists of a choice of random variables of coefficients of an exposition doze capasites of radiation and data on activity within the boundaries of their individual density of frequency distribution of exposition doses capacities.The analysis using Monte Carlo method is useful for realization of sensitivity analysis of measured capacity amount of an exposition dose in order to define the major factors causing uncertainly in reports.Reception of such conceptions can be valuable for definition of key categories of radiation polluted soil and establishment of priorities to use resources for enhancement of the report.Relative uncertainly of radiation polluted soil categories determined with the help of the analysis by Monte Carlo method in case of their availability can be applied using more significant divergence between average value and a confidential limit in case when borders of resources available for preparation and to prepare possible estimations for the most significant categories of sources.Usage of the notion u ncertainty i n reports also allows to set threshold value for a key category of sources, if it necessary, for exact reflection of 90 per cent uncertainty in reports.According to radiation safety norms level of radiation backgrounds exceeding 33 mkR/hour is considered dangerous.By calculated Monte Carlo method much more dangerous sites and sites frequently imposed to disposals and utilization were chosen from analyzed samples of polluted soil.

  17. Chandra Source Catalog: User Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaventura, Nina; Evans, Ian N.; Rots, Arnold H.; Tibbetts, Michael S.; van Stone, David W.; Zografou, Panagoula; Primini, Francis A.; Glotfelty, Kenny J.; Anderson, Craig S.; Chen, Judy C.; Davis, John E.; Doe, Stephen M.; Evans, Janet D.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Galle, Elizabeth C.; Gibbs, Danny G., II; Grier, John D.; Hain, Roger; Hall, Diane M.; Harbo, Peter N.; He, Helen; Houck, John C.; Karovska, Margarita; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Lauer, Jennifer; McCollough, Michael L.; McDowell, Jonathan C.; Miller, Joseph B.; Mitschang, Arik W.; Morgan, Douglas L.; Mossman, Amy E.; Nichols, Joy S.; Nowak, Michael A.; Plummer, David A.; Refsdal, Brian L.; Siemiginowska, Aneta L.; Sundheim, Beth A.; Winkelman, Sherry L.

    2009-09-01

    The Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is intended to be the definitive catalog of all X-ray sources detected by Chandra. For each source, the CSC provides positions and multi-band fluxes, as well as derived spatial, spectral, and temporal source properties. Full-field and source region data products are also available, including images, photon event lists, light curves, and spectra. The Chandra X-ray Center CSC website (http://cxc.harvard.edu/csc/) is the place to visit for high-level descriptions of each source property and data product included in the catalog, along with other useful information, such as step-by-step catalog tutorials, answers to FAQs, and a thorough summary of the catalog statistical characterization. Eight categories of detailed catalog documents may be accessed from the navigation bar on most of the 50+ CSC pages; these categories are: About the Catalog, Creating the Catalog, Using the Catalog, Catalog Columns, Column Descriptions, Documents, Conferences, and Useful Links. There are also prominent links to CSCview, the CSC data access GUI, and related help documentation, as well as a tutorial for using the new CSC/Google Earth interface. Catalog source properties are presented in seven scientific categories, within two table views: the Master Source and Source Observations tables. Each X-ray source has one ``master source'' entry and one or more ``source observation'' entries, the details of which are documented on the CSC ``Catalog Columns'' pages. The master source properties represent the best estimates of the properties of a source; these are extensively described on the following pages of the website: Position and Position Errors, Source Flags, Source Extent and Errors, Source Fluxes, Source Significance, Spectral Properties, and Source Variability. The eight tutorials (``threads'') available on the website serve as a collective guide for accessing, understanding, and manipulating the source properties and data products provided by the catalog.

  18. THE CATEGORY OF COUNTABILITY IN THE CROATIAN LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Znika

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the category of countability as a category established on the lexical meaning of nouns. The lexical meaning of nouns can be dually structured, in a unit and mass forms, relative to the opposition one ≠ many. The category of countability has its content and expression. The content of the category of countability consists of the feature [± countable], and its marker [+ countable] and [- countable]. A noun is countable if its content can be conceived as a unit opposed to mass (table, apple. A noun is uncoutable if its content cannot be perceived as a unit that could be opposed to mass (water, sugar. The expression of the category of countability depends on its content. In the Croatian language the category of countability has its expression in the grammatical category of number and its grammems: singular and plural. These two grammems are formally, and frequently accentually, distinctive from the majority of nouns. The analysis focuses on the meaning of nouns, while their expression is considered as a possible indicator of semantic relationships the category of countability is based on. The paper analyses pluralia tantum and singularia tantum, and their different status countability-wise. It points out the possibility of semantic recategorization of nouns and thus demonstrates a dynamic quality of the category of countability. It also analyses the process of appelativisation (eponomisation of personal names, and the process of appelative deappelativisation. It shows the relationship between the category of countability and the category of definiteness, when definiteness is expressed by an adjectival aspect.

