WorldWideScience

Sample records for source categories oil

  1. Methodologies for estimating air emissions from three non-traditional source categories: Oil spills, petroleum vessel loading and unloading, and cooling towers. Final report, October 1991-March 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, W.; Sleva, S.; Dufner, K.; Snow, S.; Kersteter, S.L.

    1993-04-01

    The report discusses part of EPA's program to identify and characterize emissions sources not currently accounted for by either the existing Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) or State Implementation Plan (SIP) area source methodologies and to develop appropriate emissions estimation methodologies and emission factors for a group of these source categories. Based on the results of the identification and characterization portions of this research, three source categories were selected for methodology and emission factor development: oil spills, petroleum vessel loading and unloading, and cooling towers. The report describes the category selection process and presents emissions estimation methodologies and emission factor data for the selected source categories. The discussions for each category include general background information, emissions generation activities, pollutants emitted, sources of activity and pollutant data, emissions estimation methodologies and data issues. The information used in these discussions was derived from various sources including available literature, industrial and trade association publications and contracts, experts on the category and activity, and knowledgeable federal and state personnel

  2. 40 CFR 98.410 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Industrial Greenhouse Gases § 98.410 Definition of the source category. (a) The industrial gas supplier source category consists of any facility that...

  3. 40 CFR 98.110 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Ferroalloy Production § 98.110 Definition of the source category. The ferroalloy production source category consists of any facility that uses pyrometallurgical techniques to produce any of the following metals: ferrochromium, ferromanganese, ferromolybdenum...

  4. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Xxxxxx... - Description of Source Categories Affected by This Subpart

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... heating units, combination gas-oil burners, oil or gas swimming pool heaters, heating apparatus (except... supplies industry sector of this source category includes establishments primarily engaged in high energy...), coke and gas burning salamanders, liquid or gas solar energy collectors, solar heaters, space heaters...

  5. 6 Source Categories - Boilers (Proposed Action)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is proposing options to simplify the Clean Air Act permitting process for certain smaller sources of air pollution commonly found in Indian country. This action would ensure that air quality in Indian country is protected.

  6. 40 CFR 98.360 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... this rule. (b) A manure management system (MMS) is a system that stabilizes and/or stores livestock... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Manure Management § 98.360 Definition of the source category. (a) This source category consists of livestock facilities with manure management systems that emit 25...

  7. 40 CFR 98.70 - Definition of source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of source category. 98.70... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Ammonia Manufacturing § 98.70 Definition of source category...-based feedstock produced via steam reforming of a hydrocarbon. (b) Ammonia manufacturing processes in...

  8. 40 CFR 98.40 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of the source category. 98... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Electricity Generation § 98.40 Definition of the source... category does not include portable equipment, emergency equipment, or emergency generators, as defined in...

  9. Microorganisms as sources of oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thevenieau France

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A number of microorganism belonging to the genera of yeast, fungi, bacteria and microalgae have ability to accumulate substantial amounts of oil, sometimes up to an even in excess of 70% of their biomass weight under specific cultivation conditions. For nearly 100 years, the commercial opportunities of using microorganisms as sources of oils have been continuously examined. Although it was evident that microbial oils could never compete commercially with the major commodity plant oils, there were commercially opportunities for the production of some of the higher valued oils. Today, with the great progress of metabolic and genetic engineering, the developments are focus on the high value oils containing important polyunsaturated or specific fatty acids. Such oils have the potential to be used in different applications area as food, feed and oleochemistry. This review is covering the related researches about different oleaginous microorganisms for lipids production and microbial oils biosynthesis process. In add, the lipid metabolism, metabolic engineering strategies to increase lipid production and the economics of microbial oils production are introduced.

  10. 40 CFR 98.420 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of the source category. 98.420 Section 98.420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... distribution of CO2. (4) Purification, compression, or processing of CO2. (5) On-site use of CO2 captured on...

  11. Task-Modulated Cortical Representations of Natural Sound Source Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens; Kassuba, Tanja; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard

    2018-01-01

    In everyday sound environments, we recognize sound sources and events by attending to relevant aspects of an acoustic input. Evidence about the cortical mechanisms involved in extracting relevant category information from natural sounds is, however, limited to speech. Here, we used functional MRI...

  12. 40 CFR 98.240 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... makes methanol, hydrogen, and/or ammonia from synthesis gas is part of the petrochemical source category... hydrogen recovered as product and ammonia. The facility is part of subpart P of this part (Hydrogen... levels of both methanol and ammonia. The facility is part of subpart G of this part (Ammonia...

  13. 33 CFR 151.35 - Certificates needed to carry Category D NLS and Category D Oil-like NLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... unless the ship has a Certificate of Inspection endorsed to allow the NLS to be carried in that cargo... Category D oil-like NLS listed in § 151.49 in a cargo tank unless the ship has a Certificate of Inspection... Certificate of Inspection endorsed to allow the NLS to be carried in that cargo tank, and if the ship engages...

  14. Identification of oil spill's sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boniforti, R.

    1992-10-01

    Identifying the source of a marine oil spill is complicated because of the rapid modifications (weathering) undergone by oil as soon as it reaches the sea. Deciding if differences occurring between an oil sample collected after the spill and the original oil can be attributed to weathering involves not only adoption of sophisticated analytical methods but also correct sampling techniques and strict adherence to a chain-of-custody procedure. The method described in this paper, largely based on those adopted by some northern European countries, establishes the identity or non-identity of two samples by exploiting differences rather than similarities between them. It increases the efficiency of the method because it is sufficient to establish that there exists only one difference for deciding that two samples are different

  15. 76 FR 4155 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories: Gasoline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... 63 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories: Gasoline Distribution Bulk Terminals, Bulk Plants, and Pipeline Facilities; and Gasoline Dispensing Facilities; Final...] RIN 2060-AP16 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories: Gasoline...

  16. Preliminary data summary for the hospitals point-source category

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strassler, E.; Hund, F.H.

    1989-09-01

    The summaries were prepared in order to allow EPA to respond to the mandate of Section 304(m) of the Clean Water Act. Summaries for categories already subject to rulemaking were developed for comparison purposes, and contain only the minimum amount of data needed to provide some perspective on the relative magnitude of the pollution problems created across the categories. The document summarizes the most current information available regarding the discharge of wastewater and solid wastes containing priority and hazardous non-priority pollutants by hospitals. The document provides a technical basis for determining whether additional national regulations should be developed pursuant to the Clean Water Act (CWA), and makes available preliminary information regarding the discharge of priority and hazardous non-priority pollutants by the hospital industry

  17. Tactics at the category level of purchasing and supply management: sourcing levers, contingencies and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Hesping, Frank

    2015-01-01

    For the ‘front-line’ purchasing agent, it is obvious that not all categories of products and supplier relationships should be managed in the same way. Rather, in a modern category management approach, firms group similar products into ‘sourcing categories’ forming coherent supply markets (e.g., ‘metal sheets’, ‘leather’, ‘displays’, ‘cables’, etc.). Thus, to achieve cost reduction targets, a tailored mix of tactical sourcing levers for each sourcing category may be required. The fundamental q...

  18. The Role of External Sources of Information in Children's Evaluative Food Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Simone P.

    2012-01-01

    Evaluative food categories are value-laden assessments, which reflect the healthfulness and palatability of foods (e.g. healthy/unhealthy, yummy/yucky). In a series of three studies, this research examines how 3- to 4-year-old children (N?=?147) form evaluative food categories based on input from external sources of information. The results…

  19. Tactics at the category level of purchasing and supply management: sourcing levers, contingencies and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesping, Frank

    2015-01-01

    For the ‘front-line’ purchasing agent, it is obvious that not all categories of products and supplier relationships should be managed in the same way. Rather, in a modern category management approach, firms group similar products into ‘sourcing categories’ forming coherent supply markets (e.g.,

  20. 77 FR 11390 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories; Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... Source Categories. Subpart ZZZZZZ--NESHAP: Area Source Standards for Aluminum, Copper, and Other... Perchloroethylene Dry X X X Cleaning. N Hard and Decorative X X X Chromium Electroplating and Chromium Anodizing... Publishing X X X Industry. LL Primary Aluminum Reduction X X Plants. MM Chemical Recovery X X Combustion...

  1. Anoxic environments and oil source bed genesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaison, G J [Chevron Overseas Petroleum Inc., San Francisco, CA; Moore, G T

    1980-01-01

    The anoxic, aquatic, environment is a mass of water so depleted in oxygen that virtually all aerobic biological activity has ceased. Anoxic conditions occur where the demand for oxygen in the water column exceeds the supply. The specific cause for preferential lipid enrichment probably relates to the biochemistry of anaerobic bacterial activity. Recent evidence suggests that ancient organic-rich sediments containing hydrogen-rich kerogens (potential oil source beds) were deposited in similar anoxic environments. We propose the following classification for modern aquatic anoxic settings: (1) Large anoxic lakes - Permanent stratification promotes development of anoxic bottom water, particularly in large, deep lakes, which are not subject to seasonal overturn, e.g., Lake Tanganyika. (2) Anoxic silled basins - Landlocked silled basins with positive water balance tend to become anoxic. Typical are the Baltic and Black Seas. In arid region seas (Red and Mediterranean Seas), evaporation exceeds river inflow, causing negative water balance and well-aerated, nutrient-depleted bottom waters. (3) Anoxic layers caused by upwelling - Develop only when the oxygen supply in deep water cannot match demand by decaying organisms. Examples are the Benguela current and Peru coastal upwelling. (4) Open ocean anoxic layers - Found at intermediate depths in the northeastern Pacific and northern Indian Oceans; due to distance from deep, oxygenated polar water sources. Analogous to world-wide anoxic events at times of global climatic warm-ups and major transgressions, as in late Jurassic and middle Cretaceous time. Petroleum exploration can be greatly assisted by using geochemistry to identify paleo-anoxic events in the stratigraphic record. Recognition of the proposed anoxic models in ancient sedimentary basins should help in regional mapping of oil shales and oil-source beds. 17 figures.

  2. Kuwaiti oil fires: Composition of source smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cofer, W.R. III; Cahoon, D.R. [Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States); Stevens, R.K.; Pinto, J.P. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Winstead, E.L.; Sebacher, D.I. [Hughes STX Corp., Hampton, VA (United States); Abdulraheem, M.Y. [Kuwait Environmental Protection Dept., Kuwait City (Kuwait); Al-Sahafi, M. [Ministry of Defense and Aviation, Eastern Province (Saudi Arabia); Mazurek, M.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Rasmussen, R.A. [Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology, Beaverton, OR (United States)] [and others

    1992-09-20

    While the Kuwaiti oil-fire smoke plumes manifested a pronounced impact on solar radiation in the Gulf region (visibility, surface temperatures, etc.), smoke plume concentrations of combustion-generated pollutants suggest that the overall chemical impact on the atmosphere of the smoke from these fires was probably much less than anticipated. Combustion in the Kuwaiti oil fires was surprisingly efficient, releasing on average more than 93% of the combusted hydrocarbon fuels as carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Correspondingly, combustion-produced quantities of carbon monoxide (CO) and carbonaceous particles were low, each {approximately} 2% by weight. The fraction of methane (CH{sub 4}) produced by the fires was also relatively low ({approximately} 0.2%), but source emissions of nonmethane hydrocarbons were high ({approximately} 2%). Processes other than combustion (e.g., volatilization) probably contributed significantly to the measured in-plume hydrocarbon concentrations. Substantially, different elemental to organic carbon ratios were obtained for aerosol particles from several different types of fires/smokes. Sulfur emissions (particulate and gaseous) measured at the source fires were lower ({approximately} 0.5%) than predicted based on average sulfur contents in the crude. Sulfur dioxide measurements (SO{sub 2}) reported herein, however, were both limited in actual number and in the number of well fires sampled. Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions from the Kuwaiti oil fires were very low and often could not be distinguished from background concentrations. About 25-30% of the fires produced white smoke plumes that were found to be highly enriched in sodium and calcium chlorides. 18 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  3. Current status of securing Category 1 and 2 radioactive sources in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Y-F.; Tsai, C-H. [Atomic Energy Council of Executive Yuan of Taiwan (China)

    2014-07-01

    For enhancing safe and secure management of Category 1 and 2 radioactive sources against theft or unauthorized removal, AEC (Atomic Energy Council) of Taiwan have been regulating the import/export of the sources ever since 2005, in compliance with the IAEA's (International Atomic Energy Agency) 'Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources'. Furthermore in consulting the IAEA Nuclear Security Series No.11 report, administrative regulations on the program of securing the sources have been embodied into AECL's regulatory system since 2012, for the purpose of enforcing medical and non-medical licensees and industrial radiographers to establish their own radioactive source security programs. Regulations require that security functions such as access control, detection, delay, response and communication and security management measures are to be implemented within the programs. This paper is to introduce the current status in implementing the security control measures in Taiwan. (author)

  4. Effects of dietary oil sources and calcium : phosphorus levels on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the effects of varying dietary calcium (Ca) levels and sources of oil on performance of broiler chickens. A total of 378 one-day-old birds were fed 6% palm oil (PO), soybean oil (SO) or linseed oil (LO) in combination with three levels of Ca, 1%, 1.25% and 1.5%, for six weeks in a 3 x 3 factorial ...

  5. Analysis of filtration properties of locally sourced base oil for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the use of locally sourced oil like, groundnut oil, melon oil, vegetable oil, soya oil and palm oil as substitute for diesel oil in formulating oil base drilling fluids relative to filtration properties. The filtrate volumes of each of the oils were obtained for filtration control analysis. With increasing potash and ...

  6. Safety issues in the handling of radiation sources in category IV gamma radiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohli, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    There is potential for incidents/accidents related to handling of radiation sources. This is increasing due to the fact that more number of plants that too with much larger levels of activity are now coming up. Such facilities produce very high levels of exposure rates during irradiation. A person accidentally present in the irradiation cell can receive a lethal dose within a very short time. Apart from safety requirements during operation and maintenance of these facilities, safety during loading and unloading of sources is important. Category IV type irradiators are the most common. Doubly encapsulated Co-60 slugs are employed to form the source pencils. These irradiators employ a water pool for safely storing the source pencils when irradiation of the products is not going on or when human access is needed into the irradiation cell for some maintenance or source loading/unloading operations. Safety during loading/unloading operations of source pencils is important. In design itself care needs to be taken such that all such operations are convenient and any incident will not lead to a situation where it becomes difficult to come out. Different situations, which can arise during handling of radiation sources and suggested designs to obviate such tight situations, are discussed. (Author)

  7. 33 CFR 151.47 - Category D NLSs other than oil-like Category D NLSs that may be carried under this part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-, primary) Animal and Fish oils, n.o.s. (see also Oil, edible) Animal and Fish acid oils and distillates, n..., n.o.s. (see also Oil, edible) Vegetable acid oils and distillates, n.o.s. Waxes: Candelilla Carnauba...

  8. Sources of atmospheric emissions in the Athabasca oil sands region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    An inventory of emissions for the Athabasca oil sands airshed that can be used as a basis for air quality assessments was presented. This report was prepared for the Suncor Steepbank Mine Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and for the Syncrude Aurora Mine EIA. Both Syncrude and Suncor have plans to develop new oil sands leases and to increase their crude oil and bitumen production. Suncor has proposed modifications to reduce SO 2 emissions to the atmosphere and Syncrude will develop additional ambient air quality, sulphur deposition and biomonitoring programs to ensure that environmental quality is not compromised because of atmospheric emissions associated with their operations. Major emission sources are controlled and monitored by regulatory statutes, regulations and guidelines. In this report, the following four types of emission sources were identified and quantified: (1) major industrial sources associated with Suncor's and Syncrude's current oil sands operations, (2) fugitive and area emission sources such as volatilization of hydrocarbons from tanks and tailings ponds, (3) other industrial emission sources in the area, including oil sands and non-oil sands related facilities, and (4) highway and residential emission sources. Emissions associated with mining operations include: SO 2 , NO x , CO, and CO 2 . The overall conclusion was that although there are other smaller sources of emissions that can influence air quality, there is no reason to doubt that Suncor and Syncrude oil sands operations are the major sources of emissions to the atmosphere. 13 refs., 12 tabs., 8 figs

  9. Essential Oils and Fragrances from Natural Sources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physiological, psychological and spiritual. Our body uses the aromatic molecules (essential oils) in two ways: (1) through our olfactory system which is connected to the brain where our most primal feelings, urges and emotions reside, and (2) by absorp- tion of the low molecular weight compounds of essential oils through ...

  10. Levels of bioactive lipids in cooking oils: olive oil is the richest source of oleoyl serine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Heather B; Leishman, Emma

    2016-05-01

    Rates of osteoporosis are significantly lower in regions of the world where olive oil consumption is a dietary cornerstone. Olive oil may represent a source of oleoyl serine (OS), which showed efficacy in animal models of osteoporosis. Here, we tested the hypothesis that OS as well as structurally analogous N-acyl amide and 2-acyl glycerol lipids are present in the following cooking oils: olive, walnut, canola, high heat canola, peanut, safflower, sesame, toasted sesame, grape seed, and smart balance omega. Methanolic lipid extracts from each of the cooking oils were partially purified on C-18 solid-phase extraction columns. Extracts were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and 33 lipids were measured in each sample, including OS and bioactive analogs. Of the oils screened here, walnut oil had the highest number of lipids detected (22/33). Olive oil had the second highest number of lipids detected (20/33), whereas grape-seed and high-heat canola oil were tied for lowest number of detected lipids (6/33). OS was detected in 8 of the 10 oils tested and the levels were highest in olive oil, suggesting that there is something about the olive plant that enriches this lipid. Cooking oils contain varying levels of bioactive lipids from the N-acyl amide and 2-acyl glycerol families. Olive oil is a dietary source of OS, which may contribute to lowered prevalence of osteoporosis in countries with high consumption of this oil.

  11. Survey of tritiated oil sources and handling practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.M.

    1994-08-01

    Tritium interactions with oil sources (primarily associated with pumps) in tritium-handling facilities can lead to the incorporation of tritium in the oil and the production of tritiated hydrocarbons. This results in a source of radiological hazard and the need for special handling considerations during maintenance, decontamination, decommissioning and waste packaging and storage. The results of a general survey of tritiated-oil sources and their associated characteristics, handling practices, analysis techniques and waste treatment/storage methods are summarized here. Information was obtained from various tritium-handling laboratories, fusion devices, and CANDU plants. 38 refs., 1 fig

  12. Essential Oils and Fragrances from Natural Sources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Essential oils should be subjected to both qualitative and quan- ... Several methods are employed in modern perfumery. A perfume is a ... Three types of hydro- ..... Applied Research, Proceedings of the 27th International Symposium on.

  13. Anthropogenic Sulfur Dioxide Emissions, 1850-2005: National and Regional Data Set by Source Category, Version 2.86

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Anthropogenic Sulfur Dioxide Emissions, 1850-2005: National and Regional Data Set by Source Category, Version 2.86 provides annual estimates of anthropogenic...

  14. Oil source rocks in the Adiyaman area, southeast Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu, Cengiz

    In the Adiyaman area, southeast Turkey, two carbonate source rock units, the Karababa-A Member and the Karabogaz Formation, are identified. The maturity levels of the source rock units increase towards the north and the west. Both the Karababa-A Member and the Karabogaz Formation are good to excellent oil-source rocks with widespread "kitchen areas".

  15. Importance of algae oil as a source of biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan; Fatih Demirbas, M.

    2011-01-01

    Algae are the fastest-growing plants in the world. Industrial reactors for algal culture are open ponds, photobioreactors and closed systems. Algae are very important as a biomass source. Algae will some day be competitive as a source for biofuel. Different species of algae may be better suited for different types of fuel. Algae can be grown almost anywhere, even on sewage or salt water, and does not require fertile land or food crops, and processing requires less energy than the algae provides. Algae can be a replacement for oil based fuels, one that is more effective and has no disadvantages. Algae are among the fastest-growing plants in the world, and about 50% of their weight is oil. This lipid oil can be used to make biodiesel for cars, trucks, and airplanes. Microalgae have much faster growth-rates than terrestrial crops. the per unit area yield of oil from algae is estimated to be from 20,000 to 80,000 l per acre, per year; this is 7-31 times greater than the next best crop, palm oil. The lipid and fatty acid contents of microalgae vary in accordance with culture conditions. Most current research on oil extraction is focused on microalgae to produce biodiesel from algal oil. Algal-oil processes into biodiesel as easily as oil derived from land-based crops.

  16. Determination of danger categories of chisel waste, which are made by investigation and operation of oil-and-gas deposits in the Caspian Sea basin by calculation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Gadzhiyev

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article there is undertaken the attempt to define danger categories of the chisel solutions formed at investigation and operation of oil-and-gas deposits in Caspian sea basin by making calculations. Definition of a danger category was made in view of their initial structure and at various stages of drilling.

  17. Plant Oils as Potential Sources of Vitamin D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele I Stangl

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To combat vitamin D insufficiency in a population, reliable diet sources of vitamin D are required. The recommendations to consume more oily fish and the use of UVB treated yeast are already applied strategies to address vitamin D insufficiency. This study aimed to elucidate the suitability of plant oils as an alternative vitamin D source. Therefore, plant oils that are commonly used in human nutrition were firstly analyzed for their content of vitamin D precursors and metabolites. Secondly, selected oils were exposed to a short-term UVB irradiation to stimulate the synthesis of vitamin D. Finally, to elucidate the efficacy of plant-derived vitamin D to improve the vitamin D status, we fed UVB-exposed wheat germ oil for 4 weeks to mice and compared them with mice that received non-exposed or vitamin D3 supplemented wheat germ oil. Sterol analysis revealed that the selected plant oils contained high amounts of ergosterol, but also 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC, with the highest concentrations found in wheat germ oil. Exposure to UVB irradiation resulted in a partial conversion of ergosterol and 7-DHC to vitamin D2 and D3 in these oils. Mice fed the UVB-exposed wheat germ oil were able to improve their vitamin D status as shown by the rise in the plasma concentration of 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD and the liver content of vitamin D compared to mice fed the non-exposed oil. However, the plasma concentration of 25(OHD of mice fed the UVB-treated oil did not reach the values observed in the group fed the D3 supplemented oil. It was striking that the intake of the UVB-exposed oil resulted in distinct accumulation of vitamin D2 in the livers of these mice. In conclusion, plant oils, in particular wheat germ oil, contain considerable amounts of vitamin D precursors which can be converted to vitamin D via UVB exposure. However, the UVB-exposed wheat germ oil was less effective to improve the 25(OHD plasma concentration than a supplementation with vitamin D

  18. Anaerobic biodegradability of Category 2 animal by-products: methane potential and inoculum source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozdniakova, Tatiana A; Costa, José C; Santos, Ricardo J; Alves, M M; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2012-11-01

    Category 2 animal by-products that need to be sterilized with steam pressure according Regulation (EC) 1774/2002 are studied. In this work, 2 sets of experiments were performed in mesophilic conditions: (i) biomethane potential determination testing 0.5%, 2.0% and 5.0% total solids (TS), using sludge from the anaerobic digester of a wastewater treatment plant as inoculum; (ii) biodegradability tests at a constant TS concentration of 2.0% and different inoculum sources (digested sludge from a wastewater treatment plant; granular sludge from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor; leachate from a municipal solid waste landfill; and sludge from the slaughterhouse wastewater treatment anaerobic lagoon) to select the more adapted inoculum to the substrate in study. The higher specific methane production was of 317 mL CH(4)g(-1) VS(substrate) for 2.0% TS. The digested sludge from the wastewater treatment plant led to the lowest lag-phase period and higher methane potential rate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Journey of a Package: Category 1 Source (Co-60) Shipment with Several Border Crossings, Multiple Modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive materials (RAM) are used extensively in a vast array of industries and in an even wider breadth of applications on a truly global basis each and every day. Over the past 50 years, these applications and the quantity (activity) of RAM shipped has grown significantly, with the next 50 years expected to show a continuing trend. The movement of these goods occurs in all regions of the world, and must therefore be conducted in a manner which will not adversely impact people or the environment. Industry and regulators have jointly met this challenge, so much so that RAM shipments are amongst the safest of any product. How has this level of performance been achieved? What is involved in shipping RAM from one corner of the world to another, often via a number of in-transit locations and often utilizing multiple modes of transport in any single shipment? This paper reviews one such journey, of Category 1 Cobalt-60 sources, as they move from point of manufacture through to point of use including the detailed and multi-approval process, the stringent regulatory requirements in place, the extensive communications required throughout, and the practical aspects needed to simply offer such a product for sale and transport. Upon completion, the rationale for such an exemplary safety and security record will be readily apparent. (author)

  20. Applications of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of palm oil and oil from natural sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanda, Mohammed Jahurul Haque; Sarker, Mohammed Zaidul Islam; Ferdosh, Sahena; Manap, Mohd Yazid Abdul; Ab Rahman, Nik Norulaini Nik; Ab Kadir, Mohd Omar

    2012-02-10

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), which has received much interest in its use and further development for industrial applications, is a method that offers some advantages over conventional methods, especially for the palm oil industry. SC-CO₂ refers to supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) that uses carbon dioxide (CO₂) as a solvent which is a nontoxic, inexpensive, nonflammable, and nonpolluting supercritical fluid solvent for the extraction of natural products. Almost 100% oil can be extracted and it is regarded as safe, with organic solvent-free extracts having superior organoleptic profiles. The palm oil industry is one of the major industries in Malaysia that provides a major contribution to the national income. Malaysia is the second largest palm oil and palm kernel oil producer in the World. This paper reviews advances in applications of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO₂) extraction of oils from natural sources, in particular palm oil, minor constituents in palm oil, producing fractionated, refined, bleached, and deodorized palm oil, palm kernel oil and purified fatty acid fractions commendable for downstream uses as in toiletries and confectionaries.

  1. Applications of Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE of Palm Oil and Oil from Natural Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Omar Ab Kadir

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE, which has received much interest in its use and further development for industrial applications, is a method that offers some advantages over conventional methods, especially for the palm oil industry. SC-CO2 refers to supercritical fluid extraction (SFE that uses carbon dioxide (CO2 as a solvent which is a nontoxic, inexpensive, nonflammable, and nonpolluting supercritical fluid solvent for the extraction of natural products. Almost 100% oil can be extracted and it is regarded as safe, with organic solvent-free extracts having superior organoleptic profiles. The palm oil industry is one of the major industries in Malaysia that provides a major contribution to the national income. Malaysia is the second largest palm oil and palm kernel oil producer in the World. This paper reviews advances in applications of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 extraction of oils from natural sources, in particular palm oil, minor constituents in palm oil, producing fractionated, refined, bleached, and deodorized palm oil, palm kernel oil and purified fatty acid fractions commendable for downstream uses as in toiletries and confectionaries.

  2. Oil Fields, Oil and gas production platforms are potential source for oil spills and may interfere with mechanical means to clean up oil spills., Published in 1998, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Louisiana State University (LSU).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Oil Fields dataset current as of 1998. Oil and gas production platforms are potential source for oil spills and may interfere with mechanical means to clean up oil...

  3. Spectral and temporal cues for perception of material and action categories in impacted sound sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens; McAdams, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments, similarity ratings and categorization performance with recorded impact sounds representing three material categories (wood, metal, glass) being manipulated by three different categories of action (drop, strike, rattle) were examined. Previous research focusing on single impact...... correlated with the pattern of confusion in categorization judgments. Listeners tended to confuse materials with similar spectral centroids, and actions with similar temporal centroids and onset densities. To confirm the influence of these different features, spectral cues were removed by applying...

  4. Oil(Gas) - source rock correlation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The overview of bio-marker parameters which are applicable to hydrocarbon exploration has been illustrated. Experimental analysis of saturated hydrocarbon and bio-markers of the Pohang E and F core samples has been carried out. Samples were extracted by stirring in dichloromethane at 40-50 degree for 10 hours. The saturated, aromatic and resin fractions of the extract were obtained using thin layer chromatograms. The relative abundance of normal alkane fraction of the samples is low except lowest interval, which is probably due to the biodegradation. The bio-marker assemblage of hopanoids and steranes has been characterized. According to the analysis of saturated hydrocarbons and bio-markers, the sedimentary environment of the Pohang core samples is marine and transitional zone except the terrestrial environment of the lowest samples such as 610.5 m from E core and 667.2 m from F core. The thermal maturity through the studied interval did not reach oil window even though slight increase in thermal maturity with depth, which coincide with Rock Eval pyrolysis data. In order to check the validation of analysis of the bio-markers, same samples were analyzed by the University of Louis Pasteur, France. The distribution and relative peak area of the bio-markers were identical with those by laboratory of KIGAM. For the 2 nd stage of the research, analysis of bio-markers other than hopanoids and steranes should be continued. (author). 29 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Effects of dietary oil sources and calcium : phosphorus levels on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth Stewart

    2016-02-20

    Feb 20, 2016 ... Regardless of oil source, the chickens fed diets containing 1.5% Ca had a ... mineral content, muscle function and other body mineral functions (Peters & .... tip of the villi to the villi crypt junction) were measured with an image analyser. ...... Asian. Austral. J. Anim. 26, 700-704. Courtney, E., Matthews, S., ...

  6. Novel edible oil sources: Microwave heating and chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Mousavi Khaneghah, Amin; Koubaa, Mohamed; Lopez-Cervantes, Jaime; Yousefabad, Seyed Hossein Asadi; Hosseini, Seyedeh Fatemeh; Karimi, Masoumeh; Motazedian, Azam; Asadifard, Samira

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of various microwave heating times (1, 3, 5, 10, and 15min) on the chemical properties of novel edible oil sources, including Mashhadi melon (Cucumis melo var. Iranians cv. Mashhadi), Iranian watermelon (Citrullus lanatus cv. Fire Fon), pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo subsp. pepo var. Styriaca), and yellow apple (Malus domestica cv. Golden Delicious) seed oils. The evaluated parameters were peroxide value (PV), conjugated diene (CD) and triene (CT) values, carbonyl value (CV), p-anisidine value (AnV), oil stability index (OSI), radical scavenging activity (RSA), total tocopherols, total phenolics, as well as chlorophyll and carotenoid contents. Results showed that extended microwave heating involves decreased quality of the seed oils, mainly due to the formation of primary and secondary oxidation products. Microwave heating time also affects the total contents of chlorophylls, carotenoids, phenolics and tocopherols, which clearly decrease by increasing the exposure time. The order of oxidative stability of the analyzed edible oils was pumpkin>Mashhadi melon>Iranian watermelon>yellow apple. The obtained results demonstrated the promising potential of these novel edible oils for different food applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Renewable energy sources from Michelia champaca and Garcinia indica seed oils: A rich source of oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosamani, K.M.; Hiremath, V.B.; Keri, R.S. [P.G. Department of Studies in Chemistry, Karnatak University, Pawate Nagar, Dharwad 580 003 (India)

    2009-02-15

    Michelia champaca and Garcinia indica seeds yielded 45.0% and 45.5% of oil. The fatty acid profiles of both the seed oils were examined. The saponification value (SV), iodine value (IV) and cetane number (CN) of fatty acid methyl esters of both the seed oils were empirically determined. The saponification value (SV) and iodine value (IV) are in good agreement with the experimentally observed values. The fatty acid compositions, iodine value and cetane number were used to predict the quality of fatty acid methyl esters of oil for use as biodiesel. Thus, the fatty acid methyl esters of seed oils of M. champaca and G. indica were found to be the most suitable biodiesel and they meet the major specification of biodiesel standards. The selected plants M. champaca and G. indica have great potential for biodiesel. M. champaca and G. indica seed oils were found to contain keto fatty acids along with the other normal fatty acids, respectively. These fatty acids have been detected and characterized by UV, FTIR, {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR, MS, GC techniques and chemical transformations. (author)

  8. Renewable energy sources from Michelia champaca and Garcinia indica seed oils: A rich source of oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosamani, K.M.; Hiremath, V.B.; Keri, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    Michelia champaca and Garcinia indica seeds yielded 45.0% and 45.5% of oil. The fatty acid profiles of both the seed oils were examined. The saponification value (SV), iodine value (IV) and cetane number (CN) of fatty acid methyl esters of both the seed oils were empirically determined. The saponification value (SV) and iodine value (IV) are in good agreement with the experimentally observed values. The fatty acid compositions, iodine value and cetane number were used to predict the quality of fatty acid methyl esters of oil for use as biodiesel. Thus, the fatty acid methyl esters of seed oils of M. champaca and G. indica were found to be the most suitable biodiesel and they meet the major specification of biodiesel standards. The selected plants M. champaca and G. indica have great potential for biodiesel. M. champaca and G. indica seed oils were found to contain keto fatty acids along with the other normal fatty acids, respectively. These fatty acids have been detected and characterized by UV, FTIR, 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR, MS, GC techniques and chemical transformations

  9. Oil crops: requirements and possibilities for their utilization as an energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerner, G.; Schoenefeldt, J.; Mehring, I.

    1995-01-01

    Although vegetable oils have been used as an energy source for centuries, they were used almost exclusively in oil lamps. Their value as a foodstuff and the availability and low price of mineral oil had for a long time kept them from being seriously considered as a potential energy source. Now, owing to the increasing cost of fossil fuel, particularly oil, and increasing industrial energy consumption, as well as the negative impact of fossil fuel use on the environment, there is interest in a number of alternative energy sources, including vegetable oils. The discussion in this paper focuses on the use of untreated vegetable oils, particularly rapeseed oil. The energy potential of rapeseed oil is explored first. Then, conditions under which the use of oil crops as an energy source is feasible are briefly discussed; two concepts for decentralized oil-seed processing are described and, finally, future possibilities for use of vegetable oils as a fuel source are reviewed. (author)

  10. 75 FR 67625 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... Equipment Leaks--Control X X Level 2. VV Oil-Water Separators and X X Organic-Water Separators. WW Storage... Air X X Pollutants: Equipment Leaks. I Organic Hazardous Air X X Pollutants: Certain Processes Subject to the Negotiated Regulation for Equipment Leaks. J Polyvinyl Chloride and X X Copolymers Production...

