WorldWideScience

Sample records for source categories organic

  1. 40 CFR 98.410 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Industrial Greenhouse Gases § 98.410 Definition of the source category. (a) The industrial gas supplier source category consists of any facility that...

  2. 40 CFR 98.110 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Ferroalloy Production § 98.110 Definition of the source category. The ferroalloy production source category consists of any facility that uses pyrometallurgical techniques to produce any of the following metals: ferrochromium, ferromanganese, ferromolybdenum...

  3. 6 Source Categories - Boilers (Proposed Action)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is proposing options to simplify the Clean Air Act permitting process for certain smaller sources of air pollution commonly found in Indian country. This action would ensure that air quality in Indian country is protected.

  4. 40 CFR 98.360 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... this rule. (b) A manure management system (MMS) is a system that stabilizes and/or stores livestock... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Manure Management § 98.360 Definition of the source category. (a) This source category consists of livestock facilities with manure management systems that emit 25...

  5. 40 CFR 98.70 - Definition of source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of source category. 98.70... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Ammonia Manufacturing § 98.70 Definition of source category...-based feedstock produced via steam reforming of a hydrocarbon. (b) Ammonia manufacturing processes in...

  6. 40 CFR 98.40 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of the source category. 98... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Electricity Generation § 98.40 Definition of the source... category does not include portable equipment, emergency equipment, or emergency generators, as defined in...

  7. 40 CFR 98.420 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of the source category. 98.420 Section 98.420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... distribution of CO2. (4) Purification, compression, or processing of CO2. (5) On-site use of CO2 captured on...

  8. Task-Modulated Cortical Representations of Natural Sound Source Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens; Kassuba, Tanja; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard

    2018-01-01

    In everyday sound environments, we recognize sound sources and events by attending to relevant aspects of an acoustic input. Evidence about the cortical mechanisms involved in extracting relevant category information from natural sounds is, however, limited to speech. Here, we used functional MRI...

  9. 40 CFR 98.240 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... makes methanol, hydrogen, and/or ammonia from synthesis gas is part of the petrochemical source category... hydrogen recovered as product and ammonia. The facility is part of subpart P of this part (Hydrogen... levels of both methanol and ammonia. The facility is part of subpart G of this part (Ammonia...

  10. Organizing for Global Sourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Turkulainen, Virpi

    Research on Purchasing Organization is dominated by studies on centralization versus decentralization. While global sourcing relates to the integrated activities of purchasing and other functions in line with the company’s strategic objectives and while it has been put forward that hybrid...

  11. 76 FR 4155 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories: Gasoline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... 63 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories: Gasoline Distribution Bulk Terminals, Bulk Plants, and Pipeline Facilities; and Gasoline Dispensing Facilities; Final...] RIN 2060-AP16 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories: Gasoline...

  12. Preliminary data summary for the hospitals point-source category

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strassler, E.; Hund, F.H.

    1989-09-01

    The summaries were prepared in order to allow EPA to respond to the mandate of Section 304(m) of the Clean Water Act. Summaries for categories already subject to rulemaking were developed for comparison purposes, and contain only the minimum amount of data needed to provide some perspective on the relative magnitude of the pollution problems created across the categories. The document summarizes the most current information available regarding the discharge of wastewater and solid wastes containing priority and hazardous non-priority pollutants by hospitals. The document provides a technical basis for determining whether additional national regulations should be developed pursuant to the Clean Water Act (CWA), and makes available preliminary information regarding the discharge of priority and hazardous non-priority pollutants by the hospital industry

  13. Open source community organization

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Molefe, Onkgopotse M

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Open Source communities (OSCs), sometimes referred to as virtual or online communities play a significant role in terms of the contribution they continue to make in producing user-friendly Open Source Software (OSS) solutions. Many projects have...

  14. Tactics at the category level of purchasing and supply management: sourcing levers, contingencies and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Hesping, Frank

    2015-01-01

    For the ‘front-line’ purchasing agent, it is obvious that not all categories of products and supplier relationships should be managed in the same way. Rather, in a modern category management approach, firms group similar products into ‘sourcing categories’ forming coherent supply markets (e.g., ‘metal sheets’, ‘leather’, ‘displays’, ‘cables’, etc.). Thus, to achieve cost reduction targets, a tailored mix of tactical sourcing levers for each sourcing category may be required. The fundamental q...

  15. The Role of External Sources of Information in Children's Evaluative Food Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Simone P.

    2012-01-01

    Evaluative food categories are value-laden assessments, which reflect the healthfulness and palatability of foods (e.g. healthy/unhealthy, yummy/yucky). In a series of three studies, this research examines how 3- to 4-year-old children (N?=?147) form evaluative food categories based on input from external sources of information. The results…

  16. Tactics at the category level of purchasing and supply management: sourcing levers, contingencies and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesping, Frank

    2015-01-01

    For the ‘front-line’ purchasing agent, it is obvious that not all categories of products and supplier relationships should be managed in the same way. Rather, in a modern category management approach, firms group similar products into ‘sourcing categories’ forming coherent supply markets (e.g.,

  17. CATEGORY MANAGEMENT IN THE MANAGEMENT OF MINIMUM ASSORTMENT OF THE PHARMACEUTICAL ORGANIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    I. F. Samoshchenkova; R. Y. Garankina

    2017-01-01

    The main principle of the category management is the management of product category as a separate business unit. Category management directs the activities of the pharmaceutical organization to meet the consumer requirements and to provide customers with maximum benefits, which are expressed in the improved assortment,the attractive prices, the reduction of cases of lack of necessary goods, the simplifiedpurchase process. In article the structure of the category management and its role inthe ...

  18. Product Category Layout and Organization: Retail Placement of Food Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herpen, van E.

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the placement of food products in retail stores, in particular how the placement of food products can influence how consumers perceive the store in general and these products in particular. It reviews the overall layout of the store, assortment organization, and shelf

  19. 77 FR 11390 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories; Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... Source Categories. Subpart ZZZZZZ--NESHAP: Area Source Standards for Aluminum, Copper, and Other... Perchloroethylene Dry X X X Cleaning. N Hard and Decorative X X X Chromium Electroplating and Chromium Anodizing... Publishing X X X Industry. LL Primary Aluminum Reduction X X Plants. MM Chemical Recovery X X Combustion...

  20. Organizing for External Knowledge Sourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabbiosi, Larissa; Reichstein, Toke

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide an introduction to the special issue. We briefly consider the external knowledge sourcing and organizing for innovation literatures, which offer a background for the special issue, and we highlight their mutual dialogue. We then illustrate the main findings o...

  1. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Xxxxxx... - Description of Source Categories Affected by This Subpart

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... heating units, combination gas-oil burners, oil or gas swimming pool heaters, heating apparatus (except... supplies industry sector of this source category includes establishments primarily engaged in high energy...), coke and gas burning salamanders, liquid or gas solar energy collectors, solar heaters, space heaters...

  2. Current status of securing Category 1 and 2 radioactive sources in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Y-F.; Tsai, C-H. [Atomic Energy Council of Executive Yuan of Taiwan (China)

    2014-07-01

    For enhancing safe and secure management of Category 1 and 2 radioactive sources against theft or unauthorized removal, AEC (Atomic Energy Council) of Taiwan have been regulating the import/export of the sources ever since 2005, in compliance with the IAEA's (International Atomic Energy Agency) 'Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources'. Furthermore in consulting the IAEA Nuclear Security Series No.11 report, administrative regulations on the program of securing the sources have been embodied into AECL's regulatory system since 2012, for the purpose of enforcing medical and non-medical licensees and industrial radiographers to establish their own radioactive source security programs. Regulations require that security functions such as access control, detection, delay, response and communication and security management measures are to be implemented within the programs. This paper is to introduce the current status in implementing the security control measures in Taiwan. (author)

  3. CATEGORY MANAGEMENT IN THE MANAGEMENT OF MINIMUM ASSORTMENT OF THE PHARMACEUTICAL ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. F. Samoshchenkova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main principle of the category management is the management of product category as a separate business unit. Category management directs the activities of the pharmaceutical organization to meet the consumer requirements and to provide customers with maximum benefits, which are expressed in the improved assortment,the attractive prices, the reduction of cases of lack of necessary goods, the simplifiedpurchase process. In article the structure of the category management and its role inthe minimum pharmaceutical assortment, a complex of the theoretical and practical issues affecting interrelation of the list of vital and essential medicines and the minimum range of medicines are considered. A number of the new elements supplementing the concept of category management is offered, and the corresponding generalizations are made. The objective of the research is to study the influence of category management on the structure in management of the minimum assortment of medicines of the pharmaceutical organization. Materials and methods. In the course of the solution of the set tasks, the methods of marketing and economic-mathematical analysis were used. Results and discussion. In the analysis of the assortment list of medicines for medical application, which is obligatory for the pharmaceutical enterprises of all forms of ownership, it was revealed that this assortment list is based on the List of Vital Essential and Necessary (VEN Drugs. The results of the analysis of the obligatory assortment list from the position of internal category management showed that 77.45% are medicines of the list of VEN Drugs; 46.08% are medicines of non-prescription dispensing. Proceeding from this it follows that the worthy, profitable price policy can be conducted only with 22.55% of the list; to develop standards of merchandising with 46.05%. The category management gives an opportunity to the pharmaceutical organization to specify its competitive strategy and to

  4. Practical organization of medical supervision for the various categories of exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strambi, E.

    1975-01-01

    As an introduction to the discussion of the practical problems or organizing medical supervision for the various categories of workers exposed to the hazards of ionizing radiation, the following points were investigated: the kind of activities which should be subject to special medical supervision; the authorization of doctors responsible for this supervision; the extent of medical examination

  5. Safety issues in the handling of radiation sources in category IV gamma radiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohli, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    There is potential for incidents/accidents related to handling of radiation sources. This is increasing due to the fact that more number of plants that too with much larger levels of activity are now coming up. Such facilities produce very high levels of exposure rates during irradiation. A person accidentally present in the irradiation cell can receive a lethal dose within a very short time. Apart from safety requirements during operation and maintenance of these facilities, safety during loading and unloading of sources is important. Category IV type irradiators are the most common. Doubly encapsulated Co-60 slugs are employed to form the source pencils. These irradiators employ a water pool for safely storing the source pencils when irradiation of the products is not going on or when human access is needed into the irradiation cell for some maintenance or source loading/unloading operations. Safety during loading/unloading operations of source pencils is important. In design itself care needs to be taken such that all such operations are convenient and any incident will not lead to a situation where it becomes difficult to come out. Different situations, which can arise during handling of radiation sources and suggested designs to obviate such tight situations, are discussed. (Author)

  6. Action Categories in Lateral Occipitotemporal Cortex Are Organized Along Sociality and Transitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurm, Moritz F; Caramazza, Alfonso; Lingnau, Angelika

    2017-01-18

    How neural specificity for distinct conceptual knowledge categories arises is central for understanding the organization of semantic memory in the human brain. Although there is a large body of research on the neural processing of distinct object categories, the organization of action categories remains largely unknown. In particular, it is unknown whether different action categories follow a specific topographical organization on the cortical surface analogously to the category-specific organization of object knowledge. Here, we tested whether the neural representation of action knowledge is organized in terms of nonsocial versus social and object-unrelated versus object-related actions (sociality and transitivity, respectively, hereafter). We hypothesized a major distinction of sociality and transitivity along dorsal and ventral lateral occipitotemporal cortex (LOTC), respectively. Using fMRI-based multivoxel pattern analysis, we identified neural representations of action information associated with sociality and transitivity in bilateral LOTC. Representational similarity analysis revealed a dissociation between dorsal and ventral LOTC. We found that action representations in dorsal LOTC are segregated along features of sociality, whereas action representations in ventral LOTC are segregated along features of transitivity. In addition, representations of sociality and transitivity features were found more anteriorly in LOTC than representations of specific subtypes of actions, suggesting a posterior-anterior gradient from concrete to abstract action features. These findings elucidate how the neural representations of perceptually and conceptually diverse actions are organized in distinct subsystems in the LOTC. The lateral occipitotemporal cortex (LOTC) is critically involved in the recognition of objects and actions, but our knowledge about the underlying organizing principles is limited. Here, we discovered a dorsal-ventral distinction of actions in LOTC

  7. Anthropogenic Sulfur Dioxide Emissions, 1850-2005: National and Regional Data Set by Source Category, Version 2.86

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Anthropogenic Sulfur Dioxide Emissions, 1850-2005: National and Regional Data Set by Source Category, Version 2.86 provides annual estimates of anthropogenic...

  8. The modality-specific organization of grammatical categories: evidence from impaired spoken and written sentence production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, B; Caramazza, A

    1997-02-01

    We describe the case of a brain-damaged individual whose speech is characterized by difficulty with practically all words except for elements of the closed class vocabulary. In contrast, his written sentence production exhibits a complementary impairment involving the omission of closed class vocabulary items and the relative sparing of nouns. On the basis of these differences we argue: (1) that grammatical categories constitute an organizing parameter of representation and/or processing for each of the independent, modality-specific lexicons, and (2) that these observations contribute to the growing evidence that access to the orthographic and phonological forms of words can occur independently.

  9. Anaerobic biodegradability of Category 2 animal by-products: methane potential and inoculum source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozdniakova, Tatiana A; Costa, José C; Santos, Ricardo J; Alves, M M; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2012-11-01

    Category 2 animal by-products that need to be sterilized with steam pressure according Regulation (EC) 1774/2002 are studied. In this work, 2 sets of experiments were performed in mesophilic conditions: (i) biomethane potential determination testing 0.5%, 2.0% and 5.0% total solids (TS), using sludge from the anaerobic digester of a wastewater treatment plant as inoculum; (ii) biodegradability tests at a constant TS concentration of 2.0% and different inoculum sources (digested sludge from a wastewater treatment plant; granular sludge from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor; leachate from a municipal solid waste landfill; and sludge from the slaughterhouse wastewater treatment anaerobic lagoon) to select the more adapted inoculum to the substrate in study. The higher specific methane production was of 317 mL CH(4)g(-1) VS(substrate) for 2.0% TS. The digested sludge from the wastewater treatment plant led to the lowest lag-phase period and higher methane potential rate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Journey of a Package: Category 1 Source (Co-60) Shipment with Several Border Crossings, Multiple Modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive materials (RAM) are used extensively in a vast array of industries and in an even wider breadth of applications on a truly global basis each and every day. Over the past 50 years, these applications and the quantity (activity) of RAM shipped has grown significantly, with the next 50 years expected to show a continuing trend. The movement of these goods occurs in all regions of the world, and must therefore be conducted in a manner which will not adversely impact people or the environment. Industry and regulators have jointly met this challenge, so much so that RAM shipments are amongst the safest of any product. How has this level of performance been achieved? What is involved in shipping RAM from one corner of the world to another, often via a number of in-transit locations and often utilizing multiple modes of transport in any single shipment? This paper reviews one such journey, of Category 1 Cobalt-60 sources, as they move from point of manufacture through to point of use including the detailed and multi-approval process, the stringent regulatory requirements in place, the extensive communications required throughout, and the practical aspects needed to simply offer such a product for sale and transport. Upon completion, the rationale for such an exemplary safety and security record will be readily apparent. (author)

  11. Labor rights as legal constitutional category – Kosovo in relation to international labor organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamet Vokrri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study paper is the analyzing of the processes that followed the labor relations, its historical development respectively, since its first concrete efforts from the representatives of the workers (unions till the establishment of the International Labor Organization (1919. As it is known the labor law presents one of the fundamental rights of the human being, thus such rights (right to work, freedom of work are constitutional category and protected in whole legal systems of the present time. The efforts to install such positive spirit were not easy. Genuinely is known that bearers of progressive developments in this field (end of XIX century were organized groups of workers (unions, then initiatives from various statesmen and later to be materialized from the governments of present time followed by the addressing and protecting of these rights in international aspect. Practice has proved that creation, purpose and activity of International Labor Organization has provided its benefits in achieving the primary principles of work, such rights proclaimed by the majority of world states and embedded in their highest legal act (Constitution of the organization in question (ILO. We consider that bearers of government politics of Kosovo, responsible sectors of this field respectively, shall regard these rules set and implemented by this international body and at the same time make maximal efforts towards advancing the current legislation in this field as well as to utilize all necessary resources in order to achieve the vital goal which is the adherence in ILO. This would certainly have an impact on minimizing the occurrence of eventual discontent from the organized groups (Unions as well as other classes and naturally the progress and positive effects in this field would be visible and useful for the society.

  12. Semantic Memory Organization in Japanese Patients With Schizophrenia Examined With Category Fluency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chika Sumiyoshi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDisorganization of semantic memory in patients with schizophrenia has been studied by referring to their category fluency performance. Recently, data-mining techniques such as singular value decomposition (SVD analysis have been reported to be effective in elucidating the latent semantic memory structure in patients with schizophrenia. The aim of this study is to investigate semantic memory organization in patients with schizophrenia using a novel method based on data-mining approach.MethodCategory fluency data were collected from 181 patients with schizophrenia and 335 healthy controls at the Department of Psychiatry, Osaka University. The 20 most frequently reported animals were chosen for SVD analysis. In the two-dimensional (2D solution, item vectors (i.e., animal names were plotted in the 2D space of each group. In the six-dimensional (6D solution, inter-item similarities (i.e., cosines were calculated among items. Cosine charts were also created for the six most frequent items to show the similarities to other animal items.ResultsIn the 2D spatial representation, the six most frequent items were grouped in the same clusters (i.e., dog, cat as pet cluster, lion, tiger as wild/carnivorous cluster, and elephant, giraffe as wild/herbivorous cluster for patients and healthy adults. As for 6D spatial cosines, the correlations (Pearson’s r between 17 items commonly generated in the two groups were moderately high. However, cosine charts created for the three pairs from the six most frequent animals (dog–cat, lion–tiger, elephant–giraffe showed that pair-wise similarities between other animals were less salient in patients with schizophrenia.DiscussionSemantic memory organization in patients with schizophrenia, revealed by SVD analysis, did not appear to be seriously impaired in the 2D space representation, maintaining a clustering structure similar to that in healthy controls for common animals. However, the coherence of those

  13. Spectral and temporal cues for perception of material and action categories in impacted sound sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens; McAdams, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments, similarity ratings and categorization performance with recorded impact sounds representing three material categories (wood, metal, glass) being manipulated by three different categories of action (drop, strike, rattle) were examined. Previous research focusing on single impact...... correlated with the pattern of confusion in categorization judgments. Listeners tended to confuse materials with similar spectral centroids, and actions with similar temporal centroids and onset densities. To confirm the influence of these different features, spectral cues were removed by applying...

  14. Liver transplantation from maastricht category 2 non-heart-beating donors: a source to increase the donor pool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, A; Gómez-Gutiérrez, M; Suárez, F; Arnal, F; Fernández-García, A; Aguirrezabalaga, J; García-Buitrón, J; Alvarez, J; Máñez, R

    2004-04-01

    The demand for liver transplantation has increasingly exceeded the supply of cadaver donor organs. Non-heart-beating donors (NHBDs) may be an alternative to increase the cadaver donor pool. The outcome of 20 liver transplants from Maastricht category 2 NHBD was compared with that of 40 liver transplants from heart-beating donors (HBDs). After unsuccessful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), cardiopulmonary support with simultaneous application of chest and abdominal compression (CPS; n = 6) or cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB; n = 14) was used to maintain the donors. At a minimum follow-up of 2 years, actuarial patient and graft survival rates with livers from Maastricht category 2 NHBD were 80% and 55%, respectively. Transplantation of organs from these donors was associated with a significantly higher incidence of primary nonfunction, biliary complications, and more severe initial liver dysfunction compared with organs from HBDs. The graft survival rates was 83% for livers from NHBDs preserved with CPS and 42% in those maintained with CPB.

  15. Food for Thought: Cross-Classification and Category Organization in a Complex Real-World Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Brian H.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    1999-01-01

    Seven studies involving 256 undergraduates examined how people represent, access, and make inferences about the real-world category domain, foods. Results give a detailed picture of the use of cross-classification in a complex domain. (SLD)

  16. 75 FR 67625 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... Equipment Leaks--Control X X Level 2. VV Oil-Water Separators and X X Organic-Water Separators. WW Storage... Air X X Pollutants: Equipment Leaks. I Organic Hazardous Air X X Pollutants: Certain Processes Subject to the Negotiated Regulation for Equipment Leaks. J Polyvinyl Chloride and X X Copolymers Production...

  17. Organizational Categories as Viewing Categories

    OpenAIRE

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores how two Danish rehabilitation organizations textual guidelines for assessment of clients’ personality traits influence the actual evaluation of clients. The analysis will show how staff members produce institutional identities corresponding to organizational categories, which very often have little or no relevance for the clients evaluated. The goal of the article is to demonstrate how the institutional complex that frames the work of the organizations produces the client ...

  18. Top-level categories of constitutively organized material entities--suggestions for a formal top-level ontology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Vogt

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Application oriented ontologies are important for reliably communicating and managing data in databases. Unfortunately, they often differ in the definitions they use and thus do not live up to their potential. This problem can be reduced when using a standardized and ontologically consistent template for the top-level categories from a top-level formal foundational ontology. This would support ontological consistency within application oriented ontologies and compatibility between them. The Basic Formal Ontology (BFO is such a foundational ontology for the biomedical domain that has been developed following the single inheritance policy. It provides the top-level template within the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontologies Foundry. If it wants to live up to its expected role, its three top-level categories of material entity (i.e., 'object', 'fiat object part', 'object aggregate' must be exhaustive, i.e. every concrete material entity must instantiate exactly one of them.By systematically evaluating all possible basic configurations of material building blocks we show that BFO's top-level categories of material entity are not exhaustive. We provide examples from biology and everyday life that demonstrate the necessity for two additional categories: 'fiat object part aggregate' and 'object with fiat object part aggregate'. By distinguishing topological coherence, topological adherence, and metric proximity we furthermore provide a differentiation of clusters and groups as two distinct subcategories for each of the three categories of material entity aggregates, resulting in six additional subcategories of material entity.We suggest extending BFO to incorporate two additional categories of material entity as well as two subcategories for each of the three categories of material entity aggregates. With these additions, BFO would exhaustively cover all top-level types of material entity that application oriented ontologies may use as templates. Our

  19. Methodologies for estimating air emissions from three non-traditional source categories: Oil spills, petroleum vessel loading and unloading, and cooling towers. Final report, October 1991-March 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, W.; Sleva, S.; Dufner, K.; Snow, S.; Kersteter, S.L.

    1993-04-01

    The report discusses part of EPA's program to identify and characterize emissions sources not currently accounted for by either the existing Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) or State Implementation Plan (SIP) area source methodologies and to develop appropriate emissions estimation methodologies and emission factors for a group of these source categories. Based on the results of the identification and characterization portions of this research, three source categories were selected for methodology and emission factor development: oil spills, petroleum vessel loading and unloading, and cooling towers. The report describes the category selection process and presents emissions estimation methodologies and emission factor data for the selected source categories. The discussions for each category include general background information, emissions generation activities, pollutants emitted, sources of activity and pollutant data, emissions estimation methodologies and data issues. The information used in these discussions was derived from various sources including available literature, industrial and trade association publications and contracts, experts on the category and activity, and knowledgeable federal and state personnel

  20. [Sources of leader's confidence in organizations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Hiroshi; Furukawa, Hisataka

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the sources of confidence that organization leaders had. As potential sources of the confidence, we focused on fulfillment of expectations made by self and others, reflection on good as well as bad job experiences, and awareness of job experiences in terms of commonality, differentiation, and multiple viewpoints. A questionnaire was administered to 170 managers of Japanese companies. Results were as follows: First, confidence in leaders was more strongly related to fulfillment of expectations made by self and others than reflection on and awareness of job experiences. Second, the confidence was weakly related to internal processing of job experiences, in the form of commonality awareness and reflection on good job experiences. And finally, years of managerial experiences had almost no relation to the confidence. These findings suggested that confidence in leaders was directly acquired from fulfillment of expectations made by self and others, rather than indirectly through internal processing of job experiences. Implications of the findings for leadership training were also discussed.

  1. The organization of working hours of selected employee categories in Czech businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbancová Hana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current dynamic working environment, the adaptation of working hours is an important instrument for supporting the work and performance of all groups of employees. It also serves as an instrument that encourages their identification with the company. The aim of this article is to identify and evaluate the utilization of individual methods of work organization among selected groups of employees in Czech companies across the gamut of the business sector. The analysed data comes from a quantitative questionnairebased survey (n=315. The results show that in the Czech companies, flexitime is most frequent among regular employees (51.7% and graduates up to 30 years old (24.1%. A reduced work schedule is most frequently used by mothers with children and senior citizens (41.3%, 27% and as part-time work among students (41%. The use of flexible working hours is an instrument of diversity management and builds the company brand through enlisting the cooperation of different groups of employees.

  2. Life Cycle Assessment of pretreatment technologies for anaerobic digestion of source-separated organic household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    The environmental performance of two pretreatment technologies for source-separated organic waste was compared using life cycle assessment (LCA). An innovative pulping process where source-separated organic waste is pulped with cold water forming a volatile solid rich biopulp was compared to a more...... including a number of non-toxic and toxic impact categories were assessed. No big difference in the overall performance of the two technologies was observed. The difference for the separate life cycle steps was, however, more pronounced. More efficient material transfer in the scenario with waste pulping...

  3. Grower Communication Networks: Information Sources for Organic Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Chelsi; Grossman, Julie; Warren, Sarah T.; Cubbage, Fred

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a study to determine which information sources organic growers use to inform farming practices by conducting in-depth semi-structured interviews with 23 organic farmers across 17 North Carolina counties. Effective information sources included: networking, agricultural organizations, universities, conferences, Extension, Web…

  4. Non-microbial sources of microbial volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyunok; Schmidbauer, Norbert; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf

    2016-07-01

    The question regarding the true sources of the purported microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) remains unanswered. To identify microbial, as well as non-microbial sources of 28 compounds, which are commonly accepted as microbial VOCs (i.e. primary outcome of interest is Σ 28 VOCs). In a cross-sectional investigation of 390 homes, six building inspectors assessed water/mold damage, took air and dust samples, and measured environmental conditions (i.e., absolute humidity (AH, g/m(3)), temperature (°C), ventilation rate (ACH)). The air sample was analyzed for volatile organic compounds (μg/m(3)) and; dust samples were analyzed for total viable fungal concentration (CFU/g) and six phthalates (mg/g dust). Four benchmark variables of the underlying sources were defined as highest quartile categories of: 1) the total concentration of 17 propylene glycol and propylene glycol ethers (Σ17 PGEs) in the air sample; 2) 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol monoisobutyrate (TMPD-MIB) in the air sample; 3) semi-quantitative mold index; and 4) total fungal load (CFU/g). Within severely damp homes, co-occurrence of the highest quartile concentration of either Σ17 PGEs or TMPD-MIB were respectively associated with a significantly higher median concentration of Σ 28 VOCs (8.05 and 13.38μg/m(3), respectively) compared to the reference homes (4.30 and 4.86μg/m(3), respectively, both Ps ≤0.002). Furthermore, the homes within the highest quartile range for Σ fungal load as well as AH were associated with a significantly increased median Σ 28 VOCs compared to the reference group (8.74 vs. 4.32μg/m(3), P=0.001). Within the final model of multiple indoor sources on Σ 28 VOCs, one natural log-unit increase in summed concentration of Σ17 PGEs, plus TMPD-MIB (Σ 17 PGEs + TMPD-MIB) was associated with 1.8-times (95% CI, 1.3-2.5), greater likelihood of having a highest quartile of Σ 28 VOCs, after adjusting for absolute humidity, history of repainting at least one room

  5. Influence of Organic and Inorganic Sources of Fertilizer on Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of Organic and Inorganic Sources of Fertilizer on Growth and Leaf Yield of Kale ... Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology ... fertilizer gave leaf yields comparable to those applied with exclusively inorganic sources of fertilizer.

  6. Contested Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drawing on social science perspectives, Contested Categories presents a series of empirical studies that engage with the often shifting and day-to-day realities of life sciences categories. In doing so, it shows how such categories remain contested and dynamic, and that the boundaries they create...

  7. Epicurean Meteorology: Sources, method, scope and organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, F.A.

    2016-01-01

    In Epicurean Meteorology Frederik Bakker discusses the meteorology as laid out by Epicurus (341-270 BCE) and Lucretius (1st century BCE). Although in scope and organization their ideas are clearly rooted in the Peripatetic tradition, their meteorology sets itself apart from this tradition by its

  8. Organic richness and organic matter quality studies of source rocks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hydrocarbon potential of the Upper Cretaceous units (Maastrichtian Mamu Formation) exposed at Imiegba and environs of the Benin Flank, Western Anambra Basin was assessed by Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and Rock-Eval Pyrolysis Analyses. The investigated sections of the Mamu Formation consist of dark grey to ...

  9. Secondary organic aerosol formation from fossil fuel sources contribute majority of summertime organic mass at Bakersfield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secondary organic aerosols (SOA), known to form in the atmosphere from oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by anthropogenic and biogenic sources, are a poorly understood but substantial component of atmospheric particles. In this study, we examined the chemic...

  10. Effects of organic nitrogen and carbon sources on mycelial growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... mycelial growth and polysaccharides production and their optimization in the ... Soybean meal was selected as the optimal organic nitrogen source for its significant ..... economy and high yield in industrial production. There-.

  11. Organ donation after controlled cardiac death under Maastricht category iii: Ethical implications and end of life care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Méndez, M Isabel; López-Rodríguez, Luís

    2017-12-11

    The decrease in potential donation after brain death has resulted in a need to evaluate alternative sources. Donation after cardiac death is a good option. The objectives of this article are to describe the Maastricht type iii controlled organ donation characteristics and to determine end-of-life care and the role of nurses in the donation process. In this type of donation, cardiocirculatory arrest is predictable after the limitation of life sustaining treatments. These are patients for whom there are no effective therapy options and, in the context of an organised and planned practice involving all the professionals involved in the care of the patient, the decision is made, in consultation with the family, to withdraw life support measures. This limitation of life sustaining treatments is never carried out with the aim of making a Maastricht iii donation, but to avoid prolonging the dying process through useless and possibly degrading interventions. The obligation of the health team is to provide a dignified death and this not only includes the absence of pain, but the patient and their family must be guaranteed a feeling of calmness and serenity. Once the decision has been taken to withhold or withdraw measures, the nurse has an important role in the implementation of a palliative care plan in where physicians, nurses and patients/families should be involved and whose focus should be on patients' dignity and comfort, considering their physical, psychological and spiritual needs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Organics in environmental ices: sources, chemistry, and impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. McNeill

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The physical, chemical, and biological processes involving organics in ice in the environment impact a number of atmospheric and biogeochemical cycles. Organic material in snow or ice may be biological in origin, deposited from aerosols or atmospheric gases, or formed chemically in situ. In this manuscript, we review the current state of knowledge regarding the sources, properties, and chemistry of organic materials in environmental ices. Several outstanding questions remain to be resolved and fundamental data gathered before an accurate model of transformations and transport of organic species in the cryosphere will be possible. For example, more information is needed regarding the quantitative impacts of chemical and biological processes, ice morphology, and snow formation on the fate of organic material in cold regions. Interdisciplinary work at the interfaces of chemistry, physics and biology is needed in order to fully characterize the nature and evolution of organics in the cryosphere and predict the effects of climate change on the Earth's carbon cycle.

  13. Exploring sources of biogenic secondary organic aerosol compounds using chemical analysis and the FLEXPART model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Martinsson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Molecular tracers in secondary organic aerosols (SOAs can provide information on origin of SOA, as well as regional scale processes involved in their formation. In this study 9 carboxylic acids, 11 organosulfates (OSs and 2 nitrooxy organosulfates (NOSs were determined in daily aerosol particle filter samples from Vavihill measurement station in southern Sweden during June and July 2012. Several of the observed compounds are photo-oxidation products from biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs. Highest average mass concentrations were observed for carboxylic acids derived from fatty acids and monoterpenes (12. 3 ± 15. 6 and 13. 8 ± 11. 6 ng m−3, respectively. The FLEXPART model was used to link nine specific surface types to single measured compounds. It was found that the surface category sea and ocean was dominating the air mass exposure (56 % but contributed to low mass concentration of observed chemical compounds. A principal component (PC analysis identified four components, where the one with highest explanatory power (49 % displayed clear impact of coniferous forest on measured mass concentration of a majority of the compounds. The three remaining PCs were more difficult to interpret, although azelaic, suberic, and pimelic acid were closely related to each other but not to any clear surface category. Hence, future studies should aim to deduce the biogenic sources and surface category of these compounds. This study bridges micro-level chemical speciation to air mass surface exposure at the macro level.

  14. Focused attention, open monitoring and automatic self-transcending: Categories to organize meditations from Vedic, Buddhist and Chinese traditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Fred; Shear, Jonathan

    2010-12-01

    This paper proposes a third meditation-category--automatic self-transcending--to extend the dichotomy of focused attention and open monitoring proposed by Lutz. Automatic self-transcending includes techniques designed to transcend their own activity. This contrasts with focused attention, which keeps attention focused on an object; and open monitoring, which keeps attention involved in the monitoring process. Each category was assigned EEG bands, based on reported brain patterns during mental tasks, and meditations were categorized based on their reported EEG. Focused attention, characterized by beta/gamma activity, included meditations from Tibetan Buddhist, Buddhist, and Chinese traditions. Open monitoring, characterized by theta activity, included meditations from Buddhist, Chinese, and Vedic traditions. Automatic self-transcending, characterized by alpha1 activity, included meditations from Vedic and Chinese traditions. Between categories, the included meditations differed in focus, subject/object relation, and procedures. These findings shed light on the common mistake of averaging meditations together to determine mechanisms or clinical effects. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Development document for the effluent limitations and guidelines for the ore mining and dressing point source category. Volume I. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarrett, B.M.; Kirby, R.G.

    1978-07-01

    To establish effluent limitation guidelines and standards of performance, the ore mining and dressing industry was divided into 41 separate categories and subcategories for which separate limitations were recommended. This report deals with the entire metal-ore mining and dressing industry and examines the industry by ten major categories: iron ore; copper ore; lead and zinc ores; gold ore; silver ore; bauxite ore; ferroalloy-metal ores; mercury ores; uranium, radium and vanadium ores; and metal ores, not elsewhere classified ((ores of antimony, beryllium, pltinum, rare earths, tin, titanium, and zirconium). The subcategorization of the ore categories is based primarily upon ore mineralogy and processing or extraction methods employed; however, other factors (such as size, climate or location, and method of mining) are used in some instances. With the best available technology economically achievable, facilities in 21 of the 41 subcategories can be operated with no discharge of process wastewater to navigable waters. No discharge of process wastewater is also achievable as a new source performance standard for facilities in 21 of the 41 subcategories

  16. Sources, Ages, and Alteration of Organic Matter in Estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuel, Elizabeth A; Hardison, Amber K

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the processes influencing the sources and fate of organic matter (OM) in estuaries is important for quantifying the contributions of carbon from land and rivers to the global carbon budget of the coastal ocean. Estuaries are sites of high OM production and processing, and understanding biogeochemical processes within these regions is key to quantifying organic carbon (Corg) budgets at the land-ocean margin. These regions provide vital ecological services, including nutrient filtration and protection from floods and storm surge, and provide habitat and nursery areas for numerous commercially important species. Human activities have modified estuarine systems over time, resulting in changes in the production, respiration, burial, and export of Corg. Corg in estuaries is derived from aquatic, terrigenous, and anthropogenic sources, with each source exhibiting a spectrum of ages and lability. The complex source and age characteristics of Corg in estuaries complicate our ability to trace OM along the river-estuary-coastal ocean continuum. This review focuses on the application of organic biomarkers and compound-specific isotope analyses to estuarine environments and on how these tools have enhanced our ability to discern natural sources of OM, trace their incorporation into food webs, and enhance understanding of the fate of Corg within estuaries and their adjacent waters.

  17. Set organic pollution as an impact category to achieve more comprehensive evaluation of life cycle assessment in wastewater-related issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinyue; Yang, Jixian; Ma, Fang

    2018-02-01

    For wastewater-related issues (WRI), life cycle assessment (LCA) is often used to evaluate environmental impacts and derive optimization strategies. To promote the application of LCA for WRI, it is critical to incorporate local impact of water pollutants. Organic pollution, a main type of water pollution, has not been given much consideration in current LCA systems. This paper investigates the necessity of setting a regionalized impact category to reflect the local impact of organic pollution. A case study is conducted concerning an upgraded wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in China, which is assumed to meet different sewage control strategies. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) is selected to represent the organic pollution and treated as an individual impact category. CML 2002 is used to quantify the environmental impacts of different strategies. Results show that abnormal LCA results are generated with the traditional eutrophication impact category, and after the introduction of COD, more reasonable LCA results are obtained, making the entire comparison of different control strategies more meaningful and compelling. Moreover, BEES, Ecovalue 08, and Chinese factors are adopted here as different weighting methods. Different weighting results exhibited various trade-offs for the increasingly strict control strategies; the results of BEES and Ecovalue08 underlined the potential environmental burden, but the results of Chinese factors only emphasized the local environmental improvement. It is concluded that setting regionalized impact category for organic pollution can make LCA results more reasonable in wastewater treatment, especially in evaluating Chinese cases because of the serious water pollution caused by large quantities of COD emission.

  18. Energy sources, self-organization, and the origin of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiteau, Laurent; Pascal, Robert

    2011-02-01

    The emergence and early developments of life are considered from the point of view that contingent events that inevitably marked evolution were accompanied by deterministic driving forces governing the selection between different alternatives. Accordingly, potential energy sources are considered for their propensity to induce self-organization within the scope of the chemical approach to the origin of life. Requirements in terms of quality of energy locate thermal or photochemical activation in the atmosphere as highly likely processes for the formation of activated low-molecular weight organic compounds prone to induce biomolecular self-organization through their ability to deliver quanta of energy matching the needs of early biochemical pathways or the reproduction of self-replicating entities. These lines of reasoning suggest the existence of a direct connection between the free energy content of intermediates of early pathways and the quanta of energy delivered by available sources of energy.

  19. Attribution of aerosol radiative forcing over India during the winter monsoon to emissions from source categories and geographical regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S.; Venkataraman, C.; Boucher, O.

    2011-08-01

    We examine the aerosol radiative effects due to aerosols emitted from different emission sectors (anthropogenic and natural) and originating from different geographical regions within and outside India during the northeast (NE) Indian winter monsoon (January-March). These studies are carried out through aerosol transport simulations in the general circulation (GCM) model of the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (LMD). The model estimates of aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA) show lower values (0.86-0.92) over the region north to 10°N comprising of the Indian subcontinent, Bay of Bengal, and parts of the Arabian Sea compared to the region south to 10°N where the estimated SSA values lie in the range 0.94-0.98. The model estimated SSA is consistent with the SSA values inferred through measurements on various platforms. Aerosols of anthropogenic origin reduce the incoming solar radiation at the surface by a factor of 10-20 times the reduction due to natural aerosols. At the top-of-atmosphere (TOA), aerosols from biofuel use cause positive forcing compared to the negative forcing from fossil fuel and natural sources in correspondence with the distribution of SSA which is estimated to be the lowest (0.7-0.78) from biofuel combustion emissions. Aerosols originating from India and Africa-west Asia lead to the reduction in surface radiation (-3 to -8 W m -2) by 40-60% of the total reduction in surface radiation due to all aerosols over the Indian subcontinent and adjoining ocean. Aerosols originating from India and Africa-west Asia also lead to positive radiative effects at TOA over the Arabian Sea, central India (CNI), with the highest positive radiative effects over the Bay of Bengal and cause either negative or positive effects over the Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP).

  20. Volatile Organic Compounds: Characteristics, distribution and sources in urban schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Nitika; Bartsch, Jennifer; Ayoko, Godwin A.; Salthammer, Tunga; Morawska, Lidia

    2015-04-01

    Long term exposure to organic pollutants, both inside and outside school buildings may affect children's health and influence their learning performance. Since children spend significant amount of time in school, air quality, especially in classrooms plays a key role in determining the health risks associated with exposure at schools. Within this context, the present study investigated the ambient concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in 25 primary schools in Brisbane with the aim to quantify the indoor and outdoor VOCs concentrations, identify VOCs sources and their contribution, and based on these; propose mitigation measures to reduce VOCs exposure in schools. One of the most important findings is the occurrence of indoor sources, indicated by the I/O ratio >1 in 19 schools. Principal Component Analysis with Varimax rotation was used to identify common sources of VOCs and source contribution was calculated using an Absolute Principal Component Scores technique. The result showed that outdoor 47% of VOCs were contributed by petrol vehicle exhaust but the overall cleaning products had the highest contribution of 41% indoors followed by air fresheners and art and craft activities. These findings point to the need for a range of basic precautions during the selection, use and storage of cleaning products and materials to reduce the risk from these sources.

  1. Source apportionment of fine organic aerosols in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Guo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Fine particles (PM2.5, i.e., particles with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤2.5 μm were collected from the air in August 2005, August–September 2006, and January–February 2007, in Beijing, China. The chemical compositions of particulate organic matter in the ambient samples were quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The dominant compounds identified in summertime were n-alkanoic acids, followed by dicarboxylic acids and sugars, while sugars became the most abundant species in winter, followed by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, n-alkanes, and n-alkanoic acids. The contributions of seven emission sources (i.e., gasoline/diesel vehicles, coal burning, wood/straw burning, cooking, and vegetative detritus to particulate organic matter in PM2.5 were estimated using a chemical mass balance receptor model. The model results present the seasonal trends of source contributions to organic aerosols. Biomass burning (straw and wood had the highest contribution in winter, followed by coal burning, vehicle exhaust, and cooking. The contribution of cooking was the highest in summer, followed by vehicle exhaust and biomass burning, while coal smoke showed only a minor contribution to ambient organic carbon.

  2. Consumer Product Category Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use information is compiled from multiple sources while product information is gathered from publicly available Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS). EPA researchers are evaluating the possibility of expanding the database with additional product and use information.

  3. Organizational Categories as Viewing Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna

    very often have little or no relevance for the clients evaluated. The goal of the article is to demonstrate how the institutional complex that frames the work of the organizations produces the client types pertaining to that organization. By applying the analytical strategy of institutional ethnography...... I elucidate how the two rehabilitation organizations local history, legislation, structural features of the present labour market and of social work result in a number of contradictions which make it difficult to deliver client-centred care. This exact goal is according to the staff one of the most...... important goals for `good' social work....

  4. Sources of Nitrogen for Winter Wheat in Organic Cropping Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Schjønning, Per; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2013-01-01

    mineralizable N (PMN), microbial biomass N (MBN)] were monitored during two growth periods; at one site, biomass C/N ratios were also determined. Soil for labile N analysis was shielded from N inputs during spring application to isolate cumulated system effects. Potentially mineralizable N and MBN were...... explained 76 and 82% of the variation in grain N yields in organic cropping systems in 2007 and 2008, showing significant effects of, respectively, topsoil N, depth of A horizon, cumulated inputs of N, and N applied to winter wheat in manure. Thus, soil properties and past and current management all......In organic cropping systems, legumes, cover crops (CC), residue incorporation, and manure application are used to maintain soil fertility, but the contributions of these management practices to soil nitrogen (N) supply remain obscure. We examined potential sources of N for winter wheat (Triticum...

  5. A large source of low-volatility secondary organic aerosol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehn, Mikael; Thornton, Joel A.; Kleist, Einhard

    2014-01-01

    radiation and by acting as cloud condensation nuclei. The quantitative assessment of such climate effects remains hampered by a number of factors, including an incomplete understanding of how biogenic VOCs contribute to the formation of atmospheric secondary organic aerosol. The growth of newly formed...... particles from sizes of less than three nanometres up to the sizes of cloud condensation nuclei (about one hundred nanometres) in many continental ecosystems requires abundant, essentially non-volatile organic vapours, but the sources and compositions of such vapours remain unknown. Here we investigate...... the oxidation of VOCs, in particular the terpene α-pinene, under atmospherically relevant conditions in chamber experiments. We find that a direct pathway leads from several biogenic VOCs, such as monoterpenes, to the formation of large amounts of extremely low-volatility vapours. These vapours form...

  6. Identification and characterization of five non-traditional-source categories: Catastrophic/accidental releases, vehicle repair facilities, recycling, pesticide application, and agricultural operations. Final report, September 1991-September 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sleva, S.; Pendola, J.A.; McCutcheon, J.; Jones, K.; Kersteter, S.L.

    1993-03-01

    The work is part of EPA's program to identify and characterize emissions sources not currently accounted for by either the existing Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) or State Implementation Plans (SIP) area source methodologies and to develop appropriate emissions estimation methodologies and emission factors for a group of these source categories. Based on the results of the identification and characterization portions of the research, five source categories were selected for methodology and emission factor development: catastrophic/accidental releases, vehicle repair facilities, recycling, pesticide application and agricultural operations. The report presents emissions estimation methodologies and emission factor data for the selected source categories. The discussions for each selected category include general background information, emissions generation activities, pollutants emitted, sources of activity and pollutant data, emissions estimation methodologies, issues to be considered and recommendations. The information used in these discussions was derived from various sources including available literature, industrial and trade association publications and contracts, experts on the category and activity, and knowledgeable federal and state personnel

  7. Organic composition and source apportionment of fine aerosol at Monterrey, Mexico, based on organic markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Mancilla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary emissions from anthropogenic and biogenic sources as well as secondary formation are responsible for the pollution levels of ambient air in major urban areas. These sources release fine particles into the air that negatively impact human health and the environment. Organic molecular markers, which are compounds that are unique to specific PM2.5 sources, can be utilized to identify the major emission sources in urban areas. In this study, 43 representative PM2.5 samples, for both daytime and nighttime periods, were built from individual samples collected in an urban site of the Monterrey metropolitan area (MMA during the spring and fall of 2011 and 2012. The samples were analyzed for organic carbon, elemental carbon, and organic molecular markers. Several diagnostic tools were employed for the preliminary identification of emission sources. Organic compounds for eight compound classes were quantified. The n-alkanoic acids were the most abundant, followed by n-alkanes, wood smoke markers, and levoglucosan/alkenoic acids. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and hopanes were less abundant. The carbon preference index (0.7–2.6 for n-alkanes indicates a major contribution of anthropogenic and mixed sources during the fall and the spring, respectively. Hopanes levels confirmed the contribution from gasoline and diesel engines. In addition, the contribution of gasoline and diesel vehicle exhaust was confirmed and identified by the PAH concentrations in PM2.5. Diagnostic ratios of PAHs showed emissions from burning coal, wood, biomass, and other fossil fuels. The total PAHs and elemental carbon were correlated (r2 =  0.39–0.70 across the monitoring periods, reinforcing that motor vehicles are the major contributors of PAHs. Cholesterol levels remained constant during the spring and fall, showing evidence of the contribution of meat-cooking operations, while the isolated concentrations of levoglucosan suggested occasional biomass

  8. Modeling Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation From Emissions of Combustion Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jathar, Shantanu Hemant

    Atmospheric aerosols exert a large influence on the Earth's climate and cause adverse public health effects, reduced visibility and material degradation. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA), defined as the aerosol mass arising from the oxidation products of gas-phase organic species, accounts for a significant fraction of the submicron atmospheric aerosol mass. Yet, there are large uncertainties surrounding the sources, atmospheric evolution and properties of SOA. This thesis combines laboratory experiments, extensive data analysis and global modeling to investigate the contribution of semi-volatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds (SVOC and IVOC) from combustion sources to SOA formation. The goals are to quantify the contribution of these emissions to ambient PM and to evaluate and improve models to simulate its formation. To create a database for model development and evaluation, a series of smog chamber experiments were conducted on evaporated fuel, which served as surrogates for real-world combustion emissions. Diesel formed the most SOA followed by conventional jet fuel / jet fuel derived from natural gas, gasoline and jet fuel derived from coal. The variability in SOA formation from actual combustion emissions can be partially explained by the composition of the fuel. Several models were developed and tested along with existing models using SOA data from smog chamber experiments conducted using evaporated fuel (this work, gasoline, fischertropschs, jet fuel, diesels) and published data on dilute combustion emissions (aircraft, on- and off-road gasoline, on- and off-road diesel, wood burning, biomass burning). For all of the SOA data, existing models under-predicted SOA formation if SVOC/IVOC were not included. For the evaporated fuel experiments, when SVOC/IVOC were included predictions using the existing SOA model were brought to within a factor of two of measurements with minor adjustments to model parameterizations. Further, a volatility

  9. Identifying sources of emerging organic contaminants in a mixed use watershed using principal components analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpuzcu, M Ekrem; Fairbairn, David; Arnold, William A; Barber, Brian L; Kaufenberg, Elizabeth; Koskinen, William C; Novak, Paige J; Rice, Pamela J; Swackhamer, Deborah L

    2014-01-01

    Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to identify sources of emerging organic contaminants in the Zumbro River watershed in Southeastern Minnesota. Two main principal components (PCs) were identified, which together explained more than 50% of the variance in the data. Principal Component 1 (PC1) was attributed to urban wastewater-derived sources, including municipal wastewater and residential septic tank effluents, while Principal Component 2 (PC2) was attributed to agricultural sources. The variances of the concentrations of cotinine, DEET and the prescription drugs carbamazepine, erythromycin and sulfamethoxazole were best explained by PC1, while the variances of the concentrations of the agricultural pesticides atrazine, metolachlor and acetochlor were best explained by PC2. Mixed use compounds carbaryl, iprodione and daidzein did not specifically group with either PC1 or PC2. Furthermore, despite the fact that caffeine and acetaminophen have been historically associated with human use, they could not be attributed to a single dominant land use category (e.g., urban/residential or agricultural). Contributions from septic systems did not clarify the source for these two compounds, suggesting that additional sources, such as runoff from biosolid-amended soils, may exist. Based on these results, PCA may be a useful way to broadly categorize the sources of new and previously uncharacterized emerging contaminants or may help to clarify transport pathways in a given area. Acetaminophen and caffeine were not ideal markers for urban/residential contamination sources in the study area and may need to be reconsidered as such in other areas as well.

  10. Diagnosing Tibetan pollutant sources via volatile organic compound observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongyan; He, Qiusheng; Song, Qi; Chen, Laiguo; Song, Yongjia; Wang, Yuhang; Lin, Kui; Xu, Zhencheng; Shao, Min

    2017-10-01

    Atmospheric transport of black carbon (BC) from surrounding areas has been shown to impact the Tibetan environment, and clarifying the geographical source and receptor regions is crucial for providing guidance for mitigation actions. In this study, 10 trace volatile organic compounds (VOCs) sampled across Tibet are chosen as proxies to diagnose source regions and related transport of pollutants to Tibet. The levels of these VOCs in Tibet are higher than those in the Arctic and Antarctic regions but much lower than those observed at many remote and background sites in Asia. The highest VOC level is observed in the eastern region, followed by the southern region and the northern region. A positive matrix factorization (PMF) model found that three factors-industry, biomass burning, and traffic-present different spatial distributions, which indicates that different zones of Tibet are influenced by different VOC sources. The average age of the air masses in the northern and eastern regions is estimated to be 3.5 and 2.8 days using the ratio of toluene to benzene, respectively, which indicates the foreign transport of VOC species to those regions. Back-trajectory analyses show that the Afghanistan-Pakistan-Tajikistan region, Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), and Meghalaya-Myanmar region could transport industrial VOCs to different zones of Tibet from west to east. The agricultural bases in northern India could transport biomass burning-related VOCs to the middle-northern and eastern zones of Tibet. High traffic along the unique national roads in Tibet is associated with emissions from local sources and neighboring areas. Our study proposes international joint-control efforts and targeted actions to mitigate the climatic changes and effects associated with VOCs in Tibet, which is a climate sensitive region and an important source of global water.

  11. Consumer perception of genetically modified organisms and sources of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlich, Shahla; Gatto, Kelsey A

    2015-11-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been available for commercial purchase since the 1990s, allowing producers to increase crop yields through bioengineering that creates herbicide-resistant and insect-resistant varieties. However, consumer knowledge about GMOs has not increased at the same rate as the adoption of GMO crops. Consumers worldwide are displaying limited understanding, misconceptions, and even unfamiliarity with GMO food products. Many consumers report that they receive information about GMO food products from the media, Internet, and other news sources. These sources may be less reliable than scientific experts whom consumers trust more to present the facts. Although many in the United States support mandatory GMO labeling (similar to current European standards), consumer awareness of current GMO labeling is low. A distinction must also be made between GMO familiarity and scientific understanding, because those who are more familiar with it tend to be more resistant to bioengineering, whereas those with higher scientific knowledge scores tend to have less negative attitudes toward GMOs. This brings to question the relation between scientific literacy, sources of information, and overall consumer knowledge and perception of GMO foods. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Aqueous organic chemistry in the atmosphere: sources and chemical processing of organic aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, V Faye

    2015-02-03

    Over the past decade, it has become clear that aqueous chemical processes occurring in cloud droplets and wet atmospheric particles are an important source of organic atmospheric particulate matter. Reactions of water-soluble volatile (or semivolatile) organic gases (VOCs or SVOCs) in these aqueous media lead to the formation of highly oxidized organic particulate matter (secondary organic aerosol; SOA) and key tracer species, such as organosulfates. These processes are often driven by a combination of anthropogenic and biogenic emissions, and therefore their accurate representation in models is important for effective air quality management. Despite considerable progress, mechanistic understanding of some key aqueous processes is still lacking, and these pathways are incompletely represented in 3D atmospheric chemistry and air quality models. In this article, the concepts, historical context, and current state of the science of aqueous pathways of SOA formation are discussed.

  13. Organic Acids as Hetrotrophic Energy Sources in Hydrothermal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windman, T. O.; Zolotova, N.; Shock, E.

    2004-12-01

    minerals, sulfide, carbon monoxide or methane in Yellowstone hot springs. This difference suggests that small organic compounds in hydrothermal fluids can be major sources of metabolic energy for microbes, and may explain why so many heterotrophs are found in themophilic microbial culture experiments.

  14. [Matters of identifying the categories of discrepancy between diagnoses as a part of the problem of organizing the clinical expert work of a postmortem service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaĭrat'iants, O V

    2009-01-01

    Whether the categories of a discrepancy between diagnoses should not be identified, which has been put by I. A. Kazantseva, is supported by the Society of Pathologists. The ranking of diagnostic discrepancies has been already subject to criticism in a number of standard guidance publications. However, this matter is a part of the unsolved problem of the clinical expert work of a postmortem service. Many regions have elaborated and approved their own principles of its organization. The standards of the Russian Agency are the most important achievement in assuring orderliness of its work. The problem requires further initiatives of the Russian Society of Pathologists and its close interaction with the Ministry of Health and Social Development in approving the relevant normative documents as soon as possible.

  15. [Indoor volatile organic compounds: concentrations, sources, variation factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palot, A; Charpin-Kadouch, C; Ercoli, J; Charpin, D

    2008-06-01

    Volatile organic compounds (V.O.C.) are part of urban air pollution and are also generated indoors from cleaning and maintenance products. VOC measurements are, on average, 10 times higher within homes than outside. Results of the national survey led by the Observatoire National de la Qualité de l'Air Intérieur demonstrated that up to 25% of French homes have very high or high concentrations of VOC. Indoor levels depend mainly on indoor sources. Aldehydes are included in many everyday life products. VOC originate from various household decorating and cleaning products. Some products are less detrimental to the environment and health and have special labelling. Indoor VOC levels also depend on the rate of air exchange and on household characteristics such as indoor temperature and humidity, age of the building, presence of smokers, and communication with a garage. The public may participate in maintaining good indoor air quality and the authorities should also improve regulations. VOC are part of everyday air pollution. Their sources and concentrations should be better monitored.

  16. Characterization of polar organic compounds and source analysis of fine organic aerosols in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunchun

    Organic aerosols, as an important fraction of airborne particulate mass, significantly affect the environment, climate, and human health. Compared with inorganic species, characterization of individual organic compounds is much less complete and comprehensive because they number in thousands or more and are diverse in chemical structures. The source contributions of organic aerosols are far from being well understood because they can be emitted from a variety of sources as well as formed from photochemical reactions of numerous precursors. This thesis work aims to improve the characterization of polar organic compounds and source apportionment analysis of fine organic carbon (OC) in Hong Kong, which consists of two parts: (1) An improved analytical method to determine monocarboxylic acids, dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids, and dicarbonyls collected on filter substrates has been established. These oxygenated compounds were determined as their butyl ester or butyl acetal derivatives using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The new method made improvements over the original Kawamura method by eliminating the water extraction and evaporation steps. Aerosol materials were directly mixed with the BF 3/BuOH derivatization agent and the extracting solvent hexane. This modification improves recoveries for both the more volatile and the less water-soluble compounds. This improved method was applied to study the abundances and sources of these oxygenated compounds in PM2.5 aerosol samples collected in Hong Kong under different synoptic conditions during 2003-2005. These compounds account for on average 5.2% of OC (range: 1.4%-13.6%) on a carbon basis. Oxalic acid was the most abundant species. Six C2 and C3 oxygenated compounds, namely oxalic, malonic, glyoxylic, pyruvic acids, glyoxal, and methylglyoxal, dominated this suite of oxygenated compounds. More efforts are therefore suggested to focus on these small compounds in understanding the role of oxygenated

  17. CONFLICT AS A SOURCE ETIOLOGY PATHOLOGY IN ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Mazanowska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The slightest conflict resulting in the organization is able to bring quite a lot of human energy and effort, cause all kinds of damage not only material but also moral or social. In a modern economy based on knowledge, possession by management, although the basic knowledge about the sources of the origin of the conflict, holistic course and how to solve should be an essential link for the proper functioning of the company. The ability to recognize the signals of conflicts arising in the workplace, may allow for accurate diagnosis supervisor of the substrate and the immediate reaction towards their elimination. Topics addressed in the publication relates, inter alia, the nature and object of the conflict. The study verified the plane of its creation. It also discusses the process of conflict situations-interactions on human behaviour within the company. Bearing in mind that the conflict causes a lot of negative socio-economic, this article is a contribution to the debate on the degree of its occurrence in the organization. The main aim of this article is to find confirmation of the thesis that the conflict is the etiology of problems in interpersonal relations in the company thereby causing undesirable pathological phenomena, causing disorganization in the functioning of the entire organizational structure. In order to achieve that objective formulated analysed the existing literature on the subject, are examples of the increasing conflicts and their consequences. The author on the basis of the foregoing attempts to identify the problem and assess its negative impact on the organization. As a result of these activities were used by individual cases.

  18. Asynchronous Learning Sources in a High-Tech Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhnik, Dan; Giat, Yahel; Sanderovitch, Yafit

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to characterize learning from asynchronous sources among research and development (R&D) personnel. It aims to examine four aspects of asynchronous source learning: employee preferences regarding self-learning; extent of source usage; employee satisfaction with these sources and the effect of the sources on the…

  19. A Combined Study Investigating the Insoluble and Soluble Organic Compounds in Category 3 Carbonaceous Itokawa Particles Recovered by the Hayabusa Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Q. H. S.; Zolensky, M.; Burton, A.; Clemett, S.; Fries, M.; Kebukawa, Y.

    2015-01-01

    At the 3rd International Announcement of Opportunity (AO), we have been approved for five Category 3 carbonaceous Itokawa particles (RA-QD02-0012, RA-QD02-0078, RB-CV-0029, RB-CV-0080 and RB-QD04-0052) recovered by the first Hayabusa mission of JAXA. In this investigation, we aim to provide a comprehensive study to characterize and account for the presence of carbon-bearing phases as suggested by the initial Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis carried out by JAXA at the curation facility, and to describe the mineralogical components of the particles. The insoluble organic content of Itokawa particle has been investigated with the use of micro-Raman spectroscopy by Kitajima and co-workers [1]. The Raman spectra of Itokawa particles show broad G- and D-bands typical of low temperature material which offers an interesting contrast to the high metamorphic grade (LL4-6) of the Itokawa parent body. Amino acid analysis has been conducted by Naraoka et al. [2] to study the soluble organic component of Itokawa particles, but since it was a preliminary study and thus did not have the opportunity to target on Category 3 carbonaceous particles, only terrestrial contaminants were identified. The investigation will be carried out in the following order prioritized according to the progressive damage the analytical techniques can induce: (1) micro-Raman spectrometry, (2) two-step laser mass spectrometry (micro-L2MS), (3) ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-FD/ToF-MS), and optimally if we can recover the particles after wet chemistry analysis, we will mount the samples and perform (4) electron beam microscopy (SEM, electron back-scattered diffraction [EBSD]) and (5) carbon X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy (C-XANES). We will begin the analytical procedures upon receiving the samples in September/October. This work will provide us with an understanding of the variety and origins of

  20. Tracing the sources of organic carbon in freshwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendell, Miriam; Meersmans, Jeroen; Barclay, Rachel; Yvon-Durocher, Gabriel; Barker, Sam; Jones, Richard; Hartley, Iain; Dungait, Jennifer; Quine, Timothy

    2016-04-01

    both terrestrial and aquatic sources as recorded in lake sediments to the measured rates of soil erosion and terrestrial & aquatic CO2 respiration rates, this study has paved a way towards a novel and cross-disciplinary approach to investigate and further improve current status of knowledge as regards C-cycling across the entire terrestrial-aquatic continuum. 137Cs was found to be useful to understand the dynamics and spatial pattern of lateral fluxes of sediment & C at the catchment scale, while tracing chemical composition of C using n-alkanes and stable isotopes (δ13C, δ15N) allowed distinguishing between the terrestrial vs. aquatic origin of C and determining main sources of particulate organic carbon in the aquatic environment within the two study catchments.

  1. Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, L.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the sources of radiation in the narrow perspective of radioactivity and the even narrow perspective of those sources that concern environmental management and restoration activities at DOE facilities, as well as a few related sources. Sources of irritation, Sources of inflammatory jingoism, and Sources of information. First, the sources of irritation fall into three categories: No reliable scientific ombudsman to speak without bias and prejudice for the public good, Technical jargon with unclear definitions exists within the radioactive nomenclature, and Scientific community keeps a low-profile with regard to public information. The next area of personal concern are the sources of inflammation. This include such things as: Plutonium being described as the most dangerous substance known to man, The amount of plutonium required to make a bomb, Talk of transuranic waste containing plutonium and its health affects, TMI-2 and Chernobyl being described as Siamese twins, Inadequate information on low-level disposal sites and current regulatory requirements under 10 CFR 61, Enhanced engineered waste disposal not being presented to the public accurately. Numerous sources of disinformation regarding low level radiation high-level radiation, Elusive nature of the scientific community, The Federal and State Health Agencies resources to address comparative risk, and Regulatory agencies speaking out without the support of the scientific community

  2. Example Annual Certification & Compliance Reports for Sources with and without Visible Emissions Testing: NESHAP Area Source Standards for Nine Metal Fabrication and Finishing Source Categories 40 CFR 63 Subpart XXXXXX

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains examples of the type of information that must be submitted to fulfill the Notification of Compliance Status requirement of 40 CFR 63, subpart XXXXXX for sources reporting and not reporting visible emissions information.

  3. Aerobic mineralization of selected organic nutrient sources for soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    food synthesis (Lavelle and Spain, 2001). Multipurpose trees such .... The soil and organic nutrient resource ... treatments. Simple correlation analysis was carried out to measure ..... Germination Ecology of Two Endemic Multipurpose. Species ...

  4. Current Research on Molasses as an Alternative Energy Source for Organic Dairy Herds

    Science.gov (United States)

    As organic grain prices have increased and organic milk prices have decreased, dairy farmers are seeking lower-cost supplementation strategies. Sugarcane molasses, a rich source of sucrose, seems to be a viable option as a source of energy. Molasses frequently costs less per pound of dry matter than...

  5. Source apportionment of airborne particulate matter using organic compounds as tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, James J.; Rogge, Wolfgang F.; Hildemann, Lynn M.; Mazurek, Monica A.; Cass, Glen R.; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    A chemical mass balance receptor model based on organic compounds has been developed that relates source contributions to airborne fine particle mass concentrations. Source contributions to the concentrations of specific organic compounds are revealed as well. The model is applied to four air quality monitoring sites in southern California using atmospheric organic compound concentration data and source test data collected specifically for the purpose of testing this model. The contributions of up to nine primary particle source types can be separately identified in ambient samples based on this method, and approximately 85% of the organic fine aerosol is assigned to primary sources on an annual average basis. The model provides information on source contributions to fine mass concentrations, fine organic aerosol concentrations and individual organic compound concentrations. The largest primary source contributors to fine particle mass concentrations in Los Angeles are found to include diesel engine exhaust, paved road dust, gasoline-powered vehicle exhaust, plus emissions from food cooking and wood smoke, with smaller contribution from tire dust, plant fragments, natural gas combustion aerosol, and cigarette smoke. Once these primary aerosol source contributions are added to the secondary sulfates, nitrates and organics present, virtually all of the annual average fine particle mass at Los Angeles area monitoring sites can be assigned to its source.

  6. Average dose to an organ per microcurie-day accumulated by a radionuclide in a source organ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, W.S.; Ford, M.R.

    1975-01-01

    Methods are discussed that are used in calculations of the average radiation dose to an organ per microcurie/day accumulated by a radionuclide in a source organ. The dosimetric data on photons are obtained by Monte Carlo type computer calculations on a non-homogeneous phantom having the general form of the human body. (U.S.)

  7. Musicking Online: Organizing Reference Sources in the Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeto, Kimmy

    2012-01-01

    Online music research resources took center stage at the second plenary session "Wrangling the Information Universe: Moving From Institutional Portals to a Shared Resource for Online Music Sources" held on Friday, February 17, 2012, at the Music Library Association (MLA) 2012 Annual Meeting in Dallas, Texas. The Reference Sources…

  8. Effects of organic nitrogen and carbon sources on mycelial growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grifola umbellate is a famous and expensive Chinese herb medicine and the main medicinal component is polysaccharide mainly produced by its mycelia. Effects of organic nitrogen and carbon resources on mycelial growth and polysaccharides production of a medicinal mushroom, G. umbellate were studied in the ...

  9. Utilisation of Organic and Inorganic Nitrogen Sources by

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cherryluv

    2012-05-10

    May 10, 2012 ... by mineralization is insufficient to meet the demand of plant and microbial communities (Kielland, 1994). Assessing growth of EM fungi on mineral N ..... litter breakdown was much slower than that in tropical forest. Due to the limited information about the dynamics and pool sizes of different soil organic N ...