  19. 40 CFR 407.76 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Canned and Preserved Vegetables Subcategory § 407.76 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new source...

  20. 40 CFR 407.66 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Canned and Preserved Fruits Subcategory § 407.66 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new source...

  1. 48 CFR 52.219-21 - Small Business Size Representation for Targeted Industry Categories Under the Small Business...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... employees for the past 12 months (check this column if size standard stated in solicitation is expressed in terms of number of employees) or Offeror's average annual gross revenue for the last 3 fiscal years (check this column if size standard stated in solicitation is expressed in terms of annual receipts...

  2. Normal and abnormal category-effects in visual object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Are all categories of objects recognized in the same manner visually? Evidence from neuropsychology suggests they are not, as some brain injured patients are more impaired in recognizing natural objects than artefacts while others show the opposite impairment. In an attempt to explain category-sp...

  3. Accounting for a Functional Category: German "Drohen" "to Threaten"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Bernd; Miyashita, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    In many languages there are words that behave like lexical verbs and on the one hand and like functional categories expressing distinctions of tense, aspect, modality, etc. on the other. The grammatical status of such words is frequently controversial; while some authors treat them as belonging to one and the same grammatical category, others…

  4. Can Semi-Supervised Learning Explain Incorrect Beliefs about Categories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalish, Charles W.; Rogers, Timothy T.; Lang, Jonathan; Zhu, Xiaojin

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments with 88 college-aged participants explored how unlabeled experiences--learning episodes in which people encounter objects without information about their category membership--influence beliefs about category structure. Participants performed a simple one-dimensional categorization task in a brief supervised learning phase, then…

  5. Lifting to cluster-tilting objects in higher cluster categories

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Pin

    2008-01-01

    In this note, we consider the $d$-cluster-tilted algebras, the endomorphism algebras of $d$-cluster-tilting objects in $d$-cluster categories. We show that a tilting module over such an algebra lifts to a $d$-cluster-tilting object in this $d$-cluster category.

  6. 29 CFR 4044.11 - Priority category 1 benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... priority category 1 with respect to that participant is the present value of that annuity. ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Priority category 1 benefits. 4044.11 Section 4044.11 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION PLAN TERMINATIONS ALLOCATION OF...

  7. 41 CFR 105-62.101 - Security classification categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... three categories: Namely, Top Secret, Secret, or Confidential, depending on its degree of significance... provided by statute. The three classification categories are defined as follows: (a) Top Secret. Top Secret... with the utmost restraint. (b) Secret. Secret refers to that national security information or material...

  8. Towards the development of a salinity impact category for South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DRINIE

    2003-07-03

    Jul 3, 2003 ... nature from existing categories to warrant a separate salinity impact category. A conceptual method is ... compounds to the environment from all stages of a product's life- cycle are ... Marine. - Terrestrial. • Photo-oxidant formation. • Acidification .... algae. Reduced light input. Oxygen depletion near bottom.

  9. CATEGORY OF CIRCUMVENTION OF THE LAW IN RUSSIAN CIVIL LAW

    OpenAIRE

    Kamyshanskiy V. P.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the concept of "circumvention of the law" with respect to Treaty law. The author finds that the direct loan category "circumvention of the law" in Treaty law can be estimated ambiguously. The specified category which is fragmentary reflected in the active Civil codex indicates a regulatory gap

  10. The size of patent categories: USPTO 1976-2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lafond, F.D.

    2014-01-01

    Categorization is an important phenomenon in science and society, and classification systems reflect the mesoscale organization of knowledge. The Yule-Simon-Naranan model, which assumes exponential growth of the number of categories and exponential growth of individual categories predicts a power

  11. What Does the Right Hemisphere Know about Phoneme Categories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolmetz, Michael; Poeppel, David; Rapp, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    Innate auditory sensitivities and familiarity with the sounds of language give rise to clear influences of phonemic categories on adult perception of speech. With few exceptions, current models endorse highly left-hemisphere-lateralized mechanisms responsible for the influence of phonemic category on speech perception, based primarily on results…

  12. Porcament : category management in de verse varkensvleesketen : AKK eindrapport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Immink, V.M.; Heijden, van der C.H.T.M.