  11. Geochemistry of crude oils, seepage oils and source rocks from Belize and Guatemala

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, H.I.; Holland, B.; Nytoft, H.P.

    2012-01-01

    This study reviews the stratigraphy and the poorly documented petroleum geology of the Belize-Guatemala area in northern Central America. Guatemala is divided by the east-west trending La Libertad arch into the North and South Petén Basins. The arch is the westward continuation of the Maya...... generated from source rocks with similar thermal maturities. The crude oils were generated from marine carbonate source rocks and could be divided into three groups: Group 1 oils come from the North Petén Basin (Guatemala) and the western part of the Corozal Basin (Belize), and have a typical carbonate...

  12. Waste cooking oil as source for renewable fuel in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allah, F. Um Min; Alexandru, G.

    2016-08-01

    Biodiesel is non-toxic renewable fuel which has the potential to replace diesel fuel with little or no modifications in diesel engine. Waste cooking oil can be used as source to produce biodiesel. It has environmental and economic advantages over other alternative fuels. Biodiesel production from transesterification is affected by water content, type f alcohol, catalyst type and concentration, alcohol to oil ratio, temperature, reaction rate, pH, free fatty acid (FFA) and stirrer speed. These parameters and their effect on transesterification are discussed in this paper. Properties of biodiesel obtained from waste cooking oil are measured according to local standards by distributor and their comparison with European biodiesel standard is also given in this paper. Comparison has shown that these properties lie within the limits of the EN 14214 standard. Furthermore emission performance of diesel engine for biodiesel-diesel blends has resulted in reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Romanian fuel market can ensure energy security by mixing fuel share with biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil. Life cycle assessment of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil has shown its viability economically and environmentally.

  13. Oil type and cross-linking influence growth of Aureobasidium melanogenum on vegetable oils as a single carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Loes H M; Huinink, Hendrik P; Voogt, Benjamin; Adan, Olaf C G

    2018-03-12

    Aureobasidium melanogenum is the main fungus found in a spontaneously formed biofilm on a oil-treated wood. This dark colored biofilm functions as a protective coating. To better understand biofilm formation, in this study A. melanogenum was cultured on olive oil and raw linseed oil. Metabolic activity and oil conversion were measured. The results show that A. melanogenum is able to grow on linseed oil and olive oil as a single carbon source. The fungus produces the enzyme lipase to convert the oil into fatty acids and glycerol. Metabolic activity and oil conversion were equal on linseed oil and olive oil. The fungus was not able to grow on severe cross-linked linseed oil, meaning that the degree of cross-linking of the oil is important for growth of A. melanogenum. Dark coloring of the colony was seen on linseed oil, which might be a stress response on the presence of autoxidation products in linseed oil. The colony on olive oil showed delayed melanin production indicating an inhibitory effect of olive oil on melanin production. © 2018 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Diversification of oil import sources and energy security. A key strategy or an elusive objective?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivoda, Vlado

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between the diversification of sources of imported oil and energy security of oil-importing countries. It examines the importance of diversification policy for oil importers, explains why oil importers implement oil diversification policy, and contextualizes the oil import diversification strategy in the overall energy security policy of oil importers. The paper analyzes the factors and the contexts that affect the level of importance assigned to oil import diversification policy in oil-importing countries, and the limitations that may affect the successful implication of oil import diversification policy. The examples are drawn from the world's top three oil importers, the United States, Japan, and China. The policymakers in these and other oil-importing countries place much importance on energy security. The diversification of oil import sources is used as one of the strategies to enhance energy security in oil-importing countries. This paper is important for policymakers in oil-importing countries as it provides them with a qualitative conceptual framework with which to evaluate the need to diversify their countries' sources of imported oil, and with which to identify the likely limitations to the successful implementation of oil import diversification policy. (author)

  15. Is It Feasible for China to Optimize Oil Import Source Diversification?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Xu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2013, China imported 282 million tons of crude oil with an external dependence of 58.1%, surpassing the USA as the world’s largest net oil importer. An import source diversification strategy has been adopted by China to ensure oil supply security and to prevent oil supply disruption. However, the strategy is restricted by the imbalance of oil reserves. What is the reasonable and clear objective of the diversification strategy under an imbalanced environment? How do we assess the natural imbalance? This paper analyzes the oil import diversification of China and the USA, as well as the oil production of oil export countries by the oil import source diversification index (OISDI. Our results are as follows: the distribution of oil import sources for China tends to coincide with the oil production distribution of oil exporters in the world. Compared with the USA, China has more diversified import sources. The Chinese government paid much attention to import sources in the past. In the future, China will adjust the distributions of regional sources rather than focus on the number of sources to further optimize the structure of imported regions in the course of implementing the import source diversification strategy.

  16. Thai jute seed oil: a potential polyunsaturated fatty acid source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitree Suttajit

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined lipid and fatty acid compositions of different varieties of jute (Po-kra-jao, Corchorus olitorius L. seed grown in Thailand. Four different jute seeds (Nonn-Soong, Keaw-Yai, Cuba and Khonkaen harvested from northeastern Thailand were ground, their lipid was extracted with chloroform: methanol (2:1, v/v, and lipid composition was determined by Iatroscan (TLC/FID. Fatty acid composition was analyzed using GLC with standard methods. Triacylglycerol was a predominant lipid in jute seed oil, ranging from 70% to 74%, and other two minor components were phytosterol (12% to 28% and diacylglycerol (0% to 9%. The ratio of saturates: monounsaturates: polyunsaturates, was approximately 2: 3: 4. Most predominant polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA was linoleic acid (18:2n-6, accounting for 40-67% of total fatty acid. Nonn-Soong had the highest amount of PUFA (67.7%, followed by Khonkaen (44.53%, Keaw-Yai (41.14%, and Cuba (40.19%. Another PUFA found was α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3, accounting for about 1% of total fatty acid. The results indicated that jute seed oil was a potential edible PUFA source. The oils obtained from different kinds of jute seeds had significantly different lipid and fatty acid compositions.

  17. Regulation for oil wells logging using ionizing radiation sources. A draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidrowoh, Jacob

    2000-01-01

    A project to regulate logging activities using ionizing radiation sources in oil wells in Ecuador is proposed. Its development is based on basic concepts of energy, radiation protection and characteristics of oil exploitation in Ecuador

  18. Plastic waste depolymerization as a source of energetic heating oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wołosiewicz-Głąb Marta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past years there has been an increase in production and consumption of plastics, which are widely used in many areas of life. Waste generated from this material are a challenge for the whole of society, regardless of awareness of sustainable development and its technological progress. Still the method of disposal of plastic waste are focused mainly on their storage and incineration, not using energy contained there. In this paper technology for plastic waste depolymerization with characteristics of fuel oil resulting in the process, as an alternative to traditional energy carriers such as: coal, fine coal or coke used in households will be presented. Oil has a high calorific value and no doubt could replace traditional solutions which use conventional energy sources. Furthermore, the fuel resulting from this process is sulfur-free and chemically pure. The paper presents the installation for plastics waste depolymerization used in selected Polish Institute of Plastics Processing, along with the ability to use the main thermocatalytic transformation product.

  19. Oil crops: requirements and possibilities for their utilization as an energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerner, G; Schoenefeldt, J; Mehring, I [OeHMI Forschung und Ingenieurtechnik GmbH, Magdeburg (Germany)

    1995-12-01

    Although vegetable oils have been used as an energy source for centuries, they were used almost exclusively in oil lamps. Their value as a foodstuff and the availability and low price of mineral oil had for a long time kept them from being seriously considered as a potential energy source. Now, owing to the increasing cost of fossil fuel, particularly oil, and increasing industrial energy consumption, as well as the negative impact of fossil fuel use on the environment, there is interest in a number of alternative energy sources, including vegetable oils. The discussion in this paper focuses on the use of untreated vegetable oils, particularly rapeseed oil. The energy potential of rapeseed oil is explored first. Then, conditions under which the use of oil crops as an energy source is feasible are briefly discussed; two concepts for decentralized oil-seed processing are described and, finally, future possibilities for use of vegetable oils as a fuel source are reviewed. (author) 5 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs

  20. Hydrotreatment of pyrolysis oils from biomass. Reactivity of the various categories of oxygenated compounds and preliminary techno-economical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grange, P.; Laurent, E.; Maggi, R.; Centeno, A.; Delmon, B. [Unite de Catalyse et Chimie des Materiaux Divises, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    1996-05-31

    This paper describes essential aspects of the hydrotreatment of pyrolytic oils in the light of results obtained until now at the Universite Catholique de Louvain. Stability of pyrolysis oils necessitates a two-step processing. A low temperature hydrotreatment enables stabilization through reactions like olefin, carbonyl and carboxylic groups reduction. Further hydrotreatment aims at hydrodeoxygenation of phenols and hydrocracking of larger molecules. Results about catalysts, reaction conditions and parameters enabling or influencing the control of the reaction are summarized. Based on these laboratory data, a preliminary techno-economical evaluation is made. 50 wt.-% yields in hydrocarbons for deep hydrorefining of pyrolysis oils can be expected. Nevertheless, a moderate hydroconversion with partial elimination of oxygen would be, economically, more advantageous

  1. Eo-Oligocene Oil Shales of the Talawi, Lubuktaruk, and Kiliranjao Areas, West Sumatra: Are they potential source rocks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Iqbal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.v1i3.198To anticipate the increasing energy demand, additional data and information covering unconventional fossil fuels such as oil shale must be acquired to promote the usage of alternative energy sources to crude oil. The Talawi and Lubuktaruk regions situated within intra-montane Ombilin Basin, and the Kiliranjao assumed to be a small intra montane basin are occupied by Eo-Oligocene sediments of Sangkarewang and Kiliran Formations, respectively. Field activity, geochemical screening techniques, and organic petrographic analysis, supported by SEM mode, are methods used. Most of the oil shale sequence is typically of an organically rich-succession comprising predominantly well-bedded, laminated and fissile, brownish to dark grey organic-rich shale and mudstone rocks. The exinite macerals within oil shale comprise mainly Pediastrum-lamalginite with minor cutinite, resinite, liptodetrinite, sporinite, bituminite, and rare Botryococcus-telalginite. Therefore; the oil shale deposits can be described as “lamosites”. Minor vitrinite maceral is also recognized. TOC analysis on selected shale samples corresponds to a fair up to excellent category of source rock characterization. The hydrogen index (HI for all samples shows a range of values from 207 - 864, and pyrolysis yield (PY ranges from 2.67 to 79.72 mg HC/g rock. The kerogen is suggested to be of mixed Type II and Type I autochthonous materials such as alginite, with minor allochthonous substances. Oil samples collected appear to be positioned within more oil prone rather than gas prone. Thermal maturity of the oil shales gained from Tmax value and production index (PI tends to show immature to marginally/early mature stage. A consistency in the thermal maturity level results by using both Tmax and vitrinite reflectance value is recognized. On the basis of  SEM analysis, the oil shale has undergone a late eodiagenetic process. Thereby, overall, vitrinite reflectance

  2. Source identification of beached oil at Al Zubarah, Northwestern Qatar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Kaabi, Nasser S.; Kristensen, Mette; Zouari, Nabil

    2017-01-01

    compounds for these spill samples were compared to those of more than 250 crude oils from around the world applying the CHEMSIC method (chemometric analysis of selected ion chromatograms). The weathering degree varied significantly between samples, and relatively unweathered oil from the Gulf War oil spill...

  3. Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) seed oil is a rich source of gamma-tocopherol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, R; Fernández, J; Pineda, M; Aguilar, M

    2007-04-01

    The antioxidant potential of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) extracts was studied. Different plant organs, including seeds, stems, leaves, and sepals, were analyzed with respect to their water-soluble antioxidant capacity, lipid-soluble antioxidant capacity, and tocopherol content, revealing that roselle seeds are a good source of lipid-soluble antioxidants, particularly gamma-tocopherol. Roselle seed oil was extracted and characterized, and its physicochemical parameters are summarized: acidity, 2.24%; peroxide index, 8.63 meq/kg; extinction coefficients at 232 (k(232)) and 270 nm (k(270)), 3.19 and 1.46, respectively; oxidative stability, 15.53 h; refractive index, 1.477; density, 0.92 kg/L; and viscosity, 15.9 cP. Roselle seed oil belongs to the linoleic/oleic category, its most abundant fatty acids being C18:2 (40.1%), C18:1 (28%), C16:0 (20%), C18:0 (5.3%), and C19:1 (1.7%). Sterols include beta-sitosterol (71.9%), campesterol (13.6%), Delta-5-avenasterol (5.9%), cholesterol (1.35%), and clerosterol (0.6%). Total tocopherols were detected at an average concentration of 2000 mg/kg, including alpha-tocopherol (25%), gamma-tocopherol (74.5%), and delta-tocopherol (0.5%). The global characteristics of roselle seed oil suggest that it could have important industrial applications, adding to the traditional use of roselle sepals in the elaboration of karkade tea.

  4. Oils and source rocks from the Anadarko Basin: Final report, March 1, 1985-March 15, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philp, R. P. [School of Geology and Geophysics, Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    1996-11-01

    The research project investigated various geochemical aspects of oils, suspected source rocks, and tar sands collected from the Anadarko Basin, Oklahoma. The information has been used, in general, to investigate possible sources for the oils in the basin, to study mechanisms of oil generation and migration, and characterization of depositional environments. The major thrust of the recent work involved characterization of potential source formations in the Basin in addition to the Woodford shale. The formations evaluated included the Morrow, Springer, Viola, Arbuckle, Oil Creek, and Sylvan shales. A good distribution of these samples was obtained from throughout the basin and were evaluated in terms of source potential and thermal maturity based on geochemical characteristics. The data were incorporated into a basin modelling program aimed at predicting the quantities of oil that could, potentially, have been generated from each formation. The study of crude oils was extended from our earlier work to cover a much wider area of the basin to determine the distribution of genetically-related oils, and whether or not they were derived from single or multiple sources, as well as attempting to correlate them with their suspected source formations. Recent studies in our laboratory also demonstrated the presence of high molecular weight components(C{sub 4}-C{sub 80}) in oils and waxes from drill pipes of various wells in the region. Results from such a study will have possible ramifications for enhanced oil recovery and reservoir engineering studies.

  5. Geochemistry of Eagle Ford group source rocks and oils from the first shot field area, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edman, Janell D.; Pitman, Janet K.; Hammes, Ursula

    2010-01-01

    Total organic carbon, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, and vitrinite reflectance analyses performed on Eagle Ford Group core and cuttings samples from the First Shot field area, Texas demonstrate these samples have sufficient quantity, quality, and maturity of organic matter to have generated oil. Furthermore, gas chromatography and biomarker analyses performed on Eagle Ford Group oils and source rock extracts as well as weight percent sulfur analyses on the oils indicate the source rock facies for most of the oils are fairly similar. Specifically, these source rock facies vary in lithology from shales to marls, contain elevated levels of sulfur, and were deposited in a marine environment under anoxic conditions. It is these First Shot Eagle Ford source facies that have generated the oils in the First Shot Field. However, in contrast to the generally similar source rock facies and organic matter, maturity varies from early oil window to late oil window in the study area, and these maturity variations have a pronounced effect on both the source rock and oil characteristics. Finally, most of the oils appear to have been generated locally and have not experienced long distance migration. 

  6. Non-Edible Plant Oils as New Sources for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rafiqul Islam

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the concern on the availability of recoverable fossil fuel reserves and the environmental problems caused by the use those fossil fuels, considerable attention has been given to biodiesel production as an alternative to petrodiesel. However, as the biodiesel is produced from vegetable oils and animal fats, there are concerns that biodiesel feedstock may compete with food supply in the long-term. Hence, the recent focus is to find oil bearing plants that produce non-edible oils as the feedstock for biodiesel production. In this paper, two plant species, soapnut (Sapindus mukorossi and jatropha (jatropha curcas, L. are discussed as newer sources of oil for biodiesel production. Experimental analysis showed that both oils have great potential to be used as feedstock for biodiesel production. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME from cold pressed soapnut seed oil was envisaged as biodiesel source for the first time. Soapnut oil was found to have average of 9.1% free FA, 84.43% triglycerides, 4.88% sterol and 1.59% others. Jatropha oil contains approximately 14% free FA, approximately 5% higher than soapnut oil. Soapnut oil biodiesel contains approximately 85% unsaturated FA while jatropha oil biodiesel was found to have approximately 80% unsaturated FA. Oleic acid was found to be the dominant FA in both soapnut and jatropha biodiesel. Over 97% conversion to FAME was achieved for both soapnut and jatropha oil.

  7. Biomarker fingerprinting : application and limitations for source identification and correlation of oils and petroleum products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.; Fingas, M.F.; Yang, C.; Hollebone, B.

    2004-01-01

    Biological markers or biomarkers are complex molecules originating from formerly living organisms. They are among the most important hydrocarbon groups in petroleum because every crude oil exhibits an essentially unique biomarker or fingerprint due to the wide variety of geological conditions under which oil is formed. When found in crude oils, rocks and sediments, biomarkers have the same structures as their parent organic molecules. Therefore, chemical analysis of source-characteristic and environmentally persistent biomarkers can provide valuable information in determining the source of spilled oil. Biomarkers can also be used to differentiate oils and to monitor the degradation process and the weathering state of oils under a range of conditions. The use of biomarker techniques to study oil spills has increased significantly in recent years. This paper provided case studies to demonstrate: (1) biomarker distribution in weathered oil and in petroleum products with similar chromatographic profiles, (2) sesquiterpenes and diamondoid biomarkers in oils and light petroleum products, (3) unique biomarker compounds in oils, (4) diagnostic ratios of biomarkers, and (5) biodegradation of biomarkers. It was noted that the trend to use biomarkers to study oil spills will continue. Continuous advances in analytical methods will further improve the application of oil hydrocarbon fingerprinting for environmental studies. 36 refs., 5 tabs., 12 figs

  8. Physico-chemical properties, fatty acid and tocopherol composition of oils from some Sudanese oil bearing sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthäus, Bertrand

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Seven oils, obtained from seven Sudanese oil bearing sources that are Albizia lebbek Oil (ALO, Cassia obtusifolia Oil (COO, Cassia occidentalis Oil (CCO, Abutilon pannosum Oil (APO, Mitracarpus villous Oil (MVO, Ipomea indica Oil (IIO and Sesamum alatum Oil (SAO, were investigated. The seeds were collected in Sudan from Ghibaish, North Kordofan state. In addition to the oil content, the fatty acid was determined by capillary gas chromatography and the tocopherols were evaluated by highperformance liquid chromatography. The oil content of the seven seeds amounted to 12.8, 7.0, 3.2, 7.1, 11.5, 8.8, and 21.3%, respectively.The oils contained 16.4, 20.0, 14.3, 16.8, 19.4, 19.9 and 10.9 % palmitic acid and 21.0, 24.4, 22.1, 10.9, 27.7, 34.0, 45.1 % oleic acid, and 43.8, 38.2, 45.0, 63.9, 34.6, 33.5, 36.3 % linoleic acid and traces of linolenic acid, respectively.The tocopherol content of these oils amounted to 85.6, 48.2, 32.7, 163.5, 52.5, 30.9, and 26.4 mg/100 g oil, respectively. Alpha-tocopherol was the predominant tocopherol in the oil of Albizia lebbek, Cassia obtusifolia, Cassia occidentalis, and Abutilon pannosum, while gamma-tocopherol was the predominant tocopherol in the oil of Mitracarpus villous, Ipomea indica and Sesamum alatum.Se analizan siete aceites procedentes de plantas y semillas de Sudán: Albizia lebbek Oil (ALO, Cassia obtusifolia Oil (COO, Cassia occidentalis Oil (CCO, Abutilon pannosum Oil (APO, Mitracarpus villous Oil (MVO, Ipomea indica Oil (IIO y Sesamum alatum Oil (SAO. Las semillas se recolectaron en el estado de Ghibaish, North Kordofan. Además del contenido en aceite (12.8, 7.0, 3.2, 7.1, 11.5, 8.8, y 21.3 %, respectivamente, se determinaron los ácidos grasos mediante cromatografía de gases y los tocoferoles mediante HPLC. Los aceites contenían, respectivamente, 16.4, 20.0, 14.3, 16.8, 19.4, 19.9 y 10.9 % de ácido palmitito, 21.0, 24.4, 22.1, 10.9, 27.7, 34.0, 45.1 % de ácido oleico, 43.8, 38.2, 45.0, 63.9, 34

  9. Venezuela No. 1 oil import source in S. America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darukhanavala, P.P.; Davidson, M.C.; Tyler, T.N.; Blaskovich, F.T.; Smith, C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that with the exception of Venezuela, the U.S. is likely to import much oil from South American countries through 2010, the General Accounting Office reports. GAO, a congressional watchdog agency, noted the U.S. imports about 4% of its oil from Colombia, Ecuador, and Trinidad and Tobago and possibly could import from Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, and Peru in the future. It the the eight countries' crude oil reserves are expected to increase about 30% by 2000, then slide about 2% by 2010. Their oil production is expected to climb about 21% over 1990 by 2000, then level off until 2010

  10. Is It Feasible for China to Optimize Oil Import Source Diversification?

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jian; Zhang, Jin-Suo; Yao, Qin; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, China imported 282 million tons of crude oil with an external dependence of 58.1%, surpassing the USA as the world’s largest net oil importer. An import source diversification strategy has been adopted by China to ensure oil supply security and to prevent oil supply disruption. However, the strategy is restricted by the imbalance of oil reserves. What is the reasonable and clear objective of the diversification strategy under an imbalanced environment? How do we assess the natural i...

  11. Strategic Global Logistics Management for Sourcing Road Oil in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Bridgelall

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The demand for asphalt and road oil heavily leverages local supply because the product is a hot binder of aggregates that form the final mix needed to pave roads. This paper discusses the supply chain characteristics of crude oil feedstock by considering the overall logistics of sourcing heavy crude oil domestically, or importing it from international trading partners. Heavy crude oil is a source of asphalt and road oil production. The study examines critical global and domestic logistics factors such as customs, regulations, security, environmental compliance, and natural events that will affect costs, schedules, and risks. The study provides a framework for decision-making in sourcing the feedstock. The study helps global logisticians and transportation managers improve strategic design and planning towards efficient sourcing.

  12. Essential Oils: Sources of Antimicrobials and Food Preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Abhay K.; Kumar, Pradeep; Singh, Pooja; Tripathi, Nijendra N.; Bajpai, Vivek K.

    2017-01-01

    Aromatic and medicinal plants produce essential oils in the form of secondary metabolites. These essential oils can be used in diverse applications in food, perfume, and cosmetic industries. The use of essential oils as antimicrobials and food preservative agents is of concern because of several reported side effects of synthetic oils. Essential oils have the potential to be used as a food preservative for cereals, grains, pulses, fruits, and vegetables. In this review, we briefly describe the results in relevant literature and summarize the uses of essential oils with special emphasis on their antibacterial, bactericidal, antifungal, fungicidal, and food preservative properties. Essential oils have pronounced antimicrobial and food preservative properties because they consist of a variety of active constituents (e.g., terpenes, terpenoids, carotenoids, coumarins, curcumins) that have great significance in the food industry. Thus, the various properties of essential oils offer the possibility of using natural, safe, eco-friendly, cost-effective, renewable, and easily biodegradable antimicrobials for food commodity preservation in the near future. PMID:28138324

  13. Tracking an oil slick from multiple natural sources, Coal Oil Point, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leifer, Ira; Luyendyk, Bruce; Broderick, Kris

    2006-01-01

    Oil slicks on the ocean surface emitted from natural marine hydrocarbon seeps offshore from Coal Oil Point in the Santa Barbara Channel, California were tracked and sampled over a 2-h period. The objectives were to characterize the seep oil and to track its composition over time using a new sampling device, a catamaran drum sampler (CATDRUMS). The sampler was designed and developed at UCSB. Chromatograms showed that oil originating from an informally named, very active seep area, Shane Seep, primarily evolved during the first hour due to mixing with oil originating from a convergence zone slick surrounding Shane Seep. (author)

  14. Tracking an oil slick from multiple natural sources, Coal Oil Point, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leifer, Ira [Marine Sciences Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Luyendyk, Bruce [Department of Geological Sciences, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Broderick, Kris [Exxon/Mobil Exploration Company, 13401 N. Freeway, Houston, TX 77060 (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Oil slicks on the ocean surface emitted from natural marine hydrocarbon seeps offshore from Coal Oil Point in the Santa Barbara Channel, California were tracked and sampled over a 2-h period. The objectives were to characterize the seep oil and to track its composition over time using a new sampling device, a catamaran drum sampler (CATDRUMS). The sampler was designed and developed at UCSB. Chromatograms showed that oil originating from an informally named, very active seep area, Shane Seep, primarily evolved during the first hour due to mixing with oil originating from a convergence zone slick surrounding Shane Seep. (author)

  15. Contested Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drawing on social science perspectives, Contested Categories presents a series of empirical studies that engage with the often shifting and day-to-day realities of life sciences categories. In doing so, it shows how such categories remain contested and dynamic, and that the boundaries they create...

  16. Regeneration of used lubricating oil as a source of energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Abdulrahim

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Conservation of natural resources by refining used lubricating oil was attempted in this work. Used lubricating oil was purified and distilled. The distillates obtained were divided into two temperature ranges of 60 - 210°C and 210 - 310°C. Analyses of the physicochemical properties of the two samples revealed that they have similar properties with gasoline and diesel fuels respectively. This result shows that used lubricating oils, which are usually regarded as waste, can be regenerated to obtain useful hydrocarbons that can be used as fuels to power internal combustion engines

  17. The influence of various carbon and nitrogen sources on oil production by Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, S; Mathur, J M

    1987-01-01

    The oil-synthesizing capacity of Fusarium oxysporum, cultivated on basal nutrient medium, was evaluated using different carbon and nitrogen sources. In one of the media, molasses was also used as a principal carbon source. Media containing glucose and ammonium nitrate were found to be most efficient for oil production. Fatty acid profile of the fungal oil indicated the presence of a wide range of fatty acids ranging from C8 to C24. Fatty acid composition largely depends on the type of carbon and nitrogen sources.

  18. Jatropha curcas seed oil as a viable source for biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, F.; Jamil, A.; Bhatti, H.N.; Rashid, U.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the utility of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) seed oil for bio diesel production. The preliminarily evaluated Jatropha oil was transmethylated under optimized set of reaction conditions: methanol/oil molar ratio (6:1), sodium methoxide catalyst concentration (1.00%), temperature (65 deg. C) and mixing intensity (600 rpm) providing 94.00% yield of Jatropha oil methyl esters (JOMEs)/biodiesel. The gas chromatographic (GC) analysis showed that JOMEs mainly comprised of six fatty acids: linoleic (49.75%), stearic (16.80%), oleic (13.00%), palmitic (12.15%), arachidic (5.01%) and gadoleic (2.00%) acids. 1H-NMR spectrum of JOMEs was also recorded. The thermal stability of the JOMEs produced was assessed by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). The fuel properties of the biodiesel produced were found to be within the standards specifications of ASTM D 6751 and EN 14214. (author)

  19. GC Analyses of Salvia Seeds as Valuable Essential Oil Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouna Ben Taârit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils of seeds of Salvia verbenaca, Salvia officinalis, and Salvia sclarea were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and GC-mass spectrometry. The oil yields (w/w were 0.050, 0.047, and 0.045% in S. verbenaca, S. sclarea, and S. officinalis, respectively. Seventy-five compounds were identified. The essential oil composition of S. verbenaca seeds showed that over 57% of the detected compounds were oxygenated monoterpenes followed by sesquiterpenes (24.04% and labdane type diterpenes (5.61%. The main essential oil constituents were camphor (38.94%, caryophyllene oxide (7.28%, and 13-epi-manool (5.61%, while those of essential oil of S. officinalis were α-thujone (14.77%, camphor (13.08%, and 1,8-cineole (6.66%. In samples of S. sclarea, essential oil consists mainly of linalool (24.25%, α-thujene (7.48%, linalyl acetate (6.90%, germacrene-D (5.88%, bicyclogermacrene (4.29%, and α-copaene (4.08%. This variability leads to a large range of naturally occurring volatile compounds with valuable industrial and pharmaceutical outlets.

  20. Proposal for regulation of logging activities in oil wells using ionizing radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidrowoh, Jacob R.

    2000-01-01

    It covers general aspects of nuclear energy and the suitable legal frame for its application related to oil industry. Besides, a regulation proposal to control logging activities in Ecuador using ionizing radiation sources in oil wells. It was prepared taking into account the Ecuadorian Atomic Energy Commission criteria and international regulations

  1. Tectonic control in source rock maturation and oil migration in Trinidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persad, K.M.; Talukdar, S.C.; Dow, W.G. (DGSI, The Woodlands, TX (United States))

    1993-02-01

    Oil accumulation in Trinidad were sourced by the Upper Cretaceous calcareous shales deposited along the Cretaceous passive margin of northern South America. Maturation of these source rocks, oil generation, migration and re-migration occurred in a foreland basin setting that resulted from interaction between Caribbean and South American plates during Late Oligocene to recent times. During Middle Miocene-Recent times, the foreland basin experienced strong compressional events, which controlled generation, migration, and accumulation of oil in Trinidad. A series of mature source rock kitchens formed in Late Miocene-Recent times in the Southern and Colombus Basins to the east-southeast of the Central Range Thrust. This thrust and associated fratured developed around 12 m.y.b.p. and served as vertical migration paths for the oil generated in Late Miocene time. This oil migrated into submarine fans deposited in the foreland basin axis and older reservoirs deformed into structural traps. Further generation and migration of oil, and re-migration of earlier oil took place during Pliocene-Holocene times, when later thrusting and wrench faulting served as vertical migration paths. Extremely high sedimentation rates in Pliocene-Pleistocene time, concurrent with active faulting, was responsible for very rapid generation of oil and gas. Vertically migrating gas often mixed with earlier migrated oil in overlying reservoirs. This caused depletion of oil in light hydrocarbons with accompanied fractionation among hydrocarbon types resulting in heavier oil in lower reservoirs, enrichment of light hydrocarbons and accumulation of gas-condensates in upper reservoirs. This process led to an oil-gravity stratification within about 10,000 ft of section.

  2. Forensic fingerprinting and source identification of the 2009 Sarnia (Ontario) oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhendi; Yang, C; Yang, Z; Sun, J; Hollebone, B; Brown, C; Landriault, M

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents a case study in which integrated forensic oil fingerprinting and data interpretation techniques were used to characterize the chemical compositions and determine the source of the 2009 Sarnia (Ontario) oil spill incident. The diagnostic fingerprinting techniques include determination of hydrocarbon groups and semi-quantitative product-type screening via gas chromatography (GC), analysis of oil-characteristic biomarkers and the extended suite of parent and alkylated PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) homologous series via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), determination and comparison of a variety of diagnostic ratios of "source-specific marker" compounds, and determination of the weathering degree of the spilled oil, and whether the spilled oil hydrocarbons have been mixed with any other "background" chemicals (biogenic and/or pyrogenic hydrocarbons). The detailed chemical fingerprinting data and results reveal the following: (1) all four samples are mixtures of diesel and lubricating oil with varying percentages of diesel to lube oil. Both samples 1460 and 1462 are majority diesel-range oil mixed with a smaller portion of lube oil. Sample 1461 contains slightly less diesel-range oil. Sample 1463 is majority lubricating-range oil. (2) The diesel in the four diesel/lube oil mixture samples was most likely the same diesel and from the same source. (3) The spill sample 1460 and the suspected-source sample 1462 have nearly identical concentrations and distribution patterns of target analytes including TPHs, n-alkane, PAHs and biomarker compounds; and have nearly identical diagnostic ratios of target compounds as well. Furthermore, a perfect "positive match" correlation line (with all normalized ratio data points falling into the straight correlation line) is clearly demonstrated. It is concluded that the spill oil water sample 1460 (#1, from the water around the vessel enclosed by a boom) matches with the suspected source sample 1462

  3. Lavandula luisieri essential oil as a source of antifungal drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuzarte, M; Gonçalves, M J; Cruz, M T; Cavaleiro, C; Canhoto, J; Vaz, S; Pinto, E; Salgueiro, L

    2012-12-01

    This work reports the antifungal activity of Lavandula luisieri essential oils against yeast, dermatophyte and Aspergillus strains responsible for human infections and food contamination. The oil's cytotoxicity and its effect on the yeast-mycelium transition in Candida albicans, an important virulence factor, were also evaluated. Analyses by GC and GC/MS showed a peculiar composition of irregular monoterpenes. Significant differences between the samples occurred in the amounts of 1,8-cineole, fenchone and trans-α-necrodyl acetate. The oil with higher amounts of irregular monoterpenes was the most effective. The influence of the oils on the dimorphic transition in C. albicans was also studied through the germ tube inhibition assay. Filamentation was completely inhibited at concentrations sixteen times lower than the minimal inhibitory concentration. The results support the use of L. luiseiri essential oils in the development of new phytopharmaceuticals and food preservatives and emphasise its antifungal properties at concentrations not cytotoxic or with very low detrimental effects on mammalian cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The potential of the Malaysian oil palm biomass as a renewable energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loh, Soh Kheang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An energy resource data for oil palm biomass is generated. • The data encompasses crucial fuel and physicochemical characteristics. • These characteristics guide on biomass behaviors and technology selection. • Oil palm biomass is advantageous in today’s energy competitive markets. • Overall, it is a green alternative for biorefinery establishment. - Abstract: The scarcity of conventional energy such as fossil fuels (which will lead to eventual depletion) and the ever-increasing demand for new energy sources have resulted in the world moving into an era of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency. The Malaysian oil palm industry has been one of the largest contributor of lignocellulosic biomass, with more than 90% of the country’s total biomass deriving from 5.4 million ha of oil palms. Recent concerns on accelerating replanting activity, improving oil extraction rate, expanding mill capacity, etc. are expected to further increase the total oil palm biomass availability in Malaysia. This situation has presented a huge opportunity for the utilization of oil palm biomass in various applications including RE. This paper characterizes the various forms of oil palm biomass for their important fuel and other physicochemical properties, and assesses this resource data in totality – concerning energy potential, the related biomass conversion technologies and possible combustion-related problems. Overall, oil palm biomass possesses huge potential as one of the largest alternative energy sources for commercial exploitation.