  10. Organic matters: investigating the sources, transport, and fate of organic matter in Fanno Creek, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieszczyk, Steven; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Goldman, Jami H.; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2015-01-01

    The term organic matter refers to the remnants of all living material. This can include fallen leaves, yard waste, animal waste, downed timber, or the remains of any other plant and animal life. Organic matter is abundant both on land and in water. Investigating organic matter is necessary for understanding the fate and transport of carbon (a major constituent of organic matter).

  11. IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FIVE NON- TRADITIONAL SOURCE CATEGORIES: CATASTROPHIC/ACCIDENTAL RELEASES, VEHICLE REPAIR FACILITIES, RECYCLING, PESTICIDE APPLICATION, AND AGRICULTURAL OPERATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of work that is part of EPA's program to identify and characterize emissions sources not currently accounted for by either the existing Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) or State Implementation Plan (SIP) area source methodologies and to deve...

  12. Microlayer source of oxygenated volatile organic compounds in the summertime marine Arctic boundary layer

    OpenAIRE

    Mungall, Emma L.; Abbatt, Jonathan P. D.; Wentzell, Jeremy J. B.; Lee, Alex K. Y.; Thomas, Jennie L.; Blais, Marjolaine; Gosselin, Michel; Miller, Lisa A.; Papakyriakou, Tim; Willis, Megan D.; Liggio, John

    2017-01-01

    A biogeochemical connection between the atmosphere and the ocean is demonstrated whereby a marine source of oxygenated volatile organic compounds is identified. Compounds of this type are involved in the formation of secondary organic aerosol, which remains one of the most poorly understood components of Earth’s climate system due in part to the diverse sources of its volatile organic compound precursors. This is especially the case for marine environments, where there are more oxygenated vol...

  13. Initial growth of physic nut as a function of sources and doses of organic fertilizers

    OpenAIRE

    Schulz,Deisinara Giane; Fey,Rubens; Ruppenthal,Viviane; Malavasi,Marlene de Matos; Malavasi,Ubirajara Contro

    2012-01-01

    Organic fertilization provides low cost, supplemental nutrition for plant production. This study aimed to determine the best source and dose of organic fertilizer on the growth of physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.), a potential biodiesel producer. Physic nut seedlings were transplanted to 18 dm³ black plastic pots filled with soil mixed with four sources of organic fertilizer (chicken, fish, cattle manure or urban waste compost) at four dose levels (50, 100, 200 or 400 L m-3). Fertilized and con...

  14. Sources and diagenetic alteration of organic matter in coastal waters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The inter-site differences in 13C and 15N could be related to the sources of OM. In the Msansani Bay the material is derived from seagrasses while in the Dar es Salaam harbour and Msimbazi micro-bay, large proportion is derived from the continent. Other parameters of OC, nitrogen and C/N ratios for these three sites show ...

  15. Electrical energy sources for organic synthesis on the early earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyba, Christopher; Sagan, Carl

    1991-01-01

    It is pointed out that much of the contemporary origin-of-life research uses the original estimates of Miller and Urey (1959) for terrestrial energy dissipation by lightning and coronal discharges being equal to 2 x 10 to the 19th J/yr and 6 x 10 to the 19th J/yr, respectively. However, data from experiments that provide analogues to naturally-occurring lightning and coronal discharges indicate that lightning energy yields for organic synthesis (nmole/J) are about one order of magnitude higher than the coronal discharge yields. This suggests that, on early earth, organic production by lightning may have dominated that due to coronal emission. New values are recommended for lightning and coronal discharge dissipation rates on the early earth, 1 x 10 to the 18th J/yr and 5 x 10 to the 17th J/yr, respectively.

  16. The use of prisoners as sources of organs--an ethically dubious practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Arthur

    2011-10-01

    The movement to try to close the ever-widening gap between demand and supply of organs has recently arrived at the prison gate. While there is enthusiasm for using executed prisoners as sources of organs, there are both practical barriers and moral concerns that make it unlikely that proposals to use prisoners will or should gain traction. Prisoners are generally not healthy enough to be a safe source of organs, execution makes the procurement of viable organs difficult, and organ donation post-execution ties the medical profession too closely to the act of execution.

  17. Categories from scratch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poss, R.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of category from mathematics happens to be useful to computer programmers in many ways. Unfortunately, all "good" explanations of categories so far have been designed by mathematicians, or at least theoreticians with a strong background in mathematics, and this makes categories

  18. S values for selected radionuclides and organs with the heart wall and heart contents as source organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffey, J.L.; Watson, E.E.

    1981-01-01

    The generalized heart model of MIRD Pamphlet No. 5, Revised has no separation of heart wall from heart contents, and no phi values were listed for heart as either a source or target organ. Because of this, the heart model of the heterogeneous phantom for dosimetry calculations was revised and a description of this model and specific absorbed fractions will be published in MIRD Pamphlet No. 13. The purpose of this study is to use the specific absorbed fractions from MIRD-13 and decay scheme data to produce tables of S values (absorbed dose per unit cumulated activity) for selected radionuclides with the heart wall and heart contents as the source organs. As in the MIRD reports the activity is assumed to be uniformly distributed in the source organs. The phi values for the photon energies of a given radionuclide were found by lineraly interpolating between the energies listed in MIRD-13. When the source and target are the same, all nonpenetrating radiations are assumed to be absorbed in the organ in which they originate. For organs with walls and with the contents as the source, the dose to the wall from nonpenetrating radiations is assumed to be half of the dose to the contents

  19. Data categories for marine planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightsom, Frances L.; Cicchetti, Giancarlo; Wahle, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. National Ocean Policy calls for a science- and ecosystem-based approach to comprehensive planning and management of human activities and their impacts on America’s oceans. The Ocean Community in Data.gov is an outcome of 2010–2011 work by an interagency working group charged with designing a national information management system to support ocean planning. Within the working group, a smaller team developed a list of the data categories specifically relevant to marine planning. This set of categories is an important consensus statement of the breadth of information types required for ocean planning from a national, multidisciplinary perspective. Although the categories were described in a working document in 2011, they have not yet been fully implemented explicitly in online services or geospatial metadata, in part because authoritative definitions were not created formally. This document describes the purpose of the data categories, provides definitions, and identifies relations among the categories and between the categories and external standards. It is intended to be used by ocean data providers, managers, and users in order to provide a transparent and consistent framework for organizing and describing complex information about marine ecosystems and their connections to humans.

  20. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Wwww of... - Organic HAP Emissions Limits for Existing Open Molding Sources, New Open Molding Sources Emitting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .../ton.4 Use the appropriate open molding emission limit.5 9. pultrusion 6 N/A reduce total organic HAP... CATEGORIES National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Reinforced Plastic Composites...: If your operation type is . . . And you use . . . 1 Your organic HAP emissions limit is . . . 1. open...

  1. Comparative analysis of methods and sources of financing of the transport organizations activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorshkov, Roman

    2017-10-01

    The article considers the analysis of methods of financing of transport organizations in conditions of limited investment resources. A comparative analysis of these methods is carried out, the classification of investment, methods and sources of financial support for projects being implemented to date are presented. In order to select the optimal sources of financing for the projects, various methods of financial management and financial support for the activities of the transport organization were analyzed, which were considered from the perspective of analysis of advantages and limitations. The result of the study is recommendations on the selection of optimal sources and methods of financing of transport organizations.

  2. Characterization of biomass burning from olive grove areas: A major source of organic aerosol in PM10 of Southwest Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez de la Campa, Ana M.; Salvador, Pedro; Fernández-Camacho, Rocío; Artiñano, Begoña; Coz, Esther; Márquez, Gonzalo; Sánchez-Rodas, Daniel; de la Rosa, Jesús

    2018-01-01

    The inorganic and organic geochemistry of aerosol particulate matter (APM) was studied in a major olive grove area from Southwest Europe (Baena, Spain). The biomass consists of olive tree branches and the solid waste resulting of the olive oil production. Moreover, high PM10 levels were obtained (31.5 μg m- 3), with two days of exceedance of the daily limit of 50 μg m- 3 (2008/50/CE; EU, 2008) during the experimental period. A high mean levoglucosan concentration was obtained representing up 95% of the total mass of the isomers analysed (280 ng m- 3), while galactosan and mannosan mean concentrations were lower (8.64 ng m- 3 and 7.86 ng m- 3, respectively). The contribution of wood smoke in Baena was estimated, representing 19% of OC and 17% of OM total mass. Positive matrix factor (PMF) was applied to the organic and inorganic aerosols data, which has permitted the identification of five source categories: biomass burning, traffic, mineral dust, marine aerosol and SIC (secondary inorganic compounds). The biomass burning category reached the highest mean contribution to the PM10 mass (41%, 17.6 μg m- 3). In light of these results, the use of biomass resulting from the olive oil production for residential heating and industry must be considered the most important aerosol source during the winter months. The results of this paper can be extrapolated to other olive oil producing areas in the Mediterranean basin. Therefore, a fuller understanding of this type of biomass combustion is required in order to be able to establish appropriate polices and reduce the environmental impact on the population.

  3. Microlayer source of oxygenated volatile organic compounds in the summertime marine Arctic boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungall, Emma L.; Abbatt, Jonathan P. D.; Wentzell, Jeremy J. B.; Lee, Alex K. Y.; Thomas, Jennie L.; Blais, Marjolaine; Gosselin, Michel; Miller, Lisa A.; Papakyriakou, Tim; Willis, Megan D.; Liggio, John

    2017-06-01

    Summertime Arctic shipboard observations of oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) such as organic acids, key precursors of climatically active secondary organic aerosol (SOA), are consistent with a novel source of OVOCs to the marine boundary layer via chemistry at the sea surface microlayer. Although this source has been studied in a laboratory setting, organic acid emissions from the sea surface microlayer have not previously been observed in ambient marine environments. Correlations between measurements of OVOCs, including high levels of formic acid, in the atmosphere (measured by an online high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer) and dissolved organic matter in the ocean point to a marine source for the measured OVOCs. That this source is photomediated is indicated by correlations between the diurnal cycles of the OVOC measurements and solar radiation. In contrast, the OVOCs do not correlate with levels of isoprene, monoterpenes, or dimethyl sulfide. Results from box model calculations are consistent with heterogeneous chemistry as the source of the measured OVOCs. As sea ice retreats and dissolved organic carbon inputs to the Arctic increase, the impact of this source on the summer Arctic atmosphere is likely to increase. Globally, this source should be assessed in other marine environments to quantify its impact on OVOC and SOA burdens in the atmosphere, and ultimately on climate.

  4. Microlayer source of oxygenated volatile organic compounds in the summertime marine Arctic boundary layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungall, Emma L; Abbatt, Jonathan P D; Wentzell, Jeremy J B; Lee, Alex K Y; Thomas, Jennie L; Blais, Marjolaine; Gosselin, Michel; Miller, Lisa A; Papakyriakou, Tim; Willis, Megan D; Liggio, John

    2017-06-13

    Summertime Arctic shipboard observations of oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) such as organic acids, key precursors of climatically active secondary organic aerosol (SOA), are consistent with a novel source of OVOCs to the marine boundary layer via chemistry at the sea surface microlayer. Although this source has been studied in a laboratory setting, organic acid emissions from the sea surface microlayer have not previously been observed in ambient marine environments. Correlations between measurements of OVOCs, including high levels of formic acid, in the atmosphere (measured by an online high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer) and dissolved organic matter in the ocean point to a marine source for the measured OVOCs. That this source is photomediated is indicated by correlations between the diurnal cycles of the OVOC measurements and solar radiation. In contrast, the OVOCs do not correlate with levels of isoprene, monoterpenes, or dimethyl sulfide. Results from box model calculations are consistent with heterogeneous chemistry as the source of the measured OVOCs. As sea ice retreats and dissolved organic carbon inputs to the Arctic increase, the impact of this source on the summer Arctic atmosphere is likely to increase. Globally, this source should be assessed in other marine environments to quantify its impact on OVOC and SOA burdens in the atmosphere, and ultimately on climate.

  5. CHROMOPHORIC DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER (CDOM) SOURCE CHARACTERIZATION IN THE LOUISIANA BIGHT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the Mississippi plume region may have several distinct sources: riverine (terrestrial soils), wetland (terrestrial plants), biological production (phytoplankton, zooplankton, microbial), and sediments. Complex mixing, photodegradati...

  6. Distribution and sources of particulate organic matter in the Indian monsoonal estuaries during monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Krishna, M.S.; Prasad, V.R.; Kumar, B.S.K.; Naidu, S.A.; Rao, G.D.; Viswanadham, R.; Sridevi, T.; Kumar, P.P.; Reddy, N.P.C.

    The distribution and sources of particulate organic carbon (POC) and nitrogen (PN) in 27 Indian estuaries were examined during the monsoon using the content and isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen. Higher phytoplankton biomass was noticed...

  7. Surface microlayer enrichment of volatile organic compounds and semi-volatile organic compounds in drinking water source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhi; Zhou, Wen; Yu, Ya-juan; Zhang, Ai-qian; Han, Shuo-kui; Wang, Lian-sheng

    2004-01-01

    Enrichment of volatile organic compounds(VOC) and semi-volatility organic compounds(SVOC) in surface microlayer(SM) of three drinking water sources were studied. The enrichment factor(EFs) were 0.67 to 13.37 and 0.16 to 136, respectively. The results showed some VOC and most SVOC could enrich in SM. Some EFs of SVOC was quite high. Suspension and temperature could affect EFs of SVOC, slim wind and water movement do not destroy enrichment of organic in SM.

  8. Blocking in Category Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bott, Lewis; Hoffman, Aaron B.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2007-01-01

    Many theories of category learning assume that learning is driven by a need to minimize classification error. When there is no classification error, therefore, learning of individual features should be negligible. We tested this hypothesis by conducting three category learning experiments adapted from an associative learning blocking paradigm. Contrary to an error-driven account of learning, participants learned a wide range of information when they learned about categories, and blocking effe...

  9. Identification of the sources of primary organic aerosols at urban schools: A molecular marker approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crilley, Leigh R.; Qadir, Raeed M.; Ayoko, Godwin A.; Schnelle-Kreis, Jürgen; Abbaszade, Gülcin; Orasche, Jürgen; Zimmermann, Ralf; Morawska, Lidia

    2014-01-01

    Children are particularly susceptible to air pollution and schools are examples of urban microenvironments that can account for a large portion of children's exposure to airborne particles. Thus this paper aimed to determine the sources of primary airborne particles that children are exposed to at school by analyzing selected organic molecular markers at 11 urban schools in Brisbane, Australia. Positive matrix factorization analysis identified four sources at the schools: vehicle emissions, biomass burning, meat cooking and plant wax emissions accounting for 45%, 29%, 16% and 7%, of the organic carbon respectively. Biomass burning peaked in winter due to prescribed burning of bushland around Brisbane. Overall, the results indicated that both local (traffic) and regional (biomass burning) sources of primary organic aerosols influence the levels of ambient particles that children are exposed at the schools. These results have implications for potential control strategies for mitigating exposure at schools. - Highlights: • Selected organic molecular markers at 11 urban schools were analyzed. • Four sources of primary organic aerosols were identified by PMF at the schools. • Both local and regional sources were found to influence exposure at the schools. • The results have implications for mitigation of children's exposure at schools. - The identification of the most important sources of primary organic aerosols at urban schools has implications for control strategies for mitigating children's exposure at schools

  10. Category I structures program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endebrock, E.G.; Dove, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    The objective of the Category I Structure Program is to supply experimental and analytical information needed to assess the structural capacity of Category I structures (excluding the reactor cntainment building). Because the shear wall is a principal element of a Category I structure, and because relatively little experimental information is available on the shear walls, it was selected as the test element for the experimental program. The large load capacities of shear walls in Category I structures dictates that the experimental tests be conducted on small size shear wall structures that incorporates the general construction details and characteristics of as-built shear walls

  11. Open Source Software in Medium Size Organizations: Key Factors for Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Jerry T.

    2010-01-01

    For-profit organizations are constantly evaluating new technologies to gain competitive advantage. One such technology, application software, has changed significantly over the past 25 years with the introduction of Open Source Software (OSS). In contrast to commercial software that is developed by private companies and sold to organizations, OSS…

  12. Impact Metamorphism of Subsurface Organic Matter on Mars: A Potential Source for Methane and Surface Alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, D. Z.; Allen, C. C.; McKay, D. S.

    2005-01-01

    Reports of methane in the Martian atmosphere have spurred speculation about sources for that methane [1-3]. Discussion has centered on cometary/ meteoritic delivery, magmatic/mantle processes, UV-breakdown of organics, serpentinization of basalts, and generation of methane by living organisms. This paper describes an additional possibility: that buried organic remains from past life on Mars may have been generating methane throughout Martian history as a result of heating associated with impact metamorphism.

  13. Water soluble organic aerosols in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, USA: composition, sources and optical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Mingjie; Mladenov, Natalie; Williams, Mark W.; Neff, Jason C.; Wasswa, Joseph; Hannigan, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols have been shown to be an important input of organic carbon and nutrients to alpine watersheds and influence biogeochemical processes in these remote settings. For many remote, high elevation watersheds, direct evidence of the sources of water soluble organic aerosols and their chemical and optical characteristics is lacking. Here, we show that the concentration of water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in the total suspended particulate (TSP) load at a high elevation site in...

  14. Factors for Microbial Carbon Sources in Organic and Mineral Soils from Eastern United States Deciduous Forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stitt, Caroline R. [Mills College, Oakland, CA (United States)

    2013-09-16

    Forest soils represent a large portion of global terrestrial carbon; however, which soil carbon sources are used by soil microbes and respired as carbon dioxide (CO2) is not well known. This study will focus on characterizing microbial carbon sources from organic and mineral soils from four eastern United States deciduous forests using a unique radiocarbon (14C) tracer. Results from the dark incubation of organic and mineral soils are heavily influenced by site characteristics when incubated at optimal microbial activity temperature. Sites with considerable differences in temperature, texture, and location differ in carbon source attribution, indicating that site characteristics play a role in soil respiration.

  15. Categories and logical syntax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klev, Ansten Morch

    2014-01-01

    The notions of category and type are here studied through the lens of logical syntax: Aristotle's as well as Kant's categories through the traditional form of proposition `S is P', and modern doctrines of type through the Fregean form of proposition `F(a)', function applied to argument. Topics

  16. Computing color categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yendrikhovskij, S.N.; Rogowitz, B.E.; Pappas, T.N.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to develop a coherent framework for understanding, modeling, and computing color categories. The main assumption is that the structure of color category systems originates from the statistical structure of the perceived color environment. This environment can be modeled as

  17. The effect of protein and lipid source in organic feed for (organic) rainbow trout on sensory quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Grethe; Green-Petersen, Ditte; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    of vegetable protein. While the lipid sources were fish, linseed, sunflower, rapeseed and grape seed oil. After slaughtering all fish were frozen (-40°C) until the sensory experiment was performed, for which the trout were thawed and stored for 3, 5, 7 and 14 days in ice respectively. The sensory experiment......-life is increased by feeding the fish with vegetable protein compared to fish meal. The conclusion of the experiment therefore was that both dietary vegetable protein and lipid sources can influence on sensory characteristics of trout stored in ice.......The aim of this work was to study which effects protein and lipid source in feed for organic rainbow trout (Oncohynchus mykiss) may have on the sensory quality of the final product after up to 14 days of storage in ice. The protein sources used in the experiment were fishmeal and a mixture...

  18. Total organic carbon, an important tool in an holistic approach to hydrocarbon source fingerprinting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, P.D.; Burns, W.A.; Page, D.S.; Bence, A.E.; Mankiewicz, P.J.; Brown, J.S.; Douglas, G.S. [Battelle Member Inst., Waltham, MA (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The identification and allocation of multiple hydrocarbon sources in marine sediments is best achieved using an holistic approach. Total organic carbon (TOC) is one important tool that can constrain the contributions of specific sources and rule out incorrect source allocations in cases where inputs are dominated by fossil organic carbon. In a study of the benthic sediments from Prince William Sound (PWS) and the Gulf of Alaska (GOA), we find excellent agreement between measured TOC and TOC calculated from hydrocarbon fingerprint matches of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and chemical biomarkers. Confirmation by two such independent source indicators (TOC and fingerprint matches) provides evidence that source allocations determined by the fingerprint matches are robust and that the major TOC sources have been correctly identified. Fingerprint matches quantify the hydrocarbon contributions of various sources to the benthic sediments and the degree of hydrocarbon winnowing by waves and currents. TOC contents are then calculated using source allocation results from fingerprint matches and the TOCs of contributing sources. Comparisons of the actual sediment TOC values and those calculated from source allocation support our earlier published findings that the natural petrogenic hydrocarbon background in sediments in this area comes from eroding Tertiary shales and associated oil seeps along the northern GOA coast and exclude thermally mature area coals from being important contributors to the PWS background due to their high TOC content.

  19. Triangulated categories (AM-148)

    CERN Document Server

    Neeman, Amnon

    2014-01-01

    The first two chapters of this book offer a modern, self-contained exposition of the elementary theory of triangulated categories and their quotients. The simple, elegant presentation of these known results makes these chapters eminently suitable as a text for graduate students. The remainder of the book is devoted to new research, providing, among other material, some remarkable improvements on Brown''s classical representability theorem. In addition, the author introduces a class of triangulated categories""--the ""well generated triangulated categories""--and studies their properties. This

  20. Organic materials: sources of nitrogen in the organic production of lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    MANOJLOVIC, Maja; CABILOVSKI, Ranko; BAVEC, Martina

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of 2 experiments: an incubation experiment and a subsequent field experiment. An incubation experiment was set up in order to determine the mineralization potential of different organic materials (OMs) (well-rotted farmyard manure [FTM], guano [G], soybean seed [S], and forage pea seed [P]), the kinetics of mineral nitrogen (N) release, and the correlation between OM content and the quantity of mineralized N. The results of the incubation experiment were checke...

  1. Analysis of rare categories

    CERN Document Server

    He, Jingrui

    2012-01-01

    This book focuses on rare category analysis where the majority classes have smooth distributions and the minority classes exhibit the compactness property. It focuses on challenging cases where the support regions of the majority and minority classes overlap.

  2. Consumer Product Category Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use...

  3. Product Category Management Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Żukowska, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to present the issues related to category management. It includes the overview of category management definitions and the correct process of exercising it. Moreover, attention is paid to the advantages of brand management, the benefits the supplier and retailer may obtain in this way. The risk element related to this topics is also presented herein. Joanna Żukowska

  4. Quantitative characterization of urban sources of organic aerosol by high-resolution gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildemann, L.M.; Mazurek, M.A.; Cass, G.R.; Simoneit, B.R.T.

    1991-01-01

    Fine aerosol emissions have been collected from a variety of urban combustion sources, including an industrial boiler, a fireplace, automobiles, diesel trucks, gas-fired home appliances, and meat cooking operations, by use of a dilution sampling system. Other sampling techniques have been utilized to collect fine aerosol samples of paved road dust, brake wear, tire wear, cigarette smoke, tar pot emissions, and vegetative detritus. The organic matter contained in each of these samples has been analyzed via high-resolution gas chromatography. By use of a simple computational approach, a quantitative, 50-parameter characterization of the elutable fine organic aerosol emitted from each source type has been determined. The organic mass distribution fingerprints obtained by this approach are shown to differ significantly from each other for most of the source types tested, using hierarchical cluster analysis

  5. Is an organic nitrogen source needed for cellulase production by Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez Gómez, Divanery; Hobley, Timothy John

    2013-01-01

    The effect of organic and inorganic nitrogen sources on Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30 cellulase production was investigated in submerged cultivations. Stirred tank bioreactors and shake flasks, with and without pH control, respectively, were employed. The experimental design involved the addition...... of individual organic nitrogen sources (soy peptone, glutamate, glycine and alanine) within a basal medium containing Avicel (i.e. micro crystalline cellulose) and ammonium sulphate. It was found that in the shake flask experiments, the highest cellulase activities (~0.1 ± 0.02 FPU ml−1) were obtained...... with media containing soy peptone (3–6 g l−1) and glutamate (3.6 g l−1). However, these improvements in the cellulase titers in the presence of the organic nitrogen sources appeared to be related to smaller changes in the pH of the medium. This was confirmed using stirred tank bioreactors with pH control...

  6. Identifying Competences and Their Sources in a Not-for-Profit Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vega, Diego; Sanchez, Ron

    2017-01-01

    Effective competence-based management (CBM) requires in the first instance an ability to identify an organization’s competences and the sources of those competences. Identifying competences can be especially challenging in the context of not-for-profit organizations, which have often been...... characterized as being “different” from for-profit organizations. In this paper we argue that not-for-profit organizations have fundamentally the same systemic requirements for survival and success as for-profit organizations – and therefore that not-for-profits ought to be amenable to competence identification...... and analysis through use of CBM concepts and theory in essentially the same way as for-profit organizations. We support this basic proposition through a case study of competence identification and analysis in a humanitarian relief organization (HRO), an increasingly important kind of not-for-profit...

  7. Set organic pollution as an impact category to achieve more comprehensive evaluation of life cycle assessment in wastewater-related issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, X.; Yang, Jixian; Ma, Fang

    2018-01-01

    For wastewater-related issues (WRI), life cycle assessment (LCA) is often used to evaluate environmental impacts and derive optimization strategies. To promote the application of LCA for WRI, it is critical to incorporate local impact of water pollutants. Organic pollution, a main type of water

  8. Molecular marker analysis as a guide to the sources of fine organic aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogge, W.F.; Cass, G.R.; Hildemann, L.M.; Simoneit, B.R.T.

    1992-07-01

    The molecular composition of fine particulate (D p ≥ 2 μm) organic aerosol emissions from the most important sources in the Los Angeles area has been determined. Likewise, ambient concentration patterns for more than 80 single organic compounds have been measured at four urban sites (West Los Angeles, Downtown Los Angeles, Pasadena, and Rubidoux) and at one remote offshore site (San Nicolas Island). It has been found that cholesterol serves as a marker compound for emissions from charbroilers and other meat cooking operations. Vehicular exhaust being emitted from diesel and gasoline powered engines can be traced in the Los Angeles atmosphere using fossil petroleum marker compounds such as steranes and pentacyclic triterpanes (e.g., hopanes). Biogenic fine particle emission sources such as plant fragments abraded from leaf surfaces by wind and weather can be traced in the urban atmosphere. Using distinct and specific source organic tracers or assemblages of organic compounds characteristic for the sources considered it is possible to estimate the influence of different source types at any urban site where atmospheric data are available

  9. Contributions of Organic Sources to Atmospheric Aerosol Particle Concentrations and Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, L. M.

    2017-12-01

    Organic molecules are important contributors to aerosol particle mass and number concentrations through primary emissions as well as secondary growth in the atmosphere. New techniques for measuring organic aerosol components in atmospheric particles have improved measurements of this contribution in the last 20 years, including Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (STXM-NEXAFS), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and High-Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS). STXM-NEXAFS individual aerosol particle composition illustrated the variety of morphology of organic components in marine aerosols, the inherent relationships between organic composition and shape, and the links between atmospheric aerosol composition and particles produced in smog chambers. This type of single particle microscopy has also added to size distribution measurements by providing evidence of how surface-controlled and bulk-controlled processes contribute to the growth of particles in the atmosphere. FTIR analysis of organic functional groups are sufficient to distinguish combustion, marine, and terrestrial organic particle sources and to show that each of those types of sources has a surprisingly similar organic functional group composition over four different oceans and four different continents. Augmenting the limited sampling of these off-line techniques with side-by-side inter-comparisons to online AMS provides complementary composition information and consistent quantitative attribution to sources (despite some clear method differences). Single-particle AMS techniques using light scattering and event trigger modes have now also characterized the types of particles found in urban, marine, and ship emission aerosols. Most recently, by combining with off-line techniques, single particle composition measurements have separated and quantified the contributions of organic, sulfate and salt components from ocean biogenic and sea spray

  10. Emerging organic contaminants in groundwater : a review of sources, fate and occurrence

    OpenAIRE

    Lapworth, D.J.; Baran, N.; Stuart, M.E.; Ward, R.S.

    2012-01-01

    Emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) detected in groundwater may have adverse effects on human health and aquatic ecosystems. This paper reviews the existing occurrence data in groundwater for a range of EOCs including pharmaceutical, personal care, ‘life-style’ and selected industrial compounds. The main sources and pathways for organic EOCs in groundwater are reviewed, with occurrence data for EOCs in groundwater included from both targeted studies and broad reconnaissance surveys. Nanogram...

  11. Tracing organic matter sources in a tropical lagoon of the Caribbean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Hernández, Carlos M.; Garcia-Moya, Alejandro; Tolosa, Imma; Diaz-Asencio, Misael; Corcho-Alvarado, Jose Antonio; Morera-Gomez, Yasser; Fanelli, Emanuela

    2017-09-01

    The natural protected lagoon of Guanaroca, located between Cienfuegos Bay and the Arimao River, Cuba, has been heavily impacted by human-induced environmental changes over the past century. Sources of organic matter in the Guanaroca lagoon and concentrations of radioisotopes (210Pb, 226Ra, 137Cs and 239,240Pu), as tracers of anthropogenic impacts, were investigated in a 78 cm sediment core. Variations in total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), stable isotopic composition (δ13C and δ15N) and ratio of total organic carbon to total nitrogen (C/N) were analysed. On such a basis, environmental changes in the lagoon were revealed. Down core variation patterns of the parameters representing sources of organic matter were predominantly related to the impacts of human activities. Up to the nineteenth century, the principal sources of organic matter to sediments (more than 80%) were a mixing of terrestrial vascular plants ( 48%) and freshwater phytoplankton ( 8%), with minimal contribution from the marine component ( 16%). In the period 1900-1980, due to the strong influence of human activities in the catchment area, the water exchange capacity of the lagoon declined substantially, as indicated by the relatively high proportion of organic matter originated from human activities (58%). Since 1980, as a result of management actions in the protected area, the lagoon has regained gradually its capability to exchange freshwater, showing sources of organic matter similar to the natural conditions recorded previous to 1900, although an indication of human impact (treated sewage contributed for 26% to the organic matter in sediments) was still observed and further management measures would be required.

  12. Methods of analysis for complex organic aerosol mixtures from urban emission sources of particulate carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurek, M.A.; Hildemann, L.M.; Simoneit, B.R.T.

    1990-10-01

    Organic aerosols comprise approximately 30% by mass of the total fine particulate matter present in urban atmospheres. The chemical composition of such aerosols is complex and reflects input from multiple sources of primary emissions to the atmosphere, as well as from secondary production of carbonaceous aerosol species via photochemical reactions. To identify discrete sources of fine carbonaceous particles in urban atmospheres, analytical methods must reconcile both bulk chemical and molecular properties of the total carbonaceous aerosol fraction. This paper presents an overview of the analytical protocol developed and used in a study of the major sources of fine carbon particles emitted to an urban atmosphere. 23 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  13. Trimethylsilyl derivatives of organic compounds in source samples and in atmospheric fine particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Christopher G; Schauer, James J; Cass, Glen R; Simoneit, Bernd R T

    2002-10-15

    Source sample extracts of vegetative detritus, motor vehicle exhaust, tire dust paved road dust, and cigarette smoke have been silylated and analyzed by GC-MS to identify polar organic compounds that may serve as tracers for those specific emission sources of atmospheric fine particulate matter. Candidate molecular tracers were also identified in atmospheric fine particle samples collected in the San Joaquin Valley of California. A series of normal primary alkanols, dominated by even carbon-numbered homologues from C26 to C32, the secondary alcohol 10-nonacosanol, and some phytosterols are prominent polar compounds in the vegetative detritus source sample. No new polar organic compounds are found in the motor vehicle exhaust samples. Several hydrogenated resin acids are present in the tire dust sample, which might serve as useful tracers for those sources in areas that are heavily impacted by motor vehicle traffic. Finally, the alcohol and sterol emission profiles developed for all the source samples examined in this project are scaled according to the ambient fine particle mass concentrations attributed to those sources by a chemical mass balance receptor model that was previously applied to the San Joaquin Valley to compute the predicted atmospheric concentrations of individual alcohols and sterols. The resulting underprediction of alkanol concentrations at the urban sites suggests that alkanols may be more sensitive tracers for natural background from vegetative emissions (i.e., waxes) than the high molecular weight alkanes, which have been the best previously available tracers for that source.

  14. Oxygenated organic functional groups and their sources in single and submicron organic particles in MILAGRO 2006 campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Liu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF were used to measure organic functional groups and elements of submicron particles collected during MILAGRO in March 2006 on three platforms: the Mexico City urban area (SIMAT, the high altitude site at 4010 m (Altzomoni, and the NCAR C130 aircraft. Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM and Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS were applied to single particle organic functional group abundance analysis of particles simultaneously collected at SIMAT and C130. Correlations of elemental concentrations showed different groups of source-related elements at SIMAT, Altzomoni, and C130, suggesting different processes affecting the air masses sampled at the three platforms. Cluster analysis resulted in seven distinct clusters of FTIR spectra, with the last three clusters consisting of spectra collected almost exclusively on the C130 platform, reflecting the variety of sources contributing to C130 samples. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF of STXM-NEXAFS spectra identified three main factors representing soot, secondary, and biomass burning type spectra. PMF of FTIR spectra resulted in two fossil fuel combustion factors and one biomass burning factor, the former representative of source regions to the northeast and southwest of SIMAT. Alkane, carboxylic acid, amine, and alcohol functional groups were mainly associated with combustion related sources, while non-acid carbonyl groups were likely from biomass burning events. The majority of OM and O/C was attributed to combustion sources, although no distinction between direct emissions and atmospherically processed OM could be identified.

  15. Models as Relational Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkonen, Tommi

    2017-11-01

    Model-based learning (MBL) has an established position within science education. It has been found to enhance conceptual understanding and provide a way for engaging students in authentic scientific activity. Despite ample research, few studies have examined the cognitive processes regarding learning scientific concepts within MBL. On the other hand, recent research within cognitive science has examined the learning of so-called relational categories. Relational categories are categories whose membership is determined on the basis of the common relational structure. In this theoretical paper, I argue that viewing models as relational categories provides a well-motivated cognitive basis for MBL. I discuss the different roles of models and modeling within MBL (using ready-made models, constructive modeling, and generative modeling) and discern the related cognitive aspects brought forward by the reinterpretation of models as relational categories. I will argue that relational knowledge is vital in learning novel models and in the transfer of learning. Moreover, relational knowledge underlies the coherent, hierarchical knowledge of experts. Lastly, I will examine how the format of external representations may affect the learning of models and the relevant relations. The nature of the learning mechanisms underlying students' mental representations of models is an interesting open question to be examined. Furthermore, the ways in which the expert-like knowledge develops and how to best support it is in need of more research. The discussion and conceptualization of models as relational categories allows discerning students' mental representations of models in terms of evolving relational structures in greater detail than previously done.

  16. Tracing organic matter sources of estuarine tidal flat nematodes with stable carbon isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moens, T.; Luyten, C.; Middelburg, J.J.; Herman, P.M.J.; Vincx, M.

    2002-01-01

    The present study explores the use of stable carbon isotopes to trace organic matter sources of intertidal nematodes in the Schelde estuary (SW Netherlands). Stable carbon isotope signatures of nematodes from a saltmarsh and 4 tidal flat stations were determined in spring and winter situations, and

  17. Tracing estuarine organic matter sources into the southern North Sea using C and N isotopic signatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bristow, Laura A.; Jickells, Timothy D.; Weston, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Sources and distribution of particulate organic matter in surface waters of the Humber and Thames estuaries and in the East Anglian plume in the southern North Sea were investigated in winter 2006/2007. Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stable isotopes provided evidence for the presence of three partic...

  18. Categories of transactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter discusses the types of wholesale sales made by utilities. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), which regulates inter-utility sales, divides these sales into two broad categories: requirements and coordination. A variety of wholesale sales do not fall neatly into either category. For example, power purchased to replace the Three Mile Island outage is in a sense a reliability purchase, since it is bought on a long-term firm basis to meet basic load requirements. However, it does not fit the traditional model of a sale considered as part of each utility's long range planning. In addition, this chapter discusses transmission services, with a particular emphasis on wheeling

  19. Seasonal variation and source estimation of organic compounds in urban aerosol of Augsburg, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrogrande, Maria Chiara; Abbaszade, Guelcin; Schnelle-Kreis, Juergen; Bacco, Dimitri; Mercuriali, Mattia; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    This study reports a general assessment of the organic composition of the PM 2.5 samples collected in the city of Augsburg, Germany in a summer (August-September 2007) and a winter (February-March 2008) campaign of 36 and 30 days, respectively. The samples were directly submitted to in-situ derivatisation thermal desorption gas chromatography coupled with time of flight mass spectrometry (IDTD-GC-TOFMS) to simultaneously determine the concentrations of many classes of molecular markers, such as n-alkanes, iso- and anteiso-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), oxidized PAHs, n-alkanoic acids, alcohols, saccharides and others. The PCA analysis of the data identified the contributions of three emission sources, i.e., combustion sources, including fossil fuel emissions and biomass burning, vegetative detritus, and oxidized PAHs. The PM chemical composition shows seasonal trend: winter is characterized by high contribution of petroleum/wood combustion while the vegetative component and atmospheric photochemical reactions are predominant in the hot season. - Highlights: → 59 molecular markers were simultaneously determined by thermal desorption GC-MS. → Organic composition of urban PM 2.5 in Augsburg, Germany, was characterized. → Fossil fuel, vegetative detritus, coal/wood burning are the main sources. → Seasonal trends winter vs. summer were identified. - Organic composition of the urban PM 2.5 identifies seasonal trend of the main sources: fossil fuel and biomass combustion sources, vegetative detritus, atmospheric photochemical reactions.

  20. Relationship between organic precursors and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation in tropical water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wang; Fang Yee, Lim; Jiangyong, Hu

    2014-12-01

    The presence of organic compounds in water sources is one of the concerns in water treatment. They are potential precursors of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) and thus induce health problems in humans. Among the emerging DBPs, carcinogenic compound N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) has been receiving attention during the last decade. This study examined the characteristics of organic components in various water sources and investigated their relationships with NDMA formation. Experiments were carried out on selected water samples from both natural water and wastewater. Results showed similar NDMA formation kinetics for both water sources. However, more contribution of NDMA precursors was found to be from the wastewater due to its higher organic nitrogen content. NDMA formation potential (NDMAFP) of secondary effluent ranged from 264 to 530 ng/L. A correlation study between organic compound characteristics and NDMAFP indicated that the majority of NDMA precursors came from dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) compound with small molecular weight (smaller than 500 Da), with correlation R(2) = 0.898. Although secondary treatment removed more than 90% of NDMA precursors, the remaining precursors in secondary effluent would still pose a challenge for water quality.

  1. Source rock potential of the organic rich Turonian - Upper Campanian carbonates of northern Lebanon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daher, S. Bou; Littke, R. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Energy and Mineral Resources Group (EMR); Nader, F.H. [IFP Energies nouvelles, Paris (France). Dept. of Sedimentology-Stratigraphy

    2013-08-01

    Upper Cretaceous chalks, marls, and shales are arguably the most prolific petroleum source rocks in the eastern Mediterranean region. 209 core samples from the Turonian - Upper Campanian rock succession in north Lebanon were collected and analyzed for their organic matter (OM) content, quality, and maturity. The total organic carbon (TOC) measurements revealed a very good source rock potential for a 150 m interval within the Upper Santonian - Upper Campanian, with an average of 2% TOC. High HI values (average 707 mg/g TOC) characterize these source rocks as type I kerogen and reflect a very good preservation of the organic matter. T{sub max} values (average 421 C) match the other maturity parameters such as vitrinite reflectance (average 0.35%), and all point towards immature organic matter. The equivalent Upper Cretaceous in the offshore Levant basin has enough overburden to have reached maturity. However, the accurate extrapolation of the organic matter quality and quantity to the offshore is yet a challenge with the data at hand. (orig.)

  2. In Silico Characterization of Pectate Lyase Protein Sequences from Different Source Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Dubey

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 121 protein sequences of pectate lyases were subjected to homology search, multiple sequence alignment, phylogenetic tree construction, and motif analysis. The phylogenetic tree constructed revealed different clusters based on different source organisms representing bacterial, fungal, plant, and nematode pectate lyases. The multiple accessions of bacterial, fungal, nematode, and plant pectate lyase protein sequences were placed closely revealing a sequence level similarity. The multiple sequence alignment of these pectate lyase protein sequences from different source organisms showed conserved regions at different stretches with maximum homology from amino acid residues 439–467, 715–816, and 829–910 which could be used for designing degenerate primers or probes specific for pectate lyases. The motif analysis revealed a conserved Pec_Lyase_C domain uniformly observed in all pectate lyases irrespective of variable sources suggesting its possible role in structural and enzymatic functions.

  3. Composition of source-sorted municipal organic waste collected in Danish cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine Lund; Jansen, Jes La Cour; Spliid, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Source-sorted municipal organic waste from different dwelling types in five Danish cities was sampled during one year. The samples were from permanent, full-scale systems or temporary, experimental systems for collection of source-sorted municipal organic waste. Pre-treatment of the organic waste...... prior to biological treatment was used in all cities to remove foreign objects and provide size reduction. All sampling was performed after pre-treatment in order to obtain more homogeneous and representative samples. The sampling included both the pre-treated waste and the reject from the pre......-treatment allowing for estimation of the composition of the original waste. A total of 40 waste samples were chemically characterised with respect to 15 parameters. The waste generally consisted of around 88% VS of which an average of 80% was easily degradable. The average content of N, P and K in the dry matter...

  4. Antecedents of open source software adoption in health care organizations: a qualitative survey of experts in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsan, Josianne; Paré, Guy

    2013-08-01

    Open source software (OSS) adoption and use in health care organizations (HCOs) is relatively low in developed countries, but several contextual factors have recently encouraged the consideration of the possible role of OSS in information technology (IT) application portfolios. This article aims at developing a research model for investigating the antecedents of OSS adoption decisions in HCOs. Based on a conceptual framework derived from a synthesis of the literature on IT adoption in organizations, we conducted 18 semi-structured interviews with IT experts from all levels of the Province of Quebec's health and social services sector in Canada. We also interviewed 10 IT suppliers in the province. A qualitative data analysis of the interviews was performed to identify major antecedents of OSS adoption decisions in HCOs. Eight factors associated with three distinct theoretical perspectives influence OSS adoption. More specifically, they are associated with the classical diffusion of innovations theory, the theory of resources, as well as institutional theory and its spin-off, the organizing vision theory. The factors fall under three categories: the characteristics of OSS as an innovation, the characteristics of the HCO with respect to its ability to absorb OSS, and the characteristics of the external environment with respect to institutional pressures and public discourse surrounding OSS. We shed light on two novel factors that closely interact with each other: (1) interest of the health care community in the public discourse surrounding OSS, and (2) clarity, consistency and richness of this discourse, whether found in magazines or other media. OSS still raises many questions and presents several challenges for HCOs. It is crucial that the different factors that explain an HCO's decision on OSS adoption be considered simultaneously. Doing so allows a better understanding of HCOs' rationale when deciding to adopt, or not to adopt, OSS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier

  5. Comparison of receptor models for source apportionment of volatile organic compounds in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Yu; Dai Wei; Shao Min; Liu Ying; Lu Sihua; Kuster, William; Goldan, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Identifying the sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is key to reducing ground-level ozone and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). Several receptor models have been developed to apportion sources, but an intercomparison of these models had not been performed for VOCs in China. In the present study, we compared VOC sources based on chemical mass balance (CMB), UNMIX, and positive matrix factorization (PMF) models. Gasoline-related sources, petrochemical production, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) were identified by all three models as the major contributors, with UNMIX and PMF producing quite similar results. The contributions of gasoline-related sources and LPG estimated by the CMB model were higher, and petrochemical emissions were lower than in the UNMIX and PMF results, possibly because the VOC profiles used in the CMB model were for fresh emissions and the profiles extracted from ambient measurements by the two-factor analysis models were 'aged'. - VOCs sources were similar for three models with CMB showing a higher estimate for vehicles

  6. Comparison of receptor models for source apportionment of volatile organic compounds in Beijing, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Yu; Dai Wei [Department of Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Shao Min [State Joint Key Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)], E-mail: mshao@pku.edu.cn; Liu Ying; Lu Sihua [State Joint Key Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Kuster, William; Goldan, Paul [Chemical Sciences Division, NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Identifying the sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is key to reducing ground-level ozone and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). Several receptor models have been developed to apportion sources, but an intercomparison of these models had not been performed for VOCs in China. In the present study, we compared VOC sources based on chemical mass balance (CMB), UNMIX, and positive matrix factorization (PMF) models. Gasoline-related sources, petrochemical production, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) were identified by all three models as the major contributors, with UNMIX and PMF producing quite similar results. The contributions of gasoline-related sources and LPG estimated by the CMB model were higher, and petrochemical emissions were lower than in the UNMIX and PMF results, possibly because the VOC profiles used in the CMB model were for fresh emissions and the profiles extracted from ambient measurements by the two-factor analysis models were 'aged'. - VOCs sources were similar for three models with CMB showing a higher estimate for vehicles.

  7. Palynofacies assemblages reflect sources of organic matter in New Zealand fjords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prebble, Joseph G.; Hinojosa, Jessica L.; Moy, Christopher M.

    2018-02-01

    Understanding sources and transport pathways of organic carbon in fjord systems is important to quantify carbon cycling in coastal settings. Provenance of surficial sediment organic carbon in Fiordland National Park (southwestern New Zealand) has previously been estimated using a range of techniques, including mixing models derived from stable isotopes and lipid biomarker distributions. Here, we present the first application of palynofacies to explore the sources of particulate organic carbon to five fjords along the SW margin of New Zealand, to further discriminate the provenance of organic carbon in the fjords. We find good correlation between isotopic-and biomarker-derived proxies for organic carbon provenance and our new palynofacies observations. We observe strong down-fjord gradients of decreasing terrestrially derived organic carbon further from the river inflow at fjord heads. Fjords with small catchments and minor fresh water inflow exhibit reversed gradients, indicating that volume of freshwater entering at the fjord head is a primary mechanism to transport particulates down fjord rather than local transport from fjord sides. The palynofacies data also confirmed previously recorded latitudinal trends (i.e. between fjords), of less frequent and more weathered terrestrially derived organic carbon in the southern fjords, consistent with enhanced marine inflow and longer transport times in the southern catchments. Dinocyst assemblages also exhibit a strong latitudinal gradient, with assemblages dominated by heterotrophic forms in the north. In addition to providing support for previous studies, this approach allows finer discrimination of terrestrial organic carbon than previously, for example variation of leaf material. This study demonstrates that visual palynofacies analysis is a valuable tool to pinpoint origins of organic carbon in fjord systems, providing different but complementary information to other proxies.

  8. Functional group composition of ambient and source organic aerosols determined by tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dron, J.; El Haddad, I.; Temime-Roussel, B.; Wortham, H.; Marchand, N. [Univ Aix Marseille, CNRS, Lab Chim Provence, Equipe Instrumentat and React Atmospher, UMR 6264, F-13331 Marseille 3 (France); Jaffrezo, J.L. [Univ Grenoble 1, CNRS, UMR 5183, Lab Glaciol and Geophys Environm, F-38402 St Martin Dheres (France)

    2010-07-01

    The functional group composition of various organic aerosols (OA) is investigated using a recently developed analytical approach based on atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (APCIMS/MS). The determinations of three functional groups contents are performed quantitatively by neutral loss (carboxylic and carbonyl groups, R-COOH and R-CO-R' respectively) and precursor ion (nitro groups, R-NO{sub 2}) scanning modes of a tandem mass spectrometer. Major organic aerosol sources are studied: vehicular emission and wood combustion for primary aerosol sources; and a secondary organic aerosol (SOA) produced through photooxidation of o-xylene. The results reveal significant differences in the functional group contents of these source aerosols. The laboratory generated SOA is dominated by carbonyls while carboxylics are preponderate in the wood combustion particles. On the other hand, vehicular emissions are characterised by a strong nitro content. The total amount of the three functional groups accounts for 1.7% (vehicular) to 13.5% (o-xylene photooxidation) of the organic carbon. Diagnostic functional group ratios are then used to tentatively discriminate sources of particles collected in an urban background environment located in an Alpine valley (Chamonix, France) during a strong winter pollution event. The three functional groups under study account for a total functionalization rate of 2.2 to 3.8% of the organic carbon in this ambient aerosol, which is also dominated by carboxylic moieties. In this particular case study of a deep alpine valley during winter, we show that the nitro- and carbonyl-to-carboxylic diagnostic ratios can be a useful tool to discriminate sources. In these conditions, the total OA concentrations are highly dominated by wood combustion OA. This result is confirmed by an organic markers source apportionment approach which assess a wood burning organic carbon contribution of about 60%. Finally, examples of functional

  9. Functional group composition of ambient and source organic aerosols determined by tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dron

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The functional group composition of various organic aerosols (OA is investigated using a recently developed analytical approach based on atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS. The determinations of three functional groups contents are performed quantitatively by neutral loss (carboxylic and carbonyl groups, R-COOH and R-CO-R´ respectively and precursor ion (nitro groups, R-NO2 scanning modes of a tandem mass spectrometer. Major organic aerosol sources are studied: vehicular emission and wood combustion for primary aerosol sources; and a secondary organic aerosol (SOA produced through photooxidation of o-xylene. The results reveal significant differences in the functional group contents of these source aerosols. The laboratory generated SOA is dominated by carbonyls while carboxylics are preponderate in the wood combustion particles. On the other hand, vehicular emissions are characterised by a strong nitro content. The total amount of the three functional groups accounts for 1.7% (vehicular to 13.5% (o-xylene photooxidation of the organic carbon. Diagnostic functional group ratios are then used to tentatively discriminate sources of particles collected in an urban background environment located in an Alpine valley (Chamonix, France during a strong winter pollution event. The three functional groups under study account for a total functionalisation rate of 2.2 to 3.8% of the organic carbon in this ambient aerosol, which is also dominated by carboxylic moieties. In this particular case study of a deep alpine valley during winter, we show that the nitro- and carbonyl-to-carboxylic diagnostic ratios can be a useful tool to discriminate sources. In these conditions, the total OA concentrations are highly dominated by wood combustion OA. This result is confirmed by an organic markers source apportionment approach which assess a wood burning organic carbon contribution of about 60

  10. Relationships between organic matter, black carbon and persistent organic pollutants in European background soils: Implications for sources and environmental fate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Jae Jak [Centre for Chemicals Management and Environmental Science Department, Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, RDA, 249 Sedun, Suwon 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Gustafsson, Orjan [Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Kurt-Karakus, Perihan [Centre for Chemicals Management and Environmental Science Department, Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Breivik, Knut [Norwegian Institute for Air Research, P.O. Box 100, NO-2027 Kjeller (Norway); University of Oslo, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 1033, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Steinnes, Eiliv [Department of Chemistry, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Jones, Kevin C. [Centre for Chemicals Management and Environmental Science Department, Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: k.c.jones@lancaster.ac.uk

    2008-12-15

    Black carbon (BC) and total organic carbon (TOC) contents of UK and Norwegian background soils were determined and their relationships with persistent organic pollutants (HCB, PAHs, PCBs, co-planar PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs) investigated by correlation and regression analyses, to assess their roles in influencing compound partitioning/retention in soils. The 52 soils used were high in TOC (range 54-460 mg/g (mean 256)), while BC only constituted 0.24-1.8% (0.88%) of the TOC. TOC was strongly correlated (p < 0.001) with HCB, PCBs, co-PCBs and PBDEs, but less so with PCDD/Fs (p < 0.05) and PAHs. TOC explained variability in soil content, as follows: HCB, 80%; PCBs, 44%; co-PCBs, 40%; PBDEs, 27%. BC also gave statistically significant correlations with PBDEs (p < 0.001), co-PCBs (p < 0.01) and PCBs, HCB, PCDD/F (p < 0.05); TOC and BC were correlated with each other (p < 0.01). Inferences are made about possible combustion-derived sources, atmospheric transport and air-surface exchange processes for these compounds. - Total organic carbon and black carbon fractions can play an important role in the storage and cycling of persistent organic pollutants in background soils.

  11. Relationships between organic matter, black carbon and persistent organic pollutants in European background soils: Implications for sources and environmental fate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Jae Jak; Gustafsson, Orjan; Kurt-Karakus, Perihan; Breivik, Knut; Steinnes, Eiliv; Jones, Kevin C.

    2008-01-01

    Black carbon (BC) and total organic carbon (TOC) contents of UK and Norwegian background soils were determined and their relationships with persistent organic pollutants (HCB, PAHs, PCBs, co-planar PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs) investigated by correlation and regression analyses, to assess their roles in influencing compound partitioning/retention in soils. The 52 soils used were high in TOC (range 54-460 mg/g (mean 256)), while BC only constituted 0.24-1.8% (0.88%) of the TOC. TOC was strongly correlated (p < 0.001) with HCB, PCBs, co-PCBs and PBDEs, but less so with PCDD/Fs (p < 0.05) and PAHs. TOC explained variability in soil content, as follows: HCB, 80%; PCBs, 44%; co-PCBs, 40%; PBDEs, 27%. BC also gave statistically significant correlations with PBDEs (p < 0.001), co-PCBs (p < 0.01) and PCBs, HCB, PCDD/F (p < 0.05); TOC and BC were correlated with each other (p < 0.01). Inferences are made about possible combustion-derived sources, atmospheric transport and air-surface exchange processes for these compounds. - Total organic carbon and black carbon fractions can play an important role in the storage and cycling of persistent organic pollutants in background soils

  12. Primary sources of PM2.5 organic aerosol in an industrial Mediterranean city, Marseille

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haddad, I.; Marchand, N.; Wortham, H.; Piot, C.; Besombes, J.-L.; Cozic, J.; Chauvel, C.; Armengaud, A.; Robin, D.; Jaffrezo, J.-L.

    2011-03-01

    Marseille, the most important port of the Mediterranean Sea, represents a challenging case study for source apportionment exercises, combining an active photochemistry and multiple emission sources, including fugitive emissions from industrial sources and shipping. This paper presents a Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) approach based on organic markers and metals to apportion the primary sources of organic aerosol in Marseille, with a special focus on industrial emissions. Overall, the CMB model accounts for the major primary anthropogenic sources including motor vehicles, biomass burning and the aggregate emissions from three industrial processes (heavy fuel oil combustion/shipping, coke production and steel manufacturing) as well as some primary biogenic emissions. This source apportionment exercise is well corroborated by 14C measurements. Primary OC estimated by the CMB accounts on average for 22% of total OC and is dominated by the vehicular emissions that contribute on average for 17% of OC mass concentration (vehicular PM contributes for 17% of PM2.5). Even though industrial emissions contribute only 2.3% of the total OC (7% of PM2.5), they are associated with ultrafine particles (Dpheavy metals such as Pb, Ni and V. On one hand, given that industrial emissions governed key primary markers, their omission would lead to substantial uncertainties in the CMB analysis performed in areas heavily impacted by such sources, hindering accurate estimation of non-industrial primary sources and secondary sources. On the other hand, being associated with bursts of submicron particles and carcinogenic and mutagenic components such as PAH, these emissions are most likely related with acute ill-health outcomes and should be regulated despite their small contributions to OC. Another important result is the fact that 78% of OC mass cannot be attributed to the major primary sources and, thus, remains un-apportioned. We have consequently critically investigated the uncertainties

  13. Organic aerosol source apportionment by offline-AMS over a full year in Marseille

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzetti, Carlo; El Haddad, Imad; Salameh, Dalia; Daellenbach, Kaspar Rudolf; Fermo, Paola; Gonzalez, Raquel; Cruz Minguillón, María; Iinuma, Yoshiteru; Poulain, Laurent; Elser, Miriam; Müller, Emanuel; Gates Slowik, Jay; Jaffrezo, Jean-Luc; Baltensperger, Urs; Marchand, Nicolas; Prévôt, André Stephan Henry

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the seasonal trends of OA sources affecting the air quality of Marseille (France), which is the largest harbor of the Mediterranean Sea. This was achieved by measurements of nebulized filter extracts using an aerosol mass spectrometer (offline-AMS). In total 216 PM2. 5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter water-soluble ions, metals, elemental and organic carbon (EC / OC), and organic markers, including n-alkanes, hopanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), lignin and cellulose pyrolysis products, and nitrocatechols. The application of positive matrix factorization (PMF) to the water-soluble AMS spectra enabled the extraction of five factors, related to hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), cooking OA (COA), biomass burning OA (BBOA), oxygenated OA (OOA), and an industry-related OA (INDOA). Seasonal trends and relative contributions of OA sources were compared with the source apportionment of OA spectra collected from the AMS field deployment at the same station but in different years and for shorter monitoring periods (February 2011 and July 2008). Online- and offline-AMS source apportionment revealed comparable seasonal contribution of the different OA sources. Results revealed that BBOA was the dominant source during winter, representing on average 48 % of the OA, while during summer the main OA component was OOA (63 % of OA mass on average). HOA related to traffic emissions contributed on a yearly average 17 % to the OA mass, while COA was a minor source contributing 4 %. The contribution of INDOA was enhanced during winter (17 % during winter and 11 % during summer), consistent with an increased contribution from light alkanes, light PAHs (fluoranthene, pyrene, phenanthrene), and selenium, which is commonly considered as a unique coal combustion and coke production marker. Online- and offline-AMS source apportionments revealed evolving levoglucosan : BBOA ratios, which were higher during late autumn and March. A similar seasonality was

  14. Source apportionment of fine organic aerosol in Mexico City during the MILAGRO experiment 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Stone

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic carbon (OC comprises a large fraction of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 in Mexico City. Daily and select 12-h PM2.5 samples were collected in urban and peripheral sites in Mexico City from 17–30 March 2006. Samples were analyzed for OC and elemental carbon (EC using thermal-optical filter-based methods. Real-time water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC was collected at the peripheral site. Organic compounds, particularly molecular markers, were quantified by soxhlet extraction with methanol and dichloromethane, derivitization, and gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GCMS. A chemical mass balance model (CMB based on molecular marker species was used to determine the relative contribution of major sources to ambient OC. Motor vehicles, including diesel and gasoline, consistently accounted for 49% of OC in the urban area and 32% on the periphery. The daily contribution of biomass burning to OC was highly variable, and ranged from 5–26% at the urban site and 7–39% at the peripheral site. The remaining OC unapportioned to primary sources showed a strong correlation with WSOC and was considered to be secondary in nature. Comparison of temporally resolved OC showed that contributions from primary aerosol sources during daylight hours were not significantly different from nighttime. This study provides quantitative understanding of the important sources of OC during the MILAGRO 2006 field campaign.

  15. [Liver engineering as a new source of donor organs : A systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mußbach, F; Dahmen, U; Dirsch, O; Settmacher, U

    2016-06-01

    Organ engineering is a new strategy to cope with the shortage of donor organs. A functional scaffold from explanted organs is prepared by removing all cellular components (decellularization) and the reseeding (repopulation) of the organ scaffold to generate a functional organ in vitro for transplantation. This technique was also applied to the liver (liver engineering). Outline of the current state of the art and resulting approaches for future research strategies. Systematic review according to the PRISMA guidelines: a PubMed-based literature search (search terms liver, decellularization), selection of relevant articles based on predetermined criteria for relevance (e.g. decellularization, repopulation and transplantation), extraction and critical appraisal of data and results concerning the conditions for decellularization, repopulation and transplantation. Decellularization was successfully performed in small and large animal models. Hepatocytes as well as stem cells and hepatic cell lines were applied for repopulation and 7 publications could show the successful transplantation of acellular and repopulated organ scaffolds. The current scientific need for further studies concerning the source of donor organs, optimization of the decellularization process, the cell type for the reseeding process and the establishment of the optimal conditions for the repopulation of the scaffold is still tremendous. For successful recellularization of the liver three goals need to be achieved: (1) reseeding of the organ scaffold with a sufficient amount of parenchymal cells, (2) endothelialization of the vascular tree to ensure the supply of oxygen and nutrients to parenchymal cells and (3) an appropriate epithelialization of the biliary tree. In order to progress to clinical trials a suitable transplantation model to verify the function of the organ constructs must be established. Liver engineering using biological cell-free organ scaffolds represents a scientific and ethical

  16. Secondary organic carbon quantification and source apportionment of PM10 in Kaifeng, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Lin; FENG Yinchang; WU Jianhui; ZHU Tan; BI Xiaohui; HAN Bo; YANG Weihong; YANG Zhiqiang

    2009-01-01

    During 2005, the filter samples of ambient PM10 from five sites and the source samples of particulate matter were collected in Kaifeng, Henan province of China. Nineteen elements, water-soluble ions, total carbon (TC) and organic carbon (OC) contained in samples were analyzed. Seven contributive source types were identified and their contributions to ambient PM10 were estimated by chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model. Weak associations between the concentrations of organic carbon and element carbon (EC) were observed during the sampling periods, indicating that there was secondary organic aerosol pollution in the urban atmosphere. An indirect method of "OC/EC minimum ratio" was applied to estimate the concentration of secondary organic carbon (SOC). The results showed that SOC contributed 26.2%, 32.4% and 18.0% of TC in spring, summer-fall and winter respectively, and the annual average SOC concentration was 7.07 μg/m3, accounting for 5.73% of the total mass in ambient PM10. The carbon species concentrations in ambient PM10 were recalculated by subtracting the SOC concentrations from measured concentrations of TC and OC to increase the compatibility of source and receptor measurements for CMB model.

  17. Influence of natural and novel organic carbon sources on denitrification in forest, degraded urban, and restored streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic carbon is important in regulating ecosystem function, and its source and abundance may be altered by urbanization. We investigated shifts in organic carbon quantity and quality associated with urbanization and ecosystem restoration, and its potential effects on denitrific...

  18. Sources and fate of organic matter in suspended and bottom sediments of the Mandovi and Zuari estuaries, Western India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shynu, R; Rao, V.P.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Kessarkar, P.M.; ManiMurali, R

    in western India during wet and dry seasons, to characterize the sources of organic matter (OM) in these systems. Unlike major rivers, SPM concentrations increase seaward with a general trend of decreasing particulate organic carbon (POC) in these rivers...

  19. Source profiles of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured in China: Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Shao, Min; Fu, Linlin; Lu, Sihua; Zeng, Limin; Tang, Dagang

    The profiles of major volatile organic compound (VOC) sources in China, including vehicle exhaust, gasoline vapor, paint, asphalt, industrial and residential coal burning, biomass burning, and the petrochemical industry, were experimentally determined. Source samples were taken using a dilution chamber for mobile and stationary sources, biomass burning in an actual Chinese farmer's house, and ambient air in a petrochemical industrial area. The concentrations of 92 VOC species were quantified using canister sampling and a gas chromatography-flame ionization detection/mass spectrometry system, and VOC source profiles were developed for source apportionment of VOCs in the Pearl River Delta region. Based on the measurement of source profiles, possible tracers for various emission sources were identified; e.g., 2-methylpentane and 1,3-butadiene could be used as tracers for vehicle exhaust; the characteristic compounds of architectural coating were aromatics such as toluene and m, p-xylene; the light hydrocarbons, namely n-butane, trans-2-butene, and n-pentane, dominated the composition of gasoline vapor; and n-nonane, n-decane, and n-undecane were found to be typical of diesel vapor and asphalt application processes. As different emission sources are characterized by overlapping VOC species, the ratio of possible VOC tracers could be used to assess the contribution of various sources. The ratios between n-butane and isobutane, 1,3-butadiene and isoprene, and the ratios of aromatics (e.g., toluene to benzene and ethylbenzene to m, p-xylene) in the measured sources were compared.

  20. Primary and secondary organic aerosol origin by combined gas-particle phase source apportionment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Crippa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Secondary organic aerosol (SOA, a prominent fraction of particulate organic mass (OA, remains poorly constrained. Its formation involves several unknown precursors, formation and evolution pathways and multiple natural and anthropogenic sources. Here a combined gas-particle phase source apportionment is applied to wintertime and summertime data collected in the megacity of Paris in order to investigate SOA origin during both seasons. This was possible by combining the information provided by an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS and a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS. A better constrained apportionment of primary OA (POA sources is also achieved using this methodology, making use of gas-phase tracers. These tracers made possible the discrimination between biogenic and continental/anthropogenic sources of SOA. We found that continental SOA was dominant during both seasons (24–50% of total OA, while contributions from photochemistry-driven SOA (9% of total OA and marine emissions (13% of total OA were also observed during summertime. A semi-volatile nighttime component was also identified (up to 18% of total OA during wintertime. This approach was successfully applied here and implemented in a new source apportionment toolkit.

  1. Organic matter dynamics and stable isotope signature as tracers of the sources of suspended sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Schindler Wildhaber

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Suspended sediment (SS and organic matter in rivers can harm brown trout Salmo trutta by affecting the health and fitness of free swimming fish and by causing siltation of the riverbed. The temporal and spatial dynamics of sediment, carbon (C, and nitrogen (N during the brown trout spawning season in a small river of the Swiss Plateau were assessed and C isotopes as well as the C/N atomic ratio were used to distinguish autochthonous and allochthonous sources of organic matter in SS loads. The visual basic program IsoSource with 13Ctot and 15N as input isotopes was used to quantify the temporal and spatial sources of SS. Organic matter concentrations in the infiltrated and suspended sediment were highest during low flow periods with small sediment loads and lowest during high flow periods with high sediment loads. Peak values in nitrate and dissolved organic C were measured during high flow and high rainfall, probably due to leaching from pasture and arable land. The organic matter was of allochthonous sources as indicated by the C/N atomic ratio and δ13Corg. Organic matter in SS increased from up- to downstream due to an increase of pasture and arable land downstream of the river. The mean fraction of SS originating from upper watershed riverbed sediment decreased from up to downstream and increased during high flow at all measuring sites along the course of the river. During base flow conditions, the major sources of SS are pasture, forest and arable land. The latter increased during rainy and warmer winter periods, most likely because both triggered snow melt and thus erosion. The measured increase in DOC and nitrate concentrations during high flow support these modeling results. Enhanced soil erosion processes on pasture and arable land are expected with increasing heavy rain events and less snow during winter seasons due to climate change. Consequently, SS and organic

  2. A mixing-model approach to quantifying sources of organic matter to salt marsh sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, K. M.; Meile, C. D.