    2004-01-01

    Dit rapport geeft inzichten in de belangrijkste aspecten die een rol spelen bij de introductie van category management in de 'vers-vlees' categorie. Het biedt een overzicht van de leerervaringen en hoe daar in de praktijk mee omgegaan kan worden

  13. 34 CFR 75.264 - Transfers among budget categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transfers among budget categories. 75.264 Section 75.264 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS How Grants Are Made Miscellaneous § 75.264 Transfers among budget categories. A grantee may, notwithstanding any...

  14. 14 CFR 1206.701 - Categories of requesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... are representatives of the news media. NASA shall provide documents to requesters in this category for... scientific institutions; representatives of the news media; and all other requesters. The Act prescribes specific levels of fees for each of these categories: (a) Commercial use requesters. When NASA receives a...

  15. Representation of categories: metaphorical use of the container schema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, I.; Pecher, D.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study we investigated whether the mental representation of the concept categories is represented by the container image schema (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980). In two experiments participants decided whether two pictures were from the same category (animal or vehicle). Pictures were

  16. 14 CFR 61.68 - Category III pilot authorization requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) The addition of another type of aircraft to the applicant's Category III pilot authorization. (2) To... height, as applicable, including use of a radar altimeter; (iii) Recognition of and proper reaction to... an aircraft of the same category and class, and type, as applicable, as the aircraft for which the...

  17. 5 CFR 575.104 - Ineligible categories of employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INCENTIVES Recruitment Incentives § 575.104 Ineligible categories of employees. An agency may not pay a recruitment incentive to an employee in— (a) A position to which an individual is appointed by the President... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ineligible categories of employees. 575...

  18. A review of functional imaging studies on category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    2007-01-01

    such as familiarity and visual complexity. Of the most consistent activations found, none appear to be selective for natural objects or artefacts. The findings reviewed are compatible with theories of category-specificity that assume a widely distributed conceptual system not organized by category....

  19. Lexical categories in African languages: The case of adjectives word ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An endeavor to establish typical lexical categories in individual languages as well as a typology of word-classes yields contradictory conclusions. In this paper we provide evidence to substantiate the existence of an independent and indispensable open category of adjectives in the Bantu language Nyakyusa. An argument ...

  20. Identification and Comprehension of Symbolic Exit Signs for Small Transport-Category Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    for the ISO running man and the narrow arrows, a comprehension score of 38% for the modi - fied running man and wide arrows, and a comprehension score... Diabetic Retinopalhy Study (ETDRS). Sloan font oourtesy of Denis Pelli. This cllart and more available at 1-SEE.org A2 Page 2: ETDRS Chart 1 A3

  1. A Novel Dual Air-Bearing Fixed-χ Diffractometer for Small-Molecule Single-Crystal X-ray Diffraction on Beamline I19 at Diamond Light Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David . R Allan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we describe the development of a novel dual air-bearing fixed-χ diffractometer for beamline I19 at Diamond Light Source. The diffractometer is designed to facilitate the rapid data collections possible with a Dectris Pilatus 2M pixel-array photon-counting detector, while allowing remote operation in conjunction with a robotic sample changer. The sphere-of-confusion is made as small as practicably possible, through the use of air-bearings for both the ω and φ axes. The design and construction of the new instrument is described in detail and an accompanying paper by Johnson et al. (also in this issue will provide a user perspective of its operation.

  2. Violence against adolescents: an analysis based on the categories gender and generation

    OpenAIRE

    Gessner, Rafaela; Fonseca, Rosa Maria Godoy Serpa da; Oliveira, Rebeca Nunes Guedes de

    2014-01-01

    Exploratory and descriptive study based on quantitative and qualitative methods that analyze the phenomenon of violence against adolescents based on gender and generational categories. The data source was reports of violence from the Curitiba Protection Network from 2010 to 2012 and semi-structured interviews with 16 sheltered adolescents. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20.0 and the qualitative data were subjected to content analysis. The adolescents were victims ...

  3. Categorical perception of color: evidence from secondary category boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-rasheed, Abdulrahman Saud

    2015-01-01

    Despite a plethora of behavioral research exploring the phenomenon of color categorical perception (CP) known as “better discrimination between pair of colors stimuli from different categories and pair of colors stimuli from the same category even when the stimulus differences between the pairs of stimuli are equal”, most of the evidence for the CP of color was derived from Roman or top-to-down script readers and very rarely from right-to-left script readers in primary category. To date, no studies of color CP have been conducted on right-to-left script readers in secondary category boundary to support this theory. Three experiments have been conducted: Experiments 1 and 2 established the Arabic blue–purple secondary category boundary, and Experiment 3 tested the CP of color in the blue–purple category boundary. Sixty participants (30 men and 30 women) took part in this study. All spoke Arabic as their first language, and all were undergraduate or postgraduate students at King Saud University. Their ages ranged from 18–35 years with a mean age of 21.9 years (SD =5.2). The result indicated that for Experiments 1 and 2, it appeared that the Arabic blue–purple category boundary was approximately 10PB and it is in the same location as for English. For Experiment 3, reaction times in the between-categories condition were significantly faster than those in the within-category condition; this suggested that CP of color was shown in the Arabic’s blue–purple secondary category boundary. PMID:26648764