  5. Will Venezuelan extra-heavy oil be a significant source of petroleum in the next decades?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sena, Marcelo Fonseca Monteiro de; Rosa, Luiz Pinguelli; Szklo, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Unconventional oil resources are needed to complement petroleum supply in the next decades. However, given the restrictions that pertain to the production of these resources, this article evaluates the availability of Venezuelan unconventional oil for helping meet the future worldwide petroleum demand. Venezuela has the world's second-largest oil reserves, but the majority of it is unconventional extra-heavy oil from the Orinoco Oil Belt. The perspective of Venezuelan production, the ways in which PDVSA, the state oil company, will raise funds for planned investments and the future oil price predictions are used to assess Venezuela's ability to serve as a source of unconventional oil in the coming years. Findings indicate that Venezuelan crude oil will be increasingly able to provide part of the marginal petroleum supply at a level predicted in global scenarios but short of that predicted by the country's government. Operational difficulties and the effort to raise financial resources for the oil production in the Belt require urgency in overcoming difficulties. As conventional production in Venezuela will stabilise in the coming years and the country is dependent on oil production, Venezuela will rely on extra-heavy oil extraction to ensure increased oil production and the stabilisation of internal accounts. - Highlights: • We analyse the future unconventional oil production capacity of Venezuela. • The study is based on operational capacity, investments capacity and future prices. • The study indicates a production shorter than that predicted by the Venezuelan government. • Venezuela can provide part of the marginal petroleum supply in the coming years

  6. Sources of environmental disturbance associated with offshore oil and gas developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.M.; Kingston, P.F.

    1992-01-01

    The North Sea is one of the most productive fishing areas in the world, producing 3.5% of the world's catch of fish, and as a consequence is one of the most widely studied areas of sea. The potential sources of disturbance to the environment from oil and gas production are seismic surveys, physical disturbance to the sediment during platform placement, drilling, and through burying and trenching of pipelines, and pollution from pipeline and platform discharges and oil spills. Studies on the biological effects of such disturbances are repeated. These include investigations into the impact on the species diversity of marine fauna and oil taint and petrogenic hydrocarbons in fish. It has become clear that oil based mud cuttings discharge accounts for the major source of hydrocarbon contaminations from oil production and has a major deleterious effect on benthors in the immediate vicinity of the discharge. (Author)

  7. Source rock evaluation and organic geochemistry of Belayim Marine Oil Field, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abu Al-Atta

    2014-09-01

    In general, TOC analyses showed that the Nubia-A and B formation sediments are fairly immature compared to good source rocks with very high Hydrogen Index indicative of kerogen type II. The geochemical investigations of two oil samples indicate that the Upper Rudeis oil of Belayim Marine was derived from a marine carbonate rich source, which is relatively rich in algal organic matter and has moderate sulfur content. The maturity of the analyzed oils (about 0.75% R0 falls short from the stage of peak hydrocarbon generation which is known to be reached at about 0.85% R0.

  8. Liver transplantation from maastricht category 2 non-heart-beating donors: a source to increase the donor pool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, A; Gómez-Gutiérrez, M; Suárez, F; Arnal, F; Fernández-García, A; Aguirrezabalaga, J; García-Buitrón, J; Alvarez, J; Máñez, R

    2004-04-01

    The demand for liver transplantation has increasingly exceeded the supply of cadaver donor organs. Non-heart-beating donors (NHBDs) may be an alternative to increase the cadaver donor pool. The outcome of 20 liver transplants from Maastricht category 2 NHBD was compared with that of 40 liver transplants from heart-beating donors (HBDs). After unsuccessful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), cardiopulmonary support with simultaneous application of chest and abdominal compression (CPS; n = 6) or cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB; n = 14) was used to maintain the donors. At a minimum follow-up of 2 years, actuarial patient and graft survival rates with livers from Maastricht category 2 NHBD were 80% and 55%, respectively. Transplantation of organs from these donors was associated with a significantly higher incidence of primary nonfunction, biliary complications, and more severe initial liver dysfunction compared with organs from HBDs. The graft survival rates was 83% for livers from NHBDs preserved with CPS and 42% in those maintained with CPB.

  9. Volatile organic compound emissions from the oil and natural gas industry in the Uinta Basin, Utah: point sources compared to ambient air composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warneke, C.; Geiger, F.; Edwards, P. M.; Dube, W.; Pétron, G.; Kofler, J.; Zahn, A.; Brown, S. S.; Graus, M.; Gilman, J.; Lerner, B.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; de Gouw, J. A.; Roberts, J. M.

    2014-05-01

    The emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with oil and natural gas production in the Uinta Basin, Utah were measured at a ground site in Horse Pool and from a NOAA mobile laboratory with PTR-MS instruments. The VOC compositions in the vicinity of individual gas and oil wells and other point sources such as evaporation ponds, compressor stations and injection wells are compared to the measurements at Horse Pool. High mixing ratios of aromatics, alkanes, cycloalkanes and methanol were observed for extended periods of time and short-term spikes caused by local point sources. The mixing ratios during the time the mobile laboratory spent on the well pads were averaged. High mixing ratios were found close to all point sources, but gas wells using dry-gas collection, which means dehydration happens at the well, were clearly associated with higher mixing ratios than other wells. Another large source was the flowback pond near a recently hydraulically re-fractured gas well. The comparison of the VOC composition of the emissions from the oil and natural gas wells showed that wet gas collection wells compared well with the majority of the data at Horse Pool and that oil wells compared well with the rest of the ground site data. Oil wells on average emit heavier compounds than gas wells. The mobile laboratory measurements confirm the results from an emissions inventory: the main VOC source categories from individual point sources are dehydrators, oil and condensate tank flashing and pneumatic devices and pumps. Raw natural gas is emitted from the pneumatic devices and pumps and heavier VOC mixes from the tank flashings.

  10. Revisiting source identification, weathering models, and phase discrimination for Exxon Valdez oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driskell, W.B.; Payne, J.R.; Shigenaka, G.

    2005-01-01

    A large chemistry data set for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and saturated hydrocarbon (SHC) contamination in sediment, water and tissue samples has emerged in the aftermath of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska. When the oil was fresh, source identification was a primary objective and fairly reliable. However, source identification became problematic as the oil weathered and its signatures changed. In response to concerns regarding when the impacted area will be clean again, this study focused on developing appropriate tools to confirm hydrocarbon source identifications and assess weathering in various matrices. Previous efforts that focused only on the whole or particulate-phase oil are not adequate to track dissolved-phase signal with low total PAH values. For that reason, a particulate signature index (PSI) and dissolved signature index (DSI) screening tool was developed in this study to discriminate between these 2 phases. The screening tool was used to measure the dissolved or water-soluble fraction of crude oil which occurs at much lower levels than the particulate phase, but which is more widely circulated and equally as important as the particulate oil phase. The discrimination methods can also identify normally-discarded, low total PAH samples which can increase the amount of usable data needed to model other effects of oil spills. 37 refs., 3 tabs., 10 figs

  11. A fundamental research for upgrading heavy oil using syngas as hydrogen source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, D.; Yuan, M.; Sun, X.; Zhao, S. [China Univ. of Petroleum, Beijing (China). State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing

    2006-07-01

    The stock of heavy oil and residue from petroleum fractions has become more important as a component in supplying demands for fuel and petrochemical feeds. Finding economical means of upgrading heavy oils is extremely important in order to ensure future fuel supply. A number of new technologies for upgrading heavy oils have been evaluated, including residual fluid catalytic cracking (RFCC), hydrogenation, thermal conversion, and solvent deasphalting. However, the commercial application of such technologies is mainly constrained by the metal and residual carbon concentrations that are present in all heavy oils. Conventional technologies used to upgrade vacuum residue (VR) result in heavy coke formation, with a consequential reduction in the life of expensive, high-performance catalysts. The hydro upgrading process can significantly remove the concentration of heteroatom such as sulfur, nitrogen, and metals in the liquid products. This paper investigated upgrading of heavy oil using syngas as an alternative hydrogen source with a dispersed catalyst. The paper discussed the experiment with reference to the feedstock and catalyst precursors; finely dispersed catalysts preparation; experimental apparatus; experimental design and procedure; and analysis. The results were presented in terms of effects of catalyst dispersion; effect of hydro-upgrading heavy oil using syngas as alternative source; and effects of different catalysts on residue hydrocracking. Last, the paper discussed the properties of the hydrocracked oil treated with syngas. The study confirmed the effectiveness of the slurry bed hydrocracking catalyst using syngas as a hydrogen source. 23 refs., 8 tabs., 16 figs.

  12. Drimys brasiliensis essential oil as a source of drimenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciele Milani Zem

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Drimys brasiliensis Miers is a native plant species to the Atlantic Forest, commonly known as cataia, and used as a stimulant, anti-diahrreal, antipyretic, among other properties. Dried and fresh leaves of cataia were collected in autumn/2012, submitted to hydrodistillation in a Clevenger graduated apparatus over a period of 4 hours after reaching the boiling point, then essential oil was collected. In oil from green leaves, 49 compounds were identified, being 65.0% sesquiterpenes, 12.0% monoterpenes and 23.0% other substances. In oil from dry leaves, 40 compounds were identified, being 76.1% sesquiterpenes, 2.0% monoterpenes and 21.9% other compounds. The main constituents in green leaves were germacrene D (8.9%, bicyclegermacrene (5.3%, epi-alpha-cadinol (5.1%, alpha-cadinol (6.0%, and drimenol (9.3%. In dry leaves the main constituents were germacrene D (6.3%, (E-nerodidol (5.4%, spathulenol (9.5%, epi-alpha-cadinol (5.5%, alpha-cadinol (6.7%, and drimenol (11.6% Due to its composition, antibacterial, antimycotic, insectifuge and molluscicide activities are proven, together with the pharmacological properties that this species may present.

  13. On an inverse source problem for enhanced oil recovery by wave motion maximization in reservoirs

    KAUST Repository

    Karve, Pranav M.; Kucukcoban, Sezgin; Kallivokas, Loukas F.

    2014-01-01

    to increase the mobility of otherwise entrapped oil. The goal is to arrive at the spatial and temporal description of surface sources that are capable of maximizing mobility in the target reservoir. The focusing problem is posed as an inverse source problem

  14. 77 FR 41873 - In the Matter of Alternative Energy Sources, Inc., Arlington Hospitality, Inc., Consolidated Oil...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-16

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] In the Matter of Alternative Energy Sources, Inc., Arlington Hospitality, Inc., Consolidated Oil & Gas, Inc., CSMG Technologies, Inc., Dakotah... Alternative Energy Sources, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports since the period ended...

  15. Encapsulation of vegetable oils as source of omega-3 fatty acids for enriched functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Ruiz, Jorge Carlos; Ortiz Vazquez, Elizabeth De La Luz; Segura Campos, Maira Rubi

    2017-05-03

    Polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (PUFAs), a functional component present in vegetable oils, are generally recognized as being beneficial to health. Omega-3 PUFAs are rich in double bonds and unsaturated in nature; this attribute makes them highly susceptible to lipid oxidation and unfit for incorporation into long shelf life foods. The microencapsulation of oils in a polymeric matrix (mainly polysaccharides) offers the possibility of controlled release of the lipophilic functional ingredient and can be useful for the supplementation of foods with PUFAs. The present paper provides a literature review of different vegetable sources of omega-3 fatty acids, the functional effects of omega-3 fatty acids, different microencapsulation methods that can possibly be used for the encapsulation of oils, the properties of vegetable oil microcapsules, the effect of encapsulation on oxidation stability and fatty acid composition of vegetable oils, and the incorporation of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in foods.

  16. Comparative study of the sources of exergy destruction on four North Sea oil and gas platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldsund, Mari; Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Elmegaard, Brian

    2013-01-01

    temperatures and pressures, gas- and water-to-oil ratios in the feed, crude oil properties, product specifications and recovery strategies. These differences imply that some platforms naturally need less power for oil and gas processing than others. Reservoir properties and composition also vary over......In this paper, the oil and gas processing systems on four North Sea offshore platforms are reported and discussed. Sources of exergy destruction are identified and the findings for the different platforms are compared. Different platforms have different working conditions, such as reservoir...... the lifetime of an oil field, and to maintain the efficiency of an offshore platform is therefore challenging. In practice, variations in the process feed result in the use of control strategies such as anti-surge recycling, which cause additional power consumption and exergy destruction. For all four...

  17. Source rock contributions to the Lower Cretaceous heavy oil accumulations in Alberta: a basin modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbesi, Luiyin Alejandro; di Primio, Rolando; Anka, Zahie; Horsfield, Brian; Higley, Debra K.

    2012-01-01

    The origin of the immense oil sand deposits in Lower Cretaceous reservoirs of the Western Canada sedimentary basin is still a matter of debate, specifically with respect to the original in-place volumes and contributing source rocks. In this study, the contributions from the main source rocks were addressed using a three-dimensional petroleum system model calibrated to well data. A sensitivity analysis of source rock definition was performed in the case of the two main contributors, which are the Lower Jurassic Gordondale Member of the Fernie Group and the Upper Devonian–Lower Mississippian Exshaw Formation. This sensitivity analysis included variations of assigned total organic carbon and hydrogen index for both source intervals, and in the case of the Exshaw Formation, variations of thickness in areas beneath the Rocky Mountains were also considered. All of the modeled source rocks reached the early or main oil generation stages by 60 Ma, before the onset of the Laramide orogeny. Reconstructed oil accumulations were initially modest because of limited trapping efficiency. This was improved by defining lateral stratigraphic seals within the carrier system. An additional sealing effect by biodegraded oil may have hindered the migration of petroleum in the northern areas, but not to the east of Athabasca. In the latter case, the main trapping controls are dominantly stratigraphic and structural. Our model, based on available data, identifies the Gordondale source rock as the contributor of more than 54% of the oil in the Athabasca and Peace River accumulations, followed by minor amounts from Exshaw (15%) and other Devonian to Lower Jurassic source rocks. The proposed strong contribution of petroleum from the Exshaw Formation source rock to the Athabasca oil sands is only reproduced by assuming 25 m (82 ft) of mature Exshaw in the kitchen areas, with original total organic carbon of 9% or more.

  18. Bioremediation of oil-contaminated shorelines: Effects of different nitrogen sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramstad, S.; Sveum, P.

    1995-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the fate and effect of various nitrogen sources in oil-contaminated sediments in a continuous-flow seawater column system fed with nutrient-enriched seawater. Degradation of oil components is stimulated by a supply of an enhanced concentration of nitrogen. The most pronounced effect was found with nitrate, compared to ammonium and organic nitrogen. Ammonium was more readily sorbed by the sediment system, either by chemical adsorption or by microbial immobilization

  19. Used motor oil as a source of MTBE, TAME, and BTEX to ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, R.J.; Best, E.W.; Baehr, A.L.

    2002-01-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), the widely used gasoline oxygenate, has been identified as a common ground water contaminant, and BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) have long been associated with gasoline spills. Because not all instances of ground water contamination by MTBE and BTEX can be attributed to spills or leaking storage tanks, other potential sources need to be considered. In this study, used motor oil was investigated as a potential source of these contaminants. MTBE in oil was measured directly by methanol extraction and gas chromatography using a flame ionization detector (GC/FID). Water was equilibrated with oil samples and analyzed for MTBE, BTEX, and the oxygenate tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) by purge-and-trap concentration followed by GC/FID analysis. Raoult's law was used to calculate oil-phase concentrations of MTBE, BTEX, and TAME from aqueous-phase concentrations. MTBE, TAME, and BTEX were not detected in any of five new motor oil samples, whereas these compounds were found at significant concentrations in all six samples of the used motor oil tested for MTBE and all four samples tested for TAME and BTEX. MTBE concentrations in used motor oil were on the order of 100 mg/L. TAME concentrations ranged from 2.2 to 87 mg/L. Concentrations of benzene were 29 to 66 mg/L, but those of other BTEX compounds were higher, typically 500 to 2000 mg/L.

  20. Ship-Source Oil Pollution Fund annual report, 1991-1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The activities of the Ship-Source Oil Pollution Fund (SOPC) are reviewed for the fiscal year commencing 1 April 1991 and ending 31 March 1992. Topics covered include the Canadian compensation regime, activities of the International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund (to which the SOPC contributes), amendments to the Canada Shipping Act, United States legislation, the Haven incident, and the status of the fund. Twenty-three oil spill incidents are described along with actions taken, if any, by the SOPC and details of any claims paid by the SOPC or the international fund. 4 figs., 1 tab

  1. Lemon peel oil – A novel renewable alternative energy source for diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashok, B.; Thundil Karuppa Raj, R.; Nanthagopal, K.; Krishnan, Rahul; Subbarao, Rayapati

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel biofuel is extracted from lemon peels through steam distillation process. • Lemon peel oil is found to be a potential, renewable alternate eco-friendly fuel. • Significant vibration is observed with 100% lemon peel oil. • Reduction of CO, HC and smoke emission are observed with lemon peel oil blends. • Lemon peel oil blends are showed higher brake thermal efficiency than diesel fuel. - Abstract: The present research work has embarked on to exploit the novel renewable and biodegradable source of energy from lemon fruit rinds. A systematic approach has been made in this study to find the suitability of lemon peel oil for internal combustion engines and gensets applications. Extracted lemon peel oil is found to exhibit comparatively very low viscosity, flash point and boiling point than that of conventional diesel. Various blends of lemon peel oil have been prepared with conventional diesel with volumetric concentration of 20%, 40%, 50% and 100% and their physical and chemical properties are evaluated for its suitability in direct injection diesel engine. Lower cetane index of lemon peel oil significantly influences the ignition delay period and peak heat release rate that lead to the penalty in NOx emissions. Interestingly, the diesel engine performance characteristics have been improved to a remarkable level with higher proportions of lemon peel oil in the blends. In addition, the reduction of BSCO, BSHC and smoke emission is proportional to the lemon oil concentration in the blends. Overall diesel engine characteristics indicated that lemon peel oil can partially or completely replace the petroleum diesel usage to a great extent in developing countries like India.

  2. Case studies using the United States Coast Guard's Oil Identification System for petroleum spill source identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosser, P.W.; Castellano, F.P.

    1993-01-01

    The Oil Identification System (OIS) was developed in the 1970's at the Coast Guard Research and Development Center, to determine the unique, intrinsic properties which would allow the matching of a spilled oil with its correct source. The Central Oil Identification Laboratory (COIL) was established in 1978 as the operating facility to implement the OIS. The OIS encompasses four analytical methods; thin layer chromatography, fluorescence spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography. A sample can be studied according to each individual method or multi-methods approach can be chosen if no single technique gives unequivocal results. Combined these methods are greater than 99% effective. The authors recently utilized the OIS and the COIL for three petroleum spill investigations in New York. As part of the investigation to determine the source(s) of several different petroleum product spills, OIS was conducted along with a review of groundwater sample chromatograms

  3. A chemical and thermodynamic model of oil generation in hydrocarbon source rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeson, Harold C.; Richard, Laurent; McKenzie, William F.; Norton, Denis L.; Schmitt, Alexandra

    2009-02-01

    Thermodynamic calculations and Gibbs free energy minimization computer experiments strongly support the hypothesis that kerogen maturation and oil generation are inevitable consequences of oxidation/reduction disproportionation reactions caused by prograde metamorphism of hydrocarbon source rocks with increasing depth of burial.These experiments indicate that oxygen and hydrogen are conserved in the process.Accordingly, if water is stable and present in the source rock at temperatures ≳25 but ≲100 °C along a typical US Gulf Coast geotherm, immature (reduced) kerogen with a given atomic hydrogen to carbon ratio (H/C) melts incongruently with increasing temperature and depth of burial to produce a metastable equilibrium phase assemblage consisting of naphthenic/biomarker-rich crude oil, a type-II/III kerogen with an atomic hydrogen/carbon ratio (H/C) of ˜1, and water. Hence, this incongruent melting process promotes diagenetic reaction of detritus in the source rock to form authigenic mineral assemblages.However, in the water-absent region of the system CHO (which is extensive), any water initially present or subsequently entering the source rock is consumed by reaction with the most mature kerogen with the lowest H/C it encounters to form CO 2 gas and a new kerogen with higher H/C and O/C, both of which are in metastable equilibrium with one another.This hydrolytic disproportionation process progressively increases both the concentration of the solute in the aqueous phase, and the oil generation potential of the source rock; i.e., the new kerogen can then produce more crude oil.Petroleum is generated with increasing temperature and depth of burial of hydrocarbon source rocks in which water is not stable in the system CHO by a series of irreversible disproportionation reactions in which kerogens with higher (H/C)s melt incongruently to produce metastable equilibrium assemblages consisting of crude oil, CO 2 gas, and a more mature (oxidized) kerogen with a lower

  4. Khadum Formation of Pre-Caucasus region as potential source of oil shales: geology and geochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Sh. Yandarbiev1

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the main modern aim for oil industry is the development of hydrocarbon extraction technologies from «oil shale». In Russia there are kerogen-saturated carbonate-clayey-siliceous deposits of the Bazhenov Formation, carbonate rocks of the Volga-Ural and Timan-Pechora oil and gas bearing basins and clayey Maikop series of Pre-Caucasus region. The Khadum Formation is lower part of the Maikop series represented by carbonate-clay and clayey deposits. On the basis of long-term field and laboratory investigation conducted by specialists of the Oil and Gas Department from Geological Faculty of the Lomonosov Moscow State University. a comprehensive study of the lithological composition, structure, geochemical, hydrogeological and hydrodynamic characteristics of the Paleogene section and monitoring of the drilled wells, the prospects of the oil and gas potential of the Khadum deposits of the Oligocene in the Eastern Pre-Caucasus oil and gas bearing basin were estimated. 11 gas and 19 oil deposits are discovered within the Khadum deposits, and they are confined to the sand layers and lenses, but most of the Khadum section belongs to «unconventional» sources of hydrocarbons. Based on the integrated approach, a map of oil and gas potential prospects for the Khadum deposits was constructed. Highly prospective territories for drilling for oil, areas with small and medium perspectives, and gas prospecting areas have been singled out. Recommendations are given for drilling and technology for the development of the Pre-Caucasus oil shales, based on the world experience in the development of such formations.

  5. The central Myanmar (Burma) oil family - composition and implications for source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curiale, J A; Kyi, P; Collins, I D; Din, A; Nyein, K; Nyunt, M; Stuart, C J [Unocal Inc., Brea, CA (United States). Energy Resources Division

    1994-11-01

    Geochemical characteristics of 13 Miocene through Eocene oils/seeps, an Eocene coal and an Eocene resin from the central Myanmar (Burma) basin system are examined. Geologic arguments suggest a deep Paleogene source for these oils. Two geochemical arguments that support this inference are (a) the occurrence of saturated and unsaturated C-15 and C-30 cadinane monomers and dimers in pyrolyzates of an Eocene resin and the kerogen from an Eocene coal, and (b) identical compound-specific carbon isotope ratios for selected isoprenoids and n-alkanes in a typical central Myanmar oil and the hydrous pyrolyzate expelled from an Eocene coal. The authors propose an Eocene resinous shale/coal source for these oils, with the oldest (Eocene) reservoirs filling first and the youngst (Miocene) reservoirs filling last, consistent with the observation that the least mature oils are present in the oldest reservoirs. According to this model, surface seepage and near-surface oil could result from subsurface traps that are filled to spillpoint.

  6. Identification of source of a marine oil-spill using geochemical and chemometric techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobao, Marcio M.; Cardoso, Jari N.; Mello, Marcio R.; Brooks, Paul W.; Lopes, Claudio C.; Lopes, Rosangela S.C.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → San Marcos bay (Maranhao, Brazil) contains small levels of petroleum hydrocarbons. → Oil pollution in San Marcos bay is low-level but chronic. → Aliphatic biomarkers were more useful for spill-oil source correlation in the area. - Abstract: The current work aimed to identify the source of an oil spill off the coast of Maranhao, Brazil, in September 2005 and effect a preliminary geochemical survey of this environment. A combination of bulk analytical parameters, such as carbon isotope (δ 13 C) and Ni/V ratios, and conventional fingerprinting methods (High Resolution Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry) were used. The use of bulk methods greatly speeded source identification for this relatively unaltered spill: identification of the likely source was possible at this stage. Subsequent fingerprinting of biomarker distributions supported source assignment, pointing to a non-Brazilian oil. Steranes proved the most useful biomarkers for sample correlation in this work. Distribution patterns of environmentally more resilient compound types, such as certain aromatic structures, proved inconclusive for correlation, probably in view of their presence in the background.

  7. Correlation of the Canol Formation source rock with oil from Norman Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snowdon, L.R.; Brooks, P.W.; Williams, G.K.; Goodarzi, F.

    1987-01-01

    The source of the oil at Norman Wells has long been assumed to have been the Canol Formation and/or the Bluefish Member of the Hare Indian Formation. These two units are stratigraphically above and below the Kee Scarp Formation reservoir unit respectively, and are both bituminous shales. A wide range of analytical techniques including Rock-Eval pyrolysis, solvent extraction and fractionation, capillary gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and white light and fluorescence microscopy has been used to characterize core samples of these two units and two samples of crude oil from the Norman Wells field. Most of the analytical techniques were insufficiently refined to either differentiate the extracts from each other or to make a definitive oil/source rock correlation. Collision activated decomposition coupled with multiple ion detection mass spectrometry (GC-MS-MS) did provide sufficient chemical compositional detail of the oils and the two potential sources to demonstrate that the Canol Formation has been the effective source of the Normal Wells oil whereas the Bluefish Member has not. The level of thermal maturity of the core samples ranges from immature to moderately mature in the vicinity of the Norman Wells field to overmature for the samples obtained to the west and north of the field. The level of thermal maturity of the oil was observed to be somewhat higher than that of the samples of the source formation directly above the field. It was thus inferred that some lateral migration from more mature areas has occurred but the extent of this migration was not necessarily more than a few to tens of kilometers.

  8. New bioemulsifiers produced by Candida lipolytica using D-glucose and babassu oil as carbon sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vance-Harrop Mabel H.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida lipolytica IA 1055 produced extracellular biosurfactants with emulsification activity by fermentation using babassu oil and D-glucose as carbon sources. Natural seawater diluted at 50% supplemented with urea, ammonium sulfate, and phosphate was used as economic basal medium. The best results were achieved with the YSW-B2 medium, which contained urea, ammonium sulfate, and babassu oil and with YSW-B3 medium, which contained urea, ammonium sulfate, phosphate, and babassu oil, kept under fed batch fermentation for 60 hours with 5% of babassu oil. For the two media, the maximum specific growth rates were 0.02 h-1 and 0.04 h-1; the generation times were 34.6 h-1 and 17.3 h-1, and the emulsification activities were 0.666 and 0.158 units, respectively. The molecules of these new bioemulsifiers were contituted of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids.

  9. Ship-Source Oil Pollution Fund annual report, 1992-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The activities of the Ship-Source Oil Pollution Fund (SOPC) are reviewed for the fiscal year commencing 1 April 1992 and ending 31 March 1993. Topics covered include the Canadian compensation regime, activities of the International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund (to which the SOPC contributes), amendments to the Canada Shipping Act, major international incidents, the International Conference on the Revision of the 1969 Civil Liability Convention and the 1971 Fund Convention, the 1993 Oil Spill Conference, and the status of the fund. Twenty-nine oil spill incidents are described along with actions taken, if any, by the SOPC and details of any claims paid by the SOPC or the international fund. 3 figs

  10. Combustion Performance and Exhaust Emission of DI Diesel Engine Using Various Sources of Waste Cooking Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afiq, Mohd; Azuhairi, Mohd; Jazair, Wira

    2010-06-01

    In Malaysia, more than 200-tone of cooking oil are used by domestic users everyday. After frying process, about a quarter of these cooking oil was remained and drained into sewage system. This will pollutes waterways and affects the ecosystem. The use of waste cooking oil (WCO) for producing bio-diesel was considered in economical factor which current production cost of bio-diesel production is higher in Malaysia due to higher price of palm oil. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the most suitable source of WCO to become a main source of bio-diesel for bio-diesel production in this country. To perform this research, three type of WCO were obtained from house's kitchen, cafeteria and mamak's restaurant. In this study, prospect of these bio-diesel source was evaluated based on its combustion performance and exhaust emissions operated in diesel engine in the form of waste cooking oil methyl ester (WCOME) and have been compared with pure diesel fuel. A 0.6 liter, single-cylinder, air-cooled direct injection diesel engine was used to perform this experiment. Experiment was done at variable engine loads and constant engine speed. As the result, among three stated WCOMEs, the one collected from house's kitchen gives the best performance in term of brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) and brake power (BP) with lowest soot emission.

  11. Characterization of Biosurfactant Produced during Degradation of Hydrocarbons Using Crude Oil As Sole Source of Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Patowary, Rupshikha; Kalita, Mohan C.; Deka, Suresh

    2017-01-01

    Production and spillage of petroleum hydrocarbons which is the most versatile energy resource causes disastrous environmental pollution. Elevated oil degrading performance from microorganisms is demanded for successful microbial remediation of those toxic pollutants. The employment of biosurfactant-producing and hydrocarbon-utilizing microbes enhances the effectiveness of bioremediation as biosurfactant plays a key role by making hydrocarbons bio-available for degradation. The present study aimed the isolation of a potent biosurfactant producing indigenous bacteria which can be employed for crude oil remediation, along with the characterization of the biosurfactant produced during crude oil biodegradation. A potent bacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa PG1 (identified by 16s rDNA sequencing) was isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated soil that could efficiently produce biosurfactant by utilizing crude oil components as the carbon source, thereby leading to the enhanced degradation of the petroleum hydrocarbons. Strain PG1 could degrade 81.8% of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) after 5 weeks of culture when grown in mineral salt media (MSM) supplemented with 2% (v/v) crude oil as the sole carbon source. GCMS analysis of the treated crude oil samples revealed that P. aeruginosa PG1 could potentially degrade various hydrocarbon contents including various PAHs present in the crude oil. Biosurfactant produced by strain PG1 in the course of crude oil degradation, promotes the reduction of surface tension (ST) of the culture medium from 51.8 to 29.6 mN m−1, with the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 56 mg L−1. FTIR, LC-MS, and SEM-EDS studies revealed that the biosurfactant is a rhamnolipid comprising of both mono and di rhamnolipid congeners. The biosurfactant did not exhibit any cytotoxic effect to mouse L292 fibroblastic cell line, however, strong antibiotic activity against some pathogenic bacteria and fungus was observed. PMID:28275373

  12. Characterization of Biosurfactant Produced during Degradation of Hydrocarbons Using Crude Oil As Sole Source of Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Patowary, Rupshikha; Kalita, Mohan C; Deka, Suresh

    2017-01-01

    Production and spillage of petroleum hydrocarbons which is the most versatile energy resource causes disastrous environmental pollution. Elevated oil degrading performance from microorganisms is demanded for successful microbial remediation of those toxic pollutants. The employment of biosurfactant-producing and hydrocarbon-utilizing microbes enhances the effectiveness of bioremediation as biosurfactant plays a key role by making hydrocarbons bio-available for degradation. The present study aimed the isolation of a potent biosurfactant producing indigenous bacteria which can be employed for crude oil remediation, along with the characterization of the biosurfactant produced during crude oil biodegradation. A potent bacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa PG1 (identified by 16s rDNA sequencing) was isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated soil that could efficiently produce biosurfactant by utilizing crude oil components as the carbon source, thereby leading to the enhanced degradation of the petroleum hydrocarbons. Strain PG1 could degrade 81.8% of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) after 5 weeks of culture when grown in mineral salt media (MSM) supplemented with 2% (v/v) crude oil as the sole carbon source. GCMS analysis of the treated crude oil samples revealed that P. aeruginosa PG1 could potentially degrade various hydrocarbon contents including various PAHs present in the crude oil. Biosurfactant produced by strain PG1 in the course of crude oil degradation, promotes the reduction of surface tension (ST) of the culture medium from 51.8 to 29.6 mN m -1 , with the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 56 mg L -1 . FTIR, LC-MS, and SEM-EDS studies revealed that the biosurfactant is a rhamnolipid comprising of both mono and di rhamnolipid congeners. The biosurfactant did not exhibit any cytotoxic effect to mouse L292 fibroblastic cell line, however, strong antibiotic activity against some pathogenic bacteria and fungus was observed.

  13. Restoration of Circum-Arctic Upper Jurassic source rock paleolatitude based on crude oil geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, K.E.; Ramos, L.S.; Zumberge, J.E.; Valin, Z.C.; Scotese, C.R.