    2010-12-01

    Salt marshes are highly productive ecosystems, where autochthonous production controls an intricate exchange of carbon and energy among organisms. The major sources of organic carbon to these systems include 1) autochthonous production by vascular plant matter, 2) import of allochthonous plant material, and 3) phytoplankton biomass. Quantifying the relative contribution of organic matter sources to a salt marsh is important for understanding the fate and transformation of organic carbon in these systems, which also impacts the timing and magnitude of carbon export to the coastal ocean. A common approach to quantify organic matter source contributions to mixtures is the use of linear mixing models. To estimate the relative contributions of endmember materials to total organic matter in the sediment, the problem is formulated as a constrained linear least-square problem. However, the type of data that is utilized in such mixing models, the uncertainties in endmember compositions and the temporal dynamics of non-conservative entitites can have varying affects on the results. Making use of a comprehensive data set that encompasses several endmember characteristics - including a yearlong degradation experiment - we study the impact of these factors on estimates of the origin of sedimentary organic carbon in a saltmarsh located in the SE United States. We first evaluate the sensitivity of linear mixing models to the type of data employed by analyzing a series of mixing models that utilize various combinations of parameters (i.e. endmember characteristics such as δ13COC, C/N ratios or lignin content). Next, we assess the importance of using more than the minimum number of parameters required to estimate endmember contributions to the total organic matter pool. Then, we quantify the impact of data uncertainty on the outcome of the analysis using Monte Carlo simulations and accounting for the uncertainty in endmember characteristics. Finally, as biogeochemical processes

  3. Source rock evaluation and organic geochemistry of Belayim Marine Oil Field, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abu Al-Atta

    2014-09-01

    In general, TOC analyses showed that the Nubia-A and B formation sediments are fairly immature compared to good source rocks with very high Hydrogen Index indicative of kerogen type II. The geochemical investigations of two oil samples indicate that the Upper Rudeis oil of Belayim Marine was derived from a marine carbonate rich source, which is relatively rich in algal organic matter and has moderate sulfur content. The maturity of the analyzed oils (about 0.75% R0 falls short from the stage of peak hydrocarbon generation which is known to be reached at about 0.85% R0.

  4. Basic category theory

    CERN Document Server

    Leinster, Tom

    2014-01-01

    At the heart of this short introduction to category theory is the idea of a universal property, important throughout mathematics. After an introductory chapter giving the basic definitions, separate chapters explain three ways of expressing universal properties: via adjoint functors, representable functors, and limits. A final chapter ties all three together. The book is suitable for use in courses or for independent study. Assuming relatively little mathematical background, it is ideal for beginning graduate students or advanced undergraduates learning category theory for the first time. For each new categorical concept, a generous supply of examples is provided, taken from different parts of mathematics. At points where the leap in abstraction is particularly great (such as the Yoneda lemma), the reader will find careful and extensive explanations. Copious exercises are included.

  5. CHURCH, Category, and Speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinderknecht Jakob Karl

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Roman Catholic definition of “church”, especially as applied to groups of Protestant Christians, creates a number of well-known difficulties. The similarly complex category, “species,” provides a model for applying this term so as to neither lose the centrality of certain examples nor draw a hard boundary to rule out border cases. In this way, it can help us to more adequately apply the complex ecclesiology of the Second Vatican Council. This article draws parallels between the understanding of speciation and categorization and the definition of Church since the council. In doing so, it applies the work of cognitive linguists, including George Lakoff, Zoltan Kovecses, Giles Fauconnier and Mark Turner on categorization. We tend to think of categories as containers into which we sort objects according to essential criteria. However, categories are actually built inductively by making associations between objects. This means that natural categories, including species, are more porous than we assume, but nevertheless bear real meaning about the natural world. Taxonomists dispute the border between “zebras” and “wild asses,” but this distinction arises out of genetic and evolutionary reality; it is not merely arbitrary. Genetic descriptions of species has also led recently to the conviction that there are four species of giraffe, not one. This engagement will ground a vantage point from which the Council‘s complex ecclesiology can be more easily described so as to authentically integrate its noncompetitive vision vis-a-vis other Christians with its sense of the unique place held by Catholic Church.

  6. Visual memory needs categories

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Henrik; Poom, Leo

    2005-01-01

    Capacity limitations in the way humans store and process information in working memory have been extensively studied, and several memory systems have been distinguished. In line with previous capacity estimates for verbal memory and memory for spatial information, recent studies suggest that it is possible to retain up to four objects in visual working memory. The objects used have typically been categorically different colors and shapes. Because knowledge about categories is stored in long-t...

  7. Libertarianism & Category-Mistake

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos G. Patarroyo G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers a defense against two accusations according to which libertarianism incurs in a category-mistake. The philosophy of Gilbert Ryle will be used to explain the reasons which ground these accusations. Further, it will be shown why, although certain sorts of libertarianism based on agent-causation or Cartesian dualism incur in these mistakes, there is at least one version of libertarianism to which this criticism does not necessarily apply: the version that seeks to find in physi...

  8. Convergence semigroup categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Richardson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Properties of the category consisting of all objects of the form (X, S, λ are investigated, where X is a convergence space, S is a commutative semigroup, and λ: X × S → X is a continuous action. A “generalized quotient” of each object is defined without making the usual assumption that for each fixed g ∈ S, λ(., g : X  → X is an injection.

  9. Categories and Commutative Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Salmon, P

    2011-01-01

    L. Badescu: Sur certaines singularites des varietes algebriques.- D.A. Buchsbaum: Homological and commutative algebra.- S. Greco: Anelli Henseliani.- C. Lair: Morphismes et structures algebriques.- B.A. Mitchell: Introduction to category theory and homological algebra.- R. Rivet: Anneaux de series formelles et anneaux henseliens.- P. Salmon: Applicazioni della K-teoria all'algebra commutativa.- M. Tierney: Axiomatic sheaf theory: some constructions and applications.- C.B. Winters: An elementary lecture on algebraic spaces.

  10. Optical properties of organic-silicon photonic crystal nanoslot cavity light source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jay Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We theoretically study a dielectric photonic crystal nanoslot cavity immersed in an organic fluid containing near-infrared dyes by means of a full rate equation model including the complete cavity QED effects. Based on the modeling results, we numerically design an organic-silicon cavity light source in which its mode volume, quality factor, and far-field emission pattern are optimized for energy-efficient, high-speed applications. Dye quantum efficiency improved by two orders of magnitude and 3dB modulation bandwidth of a few hundred GHz can be obtained.

  11. Total organic carbon, an important tool in a holistic approach to hydrocarbon source fingerprinting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, P.D.; Burns, W.A.; Page, D.S.; Bence, A.E.; Mankiewicz, P.J.; Brown, J.S.; Douglas, G.S.

    2002-01-01

    Total organic carbon (TOC) was used to verify the consistency of source allocation results for the natural petrogenic hydrocarbon background of the northern Gulf of Alaska and Prince William Sound where the Exxon Valdez oil spill occurred in 1998. The samples used in the study were either pre-spill sediments or from the seafloor outside the spill path. It is assumed that the natural petrogenic hydrocarbon background in the area comes from either seep oil residues and shale erosion including erosion from petroleum source rock shales, or from coals including those of the Bering River coalfields. The objective of this study was to use the TOC calculations to discriminate between the two very different sources. TOC can constrain the contributions of specific sources and rule out incorrect source allocations, particularly when inputs are dominated by fossil organic carbon. The benthic sediments used in this study showed excellent agreement between measured TOC and calculated TOC from hydrocarbon fingerprint matches of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and chemical biomarkers. TOC and fingerprint matches confirmed that TOC sources were properly identified. The matches quantify the hydrocarbon contributions of different sources to the benthic sediments and the degree of hydrocarbon winnowing by waves and currents. It was concluded that the natural petrogenic hydrocarbon background in the sediments in the area comes from eroding Tertiary shales and oil seeps along the northern Gulf of Alaska coast. Thermally mature area coals are excluded from being important contributors to the background at Prince William Sound because of their high TOC content. 26 refs., 4 figs

  12. Total organic carbon, an important tool in a holistic approach to hydrocarbon source fingerprinting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, P.D. [Battelle, Waltham, MA (United States); Burns, W.A. [W.A. Burns Consulting Services, Houston, TX (United States); Page, D.S. [Bowdoin College, Brunswick, ME (United States); Bence, A.E.; Mankiewicz, P.J. [ExxonMobil Upstream Research Co., Houston, TX (United States); Brown, J.S.; Douglas, G.S. [Battelle, Duxbury, MA (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Total organic carbon (TOC) was used to verify the consistency of source allocation results for the natural petrogenic hydrocarbon background of the northern Gulf of Alaska and Prince William Sound where the Exxon Valdez oil spill occurred in 1998. The samples used in the study were either pre-spill sediments or from the seafloor outside the spill path. It is assumed that the natural petrogenic hydrocarbon background in the area comes from either seep oil residues and shale erosion including erosion from petroleum source rock shales, or from coals including those of the Bering River coalfields. The objective of this study was to use the TOC calculations to discriminate between the two very different sources. TOC can constrain the contributions of specific sources and rule out incorrect source allocations, particularly when inputs are dominated by fossil organic carbon. The benthic sediments used in this study showed excellent agreement between measured TOC and calculated TOC from hydrocarbon fingerprint matches of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and chemical biomarkers. TOC and fingerprint matches confirmed that TOC sources were properly identified. The matches quantify the hydrocarbon contributions of different sources to the benthic sediments and the degree of hydrocarbon winnowing by waves and currents. It was concluded that the natural petrogenic hydrocarbon background in the sediments in the area comes from eroding Tertiary shales and oil seeps along the northern Gulf of Alaska coast. Thermally mature area coals are excluded from being important contributors to the background at Prince William Sound because of their high TOC content. 26 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Using National Drug Codes and drug knowledge bases to organize prescription records from multiple sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonaitis, Linas; McDonald, Clement J

    2009-10-01

    The utility of National Drug Codes (NDCs) and drug knowledge bases (DKBs) in the organization of prescription records from multiple sources was studied. The master files of most pharmacy systems include NDCs and local codes to identify the products they dispense. We obtained a large sample of prescription records from seven different sources. These records carried a national product code or a local code that could be translated into a national product code via their formulary master. We obtained mapping tables from five DKBs. We measured the degree to which the DKB mapping tables covered the national product codes carried in or associated with the sample of prescription records. Considering the total prescription volume, DKBs covered 93.0-99.8% of the product codes from three outpatient sources and 77.4-97.0% of the product codes from four inpatient sources. Among the in-patient sources, invented codes explained 36-94% of the noncoverage. Outpatient pharmacy sources rarely invented codes, which comprised only 0.11-0.21% of their total prescription volume, compared with inpatient pharmacy sources for which invented codes comprised 1.7-7.4% of their prescription volume. The distribution of prescribed products was highly skewed, with 1.4-4.4% of codes accounting for 50% of the message volume and 10.7-34.5% accounting for 90% of the message volume. DKBs cover the product codes used by outpatient sources sufficiently well to permit automatic mapping. Changes in policies and standards could increase coverage of product codes used by inpatient sources.

  14. Ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Calgary, Alberta: Sources and screening health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Md Aynul; Kindzierski, Warren B

    2018-08-01

    Exposure to ambient volatile organic compound (VOCs) in urban areas is of interest because of their potential chronic and acute adverse effects to public health. Limited information is available about VOC sources in urban areas in Canada. An investigation of ambient VOCs levels, their potential sources and associated risks to public health was undertaken for the urban core of Alberta's largest city (downtown Calgary) for the period 2010-2015. Twenty-four hour arithmetic and geometric mean concentrations of total VOCs were 42μg/m 3 and 39μg/m 3 , respectively and ranged from 16 to 160μg/m 3 , with winter levels about two-fold higher than summer. Alkanes (58%) were the most dominant compounds followed by halogenated VOCs (22%) and aromatics (11%). Mean and maximum 24h ambient concentrations of selected VOCs of public health concern were below chronic and acute health risk screening criteria of the United States regulatory agencies and a cancer screening benchmark used in Alberta equivalent to 1 in 100,000 lifetime risk. The Positive matrix factorization (PMF) model revealed nine VOC sources at downtown Calgary, where oil/natural gas extraction/combustion (26%), fuel combustion (20%), traffic sources including gasoline exhaust, diesel exhaust, mixed fugitive emissions (10-15%), and industrial coatings/solvents (12%) were predominant. Other sources included dry cleaning (3.3%), biogenic (3.5%) and a background source (18%). Source-specific health risk values were also estimated. Estimated cancer risks for all sources were below the Alberta cancer screening benchmark, and estimated non-cancer risks for all sources were well below a safe level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Volatile chemical products emerging as largest petrochemical source of urban organic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Brian C.; de Gouw, Joost A.; Gilman, Jessica B.; Jathar, Shantanu H.; Akherati, Ali; Cappa, Christopher D.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Lee-Taylor, Julia; Hayes, Patrick L.; McKeen, Stuart A.; Cui, Yu Yan; Kim, Si-Wan; Gentner, Drew R.; Isaacman-VanWertz, Gabriel; Goldstein, Allen H.; Harley, Robert A.; Frost, Gregory J.; Roberts, James M.; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Trainer, Michael

    2018-02-01

    A gap in emission inventories of urban volatile organic compound (VOC) sources, which contribute to regional ozone and aerosol burdens, has increased as transportation emissions in the United States and Europe have declined rapidly. A detailed mass balance demonstrates that the use of volatile chemical products (VCPs)—including pesticides, coatings, printing inks, adhesives, cleaning agents, and personal care products—now constitutes half of fossil fuel VOC emissions in industrialized cities. The high fraction of VCP emissions is consistent with observed urban outdoor and indoor air measurements. We show that human exposure to carbonaceous aerosols of fossil origin is transitioning away from transportation-related sources and toward VCPs. Existing U.S. regulations on VCPs emphasize mitigating ozone and air toxics, but they currently exempt many chemicals that lead to secondary organic aerosols.

  16. Mangroves, a major source of dissolved organic carbon to the oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmar, Thorsten; Hertkorn, Norbert; Kattner, Gerhard; Lara, RubéN. J.

    2006-03-01

    Organic matter, which is dissolved in low concentrations in the vast waters of the oceans, contains a total amount of carbon similar to atmospheric carbon dioxide. To understand global biogeochemical cycles, it is crucial to quantify the sources of marine dissolved organic carbon (DOC). We investigated the impact of mangroves, the dominant intertidal vegetation of the tropics, on marine DOC inventories. Stable carbon isotopes and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that mangroves are the main source of terrigenous DOC in the open ocean off northern Brazil. Sunlight efficiently destroyed aromatic molecules during transport offshore, removing about one third of mangrove-derived DOC. The remainder was refractory and may thus be distributed over the oceans. On a global scale, we estimate that mangroves account for >10% of the terrestrially derived, refractory DOC transported to the ocean, while they cover only <0.1% of the continents' surface.

  17. Quantitative evaluation of emission controls on primary and secondary organic aerosol sources during Beijing 2008 Olympics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Guo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To assess the primary and secondary sources of fine organic aerosols after the aggressive implementation of air pollution controls during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, 12 h PM2.5 values were measured at an urban site at Peking University (PKU and an upwind rural site at Yufa during the CAREBEIJING-2008 (Campaigns of Air quality REsearch in BEIJING and surrounding region summer field campaign. The average PM2.5 concentrations were 72.5 ± 43.6 μg m−3 and 64.3 ± 36.2 μg m−3 (average ± standard deviation, below as the same at PKU and Yufa, respectively, showing the lowest concentrations in recent years. Combining the results from a CMB (chemical mass balance model and secondary organic aerosol (SOA tracer-yield model, five primary and four secondary fine organic aerosol sources were compared with the results from previous studies in Beijing. The relative contribution of mobile sources to PM2.5 concentrations was increased in 2008, with diesel engines contributing 16.2 ± 5.9% and 14.5 ± 4.1% and gasoline vehicles contributing 10.3 ± 8.7% and 7.9 ± 6.2% to organic carbon (OC at PKU and Yufa, respectively. Due to the implementation of emission controls, the absolute OC concentrations from primary sources were reduced during the Olympics, and the contributions from secondary formation of OC represented a larger relative source of fine organic aerosols. Compared with the non-controlled period prior to the Olympics, primary vehicle contributions were reduced by 30% at the urban site and 24% at the rural site. The reductions in coal combustion contributions were 57% at PKU and 7% at Yufa. Our results demonstrate that the emission control measures implemented in 2008 significantly alleviated the primary organic particle pollution in and around Beijing. However, additional studies are needed to provide a more comprehensive assessment of the emission control effectiveness on SOA formation.

  18. Sources, transport and deposition of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacyna, J M

    1996-01-01

    The conference paper deals with a study on the behaviour of heavy metals (HMs) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the environment. The conclusion is that many of these compounds create serious problems due their toxicity and bioaccumulation in various environmental compartments. Several scientific questions have been posed for improved understanding of the nature and the extent of these problems. The present paper addresses questions related to sources, fluxes, and atmospheric pathways of HMs and POPs in Europe

  19. Process performance and modelling of anaerobic digestion using source-sorted organic household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoshnevisan, Benyamin; Tsapekos, Panagiotis; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin

    2018-01-01

    Three distinctive start-up strategies of biogas reactors fed with source-sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste were investigated to reveal the most reliable procedure for rapid process stabilization. Moreover, the experimental results were compared with mathematical modeling outputs....... The combination of both experimental and modelling/simulation succeeded in optimizing the start-up process for anaerobic digestion of biopulp under mesophilic conditions....

  20. Source apportionment of ambient volatile organic compounds in the Pearl River Delta, China: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Shao, Min; Lu, Sihua; Chang, Chih-Chung; Wang, Jia-Lin; Fu, Linlin

    The chemical mass balance receptor model was applied to the source apportionment of 58 hydrocarbons measured at seven sites in a field campaign that examined regional air quality in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in the fall of 2004. A total of 12 volatile organic compound (VOC) emission sources were considered, including gasoline- and diesel-powered vehicle exhausts, headspace vapors of gasoline and diesel fuel, vehicle evaporative emissions, liquid petroleum gas (LPG) leakage, paint vapors, asphalt emissions from paved roads, biomass combustion, coal combustion, the chemical industry, and petroleum refineries. Vehicle exhaust was the largest source of VOCs, contributing to >50% of ambient VOCs at the three urban sites (Guangzhou, Foshan, and Zhongshan). LPG leakage played an important role, representing 8-16% of emissions at most sites in the PRD. Solvent usage was the biggest emitter of VOCs at Dongguan, an industrial site, contributing 33% of ambient VOCs. Similarly, at Xinken, a non-urban site, the evaporation of solvents and coatings was the largest emission source, accounting for 31% of emissions, probably because it was downwind of Dongguan. Local biomass combustion was a noticeable source of VOCs at Xinken; although its contribution was estimated at 14.3%, biomass combustion was the third largest VOC source at this site.

  1. Fertilizer 15N balance and recovery of N from organic sources by rice in Typic Ustochrept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Ranjan; Sachdev, M.S.; Sachdev, P.; Kundu, S.; Sutradhar, G.

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the fertilizer-N balance and recovery of N from organics (as determined by A-value technique) by rice as affected by urea application alone or in combination with FYM or green manure, a field experiment was conducted in the khariff season if 1997 at IARI, New Delhi on a sandy loam soil (Typic Ustochrept). 15 N-labelled urea was applied at 0.90 and 120 kg N ha -1 levels alone and in combination with either FYM or green manure in 2:1 or 1:1 ratios. Organic sources were incorporated seven days before transplanting whereas, urea was applied in three equal splits at 15 DAT, 28 DAT and 42 DAT. The residual 15 N in soil was determined only in the surface soil layer (0-15 cm) of rice crop. The combined source helped in conserving more of urea-N in soil as residual (42-45%) than urea alone (23-27%) treatment due to the fact that the unaccounted fertilizer 15 N was more in urea alone treatment (43-45%) than combined sources (12-15%) at both the levels. The efficiency of uptake of organic N by rice as determined through A-value technique was similar or better than urea-N at both the levels. (author)

  2. Sources and turnover of organic carbon and methane in fjord and shelf sediments off northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Simone; Hong, Wei-Li; Knies, Jochen; Lepland, Aivo; Forwick, Matthias; Klug, Martin; Eichinger, Florian; Baranwal, Soma; Crémière, Antoine; Chand, Shyam; Schubert, Carsten J.

    2016-10-01

    To better understand the present and past carbon cycling and transformation processes in methane-influenced fjord and shelf areas of northern Norway, we compared two sediment cores from the Hola trough and from Ullsfjorden. We investigated (1) the organic matter composition and sedimentological characteristics to study the sources of organic carbon (Corg) and the factors influencing Corg burial, (2) pore water geochemistry to determine the contribution of organoclastic sulfate reduction and methanogenesis to total organic carbon turnover, and (3) the carbon isotopic signature of hydrocarbons to identify the carbon transformation processes and gas sources. High sedimentation and Corg accumulation rates in Ullsfjorden support the notion that fjords are important Corg sinks. The depth of the sulfate-methane-transition (SMT) in the fjord is controlled by the supply of predominantly marine organic matter to the sediment. Organoclastic sulfate reduction accounts for 60% of the total depth-integrated sulfate reduction in the fjord. In spite of the presence of ethane, propane, and butane, we suggest a purely microbial origin of light hydrocarbons in the sediments based on their low δ13C values. In the Hola trough, sedimentation and Corg accumulation rates changed during the deglacial-to-post-glacial transition from approximately 80 cm ka-1 to erosion at present. Thus, Corg burial in this part of the shelf is presently absent. Low organic matter content in the sediment and low rates of organoclastic sulfate reduction (only 3% of total depth-integrated sulfate reduction) entail that the shallow depth of the SMT is controlled mostly by ascending thermogenic methane from deeper sources.

  3. Source tracing of natural organic matter bound mercury in boreal forest runoff with mercury stable isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiskra, Martin; Wiederhold, Jan G; Skyllberg, Ulf; Kronberg, Rose-Marie; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2017-10-18

    Terrestrial runoff represents a major source of mercury (Hg) to aquatic ecosystems. In boreal forest catchments, such as the one in northern Sweden studied here, mercury bound to natural organic matter (NOM) represents a large fraction of mercury in the runoff. We present a method to measure Hg stable isotope signatures of colloidal Hg, mainly complexed by high molecular weight or colloidal natural organic matter (NOM) in natural waters based on pre-enrichment by ultrafiltration, followed by freeze-drying and combustion. We report that Hg associated with high molecular weight NOM in the boreal forest runoff has very similar Hg isotope signatures as compared to the organic soil horizons of the catchment area. The mass-independent fractionation (MIF) signatures (Δ 199 Hg and Δ 200 Hg) measured in soils and runoff were in agreement with typical values reported for atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury (Hg 0 ) and distinctly different from reported Hg isotope signatures in precipitation. We therefore suggest that most Hg in the boreal terrestrial ecosystem originated from the deposition of Hg 0 through foliar uptake rather than precipitation. Using a mixing model we calculated the contribution of soil horizons to the Hg in the runoff. At moderate to high flow runoff conditions, that prevailed during sampling, the uppermost part of the organic horizon (Oe/He) contributed 50-70% of the Hg in the runoff, while the underlying more humified organic Oa/Ha and the mineral soil horizons displayed a lower mobility of Hg. The good agreement of the Hg isotope results with other source tracing approaches using radiocarbon signatures and Hg : C ratios provides additional support for the strong coupling between Hg and NOM. The exploratory results from this study illustrate the potential of Hg stable isotopes to trace the source of Hg from atmospheric deposition through the terrestrial ecosystem to soil runoff, and provide a basis for more in-depth studies investigating the

  4. Identifying the source, transport path and sinks of sewage derived organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudge, Stephen M.; Duce, Caroline E.

    2005-01-01

    Since sewage discharges can significantly contribute to the contaminant loadings in coastal areas, it is important to identify sources, pathways and environmental sinks. Sterol and fatty alcohol biomarkers were quantified in source materials, suspended sediments and settling matter from the Ria Formosa Lagoon. Simple ratios between key biomarkers including 5β-coprostanol, cholesterol and epi-coprostanol were able to identify the sewage sources and effected deposition sites. Multivariate methods (PCA) were used to identify co-varying sites. PLS analysis using the sewage discharge as the signature indicated ∼ 25% of the variance in the sites could be predicted by the sewage signature. A new source of sewage derived organic matter was found with a high sewage predictable signature. The suspended sediments had relatively low sewage signatures as the material was diluted with other organic matter from in situ production. From a management viewpoint, PLS provides a useful tool in identifying the pathways and accumulation sites for such contaminants. - Multivariate statistical analysis was used to identify pathways and accumulation sites for contaminants in coastal waters

  5. Seasonal variations and sources of sedimentary organic carbon in Tokyo Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Atsushi; Kanda, Jota

    2017-01-01

    Total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) contents, their stable C and N isotope ratio (δ 13 C and δ 15 N), and chlorophyll a ([Chl a] sed ) of surface sediments were investigated monthly to identify the seasonal variations and sources of organic matter in Tokyo Bay. The sedimentary TOC (TOC sed ) and TN (TN sed ) contents, and the sedimentary δ 13 C and δ 15 N (δ 13 C sed and δ 15 N sed ) values were higher in summer than other seasons. The seasonal variations were controlled by high primary production in the water column and hypoxic water in the bottom water during summer. The fraction of terrestrial and marine derived organic matter was estimated by Bayesian mixing model using stable isotope data and TOC/TN ratio. Surface sediments in Tokyo Bay are dominated by marine derived organic matter, which accounts for about 69 ± 5% of TOC sed . - Highlights: • High values of sedimentary organic carbon and nitrogen were observed in summer. • Surface sediments in Tokyo Bay were dominated by marine derived organic matter which was estimated by Bayesian mixing model. • The most amount of terrestrial POC was deposited and degraded in Tokyo Bay before being discharged to the open ocean.

  6. Global-scale combustion sources of organic aerosols: sensitivity to formation and removal mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimpidi, Alexandra P.; Karydis, Vlassis A.; Pandis, Spyros N.; Lelieveld, Jos

    2017-06-01

    Organic compounds from combustion sources such as biomass burning and fossil fuel use are major contributors to the global atmospheric load of aerosols. We analyzed the sensitivity of model-predicted global-scale organic aerosols (OA) to parameters that control primary emissions, photochemical aging, and the scavenging efficiency of organic vapors. We used a computationally efficient module for the description of OA composition and evolution in the atmosphere (ORACLE) of the global chemistry-climate model EMAC (ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry). A global dataset of aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements was used to evaluate simulated primary (POA) and secondary (SOA) OA concentrations. Model results are sensitive to the emission rates of intermediate-volatility organic compounds (IVOCs) and POA. Assuming enhanced reactivity of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and IVOCs with OH substantially improved the model performance for SOA. The use of a hybrid approach for the parameterization of the aging of IVOCs had a small effect on predicted SOA levels. The model performance improved by assuming that freshly emitted organic compounds are relatively hydrophobic and become increasingly hygroscopic due to oxidation.

  7. Identifying sources of metal exposure in organic and conventional dairy farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Alonso, M; Rey-Crespo, F; Herrero-Latorre, C; Miranda, M

    2017-10-01

    In humans the main route of exposure to toxic metals is through the diet, and there is therefore a clear need for this source of contamination to be minimized, particularly in food of animal origin. For this purpose, the various sources of toxic metals in livestock farming (which vary depending on the production system) must be taken into account. The objectives of the present study were to establish the profile of metal exposure in dairy cattle in Spain and to determine, by chemometric (multivariate statistical) analysis, any differences between organic and conventional systems. Blood samples from 522 cows (341 from organic farms and 181 from conventional farms) were analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to determine the concentrations of 14 elements: As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn. In conventional systems the generally high and balanced trace element concentrations in the mineral-supplemented concentrate feed strongly determined the metal status of the cattle. However, in organic systems, soil ingestion was an important contributing factor. Our results demonstrate that general information about the effects of mineral supplementation in conventional farming cannot be directly extrapolated to organic farming and special attention should be given to the contribution of ingestion of soil during grazing and/or ingestion of soil contaminated forage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. LIBERTARISMO & ERROR CATEGORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos G. Patarroyo G.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se ofrece una defensa del libertarismo frente a dos acusaciones según las cuales éste comete un error categorial. Para ello, se utiliza la filosofía de Gilbert Ryle como herramienta para explicar las razones que fundamentan estas acusaciones y para mostrar por qué, pese a que ciertas versiones del libertarismo que acuden a la causalidad de agentes o al dualismo cartesiano cometen estos errores, un libertarismo que busque en el indeterminismo fisicalista la base de la posibilidad de la libertad humana no necesariamente puede ser acusado de incurrir en ellos.

  9. Libertarianism & Category-Mistake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos G. Patarroyo G.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a defense against two accusations according to which libertarianism incurs in a category-mistake. The philosophy of Gilbert Ryle will be used to explain the reasons which ground these accusations. Further, it will be shown why, although certain sorts of libertarianism based on agent-causation or Cartesian dualism incur in these mistakes, there is at least one version of libertarianism to which this criticism does not necessarily apply: the version that seeks to find in physical indeterminism the grounding of human free will.

  10. Libertarismo & Error Categorial

    OpenAIRE

    PATARROYO G, CARLOS G

    2009-01-01

    En este artículo se ofrece una defensa del libertarismo frente a dos acusaciones según las cuales éste comete un error categorial. Para ello, se utiliza la filosofía de Gilbert Ryle como herramienta para explicar las razones que fundamentan estas acusaciones y para mostrar por qué, pese a que ciertas versiones del libertarismo que acuden a la causalidad de agentes o al dualismo cartesiano cometen estos errores, un libertarismo que busque en el indeterminismo fisicalista la base de la posibili...

  11. Organic tracer-based source analysis of PM2.5 organic and elemental carbon: A case study at Dongguan in the Pearl River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiong Qiong; Huang, X. H. Hilda; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Qingyan; Feng, Yongming; Yuan, Zibing; Wu, Dui; Lau, Alexis K. H.; Yu, Jian Zhen

    2015-10-01

    Organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) are major constituents of PM2.5 and their source apportionment remains a challenging task due to the great diversity of their sources and lack of source-specific tracer data. In this work, sources of OC and EC are investigated using positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of PM2.5 chemical composition data, including major ions, OC, EC, elements, and organic molecular source markers, for a set of 156 filter samples collected over three years from 2010 to 2012 at Dongguan in the Pearl River Delta, China. The key organic tracers include levoglucosan, mannosan, hopanes, C27-C33n-alkanes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Using these species as input for the PMF model, nine factors were resolved. Among them, biomass burning and coal combustion were significant sources contributing 15-17% of OC and 24-30% and 34-35% of EC, respectively. Industrial emissions and ship emissions, identified through their characteristic metal signatures, contributed 16-24% and 7-8% of OC and 8-11% and 16-17% of EC, respectively. Vehicle exhaust was a less significant source, accounting for 3-4% of OC and 5-8% of EC. Secondary OC, taken to be the sum of OC present in secondary sulfate and nitrate formation source factors, made up 27-36% of OC. Plastic burning, identified through 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene as a tracer, was a less important source for OC(≤4%) and EC (5-10%), but a significant source for PAHs at this site. The utility of organic source tracers was demonstrated by comparing PMF runs with different combinations of organic tracers removed from the input species list. Levoglucosan and mannosan were important additions to distinguish biomass burning from coal combustion by reducing collinearity among source profiles. Inclusion of hopanes and 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene was found to be necessary in resolving the less significant sources vehicle exhaust and plastic burning. Inclusion of C27-C33n-alkanes and PAHs can influence the

  12. Colored dissolved organic matter in shallow estuaries: relationships between carbon sources and light attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oestreich, W. K.; Ganju, N. K.; Pohlman, J. W.; Suttles, S. E.

    2016-02-01

    Light availability is of primary importance to the ecological function of shallow estuaries. For example, benthic primary production by submerged aquatic vegetation is contingent upon light penetration to the seabed. A major component that attenuates light in estuaries is colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). CDOM is often measured via a proxy, fluorescing dissolved organic matter (fDOM), due to the ease of in situ fDOM sensor measurements. Fluorescence must be converted to CDOM absorbance for use in light attenuation calculations. However, this CDOM-fDOM relationship varies among and within estuaries. We quantified the variability in this relationship within three estuaries along the mid-Atlantic margin of the eastern United States: West Falmouth Harbor (MA), Barnegat Bay (NJ), and Chincoteague Bay (MD/VA). Land use surrounding these estuaries ranges from urban to developed, with varying sources of nutrients and organic matter. Measurements of fDOM (excitation and emission wavelengths of 365 nm (±5 nm) and 460 nm (±40 nm), respectively) and CDOM absorbance were taken along a terrestrial-to-marine gradient in all three estuaries. The ratio of the absorption coefficient at 340 nm (m-1) to fDOM (QSU) was higher in West Falmouth Harbor (1.22) than in Barnegat Bay (0.22) and Chincoteague Bay (0.17). The CDOM : fDOM absorption ratio was variable between sites within West Falmouth Harbor and Barnegat Bay, but consistent between sites within Chincoteague Bay. Stable carbon isotope analysis for constraining the source of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in West Falmouth Harbor and Barnegat Bay yielded δ13C values ranging from -19.7 to -26.1 ‰ and -20.8 to -26.7 ‰, respectively. Concentration and stable carbon isotope mixing models of DOC (dissolved organic carbon) indicate a contribution of 13C-enriched DOC in the estuaries. The most likely source of 13C-enriched DOC for the systems we investigated is Spartina cordgrass. Comparison of DOC source to CDOM : f

  13. Colored dissolved organic matter in shallow estuaries: relationships between carbon sources and light attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oestreich, W.K.; Ganju, Neil K.; Pohlman, John; Suttles, Steven E.

    2016-01-01

    Light availability is of primary importance to the ecological function of shallow estuaries. For example, benthic primary production by submerged aquatic vegetation is contingent upon light penetration to the seabed. A major component that attenuates light in estuaries is colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). CDOM is often measured via a proxy, fluorescing dissolved organic matter (fDOM), due to the ease of in situ fDOM sensor measurements. Fluorescence must be converted to CDOM absorbance for use in light attenuation calculations. However, this CDOM–fDOM relationship varies among and within estuaries. We quantified the variability in this relationship within three estuaries along the mid-Atlantic margin of the eastern United States: West Falmouth Harbor (MA), Barnegat Bay (NJ), and Chincoteague Bay (MD/VA). Land use surrounding these estuaries ranges from urban to developed, with varying sources of nutrients and organic matter. Measurements of fDOM (excitation and emission wavelengths of 365 nm (±5 nm) and 460 nm (±40 nm), respectively) and CDOM absorbance were taken along a terrestrial-to-marine gradient in all three estuaries. The ratio of the absorption coefficient at 340 nm (m−1) to fDOM (QSU) was higher in West Falmouth Harbor (1.22) than in Barnegat Bay (0.22) and Chincoteague Bay (0.17). The CDOM : fDOM absorption ratio was variable between sites within West Falmouth Harbor and Barnegat Bay, but consistent between sites within Chincoteague Bay. Stable carbon isotope analysis for constraining the source of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in West Falmouth Harbor and Barnegat Bay yielded δ13C values ranging from −19.7 to −26.1 ‰ and −20.8 to −26.7 ‰, respectively. Concentration and stable carbon isotope mixing models of DOC (dissolved organic carbon) indicate a contribution of 13C-enriched DOC in the estuaries. The most likely source of 13C-enriched DOC for the systems we investigated is Spartina cordgrass. Comparison of

  14. Grammatical category dissociation in multilingual aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Waked, Arifi N

    2010-03-01

    Word retrieval deficits for specific grammatical categories, such as verbs versus nouns, occur as a consequence of brain damage. Such deficits are informative about the nature of lexical organization in the human brain. This study examined retrieval of grammatical categories across three languages in a trilingual person with aphasia who spoke Arabic, French, and English. In order to delineate the nature of word production difficulty, comprehension was tested, and a variety of concomitant lexical-semantic variables were analysed. The patient demonstrated a consistent noun-verb dissociation in picture naming and narrative speech, with severely impaired production of verbs across all three languages. The cross-linguistically similar noun-verb dissociation, coupled with little evidence of semantic impairment, suggests that (a) the patient has a true "nonsemantic" grammatical category specific deficit, and (b) lexical organization in multilingual speakers shares grammatical class information between languages. The findings of this study contribute to our understanding of the architecture of lexical organization in bilinguals.

  15. The occurrence and distribution of a group of organic micropollutants in Mexico City's water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix-Cañedo, Thania E; Durán-Álvarez, Juan C; Jiménez-Cisneros, Blanca

    2013-06-01

    The occurrence and distribution of a group of 17 organic micropollutants in surface and groundwater sources from Mexico City was determined. Water samples were taken from 7 wells, 4 dams and 15 tanks where surface and groundwater are mixed and stored before distribution. Results evidenced the occurrence of seven of the target compounds in groundwater: salicylic acid, diclofenac, di-2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP), butylbenzylphthalate (BBP), triclosan, bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-nonylphenol (4-NP). In surface water, 11 target pollutants were detected: same found in groundwater as well as naproxen, ibuprofen, ketoprofen and gemfibrozil. In groundwater, concentration ranges of salicylic acid, 4-NP and DEHP, the most frequently found compounds, were 1-464, 1-47 and 19-232 ng/L, respectively; while in surface water, these ranges were 29-309, 89-655 and 75-2,282 ng/L, respectively. Eleven target compounds were detected in mixed water. Concentrations in mixed water were higher than those determined in groundwater but lower than the detected in surface water. Different to that found in ground and surface water, the pesticide 2,4-D was found in mixed water, indicating that some pollutants can reach areas where they are not originally present in the local water sources. Concentration of the organic micropollutants found in this study showed similar to lower to those reported in water sources from developed countries. This study provides information that enriches the state of the art on the occurrence of organic micropollutants in water sources worldwide, notably in megacities of developing countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. UNMIX Methods Applied to Characterize Sources of Volatile Organic Compounds in Toronto, Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugeniusz Porada

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available UNMIX, a sensor modeling routine from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA, was used to model volatile organic compound (VOC receptors in four urban sites in Toronto, Ontario. VOC ambient concentration data acquired in 2000–2009 for 175 VOC species in four air quality monitoring stations were analyzed. UNMIX, by performing multiple modeling attempts upon varying VOC menus—while rejecting the results that were not reliable—allowed for discriminating sources by their most consistent chemical characteristics. The method assessed occurrences of VOCs in sources typical of the urban environment (traffic, evaporative emissions of fuels, banks of fugitive inert gases, industrial point sources (plastic-, polymer-, and metalworking manufactures, and in secondary sources (releases from water, sediments, and contaminated urban soil. The remote sensing and robust modeling used here produces chemical profiles of putative VOC sources that, if combined with known environmental fates of VOCs, can be used to assign physical sources’ shares of VOCs emissions into the atmosphere. This in turn provides a means of assessing the impact of environmental policies on one hand, and industrial activities on the other hand, on VOC air pollution.

  17. Online Chemical Characterization of Food-Cooking Organic Aerosols: Implications for Source Apportionment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Villegas, Ernesto; Bannan, Thomas; Le Breton, Michael; Mehra, Archit; Priestley, Michael; Percival, Carl; Coe, Hugh; Allan, James D

    2018-04-11

    Food-cooking organic aerosols (COA) are one of the primary sources of submicron particulate matter in urban environments. However, there are still many questions surrounding source apportionment related to instrumentation as well as semivolatile partitioning because COA evolve rapidly in the ambient air, making source apportionment more complex. Online measurements of emissions from cooking different types of food were performed in a laboratory to characterize particles and gases. Aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements showed that the relative ionization efficiency for OA was higher (1.56-3.06) relative to a typical value of 1.4, concluding that AMS is over-estimating COA and suggesting that previous studies likely over-estimated COA concentrations. Food-cooking mass spectra were generated using AMS, and gas and particle food markers were identified with filter inlets for gases and aerosols-chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS) measurements to be used in future food cooking-source apportionment studies. However, there is a considerable variability in both gas and particle markers, and dilution plays an important role in the particle mass budget, showing the importance of using these markers with caution during receptor modeling. These findings can be used to better understand the chemical composition of COA, and they provides useful information to be used in future source-apportionment studies.

  18. Hydrophobic organic contaminants in surficial sediments of Baltimore Harbor: Inventories and sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashley, J.T.F.; Baker, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    The heavily urbanized and industrialized Baltimore Harbor/Patapsco River/Back River system is one of the most highly contaminated regions of the Chesapeake Bay. In June 1996, surficial sediments were collected at 80 sites throughout the subestuarine system, including historically undersampled creek sand embayments. The samples were analyzed for a suite of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) consisting of 32 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 113 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. Total PAH and total PCB concentrations ranged from 90 to 46,200 and 8 to 2,150 ng/g dry weight, respectively. There was enormous spatial variability in the concentrations of HOCs, which was not well correlated to grain size or organic carbon content, suggesting nonequilibrium partitioning and/or proximity to sources as important factors explaining the observed spatial variability. High concentrations of both classes of HOCs were localized around major urban stormwater runoff discharges. Elevated PAH concentrations were also centered around the Sparrow's Point Industrial Complex, most likely a result of the pyrolysis of coal during the production of steel. All but 1 of the 80 sites exceeded the effects range-low (ERL) for total PCBs and, of those sites, 40% exceeded the effects range-medium (ERM), suggesting toxicity to marine benthic organisms would frequently occur. Using principal component analysis, differences in PAH signatures were discerned. Higher molecular weight PAHs were enriched in signatures from sediments close to suspected sources (i.e., urban stormwater runoff and steel production complexes) compared to those patterns observed at sites further from outfalls or runoff. Due to varying solubilities and affinities for organic matter of the individual PAHs, partitioning of the heavier weight PAHs may enrich settling particles with high molecular weight PAHs. Lower molecular weight PAHs, having lower affinity for particles, may travel from the source to a

  19. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) source profiles of on-road vehicle emissions in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong-Li, Wang; Sheng-Ao, Jing; Sheng-Rong, Lou; Qing-Yao, Hu; Li, Li; Shi-Kang, Tao; Cheng, Huang; Li-Ping, Qiao; Chang-Hong, Chen

    2017-12-31

    Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) source profiles of on-road vehicles were widely studied as their critical roles in VOCs source apportionment and abatement measures in megacities. Studies of VOCs source profiles from on-road motor vehicles from 2001 to 2016 were summarized in this study, with a focus on the comparisons among different studies and the potential impact of different factors. Generally, non-methane hydrocarbons dominated the source profile of on-road vehicle emissions. Carbonyls, potential important components of vehicle emission, were seldom considered in VOCs emissions of vehicles in the past and should be paid more attention to in further study. VOCs source profiles showed some variations among different studies, and 6 factors were extracted and studied due to their impact to VOCs source profile of on-road vehicles. Vehicle types, being dependent on engine types, and fuel types were two dominant factors impacting VOCs sources profiles of vehicles. In comparison, impacts of ignitions, driving conditions and accumulated mileage were mainly due to their influence on the combustion efficiency. An opening and interactive database of VOCs from vehicle emissions was critically essential in future, and mechanisms of sharing and inputting relative research results should be formed to encourage researchers join the database establishment. Correspondingly, detailed quality assurance and quality control procedures were also very important, which included the information of test vehicles and test methods as detailed as possible. Based on the community above, a better uncertainty analysis could be carried out for the VOCs emissions profiles, which was critically important to understand the VOCs emission characteristics of the vehicle emissions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Source Apportionment of Volatile Organic Compounds in an Urban Environment at the Yangtze River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Junlin; Wang, Junxiu; Zhang, Yuxin; Zhu, Bin

    2017-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected continuously during June-August 2013 and December 2013-February 2014 at an urban site in Nanjing in the Yangtze River Delta. The positive matrix factorization receptor model was used to analyse the sources of VOCs in different seasons. Eight and seven sources were identified in summer and winter, respectively. In summer and winter, the dominant sources of VOCs were vehicular emissions, liquefied petroleum gas/natural gas (LPG/NG) usage, solvent usage, biomass/biofuel burning, and industrial production. In summer, vehicular emissions made the most significant contribution to ambient VOCs (38%), followed by LPG/NG usage (20%), solvent usage (19%), biomass/biofuel burning (13%), and industrial production (10%). In winter, LPG/NG usage accounted for 36% of ambient VOCs, whereas vehicular emissions, biomass/biofuel burning, industrial production and solvent usage contributed 30, 18, 9, and 6%, respectively. The contribution of LPG/NG usage in winter was approximately four times that in summer, whereas the contribution from biomass/biofuel burning in winter was more than twice that in summer. The sources related to vehicular emissions and LPG/NG usages were important. Using conditional probability function analysis, the VOC sources were mainly associated with easterly, northeasterly and southeasterly directions, pointing towards the major expressway and industrial area. Using the propylene-equivalent method, paint and varnish (23%) was the highest source of VOCs in summer and biomass/biofuel burning (36%) in winter. Using the ozone formation potential method, the most important source was biomass/biofuel burning (32% in summer and 47% in winter). The result suggests that the biomass/biofuel burning and paint and varnish play important roles in controlling ozone chemical formation in Nanjing.

  1. Chlorination of cooling water: a source of chlorine-containing organic compounds with possible environmental significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolley, R.L.; Gehrs, C.W.; Pitt, W.W. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Chlorination of cooling waters may be a source of environmentally significant pollutants. Many water-soluble chlorine-containing organic compounds of low volatility were found in a sample of cooling water chlorinated to a 2-mg/l chlorine concentration in the laboratory. The compounds were separated and detected using a coupled 36 Cl-tracer--high-resolution liquid chromatographic technique developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for determination of chlorinated organics in process effluents. For a chlorination contact time of 75 min at 25 0 C, the yield of chlorine in the form of chloro-organics amounted to 0.78% of the chlorine dosage. It is estimated that the yield is about 0.5% under typical reaction conditions in the electric power plant cooling system chosen for study. Because chlorine is commonly used to remove slime films from the cooling systems of electric power plants, as a means of maintaining high operational efficiency, it is estimated that several hundred tons of chlorinated organics are produced annually in the nation by this antifoulant process. The chromatographic elution positions of some of the separated constituents correspond to those of compounds separated and partially identified from chlorinated sewage treatment plant effluents. The results of this study indicate the formation of chloro-organics during the chlorination of cooling waters should be thoroughly examined, particularly with respect to their identification and determination of possible toxicological properties

  2. Organic aerosol source apportionment by offline-AMS over a full year in Marseille

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bozzetti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the seasonal trends of OA sources affecting the air quality of Marseille (France, which is the largest harbor of the Mediterranean Sea. This was achieved by measurements of nebulized filter extracts using an aerosol mass spectrometer (offline-AMS. In total 216 PM2. 5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter  <  2.5 µm filter samples were collected over 1 year from August 2011 to July 2012. These filters were used to create 54 composite samples which were analyzed by offline-AMS. The same samples were also analyzed for major water-soluble ions, metals, elemental and organic carbon (EC ∕ OC, and organic markers, including n-alkanes, hopanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, lignin and cellulose pyrolysis products, and nitrocatechols. The application of positive matrix factorization (PMF to the water-soluble AMS spectra enabled the extraction of five factors, related to hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, cooking OA (COA, biomass burning OA (BBOA, oxygenated OA (OOA, and an industry-related OA (INDOA. Seasonal trends and relative contributions of OA sources were compared with the source apportionment of OA spectra collected from the AMS field deployment at the same station but in different years and for shorter monitoring periods (February 2011 and July 2008. Online- and offline-AMS source apportionment revealed comparable seasonal contribution of the different OA sources. Results revealed that BBOA was the dominant source during winter, representing on average 48 % of the OA, while during summer the main OA component was OOA (63 % of OA mass on average. HOA related to traffic emissions contributed on a yearly average 17 % to the OA mass, while COA was a minor source contributing 4 %. The contribution of INDOA was enhanced during winter (17 % during winter and 11 % during summer, consistent with an increased contribution from light alkanes, light PAHs (fluoranthene, pyrene, phenanthrene, and

  3. Sources of organic nitrogen at the serpentinite-hosted Lost City hydrothermal field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, S Q; Früh-Green, G L; Bernasconi, S M; Butterfield, D A

    2013-03-01

    The reaction of ultramafic rocks with water during serpentinization at moderate temperatures results in alkaline fluids with high concentrations of reduced chemical compounds such as hydrogen and methane. Such environments provide unique habitats for microbial communities capable of utilizing these reduced compounds in present-day and, possibly, early Earth environments. However, these systems present challenges to microbial communities as well, particularly due to high fluid pH and possibly the availability of essential nutrients such as nitrogen. Here we investigate the source and cycling of organic nitrogen at an oceanic serpentinizing environment, the Lost City hydrothermal field (30°N, Mid-Atlantic Ridge). Total hydrolizable amino acid (THAA) concentrations in the fluids range from 736 to 2300 nm and constitute a large fraction of the dissolved organic carbon (2.5-15.1%). The amino acid distributions, and the relative concentrations of these compounds across the hydrothermal field, indicate they most likely derived from chemolithoautotrophic production. Previous studies have identified the presence of numerous nitrogen fixation genes in the fluids and the chimneys. Organic nitrogen in actively venting chimneys has δ(15) N values as low as 0.1‰ which is compatible with biological nitrogen fixation. Total hydrolizable amino acids in the chimneys are enriched in (13) C by 2-7‰ compared to bulk organic matter. The distribution and absolute δ(13) C(THAA) values are compatible with a chemolithoautotrophic source, an attribution also supported by molar organic C/N ratios in most active chimneys (4.1-5.5) which are similar to those expected for microbial communities. In total, these data indicate nitrogen is readily available to microbial communities at Lost City. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Seasonal variability and source apportionment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs in the Paris megacity (France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baudic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of air quality studies at the megacity scale, highly time-resolved volatile organic compound (C2–C8 measurements were performed in downtown Paris (urban background sites from January to November 2010. This unique dataset included non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs and aromatic/oxygenated species (OVOCs measured by a GC-FID (gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector and a PTR-MS (proton transfer reaction – mass spectrometer, respectively. This study presents the seasonal variability of atmospheric VOCs being monitored in the French megacity and their various associated emission sources. Clear seasonal and diurnal patterns differed from one VOC to another as the result of their different origins and the influence of environmental parameters (solar radiation, temperature. Source apportionment (SA was comprehensively conducted using a multivariate mathematical receptor modeling. The United States Environmental Protection Agency's positive matrix factorization tool (US EPA, PMF was used to apportion and quantify ambient VOC concentrations into six different sources. The modeled source profiles were identified from near-field observations (measurements from three distinct emission sources: inside a highway tunnel, at a fireplace and from a domestic gas flue, hence with a specific focus on road traffic, wood-burning activities and natural gas emissions and hydrocarbon profiles reported in the literature. The reconstructed VOC sources were cross validated using independent tracers such as inorganic gases (NO, NO2, CO, black carbon (BC and meteorological data (temperature. The largest contributors to the predicted VOC concentrations were traffic-related activities (including motor vehicle exhaust, 15 % of the total mass on the annual average, and evaporative sources, 10 %, with the remaining emissions from natural gas and background (23 %, solvent use (20 %, wood-burning (18 % and a biogenic source (15 %. An

  5. Performance analysis of low temperature heat source of organic Rankine cycle for geothermal application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintoro, A.; Ambarita, H.; Nur, T. B.; Napitupulu, F. H.

    2018-02-01

    Indonesia has a high potential energy resources from geothermal activities. Base on the report of Asian Development Bank and World Bank, the estimated of Indonesian hydrothermal geothermal resource considered to be the largest among the world. If it’s can be utilized to produce the electric power, it’s can contribute to increasing the electrification rates in Indonesia. In this study, an experimental studied of electric power generation, utilizing the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system to convert the low level heat of hydrothermal as an energy source. The temperature of hydrothermal was modelled as hot water from water boiler which has a temperature range from 60 °C - 100 °C to heat up the organic working fluid of ORC system. The system can generated 1,337.7 watts of electricity when operated using R134A with hot water inlet temperature of 100 °C. Changing system working fluid to R245fa, the net power obtained increase to 1,908.9 watts with the same heat source condition. This study showed that the ORC system can be implemented to utilize low temperature heat source of hydrothermal in Indonesia.

  6. Organic compounds in aerosols from selected European sites - Biogenic versus anthropogenic sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Célia; Vicente, Ana; Pio, Casimiro; Kiss, Gyula; Hoffer, Andras; Decesari, Stefano; Prevôt, André S. H.; Minguillón, María Cruz; Querol, Xavier; Hillamo, Risto; Spindler, Gerald; Swietlicki, Erik

    2012-11-01

    Atmospheric aerosol samples from a boreal forest (Hyytiälä, April 2007), a rural site in Hungary (K-puszta, summer 2008), a polluted rural area in Italy (San Pietro Capofiume, Po Valley, April 2008), a moderately polluted rural site in Germany located on a meadow (Melpitz, May 2008), a natural park in Spain (Montseny, March 2009) and two urban background locations (Zurich, December 2008, and Barcelona, February/March 2009) were collected. Aliphatics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbonyls, sterols, n-alkanols, acids, phenolic compounds and anhydrosugars in aerosols were chemically characterised by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, along with source attribution based on the carbon preference index (CPI), the ratios between the unresolved and the chromatographically resolved aliphatics, the contribution of wax n-alkanes, n-alkanols and n-alkanoic acids from plants, diagnostic ratios of individual target compounds and source-specific markers to organic carbon ratios. In spite of transboundary pollution episodes, Hyytiälä registered the lowest levels among all locations. CPI values close to 1 for the aliphatic fraction of the Montseny aerosol suggest that the anthropogenic input may be associated with the transport of aged air masses from the surrounding industrial/urban areas, which superimpose the locally originated hydrocarbons with biogenic origin. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in samples from San Pietro Capofiume reveal that fossil fuel combustion is a major source influencing the diel pattern of concentrations. This source contributed to 25-45% of the ambient organic carbon (OC) at the Po Valley site. Aerosols from the German meadow presented variable contributions from both biogenic and anthropogenic sources. The highest levels of vegetation wax components and biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) products were observed at K-puszta, while anthropogenic SOA compounds predominated in Barcelona. The primary vehicular emissions in the Spanish

  7. Characterization and source identification of organic matter in view of land uses and heavy rainfall in the Lake Shihwa, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yeonjung; Hur, Jin; Shin, Kyung-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Organic matter derived from industrial area showed high biodegradability. • Organic matter transported from rural area was of refractory nature. • Autochthonous organic matter dominated in lake during the dry season. • Contributions of organic source by industrial and rural area increased at rainy season. - Abstract: The characteristics and sources of organic matter in water of the Lake Shihwa, which receives inputs from rural, urban, and industrial areas, were evaluated by examining the biodegradable organic carbon concentration, fluorescence spectra, and carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios, especially during rainy season and dry season. The organic matter transported from rural areas was of refractory nature, while that of industrial origin decomposed rapidly. As compared to the dry season, the organic matter in the rainy season was characterized by a reduced labile fraction. During the dry season, the autochthonous organic matter dominated in the lake, however, the contributions of allochthonous organic sources by industrial and rural areas significantly increased at rainy season. This investigation revealed that the transport of organic matter of anthropogenic origin to the Lake Shihwa was mainly influenced by heavy rainfall. Moreover, each anthropogenic source could differently influence the occurrence of organic matter in water of the Lake Shihwa

  8. Beyond the Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Jeffrey

    2015-07-01

    Shushu is a Turkish Cypriot drag performance artist and the article begins with a discussion of a short film about him by a Greek Cypriot playwright, film maker, and gay activist. The film is interesting in its own right as a documentary about a complex personality, but it is also relevant to wider discussion of sexual and gender identity and categorization in a country divided by history, religion, politics, and military occupation. Shushu rejects easy identification as gay or transgender, or anything else. He is his own self. But refusing a recognized and recognizable identity brings problems, and I detected a pervasive mood of melancholy in his portrayal. The article builds from this starting point to explore the problematic nature of identities and categorizations in the contemporary world. The analysis opens with the power of words and language in defining and classifying sexuality. The early sexologists set in motion a whole catalogue of categories which continue to shape sexual thinking, believing that they were providing a scientific basis for a more humane treatment of sexual variations. This logic continues in DSM-5. The historical effect, however, has been more complex. Categorizations have often fixed individuals into a narrow band of definitions and identities that marginalize and pathologize. The emergence of radical sexual-social movements from the late 1960s offered new forms of grassroots knowledge in opposition to the sexological tradition, but at first these movements worked to affirm rather than challenge the significance of identity categories. Increasingly, however, identities have been problematized and challenged for limiting sexual and gender possibilities, leading to the apparently paradoxical situation where sexual identities are seen as both necessary and impossible. There are emotional costs both in affirming a fixed identity and in rejecting one. Shushu is caught in this dilemma, leading to the pervasive sense of loss that shapes the

  9. Epitaxial Oxide Thin Films Grown by Solid Source Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zihong

    1995-01-01

    The conventional liquid source metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique is capable of producing large area, high quality, single crystal semiconductor films. However, the growth of complex oxide films by this method has been hampered by a lack of suitable source materials. While chemists have been actively searching for new source materials, the research work reported here has demonstrated the successful application of solid metal-organic sources (based on tetramethylheptanedionate) to the growth of high quality thin films of binary compound cerium dioxide (CeO_2), and two more complex materials, the ternary compound lithium niobate (LiNbO_3), with two cations, and the quaternary compound strontium barium niobate (SBN), with three cations. The growth of CeO_2 thin films on (1012)Al_2O_3 substrates has been used as a model to study the general growth behavior of oxides. Factors affecting deposition rate, surface morphology, out-of-plane mosaic structure, and film orientation have been carefully investigated. A kinetic model based on gas phase prereaction is proposed to account for the substrate temperature dependence of film orientation found in this system. Atomically smooth, single crystal quality cerium dioxide thin films have been obtained. Superconducting YBCO films sputtered on top of solid source MOCVD grown thin cerium dioxide buffer layers on sapphire have been shown to have physical properties as good as those of YBCO films grown on single crystal MgO substrates. The thin film growth of LiNbO_3 and Sr_{1-x}Ba _{x}Nb_2 O_6 (SBN) was more complex and challenging. Phase purity, transparency, in-plane orientation, and the ferroelectric polarity of LiNbO _3 films grown on sapphire substrates was investigated. The first optical quality, MOCVD grown LiNbO _3 films, having waveguiding losses of less than 2 dB/cm, were prepared. An important aspect of the SBN film growth studies involved finding a suitable single crystal substrate material. Mg

  10. Source impacts by volatile organic compounds in an industrial city of southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pao-Wen Grace; Yao, Yung-Chen; Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Hsu, Yi-Chyun; Chang, Li-Peng; Chang, Ken-Hui

    2008-07-15

    This study investigates source impacts by airborne volatile organic compounds (VOC) at two sites designated for traffic and industry, in the largest industrial area Kaohsiung, southern Taiwan. The samples were collected at the two sites simultaneously during rush and non-rush hours in summer and autumn seasons. Same pattern of VOC groups were found at both sites: most abundant aromatics (78-95%) followed by alkanes (2-16%) and alkenes (0-6%). The BTEX concentration measured at the two sites ranged from 69 to 301 ppbC. Toluene, isopentane, ethylbenzene, and benzene were found to be the most abundant species. Speciation of VOCs was characterized with several skills including principal component factor analysis and BTEX characteristic ratios. Each of the resulted principal factors at the two sites explained over 80% of the VOCs data variance, and indicated that both of the sampling sites were influenced by both traffic and industrial sources with separately different levels. The remarkable patterns of the first two factors described not only the similarity but also the discrepancy at the two sampling sites, in terms of the source impacts. The high T/B ratios (7.56-14.25) observed at the industrial site implied the important impact from mobile emissions. The indicators, m,p-xylene/benzene and o-xylene/benzene, also confirmed the potential source of motor vehicles at both of the sampling sites. Air age assessment showed that more than half of the total observations located in the domain of fresh air. Low X/E ratios implied somewhat aged air mass transported to the sampling sites. The industrial site might not only encounter emissions from the industry sources, but also under unavoidable impact from the traffic sources.

  11. SFACTOR: a computer code for calculating dose equivalent to a target organ per microcurie-day residence of a radionuclide in a source organ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunning, D.E. Jr.; Pleasant, J.C.; Killough, G.G.

    1977-11-01

    A computer code SFACTOR was developed to estimate the average dose equivalent S (rem/μCi-day) to each of a specified list of target organs per microcurie-day residence of a radionuclide in source organs in man. Source and target organs of interest are specified in the input data stream, along with the nuclear decay information. The SFACTOR code computes components of the dose equivalent rate from each type of decay present for a particular radionuclide, including alpha, electron, and gamma radiation. For those transuranic isotopes which also decay by spontaneous fission, components of S from the resulting fission fragments, neutrons, betas, and gammas are included in the tabulation. Tabulations of all components of S are provided for an array of 22 source organs and 24 target organs for 52 radionuclides in an adult

  12. SFACTOR: a computer code for calculating dose equivalent to a target organ per microcurie-day residence of a radionuclide in a source organ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunning, D.E. Jr.; Pleasant, J.C.; Killough, G.G.

    1977-11-01

    A computer code SFACTOR was developed to estimate the average dose equivalent S (rem/..mu..Ci-day) to each of a specified list of target organs per microcurie-day residence of a radionuclide in source organs in man. Source and target organs of interest are specified in the input data stream, along with the nuclear decay information. The SFACTOR code computes components of the dose equivalent rate from each type of decay present for a particular radionuclide, including alpha, electron, and gamma radiation. For those transuranic isotopes which also decay by spontaneous fission, components of S from the resulting fission fragments, neutrons, betas, and gammas are included in the tabulation. Tabulations of all components of S are provided for an array of 22 source organs and 24 target organs for 52 radionuclides in an adult.

  13. Major reactive species of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their sources in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO; Min; FU; Linlin; LIU; Ying; LU; Sihua; ZHANG; Yuanhan

    2005-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are important precursors of atmospheric chemical processes. As a whole mixture, the ambient VOCs show very strong chemical reactivity. Based on OH radical loss rates in the air, the chemical reactivity of VOCs in Beijing was calculated. The results revealed that alkenes, accounting for only about 15% in the mixing ratio of VOCs, provide nearly 75% of the reactivity of ambient VOCs and the C4 to C5 alkenes were the major reactive species among the alkenes. The study of emission characteristics of various VOCs sources indicated that these alkenes are mainly from vehicle exhaust and gasoline evaporation. The reduction of alkene species in these two sources will be effective in photochemical pollution control in Beijing.

  14. Sources and composition of submicron organic mass in marine aerosol particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frossard, Amanda A.; Russell, Lynn M.; Burrows, Susannah M.; Elliott, Scott M.; Bates, Timothy S.; Quinn, Patricia K.

    2014-11-01

    The sources and composition of atmospheric marine aerosol particles (aMA) have been investigated with a range of physical and chemical measurements from open-ocean research cruises. This study uses the characteristic functional group composition (from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) of aMA from five ocean regions to show the following: (i) The organic functional group composition of aMA that can be identified as mainly atmospheric primary marine (ocean derived) aerosol particles (aPMA) is 65 ± 12% hydroxyl, 21 ± 9% alkane, 6 ± 6% amine, and 7 ± 8% carboxylic acid functional groups. Contributions from photochemical reactions add carboxylic acid groups (15%-25%), shipping effluent in seawater and ship emissions add additional alkane groups (up to 70%), and coastal or continental emissions mix in alkane and carboxylic acid groups. (ii) The organic composition of aPMA is nearly identical to model-generated primary marine aerosol particles from bubbled seawater (gPMA, which has 55 ± 14% hydroxyl, 32 ± 14% alkane, and 13 ± 3% amine functional groups), indicating that its overall functional group composition is the direct consequence of the organic constituents of the seawater source. (iii) While the seawater organic functional group composition was nearly invariant across all three ocean regions studied and the ratio of organic carbon to sodium (OC/Na+) in the gPMA remained nearly constant over a broad range of chlorophyll a concentrations, the gPMA alkane group fraction appeared to increase with chlorophyll a concentrations (r = 0.66). gPMA from productive seawater had a larger fraction of alkane functional groups (42 ± 9%) compared to gPMA from nonproductive seawater (22 ± 10%), perhaps due to the presence of surfactants in productive seawater that stabilize the bubble film and lead to preferential drainage of the more soluble (lower alkane group fraction) organic components. gPMA has a hydroxyl group absorption peak location characteristic of

  15. Source profiles of volatile organic compounds associated with solvent use in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bin; Shao, Min; Lu, Sihua; Wang, Bin

    2010-05-01

    Compositions of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from painting applications and printing processes were sampled and measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/flame ionization detection (GC-MS/FID) in Beijing. Toluene and C8 aromatics were the most abundant species, accounting for 76% of the total VOCs emitted from paint applications. The major species in printing emissions included heavier alkanes and aromatics, such as n-nonane, n-decane, n-undecane, toluene, and m/p-xylene. Measurements of VOCs obtained from furniture paint emissions in 2003 and 2007 suggest a quick decline in benzene levels associated with formulation changes in furniture paints during these years. A comparison of VOC source profiles for painting and printing between Beijing and other parts of the world showed significant region-specific discrepancies, probably because of different market demands and environmental standards. We conducted the evaluation of the source reactivities for various VOC emission sources. The ozone formation potential (OFP) for unit mass of VOCs source emissions is the highest for paint applications. Substituting solvent-based paints by water-based in Beijing will lead to an OFP reduction of 152,000 tons per year, which is more than 1/4 of the OFPs for VOCs emissions from vehicle exhaust in the city.

  16. Fecal indicator organism modeling and microbial source tracking in environmental waters: Chapter 3.4.6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevers, Meredith; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Phanikumar, Mantha S.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical models have been widely applied to surface waters to estimate rates of settling, resuspension, flow, dispersion, and advection in order to calculate movement of particles that influence water quality. Of particular interest are the movement, survival, and persistence of microbial pathogens or their surrogates, which may contaminate recreational water, drinking water, or shellfish. Most models devoted to microbial water quality have been focused on fecal indicator organisms (FIO), which act as a surrogate for pathogens and viruses. Process-based modeling and statistical modeling have been used to track contamination events to source and to predict future events. The use of these two types of models require different levels of expertise and input; process-based models rely on theoretical physical constructs to explain present conditions and biological distribution while data-based, statistical models use extant paired data to do the same. The selection of the appropriate model and interpretation of results is critical to proper use of these tools in microbial source tracking. Integration of the modeling approaches could provide insight for tracking and predicting contamination events in real time. A review of modeling efforts reveals that process-based modeling has great promise for microbial source tracking efforts; further, combining the understanding of physical processes influencing FIO contamination developed with process-based models and molecular characterization of the population by gene-based (i.e., biological) or chemical markers may be an effective approach for locating sources and remediating contamination in order to protect human health better.