  4. Categorization of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonova, M.

    2000-01-01

    Through one-parameter (factor) analysis it is proved a hypothesis that the value of a radiation source (RS) activity of an application correlates with the category (the rank) given to it by the IAEA categorization although it is based on other parameters of the RS applications (practices like devices with radiation sources in industry, science, medicine and agriculture). The principles of the new IAEA categorization, taking into account the potential harm the sources may cause and the necessary regulatory control, are described. (author)

  5. Small Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Pemberton (Steven)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractThe term “Open Data” often goes hand in hand with the term “Big Data”, where large data sets get released allowing for analysis, but the Cinderella of the Open Data ball is Small Data, small amounts of data, nonetheless possibly essential, that are too small to be put in some database or

  6. The Role of Corticostriatal Systems in Speech Category Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Han-Gyol; Maddox, W Todd; Mumford, Jeanette A; Chandrasekaran, Bharath

    2016-04-01

    One of the most difficult category learning problems for humans is learning nonnative speech categories. While feedback-based category training can enhance speech learning, the mechanisms underlying these benefits are unclear. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated neural and computational mechanisms underlying feedback-dependent speech category learning in adults. Positive feedback activated a large corticostriatal network including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, inferior parietal lobule, middle temporal gyrus, caudate, putamen, and the ventral striatum. Successful learning was contingent upon the activity of domain-general category learning systems: the fast-learning reflective system, involving the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex that develops and tests explicit rules based on the feedback content, and the slow-learning reflexive system, involving the putamen in which the stimuli are implicitly associated with category responses based on the reward value in feedback. Computational modeling of response strategies revealed significant use of reflective strategies early in training and greater use of reflexive strategies later in training. Reflexive strategy use was associated with increased activation in the putamen. Our results demonstrate a critical role for the reflexive corticostriatal learning system as a function of response strategy and proficiency during speech category learning. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Categories of fruit and vegetables: Attributes and definitions in Serbian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilparić Branislava M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the results of an empirical investigation performed by E. Rosch and K. Mervis (1975, the prototype structures of the categories FRUIT and VEGETABLES, the two superordinate and neighbouring categories with no clear-cut boundaries between them, are formed by family resemblances. Each category has only two attributes ('(part of a plant' and 'edible' which are common to all its members and yet not sufficient to define the category and separate it from other categories of edible (parts of plants. Through the analysis and comparison of a number of definitions for FRUIT and VEGETABLES (obtained in a questionnaire-based survey from a hundred native speakers of Serbian; taken from Lexicography and Conceptual Analysis by A. Wierzbicka; taken from five general dictionaries of the Serbian language, the author of this paper attempts to determine the group of attributes that could play a key role in differentiating the observed categories and to search for the most appropriate way to define the two categories in Serbian which would hopefully be acceptable to both modern (prototype semantics and practical lexicography.

  8. Vaksvikelva small hydro

    OpenAIRE

    Loe, Daniel Aarset

    2017-01-01

    Norway is in constant need of renewable energy, and hydroelectric power is still the main source. A great future potential can be found in countless small rivers scattered across the country, which could be developed through small hydro projects. In the process of converting mechanical movement - flowing water - into electric energy, about 5% turns into heat. From a power plant with an annual production of 15 GWh, this means energy enough to heat approximately 30 households is lost. In my pro...

  9. Typicality effects in artificial categories: is there a hemisphere difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, L G; Chiarello, C

    1990-07-01

    In category classification tasks, typicality effects are usually found: accuracy and reaction time depend upon distance from a prototype. In this study, subjects learned either verbal or nonverbal dot pattern categories, followed by a lateralized classification task. Comparable typicality effects were found in both reaction time and accuracy across visual fields for both verbal and nonverbal categories. Both hemispheres appeared to use a similarity-to-prototype matching strategy in classification. This indicates that merely having a verbal label does not differentiate classification in the two hemispheres.