    2008-01-01

    Tectonic geochemical paleolatitude (TGP) models were developed to predict the paleolatitude of petroleum source rock from the geochemical composition of crude oil. The results validate studies designed to reconstruct ancient source rock depositional environments using oil chemistry and tectonic reconstruction of paleogeography from coordinates of the present day collection site. TGP models can also be used to corroborate tectonic paleolatitude in cases where the predicted paleogeography conflicts with the depositional setting predicted by the oil chemistry, or to predict paleolatitude when the present day collection locality is far removed from the source rock, as might occur due to long distance subsurface migration or transport of tarballs by ocean currents. Biomarker and stable carbon isotope ratios were measured for 496 crude oil samples inferred to originate from Upper Jurassic source rock in West Siberia, the North Sea and offshore Labrador. First, a unique, multi-tiered chemometric (multivariate statistics) decision tree was used to classify these samples into seven oil families and infer the type of organic matter, lithology and depositional environment of each organofacies of source rock [Peters, K.E., Ramos, L.S., Zumberge, J.E., Valin, Z.C., Scotese, C.R., Gautier, D.L., 2007. Circum-Arctic petroleum systems identified using decision-tree chemometrics. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 91, 877-913]. Second, present day geographic locations for each sample were used to restore the tectonic paleolatitude of the source rock during Late Jurassic time (???150 Ma). Third, partial least squares regression (PLSR) was used to construct linear TGP models that relate tectonic and geochemical paleolatitude, where the latter is based on 19 source-related biomarker and isotope ratios for each oil family. The TGP models were calibrated using 70% of the samples in each family and the remaining 30% of samples were used for model validation. Positive

  14. 77 FR 19282 - Draft NPDES General Permit for Discharges From the Oil and Gas Extraction Point Source Category...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... adversely affect an Essential Fish Habitat is subject to the consultation provisions of the Manguson-Stevens Act. The Texas Coastal Subcategory areas covered by this general permit include Essential Fish Habitat... would be unlikely to adversely affect Essential Fish Habitat. EPA received written [[Page 19284...

  15. Development document for the effluent limitations and guidelines for the ore mining and dressing point source category. Volume I. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarrett, B.M.; Kirby, R.G.

    1978-07-01

    To establish effluent limitation guidelines and standards of performance, the ore mining and dressing industry was divided into 41 separate categories and subcategories for which separate limitations were recommended. This report deals with the entire metal-ore mining and dressing industry and examines the industry by ten major categories: iron ore; copper ore; lead and zinc ores; gold ore; silver ore; bauxite ore; ferroalloy-metal ores; mercury ores; uranium, radium and vanadium ores; and metal ores, not elsewhere classified ((ores of antimony, beryllium, pltinum, rare earths, tin, titanium, and zirconium). The subcategorization of the ore categories is based primarily upon ore mineralogy and processing or extraction methods employed; however, other factors (such as size, climate or location, and method of mining) are used in some instances. With the best available technology economically achievable, facilities in 21 of the 41 subcategories can be operated with no discharge of process wastewater to navigable waters. No discharge of process wastewater is also achievable as a new source performance standard for facilities in 21 of the 41 subcategories

  16. Oils of insects and larvae consumed in Africa: potential sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Womeni Hilaire Macaire

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present the beneficial aspects of some insects consumed in sub-Saharan Africa, based on examples of insects consumed in Cameroon, to present their potential as sources of lipids and essential fatty acids. In Africa, termites, larvae of raphia weevil, caterpillars, crickets, bees, maggots, butterflies, weevil, etc. are significant sources of food. These insects belong mainly to the orders of : Isoptera, Orthoptera, Dictyoptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Diptera. Depending on the species, insects are rich in proteins, minerals (K, Ca, Mg, Zn, P, Fe and/or vitamins (thiamine/B1, riboflavine/B2, pyridoxine/B6, acid pantothenic, niacin. The composition of oils extracted from the following six insects consumed in Cameroon was investigated : larvaes of raphia weevil (Rhynchophorus phoenicis, crickets (Homorocoryphus nitidulus, grasshopper (Zonocerus variegates, termites (Macrotermes sp., a variety of caterpillars (Imbrasia sp. and an unidentified caterpillar from the forest (UI carterpillar. The extraction yields of oil were 53.75%, 67.25%, 9.12%, 49.35%, 24.44% and 20.17% respectively for raphia weevil larvae, crickets, devastating crickets, termites, Imbrasia and UI caterpillar. The oil from raphia weevil mainly contains 37.60% of palmitoleic acid and 45.46% of linoleic acid. The oil from crickets is principally made up of palmitoleic acid (27.59%, linoleic acid (45.63% and α-linolenic acid (16.19%. The oil from grasshoppers is composed of palmitoleic acid (23.83%, oleic acid (10.71%, linoleic acid (21.07%, α-linolenic acid (14.76% and γ-linolenic acid (22.54%. The main components of termite oil are : palmitic acid (30.47%, oleic acid (47.52% and linoleic acid (8.79%. Palmitic acid (36.08% and linolenic acid (38.01% are the two dominant fatty acids of Imbrasia oil. As Imbrasia oil, UI caterpillar oil is composed of palmitic acid (30.80% and linolenic acid (41.79%. Stearic acid (7.04%, oleic acid

  17. Oil spill aftermath : temporal evaluation of hydrocarbon sources in Guanabara Bay, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meniconi, M.F.G.; Massone, C.G.; Scofield, A.L.; Junior, V.J.F.

    2005-01-01

    The sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in environmental ecosystems are both natural and anthropogenic. PAHs interact with different types of environmental compartments and are subject to processes that lead to geochemical fates such as physical-chemical transformation, biodegradation and photo-oxidation. This study examined the sources of PAHs in the estuarine sediment of Guanabara Bay, Brazil following an accidental oil spill from an oil refinery in January 2000. The main portion of the oil was carried by tidal currents and wind. It spread over the water and reached islands and shorelines at the north part of the bay. The objective of this study was to determine the likely sources of hydrocarbons in the bay where untreated municipal sewage and industrial wastes are also dumped. Sediment samples were collected using cores and dredges from the intertidal and subtidal regions of the bay, reflecting both affected and unaffected areas. This paper summarized the results of 16 EPA priority PAH and their alkylated homologues from 21 sediment samples collected in the bay 10 days after the oil spill, immediately after the clean up effort, and then 3 years later. The hydrocarbon source was determined using PAH ratios for the samples studied. The highest PAH concentration was observed in 2000 as a result of the petrogenic and pyrolytic contribution to the sediments. 38 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs

  18. Oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsouros, M.H.

    1992-01-01

    The world annually transports 1.7 billion tons of oil by sea, and oil spills, often highly concentrated discharges, are increasing from a variety of sources. The author discusses sources of oils spills: natural; marine transportation; offshore oil production; atmospheric sources; municipal industrial wastes and runoff. Other topics include: the fate of the spilled oil; the effects of the oil; the response to oil spills; and prevention of oil spills. 30 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  19. DHA-Containing Oilseed: A Timely Solution for the Sustainability Issues Surrounding Fish Oil Sources of the Health-Benefitting Long-Chain Omega-3 Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitessa, Soressa M.; Abeywardena, Mahinda; Wijesundera, Chakra; Nichols, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Benefits of long-chain (≥C20) omega-3 oils (LC omega-3 oils) for reduction of the risk of a range of disorders are well documented. The benefits result from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); optimal intake levels of these bioactive fatty acids for maintenance of normal health and prevention of diseases have been developed and adopted by national and international health agencies and science bodies. These developments have led to increased consumer demand for LC omega-3 oils and, coupled with increasing global population, will impact on future sustainable supply of fish. Seafood supply from aquaculture has risen over the past decades and it relies on harvest of wild catch fisheries also for its fish oil needs. Alternate sources of LC omega-3 oils are being pursued, including genetically modified soybean rich in shorter-chain stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4ω3). However, neither oils from traditional oilseeds such as linseed, nor the SDA soybean oil have shown efficient conversion to DHA. A recent breakthrough has seen the demonstration of a land plant-based oil enriched in DHA, and with omega-6 PUFA levels close to that occurring in marine sources of EPA and DHA. We review alternative sources of DHA supply with emphasis on the need for land plant oils containing EPA and DHA. PMID:24858407

  20. DHA-Containing Oilseed: A Timely Solution for the Sustainability Issues Surrounding Fish Oil Sources of the Health-Benefitting Long-Chain Omega-3 Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soressa M. Kitessa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Benefits of long-chain (≥C20 omega-3 oils (LC omega-3 oils for reduction of the risk of a range of disorders are well documented. The benefits result from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; optimal intake levels of these bioactive fatty acids for maintenance of normal health and prevention of diseases have been developed and adopted by national and international health agencies and science bodies. These developments have led to increased consumer demand for LC omega-3 oils and, coupled with increasing global population, will impact on future sustainable supply of fish. Seafood supply from aquaculture has risen over the past decades and it relies on harvest of wild catch fisheries also for its fish oil needs. Alternate sources of LC omega-3 oils are being pursued, including genetically modified soybean rich in shorter-chain stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4ω3. However, neither oils from traditional oilseeds such as linseed, nor the SDA soybean oil have shown efficient conversion to DHA. A recent breakthrough has seen the demonstration of a land plant-based oil enriched in DHA, and with omega-6 PUFA levels close to that occurring in marine sources of EPA and DHA. We review alternative sources of DHA supply with emphasis on the need for land plant oils containing EPA and DHA.

  1. DHA-containing oilseed: a timely solution for the sustainability issues surrounding fish oil sources of the health-benefitting long-chain omega-3 oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitessa, Soressa M; Abeywardena, Mahinda; Wijesundera, Chakra; Nichols, Peter D

    2014-05-22

    Benefits of long-chain (≥C20) omega-3 oils (LC omega-3 oils) for reduction of the risk of a range of disorders are well documented. The benefits result from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); optimal intake levels of these bioactive fatty acids for maintenance of normal health and prevention of diseases have been developed and adopted by national and international health agencies and science bodies. These developments have led to increased consumer demand for LC omega-3 oils and, coupled with increasing global population, will impact on future sustainable supply of fish. Seafood supply from aquaculture has risen over the past decades and it relies on harvest of wild catch fisheries also for its fish oil needs. Alternate sources of LC omega-3 oils are being pursued, including genetically modified soybean rich in shorter-chain stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4ω3). However, neither oils from traditional oilseeds such as linseed, nor the SDA soybean oil have shown efficient conversion to DHA. A recent breakthrough has seen the demonstration of a land plant-based oil enriched in DHA, and with omega-6 PUFA levels close to that occurring in marine sources of EPA and DHA. We review alternative sources of DHA supply with emphasis on the need for land plant oils containing EPA and DHA.

  2. Organizational Categories as Viewing Categories

    OpenAIRE

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores how two Danish rehabilitation organizations textual guidelines for assessment of clients’ personality traits influence the actual evaluation of clients. The analysis will show how staff members produce institutional identities corresponding to organizational categories, which very often have little or no relevance for the clients evaluated. The goal of the article is to demonstrate how the institutional complex that frames the work of the organizations produces the client ...

  3. Characterization, weathering, and application of sesquiterpanes to source identification of spilled oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.D.; Yang, C.; Fingas, M.; Hollebone, B.P.; Landriault, M.

    2005-01-01

    Sesquiterpanes are a component of crude oils and ancient sediments. This study examined the feasibility of using them as bicyclic biomarkers for fingerprinting and identifying unknown lighter petroleum product spills. The study identified and characterize sesquiterpanes in crude oils and petroleum products. The distributions of sesquiterpanes in different oils, oil distillation fractions and refined products were also studied along with the effects of evaporative weathering on the distribution and concentration of sesquiterpanes. Several diagnostic indexes of sesquiterpanes were developed for oil correlation and differentiation. Most high-molecular weight biomarkers are removed from lighter petroleum products during the refining process. Therefore, high boiling point pentacyclic triterpanes and steranes are often absent in lighter petroleum products. However, the smaller bicyclic sesquiterpanes such as drimane and eudesmane are highly concentrated in petroleum products such as light gas oil. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis of these bicyclic biomarkers can be used to correlate, differentiate and identify the source for lighter petroleum products. 15 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs

  4. Bintangor Laut (Calophylum Inophylum L.) Oil: A promising source of bio diesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaharuddin, H.; Wan Asma, I.; Rafidah, J.; Puad, E.; Mahanim, S.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Bintangor Laut (BL) oil is non-edible oil extracted from the seeds of Calophylum Inophylum L. It is a tree of 12-20 m height, with spread branches. The BL tree grows along coastal areas and adjacent lowland forests, although it occasionally occurs inland at higher elevations and it is native to east Africa, India, Southeast Asia, Australia, and the South Pacific. This study investigates the potential of BL oil as an alternative source of bio energy (bio diesel). The average oil content of BL seeds is 35% by weight. Fuel properties of trans esterified BL oil chemically known as methyl esters (bio diesel) were compared with bio diesel standards of American Standard Testing Method (ASTM). The fuel properties of BL bio diesel (100%) that is specific gravity is 0.92, kinematic viscosity at 40 degree Celsius, 7.43, flash point 151 degree Celsius, pour point -4 degree Celsius, cloud point 4 degree Celsius, B10 were very close to petroleum diesel. On the basis of these fuel properties, it is concluded that BL bio diesel is a good option for renewable energy to reduce dependency on import of foreign oil. (author)

  5. Attribution of aerosol radiative forcing over India during the winter monsoon to emissions from source categories and geographical regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S.; Venkataraman, C.; Boucher, O.

    2011-08-01

    We examine the aerosol radiative effects due to aerosols emitted from different emission sectors (anthropogenic and natural) and originating from different geographical regions within and outside India during the northeast (NE) Indian winter monsoon (January-March). These studies are carried out through aerosol transport simulations in the general circulation (GCM) model of the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (LMD). The model estimates of aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA) show lower values (0.86-0.92) over the region north to 10°N comprising of the Indian subcontinent, Bay of Bengal, and parts of the Arabian Sea compared to the region south to 10°N where the estimated SSA values lie in the range 0.94-0.98. The model estimated SSA is consistent with the SSA values inferred through measurements on various platforms. Aerosols of anthropogenic origin reduce the incoming solar radiation at the surface by a factor of 10-20 times the reduction due to natural aerosols. At the top-of-atmosphere (TOA), aerosols from biofuel use cause positive forcing compared to the negative forcing from fossil fuel and natural sources in correspondence with the distribution of SSA which is estimated to be the lowest (0.7-0.78) from biofuel combustion emissions. Aerosols originating from India and Africa-west Asia lead to the reduction in surface radiation (-3 to -8 W m -2) by 40-60% of the total reduction in surface radiation due to all aerosols over the Indian subcontinent and adjoining ocean. Aerosols originating from India and Africa-west Asia also lead to positive radiative effects at TOA over the Arabian Sea, central India (CNI), with the highest positive radiative effects over the Bay of Bengal and cause either negative or positive effects over the Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP).

  6. Statistical forensic methodology for oil spill source identification using two-tailed student's t approach. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.; Wang, Z.; Hollebone, B.; Brown, C.E.; Landriault, M.

    2007-01-01

    A thorough chemical characterization of oil must be conducted following an oil spill in order to determine the source of the oil, to distinguish the spilled oil from background hydrocarbons and to quantitatively evaluate the extent of impact of the spill. Gas chromatography, flame ionization and mass spectrometry analysis was used in conjunction with statistical data analysis to determine the source of a spill that occurred in 2004 in a harbor in the Netherlands. Three oil samples were collected from the harbor spill, where a thick layer of oil was found between a bunker boat and the quay next to the bunker centre. The 3 samples were sent to different laboratories for a round robin test to defensively correlate the spilled oil to the suspected source candidates. The source characterization and identification was validated by quantitative evaluation of 5 petroleum-characteristic alkylated PAH homologous series (naphthalene, phenanthrene, dibenzothiophene, fluorene and chrysene), pentacyclic biomarkers, bicyclic sesquiterpanes and diamondoid compounds. The use of biomarkers for identifying the source of spilled oils has also increased in recent years due to their specificity and high resistance to biodegradation. There was no strong difference among the 3 oil samples according to radar plots of diagnostic ratios of PAHs, isoprenoids, biomarkers, bicyclic sesquiterpanes and diamondoids. The two-tailed unpaired student's t-tests provided strong evidence for which ship was responsible for the oil spill incident. However, it was cautioned that although two-tailed unpaired student's t-tests along with oil fingerprinting successfully identified the spill source, the method has limitations. Experimental results showed that the spilled oil and two source candidates were quite similar in both chemical fingerprints and concentration profiles for determined target hydrocarbons. 17 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  7. Oil palm biomass as a sustainable energy source: A Malaysian case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuit, S.H.; Tan, K.T.; Lee, K.T.; Kamaruddin, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    It has been widely accepted worldwide that global warming is by far the greatest threat and challenge in the new millennium. In order to stop global warming and to promote sustainable development, renewable energy is a perfect solution to achieve both targets. Presently million hectares of land in Malaysia is occupied with oil palm plantation generating huge quantities of biomass. In this context, biomass from oil palm industries appears to be a very promising alternative as a source of raw materials including renewable energy in Malaysia. Thus, this paper aims to present current scenario of biomass in Malaysia covering issues on availability and sustainability of feedstock as well as current and possible utilization of oil palm biomass. This paper will also discuss feasibility of some biomass conversion technologies and some ongoing projects in Malaysia related to utilization of oil palm biomass as a source of renewable energy. Based on the findings presented, it is definitely clear that Malaysia has position herself in the right path to utilize biomass as a source of renewable energy and this can act as an example to other countries in the world that has huge biomass feedstock. (author)

  8. Use of ultrasonic array method for positioning multiple partial discharge sources in transformer oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qing; Tao, Junhan; Wang, Yongqiang; Geng, Jianghai; Cheng, Shuyi; Lü, Fangcheng

    2014-08-01

    Fast and accurate positioning of partial discharge (PD) sources in transformer oil is very important for the safe, stable operation of power systems because it allows timely elimination of insulation faults. There is usually more than one PD source once an insulation fault occurs in the transformer oil. This study, which has both theoretical and practical significance, proposes a method of identifying multiple PD sources in the transformer oil. The method combines the two-sided correlation transformation algorithm in the broadband signal focusing and the modified Gerschgorin disk estimator. The method of classification of multiple signals is used to determine the directions of arrival of signals from multiple PD sources. The ultrasonic array positioning method is based on the multi-platform direction finding and the global optimization searching. Both the 4 × 4 square planar ultrasonic sensor array and the ultrasonic array detection platform are built to test the method of identifying and positioning multiple PD sources. The obtained results verify the validity and the engineering practicability of this method.

  9. Utilization possibilities of palm shell as a source of biomass energy in Malaysia by producing bio-oil in pyrolysis process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abnisa, Faisal; Daud, W.M.A. Wan; Husin, W.N.W.; Sahu, J.N.

    2011-01-01

    Agriculture residues such as palm shell are one of the biomass categories that can be utilized for conversion to bio-oil by using pyrolysis process. Palm shells were pyrolyzed in a fluidized-bed reactor at 400, 500, 600, 700 and 800 o C with N 2 as carrier gas at flow rate 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 L/min. The objective of the present work is to determine the effects of temperature, flow rate of N 2 , particle size and reaction time on the optimization of production of renewable bio-oil from palm shell. According to this study the maximum yield of bio-oil (47.3 wt%) can be obtained, working at the medium level for the operation temperature (500 o C) and 2 L/min of N 2 flow rate at 60 min reaction time. Temperature is the most important factor, having a significant positive effect on yield product of bio-oil. The oil was characterized by Fourier Transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. -- Highlights: → This study reports the results of experimental investing of conversion palm shell into bio-oil by using pyrolysis and to find the optimum condition to produce the highest yield of bio-oil. → Several parameters which have effect to the process such as temperature, N 2 flow rate, reaction time and particle size is will be investigated in this study. → The outcome of this result will be important for abatement and control of increasingly waste palm shell storage problems any energy source to the world.

  10. Application of accelerator sources for pulsed neutron logging of oil and gas wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randall, R.R.

    1985-01-01

    Dresser Atlas introduced the first commercial pulsed neutron oil well log in the early 1960s. This log had the capability of differentiating oil from salt water in a completed well. In the late 1970s the first continuous carbon/oxygen (C/O) log capable of differentiating oil from fresh water was introduced. The sources used in these commercial logs are radial geometry deuterium-tritium reaction devices with Cockcroft-Walton voltage multipliers providing the accelerator voltage. The commercial logging tools using these accelerators are comprised of scintillators detectors, power supplies, line drivers and receivers, and various timing and communication electronics. They are used to measure either the time decay or energy spectra of neutron-induced gamma events. The time decay information is useful in determining the neutron capture cross section, and the energy spectra is used to characterize inelastic neutron events. (orig.)

  11. Application of accelerator sources for pulsed neutron logging of oil and gas wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, R. R.

    1985-05-01

    Dresser Atlas introduced the first commercial pulsed neutron oil well log in the early 1960s. This log had the capability of differentiating oil from salt water in a completed well. In the late 1970s the first continuous carbon/oxygen (C/O) log capable of differentiating oil from fresh water was introduced. The sources used in these commercial logs are radial geometry deuterium-tritium reaction devices with Cockcroft-Walton voltage multipliers providing the accelerator voltage. The commercial logging tools using these accelerators are comprised of scintillators detectors, power supplies, line drivers and receivers, and various timing and communications electronics. They are used to measure either the time decay or energy spectra of neutron-induced gamma events. The time decay information is useful in determining the neutron capture cross section, and the energy spectra is used to characterize inelastic neutron events.

  12. Advanced CANDU reactor: an optimized energy source of oil sands application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopwood, J.M.; Bock, D.; Miller, A.; Kuran, S.; Keil, H.; Fiorino, L.; Duffey, R.; Dunbar, R.B.

    2003-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) is developing the ACR-700 TM (Advanced CANDU Reactor-700 TM ) to meet customer needs for reduced capital cost, shorter construction schedule, high capacity factor while retaining the benefits of the CANDU experience base. The ACR-700 is based on the concept of CANDU horizontal fuel channels surrounded by heavy water moderator. The major innovation of this design is the use of slightly enriched uranium fuel in a CANFLEX bundle that is cooled by light water. This ensures: higher main steam pressures and temperatures providing higher thermal efficiency; a compact and simpler reactor design with reduced capital costs and shorter construction schedules; and reduced heavy water inventory compared to existing CANDU reactors. ACR-700 is not only a technically advanced and cost effective solution for electricity generating utilities, but also a low-cost, long-life and sustainable steam source for increasing Alberta's Oil Sand production rates. Currently practiced commercial surface mining and extraction of Oil Sand resources has been well established over the last three decades. But a majority of the available resources are somewhat deeper underground require in-situ extraction. Economic removal of such underground resources is now possible through the Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) process developed and proto-type tested in-site. SAGD requires the injection of large quantities of high-pressure steam into horizontal wells to form reduced viscosity bitumen and condensate mixture that is then collected at the surface. This paper describes joint AECL studies with CERI (Canadian Energy Research Institute) for the ACR, supplying both electricity and medium-pressure steam to an oil sands facility. The extensive oil sands deposits in northern Alberta are a very large energy resource. Currently, 30% of Canda's oil production is from the oil sands and this is expected to expand greatly over the coming decade. The bitumen deposits in the

  13. Profiling oil sands mixtures from industrial developments and natural groundwaters for source identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Richard A; Roy, James W; Bickerton, Greg; Rowland, Steve J; Headley, John V; Scarlett, Alan G; West, Charles E; Peru, Kerry M; Parrott, Joanne L; Conly, F Malcolm; Hewitt, L Mark

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify chemical components that could distinguish chemical mixtures in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) that had potentially migrated to groundwater in the oil sands development area of northern Alberta, Canada. In the first part of the study, OSPW samples from two different tailings ponds and a broad range of natural groundwater samples were assessed with historically employed techniques as Level-1 analyses, including geochemistry, total concentrations of naphthenic acids (NAs) and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS). While these analyses did not allow for reliable source differentiation, they did identify samples containing significant concentrations of oil sands acid-extractable organics (AEOs). In applying Level-2 profiling analyses using electrospray ionization high resolution mass spectrometry (ESI-HRMS) and comprehensive multidimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOF/MS) to samples containing appreciable AEO concentrations, differentiation of natural from OSPW sources was apparent through measurements of O2:O4 ion class ratios (ESI-HRMS) and diagnostic ions for two families of suspected monoaromatic acids (GC × GC-TOF/MS). The resemblance between the AEO profiles from OSPW and from 6 groundwater samples adjacent to two tailings ponds implies a common source, supporting the use of these complimentary analyses for source identification. These samples included two of upward flowing groundwater collected <1 m beneath the Athabasca River, suggesting OSPW-affected groundwater is reaching the river system.

  14. Old oil palm trunk: A promising source of sugars for bioethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, H.; Ohara, S. [Department of Global Agricultural Sciences, University of Tokyo, 1-1-1, Yayoi, Bunkyo 113-8657 (Japan); Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, 1 Matsunosato, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8687 (Japan); Tanaka, R.; Yamamoto, K. [Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, 1 Matsunosato, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8687 (Japan); Sulaiman, O.; Hashim, R.; Hamid, Z.A.A.; Yahya, M.K.A. [School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Penang (Malaysia); Kosugi, A.; Arai, T.; Murata, Y.; Nirasawa, S. [Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences, 1-1, Owashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8686 (Japan); Mohd Yusof, Mohd Nor; Ibrahim, Wan Asma [Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Kepong, 52109 Selangor (Malaysia); Mori, Y. [Department of Global Agricultural Sciences, University of Tokyo, 1-1-1, Yayoi, Bunkyo 113-8657 (Japan); Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences, 1-1, Owashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8686 (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    Oil palm trees are replanted at an interval of approximately 25 years because of decreased oil productivity of old trees. Consequently the felled trunks are the enormous amount of biomass resources in the palm oil producing countries such as Malaysia and Indonesia. In this report, we found that the felled oil palm trunk contains large quantity of sap, which accounts for approximately 70% of the whole trunk weight, and that sugars existing in the sap increased remarkably during storage after logging. Total sugar in the sap increased from 83 mg ml{sup -1} to 153 mg ml{sup -1}, the concentration comparable to that of sugar cane juice, after 30 days of storage, followed by the gradual decrease. The sugars contained in the sap were glucose, sucrose, fructose and galactose, all of which are fermentable by ordinary industrial yeast strains. The results indicate that old oil palm trunk becomes a promising source of sugars by proper aging after logging and, thus, its sap can be a good feedstock for bioethanol. (author)

  15. Consumer Product Category Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use information is compiled from multiple sources while product information is gathered from publicly available Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS). EPA researchers are evaluating the possibility of expanding the database with additional product and use information.

  16. Ship-source oil pollution fund : annual report 1997-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Ship-source Oil Pollution Fund (SOPF) receives reports of oil pollution caused by ships in Canadian waters. The reports come from a variety of sources, including individuals who wish to be advised whether they are entitled for consideration under the Canada Shipping Act as potential claimants as a result of oil pollution damage and expenses they have suffered. The SOPF fully investigates all such reports and inquiries. A summary of each investigation that fall within the SOPF purview is provided in this report. This recitation includes a number of references to incidents dating as far back as the 1970s, providing for each incident the name of the ship, a summary of the incident, the damage caused, and the claims received and paid out by the fund. The balance of the SOPF on March 31, 1998 was just over $268 million. As of April 1, 1998 the maximum liability of the SOPF is about $128 million for all claims in respect of any one oil spill. The amount of liability is indexed annually to the consumer price index. 1 fig., 1 tab

  17. Strategies of materials sourcing and services in the oil and gas industry; Estrategias de suprimentos de materiais e servicos na industria de oil and gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aun, Rogerio [Arthur Andersen Business Consulting, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Strategic Sourcing is a procurement management technique that aims to establish a globally competitive supply base. By setting an appropriate sourcing strategy to specific sourcing groups considering the purchasing volume and the sourcing complexity, significant savings can be achieved in the total company expenditures. There are four basic sourcing strategies that can be used: purchasing process simplification, purchasing volume leverage, strategic relationship with suppliers, supply assurance. E-procurement is a valuable tool for Strategic Sourcing implementation and can be used to simplify and reduce the cost of the purchasing process. Strategic Sourcing can be applied in most industries, as well as in Oil and Gas Industry. Recently Arthur Andersen was engaged in a Strategic Sourcing project for an Oil and Gas Company resulting in savings of 10% cost reduction on the expenditures analyzed. (author)

  18. 17,21-Secohopanoic acids, 25-norhopanoic acids, and 28-norhopanoic acids in source rocks and crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xueming Pan; Philp, R.P. [University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). School of Geology and Geophysics

    2006-09-15

    The presence of three families of hopanoic acids, 17,21-secohopanoic acids, 25-norhopanoic acids, and 28-norhopanoic acids, is discussed. Oils from West Siberia and tar balls from the Seychelles Islands were found to contain relatively high proportions of 17,21-secohopanoic acids. These acids have not been previously reported in any oils or source rocks. A heavily biodegraded West Siberian oil, was found to contain an homologous series of 25-norhopanoic acids co-occurring with the 25-norhopanes as previously reported in only a small number of oils from Campos Basin, Brazil. 28-Norhopanoic acids have been reported in various sediments and extracts of the Monterey Shale, but in this study their occurrence has been extended to oils, degraded oils, and tar balls sourced from the Monterey Shale. The primary purpose herein is to report the occurrence of these acids and possible relationships between the acids and corresponding hydrocarbons. (Author)

  19. Biodiesel from Mandarin Seed Oil: A Surprising Source of Alternative Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Azad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mandarin (Citrus reticulata is one of the most popular fruits in tropical and sub-tropical countries around the world. It contains about 22–34 seeds per fruit. This study investigated the potential of non-edible mandarin seed oil as an alternative fuel in Australia. The seeds were prepared after drying in the oven for 20 h to attain an optimum moisture content of around 13.22%. The crude oil was extracted from the crushed seed using 98% n-hexane solution. The biodiesel conversion reaction (transesterification was designed according to the acid value (mg KOH/g of the crude oil. The study also critically examined the effect of various reaction parameters (such as effect of methanol: oil molar ratio, % of catalyst concentration, etc. on the biodiesel conversion yield. After successful conversion of the bio-oil into biodiesel, the physio-chemical fuel properties of the virgin biodiesel were measured according to relevant ASTM standards and compared with ultra-low sulphur diesel (ULSD and standard biodiesel ASTM D6751. The fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs were analysed by gas chromatography (GC using the EN 14103 standard. The behaviour of the biodiesel (variation of density and kinematic viscosity at various temperatures (10–40 °C was obtained and compared with that of diesel fuel. Finally, mass and energy balances were conducted for both the oil extraction and biodiesel conversion processes to analyse the total process losses of the system. The study found 49.23 wt % oil yield from mandarin seed and 96.82% conversion efficiency for converting oil to biodiesel using the designated transesterification reaction. The GC test identified eleven FAMEs. The biodiesel mainly contains palmitic acid (C16:0 26.80 vol %, stearic acid (C18:0 4.93 vol %, oleic acid (C18:1 21.43 vol % (including cis. and trans., linoleic acid (C18:2 4.07 vol %, and less than one percent each of other fatty acids. It is an important source of energy because it has a higher

  20. Potential of hydrogen from oil palm biomass as a source of renewable energy worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly-Yong, Tau Len; Lee, Keat Teong; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman; Bhatia, Subhash

    2007-01-01

    Various catastrophes related to extreme weather events such as floods, hurricanes, droughts and heat waves occurring on the Earth in the recent times are definitely a clear warning sign from nature questioning our ability to protect the environment and ultimately the Earth itself. Progressive release of greenhouse gases (GHG) such as CO 2 and CH 4 from development of various energy-intensive industries has ultimately caused human civilization to pay its debt. Realizing the urgency of reducing emissions and yet simultaneously catering to needs of industries, researches and scientists conclude that renewable energy is the perfect candidate to fulfill both parties requirement. Renewable energy provides an effective option for the provision of energy services from the technical point of view. In this context, biomass appears as one important renewable source of energy. Biomass has been a major source of energy in the world until before industrialization when fossil fuels become dominant and researches have proven from time to time its viability for large-scale production. Although there has been some successful industrial-scale production of renewable energy from biomass, generally this industry still faces a lot of challenges including the availability of economically viable technology, sophisticated and sustainable natural resources management, and proper market strategies under competitive energy markets. Amidst these challenges, the development and implementation of suitable policies by the local policy-makers is still the single and most important factor that can determine a successful utilization of renewable energy in a particular country. Ultimately, the race to the end line must begin with the proof of biomass ability to sustain in a long run as a sustainable and reliable source of renewable energy. Thus, the aim of this paper is to present the potential availability of oil palm biomass that can be converted to hydrogen (leading candidate positioned as the

  1. Chronology and backtracking of oil slick trajectory to source in offshore environments using ultraspectral to multispectral remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammoglia, Talita; Souza Filho, Carlos Roberto de

    2015-07-01

    Offshore natural seepage confirms the occurrence of an active petroleum system with thermal maturation and migration, regardless its economic viability for petroleum production. Ocean dynamics, however, impose a challenge for correlation between oil seeps detected on the water surface and its source at the ocean floor. This hinders the potential use of seeps in petroleum exploration. The present study aims to estimate oil exposure time on the water surface via remote sensing in order to help locating ocean floor seepage sources. Spectral reflectance properties of a variety of fresh crude oils, oil films on water and oil-water emulsions were determined. Their spectral identity was used to estimate the duration of exposure of oil-water emulsions based on their temporal spectral responses. Laboratory models efficiently predicted oil status using ultraspectral (>2000 bands), hyperspectral (>300 bands), and multispectral (oil seepage recorded by the ASTER sensor on the Brazilian coast was used to test the designed predictive model. Results indicate that the model can successfully forecast the timeframe of crude oil exposure in the ocean (i.e., the relative "age" of the seepage). The limited spectral resolution of the ASTER sensor, though, implies less accurate estimates compared to higher resolution sensors. The spectral libraries and the method proposed here can be reproduced for other oceanic areas in order to approximate the duration of exposure of noticeable natural oil seepages. This type of information is optimal for seepage tracing and, therefore, for oceanic petroleum exploration and environmental monitoring.