  17. Effect of organic sources of minerals on fat-corrected milk yield of dairy cows in confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Antonio Del Valle

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of organic and inorganic sources of minerals in diets for mid-lactation dairy cows on milk yield and composition, intake and total apparent digestibility of dry matter and nutrients, blood parameters, microbial protein synthesis, and energy and protein balances. Twenty Holstein cows averaging 146.83±67.34 days in milk and weighing 625.30±80.37 kg were used. The experimental design was a crossover. Diets were composed of corn silage (50%, ground grain corn, and soybean meal, differing with regard to the sources of trace minerals, plus an organic and inorganic mix. The organic mineral source increased milk fat and fat-corrected milk yield without changing milk yield, intake, or total apparent digestibility. Blood parameters, microbial protein synthesis, and energy and protein balances were not affected by the sources of minerals. Organic sources of minerals improve milk fat yield without affecting other parameters.

  18. Organic geochemical characterization of terrestrial source rocks of the Triassic Madygen formation (Southern Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berner, U.; Scheeder, G.; Kus, J. [Section Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, BGR, Hannover (Germany); Voigt, S.; Schneider, J.W. [Geological Inst., TU Bergakademic Freiberg (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    Along the northern foothills of the Turkestan-Alai Range (SW Kyrgyzstan), a 1000 to 1500m thick succession of Mesozoic deposits is exposed recording regional changes of the paleo-landscape during Triassic to Cretaceous times. Detailed litho- and biofacies analyses, conducted by the TU Bergakademie Freiberg since 2006, provided for the first time a nearly complete columnar section of the continental Triassic Madygen Formation of Kyrgyzstan. Organic petrographical and organic geochemical methods (including RockEval pyrolyses, and biomarker analyses) have been applied to a suite of terrestrial sedimentary rocks of Triassic age with the intention to identify the depositional environment. Our investigations suggest that the potential source rocks of the terrestrial pluvial Madygen Formation might generate predominantly gaseous hydrocarbons at higher maturities. (orig.)

  19. Organic Materials Ionizing Radiation Susceptibility for the Outer Planet/Solar Probe Radioisotope Power Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golliher, Eric L.; Pepper, Stephen V.

    2001-01-01

    The Department of Energy is considering the current Stirling Technology Corporation 55 We Stirling Technology Demonstration Convertor as a baseline option for an advanced radioisotope power source for the Outer Planets/Solar Probe project of Jet Propulsion Laboratory and other missions. However, since the Technology Demonstration Convertor contains organic materials chosen without any special consideration of flight readiness, and without any consideration of the extremely high radiation environment of Europa, a preliminary investigation was performed to address the radiation susceptibility of the current organic materials used in the Technology Demonstration Convertor. This report documents the results of the investigation. The results of the investigation show that candidate replacement materials have been identified to be acceptable in the harsh Europa radiation environment.

  20. Sustainable carbon sources for microbial organic acid production with filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörsam, Stefan; Fesseler, Jana; Gorte, Olga; Hahn, Thomas; Zibek, Susanne; Syldatk, Christoph; Ochsenreither, Katrin

    2017-01-01

    The organic acid producer Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus delemar are able to convert several alternative carbon sources to malic and fumaric acid. Thus, carbohydrate hydrolysates from lignocellulose separation are likely suitable as substrate for organic acid production with these fungi. Before lignocellulose hydrolysate fractions were tested as substrates, experiments with several mono- and disaccharides, possibly present in pretreated biomass, were conducted for their suitability for malic acid production with A. oryzae. This includes levoglucosan, glucose, galactose, mannose, arabinose, xylose, ribose, and cellobiose as well as cheap and easy available sugars, e.g., fructose and maltose. A. oryzae is able to convert every sugar investigated to malate, albeit with different yields. Based on the promising results from the pure sugar conversion experiments, fractions of the organosolv process from beechwood ( Fagus sylvatica ) and Miscanthus giganteus were further analyzed as carbon source for cultivation and fermentation with A. oryzae for malic acid and R. delemar for fumaric acid production. The highest malic acid concentration of 37.9 ± 2.6 g/L could be reached using beechwood cellulose fraction as carbon source in bioreactor fermentation with A. oryzae and 16.2 ± 0.2 g/L fumaric acid with R. delemar . We showed in this study that the range of convertible sugars for A. oryzae is even higher than known before. We approved the suitability of fiber/cellulose hydrolysate obtained from the organosolv process as carbon source for A. oryzae in shake flasks as well as in a small-scale bioreactor. The more challenging hemicellulose fraction of F. sylvatica was also positively evaluated for malic acid production with A. oryzae .

  1. How reservoirs alter drinking water quality: Organic matter sources, sinks, and transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Tamara E.C.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Hernes, Peter J.; Doctor, Daniel H.; Kendall, Carol; Downing, Bryan D.; Losee, Richard F.

    2011-01-01

    Within reservoirs, production, transformation, and loss of dissolved organic matter (DOM) occur simultaneously. While the balance between production and loss determines whether a reservoir is a net sink or source of DOM, changes in chemical composition are also important because they affect DOM reactivity with respect to disinfection by-product (DBP) formation. The composition of the DOM pool also provides insight into DOM sources and processing, which can inform reservoir management. We examined the concentration and composition of DOM in San Luis Reservoir, a large off-stream impoundment of the California State Water Project. We used a wide array of DOM chemical tracers including dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, trihalomethane and haloacetic acid formation potentials (THMFP and HAAFP, respectively), absorbance properties, isotopic composition, lignin phenol content, and structural groupings determined by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). There were periods when the reservoir was a net source of DOC due to the predominance of algal production (summer), a net sink due to the predominance of degradation (fall–winter), and balanced between production and consumption (spring). Despite only moderate variation in bulk DOC concentration (3.0–3.6 mg C/L), changes in DOM composition indicated that terrestrial-derived material entering the reservoir was being degraded and replaced by aquatic-derived DOM produced within the reservoir. Substantial changes in the propensity of the DOM pool to form THMs and HAAs illustrate that the DBP precursor pool was not directly coupled to bulk DOC concentration and indicate that algal production is an important source of DBP precursors. Results suggest reservoirs have the potential to attenuate DOM amount and reactivity with respect to DBP precursors via degradative processes; however, these benefits can be decreased or even negated by the production of algal-derived DOM.

  2. The Sources and the Effects of the Individual Power in the Economic Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alecxandrina Deaconu

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Few concepts have such an important significance, both for individuals and for organizations,as it happens with the concept of power. To be in power, to have full powers, to obey power, to gainpower are expressions that translate the individuals’ conscious or unconscious concerns, obsessions orrelations that allow the functioning of the social groups.In their turn, the organizations are the theatre of numerous power games and conflicts. These are notconnected only by personal ambitions, but also by the fact that the individuals and the groups, diverse asstructure and functions, have objectives that do not coincide entirely.Moreover, each individual has a different vision regarding the means, methods or strategies necessaryto get a good functioning of the entire organization. Everyone tries, more or less, to defend the owninterests, which do not necessarily correspond to those of other persons and groups. It is thus natural toemerge conflicts.All these observations require a careful investigation of the power sources and the effects in aneconomic organization, so that we could prepare mechanisms able to diminish the risks of the destructiveconflicts.

  3. Organic carbon source in formulated sediments influences life traits and gene expression of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, Julia; Menzel, Ralph; Höss, Sebastian; Claus, Evelyn; Steinberg, Christian E W

    2012-03-01

    River water quality is strongly influenced by their sediments and their associated pollutants. To assess the toxic potential of sediments, sediment toxicity tests require reliable control sediments, potentially including formulated control sediments as one major option. Although some standardization has been carried out, one critical issue still remains the quality of sediment organic matter (SOM). Organic carbon not only binds hydrophobic contaminants, but may be a source of mild toxicity, even if the SOM is essentially uncontaminated. We tested two different sources of organic carbon and the mixture of both (Sphagnum peat (P) and one commercial humic substances preparation-HuminFeed(®), HF) in terms of life trait variables and expression profiles of selected life performance and stress genes of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In synchronous cultures, gene expression profiling was done after 6 and 48 h, respectively. The uncontaminated Sphagnum P reduced growth, but increased numbers of offspring, whereas HF did not significantly alter life trait variables. The 6 h expression profile showed most of the studied stress genes repressed, except for slight to strong induction in cyp-35B1 (all exposures), gst-38 (only mixture), and small hsp-16 genes (all exposures). After 48 h, the expression of almost all studied genes increased, particularly genes coding for antioxidative defense, multiple xenobiotic resistance, vitellogenin-like proteins, and genes regulating lifespan. Overall, even essentially uncontaminated SOM may induce several modes of action on the molecular level in C. elegans which may lead to false results if testing synthetic xenobiotics. This contribution is a plea for a strict standardization of the SOM quality in formulated sediments and to check for corresponding effects in other model sediment organisms, especially if using molecular toxicity endpoints.

  4. Characterization of Organic Matter Sources within a Matrix of Land Use in Northeast Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, J. E.; Baker, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Dynamics of organic matter (OM) sources in natural aquatic systems have been studied for decades, but urban studies have revealed additional, less studied, OM sources such as stormwater, lawn clippings, and wastewater effluent. Traditionally the OM pool in freshwater systems has been defined as a homogenous pool of varying size classes: course particulate, fine particulate and dissolved OM. Our goal was to identify and quantify the composition of fine particulate OM (FPOM), and dissolved OM (DOM) as derived from autochthonous, terrestrial, and potential anthropogenic sources. We hypothesized anthropogenic changes in land use have increased the proportion of autochthonous sources of OM. We sampled OM at 33 sites in four watersheds in northeast Utah that encompass a range of land uses. Stable isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and deuterium were collected for all size classes of OM, and DOM was analyzed with a spectrofluorometer. Stable isotopes were used to estimate the proportion of autochthonous and terrestrial sources of OM. Fluorescence indices and a PARAFAC model were created from DOM excitation emission matrices (EEMs). FPOM appeared to be a mixture of autochthonous and terrestrial sources but overlap in endmember isotope values made quantifying the proportion of each source difficult. Higher deuterium values (-120 to -80‰) were associated with sites receiving wastewater effluent, while sites with agriculture, forest, and urban land use had lower deuterium isotope values (-200 to -110). DOM Excitation Emission Matrices were resolved into a 5-component PARAFAC model. The percent of protein-like DOM components tended to be higher in urban versus non-urban sites (mean 35%, S.D. 12% versus mean 25%, S.D. 15%). We concluded deuterium isotopes may be used as a tracer or wastewater effluent and DOM is composed of more labile, protein-like DOM with increased wastewater input. A greater understanding of the sources of OM can inform management and policy decisions aimed at

  5. Effects of continental anthropogenic sources on organic aerosols in the coastal atmosphere of East China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang, Dongjie; Hu, Min; Guo, Qingfeng; Zou, Qi; Zheng, Jing; Guo, Song

    2017-01-01

    source data and meteorological parameters. - Highlights: • Molecular and spatial characteristics of particulate organic compounds in coastal atmosphere of East China are reported. • Terrestrial fossil fuels and biomass burning have significant influences on aerosols in coastal atmosphere of East China. • Continental influences are highly dependent on the air mass origins. • Proportion of compounds from photochemical oxidation increased during the long range transport. - Capsule: Influences of continental anthropogenic sources on the composition of organic aerosols in the coastal atmosphere of East China were found to be significant and dependent on the origins of the air masses.

  6. Categories for Observing Language Arts Instruction (COLAI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benterud, Julianna G.

    Designed to study individual use of time spent in reading during regularly scheduled language arts instruction in a natural classroom setting, this coding sheet consists of nine categories: (1) engagement, (2) area of language arts, (3) instructional setting, (4) partner (teacher or pupil(s)), (5) source of content, (6) type of unit, (7) assigned…

  7. Organic aerosols over Indo-Gangetic Plain: Sources, distributions and climatic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nandita; Mhawish, Alaa; Deboudt, Karine; Singh, R. S.; Banerjee, Tirthankar

    2017-05-01

    Organic aerosol (OA) constitutes a dominant fraction of airborne particulates over Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) especially during post-monsoon and winter. Its exposure has been associated with adverse health effects while there are evidences of its interference with Earth's radiation balance and cloud condensation (CC), resulting possible alteration of hydrological cycle. Therefore, presence and effects of OA directly link it with food security and thereby, sustainability issues. In these contexts, atmospheric chemistry involving formation, volatility and aging of primary OA (POA) and secondary OA (SOA) have been reviewed with specific reference to IGP. Systematic reviews on science of OA sources, evolution and climate perturbations are presented with databases collected from 82 publications available throughout IGP till 2016. Both gaseous and aqueous phase chemical reactions were studied in terms of their potential to form SOA. Efforts were made to recognize the regional variation of OA, its chemical constituents and sources throughout IGP and inferences were made on its possible impacts on regional air quality. Mass fractions of OA to airborne particulate showed spatial variation likewise in Lahore (37 and 44% in fine and coarse fractions, respectively), Patiala (28 and 37%), Delhi (25 and 38%), Kanpur (24 and 30%), Kolkata (11 and 21%) and Dhaka. Source apportionment studies indicate biomass burning, coal combustion and vehicular emissions as predominant OA sources. However, sources represent considerable seasonal variations with dominance of gasoline and diesel emissions during summer and coal and biomass based emissions during winter and post-monsoon. Crop residue burning over upper-IGP was also frequently held responsible for massive OA emission, mostly characterized by its hygroscopic nature, thus having potential to act as CC nuclei. Conclusively, climatic implication of particulate bound OA has been discussed in terms of its interaction with radiation balance.

  8. Language categories in Russian morphology

    OpenAIRE

    زهرایی زهرایی

    2009-01-01

    When studying Russian morphology, one can distinguish two categories. These categories are “grammatical” and “lexico-grammatical”. Grammatical categories can be specified through a series of grammatical features of words. Considering different criteria, Russian grammarians and linguists divide grammatical categories of their language into different types. In determining lexico-grammatical types, in addition to a series of grammatical features, they also consider a series of lexico-semantic fe...

  9. Influence of dietary lipid and protein sources on the sensory quality of organic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after ice storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green-Petersen, Ditte; Hyldig, Grethe; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    The influence of dietary protein and lipid sources on the quality of organic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was studied. The protein and oil sources were fishmeal, fish oil, and organic vegetable protein and oils. Sensory profiling was performed during 3 to 14 days of ice storage along...... with lipid analyses of the fillet. Overall, the results showed that the sensory characteristics of the trout were affected in different ways during ice storage. The source of lipid seemed to affect the sensory quality at the beginning of the storage period, while the protein source seemed to have a more...

  10. Tracing Sources of Organic Matter in a Midwestern USA Reservoir using Online Tetramethylammonium Hydroxide (TMAH) Thermochemolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, J. M.; Blair, N. E.

    2017-12-01

    Increasingly industrial agriculture and food processing practices have created greater demand for water resources. In an attempt to meet this demand, many rivers have been dammed, however the resulting effects of the carbon cycle via carbon sequestration and methane production are not well understood. The organic geochemistry of sediment cores from Lake Decatur, IL, a 95-year-old impoundment on the Sangamon River in the Intensively Managed Landscape - Critical Zone Observatory (IML-CZO), was studied to assess the sources of organic matter to the lake. Online tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) thermochemolysis GC-MS was used to provide a broad-spectrum analysis using small samples with a minimum of preparation. Intensive corn and soy production have dominated Lake Decatur's nearly 2400 km2 watershed throughout its history. The agricultural land use has led to rapid soil erosion and infilling of the lake. Along with the eroded soil came organic matter enriched in 13C, which is attributed to corn, a C4 plant. This is consistent with an angiosperm-derived lignin signal, as indicated by high syringic/vanillic and cinnamic/vanillic lignin phenol ratios. Since approximately 1980, accumulating organic carbon has become increasingly 13C-depleted, indicating a change in organic carbon input to a more C3 plant signature. However, this is not due to a decrease in corn cultivation acreage, according to land use records. Instead, the ratio of algal (short chain, C12-C18) fatty acids to lignin increases correspondingly from this point, suggesting that this isotopic trend is the result of eutrophication in the lake due to agricultural fertilizer runoff. In the last decade, the organic carbon has become more 13C-enriched again, breaking the trend of the three previous decades. This inflection is captured in the return to a lower fatty acid to lignin ratio in the most recently deposited sediments. We speculate that this recent change in organic carbon input could be the result of

  11. Optical and spectroscopic studies on tannery wastes as a possible source of organic semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashy, El-Shahat H. A.; Al-Ashkar, Emad; Abdel Moez, A.

    2012-02-01

    Tanning industry produces a large quantity of solid wastes which contain hide proteins in the form of protein shavings containing chromium salts. The chromium wastes are the main concern from an environmental stand point of view, because chrome wastes posses a significant disposal problem. The present work is devoted to investigate the possibility of utilizing these wastes as a source of organic semi-conductors as an alternative method instead of the conventional ones. The chemical characterization of these wastes was determined. In addition, the Horizontal Attenuated Total Reflection (HATR) FT-IR spectroscopic analysis and optical parameters were also carried out for chromated samples. The study showed that the chromated samples had suitable absorbance and transmittance in the wavelength range (500-850 nm). Presence of chromium salt in the collagen samples increases the absorbance which improves the optical properties of the studied samples and leads to decrease the optical energy gap. The obtained optical energy gap gives an impression that the environmentally hazardous chrome shavings wastes can be utilized as a possible source of natural organic semiconductors with direct and indirect energy gap. This work opens the door to use some hazardous wastes in the manufacture of electronic devices such as IR-detectors, solar cells and also as solar cell windows.

  12. Sources and distribution of sedimentary organic matter along the Andong salt marsh, Hangzhou Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hong-Wei; Chen, Jian-Fang; Ye, Ying; Lou, Zhang-Hua; Jin, Ai-Min; Chen, Xue-Gang; Jiang, Zong-Pei; Lin, Yu-Shih; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Loh, Pei Sun

    2017-10-01

    Lignin oxidation products, δ13C values, C/N ratios and particle size were used to investigate the sources, distribution and chemical stability of sedimentary organic matter (OM) along the Andong salt marsh located in the southwestern end of Hangzhou Bay, China. Terrestrial OM was highest at the upper marshes and decreased closer to the sea, and the distribution of sedimentary total organic carbon (TOC) was influenced mostly by particle size. Terrestrial OM with a C3 signature was the predominant source of sedimentary OM in the Spartina alterniflora-dominated salt marsh system. This means that aside from contributions from the local marsh plants, the Andong salt marsh received input mostly from the Qiantang River and the Changjiang Estuary. Transect C, which was situated nearer to the Qiantang River mouth, was most likely influenced by input from the Qiantang River. Likewise, a nearby creek could be transporting materials from Hangzhou Bay into Transect A (farther east than Transect C), as Transect A showed a signal resembling that of the Changjiang Estuary. The predominance of terrestrial OM in the Andong salt marsh despite overall reductions in sedimentary and terrestrial OM input from the rivers is most likely due to increased contributions of sedimentary and terrestrial OM from erosion. This study shows that lower salt marsh accretion due to the presence of reservoirs upstream may be counterbalanced by increased erosion from the surrounding coastal areas.

  13. Levels and source apportionment of volatile organic compounds in southwestern area of Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodolfo Sosa, E. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 04510, D.F. (Mexico); Humberto Bravo, A. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 04510, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: hbravo@servidor.unam.mx; Violeta Mugica, A. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Azcapotzalco, D.F. (Mexico); Pablo Sanchez, A. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 04510, D.F. (Mexico); Emma Bueno, L. [Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Capacitacion Ambiental, Instituto Nacional de Ecologia (Mexico); Krupa, Sagar [Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    Thirteen volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were quantified at three sites in southwestern Mexico City from July 2000 to February 2001. High concentrations of different VOCs were found at a Gasoline refueling station (GS), a Condominium area (CA), and at University Center for Atmospheric Sciences (CAS). The most abundant VOCs at CA and CAS were propane, n-butane, toluene, acetylene and pentane. In comparison, at GS the most abundant were toluene, pentane, propane, n-butane, and acetylene. Benzene, a known carcinogenic compound had average levels of 28, 35 and 250 ppbC at CAS, CA, and GS respectively. The main contributing sources of the measured VOCs at CA and CAS were the handling and management of LP (Liquid Propane) gas, vehicle exhaust, asphalt works, and use of solvents. At GS almost all of the VOCs came from vehicle exhaust and fuel evaporation, although components of LP gas were also present. Based on the overall results possible abatement strategies are discussed. - Volatile organic compounds were quantified in order to perform their source apportionment in southwestern area of Mexico City.

  14. Levels and source apportionment of volatile organic compounds in southwestern area of Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodolfo Sosa, E.; Humberto Bravo, A.; Violeta Mugica, A.; Pablo Sanchez, A.; Emma Bueno, L.; Krupa, Sagar

    2009-01-01

    Thirteen volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were quantified at three sites in southwestern Mexico City from July 2000 to February 2001. High concentrations of different VOCs were found at a Gasoline refueling station (GS), a Condominium area (CA), and at University Center for Atmospheric Sciences (CAS). The most abundant VOCs at CA and CAS were propane, n-butane, toluene, acetylene and pentane. In comparison, at GS the most abundant were toluene, pentane, propane, n-butane, and acetylene. Benzene, a known carcinogenic compound had average levels of 28, 35 and 250 ppbC at CAS, CA, and GS respectively. The main contributing sources of the measured VOCs at CA and CAS were the handling and management of LP (Liquid Propane) gas, vehicle exhaust, asphalt works, and use of solvents. At GS almost all of the VOCs came from vehicle exhaust and fuel evaporation, although components of LP gas were also present. Based on the overall results possible abatement strategies are discussed. - Volatile organic compounds were quantified in order to perform their source apportionment in southwestern area of Mexico City

  15. Optical and spectroscopic studies on tannery wastes as a possible source of organic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashy, El-Shahat H A; Al-Ashkar, Emad; Moez, A Abdel

    2012-02-01

    Tanning industry produces a large quantity of solid wastes which contain hide proteins in the form of protein shavings containing chromium salts. The chromium wastes are the main concern from an environmental stand point of view, because chrome wastes posses a significant disposal problem. The present work is devoted to investigate the possibility of utilizing these wastes as a source of organic semi-conductors as an alternative method instead of the conventional ones. The chemical characterization of these wastes was determined. In addition, the Horizontal Attenuated Total Reflection (HATR) FT-IR spectroscopic analysis and optical parameters were also carried out for chromated samples. The study showed that the chromated samples had suitable absorbance and transmittance in the wavelength range (500-850 nm). Presence of chromium salt in the collagen samples increases the absorbance which improves the optical properties of the studied samples and leads to decrease the optical energy gap. The obtained optical energy gap gives an impression that the environmentally hazardous chrome shavings wastes can be utilized as a possible source of natural organic semiconductors with direct and indirect energy gap. This work opens the door to use some hazardous wastes in the manufacture of electronic devices such as IR-detectors, solar cells and also as solar cell windows. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Beyond the Business Model: Incentives for Organizations to Publish Software Source Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindman, Juho; Juutilainen, Juha-Pekka; Rossi, Matti

    The software stack opened under Open Source Software (OSS) licenses is growing rapidly. Commercial actors have released considerable amounts of previously proprietary source code. These actions beg the question why companies choose a strategy based on giving away software assets? Research on outbound OSS approach has tried to answer this question with the concept of the “OSS business model”. When studying the reasons for code release, we have observed that the business model concept is too generic to capture the many incentives organizations have. Conversely, in this paper we investigate empirically what the companies’ incentives are by means of an exploratory case study of three organizations in different stages of their code release. Our results indicate that the companies aim to promote standardization, obtain development resources, gain cost savings, improve the quality of software, increase the trustworthiness of software, or steer OSS communities. We conclude that future research on outbound OSS could benefit from focusing on the heterogeneous incentives for code release rather than on revenue models.

  17. Low levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in New Zealand eels reflect isolation from atmospheric sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmqvist, Niklas; Stenroth, Patrik; Berglund, Olof; Nystroem, Per; Olsson, Karin; Jellyman, Don; McIntosh, Angus R.; Larsson, Per

    2006-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organic pesticides (i.e., DDTs) were measured in long finned eels (Anguilla dieffenbachii) in 17 streams on the west coast of South Island, New Zealand. Very low levels of PCBs and low levels of ppDDE were found. The concentrations of PCBs and ppDDE were not correlated within sites indicating that different processes determined the levels of the two pollutants in New Zealand eels. The PCBs probably originate from atmospheric transport, ppDDE levels are determined by land use and are higher in agriculture areas. The low contamination level of these aquatic systems seems to be a function of a low input from both long and short-range transport as well as few local point sources. No correlation could be found between lipid content and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) concentration (as shown in previous studies) in the eels which could be explained by low and irregular intake of the pollutants. - Low levels of PCBs found in New Zealand eels reflect isolation from atmospheric sources while DDTs levels are determined by land use

  18. [Research on source profile of aerosol organic compounds in leather plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo-Guang; Zhou, Yan; Feng, Zhi-Cheng; Liu, Hui-Xuan

    2009-04-15

    Through investigating current air pollution condition for PM10 in every factories of different style leather plants in Pearl River Delta, characteristic profile of semi-volatile organic compounds in PM10 emitted from leather factories and their contents were researched by using ultrasonic and gas chromatography and mass spectrum technology. The 6 types of organic compounds containing 46 species in total were found in the collected samples, including phenyl compounds, alcohols, PAHs, acids, esters and amides. The concentrations of PM10 in leather tanning plant, leather dying plant and man-made leather plant were 678.5, 454.5, 498.6 microgm x m(-3) respectively, and concentration of organic compounds in PM10 were 10.04, 6.89, 14.21 microg x m(-3) in sequence. The more important type of pollutants in each leather plants had higher contribution to total organic mass as follows, esters and amides in tanning plants profile account for 43.47% and 36.51% respectively; esters and alcohols in dying plants profiles account for 52.52% and 16.16% respectively; esters and amide in man-made leather plant have the highest content and account for 57.07% and 24.17% respectively. In the aerosol organic source profiles of tested leather plants, 9-octadecenamide was the abundant important species with the weight of 26.15% in tanning plant, and Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate was up to 44.19% in the dying plant, and Bis(2-ethylhexyl) maleate and 1-hydroxy-piperidine had obviously higher weight in man-made plant than the other two plants.

  19. Global combustion sources of organic aerosols: model comparison with 84 AMS factor-analysis data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimpidi, Alexandra P.; Karydis, Vlassis A.; Pandis, Spyros N.; Lelieveld, Jos

    2016-07-01

    Emissions of organic compounds from biomass, biofuel, and fossil fuel combustion strongly influence the global atmospheric aerosol load. Some of the organics are directly released as primary organic aerosol (POA). Most are emitted in the gas phase and undergo chemical transformations (i.e., oxidation by hydroxyl radical) and form secondary organic aerosol (SOA). In this work we use the global chemistry climate model ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) with a computationally efficient module for the description of organic aerosol (OA) composition and evolution in the atmosphere (ORACLE). The tropospheric burden of open biomass and anthropogenic (fossil and biofuel) combustion particles is estimated to be 0.59 and 0.63 Tg, respectively, accounting for about 30 and 32 % of the total tropospheric OA load. About 30 % of the open biomass burning and 10 % of the anthropogenic combustion aerosols originate from direct particle emissions, whereas the rest is formed in the atmosphere. A comprehensive data set of aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements along with factor-analysis results from 84 field campaigns across the Northern Hemisphere are used to evaluate the model results. Both the AMS observations and the model results suggest that over urban areas both POA (25-40 %) and SOA (60-75 %) contribute substantially to the overall OA mass, whereas further downwind and in rural areas the POA concentrations decrease substantially and SOA dominates (80-85 %). EMAC does a reasonable job in reproducing POA and SOA levels during most of the year. However, it tends to underpredict POA and SOA concentrations during winter indicating that the model misses wintertime sources of OA (e.g., residential biofuel use) and SOA formation pathways (e.g., multiphase oxidation).

  20. Multiple sources driving the organic matter dynamics in two contrasting tropical mangroves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, R.; Shahraki, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we have selected two different mangroves based on their geological, hydrological and climatological variations to investigate the origin (terrestrial, phytobenthos derived, and phytoplankton derived) of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), particulate organic carbon (POC) in the water column and the sedimentary OC using elemental ratios and stable isotopes. Qeshm Island, representing the Iranian mangroves received no attention before this study in terms of DOC, POC biogeochemistry and their sources unlike the Sundarbans (Indian side), the world's largest mangrove system. Slightly higher DOC concentrations in the Iranian mangroves were recorded in our field campaigns between 2011 and 2014, compared to the Sundarbans (315 ± 25 μM vs. 278 ± 42 μM), owing to the longer water residence times, while 9–10 times greater POC concentration (303 ± 37 μM, n = 82) was linked to both suspended load (345 ± 104 mg L"− "1) and high algal production. Yearlong phytoplankton bloom in the mangrove-lined Persian Gulf was reported to be the perennial source of both POC and DOC contributing 80–86% to the DOC and 90–98% to the POC pool. Whereas in the Sundarbans, riverine input contributed 50–58% to the DOC pool and POC composition was regulated by the seasonal litter fall, river discharge and phytoplankton production. Algal derived organic matter (microphytobenthos) represented the maximum contribution (70–76%) to the sedimentary OC at Qeshm Island, while mangrove leaf litters dominated the OC pool in the Indian Sundarbans. Finally, hydrographical settings (i.e. riverine transport) appeared to be the determinant factor in differentiating OM sources in the water column between the dry and wet mangroves. - Highlights: • Sources of OC have been identified and compared between two contrasting mangroves. • Phytoplankton dominated the DOC and POC pool in the Iranian mangroves. • River input contributed half of the total DOC and part of POC in the Indian

  1. Multiple sources driving the organic matter dynamics in two contrasting tropical mangroves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, R., E-mail: raghab.ray@gmail.com [Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer, UBO, UMR 6539 LEMAR, rue Dumont dUrville, 29280 Plouzane (France); Leibniz Center for Tropical Marine Ecology, Fahrenheitstr. 6, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Shahraki, M. [Leibniz Center for Tropical Marine Ecology, Fahrenheitstr. 6, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Am Handelshafen 12, 27570 Bremerhaven (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    In this study, we have selected two different mangroves based on their geological, hydrological and climatological variations to investigate the origin (terrestrial, phytobenthos derived, and phytoplankton derived) of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), particulate organic carbon (POC) in the water column and the sedimentary OC using elemental ratios and stable isotopes. Qeshm Island, representing the Iranian mangroves received no attention before this study in terms of DOC, POC biogeochemistry and their sources unlike the Sundarbans (Indian side), the world's largest mangrove system. Slightly higher DOC concentrations in the Iranian mangroves were recorded in our field campaigns between 2011 and 2014, compared to the Sundarbans (315 ± 25 μM vs. 278 ± 42 μM), owing to the longer water residence times, while 9–10 times greater POC concentration (303 ± 37 μM, n = 82) was linked to both suspended load (345 ± 104 mg L{sup −} {sup 1}) and high algal production. Yearlong phytoplankton bloom in the mangrove-lined Persian Gulf was reported to be the perennial source of both POC and DOC contributing 80–86% to the DOC and 90–98% to the POC pool. Whereas in the Sundarbans, riverine input contributed 50–58% to the DOC pool and POC composition was regulated by the seasonal litter fall, river discharge and phytoplankton production. Algal derived organic matter (microphytobenthos) represented the maximum contribution (70–76%) to the sedimentary OC at Qeshm Island, while mangrove leaf litters dominated the OC pool in the Indian Sundarbans. Finally, hydrographical settings (i.e. riverine transport) appeared to be the determinant factor in differentiating OM sources in the water column between the dry and wet mangroves. - Highlights: • Sources of OC have been identified and compared between two contrasting mangroves. • Phytoplankton dominated the DOC and POC pool in the Iranian mangroves. • River input contributed half of the total DOC and part of POC in

  2. Hurricane Matthew's Effects on Wetland Sources of Organic Matter to North Carolina Coastal Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, J. C.; Osburn, C. L.; Paerl, H. W.; Hounshell, A.

    2017-12-01

    Increased frequency and intensity of storm events such as tropical cyclones will have a major impact on estuarine and coastal biogeochemical cycling. Here, we determined the sources of dissolved and particulate organic matter (DOM and POM) as part of a larger study to quantify the short-term (several months) response of carbon and nitrogen cycling in the Neuse River Estuary-Pamlico Sound (NRE-PS) ecosystem to floodwaters associated with Hurricane Matthew. Sampling was conducted weekly in both the NRE-PS (October 2016 to January 2017), the Neuse River (NR) (October to December 2016) and in freshwater wetlands of the Neuse River above head of tide in March 2017. Specific ultraviolet (UV) absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA254) and stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C-DOC) were used to determine the sources of DOM and POM transported to the NRE-PS in post-hurricane floodwaters. For DOM, SUVA254 values increased from 3.23 ±0.52 mg C L-1 m-1 in the NR to 4.14±0.52 mg C L-1 m-1 in the NRE and then declined to 3.63±0.32 mg C L-1 m-1 in PS. Combined with depleted δ13C-DOC values (-26 to -32‰) and elevated C:N values in the estuary and sound, these results confirm continued loading of fresh terrestrial organic matter into NRE-PS weeks after the storm. For POM, δ13C-POC and C:N ratio results likewise indicated a terrestrial source in floodwaters. SUVA254 values >3.5 mg C L-1 m-1 coupled with the depleted δ13C values and large C:N values were consistent with DOM primarily sourced from wetlands (e.g., wetland SUVA254 = 3.77±0.52 mg C L-1 m-1 in March 2017). We hypothesize that floodwaters connected riverine wetlands to the main channel of the NR, exporting DOM and POM into the NRE-PS. Our results indicate that upstream wetlands play a central and potentially significant role in organic matter enrichment and metabolism of estuarine and coastal waters, in light of increasing frequencies and intensities of tropical cyclones impacting coastal watersheds.

  3. Understanding sources of organic aerosol during CalNex-2010 using the CMAQ-VBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Woody

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ model simulations utilizing the traditional organic aerosol (OA treatment (CMAQ-AE6 and a volatility basis set (VBS treatment for OA (CMAQ-VBS were evaluated against measurements collected at routine monitoring networks (Chemical Speciation Network (CSN and Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE and those collected during the 2010 California at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex field campaign to examine important sources of OA in southern California. Traditionally, CMAQ treats primary organic aerosol (POA as nonvolatile and uses a two-product framework to represent secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation. CMAQ-VBS instead treats POA as semivolatile and lumps OA using volatility bins spaced an order of magnitude apart. The CMAQ-VBS approach underpredicted organic carbon (OC at IMPROVE and CSN sites to a greater degree than CMAQ-AE6 due to the semivolatile POA treatment. However, comparisons to aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS measurements collected at Pasadena, CA, indicated that CMAQ-VBS better represented the diurnal profile and primary/secondary split of OA. CMAQ-VBS SOA underpredicted the average measured AMS oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA, a surrogate for SOA concentration by a factor of 5.2, representing a considerable improvement to CMAQ-AE6 SOA predictions (factor of 24 lower than AMS. We use two new methods, one based on species ratios (SOA/ΔCO and SOA/Ox and another on a simplified SOA parameterization, to apportion the SOA underprediction for CMAQ-VBS to slow photochemical oxidation (estimated as 1.5 ×  lower than observed at Pasadena using −log(NOx : NOy, low intrinsic SOA formation efficiency (low by 1.6 to 2 ×  for Pasadena, and low emissions or excessive dispersion for the Pasadena site (estimated to be 1.6 to 2.3 ×  too low/excessive. The first and third factors are common to CMAQ-AE6, while the intrinsic SOA formation efficiency

  4. Factor analysis of sources of information on organ donation and transplantation in journalism students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Alarcón, L; Ríos, A; Ramis, G; López-Navas, A; Febrero, B; Ramírez, P; Parrilla, P

    2013-01-01

    Journalists and the information they disseminate are essential to promote health and organ donation and transplantation (ODT). The attitude of journalism students toward ODT could influence public opinion and help promote this treatment option. The aim of this study was to determine the media through which journalism students receive information on ODT and to analyze the association between the sources of information and psychosocial variables. We surveyed journalism students (n = 129) recruited in compulsory classes. A validated psychosocial questionnaire (self-administered, anonymous) about ODT was used. Student t test and χ(2) test were applied. Questionnaire completion rate was 98% (n = 126). The medium with the greatest incidence on students was television (TV), followed by press and magazines/books. In the factor analysis to determine the impact of the information by its source, the first factor was talks with friends and family; the second was shared by hoardings/publicity posters, health professionals, and college/school; and the third was TV and radio. In the factor analysis between information sources and psychosocial variables, the associations were between information about organ donation transmitted by friends and family and having spoken about ODT with them; by TV, radio, and hoardings and not having spoken in the family; and by TV/radio and the father's and mother's opinion about ODT. The medium with the greatest incidence on students is TV, and the medium with the greatest impact on broadcasting information was conversations with friends, family, and health professionals. This could be useful for society, because they should be provided with clear and concise information. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Utilization of muddy detritus as organic matter source by the fan mussel Pinna nobilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. TRIGOS

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the feeding habits in marine species is fundamental to better understand their relationship with the environment. Although phytoplankton has been traditionally reported as the main food source consumed by the Mediterranean fan mussel Pinna nobilis, recent studies have revealed that detritus represents an important food source for this species. We analysed the degree of acceptance of muddy detritus and the utilisation of its organic matter (OM by P. nobilis on a group of 21 individuals (30.3-59.7 cm of total shell height (Ht. The specimens were collected between July and September 2012 in two areas (43°04´25” N; 5°46´7” E and 43°04´34” N; 5°47´32” E of the Embiez archipelago, northwestern Mediterranean (France. Our studies show that P. nobilis retains high quantities of OM from muddy detritus (47.50 ± 11.23% of filtered OM irrespectively of shell size. Smaller individuals, however, actively filter more detritus than large ones. The values of retained OM, together with previous studies on stomach contents, suggest that muddy detritus is a more important OM source than phytoplankton for this species.

  6. Supplementation of diets for Santa Ines sheep with organic and inorganic zinc sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Garcia Vilela

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted with objective to evaluate the effect of different zinc (Zn sources and doses in the diet for Santa Ines sheep. Forty lambs at weaning, with 18.4 kg of body weight were supplemented with three different sources of zinc (zinc oxide (ZnO, zinc amino acid and zinc proteinate and three doses of zinc (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg DM added to the basal diet. At every 28 days, animals were weighted and blood samples were collected for analyses of zinc (Zn, alkaline phosphatase and immunoglobulin G (IgG and M (IgM. At the end of experiment, liver samples were collected for determination of the hepatic zinc levels. Zinc was analyzed with atomic absorption spectrophotometer, while phosphatase alkaline and immunoglobulins G and M were analyzed using Laborlab and Bioclin kits, respectively. There was no effect of diets on phosphatase alkaline levels and hepatic zinc, but there was difference in the plasmatic zinc levels and IgG and IgM levels. Based on the accumulation of hepatic zinc, the estimate of the zinc bioavailability, through the regression equation, showed that supplementation with organic and inorganic sources of zinc did not differ in the diet of Santa Ines sheep.

  7. Source signature of volatile organic compounds from oil and natural gas operations in northeastern Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, J B; Lerner, B M; Kuster, W C; de Gouw, J A

    2013-02-05

    An extensive set of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was measured at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) in winter 2011 in order to investigate the composition and influence of VOC emissions from oil and natural gas (O&NG) operations in northeastern Colorado. BAO is 30 km north of Denver and is in the southwestern section of Wattenberg Field, one of Colorado's most productive O&NG fields. We compare VOC concentrations at BAO to those of other U.S. cities and summertime measurements at two additional sites in northeastern Colorado, as well as the composition of raw natural gas from Wattenberg Field. These comparisons show that (i) the VOC source signature associated with O&NG operations can be clearly differentiated from urban sources dominated by vehicular exhaust, and (ii) VOCs emitted from O&NG operations are evident at all three measurement sites in northeastern Colorado. At BAO, the reactivity of VOCs with the hydroxyl radical (OH) was dominated by C(2)-C(6) alkanes due to their remarkably large abundances (e.g., mean propane = 27.2 ppbv). Through statistical regression analysis, we estimate that on average 55 ± 18% of the VOC-OH reactivity was attributable to emissions from O&NG operations indicating that these emissions are a significant source of ozone precursors.

  8. Growth and sporulation of Trichoderma polysporum on organic substrates by addition of carbon and nitrogen sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, A.Q.; Shahzad, S.

    2015-01-01

    During the present study nine different organic substrates viz., rice grains, sorghum grains, wheat grains, millet grains, wheat straw, rice husk, cow dung, sawdust and poultry manure were used for mass multiplication of Trichoderma polysporum. Grains, especially sorghum grains were found to be the best substrate for T. polysporum. Wheat straw and rice husk were less suitable, whereas, cow dung, sawdust and poultry manure were not suitable for growth of the fungus. Sucrose at the rate of 30,000 ppm and ammonium nitrate at the rate of 3,000 ppm were found to be the best carbon and nitrogen sources for growth and sporulation of T. polysporum. Amendment of the selected C and N sources to wheat straw, rice husk and millet grains resulted in significantly higher growth and conidia production by T. polysporum as compared to un-amended substrates. Sorghum and rice grains showed suppression in growth and sporulation of T. polysporum when amended with C and N sources. During studies on shelf life, populations of T. polysporum attained the peck at 60-135 days intervals on different substrates and declined gradually thereafter. However, even after 330 days, the populations were greater than the population at 0-day. At 345-360 days interval, populations were less than the initial populations at 0- days. Shelf life on C+N amended wheat straw and rice husk were more as compared to un-amended substrates. (author)

  9. Consumer Perception of Genetically Modified Organisms and Sources of Information123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlich, Shahla; Gatto, Kelsey A

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been available for commercial purchase since the 1990s, allowing producers to increase crop yields through bioengineering that creates herbicide-resistant and insect-resistant varieties. However, consumer knowledge about GMOs has not increased at the same rate as the adoption of GMO crops. Consumers worldwide are displaying limited understanding, misconceptions, and even unfamiliarity with GMO food products. Many consumers report that they receive information about GMO food products from the media, Internet, and other news sources. These sources may be less reliable than scientific experts whom consumers trust more to present the facts. Although many in the United States support mandatory GMO labeling (similar to current European standards), consumer awareness of current GMO labeling is low. A distinction must also be made between GMO familiarity and scientific understanding, because those who are more familiar with it tend to be more resistant to bioengineering, whereas those with higher scientific knowledge scores tend to have less negative attitudes toward GMOs. This brings to question the relation between scientific literacy, sources of information, and overall consumer knowledge and perception of GMO foods. PMID:26567205

  10. Mercury in organisms from the Northwestern Mediterranean slope: Importance of food sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cresson, P., E-mail: pierre.cresson@ifremer.fr [Ifremer, Centre de Méditerranée, CS 20330, F-83 507 La Seyne-sur-Mer (France); Fabri, M.C., E-mail: marie.claire.fabri@ifremer.fr [Ifremer, Centre de Méditerranée, CS 20330, F-83 507 La Seyne-sur-Mer (France); Bouchoucha, M., E-mail: marc.bouchoucha@ifremer.fr [Ifremer, Centre de Méditerranée, CS 20330, F-83 507 La Seyne-sur-Mer (France); Brach Papa, C., E-mail: christophe.brach.papa@ifremer.fr [Ifremer, Centre Atlantique, BP 21105, F-44311 Nantes Cedex 03 (France); Chavanon, F., E-mail: fabienne.chavanon@ifremer.fr [Ifremer, Centre de Méditerranée, CS 20330, F-83 507 La Seyne-sur-Mer (France); Jadaud, A., E-mail: angelique.jadaud@ifremer.fr [Ifremer, Centre de Méditerranée, CS 30171, F-34203 Sète Cedex (France); Knoery, J., E-mail: joel.knoery@ifremer.fr [Ifremer, Centre Atlantique, BP 21105, F-44311 Nantes Cedex 03 (France); Miralles, F., E-mail: fmarco@ifremer.fr [Ifremer, Centre de Méditerranée, CS 20330, F-83 507 La Seyne-sur-Mer (France); Cossa, D., E-mail: daniel.cossa@ifremer.fr [Ifremer, Centre de Méditerranée, CS 20330, F-83 507 La Seyne-sur-Mer (France); IS Terre, Université Joseph Fourier, BP 53, F-38041 Grenoble (France)

    2014-11-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global threat for marine ecosystems, especially within the Mediterranean Sea. The concern is higher for deep-sea organisms, as the Hg concentration in their tissues is commonly high. To assess the influence of food supply at two trophic levels, total Hg concentrations and carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were determined in 7 species (4 teleosts, 2 sharks, and 1 crustacean) sampled on the upper part of the continental slope of the Gulf of Lions (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea), at depths between 284 and 816 m. Mean Hg concentrations ranged from 1.30 ± 0.61 to 7.13 ± 7.09 μg g{sup −1} dry mass, with maximum values observed for small-spotted catshark Scyliorhinus canicula. For all species except blue whiting Micromesistius poutassou, Hg concentrations were above the health safety limits for human consumption defined by the European Commission, with a variable proportion of the individuals exceeding limits (from 23% for the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus to 82% for the blackbelly rosefish Helicolenus dactylopterus). Measured concentrations increased with increasing trophic levels. Carbon isotopic ratios measured for these organisms demonstrated that settling phytoplanktonic organic matter is not only the main source fueling trophic webs but also the carrier of Hg to this habitat. Inter- and intraspecific variations of Hg concentrations revealed the importance of feeding patterns in Hg bioaccumulation. In addition, biological parameters, such as growth rate or bathymetric range explain the observed contamination trends. - Highlights: • Hg and stable isotope ratios were assessed in 7 species from Mediterranean slope. • Settling phytoplankton was the main OM and Hg source, as confirmed by δ{sup 13}C values. • All species except one exceeded Hg consumption limits. • Depth and diet were important factors explaining Hg content. • Results confirmed the concern about Hg in the deep Mediterranean.

  11. Mercury in organisms from the Northwestern Mediterranean slope: Importance of food sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cresson, P.; Fabri, M.C.; Bouchoucha, M.; Brach Papa, C.; Chavanon, F.; Jadaud, A.; Knoery, J.; Miralles, F.; Cossa, D.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global threat for marine ecosystems, especially within the Mediterranean Sea. The concern is higher for deep-sea organisms, as the Hg concentration in their tissues is commonly high. To assess the influence of food supply at two trophic levels, total Hg concentrations and carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were determined in 7 species (4 teleosts, 2 sharks, and 1 crustacean) sampled on the upper part of the continental slope of the Gulf of Lions (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea), at depths between 284 and 816 m. Mean Hg concentrations ranged from 1.30 ± 0.61 to 7.13 ± 7.09 μg g −1 dry mass, with maximum values observed for small-spotted catshark Scyliorhinus canicula. For all species except blue whiting Micromesistius poutassou, Hg concentrations were above the health safety limits for human consumption defined by the European Commission, with a variable proportion of the individuals exceeding limits (from 23% for the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus to 82% for the blackbelly rosefish Helicolenus dactylopterus). Measured concentrations increased with increasing trophic levels. Carbon isotopic ratios measured for these organisms demonstrated that settling phytoplanktonic organic matter is not only the main source fueling trophic webs but also the carrier of Hg to this habitat. Inter- and intraspecific variations of Hg concentrations revealed the importance of feeding patterns in Hg bioaccumulation. In addition, biological parameters, such as growth rate or bathymetric range explain the observed contamination trends. - Highlights: • Hg and stable isotope ratios were assessed in 7 species from Mediterranean slope. • Settling phytoplankton was the main OM and Hg source, as confirmed by δ 13 C values. • All species except one exceeded Hg consumption limits. • Depth and diet were important factors explaining Hg content. • Results confirmed the concern about Hg in the deep Mediterranean

  12. Organic micropollutants discharged by combined sewer overflows - Characterisation of pollutant sources and stormwater-related processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launay, Marie A; Dittmer, Ulrich; Steinmetz, Heidrun

    2016-11-01

    To characterise emissions from combined sewer overflows (CSOs) regarding organic micropollutants, a monitoring study was undertaken in an urban catchment in southwest Stuttgart, Germany. The occurrence of 69 organic micropollutants was assessed at one CSO outfall during seven rain events as well as in the sewage network at the influent of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and in the receiving water. Several pollutant groups like pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), urban biocides and pesticides, industrial chemicals, organophosphorus flame retardants, plasticisers and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were chosen for analysis. Out of the 69 monitored substances, 60 were detected in CSO discharges. The results of this study show that CSOs represent an important pathway for a wide range of organic micropollutants from wastewater systems to urban receiving waters. For most compounds detected in CSO samples, event mean concentrations varied between the different events in about one order of magnitude range. When comparing CSO concentrations with median wastewater concentrations during dry weather, two main patterns could be observed depending on the source of the pollutant: (i) wastewater is diluted by stormwater; (ii) stormwater is the most important source of a pollutant. Both wastewater and stormwater only play an important role in pollutant concentration for a few compounds. The proportion of stormwater calculated with the conductivity is a suitable indicator for the evaluation of emitted loads of dissolved wastewater pollutants, but not for all compounds. In fact, this study demonstrates that remobilisation of in-sewer deposits contributed from 10% to 65% to emissions of carbamazepine in CSO events. The contribution of stormwater to CSO emitted loads was higher than 90% for all herbicides as well as for PAHs. Regarding the priority substance di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), this contribution varied between 39% and 85%. The PAH

  13. Aqueous Oxidation of Green Leaf Volatiles as a Source of Secondary Organic Aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards-Henderson, N. K.; Hansel, A.; Pham, A. T.; Vempati, H. S.; Valsaraj, K. T.; Anastasio, C.

    2013-12-01

    Vegetation emits volatile oxygenated hydrocarbons - the green leaf volatiles (GLVs) - which are formed from the biochemical conversion of linoleic and linolenic acids within plant cells. Stress or damage to vegetation can significantly elevate emission fluxes of these compounds, some of which are fairly water soluble. Aqueous-phase reactions of the GLVs with photochemically generated oxidants - such as hydroxyl radical (OH), singlet oxygen (1O2) and excited triplet states of organic compounds (3C*) _ might then form low-volatility products that can act as secondary organic aerosol (SOA). In order to determine if GLVs can be a significant source of secondary organic carbon in fogwater, studies of GLVs in laboratory solutions are needed to elucidate the oxidation kinetics and the corresponding SOA mass yields. In this study we are determining the second-order rate constants, and SOA mass yields, for five GLVs (cis-3-hexen-1-ol, cis-3-hexenylacetate, methyl salicylate, methyl jasmonate, and 2-methyl-3-butene-2-ol) reacting with OH,1O2 and 3C*. Experiments are performed at relevant fog water pHs, temperatures, and oxidant concentrations. Rate constants are determined using a relative rate approach in which the decay of GLVs and reference compounds are monitored as function of time by HPLC. The capacity of GLVs to form aqueous SOA was determined by following the formation of their decomposition products with HPLC-UV/DAD and HPLC-ESI/MS. SOA mass yields are measured gravimetrically from laboratory solutions containing atmospherically relevant concentrations of photooxidants and GLVs, and irradiated with simulated sunlight. We will use our results to assess the potential contribution of aqueous GLV reactions as a source of SOA in cloudy or foggy atmospheres.

  14. Open Source System as Innovation in Organizations: A Managerial Perspective on Its Adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Ismawati Jaafar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies the factors that have a direct effect on a manager's decision towards Open Source System (OSS enterprise system adoption in Malaysia. Using the Technology-Organization-Environment (TOE framework, the research is initiated by inviting the managers in Malaysian organizations who implemented OSS. A survey was conducted via online OSS social communities and by sending emails to shortlisted public. A total of 124 managers from 124 organizations responded to the survey and the results showed that four out of six factors were found significant in this study. In the technological context, ‘perceived relative advantage’, ‘perceived compatibility and trialability’ and ‘perceived complexity’ factors were found significant in the OSS adoption. In the organizational context, ‘management support, knowledge and expertise’ was identified as the adoption factor. Two factors in the environmental context that was not supported were the ‘technology skills and services’ and ‘platform long term viability’ although previous studies suggested otherwise.

  15. Emerging organic contaminants in groundwater: A review of sources, fate and occurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapworth, D.J.; Baran, N.; Stuart, M.E.; Ward, R.S.

    2012-01-01

    Emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) detected in groundwater may have adverse effects on human health and aquatic ecosystems. This paper reviews the existing occurrence data in groundwater for a range of EOCs including pharmaceutical, personal care, ‘life-style’ and selected industrial compounds. The main sources and pathways for organic EOCs in groundwater are reviewed, with occurrence data for EOCs in groundwater included from both targeted studies and broad reconnaissance surveys. Nanogram-microgram per litre concentrations are present in groundwater for a large range of EOCs as well as metabolites and transformation products and under certain conditions may pose a threat to freshwater bodies for decades due to relatively long groundwater residence times. In the coming decades, more of these EOCs are likely to have drinking water standards, environmental quality standards and/or groundwater threshold values defined, and therefore a better understanding of the spatial and temporal variation remains a priority. - Highlights: ► First review to focus on EOCs in groundwater. ► A large range (n > 180) of EOCs are detected in groundwater. ► Significant concentrations (10 2 –10 4 ng/L) for a range of EOCs, including endocrine disruptors. ► Groundwater EOC occurrence is poorly characterised compared to other freshwater resources. - A large range of emerging organic contaminants are now being detected in groundwater as a result of recent and historical anthropogenic activities.

  16. Organic geochemical characterization of potential hydrocarbon source rocks in the upper Benue Trough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obaje, N. G.; Pearson, M. J.; Suh, C. E.; Dada, S. S.

    1999-01-01

    The Upper Benue Trough of Nigeria is the northeastern most portion of the Benue rift structure that extends from the northern limit of the Niger Delta in the south to the southern limit of the Chad basin int he northeast. this portion of the trough is made up of two arms: the Gongola Arm and the Yola Arm. Stratigraphic sequence in the Gongola Arm comprises the continental Albian Bima Sandstone, the transitional Cenomanian Yolde Formation and the marine Turonian - Santonian Gongila, Pindiga, and Fika Formations. Overlying these are the continental Campane - Maastrichtian Gombe Sandstone and the Tertiary Kerri - Kerri Formation. In the Yola Arm, the Turonian - Santonian sequence is replaced by the equally marine Dukul, Jessu, Sekuliye Formations, Numanha Shale, and the Lamja Sandstone. Organic geochemical studies have been carried on outcrop sample form the Gongila, Pindiga, Dukul Formations, the Fika shale and the shaly units of the Gombe Sandstone, with the aim of assessing their source rock potential. Gas Chromatography (GC), Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (C - MS), and Rock Eval Pyrolysis were the major organic geochemical tools employed. Biomaker hydrocarbon signatures obtained from the GC - MS and the Rock Eval Pyrolysis results indicate that all he formations studied, except the Dukul formation, are immature and are all lean in organic matter

  17. evaluation of selected composted organic sources on potato plant grown in sandy soil using nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moursy, A.A.A.

    2008-01-01

    the main point of this study is the evaluation of organic compost as a source of nutrient demand by potatoes cultivated in light texture soil under drip irrigation system. the composted materials either applied alone or in combination with mineral fertilizer have an effective role on potato yields and nutrients management under field scale. so, many objectives were achieved. the valuable results obtained in the present study could be summarized as follows: part one: composting experiment contains ph changes of composted materials, EC changes with time, nitrogen content in composted materials, change of c/n ratio with time, organic matter content of the composted materials, phosphorus content in composted materials,. part two: potato field experiment contains .dry matter yield, tuber dry weight, tuber yield, nutrients uptake by potato varieties,. part three contains . application of 15 N isotope dilution technique, nitrogen derived from fertilizer (Ndff), nitrogen derived from organic compost (% Ndf comp),nitrogen derived from soil (% Ndfs), fertilizer use efficiency (% FUE), 15 N recovered by potatoes.

  18. Nitrous oxide emissions respond differently to mineral and organic nitrogen sources in contrasting soil types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelster, David E; Chantigny, Martin H; Rochette, Philippe; Angers, Denis A; Rieux, Christine; Vanasse, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The use of various animal manures for nitrogen (N) fertilization is often viewed as a viable replacement for mineral N fertilizers. However, the impacts of amendment type on NO production may vary. In this study, NO emissions were measured for 2 yr on two soil types with contrasting texture and carbon (C) content under a cool, humid climate. Treatments consisted of a no-N control, calcium ammonium nitrate, poultry manure, liquid cattle manure, or liquid swine manure. The N sources were surface applied and immediately incorporated at 90 kg N ha before seeding of spring wheat ( L.). Cumulative NO-N emissions from the silty clay ranged from 2.2 to 8.3 kg ha yr and were slightly lower in the control than in the fertilized plots ( = 0.067). The 2-yr mean NO emission factors ranged from 2.0 to 4.4% of added N, with no difference among N sources. Emissions of NO from the sandy loam soil ranged from 0.3 to 2.2 kg NO-N ha yr, with higher emissions with organic than mineral N sources ( = 0.015) and the greatest emissions with poultry manure ( < 0.001). The NO emission factor from plots amended with poultry manure was 1.8%, more than double that of the other treatments (0.3-0.9%), likely because of its high C content. On the silty clay, the yield-based NO emissions (g NO-N kg grain yield N) were similar between treatments, whereas on the sandy loam, they were greatest when amended with poultry manure. Our findings suggest that, compared with mineral N sources, manure application only increases soil NO flux in soils with low C content. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  19. Organic compositions of lacustrine source rocks in Jiyang super-depression and its implication to petroleum geology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The compositions of organic matter in four immature source rocks from Tertiary strata of Jiyang super-depression, the most typical continental rift subsidence basin in East China, have been studied by different extracting methods with CHCl3, MAC and CS2/NMP, respectively. The results suggest that there are great differences among the chemical compositions of organic matter in the source rocks derived from different depositional environments. About 79% of all the organic matter exists by non- covalent bond in the Es4 source rocks which were deposited under the saline lacustrine, indicating that its organic matter is not the real kerogen, but mainly composed of soluble organic matter which is easy to generate hydrocarbon at lower temperature. This is why the immature oils were derived from Es4 source rocks in Dongying depression. In contrast, around 60% of organic matter exists by covalent bond in Es3 source rocks which were deposited under the deep brackish-fresh lacustrine, showing that Es3 source rocks are mainly composed of kerogen producing mature hydrocarbon at higher temperature. The thermal simulation experiments, upon the remaining solid source rocks which were sequentially extracted by the three solvents, have been carried out. The chloroform extracts from the simulation product have been compared with the other three solvent extracts gained at room temperature. It is obvious that remarkable odd/even predominance (OEP) is mainly the characteristic of soluble organic matter; phytane mostly exists in the soluble organic matter by means of non-covalent bonds and characteristics of soluble organic matter are similar to these in immature oils produced in Jiyang super-depression.

  20. Volatile organic compound emissions from the oil and natural gas industry in the Uinta Basin, Utah: point sources compared to ambient air composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warneke, C.; Geiger, F.; Edwards, P. M.; Dube, W.; Pétron, G.; Kofler, J.; Zahn, A.; Brown, S. S.; Graus, M.; Gilman, J.; Lerner, B.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; de Gouw, J. A.; Roberts, J. M.

    2014-05-01

    The emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with oil and natural gas production in the Uinta Basin, Utah were measured at a ground site in Horse Pool and from a NOAA mobile laboratory with PTR-MS instruments. The VOC compositions in the vicinity of individual gas and oil wells and other point sources such as evaporation ponds, compressor stations and injection wells are compared to the measurements at Horse Pool. High mixing ratios of aromatics, alkanes, cycloalkanes and methanol were observed for extended periods of time and short-term spikes caused by local point sources. The mixing ratios during the time the mobile laboratory spent on the well pads were averaged. High mixing ratios were found close to all point sources, but gas wells using dry-gas collection, which means dehydration happens at the well, were clearly associated with higher mixing ratios than other wells. Another large source was the flowback pond near a recently hydraulically re-fractured gas well. The comparison of the VOC composition of the emissions from the oil and natural gas wells showed that wet gas collection wells compared well with the majority of the data at Horse Pool and that oil wells compared well with the rest of the ground site data. Oil wells on average emit heavier compounds than gas wells. The mobile laboratory measurements confirm the results from an emissions inventory: the main VOC source categories from individual point sources are dehydrators, oil and condensate tank flashing and pneumatic devices and pumps. Raw natural gas is emitted from the pneumatic devices and pumps and heavier VOC mixes from the tank flashings.

  1. Near-Infrared Imaging for Spatial Mapping of Organic Content in Petroleum Source Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmani, Y.; Burnham, A. K.; Vanden Berg, M. D.; Tchelepi, H.

    2017-12-01

    Natural gas from unconventional petroleum source rocks (shales) plays a key role in our transition towards sustainable low-carbon energy production. The potential for carbon storage (in adsorbed state) in these formations further aligns with efforts to mitigate climate change. Optimizing production and development from these resources requires knowledge of the hydro-thermo-mechanical properties of the rock, which are often strong functions of organic content. This work demonstrates the potential of near-infrared (NIR) spectral imaging in mapping the spatial distribution of organic content with O(100µm) resolution on cores that can span several hundred feet in depth (Mehmani et al., 2017). We validate our approach for the immature oil shale of the Green River Formation (GRF), USA, and show its applicability potential in other formations. The method is a generalization of a previously developed optical approach specialized to the GRF (Mehmani et al., 2016a). The implications of this work for spatial mapping of hydro-thermo-mechanical properties of excavated cores, in particular thermal conductivity, are discussed (Mehmani et al., 2016b). References:Mehmani, Y., A.K. Burnham, M.D. Vanden Berg, H. Tchelepi, "Quantification of organic content in shales via near-infrared imaging: Green River Formation." Fuel, (2017). Mehmani, Y., A.K. Burnham, M.D. Vanden Berg, F. Gelin, and H. Tchelepi. "Quantification of kerogen content in organic-rich shales from optical photographs." Fuel, (2016a). Mehmani, Y., A.K. Burnham, H. Tchelepi, "From optics to upscaled thermal conductivity: Green River oil shale." Fuel, (2016b).

  2. utilization of bio fertilizers and organic sources in arable soils under saline conditions using tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, O.A.E.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, more attention has been paid to conserve and save surrounding environment via minimizing the excessive use of chemical fertilizers and, in general, the agrochemicals applied in heavy quantities in agricultural agroecosystems. Therefore, the attention of most of agronomists was turned towards the use of so called clean agriculture or organic farming. Many of organic systems was pointed out such as the recycling of farm wastes i.e. crop residues, animal manure, organic conditioners for reclamation of soil and in the same time enhancement of plant growth and improving yield quality. The application of organic wastes combined with or without microbial inoculants to plant media are considered as a good management practice in any agricultural production system because it improves, plant quality and soil fertility. Therefore, we have the opportunity to conduct some experiments for achieving the clean agriculture approach, combating the adverse effects of salinity and avoiding the environmental pollution. Series of laboratory and greenhouse experiments were carried out to evaluate the impact of (1) potent isolated fungi (Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus terreus) on degrading plant residues (Leucaena and Acacia green parts), and (2) biofertilizers (Sinorhizobium meliloti, Azospirillum brasilense, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) in assessing barley and spinach plants to combat salinity of soil and irrigation water. 15 N-tracer technique that considered unique and more reliable technique may benefits in clarifying the responsible mechanisms related to plant growth and gave us the opportunity to quantify the exact amounts of N derived from the different sources of nitrogen available to spinach and barley plants grown on sandy saline soil and irrigated with saline water.

  3. Wintertime aerosol chemical composition and source apportionment of the organic fraction across Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovadnevaite, J.; Lin, C.; Ceburnis, D.; Huang, R. J. J.; O'Dowd, C. D. D.

    2017-12-01

    A national wide characterization of PM1 was studied for the first time using a high-time resolution Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) and Aethalometer in Ireland during the heating season. Dublin, the capital of Ireland, is the most polluted area with an average PM1 of 7.6 μg/m3, with frequent occurrence of peak concentration over 200 μg/m3 primarily due to solid fuels burning, while Mace Head, in the west coast, is least polluted with an average PM1 of 0.8 μg/m3 due to the distance from the emission sources. The organic aerosol is the most dominant species across Ireland, contributing 65%, 58%, 32%, 33% to total PM1 mass in Dublin, Birr, Carnsore Point, and Mace Head, respectively. Birr, a small town in the midland of Ireland, has comparable PM1 levels (4.8 μg/m3) and similar chemical compositions with that in Dublin. Carnsore Point, on the southeast coast, has similar composition with that at Mace Head, but nearly 3 times the levels of PM1 mass due to its relative closeness to other European countries. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) with the multi-linear engine (ME-2) was performed on the organic matrix to quantify the contribution of factor candidates. Peat burning was found to be the dominant factor across Ireland, contributing more than 40% of the total organic mass in Dublin and Birr while OOA is dominant at rural Carnsore Point and Mace Head. Possible geographic origins of PM1 species and organic factors using polar plots were explored. The findings of solid fuels burning (primarily peat burning) driving the pollution episodes suggest an elimination or controlled emission of solid fuels burning would reduce PM1 by at least 50%.

  4. Sustainability of Open-Source Software Organizations as Underpinning for Sustainable Interoperability on Large Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulker, D. W.; Gallagher, J. H. R.

    2015-12-01

    OPeNDAP's Hyrax data server is an open-source framework fostering interoperability via easily-deployed Web services. Compatible with solutions listed in the (PA001) session description—federation, rigid standards and brokering/mediation—the framework can support tight or loose coupling, even with dependence on community-contributed software. Hyrax is a Web-services framework with a middleware-like design and a handler-style architecture that together reduce the interoperability challenge (for N datatypes and M user contexts) to an O(N+M) problem, similar to brokering. Combined with an open-source ethos, this reduction makes Hyrax a community tool for gaining interoperability. E.g., in its response to the Big Earth Data Initiative (BEDI), NASA references OPeNDAP-based interoperability. Assuming its suitability, the question becomes: how sustainable is OPeNDAP, a small not-for-profit that produces open-source software, i.e., has no software-sales? In other words, if geoscience interoperability depends on OPeNDAP and similar organizations, are those entities in turn sustainable? Jim Collins (in Good to Great) highlights three questions that successful companies can answer (paraphrased here): What is your passion? Where is your world-class excellence? What drives your economic engine? We attempt to shed light on OPeNDAP sustainability by examining these. Passion: OPeNDAP has a focused passion for improving the effectiveness of scientific data sharing and use, as deeply-cooperative community endeavors. Excellence: OPeNDAP has few peers in remote, scientific data access. Skills include computer science with experience in data science, (operational, secure) Web services, and software design (for servers and clients, where the latter vary from Web pages to standalone apps and end-user programs). Economic Engine: OPeNDAP is an engineering services organization more than a product company, despite software being key to OPeNDAP's reputation. In essence, provision of

  5. Unspeciated organic emissions from combustion sources and their influence on the secondary organic aerosol budget in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed from the atmospheric oxidation of nonmethane organic gases (NMOG) is a major contributor to atmospheric aerosol mass. Emissions and smog chamber experiments were performed to investigate SOA formation from gasoline vehicles, diesel vehicles,...