  10. Probability based load combinations for design of category I structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, M.; Hwang, H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses a reliability analysis method and a procedure for developing the load combination design criteria for category I structures. For safety evaluation of category I concrete structures under various static and dynamic loads, a probability-based reliability analysis method has been developed. This reliability analysis method is also used as a tool for determining the load factors for design of category I structures. In this paper, the load combinations for design of concrete containments, corresponding to a target limit state probability of 1.0 x 10 -6 in 4 years, are described. A comparison of containments designed using the ASME code and the proposed design criteria is also presented

  11. The Category of Time in English, Russian and French Phraseology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Makleeva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we make an attempt to analyze linguistic and cultural descriptions of phraseological units of English, Russian and French reflecting the category of time. In the study of each language about 200 of phraseological units associated with the category of time were taken, which were divided into 5 groups representing different phraseo-semantic concepts. We have carried out a semantic analysis of the data of phraseological units identified by national-cultural peculiarities of expression of time category. The results can be used in the practice of teaching English, Russian and French as foreign languages, in courses on linguistics, and are also taken into account compiling dictionaries.

  12. Solving the Selective Multi-Category Parallel-Servicing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Range, Troels Martin; Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper

    In this paper we present a new scheduling problem and describe a shortest path based heuristic as well as a dynamic programming based exact optimization algorithm to solve it. The Selective Multi-Category Parallel-Servicing Problem (SMCPSP) arises when a set of jobs has to be scheduled on a server...... (machine) with limited capacity. Each job requests service in a prespecified time window and belongs to a certain category. Jobs may be serviced partially, incurring a penalty; however, only jobs of the same category can be processed simultaneously. One must identify the best subset of jobs to process...

  13. Solving the selective multi-category parallel-servicing problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Range, Troels Martin; Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new scheduling problem and describe a shortest path-based heuristic as well as a dynamic programming-based exact optimization algorithm to solve it. The selective multi-category parallel-servicing problem arises when a set of jobs has to be scheduled on a server (machine......) with limited capacity. Each job requests service in a prespecified time window and belongs to a certain category. Jobs may be serviced partially, incurring a penalty; however, only jobs of the same category can be processed simultaneously. One must identify the best subset of jobs to process in each time...

  14. Client contribution in negotiations on employability – categories revised?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskelinen, L.; Olesen, Søren Peter; Caswell, D.

    2010-01-01

    worker–client talk: how the category unemployed is shaped and ‘translated’ when the client negotiates her situation with the social worker. Two types of category revisions are identified. First, the employability of the client, rather than her unemployment situation, is the issue under negotiation......In this article, we explore how the institutional category ‘unemployed’ is specified in everyday practice when implementing an active employment policy. We illustrate the process of categorisation as an aspect of the in situ positioning and self-representation of the client by examining one social...

  15. Basis for category B designation for K basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    This Supporting Document analyzes the various fissile material configurations in the 105-K East and K West fuel storage basins to determine the proper firefighting category. Firefighting categories are assigned to fissionable material facilities to provide guidance to firefighters in the allowable uses of water and other extinguishing materials to prevent inadvertent rearrangement of fissile materials or addition of neutron moderators which could lead to a criticality. This document concludes the appropriate category is B, which does not impose any restrictions on the use of water for firefighting purposes

  16. 40 CFR 427.35 - Standards of performance for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.35 Standards of performance for new sources. The following standards of...

  17. 40 CFR 427.45 - Standards of performance for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Elastomeric Binder) Subcategory § 427.45 Standards of performance for new sources. The following standards of...

  18. Geospatial Information Categories Mapping in a Cross-lingual Environment: A Case Study of “Surface Water” Categories in Chinese and American Topographic Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Kuai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The need for integrating geospatial information (GI data from various heterogeneous sources has seen increased importance for geographic information system (GIS interoperability. Using domain ontologies to clarify and integrate the semantics of data is considered as a crucial step for successful semantic integration in the GI domain. Nevertheless, mechanisms are still needed to facilitate semantic mapping between GI ontologies described in different natural languages. This research establishes a formal ontology model for cross-lingual geospatial information ontology mapping. By first extracting semantic primitives from a free-text definition of categories in two GI classification standards with different natural languages, an ontology-driven approach is used, and a formal ontology model is established to formally represent these semantic primitives into semantic statements, in which the spatial-related properties and relations are considered as crucial statements for the representation and identification of the semantics of the GI categories. Then, an algorithm is proposed to compare these semantic statements in a cross-lingual environment. We further design a similarity calculation algorithm based on the proposed formal ontology model to distance the semantic similarities and identify the mapping relationships between categories. In particular, we work with two GI classification standards for Chinese and American topographic maps. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of the proposed model for cross-lingual geospatial information ontology mapping.