  2. Depositional environments and oil potential of Jurassic/Cretaceous source rocks within the Seychelles microcontinent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plummer, P.S.; Joseph, P.R.; Samson, P.J. [Seychelles National Oil Co., Mahe (Seychelles)

    1998-12-31

    The Seychelles microcontinent became isolated between the Somali, Mascarene and Arabian basins of the Indian Ocean as a result of the Mesozoic fragmentation of Gondwana. Major rifting events occurred during the Triassic-Middle Jurassic and Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian-Santonian and Maastrichtian) during which shaly source rock facies accumulated in principally marginal marine/deltaic environments. Between these times, post-rift passive margin deposition within restricted to open marine environments produced shaly source rocks during late Middle Jurasic-Early Cretaceous, Campanian-Maastrichtian and Paleocene times. Recent geochemical analysis of cuttings from the Seagull Shoals-1 well has identified an oil-prone liptinitic (Type II) coaly shale within early Middle Jurassic abandoned deltaic deposits. This coaly source rock is regionally developed, having also been identified in the Majunja and Morondava basins of Madagascar. Oil-prone Type II organic matter has also been identified in the Owen Bank A-1 well within restricted marine shales of late Middle Jurassic age. These shales are part of a thick post-rift source rock sequence that extends into the Early Cretaceous and is in part correlative with the proven Late Jurassic Uarandab Shale of Somalia. Analysis of Campanian marine shales from Reith Bank-1 well identified significant dilution of total organic carbon content in composite, compared to picked, well cuttings samples. This finding supports a published inference that these post-rift shales have source rock potential. (author)

  3. Identification and characterization of five non-traditional-source categories: Catastrophic/accidental releases, vehicle repair facilities, recycling, pesticide application, and agricultural operations. Final report, September 1991-September 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sleva, S.; Pendola, J.A.; McCutcheon, J.; Jones, K.; Kersteter, S.L.

    1993-03-01

    The work is part of EPA's program to identify and characterize emissions sources not currently accounted for by either the existing Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) or State Implementation Plans (SIP) area source methodologies and to develop appropriate emissions estimation methodologies and emission factors for a group of these source categories. Based on the results of the identification and characterization portions of the research, five source categories were selected for methodology and emission factor development: catastrophic/accidental releases, vehicle repair facilities, recycling, pesticide application and agricultural operations. The report presents emissions estimation methodologies and emission factor data for the selected source categories. The discussions for each selected category include general background information, emissions generation activities, pollutants emitted, sources of activity and pollutant data, emissions estimation methodologies, issues to be considered and recommendations. The information used in these discussions was derived from various sources including available literature, industrial and trade association publications and contracts, experts on the category and activity, and knowledgeable federal and state personnel

  4. Organic geochemistry investigations of crude oils from Bayoot oilfield in the Masila Basin, east Yemen and their implication for origin of organic matter and source-related type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Hail Hakimi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen crude oil samples from fractured basement reservoir rocks in the Bayoot oilfield, Masila Basin were studied to describe oil characteristics and to provide information on the source of organic matter input and the genetic link between oils and their potential source rock in the basin. The bulk geochemical results of whole oil and gasoline hydrocarbons indicate that the Bayoot oils are normal crude oil, with high hydrocarbons of more than 60%. The hydrocarbons are dominated by normal, branched and cyclic alkanes a substantial of the light aromatic compounds, suggesting aliphatic oil-prone kerogen. The high abundant of normal, branched and cyclic alkanes also indicate that the Bayoot oils are not biodegradation oils.The biomarker distributions of isoprenoid, hopane, aromatic and sterane and their cross and triangular plots suggest that the Bayoot oils are grouped into one genetic family and were generated from marine clay-rich source rock that received mixed organic matter and deposited under suboxic conditions. The biomarker distributions of the Bayoot oils are consistent with those of the Late Jurassic Madbi source rock in the basin. Biomarker maturity and oil compositions data also indicate that the Bayoot oils were generated from mature source rock with peak oil-window maturity. Keywords: Crude oil, Basement reservoir rocks, Biomarker, Organic source input, Bayoot oilfield, Masila Basin

  5. Alternative energy sources or integrated alternative energy systems? Oil as a modern lance of Peleus for the energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szklo, Alexandre; Schaeffer, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    In this viewpoint, we discuss the importance of consorting alternative energy sources with oil, and not of opposing them. That is why we introduce the concept of alternative energy systems, which we feel is broader-ranging and more effective than alternative energy sources, as this deals with the actual transformation process of the global energy system. Alternative energy systems integrate oil with other energy sources and pave the way for new systems, which will benefit from what we call the 'virtues of oil'. They produce energy carriers for multi-fuel and multi-product strategies, where flexibility is a key target, allied to other co-benefits, especially those related to the increased use of renewable energy sources. The concept of alternative energy systems can bring a new light to the oil transition era discussion and might also influence energy policies for promoting renewables

  6. Rice Bran Oil: A Versatile Source for Edible and Industrial Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Yogita P; Pratap, Amit P

    2017-01-01

    Rice bran oil (RBO) is healthy gift generously given by nature to mankind. RBO is obtained from rice husk, a byproduct of rice milling industry and is gaining lot of importance as cooking oil due to presence of important micronutrient, gamma oryzanol. Its high smoke point is beneficial for its use for frying and deep frying of food stuff. It is popular because of balanced fatty acid profile (most ideal ratio of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids), antioxidant capacity, and cholesterollowering abilities. Rice bran wax which is secondary by-product obtained as tank settling from RBO is used as a substitute for carnauba wax in cosmetics, confectionery, shoe creams etc. It can be also used as a source for fatty acid and fatty alcohol. The article is intended to highlight for the importance of RBO and its applications.

  7. Compound-specific stable carbon isotopic composition of petroleum hydrocarbons as a tool for tracing the source of oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yun; Xiong Yongqiang; Yang Wanying; Xie Yueliang; Li Siyuan; Sun Yongge

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing demand for and consumption of crude oils, oil spill accidents happen frequently during the transportation of crude oils and oil products, and the environmental hazard they pose has become increasingly serious in China. The exact identification of the source of spilled oil can act as forensic evidence in the investigation and handling of oil spill accidents. In this study, a weathering simulation experiment demonstrates that the mass loss of crude oils caused by short-term weathering mainly occurs within the first 24 h after a spill, and is dominated by the depletion of low-molecular weight hydrocarbons ( 18 n-alkanes). Short-term weathering has no significant effect on δ 13 C values of individual n-alkanes (C 12 -C 33 ), suggesting that a stable carbon isotope profile of n-alkanes can be a useful tool for tracing the source of an oil spill, particularly for weathered oils or those with a relatively low concentration or absence of sterane and terpane biomarkers

  8. Mahua (Madhuca Indica oil: A potential source for biodiesel production in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utkarsh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The economic development of a country is highly dependent on the supply of fossil fuels which are constrained by its limited availability and pollution characteristics. India is among the world’s fourth-largest petroleum consumer due to which the vehicular emissions increased eight times over the last two decades. Due to the environmental awareness and depletion of fossil fuel reserves, attention has been given to find an alternative energy source. Among the alternatives existing, Biodiesel is the one which is less polluting and eco-friendly. So it can be used in industrial, commercial, agricultural and other sectors as a substitute for diesel. Biodiesel can be produced from crude vegetable oil, non-edible oil, frying oils (waste, animal tallow and algae by a process of chemical reaction called Transesterification. Biodiesel is also known as methyl or ethyl esters of the feedstock from which it is produced. It is miscible with diesel oil which allows the use of blends of petro diesel and biodiesel in any percentage. The C.I. engines fuelled with biodiesel perform more or less in the same fashion as that with the conventional fuel. Comparative to diesel, biodiesel has high Cetane number and lower compressibility. Additionally, the heat release rate of biodiesel is slightly lower than diesel owing to low calorific value, low volatility and high viscosity. The problem of high viscosity can be eradicated by transesterification process and by adding additives which help us to store the biodiesel for a longer duration of time without any decay. Exhaust emissions are significantly reduced with the use of biodiesel or its blends. The present paper investigates the potential of Mahua (Madhuca Indica oil for biodiesel production as it can be extracted from seeds of Mahua tree which are indigenous to India. It can grow even in dry regions and are found abundantly in several parts of India

  9. Sources and delivery of carbon dioxide for enhanced oil recovery. Final report, October 1977--December 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hare, M.; Perlich, H.; Robinson, R.; Shah, M.; Zimmerman, F.

    1978-12-01

    Results are presented from a comprehensive study by Pullman Kellogg, with assistance from Gulf Universities Research Consortium (GURC) and National Cryo-Chemics Incorporated (NCI), of the carbon dioxide supply situation for miscible flooding operations to enhance oil recovery. A survey of carbon dioxide sources within the geographic areas of potential EOR are shown on four regional maps with the tabular data for each region to describe the sources in terms of quantity and quality. Evaluation of all the costs, such as purchase, production, processing, and transportation, associated with delivering the carbon dioxide from its source to its destination are presented. Specific cases to illustrate the use of the maps and cost charts generated in this study have been examined.

  10. Fatty acids profile and quality characteristics of broiler chicken meat fed different dietary oil sources with some additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engy Fayz Zaki

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the effect of feeding broiler chicken on different vegetable oils with feed additives on the quality characteristics of chicken meat. A total of 216 one-day-old chicks of (Hubbard strain were randomly assigned to six dietary treatments as (2×3 factorial designs where two sources of dietary oil with three levels of commercial multi-enzyme feed additives. Treatments were: soybean oil only (T1, soybean oil+ ZAD (T2, soybean oil+ AmPhi-BACT (T3, palm oil only (T4, palm oil + ZAD (T5 and palm oil + AmPhi- BACT (T6.  Results showed that feeding broiler chicken on different types of dietary oils had significant effect on the fatty acid profile of broiler chicken meat. UFA/SFA ration of broiler chicken groups (T4, T5adT6 were significantly lower compared with (T1, T2 and T3 groups. Broiler fed on soybean oil had significantly higher n-6: n-3 ration compared with broiler fed on palm oil. Regardless of the source of dietary oil, significant differences were observed in the most of fatty acid profile in the chicken meat among levels of commercial multi- enzyme feed additives. Meat of T5and T6 had the higher pH value, followed by meat of T1and T3 groups, while the lowest pH value found in meat of T2 and T4. The higher cooking loss was found in meat of T4 while, meat of T5had the lowest value. Data of chilling loss indicated that the differences between dietary treatments were not significantly different except for meat of T6 which had the higher chilling loss. No significant differences were found in color measurements between dietary treatments.

  11. Occurrence, sources and health risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils around oil wells in the border regions between oil fields and suburbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiao-Wen; Li, Tian-Yuan; Ji, Lei; Wang, Lei-Lei; Zheng, Li-Wen; Wang, Jia-Ning; Zhang, Qiang

    2018-08-15

    The Yellow River Delta (YRD) is a typical region where oil fields generally overlap cities and towns, leading to complex soil contamination from both the oil fields and human activities. To clarify the distribution, speciation, potential sources and health risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils of border regions between oil fields and suburbs of the YRD, 138 soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected among 12 sampling sites located around oil wells with different extraction histories. The 16 priority control PAHs (16PAHs), as selected by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), were extracted via an accelerated solvent extraction and detected by GC-MS. The results showed that soils of the study area were generally polluted by the 16PAHs. Among these pollutions, chrysene and phenanthrene were the dominant components, and 4-ring PAHs were the most abundant. A typical temporal distribution pattern of the 16PAHs was revealed in soils from different sampling sites around oil wells with different exploitation histories. The concentrations of total 16PAHs and high-ring PAHs (HPAHs) both increased with the extraction time of the nearby oil wells. Individual PAH ratios and PCA method revealed that the 16PAHs in soil with newly developed oil wells were mainly from petroleum pollutants, whereas PAHs in soils around oil wells with a long exploitation history were probably from petroleum contamination; combustion of petroleum, fuel, and biomass; and degradation and migration of PAHs from petroleum. Monte Carlo simulation was used to evaluate the health risks of the 7 carcinogenic PAHs and 9 non-carcinogenic PAHs in the study area. The results indicated that ingestion and dermal contact were the predominant pathways of exposure to PAH residues in soils. Both the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic burden of the 16PAHs in soils of the oil field increased significantly with exploitation time of nearby oil wells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All

  12. Interpretation of Oil Seepage of Source Rock Based Magnetic Survey in Cipari Cilacap District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukmaji Anom Raharjo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic survey had been conducted in Village of Cipari, District of Cipari, Region of  Cilacap to interpret to the location of the oil seepage source rock. Boundary of the research area is 108.75675°E – 108.77611°E and 7.42319°S – 7.43761°S. The observed total magnetic data is corrected and reducted to obtain the local magnetic anomaly data. The local magnetic anomaly data is applied to model the subsurface bodies anomalies based on the Mag2DC for Windows software. With be supported the geological information, the some bodies anomalies are interpreted as the basaltic igneous rock (c = 0.0051, the alternately of sandstone and claystone and insert of marl from Halang Formation (c = 0.0014, the breccia from Kumbang Formation (c = 0.0035, the alternately of sandstones and claystone with insert of marl and breccia from Halang Formation (c = 0.0036, the claystone from Tapak Formation (c = 0.0015, the alternately of sandstones and claystone with insert of marl and compacted breccia from Halang Formation (c = 0.0030, and the alternately of sandstone and claystone from   Halang Formation (c = 0.0020. The plantonic foraminifer fossils as resources of oil seepage are estimated in the sedimentaries rocks, where the oil flows from those rocks into the         reservoir (source rock. Based on the interpretation results, the source rock is above basaltic igneous rock with the approximate position is 108.76164°W and 7.43089°S; and the depth is 132.09 meters below the average topographic.

  13. Seed oil from Harmal (Rhazya stricta Decne grown in Riyadh (Saudi Arabia: A potential source of δ-tocopherol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imededdine Arbi Nehdi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhazya stricta (R. stricta known as Harmal is widely distributed in Saudi Arabia and throughout the Middle East. It is used as a medicinal plant in traditional cultures and the seeds are a source of unsaturated oil. In the present study, tocol (tocopherol and tocotrienol, triacylglycerol, and fatty acid compositions, pigment content, thermal behavior, and various physicochemical properties of R. stricta oil were characterized to determine the potential uses of this seed oil. Our results indicate that the oil is a rich source of bioactive molecules, including δ-tocopherol (896 mg/100 g, γ-tocopherol (148 mg/100 g and carotenoids (15.67 mg/kg. The oil content of the seeds was 13.68% and the triacylglycerols mainly consisted of linoleic acid (59.03%, and oleic acid (27.01%. The major triacylglycerols were trilinoleate, dilinoleate and monolinoleate. The ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids (UFA/SFA in the oil was high (9.20. Additionally, the oil showed a high degree of thermal stability and a low melting point of approximately −25 °C. These data indicate that R. stricta seed oil, which is low in saturated fats and rich in bioactive compounds, is potentially useful in food and pharmaceutical applications.

  14. Effects of dietary oil sources on egg quality, fatty acid composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of this study demonstrated that olive oil improved egg weight and egg shell quality compared to the other oils tested; fish and soyabean oil increased the omega-3 fatty acid level of egg yolk, and soyabean oil had positive effects on serum lipid concentrations. Incorporation of these oils into the diets of Japanese ...

  15. Effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production:a potential source of botanical food preservative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Negero Gemeda; Yimtubezinash Woldeamanuel; Daniel Asrat; Asfaw Debella

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production.Method: In vitro antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activity of essential oils was carried out using poisoned food techniques, spore germination assay, agar dilution assay, and aflatoxin arresting assay on toxigenic strains of Aspergillus species.Results: Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi (T. ammi) essential oils were tested against toxicogenic isolates of Aspergillus species. T. ammi oil showed highest antifungal activity. Absolute mycelial inhibition was recorded at 1 µl/mL by essential oils of T. ammi. The oil also showed, complete inhibition of spore germination at a concentration of 2 µl/mL. In addition, T. ammi oil showed significant antiaflatoxigenic potency by totally inhibiting aflatoxin production from Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus at 0.5 and 0.75 µl/mL, respectively. Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and T. ammi oils as antifungal were found superior over synthetic preservative. Moreover, a concentration of 5 336.297 µl/kg body weight was recorded for LC50 on mice indicating the low mammalian toxicity and strengthening its traditional reputations.Conclusions:In conclusion, the essential oils from T. ammi can be a potential source of safe natural food preservative for food commodities contamination by storage fungi.

  16. Effects of canarium fruit (Canarium odontophyllum oil as a dietary lipid source for juvenile mahseer (Tor tambroides performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Bami

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Canarium is among the riverine fruits that are commonly found in the natural diet of Malaysian mahseer, Tor tambroides. The fruit contains a high percentage of lipids. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of canarium crude oil on the growth performance, body composition and fatty acid profile of juvenile T. tambroides. Five isonitrogenous (40% crude protein diets containing varying canarium oil levels (0, 1.25, 2.5, 3.75 and 5% were prepared. Crude palm oil (CPO was used as the control. The juveniles (2.08 ± 0.10 g were given the test diets for 12 weeks in triplicate groups. Diets containing canarium oil were found to be less accepted by the fish which led to a significantly lower (P  0.05 on survival and lean portion of juvenile T. tambroides. The fish fed canarium oil-free diet also had better tissue fatty acid profile (especially n-3 and n-6 PUFA as well as better protein, lipid and energy retention than those fed diets including canarium oil. From the results, canarium oil extracted from the whole fruit was not recommended as a dietary lipid source for T. tambroides. Moreover, juveniles fed on 0% canarium oil (5% CPO utilized dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA more efficiently for their energy requirement than fish given canarium oil.

  17. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of Dibenzofuran, Alkyldibenzofurans, and Benzo[b]naphthofurans in crude oils and source rock extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijun Li,; Ellis, Geoffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Dibenzofuran (DBF), its alkylated homologues, and benzo[b]naphthofurans (BNFs) are common oxygen-heterocyclic aromatic compounds in crude oils and source rock extracts. A series of positional isomers of alkyldibenzofuran and benzo[b]naphthofuran were identified in mass chromatograms by comparison with internal standards and standard retention indices. The response factors of dibenzofuran in relation to internal standards were obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of a set of mixed solutions with different concentration ratios. Perdeuterated dibenzofuran and dibenzothiophene are optimal internal standards for quantitative analyses of furan compounds in crude oils and source rock extracts. The average concentration of the total DBFs in oils derived from siliciclastic lacustrine rock extracts from the Beibuwan Basin, South China Sea, was 518 μg/g, which is about 5 times that observed in the oils from carbonate source rocks in the Tarim Basin, Northwest China. The BNFs occur ubiquitously in source rock extracts and related oils of various origins. The results of this work suggest that the relative abundance of benzo[b]naphthofuran isomers, that is, the benzo[b]naphtho[2,1-d]furan/{benzo[b]naphtho[2,1-d]furan + benzo[b]naphtho[1,2-d]furan} ratio, may be a potential molecular geochemical parameter to indicate oil migration pathways and distances.

  18. Cultivation of Chlorella sp. as Biofuel Sources in Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Hadiyanto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy is essential and vital aspect for development in Indonesia especially less oil reserve for coming 15 years. Biodiesel has received much attention as renewable energy in recent years. One of potential biodiesel is produced from microalgae. Due to high content of nutrients in Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME, this waste is a potential for nutrient growth for microalgae. Chlorella is one of high potential for biodiesel since it has high lipid content (20-30%. The objective of the research is to determine growth rate and biomass productivity in Chlorella Sp cultured in POME. Chlorella Sp was cultured in 20%, 50%, 70% POME using urea concentration 0.1gr/L (low nitrogen source and 1gr/l (high nitrogen source at flask disk, pH 6.8-7.2; aerated using aquarium pump and fluorescence lamp 3000-6000 lux as light. Medium was measured using spectrophotometer Optima Sp-300 OD at 680 wave length in 15 days to calculate specific growth rate. At end of cultivation, Chlorella sp was filtered and measured as dry weight. Result indicated that Chlorella sp at 50% POME 1gr/L urea showed higher specific growth rate (0.066/day. Factor affecting growth rate of microalgae is CNP ratio, POME concentration, and urea concentration.

  19. Castor oil as secondary carbon source for production of sophorolipids using Starmerella bombicola NRRL Y-17069.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Vinit Kamalkishor; Annapure, Uday S

    2015-01-01

    Sophorolipids (SLs), a prominent member of the biosurfactants family are produced in acidic and/or lactonic form by yeast Starmerella bombicola NRRL Y-17069 when grown on hydrophilic or hydrophobic or both carbon sources. In current study, ricinoleic acid rich castor oil (10%) was used as hydrophobic and glycerol (10%) was used as hydrophilic carbon source. The yields of 24.5 ± 0.25 g/l sophorolipids were analyzed by anthrone and HPLC method which further increased upto 40.24 ± 0.76 g/l sophorolipids using fed batch process at 5L fermenter level. The structures of sophorolipids synthesized on castor oil were elucidated by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer (LC-MS), (13)C and (1)H NMR. The results indicated that the ricinoleic acid (RA) gets hydroxylated at ω-1 position but incorporated into sophorolipids through already available hydroxyl group at 12(th) position. It resulted in the production of a novel sophorolipids with hydroxyl fatty acid as side chain and has applications as surfactant for novel drug delivery, anti microbial agent, cosmetic ingredient and emulsifier.

  20. Readily Available Sources of Long-Chain Omega-3 Oils: Is Farmed Australian Seafood a Better Source of the Good Oil than Wild-Caught Seafood?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D. Nichols

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Seafood consumption enhances intake of omega-3 long-chain (≥C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids (termed LC omega-3 oils. Humans biosynthesize only small amounts of LC-omega-3, so they are considered semi-essential nutrients in our diet. Concern has been raised that farmed fish now contain lower LC omega-3 content than wild-harvested seafood due to the use of oil blending in diets fed to farmed fish. However, we observed that two major Australian farmed finfish species, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar and barramundi (Lates calcifer, have higher oil and LC omega-3 content than the same or other species from the wild, and remain an excellent means to achieve substantial intake of LC omega-3 oils. Notwithstanding, LC omega-3 oil content has decreased in these two farmed species, due largely to replacing dietary fish oil with poultry oil. For Atlantic salmon, LC omega-3 content decreased ~30%–50% between 2002 and 2013, and the omega-3/omega-6 ratio also decreased (>5:1 to <1:1. Australian consumers increasingly seek their LC omega-3 from supplements, therefore a range of supplement products were compared. The development and future application of oilseeds containing LC omega-3 oils and their incorporation in aquafeeds would allow these health-benefitting oils to be maximized in farmed Australian seafood. Such advances can assist with preventative health care, fisheries management, aquaculture nutrition, an innovative feed/food industry and ultimately towards improved consumer health.

  1. Extraction and characterization of oil bodies from soy beans: a natural source of pre-emulsified soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Daigo; Gray, David A; Fisk, Ian D; Decker, Eric Andrew; Weiss, Jochen; McClements, David Julian

    2007-10-17

    Soybeans contain oil bodies that are coated by a layer of oleosin proteins. In nature, this protein coating protects the oil bodies from environmental stresses and may be utilized by food manufacturers for the same purpose. In this study, oil bodies were extracted from soybean using an aqueous extraction method that involved blending, dispersion (pH 8.6), filtration, and centrifugation steps. The influence of NaCl (0-250 mM), thermal processing (30-90 degrees C, 20 min) and pH (2-8) on the properties and stability of the oil bodies was analyzed using zeta-potential, particle size, and creaming stability measurements. The extracted oil bodies were relatively small ( d 32 approximately 250 nm), and their zeta-potential went from around +12 mV to -20 mV as the pH was increased from 2 to 8, with an isoelectric point around pH 4. The oil bodies were stable to aggregation and creaming at low (pH = 2) and high (pH >/= 6) pH values but were unstable at intermediate values (3 oil bodies were stable to aggregation and creaming at relatively low salt concentrations (NaCl oil bodies were stable to thermal processing from 30 to 90 degrees C (0 mM NaCl, pH 7), but there appeared to be a change in their interfacial properties (decrease in zeta-potential) at temperatures exceeding 60 degrees C. These results suggest that oil bodies extracted from soybeans have similar or improved stability compared to soybean oil emulsions produced from bulk ingredients and may provide a new way of creating functional soy products for the food industry.

  2. Pricing the (European) option to switch between two energy sources: An application to crude oil and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatfaoui, Hayette

    2015-01-01

    We consider a firm, which can choose between crude oil and natural gas to run its business. The firm selects the energy source, which minimizes its energy or production costs at a given time horizon. Assuming the energy strategy to be established over a fixed time window, the energy choice decision will be made at a given future date T. In this light, the firm's energy cost can be considered as a long position in a risk-free bond by an amount of the terminal oil price, and a short position in a European put option to switch from oil to gas by an amount of the terminal oil price too. As a result, the option to switch from crude oil to natural gas allows for establishing a hedging strategy with respect to energy costs. Modeling stochastically the underlying asset of the European put, we propose a valuation formula of the option to switch and calibrate the pricing formula to empirical data on a daily basis. Hence, our innovative framework handles widely the hedge against the price increase of any given energy source versus the price of another competing energy source (i.e. minimizing energy costs). Moreover, we provide a price for the cost-reducing effect of the capability to switch from one energy source to another one (i.e. hedging energy price risk). - Highlights: • We consider a firm, which chooses either crude oil or natural gas as an energy source. • The capability to switch offers the firm a hedge against energy commodity price risk. • A European put option prices the ability to switch from crude oil to natural gas. • The capability to switch between two energy sources reduces the firm's energy costs. • The discount illustrates the efficiency of the energy management policy (e.g. timing).

  3. In growing pigs, the true ileal and total tract digestibility of acid hydrolyzed ether extract in extracted corn oil is greater than in intact sources of corn oil or soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, B G; Kil, D Y; Stein, H H

    2013-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the true ileal digestibility (TID) and the true total tract digestibility (TTTD) of acid-hydrolyzed ether extract (AEE) in extracted corn oil, high-oil corn, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), corn germ, and high protein distillers dried grains (HP DDG) and to compare these values to the TID and TTTD of AEE in full-fat soybeans. Nineteen barrows with an initial BW of 52.2 kg (SD = 3.8) were fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and allotted to a 19 × 11 Youden square design with 19 diets and 11 periods. A basal diet based on cornstarch, casein, sucrose, and corn bran was formulated. Eighteen additional diets were formulated by adding 3 levels of extracted corn oil, high-oil corn, DDGS, corn germ, HP DDG, or full-fat soybeans to the basal diet. The apparent ileal and the apparent total tract digestibility of AEE were calculated for each diet. The endogenous flow of AEE associated with each ingredient and values for TID and TTTD were calculated using the regression procedure. Results indicated that digested AEE in ileal digesta and feces linearly increased as AEE intake increased regardless of ingredient (P 0.77). However, the ileal and fecal endogenous losses of AEE were different (P oil, HP DDG, and full-fat soybeans. The TID of AEE was greater (P oil (95.4%) than for all other ingredients. The TID of AEE in HP DDG (76.5%) was not different from the TID of AEE in full-fat soybeans (85.2%) but greater (P oil corn, DDGS, and corn germ (53.0, 62.1, and 50.1%, respectively). The TTTD of AEE was greater (P oil (94.3%) than for all other ingredients, and the TTTD in full-fat soybeans (79.7%) was greater (P oil corn, DDGS, corn germ, and HP DDG (41.4, 51.9, 43.9, and 70.2%, respectively). The TTTD of AEE in HP DDG was also greater (P oil corn, DDGS, and corn germ. In conclusion, the intact sources of oil originating from high-oil corn, DDGS, corn germ, or HP DDG are much less digestible than extracted corn oil

  4. A new source of elemol rich essential oil and existence of multicellular oil glands in leaves of the Dioscorea species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odimegwu, Joy I; Odukoya, Olukemi; Yadav, Ritesh K; Chanotiya, C S; Ogbonnia, Steve; Sangwan, Neelam S

    2013-01-01

    Dioscorea species is a very important food and drug plant. The tubers of the plant are extensively used in food and drug purposes owing to the presence of steroidal constituent's diosgenin in the tubers. In the present study, we report for the first time that the leaves of Dioscorea composita and Dioscorea floribunda grown under the field conditions exhibited the presence of multicellular oil glands on the epidermal layers of the plants using stereomicroscopy (SM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Essential oil was also isolated from the otherwise not useful herbage of the plant, and gas chromatographic-mass spectroscopy analysis revealed confirmation of the essential oil constituents. Out of the 76 compounds detected in D. floribunda and 37 from D. composita essential oil, major terpenoids which are detected and reported for Dioscorea leaf essential oil are α -terpinene, nerolidol, citronellyl acetate, farnesol, elemol, α -farnesene, valerenyl acetate, and so forth. Elemol was detected as the major constituent of both the Dioscorea species occupying 41% and 22% of D. Floribunda and D. composita essential oils, respectively. In this paper, we report for the first time Dioscorea as a possible novel bioresource for the essential oil besides its well-known importance for yielding diosgenin.

  5. A New Source of Elemol Rich Essential Oil and Existence of Multicellular Oil Glands in Leaves of the Dioscorea Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy I. Odimegwu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dioscorea species is a very important food and drug plant. The tubers of the plant are extensively used in food and drug purposes owing to the presence of steroidal constituent’s diosgenin in the tubers. In the present study, we report for the first time that the leaves of Dioscorea composita and Dioscorea floribunda grown under the field conditions exhibited the presence of multicellular oil glands on the epidermal layers of the plants using stereomicroscopy (SM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Essential oil was also isolated from the otherwise not useful herbage of the plant, and gas chromatographic-mass spectroscopy analysis revealed confirmation of the essential oil constituents. Out of the 76 compounds detected in D. floribunda and 37 from D. composita essential oil, major terpenoids which are detected and reported for Dioscorea leaf essential oil are α-terpinene, nerolidol, citronellyl acetate, farnesol, elemol, α-farnesene, valerenyl acetate, and so forth. Elemol was detected as the major constituent of both the Dioscorea species occupying 41% and 22% of D. Floribunda and D. composita essential oils, respectively. In this paper, we report for the first time Dioscorea as a possible novel bioresource for the essential oil besides its well-known importance for yielding diosgenin.

  6. On an inverse source problem for enhanced oil recovery by wave motion maximization in reservoirs

    KAUST Repository

    Karve, Pranav M.

    2014-12-28

    © 2014, Springer International Publishing Switzerland. We discuss an optimization methodology for focusing wave energy to subterranean formations using strong motion actuators placed on the ground surface. The motivation stems from the desire to increase the mobility of otherwise entrapped oil. The goal is to arrive at the spatial and temporal description of surface sources that are capable of maximizing mobility in the target reservoir. The focusing problem is posed as an inverse source problem. The underlying wave propagation problems are abstracted in two spatial dimensions, and the semi-infinite extent of the physical domain is negotiated by a buffer of perfectly-matched-layers (PMLs) placed at the domain’s truncation boundary. We discuss two possible numerical implementations: Their utility for deciding the tempo-spatial characteristics of optimal wave sources is shown via numerical experiments. Overall, the simulations demonstrate the inverse source method’s ability to simultaneously optimize load locations and time signals leading to the maximization of energy delivery to a target formation.

  7. Oil pollution and microbiological quality of groundwater at the location of the water source 'Ratno ostrvo' nearby Novi Sad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovic, O.; Simeunovic, J.; Radnovic, D.; Matavulj, M.; Gajin, S.

    2002-01-01

    The 'Ratno ostrvo' is the biggest drinking water source in wider area of Novi Sad. It is located on the left bank of the river Danube near the Oil Refinery 'Novi Sad'. One of the consequences of the NATO bombing of the Oil Refinery 'Novi Sad' (which is placed in hinterland of the water source) was the uncontrolled spillage of crude oil and oil derivatives. Because of that, microbiological examinations of groundwaters, from both ecological and sanitary aspects were carried out simultaneously during post-war period. Microbiological analyses from sanitary aspects show very low number of coliform bacteria. Determination of numbers of bacteria of the investigated physiological groups, revealed that there was a constant relatively high number of oil-, phenol oxidizing and lipolytic bacteria which are indicators this kind of specific pollution. Microbiological analysis of oil polluted soil show presence relatively high number of different groups of bacteria. In spite of changed ecological situation caused by war effects, microbiological analyses of groundwater quality showed satisfactory results in source 'Ratno ostrvo' by now. The presence and potential activity of indigenous microflora could be utilized in recultivation processes in examined area. (author)

  8. Using Epiphytic Lichens to Elucidate the Sources and Spatial Distribution of Inorganic Air Pollution in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, M.; Graney, J. R.; Pancras, P.; Krupa, S.; Edgerton, E.; Puckett, K.; Percy, K.

    2013-12-01

    The Wood Buffalo Environmental Association (WBEA) conducted studies to document the geographic patterns of atmospheric deposition of sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) using epiphytic lichens as bioindicators of atmospheric pollution. Epiphytic lichen samples (Hypogymnia physodes) were collected from 44 locations in 2002, 359 locations in 2008, and 21 locations in 2011 within the AOSR. A subset of samples from 2002 (15) and 2008 (121); and all the samples from 2011 were microwave extracted and analyzed for a comprehensive suite of trace elements using DRC-ICPMS. In addition, source profiles were developed for samples from a variety of available process stacks, heavy duty diesel fleet vehicles, bulk materials representing the various stages of oil sands processing operations, and forest fires. The lichen monitoring and source profile information were integrated into a receptor modeling framework to elucidate the relative importance of natural and anthropogenic sources to the observed atmospheric deposition of S and N in the AOSR. U.S. EPA implemented statistical receptor models utilized included Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF), Unmix, and Chemical Mass Balance (CMB). The sources uniquely identified that significantly contributed to concentrations of elements in the lichen tissue include: fugitive dust from haul roads, tailing sand, and oil sand mining; oil sand processing; combustion processes; and a general urban regional source. The spatial patterns of CMB, PMF, and Unmix receptor model estimated source impacts on the Hypogymnia physodes tissue concentrations from the oil sand processing and fugitive dust sources had a significant association with the distance from the primary oil sands surface mining operations and related production facilities. The spatial extent of the fugitive dust impact was limited to an approximately 20 km radius around the major mining and oil production facilities, indicative of ground level coarse

  9. 77 FR 20281 - Designation of Product Categories for Federal Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... derived from imported oil and natural gas. When USDA designates by rulemaking a product category (a...: Vehicular Products--re-refined lubricating oils. USDA is requesting that manufacturers of these qualifying...