  6. Wintertime aerosol chemical composition and source apportionment of the organic fraction in the metropolitan area of Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Crippa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a post-industrial megacity on local and regional air quality was assessed via a month-long field measurement campaign in the Paris metropolitan area during winter 2010. Here we present source apportionment results from three aerosol mass spectrometers and two aethalometers deployed at three measurement stations within the Paris region. Submicron aerosol composition is dominated by the organic fraction (30–36% and nitrate (28–29%, with lower contributions from sulfate (14–16%, ammonium (12–14% and black carbon (7–13%.

    Organic source apportionment was performed using positive matrix factorization, resulting in a set of organic factors corresponding both to primary emission sources and secondary production. The dominant primary sources are traffic (11–15% of organic mass, biomass burning (13–15% and cooking (up to 35% during meal hours. Secondary organic aerosol contributes more than 50% to the total organic mass and includes a highly oxidized factor from indeterminate and/or diverse sources and a less oxidized factor related to wood burning emissions. Black carbon was apportioned to traffic and wood burning sources using a model based on wavelength-dependent light absorption of these two combustion sources. The time series of organic and black carbon factors from related sources were strongly correlated. The similarities in aerosol composition, total mass and temporal variation between the three sites suggest that particulate pollution in Paris is dominated by regional factors, and that the emissions from Paris itself have a relatively low impact on its surroundings.

  7. Transparent ambipolar organic thin film transistors based on multilayer transparent source-drain electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Nan; Hu, Yongsheng, E-mail: huyongsheng@ciomp.ac.cn, E-mail: liuxy@ciomp.ac.cn; Lin, Jie; Li, Yantao; Liu, Xingyuan, E-mail: huyongsheng@ciomp.ac.cn, E-mail: liuxy@ciomp.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Applications, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China)

    2016-08-08

    A fabrication method for transparent ambipolar organic thin film transistors with transparent Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ag/Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} (SAS) source and drain electrodes has been developed. A pentacene/N,N′-ditridecylperylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic di-imide (PTCDI-C13) bilayer heterojunction is used as the active semiconductor. The electrodes are deposited by room temperature electron beam evaporation. The devices are fabricated without damaging the active layers. The SAS electrodes have high transmittance (82.5%) and low sheet resistance (8 Ω/sq). High performance devices with hole and electron mobilities of 0.3 cm{sup 2}/V s and 0.027 cm{sup 2}/V s, respectively, and average visible range transmittance of 72% were obtained. These transistors have potential for transparent logic integrated circuit applications.

  8. Connecting Organic Aerosol Climate-Relevant Properties to Chemical Mechanisms of Sources and Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Joel [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-01-26

    The research conducted on this project aimed to improve our understanding of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in the atmosphere, and how the properties of the SOA impact climate through its size, phase state, and optical properties. The goal of this project was to demonstrate that the use of molecular composition information to mechanistically connect source apportionment and climate properties can improve the physical basis for simulation of SOA formation and properties in climate models. The research involved developing and improving methods to provide online measurements of the molecular composition of SOA under atmospherically relevant conditions and to apply this technology to controlled simulation chamber experiments and field measurements. The science we have completed with the methodology will impact the simulation of aerosol particles in climate models.

  9. The FORO Project on Safety Culture in Organizations, Facilities and Activities With Sources of Ionizing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bomben, A. M.; Ferro Fernández, R.; Arciniega Torres, J.; Ordoñez Gutiérrez, E.; Blanes Tabernero, A.; Cruz Suárez, R.; Da Silva Silveira, C.; Perera Meas, J.; Ramírez Quijada, R.; Videla Valdebenito, R.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the Ibero-American Forum of Nuclear and Radiological Regulatory Authorities’ (FORO) Project on Safety Culture in organizations, facilities and activities with sources of ionizing radiation developed by experts from the Regulatory Authorities of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Spain, Mexico, Peru and Uruguay, under the scientific coordination of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Taking into account that Safety Culture problems have been widely recognised as one of the major contributors to many radiological events, several international and regional initiatives are being carried out to foster and develop a strong Safety Culture. One of these initiatives is the two-year project sponsored by the FORO with the purpose to prepare a document to allow its member states understanding, promoting and achieving a higher level of Safety Culture.

  10. A process-based emission model of volatile organic compounds from silage sources on farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonifacio, H. F.; Rotz, C. A.; Hafner, S. D.

    2017-01-01

    Silage on dairy farms can emit large amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), a precursor in the formation of tropospheric ozone. Because of the challenges associated with direct measurements, process-based modeling is another approach for estimating emissions of air pollutants from sources...... was evaluated using ethanol and methanol emissions measured from conventional silage piles (CSP), silage bags (SB), total mixed rations (TMR), and loose corn silage (LCS) at a commercial dairy farm in central California. With transport coefficients for ethanol refined using experimental data from our previous......% if feeds were delivered as four feedings per day rather than as one. Reducing the exposed face of storage can also be useful. Simulated use of silage bags resulted in 90% and 18% reductions in emissions from the storage face and whole farm, respectively....

  11. Sources and Seasonality of Volatile Organic Compounds in the Northern Front Range Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeleira, A.; Pollack, I. B.; Sive, B. C.; Zaragoza, J.; Lindaas, J.; Fischer, E. V.; Farmer, D.

    2016-12-01

    The Northern Front Range Metropolitan Area (NFRMA) of Colorado, with a growing population of over 3 million, was deemed an ozone (O3) nonattainment area (NAA) in 2008 despite continued work on NOx reductions. Ground-level O3 is produced from photochemical catalytic cycles initiated by the OH oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and propagated through reactions involving peroxy (HO2+RO2) and NOx (NO + NO2) radicals. We measured a suite of speciated VOCs during two 8-week deployments (March-May 2015, July-September 2015) at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory in Erie, CO. The spring deployment overlapped with the NOAA SONGNEX (Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus) campaign. The BAO site lies at an urban-rural interface in the NFRMA with multiple urban centers surrounding the site, a major interstate highway within 2 miles, local suburban development in Erie, agricultural operations in the surrounding counties, and recent rapid expansion of oil and gas development in adjacent Weld County. VOCs were measured hourly with a custom-built online gas chromatography system along with measurements of O3, NOx, PAN, CO, and CH4. VOC measurements included C2-C8 hydrocarbons (NMHCs), C1-C5 alkyl nitrates, C1-C2 halocarbons, and several oxygenated species (OVOCs: methyl ethyl ketone, acetone, acetaldehyde). Using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) we have identified four distinct VOC sources in the spring and five in the summer: 1) Oil and Natural Gas (ONG, e.g. C2 - C5 alkanes), 2) Traffic (e.g. ethyne & aromatics), 3) Background species (e.g. long-lived halogenated species), 4) Secondary production (e.g. C3-C5 alkyl nitrates & OVOCs), and for summer 5) Biogenic (e.g. isoprene). Using the source factors generated from the PMF analysis we calculated the VOC reactivity (VOCr) of each source. For both seasons, the ONG factor dominates VOCr in the mornings. In spring afternoons, a combination of background species and secondary products make up a large percentage of VOCr as

  12. Source characteristics of volatile organic compounds during high ozone episodes in Hong Kong, Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zhang

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC are analyzed to characterize the sources impacting the Hong Kong area. The ratios of different VOC species, m,p-xylenes-to-ethylbenzene, C6H14-to-toluene and p-xylene-to-total xylenes are used for diagnostic analyses. Photochemical age analysis shows that the sources of reactive aromatics, the most important contributor to the photochemical reactivity, do not appear to be preferentially located in downtown Hong Kong. In addition, they do not appear to be dominated by mobile emissions based on the analyses of speciated VOC data from an earlier study, but related to industrial, waterfront, and fuel-storage activities. The ratios, p-xylene-to-total xylenes and dSO2/dNOy, suggest that the anomalously high pollutant concentrations in western Hong Kong in the early morning hours of two episode days appear to have come from transport of urban-type emissions. Comparison of observed ambient ratios of selected VOC and their ratios in the speciated VOC emission inventories for Hong Kong and adjacent Pearl River Delta (PRD Region gives mixed results. The observed ratio C6H14-to-toluene is consistent with the speciated version of the VOC emission inventory. The ratios of selected alkanes are not. This may be caused by the inaccuracies in the inventory and/or the speciation method.

  13. Seasonal variability of organic matter composition in an Alaskan glacier outflow: insights into glacier carbon sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, Robert G M; Vermilyea, Andrew; Fellman, Jason; Hood, Eran; Raymond, Peter; Stubbins, Aron; Scott, Durelle

    2014-01-01

    Glacier ecosystems are a significant source of bioavailable, yet ancient dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Characterizing DOC in Mendenhall Glacier outflow (southeast Alaska) we document a seasonal persistence to the radiocarbon-depleted signature of DOC, highlighting ancient DOC as a ubiquitous feature of glacier outflow. We observed no systematic depletion in Δ 14 C-DOC with increasing discharge during the melt season that would suggest mobilization of an aged subglacial carbon store. However, DOC concentration, δ 13 C-DOC, Δ 14 C-DOC and fluorescence signatures appear to have been influenced by runoff from vegetated hillslopes above the glacier during onset and senescence of melt. In the peak glacier melt period, the Δ 14 C-DOC of stream samples at the outflow (−181.7 to −355.3‰) was comparable to the Δ 14 C-DOC for snow samples from the accumulation zone (−207.2 to −390.9‰), suggesting that ancient DOC from the glacier surface is exported in glacier runoff. The pre-aged DOC in glacier snow and runoff is consistent with contributions from fossil fuel combustion sources similar to those documented previously in ice cores and thus provides evidence for anthropogenic perturbation of the carbon cycle. Overall, our results emphasize the need to further characterize DOC inputs to glacier ecosystems, particularly in light of predicted changes in glacier mass and runoff in the coming century. (papers)

  14. Revenue sources for essential services in Florida: findings and implications for organizing and funding public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingood, William C; Morris, Michael; Sorensen, Bonita; Chapman, Karen; Rivera, Lillian; Beitsch, Les; Street, Phil; Coughlin, Susan; Smotherman, Carmen; Wood, David

    2013-01-01

    The Florida Public Health Practice-Based Research Network conducted the study of Florida county health departments (CHDs) to assess relationships between self-assessed performance on essential services (ESs) and sources of funding. Primary data were collected using an online survey based on Public Health Accreditation Board standards for ES. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to assess the relationship of sources and amounts of revenue obtained from the Florida Department of Health financial system to responses to the survey of CHD capacity for ESs. Self-assessed CHD performance for each ES varied extensively among the CHDs and across the 10 ESs, ranging from a high of 98% CHDs completely or almost completely meeting the standards for ES 2 (Investigating Problems and Hazards) to a low of 32% completely or almost completely meeting standards for ES 10 (Research/Evidence). Medicaid revenue and fees were positively correlated with some ESs. Per capita revenue support varied extensively among the CHDs. Revenue for ES is decreasing and is heavily reliant on noncategorical (discretionary) revenue. This study has important implications for continued reliance on ES as an organizing construct for public health.

  15. Selection of organic process and source indicator substances for the anthropogenically influenced water cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jekel, Martin; Dott, Wolfgang; Bergmann, Axel; Dünnbier, Uwe; Gnirß, Regina; Haist-Gulde, Brigitte; Hamscher, Gerd; Letzel, Marion; Licha, Tobias; Lyko, Sven; Miehe, Ulf; Sacher, Frank; Scheurer, Marco; Schmidt, Carsten K; Reemtsma, Thorsten; Ruhl, Aki Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    An increasing number of organic micropollutants (OMP) is detected in anthropogenically influenced water cycles. Source control and effective natural and technical barriers are essential to maintain a high quality of drinking water resources under these circumstances. Based on the literature and our own research this study proposes a limited number of OMP that can serve as indicator substances for the major sources of OMP, such as wastewater treatment plants, agriculture and surface runoff. Furthermore functional indicators are proposed that allow assessment of the proper function of natural and technical barriers in the aquatic environment, namely conventional municipal wastewater treatment, advanced treatment (ozonation, activated carbon), bank filtration and soil aquifer treatment as well as self-purification in surface water. These indicator substances include the artificial sweetener acesulfame, the anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen, the anticonvulsant carbamazepine, the corrosion inhibitor benzotriazole and the herbicide mecoprop among others. The chemical indicator substances are intended to support comparisons between watersheds and technical and natural processes independent of specific water cycles and to reduce efforts and costs of chemical analyses without losing essential information. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Determination of volatile organic compounds pollution sources in malaysian drinking water using multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Shiau-Chian; Abdullah, Md Pauzi

    2007-01-01

    A field investigation was conducted at all water treatment plants throughout 11 states and Federal Territory in Peninsular Malaysia. The sampling points in this study include treatment plant operation, service reservoir outlet and auxiliary outlet point at the water pipelines. Analysis was performed by solid phase micro-extraction technique with a 100 microm polydimethylsiloxane fibre using gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection to analyse 54 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of different chemical families in drinking water. The concentration of VOCs ranged from undetectable to 230.2 microg/l. Among all of the VOCs species, chloroform has the highest concentration and was detected in all drinking water samples. Average concentrations of total trihalomethanes (THMs) were almost similar among all states which were in the range of 28.4--33.0 microg/l. Apart from THMs, other abundant compounds detected were cis and trans-1,2-dichloroethylene, trichloroethylene, 1,2-dibromoethane, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, chlorobenzene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene and 1,2-dichloro - benzene. Principal component analysis (PCA) with the aid of varimax rotation, and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) method were used to statistically verify the correlation between VOCs and the source of pollution. The multivariate analysis pointed out that the maintenance of auxiliary pipelines in the distribution systems is vital as it can become significant point source pollution to Malaysian drinking water.

  17. Global organic carbon emissions from primary sources from 1960 to 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ye; Shen, Huizhong; Chen, Yilin; Zhong, Qirui; Chen, Han; Wang, Rong; Shen, Guofeng; Liu, Junfeng; Li, Bengang; Tao, Shu

    2015-12-01

    In an attempt to reduce uncertainty, global organic carbon (OC) emissions from a total of 70 sources were compiled at 0.1° × 0.1° resolution for 2007 (PKU-OC-2007) and country scale from 1960 to 2009. The compilation took advantage of a new fuel-consumption data product (PKU-Fuel-2007) and a series of newly published emission factors (EFOC) in developing countries. The estimated OC emissions were 32.9 Tg (24.1-50.6 Tg as interquartile range), of which less than one third was anthropogenic in origin. Uncertainty resulted primarily from variations in EFOC. Asia, Africa, and South America had high emissions mainly because of residential biomass fuel burning or wildfires. Per-person OC emission in rural areas was three times that of urban areas because of the relatively high EFOC of residential solid fuels. Temporal trend of anthropogenic OC emissions depended on rural population, and was influenced primarily by residential crop residue and agricultural waste burning. Both the OC/PM2.5 ratio and emission intensity, defined as quantity of OC emissions per unit of fuel consumption for all sources, of anthropogenic OC followed a decreasing trend, indicating continuous improvement in combustion efficiency and control measures.

  18. Open Source System as Innovation in Organizations: A Managerial Perspective on Its Adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Ismawati Jaafar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies the factors that have a direct effect on a manager’s decision towards Open Source System (OSS enterprise system adoption in Malaysia. Using the Technology-Organization- Environment (TOE framework, the research is initiated by inviting the managers in Malaysian or- ganizations who implemented OSS. A survey was conducted via online OSS social communities and by sending emails to shortlisted public. A total of 124 managers from 124 organizations responded to the survey and the results showed that four out of six factors were found significant in this study. In the technological context, ‘perceived relative advantage’, ‘perceived compatibility and trialability’ and ‘perceived complexity’ factors were found significant in the OSS adoption. In the organizational context, ‘management support, knowledge and expertise’ was identified as the adoption factor. Two factors in the environmental context that was not supported were the ‘technology skills and services’ and ‘platform long term viability’ although previous studies suggested otherwise.

  19. Sources of organic carbon in the Portuguese continental shelf sediments during the Holocene period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdloff, D.; Araujo, M.F.; Jouanneau, J.-M.; Mendes, I.; Monge Soares, A.M.; Dias, J.M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Organic C (OC) and total N (TN) concentrations, and stable isotope ratios (δ 13 C) in muddy deposit sediments of the Northern and Southern Portuguese continental shelf were used to identify sources of fine-sized organic matter ( 13 C ranging, respectively, from 8.5 to 21 and from -22.4 per mille to -27 per mille ). Intense supplies to the Guadiana continental shelf of fine terrigenous particles during the Younger-Dryas Event are closely linked with higher OC/TN values and lower δ 13 C ratios. During the postglacial transgression phase, an increasing contribution of marine supplies (up to 80%) occurred. Higher δ 13 C (up to -22.4 per mille ) values and low OC/TN ratios (down to 8.5) are found as the sea level approaches the current one. The Upper Holocene records emphasize the return to enhanced terrestrial supplies except for the Little Climatic Optimum between the 11th and 15th centuries AD. This climatic event is especially obvious in the three cores as a return to marine production and a decrease in terrestrial sediment supply to the continental shelf. The return to a cooling event, the Little Ice Age, between the 15th and 19th centuries AD, is mirrored by decreased terrigenous supplies in core KSGX 57. Gradually increasing sedimentation in estuaries, as well as formation of coastal dune fields, have been hypothesized on the basis of increasing δ 13 C and decreasing OC, TN and OC/TN values

  20. Start-up of anaerobic digestion of source-sorted organic municipal solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maroun, Rania

    2004-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal is a major environmental concern worldwide. Among the environmentally sound technologies for the treatment of MSW, composting in the form of anaerobic digestion (AD) appears as a suitable alternative that offers the advantage of rapid stabilization of organic matter, reduction in waste volume, production of methane, and minimal environmental impacts in comparison to land filling and incineration. Yet, although outstanding advances in anaerobic digestion of solid substrate have been made in the last 10 years, some development areas are lagging, including the fast and reliable process start-up in terms of type of inocula and overall start-up strategies. The present study investigates the start-up and operation of bench-scale anaerobic digesters treating the source-sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste. The experimental program consisted of starting up two digesters in parallel. Three consecutive interventions in the start-up program were implemented to achieve steady state. Start-up was relatively slow indicating the seed obtained from an operating anaerobic wastewater treatment plant was not suitable. The use of cattle manure together with effluent dilution reduced the acclimation period (Author.)

  1. A New Energy Source for Organic Synthesis in Europa's Surface Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borucki, Jerome G.; Khare, Bishun; Cruikshank, Dale P.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Colored regions on Jupiter's satellite Europa and other icy bodies in the outer Solar System may be contaminated by organic macromolecular solid material that is produced when surface ices are exposed to electrical energy. Hypervelocity meteorite impacts and fracture release tidal and tectonic stresses in icy crusts in the form of electrical discharges, which provide the energy for in situ synthesis of the organic solids. We report measurements of electrical discharge, light emission, and magnetic phenomena in hypervelocity impacts into ice with projectiles with V approx. 5 km/s. Part of the projectile's kinetic energy is converted into electrical potential, while the mechanical disruption of the impact also releases stress energy as light, heat, electrical, and magnetic fields as secondary emissions. These newly recognized energy sources suggest that the dark material in the area of impact craters are tholins generated from the energy of the impacts and that well up from the fracture zone. Large pools of liquid water would persist under the meteorite crater for thousands of years, with the potential for prebiotic chemistry to take place at an accelerated rate due to energy pumped in from the secondary emissions.

  2. Organizing Astronomy Popularization and Teacher Training Workshops in Nigeria: A paradigm shift in Sourcing funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwudi Okpala, Kingsley; Iheanyi Okere, Bonaventure

    2015-08-01

    Funding for astronomy popularization and workshops has become a huge challenge in recent times especially for developing countries like Nigeria. However, a modification of the primary and secondary school curriculum to include space science topics in the school system has led to a ripe desire by the relevant agencies/corporate bodies to make commitments towards the astronomy popularization activities as part of their social responsibility. Considering the size of Nigeria, there is need for a shift in paradigm for sourcing resources to tackle the dart of funds for organizing educational activities in a sustainable manner. Recently a teacher training and science popularization workshop was organized as a first in a series of subsequent workshops geared towards having a sustainable means of popularizing astronomy for development in Nigeria. Principally, the key lies in the partnership with schools and other corporate bodies in addition to the usual governmental actions. Experiences from this workshop will be enumerated with the hope of inspiring the same success in similar societies.

  3. Vertical organic field effect phototransistor with two dissimilar source and drain contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woon, K.L.; Yeo, G.N.

    2014-01-01

    A solution processable vertical organic field effect phototransistor was fabricated using poly(3-hexylthiophene) and 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)propyl-1-phenyl[6,6]C61 as the photo-active materials while poly(methyl methacrylate) is used as a dielectric layer. Interdigitated conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) is used as a source and lithium flouride/aluminum as a drain. The device exhibits current modulation when the gate is positively biased. A significant photoeffect is observed in the reverse bias mode. Unlike conventional organic phototransistors, this device can operate at a zero source–drain bias with a photosensitivity and responsivity proportional to the gate voltage. A photosensitivity of up to 10 5 and a responsivity of up to 2 AW −1 are achieved in this mode. This effect is due to the presence of the weak photovoltaic behavior of this device. - Highlights: • A solution processable vertical field effect phototransistor is demonstrated. • Photosensitivity as high as ∼ 10 5 with responsivity of 2 AW −1 is achieved. • The gate can be used to modulate photocurrent with low leakage current. • The device shows weak photovoltaic behavior

  4. Development of a primary diffusion source of organic vapors for gas analyzer calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecuna, M.; Demichelis, A.; Sassi, G.; Sassi, M. P.

    2018-03-01

    The generation of reference mixtures of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at trace levels (10 ppt-10 ppb) is a challenge for both environmental and clinical measurements. The calibration of gas analyzers for trace VOC measurements requires a stable and accurate source of the compound of interest. The dynamic preparation of gas mixtures by diffusion is a suitable method for fulfilling these requirements. The estimation of the uncertainty of the molar fraction of the VOC in the mixture is a key step in the metrological characterization of a dynamic generator. The performance of a dynamic generator was monitored over a wide range of operating conditions. The generation system was simulated by a model developed with computational fluid dynamics and validated against experimental data. The vapor pressure of the VOC was found to be one of the main contributors to the uncertainty of the diffusion rate and its influence at 10-70 kPa was analyzed and discussed. The air buoyancy effect and perturbations due to the weighing duration were studied. The gas carrier flow rate and the amount of liquid in the vial were found to play a role in limiting the diffusion rate. The results of sensitivity analyses were reported through an uncertainty budget for the diffusion rate. The roles of each influence quantity were discussed. A set of criteria to minimize the uncertainty contribution to the primary diffusion source (25 µg min-1) were estimated: carrier gas flow rate higher than 37.7 sml min-1, a maximum VOC liquid mass decrease in the vial of 4.8 g, a minimum residual mass of 1 g and vial weighing times of 1-3 min. With this procedure a limit uncertainty of 0.5% in the diffusion rate can be obtained for VOC mixtures at trace levels (10 ppt-10 ppb), making the developed diffusion vials a primary diffusion source with potential to become a new reference material for trace VOC analysis.

  5. Patterns of organic acids exuded by pioneering fungi from a glacier forefield are affected by carbohydrate sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Ivano; Goren, Asena; Schlumpf, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Bare soils in the area of retreating glaciers are ideal environments to study the role of microorganisms in the early soil formation and in processes of mineral weathering. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the source of carbohydrate would influence the patterns of organic acids exuded by fungal species. Three pioneering fungus species, isolated from fine granitic sediments in front of the Damma glacier from the central Swiss Alps, have previously been found to have the capability to exude organic acids and dissolve granite powder. In batch experiments, various carbohydrates, including glucose, cellulose, pectin, pollen, and cell remnants of cyanobacteria, fungi, and algae, were applied as carbohydrate sources and the patterns of exuded organic acids recorded. The results showed that two fungi, the zygomycete fungus Mucor hiemalis and the ascomycete fungus Penicillium chrysogenum, released a significantly higher amount of organic acids in dependence on specific carbohydrate sources. Pollen and algae as carbohydrate sources triggered significantly the exudation of malate in M. hiemalis, and pollen and cellulose that of oxalate in P. chrysogenum. We conclude that the occurrence of complex carbohydrate sources in nutrient-deficient deglaciated soils may positively influence the exudation of organic acids of fungi. In particular, pollen and remnants of other microorganisms can trigger the exudation of organic acids of fungi in order to promote the weathering of minerals and to make nutrients available that would otherwise be trapped in that cryospheric environment.

  6. Patterns of organic acids exuded by pioneering fungi from a glacier forefield are affected by carbohydrate sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, Ivano; Goren, Asena; Schlumpf, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Bare soils in the area of retreating glaciers are ideal environments to study the role of microorganisms in the early soil formation and in processes of mineral weathering. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the source of carbohydrate would influence the patterns of organic acids exuded by fungal species. Three pioneering fungus species, isolated from fine granitic sediments in front of the Damma glacier from the central Swiss Alps, have previously been found to have the capability to exude organic acids and dissolve granite powder. In batch experiments, various carbohydrates, including glucose, cellulose, pectin, pollen, and cell remnants of cyanobacteria, fungi, and algae, were applied as carbohydrate sources and the patterns of exuded organic acids recorded. The results showed that two fungi, the zygomycete fungus Mucor hiemalis and the ascomycete fungus Penicillium chrysogenum, released a significantly higher amount of organic acids in dependence on specific carbohydrate sources. Pollen and algae as carbohydrate sources triggered significantly the exudation of malate in M. hiemalis, and pollen and cellulose that of oxalate in P. chrysogenum. We conclude that the occurrence of complex carbohydrate sources in nutrient-deficient deglaciated soils may positively influence the exudation of organic acids of fungi. In particular, pollen and remnants of other microorganisms can trigger the exudation of organic acids of fungi in order to promote the weathering of minerals and to make nutrients available that would otherwise be trapped in that cryospheric environment. (paper)

  7. Characteristics and sources analysis of riverine chromophoric dissolved organic matter in Liaohe River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Tiantian; Song, Kaishan; Jacinthe, Pierre-Andre; Du, Jia; Zhao, Ying; Ding, Zhi; Guan, Ying; Bai, Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in riverine systems can be affected by environmental conditions and land-use, and thus could provide important information regarding human activities in surrounding landscapes. The optical properties of water samples collected at 42 locations across the Liaohe River (LHR, China) watershed were examined using UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy to determine CDOM characteristics, composition and sources. Total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations at all sampling sites exceeded the GB3838-2002 (national quality standards for surface waters, China) standard for Class V waters of 2.0 mg N/L and 0.4 mg P/L respectively, while trophic state index (TSI M ) indicated that all the sites investigated were mesotrophic, 64% of which were eutrophic at the same time. Redundancy analysis showed that total suspended matter (TSM), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and turbidity had a strong correlation with CDOM, while the other parameters (Chl a, TN, TP and TSI M ) exhibited weak correlations with CDOM absorption. High spectral slope values and low SUVA254 (the specific UV absorption) values indicated that CDOM in the LHR was primarily comprised of low molecular weight organic substances. Analysis of excitation-emission matrices contour plots showed that CDOM in water samples collected from upstream locations exhibited fulvic-acid-like characteristics whereas protein-like substances were most likely predominant in samples collected in estuarine areas and downstream from large cities. These patterns were interpreted as indicative of water pollution from urban and industrial activities in several downstream sections of the LHR watershed.

  8. Oxygenated Organic Chemicals in the Pacific Troposphere: Distribution, Sources and Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Hanwant B.; Salas, L.; Chatfield, R.; Czech, E.; Fried, A.; Evans, M.; Jacob, D. J.; Blake, D.; Heikes, B.; Talbot, R.

    2003-01-01

    Airborne measurements of a large number of oxygenated organic chemicals (Oxorgs) were carried out in the Pacific troposphere (0.1-12 km) in the Spring of 2001 (Feb. 24-April 10). Specifically these measuremen ts included acetone, methylethyl ketone (MEK), methanol, ethanol, ace taldehyde, propionaldehyde, PANS, and organic nitrates. Complementary measurements of formaldehyde, organic peroxides, and tracers were al so available. Ox-orgs were abundant in the clean troposphere and were greatly enhanced in the outflow regions from Asia. Their mixing ratios were typically highest in the lower troposphere and declined toward s the upper troposphere and the lowermost stratosphere. Their total a bundance (Ox-orgs) significantly exceeded that of NMHC (C2-C8 NMHC). A comparison of these data with observations collected some seven yea rs earlier (Feb.-March, 1994), did not reveal any significant changes . Throughout the troposphere mixing ratios of Ox-orgs were strongly c orrelated with each other as well as with tracers of fossil and bioma sshiof'uel combustion. Analysis of the relative enhancement of selected Oxorgs with respect to CH3Cl and CO in twelve sampled plumes, origi nating from fires, is used to assess their primary and secondary sour ces from biomass combustion. The composition of these plumes also ind icates a large shift of reactive nitrogen into the PAN reservoir ther eby limiting ozone formation. The Harvard 3-D photochemical model, th at uses state of the art chemistry and source information, is used to compare simulated and observed mixing ratios of selected species. A 1 -D model is used to explore the chemistry of aldehydes. These results will be presented.

  9. Anthropogenic organic compounds in source water of select community water systems in the United States, 2002-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valder, Joshua F.; Delzer, Gregory C.; Kingsbury, James A.; Hopple, Jessica A.; Price, Curtis V.; Bender, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Drinking water delivered by community water systems (CWSs) comes from one or both of two sources: surface water and groundwater. Source water is raw, untreated water used by CWSs and is usually treated before distribution to consumers. Beginning in 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program initiated Source Water-Quality Assessments (SWQAs) at select CWSs across the United States, primarily to characterize the occurrence of a large number of anthropogenic organic compounds that are predominantly unregulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Source-water samples from CWSs were collected during 2002–10 from 20 surface-water sites (river intakes) and during 2002–09 from 448 groundwater sites (supply wells). River intakes were sampled approximately 16 times during a 1-year sampling period, and supply wells were sampled once. Samples were monitored for 265 anthropogenic organic compounds. An additional 3 herbicides and 16 herbicide degradates were monitored in samples collected from 8 river intakes and 118 supply wells in areas where these compounds likely have been used. Thirty-seven compounds have an established U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for drinking water, 123 have USGS Health-Based Screening Levels (HBSLs), and 29 are included on the EPA Contaminant Candidate List 3. All compounds detected in source water were evaluated both with and without an assessment level and were grouped into 13 categories (hereafter termed as “use groups”) based on their primary use or source. The CWS sites were characterized in a national context using an extract of the EPA Safe Drinking Water Information System to develop spatially derived and system-specific ancillary data. Community water system information is contained in the EPA Public Supply Database, which includes 2,016 active river intakes and 112,099 active supply wells. Ancillary variables including population served

  10. Effects of different sources of organic waste application on the growth and biomass production of kenaf (hibiscus cannabinus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahariara, M.S.; Tahsina, S.; Muhammad, S.; Gani, M.N.; Huq, I.

    2012-01-01

    The growth and biomass productivity of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) grown with different sources of organic waste viz. sewage sludge, poultry litter, cow dung and rice straw application were observed in a field experiment. Organic wastes were applied at the rate of 5 t/ha and were compared with recommended dose of fertilizers and control. The plants were harvested at 120 days after sowing (at the flowering stage). Different sources of organic wastes had a significant effect (P cow dung>poultry litter > rice straw treatments. Among the four sources of organic wastes, sewage sludge treated plot produced the highest mean biomass of 23.33 t/ha (dry weight basis) which was 14.64% higher than the mean biomass production from control plot. (author)

  11. Effects of different sources of organic waste application on the growth and biomass production of kenaf (hibiscus cannabinus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahariar, M.S.; Tashin, S.; Gani, N.; Muhammad, S.; Huq, I.

    2012-01-01

    The growth and biomass productivity of kenaf(Hibiscus cannabinus L.) grown with different sources of organic waste viz. sewage sludge, poultry litter, cow dung and rice straw application were observed in a field experiment. Organic wastes were applied at the rate of 5 t/ha and were compared with recommended dose of fertilizers and control. The plants were harvested at 120 days after sowing (at the flowering stage). Different sources of organic wastes had a significant effect (P cow dung>poultry litter> rice straw treatments. Among the four sources of organic wastes, sewage sludge treated plot produced the highest mean biomass of 23.33 t/ha (dry weight basis) which was 14.64% higher than the mean biomass production from control plot. (author)

  12. Influence of nitrogen and phosphorus sources on mycorrhizal lettuces under organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Riccardo; Seguel, Alex; Cornejo, Pablo; Rao, Maria A.; Borie, Fernando

    2010-05-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) develop symbiotic associations with plants roots. These associations are very common in the natural environment and can provide a range of benefits to the host plant. AMF improve nutrition, enhance resistance to soil-borne pests and disease, increase resistance to drought and tolerance to heavy metals, and contribute to a better soil structure. However, agricultural intensive managements, such as the use of mineral fertilizes, pesticides, mouldboard tillage, monocultures and use of non-mycorrhizal crops, are detrimental to AMF. As a consequence, agroecosystems are impoverished in AMF and may not provide the full range of benefits to the crop. Organic farming systems may be less unfavourable to AMF because they exclude the use of water-soluble fertilisers and most pesticides, and generally they plan diverse crop rotations. The AMF develop the most common type of symbiosis in nature: about 90% of the plants are mycorrhizal and many agricultural crops are mycorrhizal. One of more mycorrhizal crops is lettuce, that is very widespread in intensive agricultural under greenhouse. Therefore, cultivated lettuce is know to be responsive to mycorrhizal colonization which can reach 80% of root length and contribute to phosphorus and nitrogen absorption by this plant specie. For this work four different lettuce cultivars (Romana, Milanesa, Grande Lagos and Escarola) were used to study mycorrhization under organic agricultural system, supplying compost from agricultural waste (1 kg m-2) as background fertilization for all plots, red guano as phosphorus source (75 U ha-1 and 150 U ha-1 of P2O5), lupine flour as nitrogen source (75 and 150 U/ha of N) and a combination of both. Lettuce plants were cultivated under greenhouse and after two months of growing, plants were harvested and dried and fresh weight of lettuce roots and shoots were evaluated. The number of spores, percentage of colonization, total mycelium and glomalin content were also

  13. Chemical composition and sources of organic aerosols over London from the ClearfLo 2012 campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finessi, Emanuela; Holmes, Rachel; Hopkins, James; Lee, James; Harrison, Roy; Hamilton, Jacqueline

    2014-05-01

    Air quality in urban areas represents a major public health issue with around one third of the European population concentrated in cities and numbers expected to increase at global scale, particularly in developing countries. Particulate matter (PM) represents a primary threat for human health as numerous studies have confirmed the association between increased levels of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases with the exposure to PM. Despite considerable efforts made in improving air quality and progressively stricter emissions regulations, the PM concentrations have not changed much over the past decades for reasons that remain unclear, and highlight that studies on PM source apportionment are required for the formulation of effective policy. We investigated the chemical composition of organic aerosol (OA) collected during two intensive field campaigns held in winter and summer 2012 in the frame of the project Clean air for London (http://www.clearflo.ac.uk/). PM samples were collected both at a city background site (North Kensington) and at a rural site 50 km southeast of London (Detling) with 8 to 24 hours sampling schedule and analysed using off-line methods. Thermal-optical analysis was used to quantify OC-EC components while a suite of soft ionization mass spectrometric techniques was deployed for detailed chemical characterization. Liquid chromatography mass Spectrometry (LC-MSn) was mostly used for the simultaneous detection and quantification of various tracers for both primary and secondary OA sources. Well-established markers for wood burning primary OA like levoglucosan and azelaic acid were quantified together with various classes of nitroaromatics including methyl-nitrocatechols that are potential tracers for wood burning secondary OA. In addition, oxidation products of biogenic VOCs such as isoprene and monoterpenes were also quantified for both seasons and sites. A non-negligible contribution from biogenic SOA to urban OA was found in summertime

  14. sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yin Chiang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the simplified models of the ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode multiplexer network with Bernoulli random traffic sources. Based on the model, the performance measures are analyzed by the different output service schemes.

  15. The source and distribution of thermogenic dissolved organic matter in the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmar, T.; Suryaputra, I. G. N. A.; Paeng, J.

    2009-04-01

    Thermogenic organic matter (ThOM) is abundant in the environment. ThOM is produced at elevated temperature and pressure in deep sediments and earth's crust, and it is also a residue of fossil fuel and biomass burning ("black carbon"). Because of its refractory character, it accumulates in soils and sediments and, therefore, may sequester carbon from active cycles. It was hypothesized that a significant component of marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) might be thermogenic. Here we present a detailed data set on the distribution of thermogenic DOM in major water masses of the deep and surface ocean. In addition, several potential sources of thermogenic DOM to the ocean were investigated: active seeps of brine fluids in the deep Gulf of Mexico, rivers, estuaries and submarine groundwaters. Studies on deep-sea hydrothermal vents and aerosol deposition are ongoing. All DOM samples were isolated from seawater via solid phase extraction (SPE-DOM). ThOM was quantified in the extracts as benzene-polycarboxylic acids (BPCAs) after nitric acid oxidation via high-performance liquid chromatography and diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). BPCAs are produced exclusively from fused ring systems and are therefore unambiguous molecular tracers for ThOM. In addition to BPCA determination, the molecular composition and structure of ThOM was characterized in detail via ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). All marine and river DOM samples yielded significant amounts of BPCAs. The cold seep system in the deep Gulf of Mexico, but also black water rivers (like the Suwannee River) were particularly rich in ThOM. Up to 10% of total dissolved organic carbon was thermogenic in both systems. The most abundant BPCA was benzene-pentacarboxylic acid (B5CA). The molecular composition of BPCAs and the FT-ICR-MS data indicate a relatively small number (5-8) of fused aromatic rings per molecule. Overall, the molecular BPCA patterns were very similar independent of the source of Th

  16. Organic geochemistry investigations of crude oils from Bayoot oilfield in the Masila Basin, east Yemen and their implication for origin of organic matter and source-related type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Hail Hakimi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen crude oil samples from fractured basement reservoir rocks in the Bayoot oilfield, Masila Basin were studied to describe oil characteristics and to provide information on the source of organic matter input and the genetic link between oils and their potential source rock in the basin. The bulk geochemical results of whole oil and gasoline hydrocarbons indicate that the Bayoot oils are normal crude oil, with high hydrocarbons of more than 60%. The hydrocarbons are dominated by normal, branched and cyclic alkanes a substantial of the light aromatic compounds, suggesting aliphatic oil-prone kerogen. The high abundant of normal, branched and cyclic alkanes also indicate that the Bayoot oils are not biodegradation oils.The biomarker distributions of isoprenoid, hopane, aromatic and sterane and their cross and triangular plots suggest that the Bayoot oils are grouped into one genetic family and were generated from marine clay-rich source rock that received mixed organic matter and deposited under suboxic conditions. The biomarker distributions of the Bayoot oils are consistent with those of the Late Jurassic Madbi source rock in the basin. Biomarker maturity and oil compositions data also indicate that the Bayoot oils were generated from mature source rock with peak oil-window maturity. Keywords: Crude oil, Basement reservoir rocks, Biomarker, Organic source input, Bayoot oilfield, Masila Basin

  17. Energy information data base: energy categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-03-01

    Citations entered into DOE's computerized bibliographic information system are assigned six-digit subject category numbers to group information broadly for storage, retrieval, and manipulation. These numbers are used in the preparation of printed documents, such as bibliographies and abstract journals, to arrange the citations and as searching aids in the on-line system, DOE/RECON. This document has been prepared for use by those individuals responsible for the assignment of category numbers to documents being entered into the Technical Information Center (TIC) system, those individuals and organizations processing magnetic tape copies of the files, those individuals doing on-line searching for information in TIC-created files, and others who, having no access to RECON, need printed copy. The six-digit numbers assigned to documents are listed, along with the category names and text to define the scope of interest. Asterisks highlight those categories added or changed since the previous printing, and a subject index further details the subject content of each category

  18. Subject categories and scope descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is one in a series of publications known as the ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series. It defines the subject categories and provides the scope descriptions to be used for categorization of the nuclear literature for the preparation of INIS and ETDE input by national and regional centres. Together with the other volumes of the INIS Reference Series it defines the rules, standards and practices and provides the authorities to be used in the International Nuclear Information System and ETDE. A complete list of the volumes published in the INIS Reference Series may be found on the inside front cover of this publication. This INIS/ETDE Reference Series document is intended to serve two purposes: to define the subject scope of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) and the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and to define the subject classification scheme of INIS and ETDE. It is thus the guide to the inputting centres in determining which items of literature should be reported, and in determining where the full bibliographic entry and abstract of each item should be included in INIS or ETDE database. Each category is identified by a category code consisting of three alphanumeric characters. A scope description is given for each subject category. The scope of INIS is the sum of the scopes of all the categories. With most categories cross references are provided to other categories where appropriate. Cross references should be of assistance in finding the appropriate category; in fact, by indicating topics that are excluded from the category in question, the cross references help to clarify and define the scope of the category to which they are appended. A Subject Index is included as an aid to subject classifiers, but it is only an aid and not a means for subject classification. It facilitates the use of this document, but is no substitute for the description of the scope of the subject categories

  19. Organic matter sources, fluxes and greenhouse gas exchange in the Oubangui River (Congo River basin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouillon, S.; Yambélé, A.; Spencer, R. G. M.; Gillikin, D. P.; Hernes, P. J.; Six, J.; Merckx, R.; Borges, A. V.

    2012-06-01

    The Oubangui is a major tributary of the Congo River, draining an area of ~500 000 km2 mainly consisting of wooded savannahs. Here, we report results of a one year long, 2-weekly sampling campaign in Bangui (Central African Republic) since March 2010 for a suite of physico-chemical and biogeochemical characteristics, including total suspended matter (TSM), bulk concentration and stable isotope composition of particulate organic carbon (POC and δ13CPOC), particulate nitrogen (PN and δ15NPN), dissolved organic carbon (DOC and δ13CDOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and δ13CDIC), dissolved greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O), and dissolved lignin composition. δ13C signatures of both POC and DOC showed strong seasonal variations (-30.6 to -25.8‰, and -31.8 to -27.1‰, respectively), but their different timing indicates that the origins of POC and DOC may vary strongly over the hydrograph and are largely uncoupled, differing up to 6‰ in δ13C signatures. Dissolved lignin characteristics (carbon-normalised yields, cinnamyl:vanillyl phenol ratios, and vanillic acid to vanillin ratios) showed marked differences between high and low discharge conditions, consistent with major seasonal variations in the sources of dissolved organic matter. We observed a strong seasonality in pCO2, ranging between 470 ± 203 ppm for Q production may be high enough to dominate the particulate organic carbon pool, and lower pCO2 values to near equilibrium values during low discharge conditions. The total annual flux of TSM, POC, PN, DOC and DIC are 2.33 Tg yr-1, 0.14 Tg C yr-1, 0.014 Tg N yr-1, 0.70 Tg C yr-1, and 0.49 Tg C yr-1, respectively. While our TSM and POC fluxes are similar to previous estimates for the Oubangui, DOC fluxes were ~30% higher and bicarbonate fluxes were ~35% lower than previous reports. DIC represented 58% of the total annual C flux, and under the assumptions that carbonate weathering represents 25% of the DIC flux and that CO2 from respiration drives

  20. Effects of continental anthropogenic sources on organic aerosols in the coastal atmosphere of East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Dongjie; Hu, Min; Guo, Qingfeng; Zou, Qi; Zheng, Jing; Guo, Song

    2017-10-01

    Although organic compounds in marine atmospheric aerosols have significant effects on climate and marine ecosystems, they have rarely been studied, especially in the coastal regions of East China. To assess the origins of the organic aerosols in the East China coastal atmosphere, PM 2.5 samples were collected from the atmospheres of the Yellow Sea, the East China Sea, and Changdao Island during the CAPTAIN (Campaign of Air PolluTion At INshore Areas of Eastern China) field campaign in the spring of 2011. The marine atmospheric aerosol samples that were collected were grouped based on the backward trajectories of their air masses. The organic carbon concentrations in the PM 2.5 samples from the marine and Changdao Island atmospheres were 5.5 ± 3.1 μgC/m 3 and 6.9 ± 2.4 μgC/m 3 , respectively, which is higher than in other coastal water atmospheres. The concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the marine atmospheric PM 2.5 samples was 17.0 ± 20.2 ng/m 3 , indicating significant continental anthropogenic influences. The influences of fossil fuels and biomass burning on the composition of organic aerosols in the coastal atmosphere of East China were found to be highly dependent on the origins of the air masses. Diesel combustion had a strong impact on air masses from the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), and gasoline emissions had a more significant impact on the "North China" marine atmospheric samples. The "Northeast China" marine atmospheric samples were most impacted by biomass burning. Coal combustion contributed significantly to the compositions of all of the atmospheric samples. The proportions of secondary compounds increased as samples aged in the marine atmosphere indicating that photochemical oxidation occured during transport. Our results quantified ecosystem effects on marine atmospheric aerosols and highlighted the uncertainties that arise when modeling marine atmospheric PM 2.5 without considering high spatial resolution source

  1. Radiation protection in category III large gamma irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Neivaldo; Furlan, Gilberto Ribeiro; Itepan, Natanael Marcio

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the advantages of category III large gamma irradiator compared to the others, with emphasis on aspects of radiological protection, in the industrial sector. This category is a kind of irradiators almost unknown to the regulators authorities and the industrial community, despite its simple construction and greater radiation safety intrinsic to the model, able to maintain an efficiency of productivity comparable to those of category IV. Worldwide, there are installed more than 200 category IV irradiators and there is none of a category III irradiator in operation. In a category III gamma irradiator, the source remains fixed in the bottom of the tank, always shielded by water, negating the exposition risk. Taking into account the benefits in relation to radiation safety, the category III large irradiators are highly recommended for industrial, commercial purposes or scientific research. (author)

  2. Source apportionment of size and time resolved trace elements and organic aerosols from an urban courtyard site in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, A.; Gianini, M. F. D.; Mohr, C.; Furger, M.; Bukowiecki, N.; Minguillón, M. C.; Lienemann, P.; Flechsig, U.; Appel, K.; Decarlo, P. F.; Heringa, M. F.; Chirico, R.; Baltensperger, U.; Prévôt, A. S. H.

    2011-09-01

    Time and size resolved data of trace elements were obtained from measurements with a rotating drum impactor (RDI) and subsequent X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Trace elements can act as indicators for the identification of sources of particulate matter Switzerland. Eight different sources were identified for the three examined size ranges (PM1-0.1, PM2.5-1 and PM10-2.5): secondary sulfate, wood combustion, fire works, road traffic, mineral dust, de-icing salt, industrial and local anthropogenic activities. The major component was secondary sulfate for the smallest size range; the road traffic factor was found in all three size ranges. This trace element analysis is complemented with data from an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), assessing the PM1 fraction of organic aerosols. A separate PMF analysis revealed three factors related to three of the sources found with the RDI: oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA, related to inorganic secondary sulfate), hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA, related to road traffic) and biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA), explaining 60 %, 22 % and 17 % of total measured organics, respectively. Since different compounds are used for the source classification, a higher percentage of the ambient PM10 mass concentration can be apportioned to sources by the combination of both methods.

  3. How categories come to matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leahu, Lucian; Cohn, Marisa; March, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    In a study of users' interactions with Siri, the iPhone personal assistant application, we noticed the emergence of overlaps and blurrings between explanatory categories such as "human" and "machine". We found that users work to purify these categories, thus resolving the tensions related to the ...... initial data analysis, due to our own forms of latent purification, and outline the particular analytic techniques that helped lead to this discovery. We thus provide an illustrative case of how categories come to matter in HCI research and design.......In a study of users' interactions with Siri, the iPhone personal assistant application, we noticed the emergence of overlaps and blurrings between explanatory categories such as "human" and "machine". We found that users work to purify these categories, thus resolving the tensions related...

  4. The composition of category conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Russell R C; Crisp, Richard J

    2005-05-01

    In three experiments, the authors investigated the impression formation process resulting from the perception of familiar or unfamiliar social category combinations. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to generate attributes associated with either a familiar or unfamiliar social category conjunction. Compared to familiar combinations, the authors found that when the conjunction was unfamiliar, participants formed their impression less from the individual constituent categories and relatively more from novel emergent attributes. In Experiment 2, the authors replicated this effect using alternative experimental materials. In Experiment 3, the effect generalized to additional (orthogonally combined) gender and occupation categories. The implications of these findings for understanding the processes involved in the conjunction of social categories, and the formation of new stereotypes, are discussed.

  5. Compound-specific C- and H-isotope compositions of enclosed organic matter in carbonate rocks: Implications for source identification of sedimentary organic matter and paleoenvironmental reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Yongqiang; Wang Yanmei; Wang Yongquan; Xu Shiping

    2007-01-01

    The Bohai Bay Basin is one of the most important oil-producing provinces in China. Molecular organic geochemical characteristics of Lower Paleozoic source rocks in this area have been investigated by analyzing chemical and isotopic compositions of solvent extracts and acid-released organic matter from the Lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks in the Jiyang Sub-basin of the Bohai Bay Basin. The results indicate that enclosed organic matter in carbonate rocks has not been recognizably altered by post-depositional processes. Two end-member compositions are suggested for early organic matter trapped in the Lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks: (1) a source dominated by aquatic organisms and deposited in a relatively deep marine environment and (2) a relatively high saline, evaporative marine depositional environment. In contrast, chemical and isotopic compositions of solvent extracts from these Lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks are relatively complicated, not only inheriting original characteristics of their precursors, but also overprinted by various post-depositional alterations, such as thermal maturation, biodegradation and mixing. Therefore, the integration of both organic matter characteristics can provide more useful information on the origin of organic matter present in carbonate rocks and the environments of their deposition

  6. Compound-specific C- and H-isotope compositions of enclosed organic matter in carbonate rocks: Implications for source identification of sedimentary organic matter and paleoenvironmental reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong Yongqiang [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)], E-mail: xiongyq@gig.ac.cn; Wang Yanmei; Wang Yongquan; Xu Shiping [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2007-11-15

    The Bohai Bay Basin is one of the most important oil-producing provinces in China. Molecular organic geochemical characteristics of Lower Paleozoic source rocks in this area have been investigated by analyzing chemical and isotopic compositions of solvent extracts and acid-released organic matter from the Lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks in the Jiyang Sub-basin of the Bohai Bay Basin. The results indicate that enclosed organic matter in carbonate rocks has not been recognizably altered by post-depositional processes. Two end-member compositions are suggested for early organic matter trapped in the Lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks: (1) a source dominated by aquatic organisms and deposited in a relatively deep marine environment and (2) a relatively high saline, evaporative marine depositional environment. In contrast, chemical and isotopic compositions of solvent extracts from these Lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks are relatively complicated, not only inheriting original characteristics of their precursors, but also overprinted by various post-depositional alterations, such as thermal maturation, biodegradation and mixing. Therefore, the integration of both organic matter characteristics can provide more useful information on the origin of organic matter present in carbonate rocks and the environments of their deposition.

  7. Variations in amounts and potential sources of volatile organic chemicals in new cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, Y.-C.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines inter-brand, intra-brand and intra-model variations in volatile organic chemical (VOC) levels inside new cars. The effect of temperature on interior VOC levels was examined using model automobiles with and without the air-conditioning running. Potential sources of VOC were assessed by comparing VOC levels with two interior trims (leather and fabric) and by analyzing VOC emissions from various interior components. Five brands of new car, both domestic and imported, were tested. Twelve targeted VOCs were collected on solid sorbents and analyzed using thermal desorption and GC/FID. VOCs from interior parts and adhesives were identified using solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) coupled with GC/MS. The VOC concentrations varied markedly among brands and within models, and individual VOC levels ranged from below the detection limit (a few μg per cubic meter) to thousands of μg per cubic meter. The intra-model variability (mean, 47%) in the VOC levels was approximately 50% that within each brand (mean, 95%). Although interior trim levels affected VOC levels, the effects differed among brands. Reduction of the cabin temperature reduced most VOC levels, but the impact was not statistically significant. Screening tests for VOCs from interior parts revealed that butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), a common anti-oxidant, was the most common chemical. Long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons, particularly C14-C17, were identified in most grease (lubricant) samples, and toluene and xylenes were ubiquitously present in adhesive samples. Process-related compounds, such as plasticizer, were also identified in interior parts. In-cabin VOC levels varied significantly among makes/models and interior trims. Concerned consumers should purchase older new cars from manufacturers since VOC levels inside car cabins normally declines over time. Improved processes or materials with lower VOC emission potential should be used to minimize in-cabin VOC sources for new cars

  8. Volatile organic compounds in Tijuana during the Cal-Mex 2010 campaign: Measurements and source apportionment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Garzón, Jessica P.; Huertas, María E.; Zhang, Renyi; Levy, Misti; Ma, Yan; Huertas, José I.; Jardón, Ricardo T.; Ruíz, Luis G.; Tan, Haobo; Molina, Luisa T.

    2013-05-01

    As part of the Cal-Mex 2010 air quality study, a proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) was deployed at the San Diego-Tijuana border area to measure volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from 15 May to 30 June 2010. The major VOCs identified during the study included oxygenated VOCs (e.g., methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, and methyl ethyl ketone) and aromatics (e.g., benzene, toluene, C8- and C9-aromatics). Biogenic VOCs (e.g., isoprene) were scarce in this region because of the lack of vegetation in this arid area. Using an U.S. EPA positive matrix factorization model, VOCs together with other trace gases (NOx, NOz and SO2) observed in this border region were attributed to four types of sources, i.e., local industrial solvent usage (58% in ppbC), gasoline vehicle exhaust (19% in ppbC), diesel vehicle exhaust (14% in ppbC), and aged plume (9% in ppbC) due to regional background and/or long-range transport. Diesel vehicle emission contributed to 87% of SO2 and 75% of NOx, and aged plume contributed to 92% of NOz. An independent conditional probability function analysis of VOCs, wind direction, and wind speed indicated that the industrial source did not show a significant tendency with wind direction. Both gasoline and diesel engine emissions were associated with air masses passing through two busy cross-border ports. Aged plumes were strongly associated with NW wind, which likely brought in aged air masses from the populated San Diego area.

  9. CHROMOPHORIC DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER (CDOM) DERIVED FROM DECOMPOSITION OF VARIOUS VASCULAR PLANT AND ALGAL SOURCES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromophoric dissolved organic (CDOM) in aquatic environments is derived from the microbial decomposition of terrestrial and microbial organic matter. Here we present results of studies of the spectral properties and photoreactivity of the CDOM derived from several organic matter...

  10. Biomarkers of Canadian High Arctic Litoral Sediments for Assessment of Organic Matter Sources and Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautler, B. G.; Austin, J.; Otto, A.; Stewart, K.; Lamoureux, S. F.; Simpson, M. J.

    2009-05-01

    Carbon stocks in the High Arctic are particularly sensitive to global climate change, and investigation of variations in organic matter (OM) composition is beneficial for the understanding of the alteration of organic carbon under anticipated future elevated temperatures. Molecular-level characterization of solvent extractable compounds and CuO oxidation products of litoral sedimentary OM at the Cape Bounty Arctic Watershed Observatory in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago was conducted to determine the OM sources and decomposition patterns. The solvent extracts contained a series of aliphatic lipids, steroids and one triterpenoid primarily of higher plant origin and new biomarkers, iso- and anteiso-alkanes originating from cerastium arcticum (Arctic mouse-ear chickweed, a native angiosperm) were discovered. Carbon preference index (CPI) values for the n-alkanes, n-alkanols and n-alkanoic acids suggests that the OM biomarkers result from fresh material input in early stage of degradation. The CuO oxidation products were comprised of benzyls, lignin phenols and short-chain diacids and hydroxyacids. High abundance of terrestrial OM biomarkers observed at sites close to the river inlet suggests fluvial inputs as an important pathway to deliver OM into the lake. The lignin phenol vegetation index (LPVI) also suggests that the OM origin is mostly from non-woody angiosperms. A relatively high degree of lignin alteration in the litoral sediments is evident from the abundant ratio of acids and aldehydes of the vanillyl and syringyl monomers. This suggests that the lignin contents have been diagenetically altered as the result of a long residence time in this ecosystem. The molecular-level characterization of litoral sedimentary OM in Canadian High Arctic region provides insight into current OM composition,potential responses to future disturbances and the biogeochemical cycling of carbon in the Arctic.

  11. Source and Processes of Dissolved Organic Matter in a Bangladesh Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, D. M.; Simone, B. E.; Mladenov, N.; Zheng, Y.; Legg, T. M.; Nemergut, D.

    2010-12-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater is a global health crisis, especially in Bangladesh where an estimated 40 million people are at risk. The release of geogenic arsenic bound to sediments into groundwater is thought to be influenced by dissolved organic matter (DOM) through several biogeochemical processes. Abiotically, DOM can promote the release of sediment bound As through the formation of DOM-As complexes and competitive interactions between As and DOM for sorption sites on the sediment. Additionally, the labile portion of groundwater DOM can serve as an electron donor to support microbial growth and the more recalcitrant humic DOM may serve as an electron shuttle, facilitating the eventual reduction of ferric iron present as iron oxides in sediments and consequently the mobilization of sorbed As and organic material. The goal of this study is to understand the source of DOM in representative Bangladesh groundwaters and the DOM sorption processes that occur at depth. We report chemical characteristics of representative DOM from a surface water, a shallow low-As groundwater, mid-depth high-As groundwater from the Araihazar region of Bangladesh. The humic DOM from groundwater displayed a more terrestrial chemical signature, indicative of being derived from plant and soil precursor materials, while the surface water humic DOM had a more microbial signature, suggesting an anthropogenic influence. In terms of biogeochemical processes occurring in the groundwater system, there is evidence from a diverse set of chemical characteristics, ranging from 13C-NMR spectroscopy to the analysis of lignin phenols, for preferential sorption onto iron oxides influencing the chemistry and reactivity of humic DOM in high As groundwater in Bangladesh. Taken together, these results provide chemical evidence for anthropogenic influence and the importance of sorption reactions at depth controlling the water quality of high As groundwater in Bangladesh.

  12. Partitioning of fluorotelomer alcohols to octanol and different sources of dissolved organic carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmosini, Nadia; Lee, Linda S

    2008-09-01

    Interest in the environmental fate of fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) has spurred efforts to understand their equilibrium partitioning behavior. Experimentally determined partition coefficients for FTOHs between soil/water and air/water have been reported, but direct measurements of partition coefficients for dissolved organic carbon (DOC)/water (K(doc)) and octanol/ water(K(ow)) have been lacking. Here we measured the partitioning of 8:2 and 6:2 FTOH between one or more types of DOC and water using enhanced solubility or dialysis bag techniques, and also quantified K(ow) values for 4:2 to 8:2 FTOH using a batch equilibration method. The range in measured log K(doc) values for 8:2 FTOH using the enhanced solubility technique with DOC derived from two soils, two biosolids, and three reference humic acids is 2.00-3.97 with the lowest values obtained for the biosolids and an average across all other DOC sources (biosolid DOC excluded) of 3.54 +/- 0.29. For 6:2 FTOH and Aldrich humic acid, a log K(doc) value of 1.96 +/- 0.45 was measured using the dialysis technique. These average values are approximately 1 to 2 log units lower than previously indirectly estimated K(doc) values. Overall, the affinity for DOC tends to be slightly lower than that for particulate soil organic carbon. Measured log K(ow) values for 4:2 (3.30 +/- 0.04), 6:2 (4.54 +/- 0.01), and 8:2 FTOH (5.58 +/- 0.06) were in good agreement with previously reported estimates. Using relationships between experimentally measured partition coefficients and C-atom chain length, we estimated K(doc) and K(ow) values for shorter and longer chain FTOHs, respectively, that we were unable to measure experimentally.

  13. Nature of Emotion Categories: Comment on Cowen and Keltner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Khan, Zulqarnain; Dy, Jennifer; Brooks, Dana

    2017-12-22

    Cowen and Keltner (2017) published the latest installment in a longstanding debate about whether measures of emotion organize themselves into categories or array themselves more continuously along affective dimensions. We discuss several notable features of the study and suggest future studies should consider asking questions more directly about physical and psychological variation within emotion categories as well as similarities between categories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Economic aspects of the application of different organic materials as N-sources in organic production of lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    Cabilovski, dipl ing Ranko; Manojlovic, Prof Maja; Bogdanovic, Prof Darinka; Bavec, Prof Martina

    2008-01-01

    In a field experiment on a farm registered for organic production, we studied the effect of the application of different organic materials (OM): farmyard manure (FYM), guano (G), soybean seed (S), forage pea seed (P) on lettuce yield. Besides yield, we also analyzed the economic profitability of the application of different OM. Fresh lettuce yield was significantly higher with OM treatments than with the treatments without fertilization. The highest yield was obtained with the FYM treatment (...

  15. Sources, distributions and dynamics of dissolved organic matter in the Canada and Makarov Basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Shen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive survey of dissolved organic carbon (DOC and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM was conducted in the Canada and Makarov Basins and adjacent seas during 2010-2012 to investigate the dynamics of dissolved organic matter (DOM in the Arctic Ocean. Sources and distributions of DOM in polar surface waters were very heterogeneous and closely linked to hydrological conditions. Canada Basin surface waters had relatively low DOC concentrations (69±6 µmol L-1, CDOM absorption (a325: 0.32±0.07 m-1 and CDOM-derived lignin phenols (3±0.4 nmol L-1 and high spectral slope values (S275-295: 31.7±2.3 µm-1, indicating minor terrigenous inputs and evidence of photochemical alteration in the Beaufort Gyre. By contrast, surface waters of the Makarov Basin had elevated DOC (108±9 µmol L-1 and lignin phenol concentrations (15±3 nmol L-1, high a325 values (1.36±0.18 m-1 and low S275-295 values (22.8±0.8 µm-1, indicating pronounced Siberian river inputs associated with the Transpolar Drift and minor photochemical alteration. Observations near the Mendeleev Plain suggested limited interactions of the Transpolar Drift with Canada Basin waters, a scenario favoring export of Arctic DOM to the North Atlantic. The influence of sea-ice melt on DOM was region-dependent, resulting in an increase (Beaufort Sea, a decrease (Bering-Chukchi Seas, and negligible change (deep basins in surface DOC concentrations and a325 values. Halocline structures differed between basins, and the Canada Basin upper halocline and Makarov Basin halocline were comparable in their average DOC (65-70 µmol L-1 and lignin phenol concentrations (3-4 nmol L-1 and S275-295 values (22.9-23.7 µm-1. Deep-water DOC concentrations decreased by 6-8 µmol L-1 with increasing depth, water mass age, nutrient concentrations, and apparent oxygen utilization. Maximal estimates of DOC degradation rates (0.036-0.039 µmol L-1 yr-1 in the deep Arctic were lower than those in other ocean

  16. Sources, distributions and dynamics of dissolved organic matter in the Canada and Makarov Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yuan; Benner, Ronald; Robbins, Lisa L.; Wynn, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) was conducted in the Canada and Makarov Basins and adjacent seas during 2010–2012 to investigate the dynamics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the Arctic Ocean. Sources and distributions of DOM in polar surface waters were very heterogeneous and closely linked to hydrological conditions. Canada Basin surface waters had relatively low DOC concentrations (69 ± 6 μmol L−1), CDOM absorption (a325: 0.32 ± 0.07 m−1) and CDOM-derived lignin phenols (3 ± 0.4 nmol L−1), and high spectral slope values (S275–295: 31.7 ± 2.3 μm−1), indicating minor terrigenous inputs and evidence of photochemical alteration in the Beaufort Gyre. By contrast, surface waters of the Makarov Basin had elevated DOC (108 ± 9 μmol L−1) and lignin phenol concentrations (15 ± 3 nmol L−1), high a325 values (1.36 ± 0.18 m−1), and low S275–295 values (22.8 ± 0.8 μm−1), indicating pronounced Siberian river inputs associated with the Transpolar Drift and minor photochemical alteration. Observations near the Mendeleev Plain suggested limited interactions of the Transpolar Drift with Canada Basin waters, a scenario favoring export of Arctic DOM to the North Atlantic. The influence of sea-ice melt on DOM was region-dependent, resulting in an increase (Beaufort Sea), a decrease (Bering-Chukchi Seas), and negligible change (deep basins) in surface DOC concentrations and a325 values. Halocline structures differed between basins, but the Canada Basin upper halocline and Makarov Basin halocline were comparable in their average DOC (65–70 μmol L−1) and lignin phenol concentrations (3–4 nmol L−1) and S275–295 values (22.9–23.7 μm−1). Deep-water DOC concentrations decreased by 6–8 μmol L−1 with increasing depth, water mass age, nutrient concentrations, and apparent oxygen utilization. Maximal estimates of DOC degradation rates (0.036–0.039 μmol L−1

  17. Assessment of self-organizing maps to analyze sole-carbon source utilization profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leflaive, Joséphine; Céréghino, Régis; Danger, Michaël; Lacroix, Gérard; Ten-Hage, Loïc

    2005-07-01

    The use of community-level physiological profiles obtained with Biolog microplates is widely employed to consider the functional diversity of bacterial communities. Biolog produces a great amount of data which analysis has been the subject of many studies. In most cases, after some transformations, these data were investigated with classical multivariate analyses. Here we provided an alternative to this method, that is the use of an artificial intelligence technique, the Self-Organizing Maps (SOM, unsupervised neural network). We used data from a microcosm study of algae-associated bacterial communities placed in various nutritive conditions. Analyses were carried out on the net absorbances at two incubation times for each substrates and on the chemical guild categorization of the total bacterial activity. Compared to Principal Components Analysis and cluster analysis, SOM appeared as a valuable tool for community classification, and to establish clear relationships between clusters of bacterial communities and sole-carbon sources utilization. Specifically, SOM offered a clear bidimensional projection of a relatively large volume of data and were easier to interpret than plots commonly obtained with multivariate analyses. They would be recommended to pattern the temporal evolution of communities' functional diversity.