  19. Small Group Multitasking in Literature Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurain, Bradley

    2007-01-01

    Faced with the challenge of teaching American literature to large, multilevel classes in Vietnam, the writer developed a flexible small group framework called "multitasking". "Multitasking" sets up stable task categories which rotate among small groups from lesson to lesson. This framework enabled students to work cooperatively…

  20. 40 CFR 421.246 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Nickel Subcategory... reclaim leaching belt filter backwash. PSNS for the Secondary Nickel Subcategory Pollutant or pollutant...

  1. 40 CFR 417.166 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid... standard shall be: (1) For normal liquid detergent operations the following values pertain: Pollutant or...

  2. The effect of midazolam on implicit and explicit memory in category exemplar production and category cued recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Jason; Passannante, Anthony; Hirshman, Elliot

    2004-03-01

    Transfer-appropriate processing theory (Roediger, Weldon, & Challis, 1989) proposes that dissociations between performance on explicit and implicit memory tests arise because these tests often rely on different types of information processing (e.g., perceptual processing vs conceptual processing). This perspective predicts that implicit and explicit memory tasks that rely primarily on conceptual processing should show comparable results, not dissociations. Numerous studies have demonstrated such similarities. It is, however, possible that these results arise from explicit memory contamination of performance on implicit memory tasks. To address this issue, an experiment was conducted in which participants were administered the sedative midazolam prior to study. Midazolam is known to create a temporary, but dense, period of anterograde amnesia. The effects of blocking stimulus materials by semantic category at study and generation at study were investigated on category exemplar production and category-cued recall. The results of this study demonstrated a dissociation of the effects of midazolam on category exemplar production and category-cued recall. Specifically, midazolam reduced the effect of blocking stimulus materials in category-cued recall, but not in category exemplar production. The differential effect of midazolam on explicit and implicit memory is at odds with transfer-appropriate processing theory and suggests that theories of memory must distinguish the roles of different types of conceptual processing on implicit and explicit memory tests.

  3. Reconceptualizing 'extremism' and 'moderation': from categories of analysis to categories of practice in the construction of collective identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Nick; Kahani-Hopkins, Vered

    2009-03-01

    Much psychological research employs the categories of extremism and moderation as categories of analysis (e.g. to identify the psychological bases for, and consequences of, holding certain positions). This paper argues these categorizations inevitably reflect one's values and taken-for-granted assumptions about social reality and that their use as analytic categories limits our ability to explore what is really important: social actors' own constructions of social reality. In turn we argue that if we are to focus on this latter, there may be merit in exploring how social actors themselves use the categories of moderation and extremism to construct their own terms of reference. That is we propose to re-conceptualize the categories of moderation and extremism as categories of practice rather than analysis. The utility of this approach is illustrated with qualitative data. We argue that these data illustrate the importance of respecting social actors' own constructions of social reality (rather than imposing our own). Moreover, we argue that categories of moderation and extremism may be employed by social actors in diverse ways to construct different terms of reference and so recruit support for different identity-related projects.

  4. ABOUT THE CORRELATION OF THE CATEGORIES «GUILT», «SHAME» AND «DISGRACE»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Екатерина Валерьевна Юрчак

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Category of "guilt" "shame" and "disgrace" in the theory of law is traditionally considered together because of the commonality of functionality. It is therefore necessary to determine how they relate to each other in the legal field .The purpose of this research provide a comparative description of categories of "guilt", "shame", "disgrace".Scientific and practical significance of the research lies in the fact that comparative studies of this nature help to reach a balance between the studied categories.The author uses an analytical, logical, philosophical and comparative- historical methods .The article analyzes the correlation of categories "guilt", "shame", "disgrace".The author concludes that shame and guilt have a different source of origin, are experienced differently by the individual , but may be tested simultaneously. Tradition shame is the most severe form of atonement , as a devotee must demonstrate publicly shame shame for their actions and apologize to the public.The results of this study provide scientific and practical value , since they can be used in teaching students of legal and philosophical disciplines and practitioners of the judicial and penal systems to achieve the purpose of maximum efficiency of the criminal punishment.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-10-18

  5. COGNITIVE-COMMUNICATIVE PERSONALITY CATEGORY IN THE KAZAKH LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orynay Sagingalievna Zhubaeva

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to reveal the character of anthropocentricity of grammatical categories in their meaning and functioning. Materials and methods. According to the research objectives and goals, the methods used were as follows: the descriptive method, general scientific methods of analysis and synthesis, cognitive analysis, method of experiment, contextual analysis, structural-semantic analysis, transformation technique, comparative analysis. Results. For the first time in the Kazakh linguistics the substantial aspect of grammatical categories is characterized being a result of both conceptualization and categorization processes. Based on generalization and the comparative analysis of nature and forms of the human factor reflection in the Kazakh grammatical categories there has been revealed the national-cultural specific character of grammatical categories. Practical implications. The research materials can be used in theoretical courses onf grammar and linguistics, as well as in the development of special courses on cognitive linguistics, cognitive grammar, etc.