  10. Studies on oil palm trunks as sources of infection in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, J; Keenan, L; Wayne, S; Hasan, Y

    2005-01-01

    Diseases of oil palm caused by Ganoderma boninense are of major economic importance in much of South-East Asia. This paper describes results from an ongoing field trial concerning the spread of the pathogen from artificially inoculated trunks used to simulate spread from windrowed trunks. Three planting distances for bait seedlings revealed that the closer the seedling was planted to the source of inoculum the sooner it succumbed to the disease. However, infection only occurred when the trunks were mounded (covered with soil), and seedlings planted around uncovered trunks (at any distance) have showed no symptoms of disease to date. Isolates are being collected from infected plants and molecular analysis is being undertaken to give more information on the spread of the pathogen.

  11. Source signature of volatile organic compounds from oil and natural gas operations in northeastern Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, J B; Lerner, B M; Kuster, W C; de Gouw, J A

    2013-02-05

    An extensive set of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was measured at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) in winter 2011 in order to investigate the composition and influence of VOC emissions from oil and natural gas (O&NG) operations in northeastern Colorado. BAO is 30 km north of Denver and is in the southwestern section of Wattenberg Field, one of Colorado's most productive O&NG fields. We compare VOC concentrations at BAO to those of other U.S. cities and summertime measurements at two additional sites in northeastern Colorado, as well as the composition of raw natural gas from Wattenberg Field. These comparisons show that (i) the VOC source signature associated with O&NG operations can be clearly differentiated from urban sources dominated by vehicular exhaust, and (ii) VOCs emitted from O&NG operations are evident at all three measurement sites in northeastern Colorado. At BAO, the reactivity of VOCs with the hydroxyl radical (OH) was dominated by C(2)-C(6) alkanes due to their remarkably large abundances (e.g., mean propane = 27.2 ppbv). Through statistical regression analysis, we estimate that on average 55 ± 18% of the VOC-OH reactivity was attributable to emissions from O&NG operations indicating that these emissions are a significant source of ozone precursors.

  12. Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, L.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the sources of radiation in the narrow perspective of radioactivity and the even narrow perspective of those sources that concern environmental management and restoration activities at DOE facilities, as well as a few related sources. Sources of irritation, Sources of inflammatory jingoism, and Sources of information. First, the sources of irritation fall into three categories: No reliable scientific ombudsman to speak without bias and prejudice for the public good, Technical jargon with unclear definitions exists within the radioactive nomenclature, and Scientific community keeps a low-profile with regard to public information. The next area of personal concern are the sources of inflammation. This include such things as: Plutonium being described as the most dangerous substance known to man, The amount of plutonium required to make a bomb, Talk of transuranic waste containing plutonium and its health affects, TMI-2 and Chernobyl being described as Siamese twins, Inadequate information on low-level disposal sites and current regulatory requirements under 10 CFR 61, Enhanced engineered waste disposal not being presented to the public accurately. Numerous sources of disinformation regarding low level radiation high-level radiation, Elusive nature of the scientific community, The Federal and State Health Agencies resources to address comparative risk, and Regulatory agencies speaking out without the support of the scientific community

  13. Modelling of oil spill frequency, leak sources and contamination probability in the Caspian Sea using multi-temporal SAR images 2006–2010 and stochastic modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Bayramov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this research was to detect oil spills, to determine the oil spill frequencies and to approximate oil leak sources around the Oil Rocks Settlement, the Chilov and Pirallahi Islands in the Caspian Sea using 136 multi-temporal ENVISAT Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar Wide Swath Medium Resolution images acquired during 2006–2010. The following oil spill frequencies were observed around the Oil Rocks Settlement, the Chilov and Pirallahi Islands: 2–10 (3471.04 sq km, 11–20 (971.66 sq km, 21–50 (692.44 sq km, 51–128 (191.38 sq km. The most critical oil leak sources with the frequency range of 41–128 were observed at the Oil Rocks Settlement. The exponential regression analysis between wind speeds and oil slick areas detected from 136 multi-temporal ENVISAT images revealed the regression coefficient equal to 63%. The regression model showed that larger oil spill areas were observed with decreasing wind speeds. The spatiotemporal patterns of currents in the Caspian Sea explained the multi-directional spatial distribution of oil spills around Oil Rocks Settlement, the Chilov and Pirallahi Islands. The linear regression analysis between detected oil spill frequencies and predicted oil contamination probability by the stochastic model showed the positive trend with the regression coefficient of 30%.

  14. Open-source LCA tool for estimating greenhouse gas emissions from crude oil production using field characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Houjeiri, Hassan M; Brandt, Adam R; Duffy, James E

    2013-06-04

    Existing transportation fuel cycle emissions models are either general and calculate nonspecific values of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from crude oil production, or are not available for public review and auditing. We have developed the Oil Production Greenhouse Gas Emissions Estimator (OPGEE) to provide open-source, transparent, rigorous GHG assessments for use in scientific assessment, regulatory processes, and analysis of GHG mitigation options by producers. OPGEE uses petroleum engineering fundamentals to model emissions from oil and gas production operations. We introduce OPGEE and explain the methods and assumptions used in its construction. We run OPGEE on a small set of fictional oil fields and explore model sensitivity to selected input parameters. Results show that upstream emissions from petroleum production operations can vary from 3 gCO2/MJ to over 30 gCO2/MJ using realistic ranges of input parameters. Significant drivers of emissions variation are steam injection rates, water handling requirements, and rates of flaring of associated gas.

  15. Example Annual Certification & Compliance Reports for Sources with and without Visible Emissions Testing: NESHAP Area Source Standards for Nine Metal Fabrication and Finishing Source Categories 40 CFR 63 Subpart XXXXXX

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains examples of the type of information that must be submitted to fulfill the Notification of Compliance Status requirement of 40 CFR 63, subpart XXXXXX for sources reporting and not reporting visible emissions information.

  16. Sources of particulate matter components in the Athabasca oil sands region: investigation through a comparison of trace element measurement methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips-Smith, Catherine; Jeong, Cheol-Heon; Healy, Robert M.; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Celo, Valbona; Brook, Jeffrey R.; Evans, Greg

    2017-08-01

    The province of Alberta, Canada, is home to three oil sands regions which, combined, contain the third largest deposit of oil in the world. Of these, the Athabasca oil sands region is the largest. As part of Environment and Climate Change Canada's program in support of the Joint Canada-Alberta Implementation Plan for Oil Sands Monitoring program, concentrations of trace elements in PM2. 5 (particulate matter smaller than 2.5 µm in diameter) were measured through two campaigns that involved different methodologies: a long-term filter campaign and a short-term intensive campaign. In the long-term campaign, 24 h filter samples were collected once every 6 days over a 2-year period (December 2010-November 2012) at three air monitoring stations in the regional municipality of Wood Buffalo. For the intensive campaign (August 2013), hourly measurements were made with an online instrument at one air monitoring station; daily filter samples were also collected. The hourly and 24 h filter data were analyzed individually using positive matrix factorization. Seven emission sources of PM2. 5 trace elements were thereby identified: two types of upgrader emissions, soil, haul road dust, biomass burning, and two sources of mixed origin. The upgrader emissions, soil, and haul road dust sources were identified through both the methodologies and both methodologies identified a mixed source, but these exhibited more differences than similarities. The second upgrader emissions and biomass burning sources were only resolved by the hourly and filter methodologies, respectively. The similarity of the receptor modeling results from the two methodologies provided reassurance as to the identity of the sources. Overall, much of the PM2. 5-related trace elements were found to be anthropogenic, or at least to be aerosolized through anthropogenic activities. These emissions may in part explain the previously reported higher levels of trace elements in snow, water, and biota samples collected

  17. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, S

    1909-11-29

    Mineral, shale, and like oils are treated successively with sulfuric acid, milk of lime, and a mixture of calcium oxide, sodium chloride, and water, and finally a solution of naphthalene in toluene is added. The product is suitable for lighting, and for use as a motor fuel; for the latter purpose, it is mixed with a light spirit.

  18. Rubber seed oil: A potential renewable source of biodiesel for sustainable development in sub-Saharan Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoji, Samuel E.; Iyuke, Sunny E.; Igbafe, Anselm I.; Nkazi, Diakanua B.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Sub-Saharan Africa countries have about 251 million rubber trees with the capacity to produce over 16 kilo ton of biodiesel. • Rubber seed oil has wider industrial applications and its biodiesel properties compete favorably with other non-edible oils. • Rubber seed oil is a sustainable and affordable source of biodiesel for sub-Saharan Africa development. • Plantain peels that are in abundance in sub-Saharan Africa is a source of base catalyst for the transesterification of rubber seed oil. • This is no regulatory framework and bioenergy policy in sub-Saharan Africa on the use of waste rubber seeds. - Abstract: The global energy demand is currently met by the use of non-renewable fossil fuels. The challenges of non-availability of these fuels in the future, instability in prices of crude oil and its negative environmental impacts, stimulated researchers in the global community in search of renewable energies for replacement of fossil fuels in future. Biodiesel has been identified as a good complement and plausible replacement of fossil diesel because of the overwhelming characteristic properties similar to fossil diesel in addition to its good lubricity, biodegradability, non-toxicity and eco-friendliness when used in diesel engines. The production of biodiesel from edible vegetable oils competes with food consumption and consequently high cost of food and biodiesel. Studies have shown that rubber seed contains 35–45 wt.% oil which portrays a better competitor to other non-edible oil bearing plants in biodiesel production. Biodiesel produced from non-edible rubber seed oil (RSO) is an attractive option for the sustainable development of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries that depend heavily on fossil diesel. The application of abundant plantain (Musa paradisiacal) peels considered as waste in SSA countries as heterogeneous base catalyst in RSO biodiesel production will further reduce the cost of biodiesel. Rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis

  19. Silurian and Devonian source rocks and crude oils from the western part of Libya: Organic geochemistry, palynology and carbon stratigraphy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elkelani, Mohamed M.A.

    2015-01-01

    The Early Silurian “hot” shales and Late Devonian black shales are major regional oil and gas source rocks in North Africa. Their deposition probably played a major role in global carbon cycling in general because of the large areas of the ocean affected. Comparing the Libyan δ13C record with

  20. Producing bio-pellets from sunflower oil cake for use as an energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Yuichi; Kato, Hitoshi; Kanai, Genta; Togashi, Tatsushi [National Agricultural Research Center (Japan)], E-mail: kobay@affrc.go.jp

    2008-07-01

    Pellet fuels were produced from ground sunflower oil cake using a pelletizer. The length, hardness, and powder characteristics of dried pellets depend on the initial water content of the oil cake. The appropriate values of water contents were 19.9 - 21.0% w.b. Oil cake pellets were found to contain 6.07% ash and 20.99 MJ/kg caloric value, which are within the standard range of wood pellets. Combustion experiments using a commercial pellet stove demonstrate that oil cake pellets burn as well as wood pellets. Oil cake pellets are useful as a fuel alternative to wood pellets. (author)

  1. Physicochemical properties of Terminalia catappa seed oil as a novel dietary lipid source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supatcha Janporn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Terminalia catappa Linn (TC is an ornamental tree planted extensively in many countries. It has been known for a long time that the seeds are edible but no research has focused on the realm of its use as food. Our previous data showed that the seed contains high levels of oil content (600 g/kg and possesses the optimum fatty acid balance indicated in fat dietary guidelines. This study aims to investigate the physical and chemical properties and the possibility of using TC seed oil as a new dietary lipid. The effects of extraction conditions, partial refining process, and storage stability on TC oil properties were conducted compared with soybean oil. The results showed that physicochemical properties including the density, refractive index, melting point, acidity, free fatty acid, saponification value, unsaponifiable, peroxide, and fatty acid composition of the extracted oil were comparable with soybean oil and their values followed the dietary standard of edible oil.

  2. Determination of the hydrogen content of oil samples from Nigeria using an Am-Be neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonah, S.A.; Elegba, S.B.; Zakari, I.I.

    1998-01-01

    A 5 Ci Am-Be neutron source-based facility, which utilises the principles of thermal neutron reflection technique in combination with foil activation method, has been used to determine the total hydrogen content of commercial oil samples from Nigeria. With an established detection limit of 0.25 H w% for oil matrix of volume 600-ml, the total hydrogen contents of the samples were found to be in the range of 11.11-14.22 H w%. The facility is economical and suitable for the determination of moisture in solid samples. A brief description of the ongoing projects and future plans concerning the CRP are enumerated. (author)

  3. Screening of oil sources by using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry and multivariate statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wanfeng; Zhu, Shukui; He, Sheng; Wang, Yanxin

    2015-02-06

    Using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC/TOFMS), volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds in crude oil samples from different reservoirs or regions were analyzed for the development of a molecular fingerprint database. Based on the GC×GC/TOFMS fingerprints of crude oils, principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis were used to distinguish the oil sources and find biomarkers. As a supervised technique, the geological characteristics of crude oils, including thermal maturity, sedimentary environment etc., are assigned to the principal components. The results show that tri-aromatic steroid (TAS) series are the suitable marker compounds in crude oils for the oil screening, and the relative abundances of individual TAS compounds have excellent correlation with oil sources. In order to correct the effects of some other external factors except oil sources, the variables were defined as the content ratio of some target compounds and 13 parameters were proposed for the screening of oil sources. With the developed model, the crude oils were easily discriminated, and the result is in good agreement with the practical geological setting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FIVE NON- TRADITIONAL SOURCE CATEGORIES: CATASTROPHIC/ACCIDENTAL RELEASES, VEHICLE REPAIR FACILITIES, RECYCLING, PESTICIDE APPLICATION, AND AGRICULTURAL OPERATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of work that is part of EPA's program to identify and characterize emissions sources not currently accounted for by either the existing Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) or State Implementation Plan (SIP) area source methodologies and to deve...

  5. Olives and olive oil are sources of electrophilic fatty acid nitroalkenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Fazzari

    Full Text Available Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO and olives, key sources of unsaturated fatty acids in the Mediterranean diet, provide health benefits to humans. Nitric oxide (•NO and nitrite (NO2 (--dependent reactions of unsaturated fatty acids yield electrophilic nitroalkene derivatives (NO2-FA that manifest salutary pleiotropic cell signaling responses in mammals. Herein, the endogenous presence of NO2-FA in both EVOO and fresh olives was demonstrated by mass spectrometry. The electrophilic nature of these species was affirmed by the detection of significant levels of protein cysteine adducts of nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA-cysteine in fresh olives, especially in the peel. Further nitration of EVOO by NO2 (- under acidic gastric digestive conditions revealed that human consumption of olive lipids will produce additional nitro-conjugated linoleic acid (NO2-cLA and nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA. The presence of free and protein-adducted NO2-FA in both mammalian and plant lipids further affirm a role for these species as signaling mediators. Since NO2-FA instigate adaptive anti-inflammatory gene expression and metabolic responses, these redox-derived metabolites may contribute to the cardiovascular benefits associated with the Mediterranean diet.

  6. Biotechnological route for sustainable succinate production utilizing oil palm frond and kenaf as potential carbon sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthfi, Abdullah Amru Indera; Manaf, Shareena Fairuz Abdul; Illias, Rosli Md; Harun, Shuhaida; Mohammad, Abdul Wahab; Jahim, Jamaliah Md

    2017-04-01

    Due to the world's dwindling energy supplies, greater thrust has been placed on the utilization of renewable resources for global succinate production. Exploration of such biotechnological route could be seen as an act of counterbalance to the continued fossil fuel dominance. Malaysia being a tropical country stands out among many other nations for its plenty of resources in the form of lignocellulosic biomass. To date, oil palm frond (OPF) contributes to the largest fraction of agricultural residues in Malaysia, while kenaf, a newly introduced fiber crop with relatively high growth rate, holds great potential for developing sustainable succinate production, apart from OPF. Utilization of non-food, inexhaustible, and low-cost derived biomass in the form of OPF and kenaf for bio-based succinate production remains largely untapped. Owing to the richness of carbohydrates in OPF and kenaf, bio-succinate commercialization using these sources appears as an attractive proposition for future sustainable developments. The aim of this paper was to review some research efforts in developing a biorefinery system based on OPF and kenaf as processing inputs. It presents the importance of the current progress in bio-succinate commercialization, in addition to describing the potential use of different succinate production hosts and various pretreatments-saccharifications under development for OPF and kenaf. Evaluations on the feasibility of OPF and kenaf as fermentation substrates are also discussed.

  7. The potential near-source ozone impacts of upstream oil and gas industry emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaguer, Eduardo P

    2012-08-01

    Increased drilling in urban areas overlying shale formations and its potential impact on human health through decreased air quality make it important to estimate the contribution of oil and gas activities to photochemical smog. Flares and compressor engines used in natural gas operations, for example, are large sources not only of NOx but also offormaldehyde, a hazardous air pollutant and powerful ozone precursor We used a neighborhood scale (200 m horizontal resolution) three-dimensional (3D) air dispersion model with an appropriate chemical mechanism to simulate ozone formation in the vicinity ofa hypothetical natural gas processing facility, based on accepted estimates of both regular and nonroutine emissions. The model predicts that, under average midday conditions in June, regular emissions mostly associated with compressor engines may increase ambient ozone in the Barnett Shale by more than 3 ppb beginning at about 2 km downwind of the facility, assuming there are no other major sources of ozone precursors. Flare volumes of 100,000 cubic meters per hour ofnatural gas over a period of 2 hr can also add over 3 ppb to peak 1-hr ozone somewhatfurther (>8 km) downwind, once dilution overcomes ozone titration and inhibition by large flare emissions of NOx. The additional peak ozone from the hypothetical flare can briefly exceed 10 ppb about 16 km downwind. The enhancements of ambient ozone predicted by the model are significant, given that ozone control strategy widths are of the order of a few parts per billion. Degrading the horizontal resolution of the model to 1 km spuriously enhances the simulated ozone increases by reducing the effectiveness of ozone inhibition and titration due to artificial plume dilution.

  8. Chronic oiling of marine birds in California by natural petroleum seeps, shipwrecks, and other sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Laird A; Nevins, Hannahrose; Martin, Marida; Sugarman, Susan; Harvey, James T; Ziccardi, Michael H

    2014-02-15

    We assessed temporal and spatial patterns of chronic oiling of seabirds in California during 2005-2010, using data on: (1) live oiled birds reported to the Oiled Wildlife Care Network (OWCN) from throughout the state, and (2) dead oiled birds found during systematic monthly beached-bird surveys in central California. A mean of 245 (± 141 SD) live miscellaneous oiled birds (not associated with known oil spills) were reported to the OWCN per year, and 0.1 oiled dead birds km(-1) per month were found on beach surveys in central California. Chemical fingerprinting of oiled feathers from a subset of these birds (n=101) indicated that 89% of samples tested were likely from natural petroleum seeps off southern and central California. There was a pronounced peak during late winter in the number of oiled birds reported in southern California, which we theorize may be related to large storm waves disturbing underwater seeps. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Palm oil – strategic source of renewable energy in Indonesia and Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Prokurat, Sergiusz

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to answer the question of how the global industry of palm oil is affecting the economies and natural environments of its two main producers – Indonesia and Malaysia. The first section examines the contemporary uses of palm oil in a variety of products and industries. It also sets out to describe the global palm oil market. The second section takes a historical perspective, analysing the origins of palm oil cultivation and trade and its rapid rise to global prominence. The thi...

  10. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobbett, G T.B.

    1907-07-08

    Crude petroleum having a density of 850 to 900 is purified with sulfuric acid, decanted, mixed with benzine or petrol, and again treated with sulfuric acid and decanted. The remaining acid and coloring-matter are removed by washing with water, or treating with oxalic acid, zinc carbonate, lead carbonate, calcium carbonate, or oxide of zinc. The product is used as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Specifications No. 28,104, A.D. 1906, and No. 12,606, A.D. 1907, are referred to. According to the Provisional Specification, the process is applicable to shale or schist oil.

  11. Isolation and Selection of Microalgal Strains from Natural Water Sources in Viet Nam with Potential for Edible Oil Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thao, Tran Yen; Linh, Dinh Thi Nhat; Si, Vo Chi; Carter, Taylor W; Hill, Russell T

    2017-06-23

    Industrial vegetable oil production in Viet Nam depends on oil seeds and crude plant oils that are currently more than 90% imported. As the first step in investigating the feasibility of using microalgae to provide Viet Nam with a domestic source of oil for food and edible oil industries, fifty lipid-producing microalgae were isolated and characterized. The microalgae were isolated from water sources ranging from freshwater to brackish and marine waters from a wide geographic distribution in Viet Nam. Initial analyses showed that 20 of the 50 strains had good growth rates, produced high biomass and had high lipid content, ranging up to 50% of dry weight biomass. 18S rRNA gene sequence analyses of the 50 strains showed a great diversity in this assemblage of microalgae, comprising at least 38 species and representatives of 25 genera : Chlamydomonas , Poterioochromonas , Scenedesmus , Desmodesmus , Chlorella , Bracteacoccus , Monoraphidium , Selenastrum , Acutodesmus , Mychonastes , Ankistrodesmus , Kirchneriella , Raphidocelis , Dictyosphaerium , Coelastrella , Schizochlamydella , Oocystidium , Nannochloris , Auxenochlorella , Chlorosarcinopsis , Stichococcus , Picochlorum , Prasinoderma , Chlorococcum , and Marvania. Some of the species are closely related to well-known lipid producers such as Chlorella sorokiniana , but some other strains are not closely related to the strains found in public sequence databases and likely represent new species. Analysis of oil quality showed that fatty acid profiles of the microalgal strains were very diverse and strain-dependent. Fatty acids in the microalgal oils comprised saturated fatty acids (SFAs), poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs). The main SFA was palmitic acid. MUFAs and PUFAs were dominated by oleic acid, and linoleic and linolenic acids, respectively. Some strains were especially rich in the essential fatty acid α-linolenic acid (ALA), which comprised more than 20% of the

  12. Ambient mass spectrometry employing direct analysis in real time (DART) ion source for olive oil quality and authenticity assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaclavik, Lukas; Cajka, Tomas; Hrbek, Vojtech; Hajslova, Jana

    2009-01-01

    A novel approach for the authentication of olive oil samples representing different quality grades has been developed. A new type of ion source, direct analysis in real time (DART), coupled to a high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) was employed for the comprehensive profiling of triacylglycerols (TAGs) and/or polar compounds extracted with a methanol-water mixture. The main parameters influencing the ionization efficiency of TAGs were the type of sample solvent, degree of sample dilution, ion beam temperature, and presence of a dopant (ammonia vapors). The ionization yield of polar compounds depended mainly on a content of water in the extract and ion beam temperature. Using DART-TOFMS, not only differentiation among extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), olive pomace oil (OPO) and olive oil (OO) could be easily achieved, but also EVOO adulteration with commonly used adulterant, hazelnut oil (HO), was feasible. Based on the linear discriminant analysis (LDA), the introduced method allowed detection of HO addition of 6 and 15% (v/v) when assessing DART-TOFMS mass profiles of polar compounds and TAGs, respectively.

  13. Ambient mass spectrometry employing direct analysis in real time (DART) ion source for olive oil quality and authenticity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaclavik, Lukas; Cajka, Tomas; Hrbek, Vojtech [Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Faculty of Food and Biochemical Technology, Department of Food Chemistry and Analysis, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Hajslova, Jana, E-mail: jana.hajslova@vscht.cz [Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Faculty of Food and Biochemical Technology, Department of Food Chemistry and Analysis, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2009-07-10

    A novel approach for the authentication of olive oil samples representing different quality grades has been developed. A new type of ion source, direct analysis in real time (DART), coupled to a high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) was employed for the comprehensive profiling of triacylglycerols (TAGs) and/or polar compounds extracted with a methanol-water mixture. The main parameters influencing the ionization efficiency of TAGs were the type of sample solvent, degree of sample dilution, ion beam temperature, and presence of a dopant (ammonia vapors). The ionization yield of polar compounds depended mainly on a content of water in the extract and ion beam temperature. Using DART-TOFMS, not only differentiation among extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), olive pomace oil (OPO) and olive oil (OO) could be easily achieved, but also EVOO adulteration with commonly used adulterant, hazelnut oil (HO), was feasible. Based on the linear discriminant analysis (LDA), the introduced method allowed detection of HO addition of 6 and 15% (v/v) when assessing DART-TOFMS mass profiles of polar compounds and TAGs, respectively.

  14. Categories from scratch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poss, R.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of category from mathematics happens to be useful to computer programmers in many ways. Unfortunately, all "good" explanations of categories so far have been designed by mathematicians, or at least theoreticians with a strong background in mathematics, and this makes categories

  15. Essential oil of Hexalobus monopetalus (A. Rich) Engl. leaves from Benin : a new source of citral

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leclercq, P.A.; Ayedoun, M.A.; Sossou, P.V.; Houngnon, P.

    1997-01-01

    The leaf oil of Hexalobus monopetalus (Annonaceae) from Benin was analyzed by high resolution GC and GC/MS. Forty components were identified, representing more than 95% of the oiL The main constituents were geranial (37,9'lAl), neral (30,9%), linalool (35%), (E)-anethole (2.6%), selin-ll-en-4a-ol

  16. Effects of Dietary Coconut Oil as a Medium-chain Fatty Acid Source on Performance, Carcass Composition and Serum Lipids in Male Broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianhong; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Li, Juntao; Chen, Yiqiang; Yang, Wenjun; Zhang, Liying

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary coconut oil as a medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) source on performance, carcass composition and serum lipids in male broilers. A total of 540, one-day-old, male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 treatments with each treatment being applied to 6 replicates of 18 chicks. The basal diet (i.e., R0) was based on corn and soybean meal and was supplemented with 1.5% soybean oil during the starter phase (d 0 to 21) and 3.0% soybean oil during the grower phase (d 22 to 42). Four experimental diets were formulated by replacing 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% of the soybean oil with coconut oil (i.e., R25, R50, R75, and R100). Soybean oil and coconut oil were used as sources of long-chain fatty acid and MCFA, respectively. The feeding trial showed that dietary coconut oil had no effect on weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion. On d 42, serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were linearly decreased as the coconut oil level increased (pcoconut oil level increased (poil in diets with coconut oil is the optimum level to reduce fat deposition and favorably affect lipid profiles without impairing performance in broilers.

  17. Using systematic and comparative GC/MS and GC/FID data to identify the source of an unknown oil on contaminated birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.; Fingas, M.; Landriault, M.; Sigouin, L.; Feng, Y.

    1996-01-01

    A method to identify and differentiate spilled oil and petroleum products was developed. In January 1996, four birds covered with an unknown oil were found near Larchipel-de-Mingan National Park in Quebec. Environment Canada wanted to know if the oil came from a leak in a barge which was grounded on Anticosti Island. To do so, it was necessary to determine the nature of the oil, the type of petroleum hydrocarbons, the age, the weathering and degradation extent of the spilled oil, and changes in oil character since the occurrence of any possible spill. The analytical approach to determine the source of the unknown oil was described. The analysis of individual aliphatic, aromatic, and biomarker hydrocarbons were made with the use of gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS), and gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID). Pattern recognition plot analysis was also used in determining the source of the oil. It was concluded that the residual oil on the birds was not from the suspected barge oil, and was most probably old, highly weathered, somewhat biodegraded bunker type oil. 23 refs., 5 tabs., 7 figs

  18. Enhancement of biodegradation of crude petroleum-oil in contaminated water by the addition of nitrogen sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukred, A M; Hamid, A A; Hamzah, A; Yusoff, W M Wan

    2008-09-01

    Addition of nitrogen sources as supplementary nutrient into MSM medium to enhance biodegradation by stimulating the growth four isolates, Acinetobacter faecalis, Staphylococcus sp., Pseudomonas putida and Neisseria elongata isolated from petroleum contaminated groundwater, wastewater aeration pond and biopond at the oil refinery Terengganu Malaysia was investigated. The organic nitrogen sources tested not only supported growth but also enhances biodegradation of 1% Tapis crude oil. All four isolates showed good growth especially when peptone was employed as the organic nitrogen compared to growth in the basal medium. Gas chromatography showed that more then 91, 93, 94 and 95% degradation of total hydrocarbon was observed after 5 days of incubation by isolates Pseudomonas putida, Neisseria elongate, Acinetobacter faecalis and Staphylococcus sp., respectively.

  19. Extraction of Iodine from Source Rock and Oil for Radioiodine Dating Final Report CRADA No. TC-1550-98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, J. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Summa, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-10-19

    This was a collaborative effort between the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Exxon Production Research Company (EPR) to develop improved techniques for extracting, concentrating, and measuring iodine from large volumes of source rock and oil. The purpose of this project was to develop a technique for measuring total iodine extracted from rock, obtain isotopic ratios, and develop age models for samples provided by EPR.

  20. By-product of Lavandula latifolia essential oil distillation as source of antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Tovar, Inés; Herrero, Baudilio; Pérez-Magariño, Silvia; Pereira, José Alberto; Asensio-S-Manzanera, M Carmen

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of Lavandula latifolia waste obtained after essential oil distillation. Samples of 12 wild populations of the Lavandula genus collected between 2009 and 2010 were hydrodistilled and their by-products were analyzed using the Folin-Ciocalteu, free radical scavenging activity (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. Rosmarinic acid, apigenin, and luteolin contents were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection. The mean of total phenolic content ranged from 1.89 ± 0.09 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight to 3.54 ± 0.22 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight. The average value of the half maximal effective concentration (EC 50 ) for scavenging activity ranged from 5.09 ± 0.17 mg/mL to 14.30 ± 1.90 mg/mL and the variability of the EC 50 in FRAP ranged from 3.72 ± 0.12 mg/mL to 18.55 ± 0.77 mg/mL. Annual variation was found among this samples and the environmental conditions of 2009 were found to be more favorable. The plants collected from Sedano showed the highest antioxidant power. Our results show that rosmarinic acid and apigenin in L. latifolia contributed to the antioxidant properties of the waste. In conclusion, the by-product of the distillation industry could be valorizing as a source of natural antioxidants. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. By-product of Lavandula latifolia essential oil distillation as source of antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Méndez-Tovar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of Lavandula latifolia waste obtained after essential oil distillation. Samples of 12 wild populations of the Lavandula genus collected between 2009 and 2010 were hydrodistilled and their by-products were analyzed using the Folin–Ciocalteu, free radical scavenging activity (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP methods. Rosmarinic acid, apigenin, and luteolin contents were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography–diode array detection. The mean of total phenolic content ranged from 1.89 ± 0.09 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight to 3.54 ± 0.22 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight. The average value of the half maximal effective concentration (EC50 for scavenging activity ranged from 5.09 ± 0.17 mg/mL to 14.30 ± 1.90 mg/mL and the variability of the EC50 in FRAP ranged from 3.72 ± 0.12 mg/mL to 18.55 ± 0.77 mg/mL. Annual variation was found among this samples and the environmental conditions of 2009 were found to be more favorable. The plants collected from Sedano showed the highest antioxidant power. Our results show that rosmarinic acid and apigenin in L. latifolia contributed to the antioxidant properties of the waste. In conclusion, the by-product of the distillation industry could be valorizing as a source of natural antioxidants.

  2. Abies Concolor Seeds and Cones as New Source of Essential Oils-Composition and Biological Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajs-Bonikowska, Anna; Szoka, Łukasz; Karna, Ewa; Wiktorowska-Owczarek, Anna; Sienkiewicz, Monika

    2017-11-02

    The chemical composition, including the enantiomeric excess of the main terpenes, of essential oils from seeds and cones of Abies concolor was studied by chromatographic (GC) and spectroscopic methods (mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance), leading to the determination of 98 compounds. Essential oils were mainly composed of monoterpene hydrocarbons. The dominant volatiles of seed essential oil were: limonene (47 g/100 g, almost pure levorotary form) and α-pinene (40 g/100 g), while α-pinene (58 g/100 g), sabinene (11 g/100 g), and β-pinene (4.5 g/100 g) were the predominant components of the cone oil. The seed and cone essential oils exhibited mild antibacterial activity, and the MIC ranged from 26 to 30 μL/mL against all of the tested bacterial standard strains: Staphylococcus aureus , Enterococcus faecalis , Enterococcus faecium , Escherichia coli , and Klebsiella pneumoniae . The cytotoxic studies have demonstrated that tested essential oils were cytotoxic to human skin fibroblasts and human microvascular endothelial cells at concentrations much lower than the MIC. The essential oils from A. concolor seeds and cones had no toxic effect on human skin fibroblasts and human microvascular endothelial cells, when added to the cells at a low concentration (0-0.075 μL/mL) and (0-1.0 μL/mL), respectively, and cultured for 24 h.