  18. Preliminary design and off-design performance analysis of an Organic Rankine Cycle for geothermal sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Dongshuai; Li, Saili; Zheng, Ya; Wang, Jiangfeng; Dai, Yiping

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A method for preliminary design and performance prediction is established. • Preliminary data of radial inflow turbine and plate heat exchanger are obtained. • Off-design performance curves of critical components are researched. • Performance maps in sliding pressure operation are illustrated. - Abstract: Geothermal fluid of 90 °C and 10 kg/s can be exploited together with oil in Huabei Oilfield of China. Organic Rankine Cycle is regarded as a reasonable method to utilize these geothermal sources. This study conducts a detailed design and off-design performance analysis based on the preliminary design of turbines and heat exchangers. The radial inflow turbine and plate heat exchanger are selected in this paper. Sliding pressure operation is applied in the simulation and three parameters are considered: geothermal fluid mass flow rate, geothermal fluid temperature and condensing pressure. The results indicate that in all considered conditions the designed radial inflow turbine has smooth off-design performance and no choke or supersonic flow are found at the nozzle and rotor exit. The lager geothermal fluid mass flow rate, the higher geothermal fluid temperature and the lower condensing pressure contribute to the increase of cycle efficiency and net power. Performance maps are illustrated to make system meet different load requirements especially when the geothermal fluid temperature and condensing pressure deviate from the design condition. This model can be used to provide basic data for future detailed design, and predict off-design performance in the initial design phase

  19. Molecular biomarkers for sources of organic matter in lacustrine sediments in a subtropical lake in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Hua; Yang, Hao; Chen, Xia; Zhang, Ji-Xiang; Ou, Jie; Xie, Biao; Huang, Chang-Chun

    2013-05-01

    N-alkanes distributions and stable isotopic compositions (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) in the lacustrine sediments of Shijiu lake were measured to assess whether biological source information was recorded in the molecular biomarker. Results showed regular unimodal n-alkanes distribution in range of C16-C33 with strong predominance of odd-numbered n-alkanes, maximizing at C29. The δ(15)N for SON were uniformly low, ranging from -6.7‰ to 3.8‰ and C/N ratios ranged from 6.6 to 10.0, suggesting that most of organic matter was influenced by terrestrial characteristics of the watershed. The δ(13)C for C27 to C31n-alkanes and for SOC varied from -32.9‰ to -26.6‰ and -23.4‰ to -21.6‰, respectively, falling within the range of corresponding n-alkanes in leaves mainly from C3 land plants. The values of C/N, CPI, OEP, ACL and C27/C31 exhibit similar temporal changes with the primary production, showing enhanced eutrophication resulted from increased anthropogenic activities in Shijiu lake from 1852 to 2010. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mixing effect on thermophilic anaerobic digestion of source-sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    KAUST Repository

    Ghanimeh, Sophia A.

    2012-08-01

    This paper examines the effect of mixing on the performance of thermophilic anaerobic digestion of source-sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste during the start-up phase and in the absence of an acclimated seed. For this purpose, two digesters were used under similar starting conditions and operated for 235days with different mixing schemes. While both digesters exhibited a successful startup with comparable specific methane yield of 0.327 and 0.314l CH 4/gVS, continuous slow stirring improved stability by reducing average VFA accumulation from 2890 to 825mg HAc/l, propionate content from 2073 to 488mg/l, and VFA-to-alkalinity ratio from 0.32 to 0.07. As a result, the startup with slow mixing was faster and smoother accomplishing a higher loading capacity of 2.5gVS/l/d in comparison to 1.9gVS/l/d for non-mixing. Mixing equally improved microbial abundance from 6.6 to 10gVSS/l and enhanced solids and soluble COD removal. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Influence of organic waste and inorganic nitrogen source on biomass productivity of Scenedesmus and Chlorococcum sp.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arumugam, M.; Agarwal, A.; Arya, M.C. [Defence Institute of Bio-Energy Research, Defence R and D Organization, Ministry of Defence, Govt. of India, Field Station Pithoragarh - 262501, Uttarakhand (India); Ahmed, Z. [Defence Institute of Bio-Energy Research, Defence R and D Organization, Ministry of Defence, Govt. of India Haldwani- 263 139, Uttarakhand (India)

    2011-07-01

    Algae gaining the more attention in the recent years in order to supplement the futuristic demand of fuel requirement because of its unique feature like high productivity, short duration and higher fatty acids content. However algal culturing for large-scale production is limited due to many technical and engineering challenges. One of the main constraints for large-scale biomass production is the non-availability of cost effective and affordable growth medium for open pond condition. In order to overcome this lacuna, the present study was carried out to find out the suitable cost effective growth medium using locally available resources. Farm Yard Manure an easily available organic waste yet, rich in nutrients and used for agriculture over the generations. FYM coupled with inorganic nitrogen source like urea was found to be better alternative to the synthetic growth medium, which may make wider acceptability at farmers' field for large-scale algal mass production. The present study reveals that FYM extract of 50% supplemented with 0.1% Urea was performing better for algal biomass growth in outdoor open pond condition.

  2. Mixing effect on thermophilic anaerobic digestion of source-sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    KAUST Repository

    Ghanimeh, Sophia A.; El-Fadel, Mutasem E.; Saikaly, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of mixing on the performance of thermophilic anaerobic digestion of source-sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste during the start-up phase and in the absence of an acclimated seed. For this purpose, two digesters were used under similar starting conditions and operated for 235days with different mixing schemes. While both digesters exhibited a successful startup with comparable specific methane yield of 0.327 and 0.314l CH 4/gVS, continuous slow stirring improved stability by reducing average VFA accumulation from 2890 to 825mg HAc/l, propionate content from 2073 to 488mg/l, and VFA-to-alkalinity ratio from 0.32 to 0.07. As a result, the startup with slow mixing was faster and smoother accomplishing a higher loading capacity of 2.5gVS/l/d in comparison to 1.9gVS/l/d for non-mixing. Mixing equally improved microbial abundance from 6.6 to 10gVSS/l and enhanced solids and soluble COD removal. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Organizational characteristics, financial performance measures, and funding sources of faith based organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampkin, Lynne; Raghavan, Kamala

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the impact of organizational characteristics and financial performance measures of faith based organizations (FBOS) in Pennsylvania and Ohio on the decisions of the funding sources. Organizational characteristics of size, age, and type of service, and financial performance measures such as expense, liquidity, and solvency ratios were gathered from the data on IRS form 990 for 97 FBOS for the period of 1995 to 2004. The study found that the 1996 Charitable Choice provisions and the 2001 Office of Faith-Based and Community Initiatives have led to increased government funding for FBOS. The results showed that government funding of FBOS is affected positively by age of the FBO, and negatively by its size. For smaller FBOS, savings ratio had a negative relationship to government funding and a positive relationship to direct public support. For social service FBOS government funding was positively affected by age and negatively affected by size and debt ratio, while days-cash-on-hand had a negative impact on direct public support. All of the above relationships were statistically significant.

  4. Long-term trends in California mobile source emissions and ambient concentrations of black carbon and organic aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Brian C; Goldstein, Allen H; Harley, Robert A

    2015-04-21

    A fuel-based approach is used to assess long-term trends (1970-2010) in mobile source emissions of black carbon (BC) and organic aerosol (OA, including both primary emissions and secondary formation). The main focus of this analysis is the Los Angeles Basin, where a long record of measurements is available to infer trends in ambient concentrations of BC and organic carbon (OC), with OC used here as a proxy for OA. Mobile source emissions and ambient concentrations have decreased similarly, reflecting the importance of on- and off-road engines as sources of BC and OA in urban areas. In 1970, the on-road sector accounted for ∼90% of total mobile source emissions of BC and OA (primary + secondary). Over time, as on-road engine emissions have been controlled, the relative importance of off-road sources has grown. By 2010, off-road engines were estimated to account for 37 ± 20% and 45 ± 16% of total mobile source contributions to BC and OA, respectively, in the Los Angeles area. This study highlights both the success of efforts to control on-road emission sources, and the importance of considering off-road engine and other VOC source contributions when assessing long-term emission and ambient air quality trends.

  5. Preparation of value-added metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) using waste PET bottles as source of acid linker

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dyosiba, Xoliswa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available of Value-added Metal-organic Frameworks (MOFs) Using Waste PET Bottles as Source of Acid Linker Xoliswa Dyosiba, Jianwei Ren, Nicholas M. Musyoka, Henrietta W. Langmi, Mkhulu Mathe, Maurice S. Onyango PII: S2214-9937(16)30053-7 DOI: doi:10.1016/j..., Hen- rietta W. Langmi, Mkhulu Mathe, Maurice S. Onyango, Preparation of Value-added Metal-organic Frameworks (MOFs) Using Waste PET Bottles as Source of Acid Linker, Sustainable Materials and Technologies (2016), doi:10.1016/j.susmat.2016...

  6. Catchment source contributions to the sediment-bound organic matter degrading salmonid spawning gravels in a lowland river, southern England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, A.L.; Williams, L.J.; Zhang, Y.S.; Marius, M.; Dungait, J.A.J.; Smallman, D.J.; Dixon, E.R.; Stringfellow, A.; Sear, D.A.; Jones, J.I.; Naden, P.S.

    2013-01-01

    The ingress of particulate material into freshwater spawning substrates is thought to be contributing to the declining success of salmonids reported over recent years for many rivers. Accordingly, the need for reliable information on the key sources of the sediment problem has progressed up the management agenda. Whilst previous work has focussed on apportioning the sources of minerogenic fine sediment degrading spawning habitats, there remains a need to develop procedures for generating corresponding information for the potentially harmful sediment-bound organic matter that represents an overlooked component of interstitial sediment. A source tracing procedure based on composite signatures combining bulk stable 13 C and 15 N isotope values with organic molecular structures detected using near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy was therefore used to assess the primary sources of sediment-bound organic matter sampled from artificial spawning redds. Composite signatures were selected using a combination of the Kruskal–Wallis H-test, principal component analysis and GA-driven discriminant function analysis. Interstitial sediment samples were collected using time-integrating basket traps which were inserted at the start of the salmonid spawning season and extracted in conjunction with critical phases of fish development (eyeing, hatch, emergence, late spawning). Over the duration of these four basket extractions, the overall relative frequency-weighted average median (± 95% confidence limits) source contributions to the interstitial sediment-bound organic matter were estimated to be in the order: instream decaying vegetation (39 ± road verges > septic tanks > farm manures

  7. How do Category Managers Manage?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft; Sigurbjornsson, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to explore the managerial role of category managers in purchasing. A network management perspective is adopted. A case based research methodology is applied, and three category managers managing a diverse set of component and service categories in a global production...... firm is observed while providing accounts of their progress and results in meetings. We conclude that the network management classification scheme originally deve loped by Harland and Knight (2001) and Knight and Harland (2005) is a valuable and fertile theoretical framework for the analysis...

  8. High summertime aerosol organic functional group concentrations from marine and seabird sources at Ross Island, Antarctica, during AWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Observations of the organic components of the natural aerosol are scarce in Antarctica, which limits our understanding of natural aerosols and their connection to seasonal and spatial patterns of cloud albedo in the region. From November 2015 to December 2016, the ARM West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE measured submicron aerosol properties near McMurdo Station at the southern tip of Ross Island. Submicron organic mass (OM, particle number, and cloud condensation nuclei concentrations were higher in summer than other seasons. The measurements included a range of compositions and concentrations that likely reflected both local anthropogenic emissions and natural background sources. We isolated the natural organic components by separating a natural factor and a local combustion factor. The natural OM was 150 times higher in summer than in winter. The local anthropogenic emissions were not hygroscopic and had little contribution to the CCN concentrations. Natural sources that included marine sea spray and seabird emissions contributed 56 % OM in summer but only 3 % in winter. The natural OM had high hydroxyl group fraction (55 %, 6 % alkane, and 6 % amine group mass, consistent with marine organic composition. In addition, the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectra showed the natural sources of organic aerosol were characterized by amide group absorption, which may be from seabird populations. Carboxylic acid group contributions were high in summer and associated with natural sources, likely forming by secondary reactions.

  9. The size of patent categories: USPTO 1976-2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lafond, F.D.

    2014-01-01

    Categorization is an important phenomenon in science and society, and classification systems reflect the mesoscale organization of knowledge. The Yule-Simon-Naranan model, which assumes exponential growth of the number of categories and exponential growth of individual categories predicts a power

  10. A review of functional imaging studies on category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    2007-01-01

    such as familiarity and visual complexity. Of the most consistent activations found, none appear to be selective for natural objects or artefacts. The findings reviewed are compatible with theories of category-specificity that assume a widely distributed conceptual system not organized by category....

  11. Screening the Emission Sources of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in China Based on Multi-effect Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, H., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere have adverse impacts via three main pathways: photochemical ozone formation, secondary organic aerosol production, and direct toxicity to humans. Few studies have integrated these effects to prioritize control measures for VOCs sources. In this study, we developed a multi-effect evaluation methodology based on updated emission inventories and source profiles, which was combined with ozone formation potential (OFP), secondary organic aerosol potential (SOAP), and VOC toxicity data to identify important emission sources and key species. We derived species-specific emission inventories for 152 sources. The OFPs, SOAPs, and toxicity of each source were determined, and the contribution and share of each source to each of these adverse effects was calculated. Weightings were given to the three adverse effects by expert scoring, and the integrated impact was determined. Using 2012 as the base year, solvent usage and industrial process were found to be the most important anthropogenic sources, accounting for 24.2 and 23.1% of the integrated environmental effect, respectively. This was followed by biomass burning, transportation, and fossil fuel combustion, all of which had a similar contribution ranging from 16.7 to 18.6%. The top five industrial sources, including plastic products, rubber products, chemical fiber products, the chemical industry, and oil refining, accounted for nearly 70.0% of industrial emissions. In China, emissions reductions are required for styrene, toluene, ethylene, benzene, and m/p-xylene. The 10 most abundant chemical species contributed 76.5% of the integrated impact. Beijing, Chongqing, Shanghai, Jiangsu, and Guangdong were the five leading provinces when considering the integrated effects. Besides, the chemical mass balance model (CMB) was used to verify the VOCs inventories of 47 cities in China, so as to optimize our evaluation results. We suggest that multi-effect evaluation is necessary to

  12. Organic matter sources, fluxes and greenhouse gas exchange in the Oubangui River (Congo River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bouillon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Oubangui is a major tributary of the Congo River, draining an area of ~500 000 km2 mainly consisting of wooded savannahs. Here, we report results of a one year long, 2-weekly sampling campaign in Bangui (Central African Republic since March 2010 for a suite of physico-chemical and biogeochemical characteristics, including total suspended matter (TSM, bulk concentration and stable isotope composition of particulate organic carbon (POC and δ13CPOC, particulate nitrogen (PN and δ15NPN, dissolved organic carbon (DOC and δ13CDOC, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and δ13CDIC, dissolved greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O, and dissolved lignin composition. δ13C signatures of both POC and DOC showed strong seasonal variations (−30.6 to −25.8‰, and −31.8 to −27.1‰, respectively, but their different timing indicates that the origins of POC and DOC may vary strongly over the hydrograph and are largely uncoupled, differing up to 6‰ in δ13C signatures. Dissolved lignin characteristics (carbon-normalised yields, cinnamyl:vanillyl phenol ratios, and vanillic acid to vanillin ratios showed marked differences between high and low discharge conditions, consistent with major seasonal variations in the sources of dissolved organic matter. We observed a strong seasonality in pCO2, ranging between 470 ± 203 ppm for Q < 1000 m3 s−1 (n=10 to a maximum of 3750 ppm during the first stage of the rising discharge. The low POC/PN ratios, high %POC and low and variable δ13CPOC signatures during low flow conditions suggest that the majority of the POC pool during this period consists of in situ produced phytoplankton, consistent with concurrent pCO2 (partial pressure of CO2 values only slightly

  13. Homological algebra in -abelian categories

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deren Luo

    2017-08-16

    Aug 16, 2017 ... Homological algebra in n-abelian categories. 627. We recall the Comparison lemma, together with its dual, plays a central role in the sequel. Lemma 2.1 [13, Comparison lemma 2.1]. Let C be an additive category and X ∈ Ch. ≥0(C) a complex such that for all k ≥ 0the morphism dk+1. X is a weak cokernel ...

  14. Identifying Sources of Volatile Organic Compounds and Aldehydes in a High Performance Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, Anna C.; Russell, Marion; Lee, Wen-Yee; Apte, Michael; Maddalena, Randy

    2010-01-01

    The developers of the Paharpur Business Center (PBC) and Software Technology Incubator Park in New Delhi, India offer an environmentally sustainable building with a strong emphasis on energy conservation, waste minimization and superior indoor air quality (IAQ). To achieve the IAQ goal, the building utilizes a series of air cleaning technologies for treating the air entering the building. These technologies include an initial water wash followed by ultraviolet light treatment and biofiltration using a greenhouse located on the roof and numerous plants distributed throughout the building. Even with the extensive treatment of makeup air and room air in the PBC, a recent study found that the concentrations of common volatile organic compounds and aldehydes appear to rise incrementally as the air passes through the building from the supply to the exhaust. This finding highlights the need to consider the minimization of chemical sources in buildings in combination with the use of advanced air cleaning technologies when seeking to achieve superior IAQ. The goal of this project was to identify potential source materials for indoor chemicals in the PBC. Samples of building materials, including wood paneling (polished and unpolished), drywall, and plastic from a hydroponic drum that was part of the air cleaning system, were collected from the building for testing. All materials were collected from the PBC building and shipped to the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for testing. The materials were pre-conditioned for two different time periods before measuring material and chemical specific emission factors for a range of VOCs and Aldehydes. Of the six materials tested, we found that the highest emitter of formaldehyde was new plywood paneling. Although polish and paint contribute to some VOC emissions, the main influence of the polish was in altering the capacity of the surface to accumulate formaldehyde. Neither the new nor aged polish contributed significantly

  15. Sources and Reactivity of Terrestrial Organic Carbon to the Colville River Delta, Beaufort Sea, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, K. M.; Bianchi, T. S.; Rosenheim, B. E.

    2014-12-01

    Terrestrial particulate organic carbon (tPOC) delivery to nearshore deltaic regions is an important mechanism of OC storage and burial, and continental margins worldwide account for approximately 90% of the carbon burial in the ocean. Increasing warming in the Arctic is leading to an acceleration of the hydrologic cycle, warming of permafrost, and broad shifts in vegetation. All of these changes are likely to affect the delivery, reactivity, and burial of tPOC in nearshore Arctic regions, making the Arctic an ideal place to study the effects of climate change on tPOC delivery. However, to date, most studies of tPOC delivery from North America to the Arctic Ocean have focused on large Arctic rivers like the Mackenzie and Yukon, and a significant portion of those watersheds lie in sub-Arctic latitudes, meaning that their tPOC delivery is likely not uniquely representative of the high Arctic tundra. Here, we focus on tPOC delivery by the Colville River, the largest North American river with a watershed that does not include sub-Arctic latitudes. Sediment samples from the river delta and nearby Simpson's Lagoon were taken in August of 2010 and subsequently fractionated by density, in order to study the delivery of both discrete and sediment-sorbed tPOC. Samples were analyzed for stable carbon isotopes, bulk radiocarbon, terrestrial biomarkers (including lignin-phenols, and other CuO reaction products), and aquatic biomarkers (algal pigments), and additionally a subset of the samples were analyzed by ramped pyrolysis-14C. Results show that tPOC delivery near the river mouth is sourced from coastal plain tundra, with additional delivery of tPOC from peat released into the lagoon from the seaward limit of the tundra by coastal erosion. Ramped pyrolysis-14C analysis also shows a clear differentiation between tPOC delivered by the river and tPOC delivered by coastal retreat in the lagoon. Additionally, a significant portion of the OC released by the Colville River is

  16. Identifying Sources of Volatile Organic Compounds and Aldehydes in a High Performance Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Anna C.; Russell, Marion; Lee, Wen-Yee; Apte, Michael; Maddalena, Randy

    2010-09-20

    The developers of the Paharpur Business Center (PBC) and Software Technology Incubator Park in New Delhi, India offer an environmentally sustainable building with a strong emphasis on energy conservation, waste minimization and superior indoor air quality (IAQ). To achieve the IAQ goal, the building utilizes a series of air cleaning technologies for treating the air entering the building. These technologies include an initial water wash followed by ultraviolet light treatment and biolfiltration using a greenhouse located on the roof and numerous plants distributed throughout the building. Even with the extensive treatment of makeup air and room air in the PBC, a recent study found that the concentrations of common volatile organic compounds and aldehydes appear to rise incrementally as the air passes through the building from the supply to the exhaust. This finding highlights the need to consider the minimization of chemical sources in buildings in combination with the use of advanced air cleaning technologies when seeking to achieve superior IAQ. The goal of this project was to identify potential source materials for indoor chemicals in the PBC. Samples of building materials, including wood paneling (polished and unpolished), drywall, and plastic from a hydroponic drum that was part of the air cleaning system, were collected from the building for testing. All materials were collected from the PBC building and shipped to the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for testing. The materials were pre-conditioned for two different time periods before measuring material and chemical specific emission factors for a range of VOCs and Aldehydes. Of the six materials tested, we found that the highest emitter of formaldehyde was new plywood paneling. Although polish and paint contribute to some VOC emissions, the main influence of the polish was in altering the capacity of the surface to accumulate formaldehyde. Neither the new nor aged polish contributed

  17. POTENTIAL USE OF ORGANIC MINERAL AS MINERAL SOURCE FOR DIET OF JUVENILE VANNAMEI SHRIMP, Penaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asda Laining

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of organic mineral (OM has been recently introduced in aquaculture both as feed supplement and water quality improvement. A feeding experiment was conducted to evaluate a response dose of OM on growth, survival, and mineral content in whole the body and carapace of vannamei shrimp (Penaeus vannamei. Three diets were supplemented with different levels of organic mineral at 1 (OM1, 2 (OM2 and 4 (OM4 g/100 g diet. Positive control was a diet without OM inclusion but supplemented with commercial mineral mixture at level of 4 g/100 g diet. Juvenile vannamei shrimp with average initial body weight of 3.5±0.1 g were stocked into 12 tanks with a capacity of 200 L. After 75 days feeding trial, highly significant weight gains was observed in shrimp fed OM at all levels compared to the positive control. However, no significant differences were found among dietary OM groups. The growth response was clearly shown by the same values of SGRs in the three OM supplemented groups (1.1%/d and only differed significantly from positive control. Increasing of dietary OM significantly improved survival rate of shrimp where the highest was observed in group fed OM1 and the lowest was in control diet. Effect of dietary OM on whole body Ca and P were quite similar while whole body Ca and P content of OM1 group was slightly high and tended to decrease in two groups with higher level dietary OM. However, no significant differences among the treatment groups. A clear response of supplementing OM in diet was detected on whole body Zn content. Increase of dietary OM resulted in an increase of Zn content in whole body. The effect was clearly shown when diet contained 2% and 4% OM. Carapace Ca content was highly significant when diet contained 2% OM. Similar to whole body Zn content, there was also a linear trend of response dose of dietary OM on carapace Zn content which the highest was found in dietary OM4. Based on growth, survival rate, and Zn

  18. Evaluation of non-enteric sources of non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC) emissions from dairies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Myeong Y.; Beene, Matt; Ashkan, Shawn; Krauter, Charles; Hasson, Alam S.

    2010-02-01

    Dairies are believed to be a major source of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in Central California, but few studies have characterized VOC emissions from these facilities. In this work, samples were collected from six sources of VOCs (Silage, Total Mixed Rations, Lagoons, Flushing Lanes, Open Lots and Bedding) at six dairies in Central California during 2006-2007 using emission isolation flux chambers and polished stainless steel canisters. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/flame ionization detection. Forty-eight VOCs were identified and quantified in the samples, including alcohols, carbonyls, alkanes and aromatics. Silage and Total Mixed Rations are the dominant sources of VOCs tested, with ethanol as the major VOC present. Emissions from the remaining sources are two to three orders of magnitude smaller, with carbonyls and aromatics as the main components. The data suggest that animal feed rather than animal waste are the main source of non-enteric VOC emissions from dairies.

  19. Constraining Biomarkers of Dissolved Organic Matter Sourcing Using Microbial Incubations of Vascular Plant Leachates of the California landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harfmann, J.; Hernes, P.; Chuang, C. Y.; Kaiser, K.; Spencer, R. G.; Guillemette, F.

    2017-12-01

    Source origin of dissolved organic matter (DOM) is crucial in determining reactivity, driving chemical and biological processing of carbon. DOM source biomarkers such as lignin (a vascular plant marker) and D-amino acids (bacterial markers) are well-established tools in tracing DOM origin and fate. The development of high-resolution mass spectrometry and optical studies has expanded our toolkit; yet despite these advances, our understanding of DOM sources and fate remains largely qualitative. Quantitative data on DOM pools and fluxes become increasingly necessary as we refine our comprehension of its composition. In this study, we aim to calibrate and quantify DOM source endmembers by performing microbial incubations of multiple vascular plant leachates, where total DOM is constrained by initial vascular plant input and microbial production. Derived endmembers may be applied to endmember mixing models to quantify DOM source contributions in aquatic systems.

  20. Nonpolar organic compounds as PM2.5 source tracers: Investigation of their sources and degradation in the Pearl River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiongqiong; Feng, Yongming; Huang, X. H. Hilda; Griffith, Stephen M.; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Qingyan; Wu, Dui; Yu, Jian Zhen

    2016-10-01

    A group of nonpolar organic compounds (NPOCs) in five compound classes including alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hopanes, steranes, and 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene were quantified in samples of particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm collected at four sites in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, China, over a 2 year period from 2011 to 2012. The four sites include industrial (Nanhai), urban (Guangzhou), urban outskirt (Dongguan), and suburban (Nansha) locations. Some NPOCs are uniquely emitted from particular combustion sources and thereby serving as markers in source apportionment. Based on this multiyear and multisite NPOC data set, spatial and seasonal variations, correlation analysis, and ratio-ratio plots were used to investigate the source information and degradation of NPOC tracers. In summer, NPOCs showed distinct local emission characteristics, with urban sites having much higher concentrations than suburban sites. In winter, regional transport was an important influence on NPOC levels, driving up concentrations at all sampling sites and diminishing an urban-suburban spatial gradient. The lighter NPOCs exhibited more prominent seasonal variations. Such spatiotemporal features suggest that their particle-phase abundance is more influenced by temperature, which is a critical factor in controlling the extent of semivolatile organics partitioned into the aerosol phase. The heavier NPOCs, especially PAHs, showed negligible correlation among the four sites, suggesting more influence from local emissions. Ratio-ratio plots indicate photodegradation and mixing of various sources for the NPOCs in the PRD. A positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of this large NPOC data set suggests that heavier NPOCs are more suitable source indicators than lighter NPOCs. Incorporating particle-phase light NPOC concentrations in PMF produces a separate factor, which primarily contains those light NPOCs and likely is not a source factor. Total

  1. Non-polar organic compounds as PM2.5 source tracers: Investigation of their sources and degradation in the Pearl River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q.; Feng, Y.; Huang, X. H. H.; Griffith, S.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Q.; Wu, D.; Yu, J.

    2016-12-01

    Nonpolar organic compounds (NPOCs) including alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hopanes, steranes, and 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene, were quantified in PM2.5 samples at four sites in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, China over a two-year period from 2011 to 2012. The four sites include one industrial zone (Nanhai), one urban (Guangzhou), one urban outskirt (Dongguan) and one suburban (Nansha) locations. Some NPOCs are uniquely emitted from particular combustion sources, and thereby serving as convenient markers in source apportionment. Based on this multi-year and multi-site data set, spatial and seasonal variations, correlation analysis and ratio-ratio plots were used to investigate the source information and degradation of NPOC tracers. In summer, NPOCs showed distinct local emission characteristics, with urban sites having much higher concentrations than suburban site. In winter, regional transport was an important influence on NPOC levels, driving up concentrations at all sampling sites and diminishing an urban-suburban spatial gradient. The lighter NPOCs exhibited more prominent seasonal variations, suggesting their particle-phase abundance is more influenced by temperature, a critical factor in controlling the extent of semi-volatile organics partitioned into the aerosol phase. The heavier NPOCs, especially PAHs, showed negligible correlation among the four sites, suggesting more influence from local emissions. Ratio-ratio plots indicate photo-degradation and mixing of various sources for the NPOCs in the PRD. A positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of this large NPOC data set suggests that heavier NPOCs are more suitable source indicators than lighter NPOCs. Incorporating particle-phase light NPOC concentrations in PMF produces a separate factor, which primarily contains those light NPOCs and likely is not a source factor. Total NPOC concentrations predicted using Pankow partitioning theory were explored as PMF inputs, however, the PMF

  2. Sources and transformations of dissolved lignin phenols and chromophoric dissolved organic matter in Otsuchi Bay, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Jung eLu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved lignin phenols and optical properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM were measured to investigate the sources and transformations of terrigenous DOM (tDOM in Otsuchi Bay, Japan. Three rivers discharge into the bay, and relatively high values of syringyl:vanillyl phenols (0.73 ± 0.07 and cinnamyl:vanillyl phenols (0.33 ± 0.10 indicated large contributions of non-woody angiosperm tissues to lignin and tDOM. The physical mixing of river and seawater played an important role in controlling the concentrations and distributions of lignin phenols and chromophoric DOM (CDOM optical properties in the bay. Lignin phenol concentrations and the CDOM absorption coefficient at 350 nm, a(350, were strongly correlated in river and bay waters. Measurements of lignin phenols and CDOM in bay waters indicated a variety of photochemical and biological transformations of tDOM, including oxidation reactions, photobleaching and a decrease in molecular weight. Photodegradation and biodegradation of lignin and CDOM were investigated in decomposition experiments with river water and native microbial assemblages exposed to natural sunlight or kept in the dark. There was a rapid and substantial removal of lignin phenols and CDOM during the first few days in the light treatment, indicating transformations of tDOM and CDOM can occur soon after discharge of buoyant river water into the bay. The removal of lignin phenols was slightly greater in the dark (34% than in the light (30% during the remaining 59 days of the incubation. Comparison of the light and dark treatments indicated biodegradation was responsible for 67% of total lignin phenol removal during the 62-day incubation exposed to natural sunlight, indicating biodegradation is a dominant removal process in Otsuchi Bay.

  3. Metals, organic compounds, and nutrients in Long Island Sound: sources, magnitudes, trends, and impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaney, John R.; Varekamp, J.C.; MCElroy, A.E.; Brsslin, V.T.

    2014-01-01

    Long Island Sound (LIS) is a relatively shallow estuary with a mean depth of 20 m (maximum depth 49 m) and a unique hydrology and history of pollutant loading. Those factors have contributed to a wide variety of contamination problems in its muddy sediments, aquatic life and water column. The LIS sediments are contaminated with a host of legacy and more recently released toxic compounds and elements related to past and present wastewater discharges and runoff. These include non-point and storm water runoff and groundwater discharges, whose character has changed over the years along with the evolution of its watershed and industrial history. Major impacts have resulted from the copious amounts of nutrients discharged into LIS through atmospheric deposition (N), domestic and industrial waste water flows, fertilizer releases, and urban runoff. All these sources and their effects are in essence the result of human presence and activities in the watershed, and the severity of pollutant loading and their impacts generally scales with total population in the watersheds surrounding LIS. Environmental legislation passed since the mid-to late 1900s (e.g., Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act) has had a beneficial effect, however, and contaminant loadings for many toxic organic and inorganic chemicals and nutrients have diminished over the last few decades (O’Shea and Brosnan 2000; Trench, et al, 2012; O’Connor and Lauenstein 2006; USEPA 2007). Major strides have been made in reducing the inflow of nutrients into LIS, but cultural eutrophication is still an ongoing problem and nutrient control efforts will need to continue. Nonetheless, LIS is still a heavily human impacted estuary (an ‘Urban Estuary’, as described for San Francisco Bay by Conomos, 1979), and severe changes in water quality and sediment toxicity as well as ecosystem shifts have been witnessed over the relatively short period since European colonization in the early 1600s (Koppelman et al., 1976).

  4. Energetic and exergetic investigation of an organic Rankine cycle at different heat source temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jing; Pei, Gang; Li, Yunzhu; Wang, Dongyue; Ji, Jie

    2012-01-01

    The energetic and exergetic performance of an updated ORC (organic Rankine cycle) is investigated. The thermal efficiencies of the ORC at different heat source temperatures of about 100, 90, 80, and 70 °C are explored. The thermodynamic irreversibility that takes place in the evaporator, condenser, turbine, pump, and separator is revealed. The ORC feasibility for low-temperature applications is demonstrated. With a hot side temperature of around 80 °C, a thermal efficiency of 7.4% and a turbine isentropic efficiency of 0.68 can be achieved. The present research further indicates that exergy destruction caused by heat transfer through an appreciable temperature difference in the evaporator is the largest in the energy conversion process, followed by that in the condenser. The exergy destroyed in the heat exchangers amounts to 74% of the overall exergy loss. The total system exergy efficiency is approximately 40%; thus, ways to improve exergy efficiency are required. HCFC-123, a dry fluid, is experimentally confirmed to be highly superheated after expansion in this study. A regenerator should be used to preheat HCFC-123 prior to entering the evaporator. Meanwhile the heat-transfer configuration with two oil cycles can be a good solution to overcome the thermodynamic disadvantage of a one-stage evaporator. -- Highlights: ► An updated ORC system is introduced. ► The ORC feasibility for low-temperature applications is experimentally demonstrated. ► Thermodynamic irreversibility in ORC components is revealed. ► Suggestions are given to reduce the exergy destruction.

  5. Chemically-resolved volatility measurements of organic aerosol fom different sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, J A; Docherty, K S; Mohr, C; Cubison, M J; Ulbrich, I M; Ziemann, P J; Onasch, T B; Jimenez, J L

    2009-07-15

    A newly modified fast temperature-stepping thermodenuder (TD) was coupled to a High Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer for rapid determination of chemically resolved volatility of organic aerosols (OA) emitted from individual sources. The TD-AMS system was used to characterize primary OA (POA) from biomass burning, trash burning surrogates (paper and plastic), and meat cooking as well as chamber-generated secondary OA (SOA) from alpha-pinene and gasoline vapor. Almost all atmospheric models represent POA as nonvolatile, with no allowance for evaporation upon heating or dilution, or condensation upon cooling. Our results indicate that all OAs observed show semivolatile behavior and that most POAs characterized here were at least as volatile as SOA measured in urban environments. Biomass-burning OA (BBOA) exhibited a wide range of volatilities, but more often showed volatility similar to urban OA. Paper-burning resembles some types of BBOA because of its relatively high volatility and intermediate atomic oxygen-to-carbon (O/C) ratio, while meat-cooking OAs (MCOA) have consistently lower volatility than ambient OA. Chamber-generated SOA under the relatively high concentrations used intraditional experiments was significantly more volatile than urban SOA, challenging extrapolation of traditional laboratory volatility measurements to the atmosphere. Most OAs sampled show increasing O/C ratio and decreasing H/C (hydrogen-to-carbon) ratio with temperature, further indicating that more oxygenated OA components are typically less volatile. Future experiments should systematically explore a wider range of mass concentrations to more fully characterize the volatility distributions of these OAs.

  6. Chemical compositions and sources of organic matter in fine particles of soils and sands from the vicinity of Kuwait city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushdi, Ahmed I; Al-Zarban, Sheikha; Simoneit, Bernd R T

    2006-09-01

    Fine particles in the atmosphere from soil and sand resuspension contain a variety of organic compounds from natural biogenic and anthropogenic matter. Soil and sand samples from various sites near Kuwait city were collected, sieved to retain the fine particles, and extracted with a mixture of dichloromethane and methanol. The extracts were derivatized and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in order to characterize the chemical compositions and sources of the organic components. The major inputs of organic compounds were from both natural biogenic and anthropogenic sources in these samples. Vegetation was the major natural source of organic compounds and included n-alkanols, n-alkanoic acids, n-alkanes, sterols and triterpenoids. Saccharides had high concentrations (31-43%) in the sand dune and seafront samples, indicating sources from decomposed vegation materials and/or the presence of viable microbiota such as bacteria and fungi. Vehicular emission products, leakage of lubricating oils, discarded plastics and emissions from cooking operations were the major anthropogenic inputs in the samples from the urban areas. This input was mainly UCM, n-alkanes, hopanes, plasticizers and cholesterol, respectively.

  7. Sources of organic compounds in fine soil and sand particles during winter in the metropolitan area of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushdi, Ahmed I; Al-Mutlaq, Khalid; Simoneit, Bernd R T

    2005-11-01

    Major advances have been made in molecular marker analysis to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic organic matter inputs to the atmosphere. Resuspension of soil and sand by wind is one of the major mechanisms that produces particle dusts in the atmosphere. Soil and sand samples from the Riyadh area were collected in winter 2002, sieved to remove coarse particles and extracted with a mixture of dichloromethane and methanol (3:1, v:v). The total extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in order to characterize the contents and identify the potential sources of the organic components. The major organic compounds of these extracts were derived from natural biogenic and anthropogenic sources. Organic compounds from natural sources, mainly vegetation, were major in samples from outside the city of Riyadh and included n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, n- alkanols, methyl alkanoates, and sterols. Anthropogenic inputs were significant in the fine particles of soil and sand samples collected from populated areas of the city. They consisted mainly of n-alkanes, hopanes, UCM (from vehicular emissions), and plasticizers (from discarded plastics, e.g., shopping bags). Carbohydrates had high concentrations in all samples and indicate sources from decomposed cellulose fibers and/or the presence of viable microbiota such as bacteria and fungi.

  8. Chemical characteristics and methane potentials of source-separated and pre-treated organic municipal solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine Lund; Svärd, Å; Angelidaki, Irini

    2003-01-01

    A research project has investigated the biogas potential of pre-screened source-separated organic waste. Wastes from five Danish cities have been pre-treated by three methods: screw press; disc screen; and shredder and magnet. This paper outlines the sampling procedure used, the chemical...... composition of the wastes and the estimated methane potentials....

  9. Tracing the source of soil organic matter eroded from temperate forest catchments using carbon and nitrogen isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emma P. McCorkle; Asmeret Asefaw Berhe; Carolyn T. Hunsaker; Dale W. Johnson; Karis J. McFarlane; Marilyn L. Fogel; Stephen C. Hart

    2016-01-01

    Soil erosion continuously redistributes soil and associated soil organic matter (SOM) on the Earth's surface, with important implications for biogeochemical cycling of essential elements and terrestrial carbon sequestration. Despite the importance of soil erosion, surprisingly few studies have evaluated the sources of eroded carbon (C). We used natural abundance...

  10. 77 FR 57567 - Single Source Cooperative Agreement Award for World Health Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... Organization AGENCY: Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and... Organization for a grant titled: ``Smallpox Research Oversight Activities: WHO Advisory Committee on Variola... notification to World Health Organization (WHO) as soon as possible, and any confirmed smallpox case would...

  11. Organic Production: Recent Publications and Current Information Sources. Special Reference Briefs: SRB 95-01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Agricultural Library, Beltsville, MD.

    The activities of the National Organic Standards Board, coupled with the movement towards "sustainable systems" and continued consumer support for organic foods, have made farming organically an increasingly viable alternative for many U.S. farmers. This list of resources is provided to accommodate increasing requests for information on…

  12. Identification of the sources of organic compounds that decalcify cement concrete and generate alcohols and ammonia gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomoto, Takashi [Technical Research Institute, Obayashi Road Corporation, 4-640 Shimokiyoto, Kiyose, Tokyo, 204-0011 (Japan); Moriyoshi, Akihiro [Material Science Laboratory, Hokkaido University, 2-1-9-10 Kiyota, Kiyota-ku, Sapporo, 004-0842 (Japan); Sakai, Kiyoshi [Department of Environmental Health, Nagoya City Public Health Research Institute, 1-11 Hagiyama-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, 467-8615 (Japan); Shibata, Eiji [Department of Health and Psychosocial Medicine, Aichi Medical University School of Medicine, Nagakute-cho, Aichi, 480-1195 (Japan); Kamijima, Michihiro [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, 466-8550 (Japan)

    2009-09-15

    This study identifies the emission sources of various types of airborne organic compounds, which deteriorate cement concrete by penetrating into the concrete together with moisture. The study used high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatograph mass spectrometry. The results show that the types of organic compounds contained in decalcified cement concrete were very similar to those found in the total suspended compounds in the air, and that the source of the emissions was particles of exhaust from diesel vehicles and radial tires used in summer. Such organic compounds include substances suspected of having endocrine disrupting properties. Hydrolysis occurs when these substances penetrate into highly alkaline cement concrete, and leads to deterioration of the cement concrete and the release of alcohols and ammonia gases which pollute indoor air and may be a cause of the sick building syndrome. (author)

  13. Source apportionment of size and time resolved trace elements and organic aerosols from an urban courtyard site in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Richard

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Time and size resolved data of trace elements were obtained from measurements with a rotating drum impactor (RDI and subsequent X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Trace elements can act as indicators for the identification of sources of particulate matter <10 μm (PM10 in ambient air. Receptor modeling was performed with positive matrix factorization (PMF for trace element data from an urban background site in Zürich, Switzerland. Eight different sources were identified for the three examined size ranges (PM1−0.1, PM2.5−1 and PM10−2.5: secondary sulfate, wood combustion, fire works, road traffic, mineral dust, de-icing salt, industrial and local anthropogenic activities. The major component was secondary sulfate for the smallest size range; the road traffic factor was found in all three size ranges. This trace element analysis is complemented with data from an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS, assessing the PM1 fraction of organic aerosols. A separate PMF analysis revealed three factors related to three of the sources found with the RDI: oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA, related to inorganic secondary sulfate, hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA, related to road traffic and biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA, explaining 60 %, 22 % and 17 % of total measured organics, respectively. Since different compounds are used for the source classification, a higher percentage of the ambient PM10 mass concentration can be apportioned to sources by the combination of both methods.

  14. Subject categories with scope definitions and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bost, D.E.

    1983-08-01

    Citations entered into DOE's computerized bibliographic information system are assigned six-digit subject category numbers to broadly group information for storage, retrieval, and manipulation. These numbers are used in the preparation of printed documents, such as bibliographies and abstract journals, to arrange the citations and to aid searching on the DOE/RECON on-line system. This document has been prepared for use by (1) those individuals responsible for the assignment of category numbers to documents being entered into the Technical Information Center (TIC) system, (2) those individuals and organizations processing magnetic tape copies of the files, (3) those individuals doing on-line searching for information in TIC-created files, and (4) others who, having no access to RECON, need a printed copy

  15. Influence of organic N Sources on N transformation and uptake by lupine plants using 15N technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Salam, A.A.; Gadalla, A.M.; Abdel- Aziz, H.A.; Galal, Y.G.M.; EL-degwy, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    A pot experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions to evaluate the comparative efficiency and transformation of nitrogen applied either as mineral or organic forms. The obtained data showed that shoot dry weight was enhanced by compost and its mixture with leucaena. When organic sources were combined with 15 N, the leucaena.compost mixture (LC p ) gave the highest yield, and the other two were not significantly different from each other. Reinforcing the organic N with mineral N caused an average greater N.uptake over the non reinforced treatment. Similar trend was noticed with root system. Nitrogen uptake by roots was increased according to the order of LC > L > C. N derived from fertilizer (% Ndff) by lupine shoots was significantly affected by fertilizer addition either alone or reinforced with organic plant residues. Both, the portions (%) or absolute values (mg pot -1 ) of Ndff were increased by adding the organic residues. The highest value of Ndfs was recorded with application of leucaena followed by compost, then Leucaena + compost. Portion Ndfa reflected an effective response of lupines plants to Rhizobium inoculation. Addition of LC mixture combined with 15 N-fertilizer had enhanced the N 2 fixation and increased Ndfa value by about 66.7 % over those recorded with 15 N0 treatment. Organic amendment of leucaena could be an efficient source for N to infertile sandy soils

  16. Catchment source contributions to the sediment-bound organic matter degrading salmonid spawning gravels in a lowland river, southern England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, A.L., E-mail: adrian.collins@adas.co.uk [ADAS, Pendeford House, Wobaston Road, Wolverhampton WV9 5AP (United Kingdom); Geography and Environment, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Williams, L.J.; Zhang, Y.S. [ADAS, Pendeford House, Wobaston Road, Wolverhampton WV9 5AP (United Kingdom); Marius, M. [Civil Engineering and Environment, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton S017 1BJ (United Kingdom); Dungait, J.A.J. [Department of Sustainable Systems and Grassland Science, Rothamsted Research—North Wyke, Okehampton, Devon EX20 2SB (United Kingdom); Smallman, D.J. [Civil Engineering and Environment, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton S017 1BJ (United Kingdom); Dixon, E.R. [Department of Sustainable Systems and Grassland Science, Rothamsted Research—North Wyke, Okehampton, Devon EX20 2SB (United Kingdom); Stringfellow, A. [Civil Engineering and Environment, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton S017 1BJ (United Kingdom); Sear, D.A. [Geography and Environment, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Jones, J.I. [School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Naden, P.S. [CEH Wallingford, Maclean Building, Benson Lane, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, OX10 8BB (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    The ingress of particulate material into freshwater spawning substrates is thought to be contributing to the declining success of salmonids reported over recent years for many rivers. Accordingly, the need for reliable information on the key sources of the sediment problem has progressed up the management agenda. Whilst previous work has focussed on apportioning the sources of minerogenic fine sediment degrading spawning habitats, there remains a need to develop procedures for generating corresponding information for the potentially harmful sediment-bound organic matter that represents an overlooked component of interstitial sediment. A source tracing procedure based on composite signatures combining bulk stable {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N isotope values with organic molecular structures detected using near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy was therefore used to assess the primary sources of sediment-bound organic matter sampled from artificial spawning redds. Composite signatures were selected using a combination of the Kruskal–Wallis H-test, principal component analysis and GA-driven discriminant function analysis. Interstitial sediment samples were collected using time-integrating basket traps which were inserted at the start of the salmonid spawning season and extracted in conjunction with critical phases of fish development (eyeing, hatch, emergence, late spawning). Over the duration of these four basket extractions, the overall relative frequency-weighted average median (± 95% confidence limits) source contributions to the interstitial sediment-bound organic matter were estimated to be in the order: instream decaying vegetation (39 ± < 1%; full range 0–77%); damaged road verges (28 ± < 1%; full range 0–77%); septic tanks (22 ± < 1%; full range 0–50%), and; farm yard manures/slurries (11 ± < 1%; full range 0–61%). The reported procedure provides a promising basis for understanding the key sources of interstitial sediment-bound organic matter

  17. Sedimentary organic matter sources, benthic consumption and burial in west Spitsbergen fjords - Signs of maturing of Arctic fjordic systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaborska, Agata; Włodarska-Kowalczuk, Maria; Legeżyńska, Joanna; Jankowska, Emilia; Winogradow, Aleksandra; Deja, Kajetan

    2018-04-01

    Mature ecosystems sequester little organic carbon (Corg) in sediments, as the complex and effective food webs consume most available organic matter within the water column and sediment, in contrast to young systems, where a large proportion of Corg is buried in deeper sediment layers. In this paper we hypothesize that "warmer" Atlantic water influenced fjord exhibits the 'mature' system features as compared to "cooler" Arctic water influenced fjord. Corg concentrations, sources and burial rates, as well as macrobenthic community standing stocks, taxonomic and functional composition and carbon demand, were compared in two west Spitsbergen fjords that are to different extents influenced by Atlantic water and can be treated as representing a cold one (Hornsund) and a warm one (Kongsfjorden). Water, sediments and macrofauna were collected at three stations in the central basin of each fjord. Corg, Ntot, δ13Corg and δ15N were measured in suspended matter, sediment cores and possible organic matter sources. The composition of sources of sedimentary organic matter was modeled by Mix-SIAR Bayesian stable isotope mixing models. The 210Pb method was used to calculate sediment accumulation rates, Corg accumulation and burial rates. The sedimentary Corg concentration and accumulation rate were larger in Hornsund than in Kongsfjorden. The contributions of pelagic sources to the Corg in sediments were similar in both fjords, macroalgal detritus had a higher importance in Kongsfjorden, while terrestrial sources were more important in Hornsund. Similar density and species richness were noted in both fjords, but higher biomass, individual biomass, production and carbon demand of benthic communities were noted in Kongsfjorden despite the lower amounts of Corg in sediments, indicating that macrobenthos responds to quality rather than quantity of available food. Subsurface tube-building conveyer belt detritus feeders (maldanids and oweniids) were responsible for higher standing

  18. Category O for quantum groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henning Haahr; Mazorchuk, Volodymyr

    2015-01-01

    We study the BGG-categories O_q associated to quantum groups. We prove that many properties of the ordinary BGG-category O for a semisimple complex Lie algebra carry over to the quantum case. Of particular interest is the case when q is a complex root of unity. Here we prove a tensor decomposition...... for simple modules, projective modules, and indecomposable tilting modules. Using the known Kazhdan–Lusztig conjectures for O and for finite-dimensional U_q-modules we are able to determine all irreducible characters as well as the characters of all indecomposable tilting modules in O_q . As a consequence......, we also recover the known result that the generic quantum case behaves like the classical category O....

  19. Hippocampal activation during episodic and semantic memory retrieval: comparing category production and category cued recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Lee; Cox, Christine; Hayes, Scott M; Nadel, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    Whether or not the hippocampus participates in semantic memory retrieval has been the focus of much debate in the literature. However, few neuroimaging studies have directly compared hippocampal activation during semantic and episodic retrieval tasks that are well matched in all respects other than the source of the retrieved information. In Experiment 1, we compared hippocampal fMRI activation during a classic semantic memory task, category production, and an episodic version of the same task, category cued recall. Left hippocampal activation was observed in both episodic and semantic conditions, although other regions of the brain clearly distinguished the two tasks. Interestingly, participants reported using retrieval strategies during the semantic retrieval task that relied on autobiographical and spatial information; for example, visualizing themselves in their kitchen while producing items for the category kitchen utensils. In Experiment 2, we considered whether the use of these spatial and autobiographical retrieval strategies could have accounted for the hippocampal activation observed in Experiment 1. Categories were presented that elicited one of three retrieval strategy types, autobiographical and spatial, autobiographical and nonspatial, and neither autobiographical nor spatial. Once again, similar hippocampal activation was observed for all three category types, regardless of the inclusion of spatial or autobiographical content. We conclude that the distinction between semantic and episodic memory is more complex than classic memory models suggest.

  20. FINANCIAL CONTROL AS A CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Yu. Volkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the basics of “financial control” as a category. The main attention is concentrated on the “control” itself (asa term, multiplicity of interpretation of“financial control” term and its juristic-practical matching. The duality of financial control category is detected. The identity of terms “financial control” and “state financial control” is justified. The article also offers ways of development of financial control juristical regulation.

  1. Combined Source Apportionment and Degradation Quantification of Organic Pollutants with CSIA: 2. Model Validation and Application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutz, S.R.; van Breukelen, B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) has proven a useful tool for the quantification of the extent of degradation (QED), and for source identification and source apportionment (SA) in contaminated environmental systems. However, the simultaneous occurrence of degradation processes and

  2. Organic impurities harmful to arc discharge in multi-ampere duo-pigatron ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Zhudong; Wang Shouhu; Chen Miaosun; Huang Chongan; Ge Yishan; Fu Peng; E Maohuai

    1989-01-01

    Besides mechanism producing plasmain Duo-Pigatron Ion Source, the main purpose of this paper is to introduce the problem on arc discharge exhaustion caused by oil pollution. The problem was discovered during developing a 15 cm Duo-Pigatron Ion Source. The paper also describes its physical process

  3. Colored dissolved organic matter in shallow estuaries: the effect of source on quantification

    OpenAIRE

    W. K. Oestreich; N. K. Ganju; J. W. Pohlman; S. E. Suttles

    2015-01-01

    Light availability is of primary importance to the ecological function of shallow estuaries. For example, benthic primary production by submerged aquatic vegetation is contingent upon light penetration to the seabed. A major component that attenuates light in estuaries is colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). CDOM is often measured via a proxy, fluorescing dissolved organic matter (fDOM...

  4. The role of organic matter as a source of nitrogen in Douglas-fir forest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Tarrant

    1948-01-01

    The organic material supplied the forest soil by deposits of needles, deadwood and roots, and soil insect remains, decomposes to form humus, defined as the plant and animal residues of the soil, fresh surface litter excluded, which are undergoing evident decomposition (2). This decomposition is necessary before the nutrient elements contained in the organic litter can...

  5. Expatriate support and success : A systematic review of organization-based sources of social support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laken, P.A.; van Engen, M.L.; van Veldhoven, M.J.P.M.; Paauwe, J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to review empirical research on the relationship between organization-based social support and the success of international assignments (IAs). Design/methodology/approach Four search engines were used to obtain empirical studies relating organization-based social

  6. PM2.5 source apportionment with organic markers in the Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization (SEARCH) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, John G; Chow, Judith C; Lowenthal, Douglas H; Antony Chen, L-W; Shaw, Stephanie; Edgerton, Eric S; Blanchard, Charles L

    2015-09-01

    Positive matrix factorization (PMF) and effective variance (EV) solutions to the chemical mass balance (CMB) were applied to PM(2.5) (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter thermal carbon fraction concentrations were supplemented with detailed nonpolar organic speciation by thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD-GC/MS). Source contribution estimates were calculated for motor vehicle exhaust, biomass burning, cooking, coal-fired power plants, road dust, vegetative detritus, and secondary sulfates and nitrates for Atlanta. Similar sources were found for Birmingham, with the addition of an industrial source and the separation of biomass burning into open burning and residential wood combustion. EV-CMB results based on conventional species were qualitatively similar to those estimated by PMF-CMB. Secondary ammonium sulfate was the largest contributor, accounting for 27-38% of PM(2.5), followed by biomass burning (21-24%) and motor vehicle exhaust (9-24%) at both sites, with 4-6% of PM(2.5) attributed to coal-fired power plants by EV-CMB. Including organic compounds in the EV-CMB reduced the motor vehicle exhaust and biomass burning contributions at both sites, with a 13-23% deficit for PM(2.5) mass. The PMF-CMB solution showed mixing of sources within the derived factors, both with and without the addition of speciated organics, as is often the case with complex source mixtures such as those at these urban-scale sites. The nonpolar TD-GC/MS compounds can be obtained from existing filter samples and are a useful complement to the elements, ions, and carbon fractions. However, they should be supplemented with other methods, such as TD-GC/MS on derivitized samples, to obtain a wider range of polar compounds such as sterols, sugars, and organic acids. The PMF and EV solutions to the CMB equations are complementary to, rather than replacements for, each other, as comparisons of their results reveal uncertainties that are not otherwise evident

  7. Water Soluble Organic Nitrogen (WSON) in Ambient Fine Particles Over a Megacity in South China: Spatiotemporal Variations and Source Apportionment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xu; Yu, Qingqing; Zhu, Ming; Tang, Mingjin; Li, Sheng; Yang, Weiqiang; Zhang, Yanli; Deng, Wei; Li, Guanghui; Yu, Yuegang; Huang, Zhonghui; Song, Wei; Ding, Xiang; Hu, Qihou; Li, Jun; Bi, Xinhui; Wang, Xinming

    2017-12-01

    Organic nitrogen aerosols are complex mixtures and important compositions in ambient fine particulate matters (PM2.5), yet their sources and spatiotemporal patterns are not well understood particularly in regions influenced by intensive human activities. In this study, filter-based ambient PM2.5 samples at four stations (one urban, two rural, plus one urban roadside) and PM samples from combustion sources (vehicle exhaust, ship emission, and biomass burning) were collected in the coastal megacity Guangzhou, south China, for determining water soluble organic nitrogen (WSON) along with other organic and inorganic species. The annual average WSON concentrations, as well as the ratios of WSON to water soluble total nitrogen, were all significantly higher at rural sites than urban sites. Average WSON concentrations at the four sites during the wet season were quite near each other, ranging from 0.41 to 0.49 μg/m3; however, they became 2 times higher at the rural sites than at the urban sites during the dry season. Five major sources for WSON were identified through positive matrix factorization analysis. Vehicle emission (29.3%), biomass burning (22.8%), and secondary formation (20.2%) were three dominant sources of WSON at the urban station, while vehicle emission (45.4%) and dust (28.6%) were two dominant sources at the urban roadside station. At the two rural sites biomass burning (51.1% and 34.1%, respectively) and secondary formation (17.8% and 30.5%, respectively) were dominant sources of WSON. Ship emission contributed 8-12% of WSON at the four sites. Natural vegetation seemed to have very minor contribution to WSON.

  8. A national reconnaissance for pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants in the United States - II) Untreated drinking water sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focazio, M.J.; Kolpin, D.W.; Barnes, K.K.; Furlong, E.T.; Meyer, M.T.; Zaugg, S.D.; Barber, L.B.; Thurman, M.E.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that a variety of manufactured and natural organic compounds such as pharmaceuticals, steroids, surfactants, flame retardants, fragrances, plasticizers and other chemicals often associated with wastewaters have been detected in the vicinity of municipal wastewater discharges and livestock agricultural facilities. To provide new data and insights about the environmental presence of some of these chemicals in untreated sources of drinking water in the United States targeted sites were sampled and analyzed for 100 analytes with sub-parts per billion detection capabilities. The sites included 25 ground- and 49 surface-water sources of drinking water serving populations ranging from one family to over 8 million people.

  9. International Conference on Category Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Pedicchio, Maria; Rosolini, Guiseppe

    1991-01-01

    With one exception, these papers are original and fully refereed research articles on various applications of Category Theory to Algebraic Topology, Logic and Computer Science. The exception is an outstanding and lengthy survey paper by Joyal/Street (80 pp) on a growing subject: it gives an account of classical Tannaka duality in such a way as to be accessible to the general mathematical reader, and to provide a key for entry to more recent developments and quantum groups. No expertise in either representation theory or category theory is assumed. Topics such as the Fourier cotransform, Tannaka duality for homogeneous spaces, braided tensor categories, Yang-Baxter operators, Knot invariants and quantum groups are introduced and studies. From the Contents: P.J. Freyd: Algebraically complete categories.- J.M.E. Hyland: First steps in synthetic domain theory.- G. Janelidze, W. Tholen: How algebraic is the change-of-base functor?.- A. Joyal, R. Street: An introduction to Tannaka duality and quantum groups.- A. Jo...

  10. Learnable Classes of Categorial Grammars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Makoto

    Learnability theory is an attempt to illuminate the concept of learnability using a mathematical model of learning. Two models of learning of categorial grammars are examined here: the standard model, in which sentences presented to the learner are flat strings of words, and one in which sentences are presented in the form of functor-argument…

  11. Language universals without universal categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croft, W.; van Lier, E.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors present their views on an article by author Sandra Chung related to lexical categories. According to them, Chung's article critiques an analysis of word classes in Chamorro by author Donald M. Topping. They discuss the restatements made by Chung on Topping's criteria for

  12. Auditory and phonetic category formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudbeek, Martijn; Cutler, A.; Smits, R.; Swingley, D.; Cohen, Henri; Lefebvre, Claire

    2017-01-01

    Among infants' first steps in language acquisition is learning the relevant contrasts of the language-specific phonemic repertoire. This learning is viewed as the formation of categories in a multidimensional psychophysical space. Research in the visual modality has shown that for adults, some kinds

  13. Situation of sources and management of organic matter in Alsace, perspectives of development of biogas production installations - Final report. Situation of organic matter sources and perspectives of methanization in Alsace - Synthesis. Call for projects 2016 methanization installations in Alsace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houillon, Gregory; Gambotti, Michel; Chabrier, Jean-Paul; L'Huillier, Marthe; Wolff, Virginie; Muller, Jonathan; Gintz, Christophe; Strehler, Jean-Francois; Monasson, Anne; Gartner, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at proposing answers to the issue of valorisation of organic matter, and of feasibility of development of a biogas production sector in Alsace. It addresses different sources of organic matter, except the wood energy sector. The study comprises an assessment of the present situation of the organic matter resource with respect to actors (agriculture, communities, industry). Different aspects are addressed: sector characterisation, regulation, resource assessment, resource mapping, existing processing sectors. It also comprises an assessment of additional resources related to the three types of actors, and then an assessment of the potential biogas production, a realistic assessment of potential biogas production according to resource availability and collection possibility criteria. Based on these elements, proposals are made for the development of methanization in Alsace

  14. Exploring the Feasibility of Using Silage-Based Feed with Alternative Sources of Protein in Organic Pig Rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth C. Clements

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Current regulations for organic pig and poultry production systems permit feed ingredients of non-organic origin at an inclusion rate of up to 5 per cent. This is primarily due to concerns that there is an insufficient supply of organic protein on the European Union market, in terms of quality and quantity, to meet the nutritional requirements of pigs and poultry raised on organic farms. However, 100 per cent organic diets for monogastric livestock will become compulsory in the EU from 1 January 2018, and there is therefore a need to develop sustainable feeding strategies based on organic feeds. This feed trial conducted in the UK explores the feasibility of using a silage-based feeding system for Gloucester Old Spot pigs, and compares the inclusion of soya, beans and peas as protein sources in terms of pig growth performance. No significant difference in the pen mean daily live weight gain was observed during the grower phase (pen mean age of 11-14 weeks between the diet groups. However, during the finisher phase (pen mean age of 15-22 weeks, pigs on the soya and pea rations had significantly faster growth rates than pigs fed the bean ration. It is speculated that the slight shortfall in growth rate observed in the pigs fed the bean ration may be offset by the lower cost of production of beans in the UK. This feasibility trial demonstrates that a 100 per cent organic diet for pigs using alternative, locally-grown sources of protein as part of a forage-based ration can provide a viable alternative to a soya-based diet.

  15. Communities with Source Separated Organics Programs, United States, 2015, EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains polygon features that represent communities with residential organics collection programs in the United States. EPA used US Census Bureau...

  16. Isotopic Constraints on the Sources and Associations of Organic Compounds in Marine Sediments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    White, Helen K

    2006-01-01

    .... The main objective has been to determine the significance of these associations, and to assess how they affect the transport, bioavailability, preservation and residence times of organic compounds in the environment...

  17. Penguin colonies as secondary sources of contamination with persistent organic pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosens, L.; Brink, van den N.W.; Riddle, M.; Blust, R.; Neels, H.; Covaci, A.

    2007-01-01

    Although long-range atmospheric transport has been described as the predominant mechanism for exposing polar regions to persistent organic pollutants (POPs), recent studies have suggested that bird activity can also contribute substantially to contaminant levels in some environments. However,

  18. Cooperation in carbon source degradation shapes spatial self-organization of microbial consortia on hydrated surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Tecon, Robin; Or, Dani

    2017-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that natural microbial communities exhibit a high level of spatial organization at the micrometric scale that facilitate ecological interactions and support biogeochemical cycles. Microbial patterns are difficult to study definitively in natural environments due to complex biodiversity, observability and variable physicochemical factors. Here, we examine how trophic dependencies give rise to self-organized spatial patterns of a well-defined bacterial consortium grow...

  19. Sources, fluxes, and behaviors of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) in the Nakdong River Estuary, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shin-Ah; Kim, Guebuem

    2018-02-01

    We monitored seasonal variations in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), the stable carbon isotope of DOC (δ13C-DOC), and fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) in water samples from a fixed station in the Nakdong River Estuary, Korea. Sampling was performed every hour during spring tide once a month from October 2014 to August 2015. The concentrations of DOC and humic-like FDOM showed significant negative correlations against salinity (r2 = 0.42-0.98, p ocean.

  20. Sources of N2O in organic grass-clover pastures

    OpenAIRE

    Ambus, P.

    2002-01-01

    Organic farming practises, and in particular dairy production systems based on grass-clover pastures are becoming increasingly abundant within Danish agriculture. Grass-clover pastures may provide a mitigation option to reduce grassland nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions (Velthof et al. 1998). The objectives of this work was to examine the relationship between N2O emissions and transformations of inorganic N in organically managed grass-clover pastures of different ages. Results from the projec...

  1. Effect of inoculation dosing on the composting of source-selected organic fraction of municipal solid wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Barrena Gómez, Raquel

    2006-01-01

    The effects of a commercial inoculum (MicroGest 10X, Brookside Agra L.C.) on the field-scale composting of the source-selected organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW) have been studied by following routine parameters of the composting process (temperature, oxygen content and moisture) and biologically-related tests such as the respirometric index and the maturity grade. The inoculum was added to composting piles of OFMSW at different levels: control (no added inoculum), treatment A...