  6. Category 3 threshold quantities for hazard categorization of nonreactor facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandigo, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    This document provides the information necessary to determine Hazard Category 3 threshold quantities for those isotopes of interest not listed in WHC-CM-4-46, Section 4, Table 1.''Threshold Quantities.''

  7. Effects of task and category membership on representation stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Manetta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the within-subject stability of 150 participants who performed both a sorting task and a property-generation task over multiple sessions, focusing on three concrete concept categories (food, animals and bathroom products. We hypothesized that (1 the within-subject stability would be higher in the sorting task than in the property-generation task and (2 the nature of the category would influence both the within-subject stability of the classification groups in the sorting task and the properties generated to define these groups. The results show that the within-subject stability of conceptual representations depends both on the task and on the nature of the category. The stability of the representations was greater in the sorting task than in the property-generation task and in the food category. These results are discussed from a longitudinal perspective.

  8. Remanufacture Systems for Category 1 and 2 Marine Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA maintains a list of remanufacture systems, or “kits”, certified for use with Category 1 and 2 marine diesel engines according to the provisions of 40 CFR Part 1042, Subpart I, and is periodically updated.

  9. 77 FR 20281 - Designation of Product Categories for Federal Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... derived from imported oil and natural gas. When USDA designates by rulemaking a product category (a...: Vehicular Products--re-refined lubricating oils. USDA is requesting that manufacturers of these qualifying...

  10. LexGram - a practical categorial grammar formalism -

    OpenAIRE

    Koenig, Esther

    1995-01-01

    We present the LexGram system, an amalgam of (Lambek) categorial grammar and Head Driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG), and show that the grammar formalism it implements is a well-structured and useful tool for actual grammar development.

  11. Goguen categories a categorical approach to l-fuzzy relations

    CERN Document Server

    Winter, Michael; Mundici, Daniele

    2007-01-01

    Goguen categories extend the relational calculus and its categorical formalization to the fuzzy world. Starting from the fundamental concepts of sets, binary relations and lattices this book introduces several categorical formulations of an abstract theory of relations such as allegories, Dedekind categories and related structures. It is shown that neither theory is sufficiently rich to describe basic operations on fuzzy relations. The book then introduces Goguen categories and provides a comprehensive study of these structures including their representation theory, and the definability of norm-based operations. The power of the theory is demonstrated by a comprehensive example. A certain Goguen category is used to specify and to develop a fuzzy controller. Based on its abstract description as well as certain desirable properties and their formal proofs, a verified controller is derived without compromising the - sometimes - intuitive choice of norm-based operations by fuzzy engineers.

  12. Correlation of Persistence, Initiative and Career Anchors Categories of Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I A Novikova

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of the results of comparative empirical study of persistence, initiative and Career Anchors categories of the students on the basis of the systemic-functional approach.

  13. Online Consumer Reviews: The Moderating Effect of Product Category

    OpenAIRE

    Bjering, Einar; Havro, Lars Jaakko

    2014-01-01

    This paper tests a previously proposed model for assessing consumer generated online reviews effect on sales, the review impact continuum. Product category is found to play an important role as a moderating factor of several properties concerning user generated online reviews - including its impact on sales. The authors introduce a novel method for product category classification using natural language processing (NLP), and by applying this method show that reviews are more influential for su...

  14. Calabi-Yau structures on categories of matrix factorizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shklyarov, Dmytro

    2017-09-01

    Using tools of complex geometry, we construct explicit proper Calabi-Yau structures, that is, non-degenerate cyclic cocycles on differential graded categories of matrix factorizations of regular functions with isolated critical points. The formulas involve the Kapustin-Li trace and its higher corrections. From the physics perspective, our result yields explicit 'off-shell' models for categories of topological D-branes in B-twisted Landau-Ginzburg models.

  15. Tangent mappings and convergent sequences in the lipschitz category

    OpenAIRE

    Hyman, Daniel M.

    2012-01-01

    The standard definition of a derivative in linear spaces is extended to a definition of tangency in the Lipschitz category, without any assumed algebraic structure on the underlying spaces.  Tangency is characterized topologically, that is, solely in terms of continuity, without using any algebraic concepts or other analytical concepts. The mappings in the Lipschitz category are characterized as the class of functions that preserve topologically convergent sequences of finite variation.