  3. Boron deprivation alters rat behaviour and brain mineral composition differently when fish oil instead of safflower oil is the diet fat source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Forrest H; Penland, James G

    2006-01-01

    To determine whether boron deprivation affects rat behaviour and whether behavioural responses to boron deprivation are modified by differing amounts of dietary long-chain omega-3 fatty acids. Female rats were fed diets containing 0.1 mg (9 micromol)/kg boron in a factorial arrangement with dietary variables of supplemental boron at 0 and 3mg (278 micromol)/kg and fat sources of 75 g/kg safflower oil or 65 g/kg fish (menhaden) oil plus 10 g/kg linoleic acid. After 6 weeks, six females per treatment were bred. Dams and pups continued on their respective diets through gestation, lactation and after weaning. Between ages 6 and 20 weeks, behavioural tests were performed on 13-15 male offspring from three dams in each dietary treatment. The rats were euthanized at age 21 weeks for the collection of tissues and blood. At ages 6 and 19 weeks, auditory startle was evaluated with an acoustic startle system and avoidance behaviour was evaluated by using an elevated plus maze. At ages 7 and 20 weeks, spontaneous behaviour activity was evaluated with a photobeam activity system. A brightness discrimination test was performed on the rats between age 15 and 16 weeks. Brain mineral composition was determined by coupled argon plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Plasma total glutathione was determined by HPLC and total cholesterol and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2alpha (8-iso-PGF2alpha) were determined by using commercially available kits. Boron-deficient rats were less active than boron-adequate rats when fed safflower oil based on reduced number, distance and time of horizontal movements, front entries, margin distance and vertical breaks and jumps in the spontaneous activity evaluation. Feeding fish oil instead of safflower oil attenuated the activity response to boron deprivation. In the plus maze evaluation, the behavioural reactivity of the boron-deficient rats fed fish oil was noticeably different than the other three treatments. They made more entries into both open and closed

  4. Sources of particulate matter components in the Athabasca oil sands region: investigation through a comparison of trace element measurement methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Phillips-Smith

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The province of Alberta, Canada, is home to three oil sands regions which, combined, contain the third largest deposit of oil in the world. Of these, the Athabasca oil sands region is the largest. As part of Environment and Climate Change Canada's program in support of the Joint Canada-Alberta Implementation Plan for Oil Sands Monitoring program, concentrations of trace elements in PM2. 5 (particulate matter smaller than 2.5 µm in diameter were measured through two campaigns that involved different methodologies: a long-term filter campaign and a short-term intensive campaign. In the long-term campaign, 24 h filter samples were collected once every 6 days over a 2-year period (December 2010–November 2012 at three air monitoring stations in the regional municipality of Wood Buffalo. For the intensive campaign (August 2013, hourly measurements were made with an online instrument at one air monitoring station; daily filter samples were also collected. The hourly and 24 h filter data were analyzed individually using positive matrix factorization. Seven emission sources of PM2. 5 trace elements were thereby identified: two types of upgrader emissions, soil, haul road dust, biomass burning, and two sources of mixed origin. The upgrader emissions, soil, and haul road dust sources were identified through both the methodologies and both methodologies identified a mixed source, but these exhibited more differences than similarities. The second upgrader emissions and biomass burning sources were only resolved by the hourly and filter methodologies, respectively. The similarity of the receptor modeling results from the two methodologies provided reassurance as to the identity of the sources. Overall, much of the PM2. 5-related trace elements were found to be anthropogenic, or at least to be aerosolized through anthropogenic activities. These emissions may in part explain the previously reported higher levels of trace elements in snow

  5. Oil companies' customer records as a source of petroleum statistics; Oljeselskapenes kunderegistre som kilde i petroleumsstatistikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaksen, Elisabeth Thuestad; Hoeie, Henning; Flugsrud, Ketil

    2012-10-15

    Detailed sales data from oil companies' customer records are considered a better source of data for the sales statistics for petroleum products than today's more aggregated source basis. Using detailed data from sales transactions allow for a safer, more detailed and more consistent industry classification and geographic distribution of sales than what is possible with current practice. Particularly for sale to transport and the public sector will the detailed data could make a more proper distribution of sales.(eb)

  6. Indigenous oil crops as a source for production of biodiesel in Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    followed by industry and generation of electricity sector whose consumption grew with 5.2 % in. 2006. In addition ... biodiesel from Kenyan plants having high oil content. In this study ... plants are presented in this paper. .... Copper corrosion.

  7. Maltese Mushroom (Cynomorium coccineum L. as Source of Oil with Potential Anticancer Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to examine the potential anticancer properties of fixed oil obtained from Maltese mushroom (Cynomorium coccineum L., an edible, non-photosynthetic plant, used in traditional medicine of Mediterranean countries to treat various ailments and as an emergency food during the famine. We investigated the effect of the oil, obtained from dried stems by supercritical fractioned extraction with CO2, on B16F10 melanoma and colon cancer Caco-2 cell viability and lipid profile. The oil, rich in essential fatty acids (18:3n-3 and 18:2n-6, showed a significant growth inhibitory effect on melanoma and colon cancer cells. The incubation (24 h with non-toxic oil concentrations (25 and 50 μg/mL induced in both cancer cell lines a significant accumulation of the fatty acids 18:3n-3 and 18:2n-6 and an increase of the cellular levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3 with anticancer activity. Moreover, the oil exhibited the ability to potentiate the growth inhibitory effect of the antitumor drug 5-fluorouracil in Caco-2 cells and to influence the melanin content in B16F10 cells. The results qualify C. coccineum as a resource of oil, with potential benefits in cancer prevention, for nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications.

  8. Wheat bran extracts: a potent source of natural antioxidants for the stabilization of canola oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Chatha, Shahzad Ali

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the antioxidant activity of different solvent extracts of wheat (var. Inqalab 91 bran was evaluated following different antioxidant assays using canola oil as the oxidation substrate. The bran samples were extracted with 80% and 100% methanol and acetone. A preliminary assessment of the antioxidant activity of the 80 and 100% acetone and methanolic extracts of wheat bran was done by the measurement of % inhibition of peroxidation in a linoleic acid system, total phenolic contents (TPC and bleachability of β-carotene in the linoleic acid system. Additionally, the canola oil samples were stabilized with crude concentrated extracts and subjected to ambient aging (6 months. The extent of oxidative deterioration was followed by the measurement of peroxide-, p-anisidine-, conjugated dienes-, and trienes- values. The results of ambient stored samples revealed a significant improvement in these oxidation parameters. The overall order of antioxidant activity of the extracts as determined by various antioxidant assays was determined to be; 80% methanolic extract > 100% methanolic extract > 80% acetone extracts . 100% acetone extract. The results of the present comprehensive analysis demonstrate that extracts of the wheat bran indigenous to Pakistan are a viable source of natural antioxidants and might be exploited for commercial and neutraceutical applications.

    En el presente trabajo la actividad antioxidante de diferentes extractos obtenidos con disolventes del salvado de trigo (var. Inqalab 91 fue evaluada mediante diferentes ensayos antioxidantes y aceite de canola como substrato de oxidación. Las muestras de salvado fueron extraídas con metanol y acetona al 80% y al 100%. La evaluación preliminar de la actividad antioxidante de los extractos de metanol y de acetona al 80% y 100% fue hecha mediante la medida del % de inhibición de la peroxidación en un sistema con ácido linoleico, el contenido total de fenoles

  9. Chicken feather hydrolysate as an inexpensive complex nitrogen source for PHA production by Cupriavidus necator on waste frying oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benesova, P; Kucera, D; Marova, I; Obruca, S

    2017-08-01

    The chicken feather hydrolysate (FH) has been tested as a potential complex nitrogen source for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates by Cupriavidus necator H16 when waste frying oil was used as a carbon source. The addition of FH into the mineral salt media with decreased inorganic nitrogen source concentration improved the yields of biomass and polyhydrohyalkanoates. The highest yields were achieved when 10 vol.% of FH prepared by microwave-assisted alkaline hydrolysis of 60 g l -1 feather was added. In this case, the poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) yields were improved by more than about 50% as compared with control cultivation. A positive impact of FH was also observed for accumulation of copolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) when sodium propionate was used as a precursor. The copolymer has superior processing and mechanical properties in comparison with PHB homopolymer. The application of FH eliminated the inhibitory effect of propionate and resulted in altered content of 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) in copolymer. Therefore, the hydrolysed feather can serve as an excellent complex source of nitrogen for the polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production. Moreover, by the combination of two inexpensive types of waste, such as waste frying oil and feather hydrolysate, it is possible to produce PHA with substantially improved efficiency and sustainability. Millions of tons of feathers, important waste product of poultry-processing industry, are disposed off annually without any further benefits. Thus, there is an inevitable need for new technologies that enable ecologically and economically sensible processing of this waste. Herein, we report that alkali-hydrolysed feathers can be used as a complex nitrogen source considerably improving polyhydroxyalkanoates production on waste frying oil employing Cupriavidus necator. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Blocking in Category Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bott, Lewis; Hoffman, Aaron B.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2007-01-01

    Many theories of category learning assume that learning is driven by a need to minimize classification error. When there is no classification error, therefore, learning of individual features should be negligible. We tested this hypothesis by conducting three category learning experiments adapted from an associative learning blocking paradigm. Contrary to an error-driven account of learning, participants learned a wide range of information when they learned about categories, and blocking effe...

  11. Biosynthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) by Cupriavidus necator H16 from jatropha oil as carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batcha, Abeed Fatima Mohidin; Prasad, D M Reddy; Khan, Maksudur R; Abdullah, Hamidah

    2014-05-01

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) is a biodegradable polymer that can be synthesized through bacterial fermentation. In this study, Cupriavidus necator H16 is used to synthesize PHB by using Jatropha oil as its sole carbon source. Different variables mainly jatropha oil and urea concentrations, and agitation rate were investigated to determine the optimum condition for microbial fermentation in batch culture. Based on the results, the highest cell dry weight and PHB concentrations of 20.1 and 15.5 g/L, respectively, were obtained when 20 g/L of jatropha oil was used. Ethanol was used as external stress factor and the addition of 1.5 % ethanol at 38 h had a positive effect with a high PHB yield of 0.987 g PHB/g jatropha oil. The kinetic studies for cell growth rate and PHB production were conducted and the data were fitted with Logistic and Leudeking–Piret models. The rate constants were evaluated and the theoretical values were in accordance with the experimental data obtained

  12. A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF DI DIESEL ENGINE PERFORMANCE WITHVEGETABLE OIL: AN ALTERNATIVE BIO-FUEL SOURCE OF ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Azad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study offers comprehensive details on the use of bio-fuel as a viable and alternative source of energy. The bio-fuel was prepared from vegetable oil, i.e., mustard oil and tested in a diesel engine in both pure form and as a diesel blend. The mustard oil blend proportions were 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% and named as bio-diesel blends B20, B30, B40 and B50. A fuel-testing laboratory determined the properties of the pure mustard oil fuel and its blends, i.e., density, viscosity, dynamic viscosity, carbon residue, flash point, fire point and calorific value. An assessment of engine performance, i.e., brake horsepower (bhp, brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc, brake thermal efficiency (bte and brake mean effective pressure (bmep etc., was carried out for pure diesel, pure mustard and the blends, both in laboratory conditions and under British Standard (BS conditions. Finally, an analysis and comparison was made of the effects of the various fuels on the different engine properties.

  13. Category I structures program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endebrock, E.G.; Dove, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    The objective of the Category I Structure Program is to supply experimental and analytical information needed to assess the structural capacity of Category I structures (excluding the reactor cntainment building). Because the shear wall is a principal element of a Category I structure, and because relatively little experimental information is available on the shear walls, it was selected as the test element for the experimental program. The large load capacities of shear walls in Category I structures dictates that the experimental tests be conducted on small size shear wall structures that incorporates the general construction details and characteristics of as-built shear walls

  14. Preparation And Characterization Of Modified Calcium Oxide From Natural Sources And Their Application In The Transesterification Of Palm Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aqliliriana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Calcium oxide catalysts were prepared from natural calcium sources such as limestone and mud creeper shell and the catalytic activities were evaluated in the transesterification of palm oil. The raw material which mainly composed of calcium carbonate can be easily converted to calcium oxide CaO after calcination above 1000 K for few hours. Abundant cheap sources benign high conversion and nontoxic become main advantages of these catalysts. The catalysts were characterized by XRF TGA XRD CO2-TPD SEM and BET methods. Thermal decomposition of CaCO3 will produced CaO which later will be converted into calcium hydroxide CaOH2 via simple hydration technique. Under optimum reaction condition methanol to oil ratio 151 catalyst loading 3 wt. reaction temperature 338 K for 5 hours the highest conversion of palm oil to methyl ester recorded were 98 and 94 when using modified limestone and mud creeper shell respectively. The results observed an increment up to 80 by using modified catalysts with characterization results showed high in basicity and surface area. Hence promising materials via simple and cheap method can be achieved.

  15. Efficacy of silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) chrysalis oil as a lipid source in adult Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentang, Feny; Maita, Masashi; Ushio, Hideki; Ohshima, Toshiaki

    2011-08-01

    The effects of silkworm chrysalis oil, rich in n-3 α-linolenic acid (ALA), on lipid metabolism in Wistar rats were investigated. The rats were fed diets containing 7% soybean oil (control), silkworm chrysalis oil (SWO), or fish oil (FO) for 8weeks. Plasma triglyceride and glucose levels were significantly lower in the SWO group after 8weeks compared to the control and FO groups. The total cholesterol and blood urea nitrogen levels were higher in the control group than in the SWO and FO groups at 8weeks post-consumption. However, aspartate amino transferase and alanine amino transferase levels were not significantly different among all groups. A higher arachidonic acid (AA) content was detected in the control group, while lower AA levels were observed with the increase in EPA and DHA in the SWO and FO groups. These results suggest that n-3 α-linolenic acid-rich silkworm chrysalis oil can improve hyperlipidaemia and hyperglycaemia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Categories and logical syntax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klev, Ansten Morch

    2014-01-01

    The notions of category and type are here studied through the lens of logical syntax: Aristotle's as well as Kant's categories through the traditional form of proposition `S is P', and modern doctrines of type through the Fregean form of proposition `F(a)', function applied to argument. Topics

  17. Computing color categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yendrikhovskij, S.N.; Rogowitz, B.E.; Pappas, T.N.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to develop a coherent framework for understanding, modeling, and computing color categories. The main assumption is that the structure of color category systems originates from the statistical structure of the perceived color environment. This environment can be modeled as

  18. Properties of a biosurfactant produced by Bacillus pumilus using vinasse and waste frying oil as alternative carbon sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Guerra de Oliveira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are chemical molecules produced by the microorganisms with potential for application in various industrial and environmental sectors. The production parameters and the physicochemical properties of a biosurfactant synthesized by Bacillus pumilus using different concentrations of vinasse and waste frying oil as alternative carbon sources were analyzed. The microorganism was able to grow and produce a biosurfactant using both the residues. The surface tension was reduced up to 45 mN/m and the maximum production of crude biosurfactant was 27.7 and 5.7 g/l for vinasse and waste frying oil, respectively, in concentration of 5%. The critical micelle concentration (CMC results of 1.5 and 0.2 g/l showed the efficiency of the biosurfactant produced on both the substrates. The results showed that the alternative substrates could be used for the production of an efficient biosurfactant by B. pumilus. These properties have potential for industrial and environmental applications.

  19. Organic geochemistry and petrology of oil source rocks, Carpathian Overthrust region, southeastern Poland - Implications for petroleum generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruge, M.A.; Mastalerz, Maria; Solecki, A.; Stankiewicz, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    The organic mailer rich Oligocene Menilite black shales and mudstones are widely distributed in the Carpathian Overthrust region of southeastern Poland and have excellent hydrocarbon generation potential, according to TOC, Rock-Eval, and petrographic data. Extractable organic matter was characterized by an equable distribution of steranes by carbon number, by varying amounts of 28,30-dinor-hopane, 18??(H)-oleanane and by a distinctive group of C24 ring-A degraded triterpanes. The Menilite samples ranged in maturity from pre-generative to mid-oil window levels, with the most mature in the southeastern portion of the study area. Carpathian petroleum samples from Campanian Oligocene sandstone reservoirs were similar in biomarker composition to the Menilite rock extracts. Similarities in aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon distributions between petroleum asphaltene and source rock pyrolyzates provided further evidence genetically linking Menilite kerogens with Carpathian oils.

  20. A method of preserving and testing the acceptability of gac fruit oil, a good source of beta-carotene and essential fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, L T; King, J C

    2003-06-01

    Gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng) is indigenous to Vietnam and other countries in Southeast Asia. Its seed pulp contains high concentrations of carotenoids, especially the provitamin A, beta-carotene. In northern Vietnam, gac fruits are seasonal and are mainly used in making a rice dish called xoi gac. The purpose of this study was to develop a method to collect and preserve gac fruit oil, to evaluate the nutritional composition of the oil, and to assess the acceptability of the gac oil by typical Vietnamese homemakers. One hundred women participated in training to learn how to prepare the fruits and operate the oil press. The women also participated in a survey of gac fruit use and their habitual use of animal fat and vegetable oil. Among all the participants in the training and surveys, 35 women actually produced oil from gac fruits grown in the village, using manual oil presses and locally available materials. The total carotene concentration in gac fruit oil was 5,700 micrograms/ml. The concentration of beta-carotene was 2,710 micrograms/ml. Sixty-nine percent of total fat was unsaturated, and 35% of that was polyunsaturated. The average daily consumption of gac fruit oil was estimated at 2 ml per person. The daily beta-carotene intake (from gac fruit oil) averaged approximately 5 mg per person. It was found that gac oil can be produced locally by village women using manual presses and locally available materials. The oil is a rich source of beta-carotene, vitamin E, and essential fatty acids. Although the beta-carotene concentration declines with time without a preservative or proper storage, it was still high after three months. The oil was readily accepted by the women and their children, and consumption of the oil increased the intake of beta-carotene and reduced the intake of lard.

  1. Survey of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in seven varieties of Lappula squarrosa: An alternative source of heart-healthy vegetable oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letsyo, Emmanuel; Jerz, Gerold; Winterhalter, Peter; Horn, Gert; Beuerle, Till

    2016-01-01

    Growing demand for heart-healthy omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), is putting stress on wild fish stocks. There is now a compelling need for new and novel sources of non-traditional seed oils containing high stearidonic acid (SDA), a precursor of EPA and DHA, to reduce this demand. The seed oil of Lappula squarrosa is one of the richest sources of SDA, however, the plant has been found to contain toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs). In this study, the PA concentrations of seven varieties (A-G) of Lappula squarrosa were analysed to determine the most suitable varieties for commercial seed oil production. Whilst the clean-up procedure for the PAs in the roots, flowers and leaves was on diatomaceous earth columns and finally analysed with GC-EI-MS, that of the seeds was through SCX-SPE and a more sensitive HPLC-ESI-MS/MS sum parameter method was used in the analysis. Altogether six PAs (supinine, amabiline, intermedine, lycopsamine and 3'-acetylintermedine) including one unknown retronecine-type PA were identified with variety C recording the lowest total PA concentration (4.64 mg seneciphylline equivalents (SE)/g dry weight (d.w.)). Besides, the total PA concentrations in the seeds of Lappula squarrosa varieties ranged between 2.88 μg PA/g and 10.36 μg PA/g d.w. Based solely on overall PA concentrations and PA distribution, variety D (5.95 mg SE/g d.w.) was found to be a potential candidate for commercial seed oil cultivation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Virgin olive oil as a source of anti-inflammatory agents

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, Susana M.; Catarino, Marcelo D.; Semião, Marta S.; Pereira, Olívia R.

    2014-01-01

    Virgin olive oil (VOO) has many potential health benefits, including the amelioration of inflammatory processes. In part, this is known to occur through the modification of the endothelial function, leading to a decrease of the levels of cell-adhesion molecules (CAMs), including the inter-cellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and the vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1). Importantly, virgin olive oil is able to inhibit the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), that is a key cytokine in c...

  3. Natural Offshore Oil Seepage and Related Tarball Accumulation on the California Coastline - Santa Barbara Channel and the Southern Santa Maria Basin: Source Identification and Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenson, T.D.; Hostettler, Frances D.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Peters, Kenneth E.; Dougherty, Jennifer A.; Kvenvolden, Keith A.; Gutmacher, Christina E.; Wong, Florence L.; Normark, William R.

    2009-01-01

    Oil spillage from natural sources is very common in the waters of southern California. Active oil extraction and shipping is occurring concurrently within the region and it is of great interest to resource managers to be able to distinguish between natural seepage and anthropogenic oil spillage. The major goal of this study was to establish the geologic setting, sources, and ultimate dispersal of natural oil seeps in the offshore southern Santa Maria Basin and Santa Barbara Basins. Our surveys focused on likely areas of hydrocarbon seepage that are known to occur between Point Arguello and Ventura, California. Our approach was to 1) document the locations and geochemically fingerprint natural seep oils or tar; 2) geochemically fingerprint coastal tar residues and potential tar sources in this region, both onshore and offshore; 3) establish chemical correlations between offshore active seeps and coastal residues thus linking seep sources to oil residues; 4) measure the rate of natural seepage of individual seeps and attempt to assess regional natural oil and gas seepage rates; and 5) interpret the petroleum system history for the natural seeps. To document the location of sub-sea oil seeps, we first looked into previous studies within and near our survey area. We measured the concentration of methane gas in the water column in areas of reported seepage and found numerous gas plumes and measured high concentrations of methane in the water column. The result of this work showed that the seeps were widely distributed between Point Conception east to the vicinity of Coal Oil Point, and that they by in large occur within the 3-mile limit of California State waters. Subsequent cruises used sidescan and high resolution seismic to map the seafloor, from just south of Point Arguello, east to near Gaviota, California. The results of the methane survey guided the exploration of the area west of Point Conception east to Gaviota using a combination of seismic instruments. The

  4. Rose geranium essential oil as a source of new and safe anti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-10-07

    Oct 7, 2013 ... confirmed that RGEO inhibited the inflammatory responses in the skin. Conclusion: Our results ... Keywords: essential oils; rose geranium; citronellol; anti-inflammatory effect; skin inflammation; histopathology; carrageenan; croton ... acquiring synthetic drugs, their insufficient supplies, the side effects ...

  5. ANTIFUNGAL AND ANTIBACTERIAL POTENTIALITY OF SIX ESSENTIAL OILS EXTRACTED FROM PLANT SOURCE

    OpenAIRE

    DR.LALITHA.V,; DR.KIRAN.B,; DR.RAVEESHA

    2011-01-01

    In vitro evaluation of six essential oils viz., Allium sativum, Capsicum annum Cassia fistula, Coriandrum sativum, Cuminum cyminum and Curcuma longa were tested against ten seed borne fungiof paddy viz., Pyricularia oryzae, Bipolaris oryzae, Alternaria alternata, Tricoconis padwickii, Drechslera tetramera, Drechslera halodes, Curvularia lunata, Fusarium moniliforme, F. oxysprorum andF. solani and five human pathogenic bacteria viz., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi ,...

  6. Triangulated categories (AM-148)

    CERN Document Server

    Neeman, Amnon

    2014-01-01

    The first two chapters of this book offer a modern, self-contained exposition of the elementary theory of triangulated categories and their quotients. The simple, elegant presentation of these known results makes these chapters eminently suitable as a text for graduate students. The remainder of the book is devoted to new research, providing, among other material, some remarkable improvements on Brown''s classical representability theorem. In addition, the author introduces a class of triangulated categories""--the ""well generated triangulated categories""--and studies their properties. This

  7. Origin of a Tertiary oil from El Mahafir wildcat & geochemical correlation to some Muglad source rocks, Muglad basin, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadul Abul Gebbayin, Omer. I. M.; Zhong, Ningning; Ali Ibrahim, Gulfan; Ali Alzain, Mohamed

    2018-01-01

    Source rock screening analysis was performed on four stratigraphic units from the Muglad basin namely; Abu Gabra, Zarqa, Ghazal, and Baraka formations using pyrolysis and Vitrinite Reflectance (Ro). Results, integrated with the chromatographic and isotopic data from these rocks extracts and a Tertiary oil from El Mahafir-1 wild cat, were used to determine the origin of the oil. A good organic source within the Middle Abu Gabra Formation is observed in wells El Toor-6 and Neem Deep-1 (TOC, 1.0-2.0% & S2 5.0-10.0 mg C/g rock), with mixed kerogens I, II, & III, and thermally mature (% Ro = 0.74-0.94). The Campanian-Early Maastrichtian sequence, i.e. Zarqa and Ghazal formations are generally poor (TOC, diversity, both in space and time and is characterized by dominant algal input at some areas and or stratigraphic intervals [Elevated tricyclics, higher C29/C30 hopanes (0.5-1.14), and relatively low Gammacerane indices (4.6-14.4)], while mixed with abundant terrigenous material at others. A direct correlation between El Mahafir oil and the Abu Gabra extracts is thus inferred based on: its mixed organic source nature, oxic to sub-oxic depositional environment (Pr/Ph 1.22), relatively low C29/C30 hopanes (0.54), low C28 steranes (29%), and a high gammacerane index (20.5). This is largely supported by the maturity modeling results which suggest generation is only from the Abu Gabra at this location.

  8. Analysis of rare categories

    CERN Document Server

    He, Jingrui

    2012-01-01

    This book focuses on rare category analysis where the majority classes have smooth distributions and the minority classes exhibit the compactness property. It focuses on challenging cases where the support regions of the majority and minority classes overlap.

  9. Consumer Product Category Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use...

  10. Characterization of Leucaena (Leucaena leucephala) oil by direct analysis in real time (DART) ion source and gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, M.; Alandis, N.M.; Sharmin, E.; Ahmad, N.; Alrayes, B.F.; Ali, D.

    2017-01-01

    For the first time, we report the characterization of triacylglycerols and fatty acids in Leucaena (Leucaena leucephala) oil [LUCO], an unexplored nontraditional non-medicinal plant belonging to the family Fabaceae. LUCO was converted to fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). We analyzed the triacylglycerols (TAGs) of pure LUCO and their FAMEs by time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) followed by multivariate analysis for discrimination among the FAMEs. Our investigations for the analysis of LUCO samples represent noble features of glycerides. A new type of ion source, coupled with high-resolution TOF-MS was applied for the comprehensive analysis of triacylglycerols. The composition of fatty acid based LUCO oil was studied using Gas Chromatography (GC-FID). The major fatty acid components of LUCO oil are linoleic acid (52.08%) oleic acid (21.26%), palmitic acid (7.91%) and stearic acid (6.01%). A metal analysis in LUCO was done by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The structural elucidation and thermal stability of LUCO were studied by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectroscopic techniques and TGA-DSC, respectively. We also measured the cytotoxicity of LUCO [es

  11. Product Category Management Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Żukowska, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to present the issues related to category management. It includes the overview of category management definitions and the correct process of exercising it. Moreover, attention is paid to the advantages of brand management, the benefits the supplier and retailer may obtain in this way. The risk element related to this topics is also presented herein. Joanna Żukowska

  12. Chemical evaluation of Geoffroea decorticans seeds as source of oil and protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzmán, Carlos A.

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Proximate, fatty acid and sterol compositions of the oil were determined to ascertain the general characteristics of the seed and seed oil of Geoffroea decorticans (Leguminosae originating from central area of Argentina. Proteins represented 21.6% (w/w of the seed. Seed oil was extracted with n-hexane, yielding 47.2% (w/w. The saponification and iodine values indicated that the oil could be classified among the peanut group of oils. These facts were supported by the detailed fatty acid composition determined by capillary gas chromatography. The ratio of total unsaturated to total saturated fatty acids in the oil was 5.94, with oleic acid being the dominant fatty acid (53.7%. The sterol composition showed higher percentages of b-sitosterol and stigmasterol. The results obtained indicated that, with their attractive properties, G. decorticans is a good candidate for further studies to evaluate their future commercial prospect.Se determinaron los contenidos de humedad, aceite, proteínas, carbohidratos y cenizas de las semillas, y las composiciones en ácidos grasos y esteroles del aceite seminal de Geoffroea decorticans (Leguminosae originaria de la región central de Argentina. Las proteínas representaron el 21.6% (p/p de la semilla. El aceite seminal se extrajo con n-hexano, dando un rendimiento del 47.2% (p/p. Los índices de saponificación y de yodo resultaron similares a los observados en el aceite de cacahuete. Estas observaciones fueron corroboradas mediante el análisis de la composición acídica por cromatografía gaseosa capilar. La relación ácidos grasos insaturados/saturados fue de 5.94, siendo el ácido oleico el principal ácido graso (53.7%. La composición de esteroles indicó altos porcentajes de b-sitosterol y estigmasterol. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que G. decorticans puede ser considerada como recurso potencialmente oleaginoso para las regiones semiáridas de Argentina.

  13. Effect of dietary incorporation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids rich oil sources on fatty acid profile, keeping quality and sensory attributes of broiler chicken meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar Kalakuntla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of dietary replacement of commonly used vegetable oil (sunflower oil, SFO with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA rich oil sources on broiler chicken performance, carcass yield, meat fatty acid composition, keeping quality and sensory attributes of meat. In the current experiment, 300 day-old Krishibro broiler chicks were randomly distributed to 5 dietary groups (50 replicates with 6 chicks in each prepared by replacing SFO (2% and 3% of diet during starter and finisher periods, respectively with n-3 PUFA rich soybean oil (SO, mustard oil (MO, linseed oil (LO or fish oil (FO on weight basis. Variation in oil sources had no influence (P > 0.05 on performance and carcass yield. Supplementation of MO, LO or FO significantly (P < 0.01 increased the n-3 PUFA, lowered the n-6 PUFA deposition and n-6:n-3 ratio in breast and thigh without affecting the organoleptic characters (appearance, flavour, juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability of meat. However, thiobarbituric acid reacting substances concentration in meat was increased (P < 0.01 with LO and FO supplementation compared with SFO. It is concluded that, dietary incorporation of MO, LO or FO at 2% and 3% levels during starter and finisher phase can enrich broiler chicken meat with n-3 PUFA without affecting the bird's performance and sensory characters of meat.

  14. A Tiered Approach to Evaluating Salinity Sources in Water at Oil and Gas Production Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Shawn M; Molofsky, Lisa J; Connor, John A; Walker, Kenneth L; Hopkins, Harley; Chakraborty, Ayan

    2017-09-01

    A suspected increase in the salinity of fresh water resources can trigger a site investigation to identify the source(s) of salinity and the extent of any impacts. These investigations can be complicated by the presence of naturally elevated total dissolved solids or chlorides concentrations, multiple potential sources of salinity, and incomplete data and information on both naturally occurring conditions and the characteristics of potential sources. As a result, data evaluation techniques that are effective at one site may not be effective at another. In order to match the complexity of the evaluation effort to the complexity of the specific site, this paper presents a strategic tiered approach that utilizes established techniques for evaluating and identifying the source(s) of salinity in an efficient step-by-step manner. The tiered approach includes: (1) a simple screening process to evaluate whether an impact has occurred and if the source is readily apparent; (2) basic geochemical characterization of the impacted water resource(s) and potential salinity sources coupled with simple visual and statistical data evaluation methods to determine the source(s); and (3) advanced laboratory analyses (e.g., isotopes) and data evaluation methods to identify the source(s) and the extent of salinity impacts where it was not otherwise conclusive. A case study from the U.S. Gulf Coast is presented to illustrate the application of this tiered approach. © 2017, National Ground Water Association.

  15. Biosurfactant production from marine hydrocarbon-degrading consortia and pure bacterial strains using crude oil as carbon source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleftheria eAntoniou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants (BS are green amphiphilic molecules produced by microorganisms during biodegradation, increasing the bioavailability of organic pollutants. In this work, the BS production yield of marine hydrocarbon degraders isolated from Elefsina bay in Eastern Mediterranean Sea has been investigated. The drop collapse test was used as a preliminary screening test to confirm biosurfactant producing strains or mixed consortia. The community structure of the best consortia based on the drop collapse test was determined by 16S-rDNA pyrotag screening. Subsequently, the effect of incubation time, temperature, substrate and supplementation with inorganic nutrients, on biosurfactant production, was examined. Two types of BS - lipid mixtures were extracted from the culture broth; the low molecular weight BS Rhamnolipids and Sophorolipids. Crude extracts were purified by silica gel column chromatography and then identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. Results indicate that biosurfactant production yield remains constant and low while it is independent of the total culture biomass, carbon source, and temperature. A constant BS concentration in a culture broth with continuous degradation of crude oil implies that the BS producing microbes generate no more than the required amount of biosurfactants that enables biodegradation of the crude oil. Isolated pure strains were found to have higher specific production yields than the complex microbial marine community-consortia. The heavy oil fraction of crude oil has emerged as a promising substrate for BS production (by marine BS producers with fewer impurities in the final product. Furthermore, a particular strain isolated from sediments, Paracoccus marcusii, may be an optimal choice for bioremediation purposes as its biomass remains trapped in the hydrocarbon phase, not suffering from potential dilution effects by sea currents.

  16. Traditional Medicinal Oils Sourced from Birds: Anti-inflammatories and Potential Immunoregulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Athol; Hancock, Gerald; Wells, John; Whitehouse, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes medicinal oils of animal origin, used in Africa and Australasia both for nutritional and medicinally for treating pain and inflammation. Analytical studies of composition, bio-efficacy and their remarkable safety are described. For obtaining reproducible benefits, it is very important to introduce Quality Controls whenever possible. These should cover all stages of production, storage and certify the 'truth in their advertising': to help eliminate adulterated products and false claims for purity and potency.