  2. Source apportionment of secondary organic aerosol in China using a regional source-oriented chemical transport model and two emission inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Ying, Qi; Zhang, Hongliang; Hu, Jianlin; Lin, Yingchao; Mao, Hongjun

    2018-06-01

    A Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model with source-oriented lumped SAPRC-11 (S11L) photochemical mechanism and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) module was applied to determine the contributions of anthropogenic and biogenic sources to SOA concentrations in China. A one-year simulation of 2013 using the Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China (MEIC) shows that summer SOA are generally higher (10-15 μg m -3 ) due to large contributions of biogenic (country average 60%) and industrial sources (17%). In winter, SOA formation was mostly due to anthropogenic emissions from industries (40%) and residential sources (38%). Emissions from other countries in southeast China account for approximately 14% of the SOA in both summer and winter, and 46% in spring due to elevated open biomass burning in southeast Asia. The Regional Emission inventory in ASia v2.1 (REAS2) was applied in this study for January and August 2013. Two sets of simulations with the REAS2 inventory were conducted using two different methods to speciate total non-methane carbon into model species. One approach uses total non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions and representative speciation profiles from the SPECIATE database. The other approach retains the REAS2 speciated species that can be directly mapped to S11L model species and uses source specific splitting factors to map other REAS2 lumped NMHC species. Biogenic emissions are still the most significant contributor in summer based on these two sets of simulations. However, contributions from the transportation sector to SOA in January are predicted to be much more important based on the two REAS2 emission inventories (∼30-40% vs. ∼5% by MEIC), and contributions from residential sources according to REAS2 was much lower (∼21-24% vs. ∼42%). These discrepancies in source contributions to SOA need to be further investigated as the country seeks for optimal emission control strategies to fight severe air pollution. Copyright

  3. Distribution of organic carbon and petroleum source rock potential of Cretaceous and lower Tertiary carbonates, South Florida Basin: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacas, James George

    1978-01-01

    Analyses of 134 core samples from the South Florida Basin show that the carbonates of Comanchean age are relatively richer in average organic carbon (0.41 percent) than those of Coahuilan age (0.28 percent), Gulfian age (0.18 percent) and Paleocene age (0.20 percent). They are also nearly twice as rich as the average world, wide carbonate (average 0.24 percent). The majority of carbonates have organic carbons less than 0.30 percent but the presence of many relatively organic rich beds composed of highly bituminous, argillaceous, highly stylolitic, and algal-bearing limestones and dolomites accounts for the higher percentage of organic carbon in some of the stratigraphic units. Carbonate rocks that contain greater than 0.4 percent organic carbon and that might be considered as possible petroleum sources were noted in almost each subdivision of the Coahuilan and Comanchean Series but particularly the units of Fredericksburg 'B', Trinity 'A', Trinity 'F', and Upper Sunniland. Possible source rocks have been ascribed by others to the Lower Sunniland, but lack of sufficient samples precluded any firm assessment in this initial report. In the shallower section of the basin, organic-rich carbonates containing as much as 3.2 percent organic carbon were observed in the lowermost part of the Gulfian Series and carbonate rocks with oil staining or 'dead' and 'live oil' were noted by others in the uppermost Gulfian and upper Cedar Keys Formation. It is questionable whether these shallower rocks are of sufficient thermal maturity to have generated commercial oil. The South Florida basin is still sparsely drilled and produces only from the Sunniland Limestone at an average depth of 11,500 feet (3500 m). Because the Sunniland contains good reservoir rocks and apparently adequate source rocks, and because the success rate of new oil field discoveries has increased in recent years, the chances of finding additional oil reserves in the Sunniland are promising. Furthermore, the

  4. A study of fecal coliform sources at a coastal site using colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) as a water source tracer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Catherine D; O'Connor, Adam P; Foley, Denise M; de Bruyn, Warren J

    2007-09-01

    Optical properties of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) were measured as a tracer of polluted waters in a Southern California surf-zone with consistently high levels of fecal indicator bacteria. Salinity, temperature, fecal coliform, absorbance (200-700nm) and fluorescence (lambda(excitation)=350nm; lambda(emission)=360-650nm) were measured in the creek and surf-zone during a dry and rain event. Fluorescence to absorption ratios for CDOM were used to distinguish water masses, with two distinct CDOM end-members identified as creek (flu/abs=8.7+/-0.8x10(4)) and coastal (flu/abs=2.2+/-0.3x10(4)). Waters containing the same CDOM end-member had highly variable bacterial levels during the dry event, suggesting intermittent sources of bacteria added to a uniform water source, consistent with marine birds. During the rain event, increased levels of the creek end-member and bacteria indicated a second bacteria source from runoff.

  5. Impact of level and source of compost based organic material on the productivity of autumn maize (zea mays l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, S.; Khan, H.Z.; Ehsanullah, A.

    2014-01-01

    Organic manure from different sources could be an effective substitute of chemical fertilizers. Therefore, the present study compares the effect of varying level (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 t ha/sup -1/) of two types of compost, i.e poultry manure compost (PM compost) and press-mud compost (PrM compost) on the yield of maize. The experiment was conducted at Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan for two consecutive years 2011 and 2012. Results of this study revealed that all the levels and sources of compost based organic material had significant effect on the yield and yield parameters of autumn maize. Maximum plant height, cob diameter, cob length, cob weight, number of grain rows per cob, number of grains per cob, 1000-grain weight biological yield, grain yield and harvest index were produced by the application of 10 t ha/sup -1/ PM compost. Whereas, the number of cobs per plant was not significantly affected by level and source of compost based organic material. It was concluded that 10 t ha/sup -1/ PM compost could be used lucratively for optimizing maize yield. (author)

  6. Long-term chemical analysis and organic aerosol source apportionment at nine sites in central Europe: source identification and uncertainty assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daellenbach, Kaspar R.; Stefenelli, Giulia; Bozzetti, Carlo; Vlachou, Athanasia; Fermo, Paola; Gonzalez, Raquel; Piazzalunga, Andrea; Colombi, Cristina; Canonaco, Francesco; Hueglin, Christoph; Kasper-Giebl, Anne; Jaffrezo, Jean-Luc; Bianchi, Federico; Slowik, Jay G.; Baltensperger, Urs; El-Haddad, Imad; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2017-11-01

    Long-term monitoring of organic aerosol is important for epidemiological studies, validation of atmospheric models, and air quality management. In this study, we apply a recently developed filter-based offline methodology using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) to investigate the regional and seasonal differences of contributing organic aerosol sources. We present offline AMS measurements for particulate matter smaller than 10 µm at nine stations in central Europe with different exposure characteristics for the entire year of 2013 (819 samples). The focus of this study is a detailed source apportionment analysis (using positive matrix factorization, PMF) including in-depth assessment of the related uncertainties. Primary organic aerosol (POA) is separated in three components: hydrocarbon-like OA related to traffic emissions (HOA), cooking OA (COA), and biomass burning OA (BBOA). We observe enhanced production of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in summer, following the increase in biogenic emissions with temperature (summer oxygenated OA, SOOA). In addition, a SOA component was extracted that correlated with an anthropogenic secondary inorganic species that is dominant in winter (winter oxygenated OA, WOOA). A factor (sulfur-containing organic, SC-OA) explaining sulfur-containing fragments (CH3SO2+), which has an event-driven temporal behaviour, was also identified. The relative yearly average factor contributions range from 4 to 14 % for HOA, from 3 to 11 % for COA, from 11 to 59 % for BBOA, from 5 to 23 % for SC-OA, from 14 to 27 % for WOOA, and from 15 to 38 % for SOOA. The uncertainty of the relative average factor contribution lies between 2 and 12 % of OA. At the sites north of the alpine crest, the sum of HOA, COA, and BBOA (POA) contributes less to OA (POA / OA = 0.3) than at the southern alpine valley sites (0.6). BBOA is the main contributor to POA with 87 % in alpine valleys and 42 % north of the alpine crest. Furthermore, the influence of primary

  7. Utilization of Indonesia's Hot Spring Sources for Electricity using Kalina Cycle and Organic Rankine Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabumukti, Grano; Purwanto; Widodo, Wahyu

    2018-02-01

    Indonesia posses 40% of the world's geothermal energy sources. The existence of hydrothermal sources is usually characterized by their surface manifestations such as hot springs, geysers and fumarole. Hot spring has a potential to be used as a heat source to generate electricity especially in a rural and isolated area. Hot springs can be converted into electricity by binary thermodynamic cycles such as Kalina cycle and ORC. The aim of this study is to obtain the best performances of cycle configuration and the potential power capacity. Simulation is conducted using UNISIM software with working fluid and its operating condition as the decision variables. The simulation result shows that R1234yf and propene with simple ORC as desired working fluid and cycle configuration. It reaches a maximum thermal efficiency up to 9.6% with a specific turbine inlet pressure. Higher temperature heat source will result a higher thermal efficiency‥ Cycle thermal efficiency varies from 4.7% to 9.6% depends on source of hot spring temperature. Power capacity that can be generated using Indonesia's hot spring is ranged from 2 kWe to 61.2 kWe. The highest capacity located in Kawah Sirung and the least located in Kaendi.

  8. Chemical characterisation of atmospheric aerosols during a 2007 summer field campaign at Brasschaat, Belgium: sources and source processes of biogenic secondary organic aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Gómez-González

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of organic marker compounds and inorganic species were performed on PM2.5 aerosols from a Belgian forest site that is severely impacted by urban pollution ("De Inslag", Brasschaat, Belgium during a 2007 summer period within the framework of the "Formation mechanisms, marker compounds, and source apportionment for biogenic atmospheric aerosols (BIOSOL" project. The measured organic species included (i low-molecular weight (MW dicarboxylic acids (LMW DCAs, (ii methanesulfonate (MSA, (iii terpenoic acids originating from the oxidation of α-pinene, β-pinene, d-limonene and Δ3-carene, and (iv organosulfates related to secondary organic aerosol from the oxidation of isoprene and α-pinene. The organic tracers explained, on average, 5.3 % of the organic carbon (OC, of which 0.7 % was due to MSA, 3.4 % to LMW DCAs, 0.6 % to organosulfates, and 0.6 % to terpenoic acids. The highest atmospheric concentrations of most species were observed during the first five days of the campaign, which were characterised by maximum day-time temperatures >22 °C. Most of the terpenoic acids and the organosulfates peaked during day-time, consistent with their local photochemical origin. High concentrations of 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid (MBTCA and low concentrations of cis-pinonic acid were noted during the first five days of the campaign, indicative of an aged biogenic aerosol. Several correlations between organic species were very high (r>0.85, high (0.7<r<0.85, or substantial (0.5<r<0.7, suggesting that they are generated through similar formation pathways. Substantial correlations with temperature were found for OC, water-soluble OC, MBTCA, and several other organic species. MBTCA and terebic acid were highly correlated with the temperature (r>0.7 and showed an Arrhenius-type relationship, consistent with their formation through OH radical chemistry.

  9. Warming and organic matter sources impact the proportion of dissolved to total activities in marine extracellular enzymatic rates

    KAUST Repository

    Baltar, Federico

    2017-04-19

    Extracellular enzymatic activities (EEAs) are the rate-limiting step in the degradation of organic matter. Extracellular enzymes can be found associated to cells or dissolved in the surrounding water. The proportion of cell-free EEA constitutes in many marine environments more than half of the total activity. This high proportion causes an uncoupling between hydrolysis rates and the actual bacterial activity. However, we do not know what factors control the proportion of dissolved relative to total EEA, nor how this may change in the future ocean. To resolve this, we performed laboratory experiments with water from the Great Barrier Reef (Australia) to study the effects of temperature and dissolved organic matter sources on EEA and the proportion of dissolved EEA. We found that warming increases the rates of organic matter hydrolysis and reduces the proportion of dissolved relative to total EEA. This suggests a potential increase of the coupling between organic matter hydrolysis and heterotrophic activities with increasing ocean temperatures, although strongly dependent on the organic matter substrates available. Our study suggests that local differences in the organic matter composition in tropical coastal ecosystems will strongly affect the proportion of dissolved EEA in response to ocean warming.

  10. Disinfection byproduct formation in reverse-osmosis concentrated and lyophilized natural organic matter from a drinking water source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressman, Jonathan G; McCurry, Daniel L; Parvez, Shahid; Rice, Glenn E; Teuschler, Linda K; Miltner, Richard J; Speth, Thomas F

    2012-10-15

    Drinking water treatment and disinfection byproduct (DBP) research can be complicated by natural organic matter (NOM) temporal variability. NOM preservation by lyophilization (freeze-drying) has been long practiced to address this issue; however, its applicability for drinking water research has been limited because the selected NOM sources are atypical of most drinking water sources. The purpose of this research was to demonstrate that reconstituted NOM from a lyophilized reverse-osmosis (RO) concentrate of a typical drinking water source closely represents DBP formation in the original NOM. A preliminary experiment assessed DBP formation kinetics and yields in concentrated NOM, which demonstrated that chlorine decays faster in concentrate, in some cases leading to altered DBP speciation. Potential changes in NOM reactivity caused by lyophilization were evaluated by chlorination of lyophilized and reconstituted NOM, its parent RO concentrate, and the source water. Bromide lost during RO concentration was replaced by adding potassium bromide prior to chlorination. Although total measured DBP formation tended to decrease slightly and unidentified halogenated organic formation tended to increase slightly as a result of RO concentration, the changes associated with lyophilization were minor. In lyophilized NOM reconstituted back to source water TOC levels and then chlorinated, the concentrations of 19 of 21 measured DBPs, constituting 96% of the total identified DBP mass, were statistically indistinguishable from those in the chlorinated source water. Furthermore, the concentrations of 16 of 21 DBPs in lyophilized NOM reconstituted back to the RO concentrate TOC levels, constituting 86% DBP mass, were statistically indistinguishable from those in the RO concentrate. This study suggests that lyophilization can be used to preserve concentrated NOM without substantially altering the precursors to DBP formation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Grammatical Constructions as Relational Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwater, Micah B

    2017-07-01

    This paper argues that grammatical constructions, specifically argument structure constructions that determine the "who did what to whom" part of sentence meaning and how this meaning is expressed syntactically, can be considered a kind of relational category. That is, grammatical constructions are represented as the abstraction of the syntactic and semantic relations of the exemplar utterances that are expressed in that construction, and it enables the generation of novel exemplars. To support this argument, I review evidence that there are parallel behavioral patterns between how children learn relational categories generally and how they learn grammatical constructions specifically. Then, I discuss computational simulations of how grammatical constructions are abstracted from exemplar sentences using a domain-general relational cognitive architecture. Last, I review evidence from adult language processing that shows parallel behavioral patterns with expert behavior from other cognitive domains. After reviewing the evidence, I consider how to integrate this account with other theories of language development. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  12. A Formal Calculus for Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cáccamo, Mario José

    This dissertation studies the logic underlying category theory. In particular we present a formal calculus for reasoning about universal properties. The aim is to systematise judgements about functoriality and naturality central to categorical reasoning. The calculus is based on a language which...... extends the typed lambda calculus with new binders to represent universal constructions. The types of the languages are interpreted as locally small categories and the expressions represent functors. The logic supports a syntactic treatment of universality and duality. Contravariance requires a definition...... of universality generous enough to deal with functors of mixed variance. Ends generalise limits to cover these kinds of functors and moreover provide the basis for a very convenient algebraic manipulation of expressions. The equational theory of the lambda calculus is extended with new rules for the definitions...

  13. Seismic Category I Structures Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endebrock, E.G.; Dove, R.C.; Anderson, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    The Seismic Category I Structures Program currently being carried out at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is sponsored by the Mechanical/Structural Engineering Branch, Division of Engineering Technology of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This project is part of a program designed to increase confidence in the assessment of Category I nuclear power plant structural behavior beyond the design limit. The program involves the design, construction, and testing of heavily reinforced concrete models of auxiliary buildings, fuel-handling buildings, etc., but doe not include the reactor containment building. The overall goal of the program is to supply to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission experimental information and a validated procedure to establish the sensitivity of the dynamic response of these structures to earthquakes of magnitude beyond the design basis earthquake

  14. Different Categories of Business Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona-Valeria TOMA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Every business organisation involves some element of risk. Unmitigated risks can result in lost opportunity, financial losses, loss of reputation, or loss of the right to operate in a jurisdiction. Like any other risk type, understanding business risks is quite important for every business to garner profits instead of facing losses. A business risk is a universal risk type; this means that every business in the world faces business risks. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the different categories of business risk in order to create the appropriate strategies. The aim of this paper is to describe the most important categories of business risks and to make sure that every type of risk receives equal treatment and consideration.

  15. Effects of pre-treatment technologies on quantity and quality of source-sorted municipal organic waste for biogas recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine Lund; Jansen, J.l.C.; Davidsson, Å.

    2007-01-01

    , collection bag material (plastic or paper) and easily degradable organic matter. Furthermore, the particle size of the biomass was related to the pre-treatment technology. The content of plastic in the biomass depended both on the actual collection bag material used in the system and the pre......Source-sorted municipal organic waste collected from different dwelling types in five Danish cities and pre-treated at three different plants was sampled and characterized several times during one year to investigate the origin of any differences in composition of the pre-treated waste introduced...... by city, pre-treatment technology, dwelling type or annual season. The investigated pre-treatment technologies were screw press, disc screen and shredder + magnet. The average quantity of pre-treated organic waste (biomass) produced from the incoming waste varied between the investigated pre...

  16. Virtue Ethics: The Misleading Category

    OpenAIRE

    Martha Nussbaum

    1998-01-01

    Virtue ethics is frequently considered to be a single category of ethical theory, and a rival to Kantianismand Utilitarianism. I argue that this approach is a mistake, because both Kantians and Utilitarians can, and do, have an interest in the virtues and the forrnation of character. But even if we focus on the group of ethical theorists who are most commonly called "virtue theorists" because they reject the guidance of both Kantianism and Utilitarianism, and derive inspiration from ancient G...

  17. Virtue Ethics: The Misleading Category

    OpenAIRE

    Nussbaum, Martha

    2013-01-01

    Virtue ethics is frequently considered to be a single category of ethical theory, and a rival to Kantianismand Utilitarianism. I argue that this approach is a mistake, because both Kantians and Utilitarians can, and do, have an interest in the virtues and the forrnation of character. But even if we focus on the group of ethical theorists who are most commonly called "virtue theorists" because they reject the guidance of both Kantianism and Utilitarianism, and derive inspiration from ancient G...

  18. 1999 who's who category index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A classified index and alphabetical directory of Canadian corporate entities involved in the production, manufacturing, conversion, service, retail sales, research and development, transportation, insurance, legal and communications aspects of propane in Canada is provided. The alphabetical directory section provides the usual business information (name, postal address, phone, fax, e-mail and Internet addresses), names of principal officers, affiliations, products or services produced or marketed, and the category under which the company is listed in the classified index

  19. Organic Waste Composts, a Serious Rare- Earth Source as Determined by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sroor, A.; El-Bahi, S.M.; Abdel-Halieem, A.S.; Abdel-Sabour, M.F.

    1999-01-01

    Delayed Neutron Activation Analysis technique [DNNA] was applied for investigating rare-earth elements and some heavy metals content of some locally organic fertilizers namely cattle manure (CM) , dried sewage sludge [SS] , municipal solid waste [MSW] and mixture for a (SS+MSW). The γ-ray spectrum of each sample was investigated using a HPGe detector equipped with computer unit. Fourteen elements were determined. Some of them were confirmed by the γ-γ cascades using a HPGe-HPGe coincidence spectrometer. The concentration of these elements in each sample was measured in μg/g. Some of these elements may lead to undesirable environmental effects. The undiscriminating use of organic waste as organic fertilizers may result in the increase of toxic elements [Cr, Sc, Sb, Th, etc.) in soil environment which may transfer through food chain to human health

  20. Organic Geochemistry of the Cenomanian-Turonian Bahloul Formation Petroleum Source Rock, Central and Northern Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Affouri , Hassene; Montacer , Mabrouk; Disnar , Jean-Robert

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Total organic carbon (TOC) determination, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, extractable organic matter content (EOM) fractionation, gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses, were carried out on 79 samples from eleven outcrop cross sections of the Bahloul Formation in central and northern Tunisia. The TOC content varied between 0.23 to 35.6%, the highest average values (18.73%, 8.46% and 4.02%) being at the east of the study area (at Ain Zakk...

  1. Sources, Fate and Distribution of Organic Matter on the Western Adriatic Continental Shelf, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesi, Tommaso; Miserocchi, Stefano; Langone, Leonardo; Boni, Laurita; Guerrini, Franca

    2006-01-01

    In the framework of the EUROSTRATAFORM projects, a multidisciplinary research was focused on processes that involve transport and deposition of riverine material in the Adriatic Sea. The aim of our contribution was to increase a more complete understanding of organic matter deposition on the Adriatic shelf, also taking into account the role of Apennine rivers beyond the Po influence. In order to characterize origin, fate and variability of sedimentary organic carbon we utilized elemental and stable carbon isotope data in surficial sediments along shallow cross-shelf transects on the western Adriatic shelf

  2. Primary Nutritional Content of Bio-Flocs Cultured with Different Organic Carbon Sources and Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIE EKASARI

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Application of bio-flocs technology (BFT in aquaculture offers a solution to avoid environmental impact of high nutrient discharges and to reduce the use of artificial feed. In BFT, excess of nutrients in aquaculture systems are converted into microbial biomass, which can be consumed by the cultured animals as a food source. In this experiment, upconcentrated pond water obtained from the drum filter of a freshwater tilapia farm was used for bio-flocs reactors. Two carbon sources, sugar and glycerol, were used as the first variable, and two different levels of salinity, 0 and 30 ppt, were used as the second variable. Bio-flocs with glycerol as a carbon source had higher total n-6 PUFAs (19.1 ± 2.1 and 22.3 ± 8.6 mg/g DW at 0 and 30 ppt, respectively than that of glucose (4.0 ± 0.1 and 12.6 ± 2.5 mg/g DW at 0 and 30 ppt. However, there was no effect of carbon source or salinity on crude protein, lipid, and total n-3 PUFAs contents of the bio-flocs.

  3. The Universal Primer - An open source solution for archiving, organizing and streaming live lectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Marc Juul; Panton, Hans Christian Hansen; Krajowski-Kukiel, Maciej

    2011-01-01

    . The goal of the Universal Primer is to address these problems, and allow anyone, anywhere, to teach or learn anything that can be reasonably taught or learned through a computer. The Universal Primer is 1: A fully open source solution for streaming live lectures. And 2: A Wikipedia-like website...

  4. Lyophilization and Reconstitution of Reverse-Osmosis Concentrated Natural Organic Matter from a Drinking Water Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disinfection by-product (DBP) research can be complicated by difficulties in shipping large water quantities and changing natural organic matter (NOM) characteristics over time. To overcome these issues, it is advantageous to have a reliable method for concentrating NOM with min...

  5. Exploring an innovation project as source of change in organization design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Jacob; Peters, Lois S.

    2015-01-01

    This study builds new empirically based theory on how the processing of an innovation project with a high degree of uncertainty induces change in key components in organization design. By using an embedded case study as our research strategy and organisation design theory as our analytical lens, we...

  6. Organic Aerosol Composition and Sources in Pasadena, California during the 2010 CalNex Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic aerosols (OA) in Pasadena are characterized using multiple measurements from the California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) campaign. Five OA components are identified using positive matrix factorization including hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) ...

  7. Municipal Compost as a Nutrient Source for Organic Crop Production in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abie Horrocks

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available About 1% of New Zealand farmland is managed organically. Nitrogen is the nutrient most likely to limit organic crop production. A potential solution is incorporation of compost to supply N. About 726,000 t of municipal garden and kitchen wastes are sent to landfills annually. Composting offers a means of reducing the impact of landfill wastes on the wider environment. Organically certified compost (N content typically 2% to 2.5% is available from some municipal composting plants. To be effectively used on organic farms, the rate of N release (mineralization must be known. Laboratory incubations were conducted to quantify mineralization of compost N under controlled (temperature and moisture conditions. Nitrogen availability and crop yields from a one-off application of compost (25–100 t·ha−1 were also assessed in two field trials (using cereal and forage crops. The results suggested that a relatively small part (13%–23% of compost N was used by the crops in 3–4 years. Much of this was mineral N present at the time of application. Mineralization rates in the laboratory and field studies were much lower than expected from published work or compost C:N ratio (considered an important indicator of N mineralization potential of composts.

  8. The contribution of fossil sources to the organic aerosol in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dusek, U.; ten Brink, H. M.; Meijer, H. A. J.; Kos, G.; Mrozek, D.; Rockmann, T.; Holzinger, R.; Weijers, E. P.; Röckmann, T.

    We measured the radiocarbon (C-14) content of organic carbon (OC) samples from two locations in the Netherlands, the urban location of Amsterdam and the coastal location of Petten. PM10 samples were collected in Amsterdam and total suspended particles were collected in Petten using high volume

  9. Submicron organic aerosol in Tijuana, Mexico, from local and Southern California sources during the CalMex campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahama, S.; Johnson, A.; Guzman Morales, J.; Russell, L. M.; Duran, R.; Rodriguez, G.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, R.; Toom-Sauntry, D.; Leaitch, W. R.

    2013-05-01

    The CalMex campaign was conducted from May 15 to June 30 of 2010 to study the properties and sources of air pollution in Tijuana, Mexico. In this study, submicron organic aerosol mass (OM) composition measured by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM), and X-ray spectromicroscopy are combined with statistical analysis and measurements of other atmospheric constituents. The average (±one standard deviation) OM concentration was 3.3 ± 1.7 μg m-3. A large source of submicron aerosol mass at this location was determined to be vehicular sources, which contributed approximately 40% to the submicron OM; largely during weekday mornings. The O/C ratio estimated from ACSM measurements was 0.64 ± 0.19; diurnal variations in this value and the more oxygenated fraction of OM as determined from Positive Matrix Factorization and classification analyses suggest the high degree of oxygenation originates from aged OM, rather than locally-produced secondary organic aerosol. A large contribution of this oxygenated aerosol to Tijuana from various source classes was observed; some fraction of this aerosol mass may be associated with non-refractory components, such as dust or BC. Backtrajectory simulations using the HYSPLIT model suggest that the mean wind vector consistently originated from the northwest region, over the Pacific Ocean and near the Southern California coast, which suggests that the origin of much of the oxygenated organic aerosol observed in Tijuana (as much as 60% of OM) may have been the Southern California Air Basin. The marine aerosol contribution to OM during the period was on average 23 ± 24%, though its contribution varied over synoptic rather than diurnal timescales. BB aerosol contributed 20 ± 20% of the OM during the campaign period, with notable BB events occurring during several weekend evenings.

  10. Organic Carbon Sources and their Transfer in a Gulf of Mexico Coral Reef Ecosystem under River Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, C.; Carreón-Palau, L.; del Ángel-Rodríguez, J.; Perez-Espana, H.; Aguiniga-Garcıa, S.

    2016-02-01

    To assess the degree to which coral reefs in a marine protected area have been influenced by terrestrial and anthropogenic organic carbon inputs we used C and N stable isotopes and lipid biomarkers in the Coral Reef System of Veracruz in the southwest Gulf of Mexico. A C and N stable isotope mixing model and a calculated fatty acid (FA) retention factor revealed the primary producer sources that fuel the coral reef food web. Then lipid classes, FA and sterol biomarkers determined production of terrestrial and marine biogenic material of nutritional quality to pelagic and benthic organisms. Finally, coprostanol determined pollutant loading from sewage in the suspended particulate matter. Results indicate that phytoplankton is the major source of essential FA for fish and that dietary energy from terrestrial sources such as mangroves are transferred to juvenile fish, while sea grass non-essential FA are transferred to the entire food web. Sea urchins may be the main consumers of brown macroalgae, while surgeon fish prefer red algae. C and N isotopic values and the C:N ratio suggest that fertilizer is the principal source of nitrogen to macroalgae. Thus nitrogen supply also favored phytoplankton and sea grass growth leading to a better nutritional condition and high retention of organic carbon in the food web members during the rainy season when river influence increases. However, the great star coral Montastrea cavernosa nutritional condition decreased significantly. The nearest river to the Reef System was polluted in the dry season; however, a dilution effect was detected in the rainy season, when some coral reefs were contaminated. In 2013, a new treatment plant started working in the area. We would suggest monitoring δ15N and the C: N ratio in macroalgae as indicators of the nitrogen input and coprostanol as an indicator of human feces pollution in order to verify the efficiency of the new treatment plant as part of the management program of the Reef System.

  11. [Absorption and fluorescence characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in rainwater and sources analysis in summer and winter season].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jian; Jiang, Tao; WeiI, Shi-Qiang; Lu, Song; Yan, Jin-Long; Wang, Qi-Lei; Gao, Jie

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the variability of the optical properties including UV-Vis and fluorescence characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from rainwater in summer and winter seasons. UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy, together with Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model and fire events map, were conducted to characterize DOM and investigate its sources and contributions. The results showed that as compared with aquatic and soil DOM, rainwater DOM showed similar spectral characteristics, suggesting DOM in precipitation was also an important contributor to DOM pool in terrestrial and aquatic systems. The concentrations of DOC in rainwater were 0.88-12.80 mg x L(-1), and the CDOM concentrations were 3.17-21.11 mg x L(-1). Differences of DOM samples between summer and winter were significant (P summer, DOM samples in winter had lower molecular weight and aromaticity, and also lower humification. Input of DOM in winter was predominantly derived from local and short-distance distances, while non-special scattering sources were identified as the main contributors in summer. Although absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy could be used to identify DOM composition and sources, there were obvious differences in spectra and sources analysis between rainwater DOM and the others from other sources. Thus, the classic differentiation method by "allochthonous (terrigenous) and autochthonous (authigenic)" is possibly too simple and arbitrary for characterization of DOM in rainwater.

  12. The Influence of the Heat Source Temperature on the Multivane Expander Output Power in an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kolasiński

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC power systems are nowadays an option for local and domestic cogeneration of heat and electric power. Very interesting are micropower systems for heat recovery from low potential (40–90 °C waste and renewable heat sources. Designing an ORC system dedicated to heat recovery from such a source is very difficult. Most important problems are connected with the selection of a suitable expander. Volumetric machines, such as scroll and screw expanders, are adopted as turbine alternative in small-power ORC systems. However, these machines are complicated and expensive. Vane expanders on the other hand are simple and cheap. This paper presents a theoretical and experimental analysis of the operation of a micro-ORC rotary vane expander under variable heat source temperature conditions. The main objective of this research was therefore a comprehensive analysis of relation between the vane expander output power and the heat source temperature. A series of experiments was performed using the micropower ORC test-stand. Results of these experiments are presented here, together with a mathematical description of multivane expanders. The analysis presented in this paper indicates that the output power of multivane expanders depend on the heat source temperature, and that multivane expanders are cheap alternatives to other expanders proposed for micropower ORC systems.

  13. Organic matter compounds as source indicators and tracers for marine pollution in a western Mediterranean coastal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorri, Jalila; Geffroy-Rodier, Claude; Boufahja, Fehmi; Mahmoudi, Ezzeddine; Aïssa, Patricia; Ksibi, Mohamed; Amblès, André

    2011-11-01

    Complex organic compounds found in oil and sediments linked with a particular source (such as algae, bacteria or vascular plants) are defined as biomarkers and are useful dating indicators in organic geochemistry. This paper presents the composition of the organic matter (OM) on marine surface sediments from a degraded Tunisian coast analysed by pyrolysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). High total OM contents (0.3-4.2%) were detected with high levels of saturated linear hydrocarbons. The aliphatic lipids had contributed with up to 11.7% of the total OM, and their distribution had consisted of resolved compounds (n-alkanes and fatty acid (FAs)) and an unresolved complex mixture. Hydrocarbons, primarily n-alkanes, were ranged from 368 to 3,886 μg g(-1). The FAs (674-2,568 μg g(-1)) were dominated by derived primary production, and the short chain FAs (C16 and C18) were the most abundant throughout. The ubiquitous presence of petroleum contamination, mainly from offshore oil exploration, discharge of pollutants from rivers, shipping activities and atmospheric deposition was found in all samples. The Gabès littoral seems to be quite to very polluted near the industrial zone of Ghannouch. The C/H ratio (generally around 5.9), the thermal analysis and GC-MS of n-alkanes and FAs showed that the OM in the studied area was composed of anthropogenic/petrogenic, marine and continental sources. Our study represents an innovative approach to assessing environmental pollution. The evaluation of organic matter by examination of sterols, alkanes and fatty acids allows the identification of source, both anthropogenic and natural.

  14. Organic aerosol source apportionment in London 2013 with ME-2: exploring the solution space with annual and seasonal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Reyes-Villegas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The multilinear engine (ME-2 factorization tool is being widely used following the recent development of the Source Finder (SoFi interface at the Paul Scherrer Institute. However, the success of this tool, when using the a value approach, largely depends on the inputs (i.e. target profiles applied as well as the experience of the user. A strategy to explore the solution space is proposed, in which the solution that best describes the organic aerosol (OA sources is determined according to the systematic application of predefined statistical tests. This includes trilinear regression, which proves to be a useful tool for comparing different ME-2 solutions. Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM measurements were carried out at the urban background site of North Kensington, London from March to December 2013, where for the first time the behaviour of OA sources and their possible environmental implications were studied using an ACSM. Five OA sources were identified: biomass burning OA (BBOA, hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, cooking OA (COA, semivolatile oxygenated OA (SVOOA and low-volatility oxygenated OA (LVOOA. ME-2 analysis of the seasonal data sets (spring, summer and autumn showed a higher variability in the OA sources that was not detected in the combined March–December data set; this variability was explored with the triangle plots f44 : f43 f44 : f60, in which a high variation of SVOOA relative to LVOOA was observed in the f44 : f43 analysis. Hence, it was possible to conclude that, when performing source apportionment to long-term measurements, important information may be lost and this analysis should be done to short periods of time, such as seasonally. Further analysis on the atmospheric implications of these OA sources was carried out, identifying evidence of the possible contribution of heavy-duty diesel vehicles to air pollution during weekdays compared to those fuelled by petrol.

  15. Chemical speciation and source apportionment of Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds (NMVOCs) in a Middle Eastern country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salameh, Therese; Sauvage, Stéphane; Afif, Charbel; Borbon, Agnès; Locoge, Nadine

    2014-05-01

    NMVOCs, emitted from various sources, are of particular interest since they contribute to the formation of tropospheric ozone, PAN and secondary organic aerosols resulting in negative impacts on human health, climate and on the environment. To identify abatement measures, a profound knowledge of emission sources and their composition is a prerequisite. Air pollution in the Middle East region remains difficult to assess and understand because of a lack of ground-based measurements and the limited information on NMVOC chemical speciation and source apportionment. Based on a large database of NMVOC observations obtained in Beirut, the capital of Lebanon (a developing country in the Middle East region, located in Western Asia on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea), the overall objective of this work is to apportion the sources of NMVOCs encountered in Lebanon. First, source profiles were determined with field measurements close to the main potential emitters namely the road transport, gasoline vapour, power generation and solvent uses. The results obtained are compared to other studies held in other regions and are used to assess the emission inventory developed for Lebanon. Secondly, two intensive field campaigns were held in a receptor site in Beirut during summer 2011 and winter 2012 in order to obtain a large time resolved dataset. The PMF analysis of this dataset was applied to apportion anthropogenic sources in this area. In both seasons, combustion (road transport and power generation) and gasoline evaporation, especially in winter, were the main sources contributing to the NMVOCs in Beirut. The results will support model implementation especially by completing the emission inventory established for the year 2010 by Waked et al. 2012 according to the EEA/EMEP guidelines because of the lack of Lebanon-specific emission factor.

  16. Source and composition of surface water dissolved organic matter (DOM) and the effect of flood events on the organic matter cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondar-Kunze, Elisabeth; Welti, Nina; Tritthart, Michael; Baker, Andrew; Pinay, Gilles; Hein, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Floodplains are often simultaneously affected by land use change, river regulation and loss of hydrological dynamics which alter the surface water connectivity between floodplain and river main channel. These alterations can have significant impacts on the sources of organic matter and their degradation and thus, the carbon cycling of riverine landscapes. Although floodplains are known to be important sources of dissolved organic matter (DOM) within watersheds, reduced hydrological connectivity impair their role. The key questions of our research were to determine i) to what extent the degree of connection between the Danube River and its floodplain controlled the DOM composition with its backwater systems, and ii) what were the effects of the DOM changes on carbon cycling in floodplains during two flood events with different magnitude? In this study we report on the variations in DOM spectrophotometric properties of surface waters in different connected floodplain areas and during two flood events of different magnitude in a section of the Alluvial Zone National Park of the Danube River downstream Vienna, Austria. Two backwater floodplain systems were studied, one backwater system mostly disconnected from the fluvial dynamics except during high flood events (Lower Lobau) and the second one, recently restored and connected even during mean flow conditions (Orth). Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectrophotometry and water chemical analyses were applied to investigate the DOM dynamics. In both backwater systems 15 sites were sampled monthly for two years and every second day during a flood event.

  17. Using single-chamber microbial fuel cells as renewable power sources of electro-Fenton reactors for organic pollutant treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xiuping; Logan, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new type of electro-Fenton system was developed for wastewater treatment. ► Degradation efficiency of organic pollutants was substantially improved. ► Operation cost was greatly reduced compared to other microbial fuel cell designs. -- Abstract: Electro-Fenton reactions can be very effective for organic pollutant degradation, but they typically require non-sustainable electrical power to produce hydrogen peroxide. Two-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have been proposed for pollutant treatment using Fenton-based reactions, but these types of MFCs have low power densities and require expensive membranes. Here, more efficient dual reactor systems were developed using a single-chamber MFC as a low-voltage power source to simultaneously accomplish H 2 O 2 generation and Fe 2+ release for the Fenton reaction. In tests using phenol, 75 ± 2% of the total organic carbon (TOC) was removed in the electro-Fenton reactor in one cycle (22 h), and phenol was completely degraded to simple and readily biodegradable organic acids. Compared to previously developed systems based on two-chamber MFCs, the degradation efficiency of organic pollutants was substantially improved. These results demonstrate that this system is an energy-efficient and cost-effective approach for industrial wastewater treatment of certain pollutants

  18. Fighting organized crime through open source intelligence: regulatory strategies of the CAPER Project

    OpenAIRE

    Casanovas, Pompeu

    2014-01-01

    OSINT stands for Open Source Intelligence. The CAPER project has built an OSINT solution oriented to the prevention of organised crime. We offer in this paper an overall view of some results, embedding into the system legal and ethical issues raised by the General Data Reform Package (GDRP) in Europe. We briefly describe CAPER architecture, workflow, functionalities, modules and ontologies (European LEAs Interoperability ELIO, and Multi-Lingual Crime Ontology MCO). This paper is focused on th...

  19. Non double couple seismic sources, faults interaction and hypothesis of self-organized criticality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yunga

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Non double couple (NDC sources are considered in framework of the hypothesis that the process of seismic rupture can be viewed as a result of complicated fault geometry and its segmentation. Analytical approach is found to reveal reliability of NDC measure taking into consideration the values of seismic moment tensor errors. The study focuses on the comparison of the deformation modes of the NDC sources with the stress states in its vicinity. The deformation modes of faulting and fracturing at a small scale in NDC earthquake focus and at regional scale in geological unit were investigated using at the last case summation of seismic moment tensors. These local and regional deformation modes in some of geodynamic regimes confirm the self-similarity assumption. For the whole data set scaling relations seem to be more complicated. This feature implies that besides stresses second order factors, as the hydrothermal or magmatic pore fluids in rock, influence source characteristics and bring new complications in scaling relations.

  20. [Effects of organic and inorganic fertilizers on emission and sources of N2O in vegetable soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei; Ding, Jun Jun; Li, Yu Zhong; Xu, Chun Ying; Li, Qiao Zhen; Zheng, Qian; Zhuang, Shan

    2018-05-01

    To clarify the microbial pathway of the N 2 O production and consumption under different fertilizers and provide theoretical basis for the reduction of N 2 O emission and rational management of fertilization in vegetable soils, we examined dynamics of N 2 O flux and isotope signatures under different fertilizer treatments in the vegetable soils of Beijing, by setting up four treatments (organic-acetylene, organic-nonacetylene, inorganic-acetylene, inorganic-nonacetylene) and using the stable isotope technique of natural N 2 O abundance. The results showed that the cumulative N 2 O emission from organic-acetylene group, organic-nonacetylene group, inorganic-acetylene group and inorganic-nonacetylene group was (374±37), (283±34), (458±36), (355±41) g·m -2 in cabbage growing season, respectively. N 2 O fluxes were significantly lower in treatments with organic fertilizer than those with inorganic fertilizer and significantly higher in acetylene group than nonacetylene group. The degree of N 2 O reduction were similar in both fertilizer treatments, and higher nitrification was found in inorganic fertilizer than organic fertilizer treatments. Acetylene only inhibited partial nitrification and partial N 2 O reduction at the peak of N 2 O emission. When the emission was reduced, N 2 O reduction could be completely suppressed. Therefore, the inorganic fertilizer might trigger nitrification and promote higher N 2 O emission. The high concentration of N 2 O could withstand that acetylene to inhibite N 2 O reduction. Hence, using organic fertilizers instead of some inorganic ones could effectively reduce N 2 O emission in vegetable soils of Beijing. The N 2 O concentration threshold should be considered when we identify N 2 O source by acetylene inhibition method.

  1. Assessment of secondary sources of Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisso, Ignacio; Eckhardt, Sabine; Breivik, Knut

    2014-05-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including highly toxic pesticides and other chemicals accumulate in living tissues and magnify in food chains. POPs are subject to long-range transport and hence represent a serious public health issue even in regions where their production is regulated. Rational control strategies require an understanding of the overall relationship between environmental emissions of contaminants and environmental / human exposure. In this study, we assess the relationships between environmental emissions and potential human exposure of organic contaminants with emphasis on long-range atmospheric transport. We investigate whether atmospheric levels of POPs measured at Zeppelin observatory in Svalbard since the early '90s are controlled by primary or secondary emissions. We present statistical indications that the measurements are affected by secondary ocean emissions and discuss the applicability of different inverse modeling approaches.

  2. Photothermal Activation of Metal-Organic Frameworks Using a UV-Vis Light Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espín, Jordi; Garzón-Tovar, Luis; Carné-Sánchez, Arnau; Imaz, Inhar; Maspoch, Daniel

    2018-03-21

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) usually require meticulous removal of the solvent molecules to unlock their potential porosity. Herein, we report a novel one-step method for activating MOFs based on the photothermal effect induced by directly irradiating them with a UV-vis lamp. The localized light-to-heat conversion produced in the MOF crystals upon irradiation enables a very fast solvent removal, thereby significantly reducing the activation time to as low as 30 min and suppressing the need for time-consuming solvent-exchange procedures and vacuum conditions. This approach is successful for a broad range of MOFs, including HKUST-1, UiO-66-NH 2 , ZIF-67, CPO-27-M (M = Zn, Ni, and Mg), Fe-MIL-101-NH 2 , and IRMOF-3, all of which exhibit absorption bands in the light emission range. In addition, we anticipate that this photothermal activation can also be used to activate covalent organic frameworks (COFs).

  3. A Review of Organic Photovoltaic Energy Source and Its Technological Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egidius Rutatizibwa Rwenyagila

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews and describes some of the existing research and mechanisms of operation of organic photovoltaic (OPV cells. Introduced first are problems that exist with traditional fossil fuels that result in most of the world energy challenges such as environmental pollution. This is followed by the description of baseline organic solar cell (OSC structures and materials. Then, some of the existing modelling approaches that have implemented either a one- or a two-dimensional drift-diffusion model to examine OSC structures are reviewed, and their reproducibility is examined. Both experimental and modelling approaches reviewed are particularly important for more and better designed research to probe practical procedural problems associated with OSCs that hinder the commercialization of OPV technology.

  4. The identification of Volatile Organic Compound's emission sources in indoor air of living spaces, offices and laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kultys, Beata

    2018-01-01

    Indoor air quality is important because people spend most of their time in closed rooms. If volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are present at elevated concentrations, they may cause a deterioration in human well-being or health. The identification of indoor emission sources is carried out by comparison indoor and outdoor air composition. The aim of the study was to determinate the concentration of VOCs in indoor air, where there was a risk of elevated levels due to the kind of work type carried out or the users complained about the symptoms of a sick building followed by an appropriate interpretation of the results to determine whether the source of the emission in the tested room occurs. The air from residential, office and laboratory was tested in this study. The identification of emission sources was based on comparison of indoor and outdoor VOCs concentration and their correlation coefficients. The concentration of VOCs in all the rooms were higher or at a similar level to that of the air sampled at the same time outside the building. Human activity, in particular repair works and experiments with organic solvents, has the greatest impact on deterioration of air quality.

  5. Compositions, sources and depositional environments of organic matter from the Middle Jurassic clays of Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marynowski, Leszek; Zaton, Michal; Simoneit, Bernd R.T.; Otto, Angelika; Jedrysek, Mariusz O.; Grelowski, Cezary; Kurkiewicz, Slawomir

    2007-01-01

    The comprehensive biomarker characteristics from previously undescribed Middle Jurassic clays of Poland are presented. The molecular composition of the organic matter (OM) derived from clays of Aalenian to Callovian age has not changed significantly through time. High relative concentrations of many biomarkers typical for terrestrial material suggest a distinct dominance of OM derived from land plants. Increasing concentrations of C 29 -diaster-13(17)-enes towards the northern part of the basin indicate an increase in terrestrial input. This terrestrial material would have originated from the enhanced transport of organic matter from land situated at the northern bank of the basin, i.e., the Fennoscandian Shield. The organic matter was deposited in an oxic to suboxic environment, as indicated by relatively low concentrations of C 33 -C 35 homohopanes, moderate to high Pr/Ph ratio values, an absence of compounds characteristic for anoxia and water column stratification, such as isorenieratane, aryl isoprenoids and gammacerane, as well as common benthic fauna and burrows. δ 18 O measurements from calcitic rostra of belemnites suggest that the mean value of the Middle Jurassic sea-water temperature of the Polish Basin was 13.1 deg. C. It is suggested that this mirrored the temperature of the lower water column because belemnites are considered here to be necto-benthic. The organic matter from the Middle Jurassic basin of Poland is immature. This is clearly indicated by a large concentration of biomarkers with the biogenic configurations, such as ββ-hopanes, hop-13(18)-enes, hop-17(21)-enes, diasterenes and sterenes. The identification of preserved, unaltered biomolecules like ferruginol, 6,7-dehydroferruginol and sugiol in Protopodocarpoxylon wood samples from these sediments present particularly strong evidence for the presence of immature OM in the Middle Jurassic sediments. Moreover, the occurrence of these polar diterpenoids is important due to the fact that

  6. The profile of Brazilian agriculture as source of raw material to obtain organic cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neila de Paula Pereira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available With one of the most notable floras in the world for sustainable research, the Brazilian Amazon region currently counts on financial incentives from the Brazilian Government for private national and foreign businesses. The ongoing implantation of a Biocosmetics Research and Development Network (REDEBIO aims to stimulate research involving natural resources from the Brazilian states that make up the zone defined as “Amazônia Legal”. The objective of this region, still under development in Brazil, is principally to aggregate value to products manufactured in small local industries through the use of sustainable technology currently being established. Certain certified raw materials already included in the country’s sustainability program, have also begun to be cultivated according to the requirements of organic cultivation (Neves, 2009. The majority are species of Amazonian vegetation: Euterpe oleracea (Açai, Orbignya martiana (Babaçu, Theobroma grandi-florum (Cupuaçu, Carapas guianensis (Andiroba, Pentaclethra macroloba (Pracaxi, Copaifera landesdorffi (Copaiba, Platonia insignis (Bacuri, Theobroma cacao (Cacao, Virola surinamensis (Ucuuba and Bertholletia excelsa (Brazil nut. These generate phytopreparations, such as oils, extracts, and dyes that are widely used in the manufacture of Brazilian organic cosmetics with scientifically proven topical and capillary benefits. In the final balance, Brazilian organic cosmetics should continue to gain force over the next few years, especially with the regulation of the organic cosmetics market that is being drafted by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture. Moreover, lines of ecologically aware products that provide quality of life for both for rural and metropolitan communities show a tendency to occupy greater space in the market.

  7. Volatile organic compounds in alpine valleys: sources, evolutions and transformations; Les composes organiques volatils dans les vallees alpines: sources, evolutions et transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colomb, A.

    2002-12-01

    Dynamic and chemical specificity in alpine valleys was the principal goal during the POVA project (Pollution des Vallees Alpines). Volatile Organic Compounds emissions in troposphere have important impacts on animal lives and environment. Then, the aim of this work was the improvement of the biogenic or anthropogenic VOC sources determination, of VOC transformation and evolution in mountain areas. During this project, the realisation of a daily continuous measurements campaign of a few chemical compounds allowed the understanding of the seasonal variations of these compounds. The goals of intensive field campaigns, realised in August 2000 and January 2001, were to understand photochemical process in a temporal and geographic small scale and to follow diurnal variation of different pollutants in summer and winter. Moreover, the VOC data would be used to develop and validate coupled atmospheric dynamic/chemical model. Therefore, these VOC measures give answer to two lacks of knowledge in alpine valleys about: - Biogenic and anthropogenic VOC respective part, and their main sources, - VOC photochemical reactions in alpine valleys, according to seasonal and diurnal cycles. Finally, we presented two atypical days results, in Maurienne valley during a Saharan episode in August 2000. This episode permitted to understand mass air transport mechanism in mountain region. (author)

  8. Digest of current research in the electric-utility industry. Volume 1. Categories 1-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, K.; Bates, P.; Berkey, R.; Gray, K.; Kindt, C.; O'Gara, M.; Pakulski, R.

    1980-01-01

    The major objective of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is to be a prime source of information of R and D activities in the field of electric energy. Therefore, EPRI developed the Research and Development Information System (RDIS) which is a computerized data base of research projects sponsored by EPRI and by individual electric utilities throughout the US. The heart of RDIS is a computerized on-line data base containing approximately 7200 records of R and D projects. The data base is organized into 13 major categories: General R and D support, hydroelectric power, nuclear power, fossil fuels, advanced power systems, transmission, distribution, stations and substations, consumer utilization, economics, personnel, area development, and environmental assessment. This issue of the Digest of Current Research, issued annually and published in two volumes, represents the data base as of August 1980. This volume covers categories 1 through 5. Subject and corporate indexes are included

  9. Digest of current research in the electric-utility industry. Volume 2. Categories 6-13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, K.; Bates, P.; Berkey, R.; Gray, K.; Kindt, C.; O'Gara, M.; Pakulski, R.

    1980-01-01

    The major objective of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is to be a prime source of information of R and D activities in the field of electric energy. Therefore, EPRI developed the Research and Development Information System (RDIS) which is a computerized data base of research projects sponsored by EPRI and by individual electric utilities throughout the US. The heart of RDIS is a computerized on-line data base containing approximately 7200 records of R and D projects. The data base is organized into 13 major categories: General R and D Support, hydroelectric power, nuclear power, fossil fuels, advanced power systems, transmission, distribution, stations and substations, consumer utilization, economics, personnel, area development, and environmental assessment. This issue of the Digest of Current Research, issued annually and published in two volumes represents the data base as of August 1980. This volume covers categories 6 through 13. Subject and corporate indexes are included

  10. The organic agricultural waste as a basic source of biohydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwuryandari, Lies; Priantoro, E. Agung; Sintawardani, Neni; Astuti, J. Tri; Nilawati, Dewi; Putri, A. Mauliva Hada; Mamat, Sentana, Suharwadji; Sembiring, T.

    2016-02-01

    Biohydrogen production research was carried out using raw materials of agricultural organic waste that was obtained from markets around the Bandung city. The organic part, which consisted of agricultural waste material, mainly fruit and vegetable waste, was crushed and milled using blender. The sludge that produced from milling process was then used as a substrate for mixed culture microorganism as a raw material to produce biohydrogen. As much as 1.2 kg.day-1 of sludge (4% of total solid) was fed into bioreactor that had a capacity of 30L. Experiment was done under anaerobic fermentation using bacteria mixture culture that maintained at pH in the range of 5.6-6.5 and temperature of 25-30oC on semi-continuous mode. Parameters of analysis include pH, temperature, total solid (TS), organic total solid (OTS), total gas production, and hydrogen gas production. The results showed that from 4% of substrate resulted 897.86 L of total gas, which contained 660.74 L (73.59%) of hydrogen gas. The rate of hydrogen production in this study was 11,063 mol.L-1.h-1.

  11. Cooperation in carbon source degradation shapes spatial self-organization of microbial consortia on hydrated surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecon, Robin; Or, Dani

    2017-03-06

    Mounting evidence suggests that natural microbial communities exhibit a high level of spatial organization at the micrometric scale that facilitate ecological interactions and support biogeochemical cycles. Microbial patterns are difficult to study definitively in natural environments due to complex biodiversity, observability and variable physicochemical factors. Here, we examine how trophic dependencies give rise to self-organized spatial patterns of a well-defined bacterial consortium grown on hydrated surfaces. The model consortium consisted of two Pseudomonas putida mutant strains that can fully degrade the aromatic hydrocarbon toluene. We demonstrated that obligate cooperation in toluene degradation (cooperative mutualism) favored convergence of 1:1 partner ratio and strong intermixing at the microscale (10-100 μm). In contrast, competition for benzoate, a compound degraded independently by both strains, led to distinct segregation patterns. Emergence of a persistent spatial pattern has been predicted for surface attached microbial activity in liquid films that mediate diffusive exchanges while permitting limited cell movement (colony expansion). This study of a simple microbial consortium offers mechanistic glimpses into the rules governing the assembly and functioning of complex sessile communities, and points to general principles of spatial organization with potential applications for natural and engineered microbial systems.

  12. Behavior of oxyfluorfen in soils amended with different sources of organic matter. Effects on soil biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Isidoro; Rodríguez-Morgado, Bruno; Parrado, Juan; García, Carlos; Hernández, Teresa; Tejada, Manuel

    2014-05-30

    We performed a laboratory study on the effect of oxyfluorfen at a rate of 4lha(-1) on biological properties of a soil amended with four organic wastes (two biostimulants/biofertilizers, obtained from rice bran, RB1 and RB2; municipal solid waste, MSW; and sheep manure, SM). Soil was mixed with SM at a rate of 1%, MSW at a rate of 0.52%, RB1 at a rate of 0.39% and RB2 at a rate of 0.30%, in order to apply the same amount of organic matter to the soil. The enzymatic activities and microbial community in the soil were determined during the incubation times. The application of RB1 and RB2 to soil without oxyfluorfen increased the enzymatic activities and biodiversity, peaking at day 10 of the incubation period. This stimulation was higher in the soil amended with RB2 than in that amended with RB1. In SM and CF-amended soils, the stimulation of enzymatic activities and soil biodiversity increased during the experiment. The application of herbicide in organic-amended soils decreased the inhibition of soil enzymatic activities and soil biodiversity. Possibly the low molecular weight protein content easily assimilated by soil microorganisms and the higher fat content in the biostimulants/biofertilizers are responsible for the lower inhibition of these soil biological properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A category of its own?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Jørgen; Roberts, Nigel S.

    1996-01-01

    of these systems on the proportionality of the representation of political parties are, indeed, comparable. The four electoral systems were the basis of their countries' general elections during 1994. The results of these elections are used for analyses and discussions of the relative importance of the differences......At first sight, the electoral systems in Denmark, Germany, South Africa and Sweden may seem different and attaempt to categorize them together odd. All four, however, belong to the same category, which Arend Lijphart calls 'proportional representation two-tier districting systems', and the effects...

  14. Functional categories in comparative linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    , Roger M. 1979. Linguistic knowledge and cultural knowledge: some doubts and speculation. American Anthropologist 81-1, 14-36. Levinson, Stephen C. 1997. From outer to inner space: linguistic categories and non-linguistic thinking. In J. Nuyts and E. Pederson (eds.), Language and Conceptualization, 13......). Furthermore certain ‘ontological categories’ are language-specific (Malt 1995). For example, speakers of Kalam (New Guinea) do not classify the cassowary as a bird, because they believe it has a mythical kinship relation with humans (Bulmer 1967).       In this talk I will discuss the role of functional...

  15. 14 CFR 23.3 - Airplane categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane categories. 23.3 Section 23.3... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES General § 23.3 Airplane categories. (a) The normal category is limited to airplanes that have a seating configuration, excluding pilot...

  16. Characterization of atmospheric emission sources in lichen from metal and organic contaminant patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratier, Aude; Dron, Julien; Revenko, Gautier; Austruy, Annabelle; Dauphin, Charles-Enzo; Chaspoul, Florence; Wafo, Emmanuel

    2018-03-01

    Lichen samples from contrasted environments, influenced by various anthropic activities, were investigated focusing on the contaminant signatures according to the atmospheric exposure typologies. Most of the contaminant concentrations measured in the 27 lichen samples, collected around the industrial harbor of Fos-sur-Mer (France), were moderate in rural and urban environments, and reached extreme levels in industrial areas and neighboring cities (Al up to 6567 mg kg -1 , Fe 42,398 mg kg -1 , or ΣPAH 1417 μg kg -1 for example). At the same time, a strong heterogeneity was noticed in industrial samples while urban and rural ones were relatively homogeneous. Several metals could be associated to steel industry (Fe, Mn, Cd), road traffic, and agriculture (Sb, Cu, Sn), or to a distinct chemical installation (Mo). As well, PCDFs dominated in industrial samples while PCDDs prevailed in urban areas. The particularities observed supported the purpose of this work and discriminated the contributions of various atmospheric pollution emission sources in lichen samples. A statistical approach based on principal component analysis (PCA) was applied and resolved these potential singularities into specific component factors. Even if a certain degree of mixing of the factors is pointed out, relevant relationships were observed with several atmospheric emission sources. By this methodology, the contribution of industrial emissions to the atmospheric metal, PAH, PCB, and PCDD/F levels was roughly estimated to be 60.2%, before biomass burning (10.2%) and road traffic (3.8%). These results demonstrate that lichen biomonitoring offers an encouraging perspective of spatially resolved source apportionment studies.

  17. Organization of prophylactic medical examination of personnel dealing with the sources of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gus'kova, A.K.

    1980-01-01

    The paper concerns principal instructions for introducing a differential approach to the scope and time of examination depending on the formation dynamics and the integral dose of occupational irradiation. Particular attention is paid to prophylaxis and creation of distinct organizational bases of hygienic investigation and rendering medical aid in all cases of over-irradiation from external and internal sources. The variants of the effect and the forms of the disease are characterized. The patterns of recording the results of the primary clinical examination of the victims are presented

  18. Aspect as a Communicative Category

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durst-Andersen, Per

    2018-01-01

    On the basis of internal evidence from primarily the use of imperfective forms and external evidence from primarily first language acquisition, it is argued that English, Russian, and French aspect differ from one another, because they go back to an obligatory choice among three possible communic......On the basis of internal evidence from primarily the use of imperfective forms and external evidence from primarily first language acquisition, it is argued that English, Russian, and French aspect differ from one another, because they go back to an obligatory choice among three possible...... communicative directions: should a grammatical category be grounded in the speaker's experience of a situation, in the situation referred to or in the hearer as information about the situation? The progressive vs. non-progressive distinction in English is acquired in the present tense of atelic (simplex) verbs...... to the meta-distinction between atelic (simplex) and telic (complex) verbs. It is second-person oriented. The specific order arrived at reflects the Peircean categories of Firstness, Secondness, and Thirdness and their predictions. This can account for the fact that the English and Russian types can be found...

  19. Bioavailability of dissolved organic matter originating from different sources in the River Vantaa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoikkala, Laura; Soinne, Helena; Asmala, Eero; Helin, Janne; Autio, Iida; Rahikainen, Mika

    2013-04-01

    Most of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) pool in the Baltic Sea is of terrestrial origin. Organic matter load to the Baltic Sea has been identified as the second greatest environmental pressure both in the Bothnian Bay and in the Gulf of Finland by the HELCOM Holistic Assessment. Loads of terrestrial DOM may increase the productivity, oxygen consumption and light attenuation in the coastal waters. The quantity and quality of DOM loads that enter the Baltic Sea depend on the properties of the catchment area, land use and the runoff as well as ecological processes and water retention time in freshwater systems, and are sensitive to temperature. In this study we investigate DOM loads from River Vantaa, which has a catchment area of 1 685 km2 and flows through the most important population center in Southern Finland into the Gulf of Finland. We focus on the effects of soil type and land-use on the DOM load and on the bioavailability of DOM to bacteria in the Baltic Sea. In addition, samples will be collected from up- and downstream of main water treatment plants to estimate the effect of municipal waste on the DOM loads. Further, we aim to estimate the total DOM loads to the Baltic Sea from samples taken at the river mouth. Water samples are collected from river branches selected according to the main land-use (forest or agricultural land) and soil type (mineral or organic soil) in the catchment area. The DOC, DON and DOP loads will be measured. The bioavailability of DOC is measured by incubating the DOM samples (<0.2 µm) in nutrient replete conditions with bacterial inocula (<0.8 µm, retentate of 100 kD TFF) from either river mouth or the Gulf of Finland for two months at dark. Time courses of DOC and DON concentrations, CDOM absorption and fluorescence, bacterial biomass and respiration will be followed.

  20. Differential responses of sugar, organic acids and anthocyanins to source-sink modulation in Cabernet Sauvignon and Sangiovese grapevines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobeica, Natalia; Poni, Stefano; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Renaud, Christel; Gomès, Eric; Delrot, Serge; Dai, Zhanwu

    2015-01-01

    Grape berry composition mainly consists of primary and secondary metabolites. Both are sensitive to environment and viticultural management. As a consequence, climate change can affect berry composition and modify wine quality and typicity. Leaf removal techniques can impact berry composition by modulating the source-to-sink balance and, in turn, may mitigate some undesired effects due to climate change. The present study investigated the balance between technological maturity parameters such as sugars and organic acids, and phenolic maturity parameters such as anthocyanins in response to source-sink modulation. Sugar, organic acid, and anthocyanin profiles were compared under two contrasting carbon supply levels in berries of cv. Cabernet Sauvignon and Sangiovese collected at 9 and 14 developmental stages respectively. In addition, whole-canopy net carbon exchange rate was monitored for Sangiovese vines and a mathematic model was used to calculate the balance between carbon fixation and berry sugar accumulation. Carbon limitation affected neither berry size nor the concentration of organic acids at harvest. However, it significantly reduced the accumulation of sugars and total anthocyanins in both cultivars. Most interestingly, carbon limitation decreased total anthocyanin concentration by 84.3% as compared to the non source-limited control, whereas it decreased sugar concentration only by 27.1%. This suggests that carbon limitation led to a strong imbalance between sugars and anthocyanins. Moreover, carbon limitation affected anthocyanin profiles in a cultivar dependent manner. Mathematical analysis of carbon-balance indicated that berries used a higher proportion of fixed carbon for sugar accumulation under carbon limitation (76.9%) than under carbon sufficiency (48%). Thus, under carbon limitation, the grape berry can manage the metabolic fate of carbon in such a way that sugar accumulation is maintained at the expense of secondary metabolites.

  1. Differential responses of sugar, organic acids and anthocyanins to source-sink modulation in Cabernet Sauvignon and Sangiovese grapevines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia eBobeica

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Grape berry composition mainly consists of primary and secondary metabolites. Both are sensitive to environment and viticultural management. As a consequence, climate change can affect berry composition and modify wine quality and typicity. Leaf removal techniques can impact berry composition by modulating the source-to-sink balance and, in turn, may mitigate some undesired effects due to climate change. The present study investigated the balance between technological maturity parameters such as sugars and organic acids, and phenolic maturity parameters such as anthocyanins in response to source-sink modulation. Sugar, organic acid, and anthocyanin profiles were compared under two contrasting carbon supply levels in berries of cv. Cabernet Sauvignon and Sangiovese collected at 9 and 14 developmental stages respectively. In addition, whole-canopy net carbon exchange rate was monitored for Sangiovese vines and a mathematic model was used to calculate the balance between carbon fixation and berry sugar accumulation. Carbon limitation affected neither berry size nor the concentration of organic acids at harvest. However, it significantly reduced the accumulation of sugars and total anthocyanins in both cultivars. Most interestingly, carbon limitation decreased total anthocyanin concentration by 84.3 % as compared to the non source-limited control, whereas it decreased sugar concentration only by 27.1 %. This suggests that carbon limitation led to a strong imbalance between sugars and anthocyanins. Moreover, carbon limitation affected anthocyanin profiles in a cultivar dependent manner. Mathematical analysis of carbon-balance indicated that berries used a higher proportion of fixed carbon for sugar accumulation under carbon limitation (76.9% than under carbon sufficiency (48%. Thus, under carbon limitation, the grape berry can manage the metabolic fate of carbon in such a way that sugar accumulation is maintained at the expense of secondary

  2. Organic petrology and geochemistry of Eocene Suzak bituminous marl, north-central Afghanistan: Depositional environment and source rock potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Sanfilipo, John

    2016-01-01

    Organic geochemistry and petrology of Eocene Suzak bituminous marl outcrop samples from Madr village in north-central Afghanistan were characterized via an integrated analytical approach to evaluate depositional environment and source rock potential. Multiple proxies suggest the organic-rich (TOC ∼6 wt.%) bituminous marls are ‘immature’ for oil generation (e.g., vitrinite Ro  1) indicating organic input from marine algae and/or bacterial biomass, and sterane/hopane ratios are low (0.12–0.14). Monoaromatic steroids are dominated by C28clearly indicating a marine setting. High gammacerane index values (∼0.9) are consistent with anoxia stratification and may indicate intermittent saline-hypersaline conditions. Stable C isotope ratios also suggest a marine depositional scenario for the Suzak samples, consistent with the presence of marine foraminifera including abundant planktic globigerinida(?) and rare benthic discocyclina(?) and nummulites(?). Biomarker 2α-methylhopane for photosynthetic cyanobacteria implies shallow photic zone deposition of Madr marls and 3β-methylhopane indicates presence of methanotrophic archaea in the microbial consortium. The data presented herein are consistent with deposition of Suzak bituminous marls in shallow stratified waters of a restricted marine basin associated with the southeastern incipient or proto-Paratethys. Geochemical proxies from Suzak rock extracts (S content, high polar content, C isotopes, normal (αααR) C27–29 steranes, and C29/C30 and C26/C25 hopane ratios) are similar to extant data from Paleogene oils produced to the north in the Afghan-Tajik Basin. This observation may indicate laterally equivalent strata are effective source rocks as suggested by previous workers; however, further work is needed to strengthen oil-source correlations.

  3. Temperature variations as a source of uncertainty in medical fiber-coupled organic plastic scintillator dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buranurak, Siritorn; Andersen, Claus Erik; Beierholm, Anders Ravnsborg

    2013-01-01

    Fiber-coupled organic plastic scintillators have potential applications in medical dosimetry related to, for example, brachytherapy and external beam radiotherapy with MV photons. As medical dosimetry generally strives for high accuracy, we designed a study to assess if the light yield from...... commonly used scintillating fibers would change with temperature in the clinical range (15–40 °C). The study showed that the light yield in the peak regions of the scintillators studied decreases linearly with increasing temperature. For the blue BCF-12 and the green BCF-60 from Saint-Gobain, France we...