  16. Converging modalities ground abstract categories: the case of politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Ana Rita; Garrido, Margarida V; Semin, Gün R

    2013-01-01

    Three studies are reported examining the grounding of abstract concepts across two modalities (visual and auditory) and their symbolic representation. A comparison of the outcomes across these studies reveals that the symbolic representation of political concepts and their visual and auditory modalities is convergent. In other words, the spatial relationships between specific instances of the political categories are highly overlapping across the symbolic, visual and auditory modalities. These findings suggest that abstract categories display redundancy across modal and amodal representations, and are multimodal.

  17. [Study on the types and water pollution driving forces of the typical and medium-small-sized cities in the southern China based on the analysis of water environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Shi-Xing; Wang, La-Chun; Huo, Yu; Chen, Chang-Chun; Teng, Juan

    2009-07-15

    According to the major pollution sources of urban water environment, 10 indexes such as industrial sewage quantity were closen to establish evaluation indexes system about the types and influencing factors of the typical and medium-small-sized cities in the southern China. Case studies of 16 typical and medium-small-sized cities were taken in Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Hubei and Anhui provinces. Combined with SPSS 11.0 cluster analysis results, city types were divided in reference to the values of water resources comprehensive pollution indexes and economical development indexes. The driving forces about city water environment pollution were studied by principal component analysis method. The result indicates that the 16 cities belong to two categories and four sub-categories, which are rich economy as well as light pollution of water environment and poor economy as well as heavy pollution of water environment. The influencing factors of water environment pollution are in sequence of industrial water pollution, agricultural no-point source pollution and urban domestic water pollution. The main factors of water environment pollution influenced I category cities, II as well as IV category cities and III category cities are industrial water pollution, urban domestic pollution and agricultural no-point source pollution respectively.

  18. Small Data

    OpenAIRE

    Pemberton, Steven

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractThe term “Open Data” often goes hand in hand with the term “Big Data”, where large data sets get released allowing for analysis, but the Cinderella of the Open Data ball is Small Data, small amounts of data, nonetheless possibly essential, that are too small to be put in some database or online dataset to be put to use. RDFa is a technology that allows Cinderella to go to the ball.

  19. A Bayesian Model of Category-Specific Emotional Brain Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wager, Tor D.; Kang, Jian; Johnson, Timothy D.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Satpute, Ajay B.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2015-01-01

    Understanding emotion is critical for a science of healthy and disordered brain function, but the neurophysiological basis of emotional experience is still poorly understood. We analyzed human brain activity patterns from 148 studies of emotion categories (2159 total participants) using a novel hierarchical Bayesian model. The model allowed us to classify which of five categories—fear, anger, disgust, sadness, or happiness—is engaged by a study with 66% accuracy (43-86% across categories). Analyses of the activity patterns encoded in the model revealed that each emotion category is associated with unique, prototypical patterns of activity across multiple brain systems including the cortex, thalamus, amygdala, and other structures. The results indicate that emotion categories are not contained within any one region or system, but are represented as configurations across multiple brain networks. The model provides a precise summary of the prototypical patterns for each emotion category, and demonstrates that a sufficient characterization of emotion categories relies on (a) differential patterns of involvement in neocortical systems that differ between humans and other species, and (b) distinctive patterns of cortical-subcortical interactions. Thus, these findings are incompatible with several contemporary theories of emotion, including those that emphasize emotion-dedicated brain systems and those that propose emotion is localized primarily in subcortical activity. They are consistent with componential and constructionist views, which propose that emotions are differentiated by a combination of perceptual, mnemonic, prospective, and motivational elements. Such brain-based models of emotion provide a foundation for new translational and clinical approaches. PMID:25853490

  20. Category learning in the color-word contingency learning paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, James R; Augustinova, Maria; De Houwer, Jan

    2018-04-01

    In the typical color-word contingency learning paradigm, participants respond to the print color of words where each word is presented most often in one color. Learning is indicated by faster and more accurate responses when a word is presented in its usual color, relative to another color. To eliminate the possibility that this effect is driven exclusively by the familiarity of item-specific word-color pairings, we examine whether contingency learning effects can be observed also when colors are related to categories of words rather than to individual words. To this end, the reported experiments used three categories of words (animals, verbs, and professions) that were each predictive of one color. Importantly, each individual word was presented only once, thus eliminating individual color-word contingencies. Nevertheless, for the first time, a category-based contingency effect was observed, with faster and more accurate responses when a category item was presented in the color in which most of the other items of that category were presented. This finding helps to constrain episodic learning models and sets the stage for new research on category-based contingency learning.