  4. Three dimensional optimization of small-scale axial turbine for low temperature heat source driven organic Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Jubori, Ayad; Al-Dadah, Raya K.; Mahmoud, Saad; Bahr Ennil, A.S.; Rahbar, Kiyarash

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Three-dimensional optimization of axial turbine stage is presented. • Six organic fluids suitable for low-temperature heat source are considered. • Three-dimensional optimization has been done for each working fluid. • The results showed highlight the potential of optimization technique. • The performance of optimized turbine has been improved off-design conditions. - Abstract: Advances in optimization techniques can be used to enhance the performance of turbines in various applications. However, limited work has been reported on using such optimization techniques to develop small-scale turbines for organic Rankine cycles. This paper investigates the use of multi-objective genetic algorithm to optimize the stage geometry of a small-axial subsonic turbine. This optimization is integrated with organic Rankine cycle analysis using wide range of high density organic working fluids like R123, R134a, R141b, R152a, R245fa and isobutane suitable for low temperature heat sources <100 °C such as solar energy to achieve the best turbine design and highest organic Rankine cycle efficiency. The isentropic efficiency of the turbine in most of the reported organic Rankine cycle studies was assumed constant, while the current work allows the turbine isentropic efficiency to change (dynamic value) with both operating conditions and working fluids. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics analysis and multi-objective genetic algorithm optimization were performed using three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with k-omega shear stress transport turbulence model in ANSYS"R"1"7-CFX and design exploration for various working fluids. The optimization was carried out using eight design parameters for the turbine stage geometry optimization including stator and rotor number of blades, rotor leading edge beta angle, trailing edge beta angle, stagger angle, throat width, trailing half wedge angle and shroud tip clearance. Results showed that

  5. Geophysical Prediction Technology Based on Organic Carbon Content in Source Rocks of the Huizhou Sag, the South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wei

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high exploration cost, limited number of wells for source rocks drilling and scarce test samples for the Total Organic Carbon Content (TOC in the Huizhou sag, the TOC prediction of source rocks in this area and the assessment of resource potentials of the basin are faced with great challenges. In the study of TOC prediction, predecessors usually adopted the logging assessment method, since the data is only confined to a “point” and the regional prediction of the source bed in the seismic profile largely depends on the recognition of seismic facies, making it difficult to quantify TOC. In this study, we combined source rock geological characteristics, logging and seismic response and built the mathematical relation between quasi TOC curve and seismic data based on the TOC logging date of a single well and its internal seismic attribute. The result suggested that it was not purely a linear relationship that was adhered to by predecessors, but was shown as a complicated non-linear relationship. Therefore, the neural network algorithm and SVMs were introduced to obtain the optimum relationship between the quasi TOC curve and the seismic attribute. Then the goal of TOC prediction can be realized with the method of seismic inversion.

  6. Detailed Source-Specific Molecular Composition of Ambient Aerosol Organic Matter Using Ultrahigh Resolution Mass Spectrometry and 1H NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda S. Willoughby

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic aerosols (OA are universally regarded as an important component of the atmosphere that have far-ranging impacts on climate forcing and human health. Many of these impacts are related to OA molecular characteristics. Despite the acknowledged importance, current uncertainties related to the source apportionment of molecular properties and environmental impacts make it difficult to confidently predict the net impacts of OA. Here we evaluate the specific molecular compounds as well as bulk structural properties of total suspended particulates in ambient OA collected from key emission sources (marine, biomass burning, and urban using ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry (UHR-MS and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR. UHR-MS and 1H NMR show that OA within each source is structurally diverse, and the molecular characteristics are described in detail. Principal component analysis (PCA revealed that (1 aromatic nitrogen species are distinguishing components for these biomass burning aerosols; (2 these urban aerosols are distinguished by having formulas with high O/C ratios and lesser aromatic and condensed aromatic formulas; and (3 these marine aerosols are distinguished by lipid-like compounds of likely marine biological origin. This study provides a unique qualitative approach for enhancing the chemical characterization of OA necessary for molecular source apportionment.

  7. The metal-organic framework MIL-53(Al) constructed from multiple metal sources: alumina, aluminum hydroxide, and boehmite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zehua; Wu, Yi-nan; Li, Jie; Zhang, Yiming; Zou, Xin; Li, Fengting

    2015-04-27

    Three aluminum compounds, namely alumina, aluminum hydroxide, and boehmite, are probed as the metal sources for the hydrothermal synthesis of a typical metal-organic framework MIL-53(Al). The process exhibits enhanced synthetic efficiency without the generation of strongly acidic byproducts. The time-course monitoring of conversion from different aluminum sources into MIL-53(Al) is achieved by multiple characterization that reveals a similar but differentiated crystallinity, porosity, and morphology relative to typical MIL-53(Al) prepared from water-soluble aluminum salts. Moreover, the prepared MIL-53(Al) constructed with the three insoluble aluminum sources exhibit an improved thermal stability of up to nearly 600 °C and enhanced yields. Alumina and boehmite are more preferable than aluminum hydroxide in terms of product porosity, yield, and reaction time. The adsorption performances of a typical environmental endocrine disruptor, dimethyl phthalate, on the prepared MIL-53(Al) samples are also investigated. The improved structural stability of MIL-53(Al) prepared from these alternative aluminum sources enables double-enhanced adsorption performance (up to 206 mg g(-1)) relative to the conventionally obtained MIL-53(Al). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air from Nisyros Island (Dodecanese Archipelago, Greece): Natural versus anthropogenic sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassi, F.; Capecchiacci, F.; Giannini, L.; Vougioukalakis, G.E.; Vaselli, O.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the chemical composition of VOCs in air and gas discharges collected at Nisyros Island (Dodecanese Archipelago, Greece). The main goals are i) to discriminate between natural and anthropogenic VOC sources and ii) to evaluate their impact on local air quality. Up to 63 different VOCs were recognized and quantitatively determined in 6 fumaroles and 19 air samples collected in the Lakki caldera, where fumarolic emissions are located, and the outer ring of the island, including the Mandraki village and the main harbor. Air samples from the crater area show significant concentrations of alkanes, alkenes, cyclic, aromatics, and S- and O-bearing heterocycles directly deriving from the hydrothermal system, as well as secondary O-bearing compounds from oxidation of primary VOCs. At Mandraki village, C 6 H 6 /Σ(methylated aromatics) and Σ(linear)/Σ(branched) alkanes ratios 2 O–CO 2 –H 2 S rich and discharge a large variety of VOC species. •Benzene/toluene ratios identify anthropogenic and natural sources of VOCs in air. •Aldehydes in air are produced by oxidation of alkanes and alkenes. •Geogenic furans and hydrogenated halocarbons in air are recalcitrant. -- Anthropogenic and natural VOCs in air are distinguished on the basis of aromatic, O-substituted, S-substituted and halogenated compounds

  9. BIOREMEDIATION FOR ACID MINE DRAINAGE: ORGANIC SOLID WASTE AS CARBON SOURCES FOR SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Jamil

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological sulfate reduction has been slowly replacing chemical unit processes to treat acid mine drainage (AMD. Bioremediations for AMD treatment are favored due to their low capital and maintenance cost. This paper describes the available AMD treatment, current SRB commercialization such as THIOPAQ® and BioSulphide® technologies, and also the factors and limitations faced. THIOPAQ® and BioSulphide® technologies use expensive carbon sources such as hydrogen as the electron donor. This paper discusses the possibility of organic solid waste as an alternative substrate as it is cheaper and abundant. A possible AMD treatment system setup was also proposed to test the efficiency of sulfate-reducing bacteria utilizing organic solid substrate.

  10. Investigation of the Makeup, Source, and Removal Strategies for Total Organic Carbon in the Oxygen Generation System Recirculation Loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Elizabeth M.; Carpenter, Joyce; Roy, Robert J.; Van Keuren, Steve; Wilson, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2007, the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) on board the International Space Station (ISS) has been producing oxygen for crew respiration via water electrolysis. As water is consumed in the OGS recirculating water loop, make-up water is furnished by the ISS potable water bus. A rise in Total Organic Carbon (TOC) was observed beginning in February, 2011, which continues through the present date. Increasing TOC is of concern because the organic constituents responsible for the TOC were unknown and had not been identified; hence their impacts on the operation of the electrolytic cell stack components and on microorganism growth rates and types are unknown. Identification of the compounds responsible for the TOC increase, their sources, and estimates of their loadings in the OGA as well as possible mitigation strategies are presented.

  11. Characterisation of the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of individual material fractions in Danish source-separated organic household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    This study is dedicated to characterising the chemical composition and biochemical methane potential (BMP) of individual material fractions in untreated Danish source-separated organic household waste (SSOHW). First, data on SSOHW in different countries, available in the literature, were evaluated...... and then, secondly, laboratory analyses for eight organic material fractions comprising Danish SSOHW were conducted. No data were found in the literature that fully covered the objectives of the present study. Based on laboratory analyses, all fractions were assigned according to their specific properties......) and material degradability (BMP from laboratory incubation tests divided by TBMP) were expressed. Moreover, the degradability of lignocellulose biofibres (the share of volatile lignocellulose biofibre solids degraded in laboratory incubation tests) was calculated. Finally, BMP for average SSOHW composition...

  12. Organic geochemistry and petrology of oil source rocks, Carpathian Overthrust region, southeastern Poland - Implications for petroleum generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruge, M.A.; Mastalerz, Maria; Solecki, A.; Stankiewicz, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    The organic mailer rich Oligocene Menilite black shales and mudstones are widely distributed in the Carpathian Overthrust region of southeastern Poland and have excellent hydrocarbon generation potential, according to TOC, Rock-Eval, and petrographic data. Extractable organic matter was characterized by an equable distribution of steranes by carbon number, by varying amounts of 28,30-dinor-hopane, 18??(H)-oleanane and by a distinctive group of C24 ring-A degraded triterpanes. The Menilite samples ranged in maturity from pre-generative to mid-oil window levels, with the most mature in the southeastern portion of the study area. Carpathian petroleum samples from Campanian Oligocene sandstone reservoirs were similar in biomarker composition to the Menilite rock extracts. Similarities in aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon distributions between petroleum asphaltene and source rock pyrolyzates provided further evidence genetically linking Menilite kerogens with Carpathian oils.

  13. Organic Chemistry of Southern Sources: Microwave Spectroscopy of Cha-MMS1 and IRAS 15194-5115

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordiner, Martin; Charnley, Steven

    2011-01-01

    We report new spectra of molecule-rich sources in the southern hemisphere obtained using the 22-meter Mopra telescope. Spectra and maps are presented of organic molecules detected between 30 and 50 GHz in the young Class 0 protostar Chamaeleon MMS-1. The large abundances of polyynes, cyanopolyynes and methanol may be indicative of a warm carbon chemistry in the dense gas surrounding this protostar. Spectra are also presented from a 78-96 GHz scan of the carbon-rich AGB star IRAS 15194-5115, including new detections of HC5N, CCS and C13CH.

  14. Septic systems as sources of organic wastewater compounds in domestic drinking water wells in a shallow sand and gravel aquifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaider, Laurel A., E-mail: schaider@silentspring.org; Ackerman, Janet M.; Rudel, Ruthann A.

    2016-03-15

    Domestic drinking water wells serve 44 million people in the US and are common globally. They are often located in areas served by onsite wastewater treatment systems, including septic systems, which can be sources of biological and chemical pollutants to groundwater. In this study we tested 20 domestic drinking water wells in a sand and gravel aquifer on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA, for 117 organic wastewater compounds (OWCs) and for inorganic markers of septic system impact. We detected 27 OWCs, including 12 pharmaceuticals, five per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), four organophosphate flame retardants, and an artificial sweetener (acesulfame). Maximum concentrations of several PFASs and pharmaceuticals were relatively high compared to public drinking water supplies in the US. The number of detected OWCs and total concentrations of pharmaceuticals and of PFASs were positively correlated with nitrate, boron, and acesulfame and negatively correlated with well depth. These wells were all located in areas served exclusively by onsite wastewater treatment systems, which are likely the main source of the OWCs in these wells, although landfill leachate may also be a source. Our results suggest that current regulations to protect domestic wells from pathogens in septic system discharges do not prevent OWCs from reaching domestic wells, and that nitrate, a commonly measured drinking water contaminant, is a useful screening tool for OWCs in domestic wells. Nitrate concentrations of 1 mg/L NO{sub 3}-N, which are tenfold higher than local background and tenfold lower than the US federal drinking water standard, were associated with wastewater impacts from OWCs in this study. - Highlights: • We tested 20 domestic drinking water wells for 117 organic wastewater compounds. • PFASs, pharmaceuticals, and an artificial sweetener were most frequently detected. • Nitrate, boron, and well depth were all correlated with PFASs and pharmaceuticals. • Acesulfame

  15. Septic systems as sources of organic wastewater compounds in domestic drinking water wells in a shallow sand and gravel aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaider, Laurel A.; Ackerman, Janet M.; Rudel, Ruthann A.

    2016-01-01

    Domestic drinking water wells serve 44 million people in the US and are common globally. They are often located in areas served by onsite wastewater treatment systems, including septic systems, which can be sources of biological and chemical pollutants to groundwater. In this study we tested 20 domestic drinking water wells in a sand and gravel aquifer on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA, for 117 organic wastewater compounds (OWCs) and for inorganic markers of septic system impact. We detected 27 OWCs, including 12 pharmaceuticals, five per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), four organophosphate flame retardants, and an artificial sweetener (acesulfame). Maximum concentrations of several PFASs and pharmaceuticals were relatively high compared to public drinking water supplies in the US. The number of detected OWCs and total concentrations of pharmaceuticals and of PFASs were positively correlated with nitrate, boron, and acesulfame and negatively correlated with well depth. These wells were all located in areas served exclusively by onsite wastewater treatment systems, which are likely the main source of the OWCs in these wells, although landfill leachate may also be a source. Our results suggest that current regulations to protect domestic wells from pathogens in septic system discharges do not prevent OWCs from reaching domestic wells, and that nitrate, a commonly measured drinking water contaminant, is a useful screening tool for OWCs in domestic wells. Nitrate concentrations of 1 mg/L NO_3-N, which are tenfold higher than local background and tenfold lower than the US federal drinking water standard, were associated with wastewater impacts from OWCs in this study. - Highlights: • We tested 20 domestic drinking water wells for 117 organic wastewater compounds. • PFASs, pharmaceuticals, and an artificial sweetener were most frequently detected. • Nitrate, boron, and well depth were all correlated with PFASs and pharmaceuticals. • Acesulfame (artificial

  16. How organic carbon derived from multiple sources contributes to carbon sequestration processes in a shallow coastal system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kenta; Kuwae, Tomohiro

    2015-04-16

    Carbon captured by marine organisms helps sequester atmospheric CO 2 , especially in shallow coastal ecosystems, where rates of primary production and burial of organic carbon (OC) from multiple sources are high. However, linkages between the dynamics of OC derived from multiple sources and carbon sequestration are poorly understood. We investigated the origin (terrestrial, phytobenthos derived, and phytoplankton derived) of particulate OC (POC) and dissolved OC (DOC) in the water column and sedimentary OC using elemental, isotopic, and optical signatures in Furen Lagoon, Japan. Based on these data analysis, we explored how OC from multiple sources contributes to sequestration via storage in sediments, water column sequestration, and air-sea CO 2 exchanges, and analyzed how the contributions vary with salinity in a shallow seagrass meadow as well. The relative contribution of terrestrial POC in the water column decreased with increasing salinity, whereas autochthonous POC increased in the salinity range 10-30. Phytoplankton-derived POC dominated the water column POC (65-95%) within this salinity range; however, it was minor in the sediments (3-29%). In contrast, terrestrial and phytobenthos-derived POC were relatively minor contributors in the water column but were major contributors in the sediments (49-78% and 19-36%, respectively), indicating that terrestrial and phytobenthos-derived POC were selectively stored in the sediments. Autochthonous DOC, part of which can contribute to long-term carbon sequestration in the water column, accounted for >25% of the total water column DOC pool in the salinity range 15-30. Autochthonous OC production decreased the concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon in the water column and thereby contributed to atmospheric CO 2 uptake, except in the low-salinity zone. Our results indicate that shallow coastal ecosystems function not only as transition zones between land and ocean but also as carbon sequestration filters. They

  17. Characterization and sources assignation of PM2.5 organic aerosol in a rural area of Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindado, Oscar; Pérez, Rosa M. a.; García, Susana; Sánchez, Miguel; Galán, Pilar; Fernández, Marta

    The results from a year-long study of the organic composition of PM2.5 aerosol collected in a rural area influenced by a highway of Spain are reported. The lack of prior information related to the organic composition of PM2.5 aerosol in Spain, concretely in rural areas, led definition of the goals of this study. As a result, this work has been able to characterize the main organic components of atmospheric aerosols, including several compounds of SOA, and has conducted a multivariate analysis in order to assign sources of particulate matter. A total of 89 samples were taken between April 2004 and April 2005 using a high-volume sampler. Features and abundance of n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alcohols and acids were separately determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography analysis. The Σ n-alkane and ΣPAHs ranged from 3 to 81 ng m -3 and 0.1 to 6 ng m -3 respectively, with higher concentrations during colder months. Ambient concentrations of Σalcohols and Σacids ranged from 21 to 184 ng m -3 and 39 to 733 ng m -3, respectively. Also, several components of secondary organic aerosol have been quantified, confirming the biogenic contribution to ambient aerosol. In addition, factor analysis was used to reveal origin of organic compounds associated to particulate matter. Eight factors were extracted accounting more than 83% of the variability in the original data. These factors were assigned to a typical high pollution episode by anthropogenic particles, crustal material, plant waxes, fossil fuel combustion, temperature, microbiological emissions, SOA and dispersion of pollutants by wind action. Finally, a cluster analysis was used to compare the organic composition between the four seasons.

  18. Malodorous volatile organic sulfur compounds: Sources, sinks and significance in inland waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Susan B; Jüttner, Friedrich

    2017-03-01

    Volatile Organic Sulfur Compounds (VOSCs) are instrumental in global S-cycling and greenhouse gas production. VOSCs occur across a diversity of inland waters, and with widespread eutrophication and climate change, are increasingly linked with malodours in organic-rich waterbodies and drinking-water supplies. Compared with marine systems, the role of VOSCs in biogeochemical processes is far less well characterized for inland waters, and often involves different physicochemical and biological processes. This review provides an updated synthesis of VOSCs in inland waters, focusing on compounds known to cause malodours. We examine the major limnological and biochemical processes involved in the formation and degradation of alkylthiols, dialkylsulfides, dialkylpolysulfides, and other organosulfur compounds under different oxygen, salinity and mixing regimes, and key phototropic and heterotrophic microbial producers and degraders (bacteria, cyanobacteria, and algae) in these environs. The data show VOSC levels which vary significantly, sometimes far exceeding human odor thresholds, generated by a diversity of biota, biochemical pathways, enzymes and precursors. We also draw attention to major issues in sampling and analytical artifacts which bias and preclude comparisons among studies, and highlight significant knowledge gaps that need addressing with careful, appropriate methods to provide a more robust understanding of the potential effects of continued global development.

  19. Xenogeneic chimera-Generated by blastocyst complementation-As a potential unlimited source of recipient-tailored organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldani, Graziano; Peloso, Andrea; Lacotte, Stéphanie; Meier, Raphael; Toso, Christian

    2017-07-01

    Blastocyst complementation refers to the injection of cells into a blastocyst. The technology allows for the creation of chimeric animals, which have the potential to be used as an unlimited source of organ donors. Pluripotent stem cells could be generated from a patient in need of a transplantation and injected into a large animal blastocyst (potentially of a pig), leading to the creation of organ(s) allowing immunosuppression-free transplantation. Various chimera combinations have already been generated, but one of the most recent steps leads to the creation of human-pig chimeras, which could be studied at an embryo stage. Although still far from clinical reality, the potential application is almost unlimited. The present review illustrates the historical steps of intra- and interspecific blastocyst complementation in rodents and large animals, specifically looking at its potential for generation of organ grafts. We also speculate on how it could change transplant indications, on its economic impact, and on the linked ethical concerns. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Using single-chamber microbial fuel cells as renewable power sources of electro-Fenton reactors for organic pollutant treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xiuping

    2013-05-01

    Electro-Fenton reactions can be very effective for organic pollutant degradation, but they typically require non-sustainable electrical power to produce hydrogen peroxide. Two-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have been proposed for pollutant treatment using Fenton-based reactions, but these types of MFCs have low power densities and require expensive membranes. Here, more efficient dual reactor systems were developed using a single-chamber MFC as a low-voltage power source to simultaneously accomplish H2O2 generation and Fe2+ release for the Fenton reaction. In tests using phenol, 75±2% of the total organic carbon (TOC) was removed in the electro-Fenton reactor in one cycle (22h), and phenol was completely degraded to simple and readily biodegradable organic acids. Compared to previously developed systems based on two-chamber MFCs, the degradation efficiency of organic pollutants was substantially improved. These results demonstrate that this system is an energy-efficient and cost-effective approach for industrial wastewater treatment of certain pollutants. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Priority organic micropollutants in water sources in Flanders and the Netherlands and assessment of removal possibilities with nanofiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verliefde, Arne; Cornelissen, Emile; Amy, Gary; Bruggen, Bart van der; Dijk, Hans van

    2007-01-01

    The occurrence of organic micropollutants in ground- and surface waters has become an important concern for the drinking water industry, mainly because of possible related health effects. Due to the polar nature of some of these pollutants, they are not completely removed by traditional water treatment barriers. This paper offers an overview of priority organic micropollutants and their occurrence in Flemish and Dutch water sources. Furthermore, rejection by nanofiltration is qualitatively predicted for the selected priority micropollutants. The qualitative prediction is based on the values of key solute and membrane parameters in nanofiltration. Predicted values are then compared with experimental values obtained from literature. Overall, the qualitative predictions are roughly in agreement with literature values. Prediction based on key parameters may thus prove to be a very quick and useful technique to assess the implementation of nanofiltration as a treatment step for organic micropollutants in drinking water plant design. - The article provides a quick and powerful prediction tool for the removal of organic micropollutants by nanofiltration, based on readily available parameter values

  2. Photoluminescence studies of organic phosphor coated diffusing surface using blue inorganic light-emitting diode as excitation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Gyanendra; Mehta, Dalip Singh

    2013-01-01

    We report the studies on photoluminescence (PL) of organic phosphor coated on a diffusing surface using a blue inorganic light-emitting diode (LED) array as an excitation source. The organic phosphor composite coated diffuser was used to scatter the directional blue light from the LED array. Some of the blue light is absorbed by the organic phosphor composite and the phosphor molecules are excited and re-emit light at longer wavelengths due to the PL process. The output light consists of scattered blue light plus phosphor generated broadband yellow light, thus making white light. The diffuser was made up of a plastic substrate coated with an organic composite of small molecule fluorescent material zinc(II)bis(8-hydroxyquinoline) (Znq 2 ) doped with different percentages of electro-phosphorescent metal complex iridium(III)bis(2-methyldibenzo-[f, h] quinoxaline) (acetylacetonate) ([Ir(MDQ) 2 (acac)]). By means of changing the concentration and the thickness of the phosphor composite material the colour coordinates of white light were achieved. The CIE coordinates and correlated colour temperature were calculated for various thicknesses and phosphor composite concentrations and the results are reported. (paper)

  3. Organization and implementation of a national programme of regulatory control of sources in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippova, I.

    1998-01-01

    The application of ionizing radiation and radioactive material in fields such as medicine, industry, teaching and research is constantly increasing. Consequently, any country using ionizing radiation and radioactive material in these applications must ensure that they are used safely. In order to achieve this goal a country must establish appropriate national infrastructure related to radiation protection and safety. This requires appropriate regulatory mechanism together with an enforcement ability. The national infrastructure adopted in a country will depend on the actual needs of the country, the size and the complexity of the regulated practices and sources, as well as on the regulatory tradition in the country. The national infrastructure in Estonia comprises of three main components: legislation, regulatory authority, resources. (author)

  4. Volatility of source apportioned wintertime organic aerosol in the city of Athens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louvaris, Evangelos E.; Florou, Kalliopi; Karnezi, Eleni; Papanastasiou, Dimitrios K.; Gkatzelis, Georgios I.; Pandis, Spyros N.

    2017-06-01

    The volatility distribution of ambient organic aerosol (OA) and its components was measured during the winter of 2013 in the city of Athens combining a thermodenuder (TD) and a High Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis of both the ambient and the thermodenuder AMS-spectra resulted in a four-factor solution for the OA, namely: hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), biomass burning OA (BBOA), cooking OA (COA), and oxygenated OA (OOA). The thermograms of the four factors were analyzed and the corresponding volatility distributions were estimated using the volatility basis set (VBS). All four factors included compounds with a wide range of effective volatilities from 10 to less than 10-4 μg m-3 at 298 K. Almost 40% of the HOA consisted of low-volatility organic compounds (LVOCs) with the semi-volatile compounds (SVOCs) representing roughly 30%, while the remaining 30% consisted of extremely low volatility organic compounds (ELVOCs). BBOA was more volatile than the HOA factor on average, with 10% ELVOCs, 40% LVOCs, and 50% SVOCs. 10% of the COA consisted of ELVOCs, another 65% LVOCs, and 50% SVOCs. Finally, the OOA was the least volatile factor and included 40% ELVOCs, 25% LVOCs, and 35% SVOCs. Combining the volatility distributions and the O:C ratios of the various factors, we placed our results in the 2D-VBS analysis framework of Donahue et al. (2012). HOA and BBOA are in the expected region but also include an ELVOC component. COA is in similar range as HOA, but on average is half an order of magnitude more volatile. The OOA in these wintertime conditions had a moderate O:C ratio and included both semi-volatile and extremely low volatility components. The above results are sensitive to the assumed values of the effective vaporization enthalpy and the accommodation coefficient. A reduction of the accommodation coefficient by an order of magnitude or the reduction of the vaporization enthalpy by 20 kJ mol-1

  5. Wool-waste as organic nutrient source for container-grown plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D. [Mississippi State University, North Mississippi Research and Extension Center, Verona, MS 38879 (United States)], E-mail: vj40@pss.msstate.edu; Stratton, Glenn W [Department of Plant and Animal Sciences and Department of Environmental Sciences, Nova Scotia Agricultural College, Truro, NS, B2N 5E3 (Canada); Pincock, James [Department of Chemistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, B3H 4J3 (Canada); Butler, Stephanie [Department of Plant and Animal Sciences and Department of Environmental Sciences, Nova Scotia Agricultural College, Truro, NS, B2N 5E3 (Canada); Jeliazkova, Ekaterina A [Mississippi State University, Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States); Nedkov, Nedko K [Research Institute for Roses and Aromatic Crops, 49 Osvobojdenie Blv., Kazanluk (Bulgaria); Gerard, Patrick D [Department of Applied Economics and Statistics, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    A container experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that uncomposted wool wastes could be used as nutrient source and growth medium constituent for container-grown plants. The treatments were: (1) rate of wool-waste application (0 or unamended control, 20, 40, 80, and 120 g of wool per 8-in. pot), (2) growth medium constituents [(2.1) wool plus perlite, (2.2) wool plus peat, and (2.3) wool plus peat plus perlite], and (3) plant species (basil and Swiss chard). A single addition of 20, 40, 80, or 120 g of wool-waste to Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L.) and basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) in pots with growth medium provided four harvests of Swiss chard and five harvests of basil. Total basil yield from the five harvests was 1.6-5 times greater than the total yield from the unamended control, while total Swiss chard yield from the four harvests was 2-5 times greater relative to the respective unamended control. The addition of wool-waste to the growth medium increased Swiss chard and basil tissue N, and NO{sub 3}-N and NH{sub 4}-N in growth medium relative to the unamended control. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis of wool fibers sampled at the end of the experiments indicated various levels of decomposition, with some fibers retaining their original surface structure. Furthermore, most of the wool fibers' surfaces contained significant concentrations of S and much less N, P, or K. SEM/EDX revealed that some plant roots grow directly on wool-waste fibers suggesting either (1) root directional growth towards sites with greater nutrient concentration and/or (2) a possible role for roots or root exudates in wool decomposition. Results from this study suggest that uncomposted wool wastes can be used as soil amendment, growth medium constituent, and nutrient source for container-grown plants.

  6. Lignin phenols used to infer organic matter sources to Sepetiba Bay - RJ, Brasil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, C. E.; Pfeiffer, W. C.; Martinelli, L. A.; Tsamakis, E.; Hedges, J. I.; Keil, R. G.

    2010-04-01

    Lignin phenols were measured in the sediments of Sepitiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and in bedload sediments and suspended sediments of the four major fluvial inputs to the bay; São Francisco and Guandu Channels and the Guarda and Cação Rivers. Fluvial suspended lignin yields (Σ8 3.5-14.6 mgC 10 g dw -1) vary little between the wet and dry seasons and are poorly correlated with fluvial chlorophyll concentrations (0.8-50.2 μgC L -1). Despite current land use practices that favor grassland agriculture or industrial uses, fluvial lignin compositions are dominated by a degraded leaf-sourced material. The exception is the Guarda River, which has a slight influence from grasses. The Lignin Phenol Vegetation Index, coupled with acid/aldehyde and 3.5 Db/V ratios, indicate that degraded leaf-derived phenols are also the primary preserved lignin component in the bay. The presence of fringe Typha sp. and Spartina sp. grass beds surrounding portions of the Bay are not reflected in the lignin signature. Instead, lignin entering the bay appears to reflect the erosion of soils containing a degraded signature from the former Atlantic rain forest that once dominated the watershed, instead of containing a significant signature derived from current agricultural uses. A three-component mixing model using the LPVI, atomic N:C ratios, and stable carbon isotopes (which range between -26.8 and -21.8‰) supports the hypothesis that fluvial inputs to the bay are dominated by planktonic matter (78% of the input), with lignin dominated by leaf (14% of the input) over grass (6%). Sediments are composed of a roughly 50-50 mixture of autochthonous material and terrigenous material, with lignin being primarily sourced from leaf.

  7. Wool-waste as organic nutrient source for container-grown plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D.; Stratton, Glenn W.; Pincock, James; Butler, Stephanie; Jeliazkova, Ekaterina A.; Nedkov, Nedko K.; Gerard, Patrick D.

    2009-01-01

    A container experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that uncomposted wool wastes could be used as nutrient source and growth medium constituent for container-grown plants. The treatments were: (1) rate of wool-waste application (0 or unamended control, 20, 40, 80, and 120 g of wool per 8-in. pot), (2) growth medium constituents [(2.1) wool plus perlite, (2.2) wool plus peat, and (2.3) wool plus peat plus perlite], and (3) plant species (basil and Swiss chard). A single addition of 20, 40, 80, or 120 g of wool-waste to Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L.) and basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) in pots with growth medium provided four harvests of Swiss chard and five harvests of basil. Total basil yield from the five harvests was 1.6-5 times greater than the total yield from the unamended control, while total Swiss chard yield from the four harvests was 2-5 times greater relative to the respective unamended control. The addition of wool-waste to the growth medium increased Swiss chard and basil tissue N, and NO 3 -N and NH 4 -N in growth medium relative to the unamended control. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis of wool fibers sampled at the end of the experiments indicated various levels of decomposition, with some fibers retaining their original surface structure. Furthermore, most of the wool fibers' surfaces contained significant concentrations of S and much less N, P, or K. SEM/EDX revealed that some plant roots grow directly on wool-waste fibers suggesting either (1) root directional growth towards sites with greater nutrient concentration and/or (2) a possible role for roots or root exudates in wool decomposition. Results from this study suggest that uncomposted wool wastes can be used as soil amendment, growth medium constituent, and nutrient source for container-grown plants.

  8. Toward morphological thoracic EIT: major signal sources correspond to respective organ locations in CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, Damien; Grychtol, Bartłomiej; Adler, Andy; Solà, Josep; Böhm, Stephan H; Bodenstein, Marc

    2012-11-01

    Lung and cardiovascular monitoring applications of electrical impedance tomography (EIT) require localization of relevant functional structures or organs of interest within the reconstructed images. We describe an algorithm for automatic detection of heart and lung regions in a time series of EIT images. Using EIT reconstruction based on anatomical models, candidate regions are identified in the frequency domain and image-based classification techniques applied. The algorithm was validated on a set of simultaneously recorded EIT and CT data in pigs. In all cases, identified regions in EIT images corresponded to those manually segmented in the matched CT image. Results demonstrate the ability of EIT technology to reconstruct relevant impedance changes at their anatomical locations, provided that information about the thoracic boundary shape (and electrode positions) are used for reconstruction.

  9. Organic aerosol composition and sources in Pasadena, California, during the 2010 CalNex campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, P. L.; Ortega, A. M.; Cubison, M. J.; Froyd, K. D.; Zhao, Y.; Cliff, S. S.; Hu, W. W.; Toohey, D. W.; Flynn, J. H.; Lefer, B. L.; Grossberg, N.; Alvarez, S.; Rappenglück, B.; Taylor, J. W.; Allan, J. D.; Holloway, J. S.; Gilman, J. B.; Kuster, W. C.; de Gouw, J. A.; Massoli, P.; Zhang, X.; Liu, J.; Weber, R. J.; Corrigan, A. L.; Russell, L. M.; Isaacman, G.; Worton, D. R.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Goldstein, A. H.; Thalman, R.; Waxman, E. M.; Volkamer, R.; Lin, Y. H.; Surratt, J. D.; Kleindienst, T. E.; Offenberg, J. H.; Dusanter, S.; Griffith, S.; Stevens, P. S.; Brioude, J.; Angevine, W. M.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2013-08-01

    Organic aerosols (OA) in Pasadena are characterized using multiple measurements from the California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) campaign. Five OA components are identified using positive matrix factorization including hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) and two types of oxygenated OA (OOA). The Pasadena OA elemental composition when plotted as H : C versus O : C follows a line less steep than that observed for Riverside, CA. The OOA components from both locations follow a common line, however, indicating similar secondary organic aerosol (SOA) oxidation chemistry at the two sites such as fragmentation reactions leading to acid formation. In addition to the similar evolution of elemental composition, the dependence of SOA concentration on photochemical age displays quantitatively the same trends across several North American urban sites. First, the OA/ΔCO values for Pasadena increase with photochemical age exhibiting a slope identical to or slightly higher than those for Mexico City and the northeastern United States. Second, the ratios of OOA to odd-oxygen (a photochemical oxidation marker) for Pasadena, Mexico City, and Riverside are similar, suggesting a proportional relationship between SOA and odd-oxygen formation rates. Weekly cycles of the OA components are examined as well. HOA exhibits lower concentrations on Sundays versus weekdays, and the decrease in HOA matches that predicted for primary vehicle emissions using fuel sales data, traffic counts, and vehicle emission ratios. OOA does not display a weekly cycle—after accounting for differences in photochemical aging —which suggests the dominance of gasoline emissions in SOA formation under the assumption that most urban SOA precursors are from motor vehicles.

  10. Standardization of radioactive waste categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    A large amount of information about most aspects of radioactive waste management has been accumulated and made available to interested nations in recent years. The efficiency of this service has been somewhat hampered because the terminology used to describe the different types of radioactive waste has varied from country to country and indeed from installation to installation within a given country. This publication is the outcome of a panel meeting on Standardization of Radioactive Waste Categories. It presents a simple standard to be used as a common language between people working in the field of waste management at nuclear installations. The purpose of the standard is only to act as a practical tool for increasing efficiency in communicating, collecting and assessing technical and economical information in the common interest of all nations and the developing countries in particular. 20 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  11. Investigating organic matter in Fanno Creek, Oregon, Part 2 of 3: sources, sinks, and transport of organic matter with fine sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Mackenzie K.; Sobieszczyk, Steven; Goldman, Jami H.; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2014-01-01

    Organic matter (OM) is abundant in Fanno Creek, Oregon, USA, and has been tied to a variety of water-quality concerns, including periods of low dissolved oxygen downstream in the Tualatin River, Oregon. The key sources of OM in Fanno Creek and other Tualatin River tributaries have not been fully identified, although isotopic analyses from previous studies indicated a predominantly terrestrial source. This study investigates the role of fine sediment erosion and deposition (mechanisms and spatial patterns) in relation to OM transport. Geomorphic mapping within the Fanno Creek floodplain shows that a large portion (approximately 70%) of the banks are eroding or subject to erosion, likely as a result of the imbalance caused by anthropogenic alteration. Field measurements of long- and short-term bank erosion average 4.2 cm/year and average measurements of deposition for the watershed are 4.8 cm/year. The balance between average annual erosion and deposition indicates an export of 3,250 metric tons (tonnes, t) of fine sediment to the Tualatin River—about twice the average annual export of 1,880 t of sediment at a location 2.4 km from the creek’s mouth calculated from suspended sediment load regressions from continuous turbidity data and suspended sediment samples. Carbon content from field samples of bank material, combined with fine sediment export rates, indicates that about 29–67 t of carbon, or about 49–116 t of OM, from bank sediment may be exported to the Tualatin River from Fanno Creek annually, an estimate that is a lower bound because it does not account for the mass wasting of organic-rich O and A soil horizons that enter the stream.

  12. Factors associated with sources, transport, and fate of volatile organic compounds and their mixtures in aquifers of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squillace, P.J.; Moran, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Factors associated with sources, transport, and fate of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in groundwater from aquifers throughout the United States were evaluated using statistical methods. Samples were collected from 1631 wells throughout the conterminous United States between 1996 and 2002 as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. Water samples from wells completed in aquifers used to supply drinking water were analyzed for more than 50 VOCs. Wells were primarily rural domestic water supplies (1184), followed by public water supplies (216); the remaining wells (231) supplied a variety of uses. The median well depth was 50 meters. Age-date information shows that about 60% of the samples had a fraction of water recharged after 1953. Chloroform, toluene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, and perchloroethene were some of the frequently detected VOCs. Concentrations generally were less than 1 ??g/L. Source factors include, in order of importance, general land-use activity, septic/sewer density, and sites where large concentrations of VOCs are potentially released, such as leaking underground storage tanks. About 10% of all samples had VOC mixtures that were associated with concentrated sources; 20% were associated with dispersed sources. Important transport factors included well/screen depth, precipitation/groundwater recharge, air temperature, and various soil characteristics. Dissolved oxygen was strongly associated with VOCs and represents the fate of many VOCs in groundwater. Well type (domestic or public water supply) was also an important explanatory factor. Results of multiple analyses show the importance of (1) accounting for both dispersed and concentrated sources of VOCs, (2) measuring dissolved oxygen when sampling wells to help explain the fate of VOCs, and (3) limiting the type of wells sampled in monitoring networks to avoid unnecessary variance in the data, or controlling for this variance during data analysis.

  13. Characteristics and source apportionment of organic matter in PM(2.5) from cities in different climatic zones of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jialiang

    For the first time, the dependency of the characteristics of organic matter in PM2.5 on geographical and climatic zones in three metropolitan cities of China was studied. Seasonal samples were collected at suburban and urban sites in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou in 2002 and 2003. To further support the above study, seasonal samples were also collected at Changdao Island, a remote island, in Bohai Sea/Yellow Sea. Concentrations of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), and solvent-extractable organic compounds (SEOC) were analyzed. The characteristics of the n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, n-fatty acids, n-alkanols and molecular markers such as triterpanes were determined and used for source identification. Source apportionment was complemented by Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) modeling using the measured organic species as tracers. The impact of wind speed and wind direction on air quality was studied by back trajectory calculations and analysis. In general, traffic emissions were the largest contributors of OC followed by coal burning, kitchen emissions, vegetative detritus and biomass burning. However, in the space-heating season in Northern China, coal burning was the most important contributor of OC in the suburban areas of Beijing and at Changdao. Beijing had the highest concentration of organic aerosol followed by Guangzhou and Shanghai, while seasonal variation was in reverse order. Dispersion conditions determined by local topographies and meteorology were responsible for this trend. Contrary to common understanding, pollutant concentrations at the suburban sites were higher than the urban sites in all three cities. The main reason was the rapid urbanization of the suburban areas in the immediate vicinity of urban centers since China opened up for economic development, in addition, large numbers of manufacturing plants were relocated from the cities to the countryside in an attempt to clean up the urban

  14. Improved source apportionment of organic aerosols in complex urban air pollution using the multilinear engine (ME-2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiao; Huang, Xiao-Feng; Cao, Li-Ming; Wei, Lin-Tong; Zhang, Bin; He, Ling-Yan; Elser, Miriam; Canonaco, Francesco; Slowik, Jay G.; Bozzetti, Carlo; El-Haddad, Imad; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2018-02-01

    Organic aerosols (OAs), which consist of thousands of complex compounds emitted from various sources, constitute one of the major components of fine particulate matter. The traditional positive matrix factorization (PMF) method often apportions aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) organic datasets into less meaningful or mixed factors, especially in complex urban cases. In this study, an improved source apportionment method using a bilinear model of the multilinear engine (ME-2) was applied to OAs collected during the heavily polluted season from two Chinese megacities located in the north and south with an Aerodyne high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). We applied a rather novel procedure for utilization of prior information and selecting optimal solutions, which does not necessarily depend on other studies. Ultimately, six reasonable factors were clearly resolved and quantified for both sites by constraining one or more factors: hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), cooking-related OA (COA), biomass burning OA (BBOA), coal combustion (CCOA), less-oxidized oxygenated OA (LO-OOA) and more-oxidized oxygenated OA (MO-OOA). In comparison, the traditional PMF method could not effectively resolve the appropriate factors, e.g., BBOA and CCOA, in the solutions. Moreover, coal combustion and traffic emissions were determined to be primarily responsible for the concentrations of PAHs and BC, respectively, through the regression analyses of the ME-2 results.

  15. Man-made organic compounds in source water of nine community water systems that withdraw from streams, 2002-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, James A.; Delzer, Gregory C.; Hamilton, Pixie A.

    2008-01-01

    Initial findings from a national study by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) characterize the occurrence of about 250 anthropogenic organic compounds in source water (defined as water collected at a surface-water intake prior to water treatment) at nine community water systems in nine States in the Nation. The organic compounds analyzed in this study are primarily man-made and include pesticides, solvents, gasoline hydrocarbons, personal-care and domestic-use products, disinfection by-products, and manufacturing additives. The study also describes and compares the occurrence of selected compounds detected in source water with their occurrence in finished water, which is defined as water that has passed through treatment processes but prior to distribution. This fact sheet summarizes major findings and implications of the study and serves as a companion product to two USGS reports that present more detailed and technical information for the nine systems studied during 2002-05 (Carter and others, 2007; Kingsbury and others, 2008).

  16. Earthworms and priming of soil organic matter - The impact of food sources, food preferences and fauna - microbiota interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potthoff, Martin; Wichern, Florian; Dyckmans, Jens; Joergensen, Rainer Georg

    2016-04-01

    Earthworms deeply interact with the processes of soil organic matter turnover in soil. Stabilization of carbon by soil aggregation and in the humus fraction of SOM are well known processes related to earthworm activity and burrowing. However, recent research on priming effects showed inconsistent effects for the impact of earthworm activity. Endogeic earthworms can induce apparent as well as true positive priming effects. The main finding is almost always that earthworm increase the CO2 production from soil. The sources of this carbon release can vary and seem to depend on a complex interaction of quantity and quality of available carbon sources including added substrates like straw or other compounds, food preferences and feeding behavior of earthworms, and soil properties. Referring to recent studies on earthworm effects on soil carbon storage and release (mainly Eck et al. 2015 Priming effects of Aporrectodea caliginosa on young rhizodeposits and old soil organic matter following wheat straw addition, European Journal of Soil Biology 70:38-45; Zareitalabad et al. 2010 Decomposition of 15N-labelled maize leaves in soil affected by endogeic geophagous Aporrectodea caliginosa, Soil Biology and Biochemistry 42(2):276-282; and Potthoff et al. 2001 Short-term effects of earthworm activity and straw amendment on the microbial C and N turnover in a remoistened arable soil after summer drought, Soil Biology and Biochemistry 33(4):583-591) we summaries the knowledge on earthworms and priming and come up with a conceptual approach and further research needs.

  17. Occurrence, distribution, and sources of emerging organic contaminants in tropical coastal sediments of anthropogenically impacted Klang River estuary, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Tuan Fauzan Tuan; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Mustafa, Shuhaimi

    2018-06-01

    This baseline assessment reports on the occurrence, distribution, and sources of emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) in tropical coastal sediments of anthropogenically impacted Klang River estuary, Malaysia. Bisphenol A was the highest concentration detected at 16.84 ng g -1 dry weight, followed by diclofenac (13.88 ng g -1 dry weight) and E1 (12.47 ng g -1 dry weight). Five compounds, namely, amoxicillin, progesterone, diazinon, bisphenol A, and E1, were found in all sampling stations assessed, and other compounds such as primidone, diclofenac, testosterone, E2, and EE2 were ubiquitously present in sediment samples, with percentage of detection range from 89.04% to 98.38%. Organic carbon content and pH were the important factors controlling the fate of targeted compounds in the tropical estuarine sediment. On the basis of the literature from other studies, the sources of EOCs are thought to be from wastewater treatment plants, domestic/medical waste discharge, livestock activities, industrial waste discharge, and agricultural activities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The function of advanced treatment process in a drinking water treatment plant with organic matter-polluted source water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huirong; Zhang, Shuting; Zhang, Shenghua; Lin, Wenfang; Yu, Xin

    2017-04-01

    To understand the relationship between chemical and microbial treatment at each treatment step, as well as the relationship between microbial community structure in biofilms in biofilters and their ecological functions, a drinking water plant with severe organic matter-polluted source water was investigated. The bacterial community dynamics of two drinking water supply systems (traditional and advanced treatment processes) in this plant were studied from the source to the product water. Analysis by 454 pyrosequencing was conducted to characterize the bacterial diversity in each step of the treatment processes. The bacterial communities in these two treatment processes were highly diverse. Proteobacteria, which mainly consisted of beta-proteobacteria, was the dominant phylum. The two treatment processes used in the plant could effectively remove organic pollutants and microbial polution, especially the advanced treatment process. Significant differences in the detection of the major groups were observed in the product water samples in the treatment processes. The treatment processes, particularly the biological pretreatment and O 3 -biological activated carbon in the advanced treatment process, highly influenced the microbial community composition and the water quality. Some opportunistic pathogens were found in the water. Nitrogen-relative microorganisms found in the biofilm of filters may perform an important function on the microbial community composition and water quality improvement.

  19. Dynamic permeation sources for volatile organic compounds (VOCS): 'a standards test environment' nuclear track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Marr, I.

    2000-01-01

    The generation of a test environment for trace VOCs in urban air or work place has never been easy. This investigation is concerned with the loss rates of VOCs through polythene membrane of different thickness. Permeation glass sample bottles were suspended in the chamber with water jacket at 24 deg. C -+ 0.5 deg. temperature. The condenser was connected with a stream of nitrogen gas at a flow rate of 75-ml min/sup -1 and further diluted with air 500-ml min/sup -1/. The loss in weight of VOCs in each bottle was determined regularly, every 24 hours, with a good agreement. The loss rate depends upon temperature of the bath, thickness of the polythene, internal diameter of the permeation bottle opening. However the loss rate from permeation tubes also depends upon the solubility of the VOCs in the polymer. It is generally believed that the vapors of VOCs in the permeation bottle are dissolved in the polythene sheet (making some sort of solution) and are eventually evaporated out of it. It was observed that the loss rate per minute for benzene > toluene. This simple technique described 'generation of test environment through dynamic permeation source' could be suitable for preparing mixture of benzene, toluene and xylene in atmosphere at ppm levels or lower, with good stability, reliability and also for other compounds of atmospheric interest. (author)

  20. [Distribution and source of particulate organic carbon and particulate nitrogen in the Yangtze River Estuary in summer 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Jian-Wei; Xian, Wei-Wei; Sheng, Xiu-Zhen

    2014-07-01

    Based on the data from the cruise carried out in August 2012 in the Yangtze River Estuary and its adjacent waters, spatial distributions of particulate organic carbon (POC), particulate nitrogen (PN) and their relationships with environmental factors were studied, and the source of POC and the contribution of phytoplankton to POC were analyzed combined with n (C)/n (N) ratio and chlorophyll a (Chl a) in the Yangtze River Estuary in summer 2012. The results showed that the concentrations of POC in the Yangtze River Estuary ranged from 0.68 mg x L(-1) to 34.80 mg x L(-1) in summer and the average content was 3.74 mg x L(-1), and PN contents varied between 0.03 mg x L(-1) and 9.13 mg x L(-1) with an average value of 0.57 mg x L(-1). Both of them presented that the concentrations in bottom layers were higher than those in the surface. POC and PN as well as total suspended matter (TSM) showed a extremel similar horizontal distribution trend that the highest values appeared in the near of the mouth and southwest of the survey waters, and decreased rapidly as toward the open seas, both of them showed higher contents in coastal zones and lower in outer sea. There was a fairly good positive linear relationship between POC and PN, which indicated that they had the same source. POC and PN expressed significantly positive correlations with TSM and chemical oxygen demand (COD), but showed relatively weak correlations with salinit and chlorophyll a, which demonstrated that terrestrial inputs had a strong influence on the distribution of POC and PN, and phytoplankton production was not the major source of organic matters in the Yangtze River Estuary. Both the n (C)/n (N) ratio and POC/Chl a analysis showed that the main source of POC was terrestrial inputs, and organic debris was the main existence form of POC. Quantitative analysis showed the biomass of phytoplankton only made an average of 2.54% contribution to POC in the Yangtze Rive Estuary in summer and non-living POC

  1. Real time measurements of submicrometer aerosols in Seoul, Korea: Sources, characteristics, and processing of organic aerosols during winter time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Zhang, Q.

    2016-12-01

    Highly time-resolved chemical characterization of non-refractory submicrometer particulate matter (NR-PM1) was conducted in Seoul, the capital of Korea, using an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). The measurements were performed during winter when persistent air quality problems associated with elevated PM concentrations were observed. The average NR-PM1 concentration was 27.5 µg m-3 and the average mass was dominated by organics (44%), followed by nitrate (24%) and sulfate (10%). Five distinct sources of organic aerosol (OA) were identified from positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of the AMS data: vehicle emissions represented by a hydrocarbon-like OA factor (HOA), cooking represented by a cooking OA factor (COA), wood combustion represented by a biomass burning OA factor (BBOA), and secondary aerosol formation in the atmosphere that is represented by a semi-volatile oxygenated OA factor (SVOOA) and a low volatile oxygenated OA factor (LVOOA). These factors, on average, contributed 16, 20, 23, 15 and 26% to the total OA mass, respectively, with primary organic aerosol (POA = HOA + COA + BBOA) accounting for 59% of the OA mass. On average, both primary emissions and secondary aerosol formation are important factors affecting air quality in Seoul during winter, contributing approximately equal. However, differences in the fraction of PM source and properties were observed between high and low loading PM period. For example, during stagnant period with low wind speed (WS) (0.99 ± 0.7 m/s) and high RH (71%), high PM loadings (43.6 ± 12.4 µg m-3) with enhanced fractions of nitrate (27%) and SVOOA (8%) were observed, indicating a strong influence from locally generated secondary aerosol. On the other hand, when low PM loadings (12.6 ± 7.1 µg m-3), which were commonly associated with high WS (1.8 ± 1.1 m/s) and low RH (50 %), were observed, the fraction of regional sources, such as sulfate (12%) and LVOOA (21

  2. Micro-scale anaerobic digestion of point source components of organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanakya, H.N.; Sharma, Isha; Ramachandra, T.V.

    2009-01-01

    The fermentation characteristics of six specific types of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) were examined, with an emphasis on properties that are needed when designing plug-flow type anaerobic bioreactors. More specifically, the decomposition patterns of a vegetable (cabbage), fruits (banana and citrus peels), fresh leaf litter of bamboo and teak leaves, and paper (newsprint) waste streams as feedstocks were studied. Individual OFMSW components were placed into nylon mesh bags and subjected to various fermentation periods (solids retention time, SRT) within the inlet of a functioning plug-flow biogas fermentor. These were removed at periodic intervals, and their composition was analyzed to monitor decomposition rates and changes in chemical composition. Components like cabbage waste, banana peels, and orange peels fermented rapidly both in a plug-flow biogas reactor (PFBR) as well as under a biological methane potential (BMP) assay, while other OFMSW components (leaf litter from bamboo and teak leaves and newsprint) fermented slowly with poor process stability and moderate biodegradation. For fruit and vegetable wastes (FVW), a rapid and efficient removal of pectins is the main cause of rapid disintegration of these feedstocks, which left behind very little compost forming residues (2-5%). Teak and bamboo leaves and newsprint decomposed only to 25-50% in 30 d. These results confirm the potential for volatile fatty acids accumulation in a PFBR's inlet and suggest a modification of the inlet zone or operation of a PFBR with the above feedstocks

  3. A field-portable supercritical fluid extractor for characterizing sources of waterborne organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruchter, J.S.; Wright, B.W.

    1992-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is a viable alternative to current methods of liquid extraction for analyzing semivolatile organic compounds in contaminated solid matrices, such as soil and sediment. Because the SFE method is rapid (less than 30 min), large quantities of glassware and large volumes of solvent are not required, and there are fewer sample-handling and sample-preparation steps than in conventional liquid extraction methods, SFE lends itself to in-the-field extraction of solid samples. Laboratory-scale and portable SFE instruments were designed and tested both in the laboratory and in the field. The SFE method was validated through two recovery studies using individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) standards ranging from two to six rings in size and through two Soxhlet extraction comparison studies. Supercritical fluid extraction followed by gas chromatography was applied to 20 coal-tar-contaminated soil samples from three locations, 10 petroleum-oil-tar-contaminated soil samples, and 20 polychlorinated-biphenyl-contaminated soil samples. The SFE apparatus was transported and used in the field at four locations across the United States. Carbon dioxide was used as the extraction fluid

  4. When organ donation from living donors serves as the main source of organ procurement: a critical examination of the ethical and legal challenges to Turkey's recent efforts to overcome organ shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sert, G; Guven, T; Gorkey, S

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that Turkey has implemented a number of legislative and regulatory efforts to increase cadaveric donations, live donors still serve as the main source of organ procurement in this country. To address this problem, Turkey's regulatory authorities have sought to increase the number of brain death declarations. A new regulation issued in 2012 repeats the criteria for brain death that were first issued in 1993. This paper argues that these efforts are far from adequate owing to a number of complicated, ethical, and legal challenges that must be addressed to increase cadaveric organ donations. After examining these factors, which are completely neglected in current policies, we conclude that Turkey needs a realistic ethically justifiable organ procurement policy that must be supported by a framework of patient rights to implement the concept of patient autonomy and respect for human dignity in health care services as the primary goal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A new method to discriminate secondary organic aerosols from different sources using high-resolution aerosol mass spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heringa, M. F.; Decarlo, P. F.; Chirico, R.; Tritscher, T.; Clairotte, M.; Mohr, C.; Crippa, M.; Slowik, J. G.; Pfaffenberger, L.; Dommen, J.; Weingartner, E.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.

    2012-02-01

    Organic aerosol (OA) represents a significant and often major fraction of the non-refractory PM1 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter da car and a two-stroke Euro 2 scooter were characterized with an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS) and compared to SOA from α-pinene. The emissions were sampled from the chimney/tailpipe by a heated inlet system and filtered before injection into a smog chamber. The gas phase emissions were irradiated by xenon arc lamps to initiate photo-chemistry which led to nucleation and subsequent particle growth by SOA production. Duplicate experiments were performed for each SOA type, with the averaged organic mass spectra showing Pearson's r values >0.94 for the correlations between the four different SOA types after five hours of aging. High-resolution mass spectra (HR-MS) showed that the dominant peaks in the MS, m/z 43 and 44, are dominated by the oxygenated ions C2H3O+ and CO2+, respectively, similarly to the relatively fresh semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA) observed in the ambient aerosol. The atomic O:C ratios were found to be in the range of 0.25-0.55 with no major increase during the first five hours of aging. On average, the diesel SOA showed the lowest O:C ratio followed by SOA from wood burning, α-pinene and the scooter emissions. Grouping the fragment ions revealed that the SOA source with the highest O:C ratio had the largest fraction of small ions. The HR data of the four sources could be clustered and separated using principal component analysis (PCA). The model showed a significant separation of the four SOA types and clustering of the duplicate experiments on the first two principal components (PCs), which explained 79% of the total variance. Projection of ambient SV-OOA spectra resolved by positive matrix factorization (PMF) showed that this approach could be useful to identify large contributions of the tested SOA sources to SV-OOA. The first results from this

  6. Influence of the iron source on the solar photo-Fenton degradation of different classes of organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, R.F.P.; Silva, M.R.A.; Trovo, A.G. [UNESP, Sao Paulo State University, Institute of Chemistry of Araraquara, P.O. Box 355, 14800-970, Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2005-10-01

    In this work the influence of two different iron sources, Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} and complexed ferrioxalate (FeOx), on the degradation efficiency of 4-chlorophenol (4CP), malachite green, formaldehyde, dichloroacetic acid (DCA) and the commercial products of the herbicides diuron and tebuthiuron was studied. The oxidation of 4CP, DCA, diuron and tebuthiuron shows a strong dependence on the iron source. While the 4CP degradation is favored by the use of Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}, the degradation of DCA and the herbicides diuron and tebuthiuron is most efficient when ferrioxalate is used. On the other hand, the degradation of malachite green and formaldehyde is not very influenced by the iron source showing only a slight improvement when ferrioxalate is used. In the case of formaldehyde, DCA, diuron and tebuthiuron, despite of the additional carbon introduced by the use of ferrioxalate, higher mineralization percentages were observed, confirming the beneficial effect of ferrioxalate on the degradation of these compounds. The degradation of tebuthiuron was studied in detail using a shallow pond type solar flow reactor of 4.5L capacity and 4.5cm solution depth. Solar irradiation of tebuthiuron at a flow rate of 9Lh{sup -1}, in the presence of 10.0mmolL{sup -1} H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and 1.0mmolL{sup -1} ferrioxalate resulted in complete conversion of this herbicide and 70% total organic carbon removal. (author)

  7. Sources and fate of organic (DOC, POC, CDOM) and inorganic (DIC) carbon in a mangrove dominated estuary (French Guiana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, R.; Michaud, E.; Vantrepotte, V.; Aller, R. C.; Morvan, S.; Thouzeau, G.

    2016-12-01

    We studied the mangrove dominated Sinnamary estuarine system in French Guiana during the dry and wet seasons in 2015 to examine the sources, transport and fate of surface water DOC, POC and DIC along the salinity gradient and the effect of tidal fluctuations on carbon dynamics. Elemental ratios, stable isotopes and optical properties (absorption) were applied as proxies to delineate the sources and molecular structure of the organic carbon. Results showed that during the wet season there were significant net inputs of POC and DOC along the salinity gradient from mangroves and enhanced surface runoff. Time series performed during the dry season at a station in channel water adjacent to mangroves revealed mangrove-derived export and exchanges of DOC and POC during the ebb and marine algae import during the flood. DOC was the dominant form of carbon in both seasons with DOC:POC ratios typically between 13 and 40. Both δ13DOC and CDOM descriptors (e.g., S275-295 and a*412) confirmed mangrove litter leaching to be the primary contributor of high molecular weight dissolved organic matter in the wet season which was replaced by marine phytoplanktonic OC during transport offshore in the dry season. CDOM aromaticity is lower in the dry season as mangrove inputs decrease. POC showed similar trends as DOC, with maximum contributions of terrestrial litter in the river and mixing zone, and in situ production dominant in the marine zone. The entire estuary is heterotrophic, exhibiting high pCO2 (837-5575µatm) and oxygen undersaturation (59-86%) in both seasons, and substantial CO2 emission fluxes (278-3671mmol m-2 d-1). Intense local remineralization and laterally transported CO2 originating from mangrove benthic respiration could account for the water column pCO2 enrichment during low tide and night time. Keywords: Organic carbon, stable isotopes, CDOM, pCO2, mangrove, French Guiana

  8. Monitoring priority substances, other organic contaminants and heavy metals in a volcanic aquifer from different sources and hydrological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevez, Esmeralda; Cabrera, María del Carmen; Fernández-Vera, Juan Ramón; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Robles-Molina, José; Palacios-Díaz, María del Pino

    2016-05-01

    Irrigation with reclaimed water (R) is necessary to guarantee the sustainability of semi-arid areas. Results obtained during a two years monitoring network (2009-2011) in Gran Canaria are presented, including the analysis of chemical parameters, N and S isotopes, priority substances (2008/105/EC, 2013/39/EU), other organic contaminants and heavy metals in groundwater and R used to irrigate a golf course. The aims of this work are to evaluate the contamination in a volcanic aquifer, relate the presence of organic contaminants and heavy metals with the hydrogeochemistry and identify pollution sources in the area. No priority substance exceeded the EU thresholds for surface water, although seventeen were detected in R. The most frequent compounds were hexachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos ethyl, fluorene, phenanthrene and pyrene. These compounds were detected at low concentration, except chlorpyrifos. Chlorpyrifos ethyl, terbuthylazine, diuron, terbutryn, procymidone, atrazine and propazine exceeded the European threshold concentration for pesticides in groundwater (100ngL(-1)). Therefore, the priority substances chlorpyrifos ethyl and diuron must be included in monitoring studies. The priority pesticides chlorfenvinphos and diazinon were always detected in R but rarely in groundwater. Besides, the existence of contaminants not related to the current R irrigation has been identified. Absence of environmental problems related to heavy metals can be expected. The relationship among contaminant presence, hydrogeochemistry, including the stable isotopic prints of δ(18)O, δ(15)N and δ(34)S and preferential recharge paths has been described. The coastal well shows high values of EC, nitrate, a variable chemistry, and 50% of organic contaminants detected above 100ngL(-1). The well located in the recharge area presents a stable hydrochemistry, the lowest value of δ(15)N and the lowest contaminants occurrence. The area is an example of a complex volcanic media with several

  9. Interfacial photochemistry of biogenic surfactants: a major source of abiotic volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, Martin; Hayeck, Nathalie; Bonnineau, Chloé; Pesce, Stéphane; Alpert, Peter A; Perrier, Sébastien; Zuth, Christoph; Hoffmann, Thorsten; Chen, Jianmin; George, Christian

    2017-08-24

    Films of biogenic compounds exposed to the atmosphere are ubiquitously found on the surfaces of cloud droplets, aerosol particles, buildings, plants, soils and the ocean. These air/water interfaces host countless amphiphilic compounds concentrated there with respect to in bulk water, leading to a unique chemical environment. Here, photochemical processes at the air/water interface of biofilm-containing solutions were studied, demonstrating abiotic VOC production from authentic biogenic surfactants under ambient conditions. Using a combination of online-APCI-HRMS and PTR-ToF-MS, unsaturated and functionalized VOCs were identified and quantified, giving emission fluxes comparable to previous field and laboratory observations. Interestingly, VOC fluxes increased with the decay of microbial cells in the samples, indicating that cell lysis due to cell death was the main source for surfactants and VOC production. In particular, irradiation of samples containing solely biofilm cells without matrix components exhibited the strongest VOC production upon irradiation. In agreement with previous studies, LC-MS measurements of the liquid phase suggested the presence of fatty acids and known photosensitizers, possibly inducing the observed VOC production via peroxy radical chemistry. Up to now, such VOC emissions were directly accounted to high biological activity in surface waters. However, the results obtained suggest that abiotic photochemistry can lead to similar emissions into the atmosphere, especially in less biologically-active regions. Furthermore, chamber experiments suggest that oxidation (O 3 /OH radicals) of the photochemically-produced VOCs leads to aerosol formation and growth, possibly affecting atmospheric chemistry and climate-related processes, such as cloud formation or the Earth's radiation budget.

  10. Mosaic organization of the hippocampal neuroepithelium and the multiple germinal sources of dentate granule cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altman, J.; Bayer, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    This study deals with the site of origin, migration, and settling of the principal cell constituents of the rat hippocampus during the embryonic period. The results indicate that the hippocampal neuroepithelium consists of three morphogenetically discrete components--the Ammonic neuroepithelium, the primary dentate neuroepithelium, and the fimbrial glioepithelium--and that these are discrete sources of the large neurons of Ammon's horn, the smaller granular neurons of the dentate gyrus, and the glial cells of the fimbria. The putative Ammonic neuroepithelium is marked in short-survival thymidine radiograms by a high level of proliferative activity and evidence of interkinetic nuclear migration from day E16 until day E19. On days E16 and E17 a diffuse band of unlabeled cells forms outside the Ammonic neuroepithelium. These postmitotic cells are considered to be stratum radiatum and stratum oriens neurons, which are produced in large numbers as early as day E15. A cell-dense layer, the incipient stratum pyramidale, begins to form on day E18 and spindle-shaped cells can be traced to it from the Ammonic neuroepithelium. This migratory band increases in size for several days, then declines, and finally disappears by day E22. It is inferred that this migration contains the pyramidal cells of Ammon's horn that are produced mostly on days E17 through E20. The putative primary dentate neuroepithelium is distinguished from the Ammonic neuroepithelium during the early phases of embryonic development by its location, shape, and cellular dynamics. It is located around a ventricular indentation, the dentate notch, contains fewer mitotic cells near the lumen of the ventricle than the Ammonic neuroepithelium, and shows a different labeling pattern both in short-survival and sequential-survival thymidine radiograms

  11. Temporal variability in terrestrially-derived sources of particulate organic carbon in the lower Mississippi River and its upper tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Thomas S.; Wysocki, Laura A.; Stewart, Mike; Filley, Timothy R.; McKee, Brent A.

    2007-09-01

    In this study, we examined the temporal changes of terrestrially-derived particulate organic carbon (POC) in the lower Mississippi River (MR) and in a very limited account, the upper tributaries (Upper MR, Ohio River, and Missouri River). We used for the first time a combination of lignin-phenols, bulk stable carbon isotopes, and compound-specific isotope analyses (CSIA) to examine POC in the lower MR and upper tributaries. A lack of correlation between POC and lignin phenol abundances ( Λ8) was likely due to dilution effects from autochthonous production in the river, which has been shown to be considerably higher than previously expected. The range of δ 13C values for p-hydroxycinnamic and ferulic acids in POC in the lower river do support that POM in the lower river does have a significant component of C 4 in addition to C 3 source materials. A strong correlation between δ 13C values of p-hydroxycinnamic, ferulic, and vanillyl phenols suggests a consistent input of C 3 and C 4 carbon to POC lignin while a lack of correlation between these same phenols and POC bulk δ 13C further indicates the considerable role of autochthonous carbon in the lower MR POC budget. Our estimates indicate an annual flux of POC of 9.3 × 10 8 kg y -1 to the Gulf of Mexico. Total lignin fluxes, based on Λ8 values of POC, were estimated to be 1.2 × 10 5 kg y -1. If we include the total dissolved organic carbon (DOC) flux (3.1 × 10 9 kg y -1) reported by [Bianchi T. S., Filley T., Dria K. and Hatcher, P. (2004) Temporal variability in sources of dissolved organic carbon in the lower Mississippi River. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta68, 959-967.], we get a total organic carbon flux of 4.0 × 10 9 kg y -1. This represents 0.82% of the annual total organic carbon supplied to the oceans by rivers (4.9 × 10 11 kg).

  12. Fate of PCBs, PAHs and their source characteristic ratios during composting and diges