  17. Eri silkworm: a source of edible oil with a high content of α-linolenic acid and of significant nutritional value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longvah, Thingnganing; Manghtya, Korra; Qadri, Syed S Y H

    2012-07-01

    The study was undertaken to provide value addition to spent eri silkworm as an alternative source of edible oil for the food and feed industry by carrying out a short-term nutritional and toxicological evaluation of eri silkworm pupae oil using Wistar NIN rats. Growth performance of rats fed either sunflower oil (Control) or eri silkworm pupae oil (Experimental) was comparable. Histopathological examination of the various tissues showed no signs of toxicity even after feeding the eri silkworm oil for 18 weeks. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride was significantly reduced (P oil. The study showed that eri silkworm pupae oil is safe and nutritionally equivalent to commonly used vegetable oils. Eri silkworm pupae can be harvested to provide a cost effective alternative edible oil that can be used to nutritional advantage in the food and feed industry. Therefore eri silkworm and its host plants offer an excellent example of multiple product crops and of sustainable agricultural practice with excellent opportunity for economic and nutritional benefits. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Bioremediation of oil sludge using a type of nitrogen source and the consortium of bacteria with composting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitri, Inayah; Ni'matuzahroh, Surtiningsih, Tini

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this research are to know the effect of addition of different nitrogen source, consortium of bacteria, incubation time and the interaction between those variables to the total number of bacteria (CFU/g-soil) and the percentage of degradation (%) in the bioremediation of oil sludge contaminated soil; as well as degraded hydrocarbon components at the best treatment on 6th week. The experiments carried out by mixing the materials and placed them in each bath with and without adding different nitrogen source and bacterial consortium. pH and moisture were measured for every week. An increase in total number of bacteria and percent of maximum degradation recorded at treatment with the addition of NPK+Azotobacter+bacteria consortium; with the TPC value was 14.24 log CFU/g, percent degradation was 77.8%, organic C content was 10.91%, total N was 0.12% and organic matter content was 18.87%, respectively.

  19. Advances in Methane Isotope Measurements via Direct Absorption Spectroscopy with Applications to Oil and Gas Source Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacovitch, T. I.; Herndon, S. C.; Roscioli, J. R.; Petron, G.; Shorter, J. H.; Jervis, D.; McManus, J. B.; Nelson, D. D.; Zahniser, M. S.; Kolb, C. E., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Instrumental developments in the measurement of multiple isotopes of methane (12CH4, 13CH4 and 12CH3D) are presented. A first generation 8-micron instrument quantifies 12CH4 and 13CH4 at a 1-second rate via tunable infrared direct absorption spectroscopy (TILDAS). A second generation instrument uses two 3-micron intraband cascade lasers in an Aerodyne dual laser chassis for simultaneous measurement of 12CH4, 13CH4 and 12CH3D. Sensitivity and noise performance improvements are examined. The isotopic signature of methane provides valuable information for emission source identification of this greenhouse gas. A first generation spectrometer has been deployed in the field on a mobile laboratory along with a sophisticated 4-tank calibration system. Calibrations are done on an agressive schedule, allowing for the correction of measured isotope ratios to an absolute isotope scale. Distinct isotopic signatures are found for a number of emission sources in the Denver-Julesburg Basin: oil and gas gathering stations, compressor stations and processing plants; a municipal landfill, and dairy/cattle operations. The isotopic signatures are compared with measured ethane/methane ratios. These direct absorption measurements have larger uncertainties than samples measured via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, but have several advantages over canister sampling methods: individual sources of short duration are easier to isolate; calibrated isotope ratio results are available immediately; replicate measurements on a single source are easily performed; and the number of sources sampled is not limited by canister availability and processing time.

  20. Evaluating renewable carbon sources as substrates for single cell oil production by Cunninghamella echinulata and Mortierella isabellina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakas, Stylianos; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Batsos, Athanasios; Galiotou-Panayotou, Maria; Mallouchos, Athanasios [Laboratory of Food Microbiology and Biotechnology, Department of Food Science and Technology, Agricultural University of Athens, 75 Iera Odos, 11855 Athens (Greece); Aggelis, George [Division of Genetics, Cell and Developmental Biology, Department of Biology, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece)

    2009-04-15

    The biochemical behavior (biomass production, accumulation of total lipid, substrate uptake, fatty acid composition of fungal oil) of two oleaginous Mucorales strains, namely Mortierella isabellina ATHUM 2935 and Cunninghamella echinulata ATHUM 4411, was studied when the aforementioned microorganisms were cultivated on xylose, raw glycerol and glucose under nitrogen-limited conditions. Significant differences in the process of lipid accumulation as related to the carbon sources used were observed for both microorganisms. These differences were attributed to the different metabolic pathways involved in the assimilation of the above substrates. Therefore, the various carbon sources were channeled, at different extent, to storage lipid or to lipid-free biomass formation. Although glucose containing media favored the production of mycelial mass (15 g L{sup -1} of total biomass in the case of C. echinulata and 27 g L{sup -1} in the case of M. isabellina), the accumulated lipid in dry matter was 46.0% for C. echinulata and 44.6% for M. isabellina. Lipid accumulation was induced on xylose containing media (M. isabellina accumulated 65.5% and C. echinulata 57.7% of lipid, wt wt{sup -1}, in dry mycelial mass). In these conditions, lipids of C. echinulata contained significant quantities of {gamma}-linolenic acid (GLA). This fungus, when cultivated on xylose, produced 6.7 g L{sup -1} of single cell oil and 1119 mg L{sup -1} of GLA. Finally, the growth of both C. echinulata and M. isabellina on raw glycerol resulted in lower yields in terms of both biomass and oil produced than the growth on xylose. (author)

  1. Literature review on production process to obtain extra virgin olive oil enriched in bioactive compounds. Potential use of byproducts as alternative sources of polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Edwin; Bakhouche, Abdelhakim; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2013-06-05

    This review describes the olive oil production process to obtain extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) enriched in polyphenol and byproducts generated as sources of antioxidants. EVOO is obtained exclusively by mechanical and physical processes including collecting, washing, and crushing of olives, malaxation of olive paste, centrifugation, storage, and filtration. The effect of each step is discussed to minimize losses of polyphenols from large quantities of wastes. Phenolic compounds including phenolic acids, alcohols, secoiridoids, lignans, and flavonoids are characterized in olive oil mill wastewater, olive pomace, storage byproducts, and filter cake. Different industrial pilot plant processes are developed to recover phenolic compounds from olive oil byproducts with antioxidant and bioactive properties. The technological information compiled in this review will help olive oil producers to improve EVOO quality and establish new processes to obtain valuable extracts enriched in polyphenols from byproducts with food ingredient applications.

  2. Chemical evaluation of citrus seeds, an agro-industrial waste, as a new potential source of vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthaus, B.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The seed oils from seven Turkish and ten Vietnamese varieties of Citrus fruits were examined for their fatty acid composition, tocopherols and sterol contents. The oil contents of the samples varied between 32.1 g/100 g and 58.8 g/100 g. The major fatty acid of the extracted seed oils was oleic (12.8-70.1%, followed by linoleic (19.5-58.8% and palmitic (5.1-28.3%. Stearic, vaccenic, linolenic and arachidic acids were found at low levels. The total content of vitamin E active compounds in the oils ranged between 0.8 and 21.0 mg/100 g. The predominant isomers were α- and γ-tocopherol, with approximate equal amounts between about 0.4 and 17.5 mg/100 g. The total sterol contents of the oils were found between 1310.54 and 3986.58 mg/kg, with β -sitosterol as the predominant sterol that accounted for more than 70% of the total amount of sterols. Other sterols, campesterol (8.03-15.26%, stigmasterol (2.55-7.69%, ∆5-avenasterol (1.80-5.67%, cholesterol (0.83-2.70% and chlerosterol (0.93-1.78% were detected in most of the oils. The results of the present study indicate that the seed oils of Citrus fruits are considered to be a potential oil source due to their fatty acid composition and important tocopherol and sterol, and might be used for edible applications as well as the production of potential value-added products.

    Aceites de semillas de siete y diez variedades de frutas cítricas turcas y de Vietnam respectivamente, fueron examinadas por su composición en ácidos grasos, tocoferoles y esteroles. El contenido de aceite de las muestras varió entre 32.1 g/100 g y 58.8 g/100 g. El principal ácido graso de los aceites extraídos de las semillas fue oleico (12.8 a 70.1%, seguido por linoleico (19.5-58.8% y palmítico (5.1 a 28.3%. Los ácidos esteárico, vacénico, linolénico y araquídico se encontraron en niveles bajos. El contenido total de compuestos de vitamina E activa en los aceites varió entre 0.8 y 21.0 mg/100 g. Los is

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and hopanes in stranded tar-balls on the coasts of peninsular Malaysia: applications of biomarkers for identifying sources of oil pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Okuba, Tomoaki; Takada, Hideshige

    2001-01-01

    Malaysian coasts are subjected to various threats of petroleum pollution including routine and accidental oil spill from tankers, spillage of crude oils from inland and offshore oil fields, and run-off from land-based human activities. Due to its strategic location, the Straits of Malacca serves as a major shipping lane. This paper expands the utility of biomarker compounds, hopanes, in identifying the source of tar-balls stranded on Malaysian coasts. 20 tar-ball samples collected from the east and west coast were analysed for hopanes and polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Four of the 13 tar-ball samples collected from the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia were identified as the Middle East crude oil (MECO) based on their biomarker signatures, suggesting tanker-derived sources significantly contributing the petroleum pollution in the Straits of Malacca. The tar-balls found on the east cost seem to originate from the offshore oil platforms in the South China Sea. The presence of South East Asian crude oil (SEACO) tar-balls on the west coast carry several plausible explanations. Some of the tar-balls could have been transported via sea currents from the east coast. The tankers carrying SEACO to other countries could have accidentally spilt the oil as well. Furthermore, discharge of tank washings and ballast water from the tankers were suggested based on the abundance in higher molecular weight n-alkanes and the absence of unresolved complex mixture (UCM) in the tar-ball samples. The other possibilities are that the tar-balls may have originated from the Sumatran oil fields and spillage of domestic oil from oil refineries in Port Dickson and Malacca. The results of PAHs analysis suggest that all the tar-ball samples have undergone various extent of weathering through evaporation, dissolution and photo-oxidation. (Author)

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) and hopanes in stranded tar-balls on the coasts of Peninsular Malaysia: applications of biomarkers for identifying sources of oil pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, M P; Okuda, T; Takada, H

    2001-12-01

    Malaysian coasts are subjected to various threats of petroleum pollution including routine and accidental oil spill from tankers, spillage of crude oils from inland and off-shore oil fields, and run-off from land-based human activities. Due to its strategic location, the Straits of Malacca serves as a major shipping lane. This paper expands the utility of biomarker compounds, hopanes, in identifying the source of tar-balls stranded on Malaysian coasts. 20 tar-ball samples collected from the east and west coast were analyzed for hopanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Four of the 13 tar-ball samples collected from the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia were identified as the Middle East crude oil (MECO) based on their biomarker signatures, suggesting tanker-derived sources significantly contributing the petroleum pollution in the Straits of Malacca. The tar-balls found on the east coast seem to originate from the offshore oil platforms in the South China Sea. The presence of South East Asian crude oil (SEACO) tar-balls on the west coast carry several plausible explanations. Some of the tar-balls could have been transported via sea currents from the east coast. The tankers carrying SEACO to other countries could have accidentally spilt the oil as well. Furthermore, discharge of tank washings and ballast water from the tankers were suggested based on the abundance in higher molecular weight n-alkanes and the absence of unresolved complex mixture (UCM) in the tar-ball samples. The other possibilities are that the tar-balls may have been originated from the Sumatran oil fields and spillage of domestic oil from oil refineries in Port Dickson and Malacca. The results of PAHs analysis suggest that all the tar-ball samples have undergone various extent of weathering through evaporation, dissolution and photooxidation.

  5. Models as Relational Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkonen, Tommi

    2017-11-01

    Model-based learning (MBL) has an established position within science education. It has been found to enhance conceptual understanding and provide a way for engaging students in authentic scientific activity. Despite ample research, few studies have examined the cognitive processes regarding learning scientific concepts within MBL. On the other hand, recent research within cognitive science has examined the learning of so-called relational categories. Relational categories are categories whose membership is determined on the basis of the common relational structure. In this theoretical paper, I argue that viewing models as relational categories provides a well-motivated cognitive basis for MBL. I discuss the different roles of models and modeling within MBL (using ready-made models, constructive modeling, and generative modeling) and discern the related cognitive aspects brought forward by the reinterpretation of models as relational categories. I will argue that relational knowledge is vital in learning novel models and in the transfer of learning. Moreover, relational knowledge underlies the coherent, hierarchical knowledge of experts. Lastly, I will examine how the format of external representations may affect the learning of models and the relevant relations. The nature of the learning mechanisms underlying students' mental representations of models is an interesting open question to be examined. Furthermore, the ways in which the expert-like knowledge develops and how to best support it is in need of more research. The discussion and conceptualization of models as relational categories allows discerning students' mental representations of models in terms of evolving relational structures in greater detail than previously done.

  6. Categories of transactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter discusses the types of wholesale sales made by utilities. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), which regulates inter-utility sales, divides these sales into two broad categories: requirements and coordination. A variety of wholesale sales do not fall neatly into either category. For example, power purchased to replace the Three Mile Island outage is in a sense a reliability purchase, since it is bought on a long-term firm basis to meet basic load requirements. However, it does not fit the traditional model of a sale considered as part of each utility's long range planning. In addition, this chapter discusses transmission services, with a particular emphasis on wheeling

  7. Volatile organic compound emissions from the oil and natural gas industry in the Uinta Basin, Utah: point sources compared to ambient air composition

    OpenAIRE

    C. Warneke; F. Geiger; P. M. Edwards; W. Dube; G. Pétron; J. Kofler; A. Zahn; S. S. Brown; M. Graus; J. Gilman; B. Lerner; J. Peischl; T. B. Ryerson; J. A. de Gouw; J. M. Roberts

    2014-01-01

    The emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with oil and natural gas production in the Uinta Basin, Utah were measured at a ground site in Horse Pool and from a NOAA mobile laboratory with PTR-MS instruments. The VOC compositions in the vicinity of individual gas and oil wells and other point sources such as evaporation ponds, compressor stations and injection wells are compared to the measurements at Horse Pool. High mixing ratios of aroma...

  8. Vegetable oil sources in diets for freshwater angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare, Cichlidae: growth and thermal tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Ikeda

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of fatty acid composition of the diets on the productive performance and on cold and heat tolerance of juvenile freshwater angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare, in three different phases, was studied. Phase I studied the productive performance of freshwater angelfish in a completely randomized experimental design with four treatments, canola, linseed, olive and soybean oils and four replicates during 50 days using 192 fish in 16 aquaria. Phase II studied the cold tolerance of juvenile freshwater angelfish using 72 juvenile freshwater angelfish, coming from phase I and maintained in 12 aquaria climatized chamber. The temperature was reduced 1ºC per day, until the observation of 100% fish mortality. Phase III, it was studied the heat tolerance of juvenile freshwater angelfish employing an identical procedure to phase II, but with a daily increase of 1ºC. Significant differences (P>0.05 were not observed for any parameters evaluated. Thus, it was concluded that the type of vegetable oil (canola, linseed, olive and soybean used as a diet supplement did not affect the productive performance, nor the tolerance to cold and heat, of juvenile freshwater angelfish.

  9. Point source attribution of ambient contamination events near unconventional oil and gas development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildenbrand, Zacariah L; Mach, Phillip M; McBride, Ethan M; Dorreyatim, M Navid; Taylor, Josh T; Carlton, Doug D; Meik, Jesse M; Fontenot, Brian E; Wright, Kenneth C; Schug, Kevin A; Verbeck, Guido F

    2016-12-15

    We present an analysis of ambient benzene, toluene, and xylene isomers in the Eagle Ford shale region of southern Texas. In situ air quality measurements using membrane inlet mobile mass spectrometry revealed ambient benzene and toluene concentrations as high as 1000 and 5000 parts-per-billion, respectively, originating from specific sub-processes on unconventional oil and gas well pad sites. The detection of highly variant contamination events attributable to natural gas flaring units, condensate tanks, compressor units, and hydrogen sulfide scavengers indicates that mechanical inefficiencies, and not necessarily the inherent nature of the extraction process as a whole, result in the release of these compounds into the environment. This awareness of ongoing contamination events contributes to an enhanced knowledge of ambient volatile organic compounds on a regional scale. While these reconnaissance measurements on their own do not fully characterize the fluctuations of ambient BTEX concentrations that likely exist in the atmosphere of the Eagle Ford Shale region, they do suggest that contamination events from unconventional oil and gas development can be monitored, controlled, and reduced. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of sloops distilleries for oils production: an alternative source for biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faife, Evelyn; Otero, Miguel A.; Alvarez, Amaury; Penna, Miguel A.; Mtnez, Aidin; Melfi, Mariel; Matos, Maria L.; Kozlowski, Alejandro M.

    2011-01-01

    This study report an evaluation of different yeast strains screened from molasses and soils, on media based mainly in distilleries sloops to produces oils which could be further transformed into biodiesel. Among 9 screened yeast strains 6 was selected and identified previously as oleaginous by other authors. The lipid content of this yeast strains was determinate by Bligh y Dyer modified method. The strain identified as Yarrovia lipolytic a reached 24,8 g/L of biomass concentration in a sloop distillery/crude glycerol mix adjusted to 75 g/L of total DQO and 70:30 ratio and produce lipids around 20 % in fed-batch mode. Different results was obtained with the supplement of others nutrients and elements and from the use of different sloop distillery/glycerol DQO ratio. Chemical characterization of biodiesel obtained by transesterification of Y. lipolytic a lipids when cells were grown on sloops/molasses and sloops/glycerol mixture are mainly C14-C18 and indicated that possessed similar composition to that from vegetable oils, one of the widely used feedstock for biodiesel, although it is not similar on both media. The sum of fatty acids range C14-C18 obtained in slops/glycerol medium was superior about 10 % respect to the value obtained in sloops/molasses. (author)

  11. Benzene observations and source appointment in a region of oil and natural gas development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Hannah Selene

    Benzene is a primarily anthropogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) with a small number of well characterized sources. Atmospheric benzene affects human health and welfare, and low level exposure (Atmospheric Observatory (PAO) in Colorado to investigate how O&NG development impacts air quality within the Wattenburg Gas Field (WGF) in the Denver-Julesburg Basin. The measurements were carried out in July and August 2014 as part of NASA's DISCOVER-AQ field campaign. The PTR-QMS data were supported by pressurized whole air canister samples and airborne vertical and horizontal surveys of VOCs. Unexpectedly high benzene mixing ratios were observed at PAO at ground level (mean benzene = 0.53 ppbv, maximum benzene = 29.3 ppbv), primarily at night (mean nighttime benzene = 0.73 ppbv). These high benzene levels were associated with southwesterly winds. The airborne measurements indicate that benzene originated from within the WGF, and typical source signatures detected in the canister samples implicate emissions from O&NG activities rather than urban vehicular emissions as primary benzene source. This conclusion is backed by a regional toluene-to-benzene ratio analysis which associated southerly flow with vehicular emissions from the Denver area. Weak benzene-to-CO correlations confirmed that traffic emissions were not responsible for the observed high benzene levels. Previous measurements at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) and our data obtained at PAO allow us to locate the source of benzene enhancements between the two atmospheric observatories. Fugitive emissions of benzene from O&NG operations in the Platteville area are discussed as the most likely causes of enhanced benzene levels at PAO. A limited information source attribution with the PAO dataset was completed using the EPA's positive matrix factorization (PMF) source receptor model. Six VOCs from the PTR-QMS measurement were used along with CO and NO for a total of eight chemical species. Six sources

  12. Studies on marine oil spills and their ecological damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Hong; Yin, Yanjie

    2009-09-01

    The sources of marine oil spills are mainly from accidents of marine oil tankers or freighters, marine oil-drilling platforms, marine oil pipelines, marine oilfields, terrestrial pollution, oil-bearing atmosphere, and offshore oil production equipment. It is concluded upon analysis that there are two main reasons for marine oil spills: (I) The motive for huge economic benefits of oil industry owners and oil shipping agents far surpasses their sense of ecological risks. (II) Marine ecological safety has not become the main concern of national security. Oil spills are disasters because humans spare no efforts to get economic benefits from oil. The present paper draws another conclusion that marine ecological damage caused by oil spills can be roughly divided into two categories: damage to marine resource value (direct value) and damage to marine ecosystem service value (indirect value). Marine oil spills cause damage to marine biological, fishery, seawater, tourism and mineral resources to various extents, which contributes to the lower quality and value of marine resources.

  13. Source Signature of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) associated with oil and natural gas operations in Utah and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, J.; Lerner, B. M.; Warneke, C.; Holloway, J. S.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Young, C. J.; Edwards, P.; Brown, S. S.; Wolfe, D. E.; Williams, E. J.; De Gouw, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Energy Information Administration has reported a sharp increase in domestic oil and natural gas production from "unconventional" reserves (e.g., shale and tight sands) between 2005 and 2012. The recent growth in drilling and fossil fuel production has led to environmental concerns regarding local air quality. Severe wintertime ozone events (greater than 100 ppb ozone) have been observed in Utah's Uintah Basin and Wyoming's Upper Green River Basin, both of which contain large natural gas fields. Raw natural gas is a mixture of approximately 60-95 mole percent methane while the remaining fraction is composed of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other non-hydrocarbon gases. We measured an extensive set of VOCs and other trace gases near two highly active areas of oil and natural gas production in Utah's Uintah Basin and Colorado's Denver-Julesburg Basin in order to characterize primary emissions of VOCs associated with these industrial operations and identify the key VOCs that are precursors for potential ozone formation. UBWOS (Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Study) was conducted in Uintah County located in northeastern Utah in January-February 2012. Two Colorado studies were conducted at NOAA's Boulder Atmospheric Observatory in Weld County in northeastern Colorado in February-March 2011 and July-August 2012 as part of the NACHTT (Nitrogen, Aerosol Composition, and Halogens on a Tall Tower) and SONNE (Summer Ozone Near Natural gas Emissions) field experiments, respectively. The C2-C6 hydrocarbons were greatly enhanced for all of these studies. For example, the average propane mixing ratio observed during the Utah study was 58 ppb (median = 35 ppb, minimum = 0.8, maximum = 520 ppb propane) compared to urban averages which range between 0.3 and 6.0 ppb propane. We compare the ambient air composition from these studies to urban measurements in order to show that the VOC source signature from oil and natural gas operations is distinct and can be clearly

  14. Use of Oil Palm Waste as a Renewable Energy Source and Its Impact on Reduction of Air Pollution in Context of Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begum, Shahida; Kumaran P; Jayakumar M

    2013-01-01

    One of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy supply to supplement the increasing energy demand and reducing environment pollution is renewable energy resources. Malaysia is currently the world's second largest producer and exporter of palm oil and 47% of the world's supply of palm oil is produced by this country. Nearly 80 million tonnes of Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) are processed annually in 406 palm oil mills and are generating approximately 54 million tonnes of palm oil mill effluent (POME), known to generate biogas consisting of methane – a Green House Gas (GHG) identifiable to cause global warming. This is 21 times more potent GHG than CO 2 . These two major oil palm wastes are a viable renewable energy (RE) source for production of electricity. If the two sources are used in harnessing the renewable energy potential the pollution intensity from usage of non-renewable sources can also be reduced significantly. This study focused on the pollution mitigation potential of biogas as biogas is a renewable energy. Utilization of this renewable source for the production of electricity is believed to reduce GHG emissions to the atmosphere.

  15. Use of Oil Palm Waste as a Renewable Energy Source and Its Impact on Reduction of Air Pollution in Context of Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Shahida; P, Kumaran; M, Jayakumar

    2013-06-01

    One of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy supply to supplement the increasing energy demand and reducing environment pollution is renewable energy resources. Malaysia is currently the world's second largest producer and exporter of palm oil and 47% of the world's supply of palm oil is produced by this country. Nearly 80 million tonnes of Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) are processed annually in 406 palm oil mills and are generating approximately 54 million tonnes of palm oil mill effluent (POME), known to generate biogas consisting of methane - a Green House Gas (GHG) identifiable to cause global warming. This is 21 times more potent GHG than CO2. These two major oil palm wastes are a viable renewable energy (RE) source for production of electricity. If the two sources are used in harnessing the renewable energy potential the pollution intensity from usage of non-renewable sources can also be reduced significantly. This study focused on the pollution mitigation potential of biogas as biogas is a renewable energy. Utilization of this renewable source for the production of electricity is believed to reduce GHG emissions to the atmosphere.

  16. Analysis of the orderly distribution of oil and gas fields in China based on the theory of co-control of source and heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongcheng Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking a hydrocarbon zone or a basin group as a unit, this paper analyzed the vertical hydrocarbon generation regularity of onshore and offshore oil and gas fields in China, based on the theory of co-control of source and heat. The results demonstrated that the hydrocarbon generation modes of oil and gas fields in China are orderly. First, the hydrocarbon zones in southeastern China offshore area, including the East and South China Sea basins, are dominated by single hydrocarbon generation mode, which displays as either single oil generation in the near shore or single gas generation in the offshore controlled by both source and heat. Second, the eastern hydrocarbon zones, including the Bohai Bay, Songliao and Jianghan basins and the North and South Yellow Sea basins, are dominated by a two-layer hydrocarbon generation mode, which performs as “upper oil and lower gas”. Third, the central hydrocarbon zones, including the Ordos, Sichuan and Chuxiong basins, are also dominated by the “upper oil and lower gas” two-layer hydrocarbon generation mode. In the Ordos Basin, gas is mainly generated in the Triassic, and oil is predominantly generated in the Paleozoic. In the Sichuan Basin, oil was discovered in the Jurassic, and gas was mostly discovered in the Sinian and Triassic. Fourth, the western hydrocarbon zones are dominated by a “sandwich” multi-layer mode, such as the Junggar, Tarim, Qaidam basins. In summary, the theory of co-control of source and heat will be widely applied to oil and gas exploration all over China. Oil targets should be focused on the near shore areas in the southeastern China sea, the upper strata in the eastern and middle hydrocarbon zones, and the Ordovician, Permian and Paleogene strata in the western hydrocarbon zone, while gas targets should be focused on the off-shore areas in the southeastern China sea, the Cambrian, Carboniferous, Jurassic, and Quaternary strata in the western hydrocarbon zone. A pattern of

  17. Bioconversion of oil sludge into biomass of lipid metabolites for use as a source of biofuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchemelinina, T. N.; Matistov, N. V.; Markarova, M. Yu; Anchugova, E. M.

    2018-01-01

    The possibilities for the generation of biofuel from the results of the accumulation of lipids in oil-contaminated environments were studied. This type of accumulation occurs in the biomass of yeast strains Rhodotorula sp. VKM Y-2993D; in bacteria like Pseudomonas libanensis B-3041D and in consortia of microalgal strains such as Acutodesmus obliquus Syko-A Ch-055-12, Chlorella sp. SYKO A Ch-011-10, Monoraphidium sp., and Anabaena sp. The most promising of these for processing petroleum hydrocarbons into biofuels was found to be the consortium of microalgal strains, the content of palmitic acid of which reached 49.0 %, thereby achieving a mid-range cetane number.

  18. New sources of soybean seed meal and oil composition traits identified through TILLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilyeu Kristin D

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several techniques are available to study gene function, but many are less than ideal for soybean. Reverse genetics, a relatively new approach, can be utilized to identify novel mutations in candidate genes; this technique has not produced an allelic variant with a confirmed phenotype in soybean. Soybean raffinose synthase genes and microsomal omega-6 fatty acid desaturase genes were screened for novel alleles in mutagenized soybean populations. Results Four mutations in independent lines were identified in the raffinose synthase gene RS2; two mutations resulted in amino acid mutations and one resulted in an altered seed oligosaccharide phenotype. The resulting phenotype was an increase in seed sucrose levels as well as a decrease in both raffinose and stachyose seed oligosaccharide levels. Three mutations in independent lines were identified in the omega-6 fatty acid desaturase gene FAD2-1A; all three mutations resulted in missense amino acid mutations and one resulted in an altered seed fatty acid profile that led to an increase in oleic acid and a decrease in linoleic acid in the seed oil. Conclusion The oligosaccharide phenotype controlled by the novel RS2 allele is similar to previously observed seed oligosaccharide phenotypes in RS2 mutant (PI 200508 allele-containing lines. Due to the anti-nutritional characteristics of raffinose and stachyose, this represents a positive change in seed composition. The fatty acid phenotype controlled by the novel FAD2-1A allele controls an increase in oleic acid in the seed oil, a phenotype also observed in a line previously characterized to have a null allele of the FAD2-1A gene. Molecular marker assays were developed to reliably detect the inheritance of the mutant alleles and can be used in efficient breeding for these desired seed phenotypes. Our results serve as the first demonstration of the identification of soybean mutants controlling seed phenotypes discovered through the

  19. Observations on sediment sources in the Lower Athabasca River basin: implications of natural hydrocarbons inputs from oil sands deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conly, F.M.

    1999-01-01

    Government, industry and public concern exists over the environmental consequences of the development of the oil sand deposits in the McMurray Formation in the lower Athabasca River basin, Alberta. The impact of this development is unclear and is undergoing investigation. Investigations to date have focussed on the nature of the effluent produced by the extraction industry and its effect on biotic systems, and on the spatial distribution of hydrocarbon contaminants associated with deposited fluvial sediments. Natural hydrocarbon outcrops may be responsible for observed biomarker responses in areas not exposed to industrial effluent. Given this source of hydrocarbons and doubt concerning its environmental impact, it is difficult to ascertain the impact of oil extraction activities within a fluvial system. A study was conducted to determine the nature and extent of natural hydrocarbon releases within the context of the sediment regime of the lower Athabasca River basin. A description is included of observations from the field and a context is set up for assessing sediment-bound hydrocarbon contaminants in the lower Athabasca River basin. Abstract only included

  20. Co-composting of rose oil processing waste with caged layer manure and straw or sawdust: effects of carbon source and C/N ratio on decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onursal, Emrah; Ekinci, Kamil

    2015-04-01

    Rose oil is a specific essential oil that is produced mainly for the cosmetics industry in a few selected locations around the world. Rose oil production is a water distillation process from petals of Rosa damascena Mill. Since the oil content of the rose petals of this variety is between 0.3-0.4% (w/w), almost 4000 to 3000 kg of rose petals are needed to produce 1 kg of rose oil. Rose oil production is a seasonal activity and takes place during the relatively short period where the roses are blooming. As a result, large quantities of solid waste are produced over a limited time interval. This research aims: (i) to determine the possibilities of aerobic co-composting as a waste management option for rose oil processing waste with caged layer manure; (ii) to identify effects of different carbon sources - straw or sawdust on co-composting of rose oil processing waste and caged layer manure, which are both readily available in Isparta, where significant rose oil production also takes place; (iii) to determine the effects of different C/N ratios on co-composting by the means of organic matter decomposition and dry matter loss. Composting experiments were carried out by 12 identical laboratory-scale composting reactors (60 L) simultaneously. The results of the study showed that the best results were obtained with a mixture consisting of 50% rose oil processing waste, 64% caged layer manure and 15% straw wet weight in terms of organic matter loss (66%) and dry matter loss (38%). © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Basic category theory

    CERN Document Server

    Leinster, Tom

    2014-01-01

    At the heart of this short introduction to category theory is the idea of a universal property, important throughout mathematics. After an introductory chapter giving the basic definitions, separate chapters explain three ways of expressing universal properties: via adjoint functors, representable functors, and limits. A final chapter ties all three together. The book is suitable for use in courses or for independent study. Assuming relatively little mathematical background, it is ideal for beginning graduate students or advanced undergraduates learning category theory for the first time. For each new categorical concept, a generous supply of examples is provided, taken from different parts of mathematics. At points where the leap in abstraction is particularly great (such as the Yoneda lemma), the reader will find careful and extensive explanations. Copious exercises are included.

  2. CHURCH, Category, and Speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinderknecht Jakob Karl

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Roman Catholic definition of “church”, especially as applied to groups of Protestant Christians, creates a number of well-known difficulties. The similarly complex category, “species,” provides a model for applying this term so as to neither lose the centrality of certain examples nor draw a hard boundary to rule out border cases. In this way, it can help us to more adequately apply the complex ecclesiology of the Second Vatican Council. This article draws parallels between the understanding of speciation and categorization and the definition of Church since the council. In doing so, it applies the work of cognitive linguists, including George Lakoff, Zoltan Kovecses, Giles Fauconnier and Mark Turner on categorization. We tend to think of categories as containers into which we sort objects according to essential criteria. However, categories are actually built inductively by making associations between objects. This means that natural categories, including species, are more porous than we assume, but nevertheless bear real meaning about the natural world. Taxonomists dispute the border between “zebras” and “wild asses,” but this distinction arises out of genetic and evolutionary reality; it is not merely arbitrary. Genetic descriptions of species has also led recently to the conviction that there are four species of giraffe, not one. This engagement will ground a vantage point from which the Council‘s complex ecclesiology can be more easily described so as to authentically integrate its noncompetitive vision vis-a-vis other Christians with its sense of the unique place held by Catholic Church.

  3. Visual memory needs categories

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Henrik; Poom, Leo

    2005-01-01

    Capacity limitations in the way humans store and process information in working memory have been extensively studied, and several memory systems have been distinguished. In line with previous capacity estimates for verbal memory and memory for spatial information, recent studies suggest that it is possible to retain up to four objects in visual working memory. The objects used have typically been categorically different colors and shapes. Because knowledge about categories is stored in long-t...

  4. Libertarianism & Category-Mistake

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos G. Patarroyo G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers a defense against two accusations according to which libertarianism incurs in a category-mistake. The philosophy of Gilbert Ryle will be used to explain the reasons which ground these accusations. Further, it will be shown why, although certain sorts of libertarianism based on agent-causation or Cartesian dualism incur in these mistakes, there is at least one version of libertarianism to which this criticism does not necessarily apply: the version that seeks to find in physi...

  5. Convergence semigroup categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Richardson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Properties of the category consisting of all objects of the form (X, S, λ are investigated, where X is a convergence space, S is a commutative semigroup, and λ: X × S → X is a continuous action. A “generalized quotient” of each object is defined without making the usual assumption that for each fixed g ∈ S, λ(., g : X  → X is an injection.

  6. Categories and Commutative Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Salmon, P

    2011-01-01

    L. Badescu: Sur certaines singularites des varietes algebriques.- D.A. Buchsbaum: Homological and commutative algebra.- S. Greco: Anelli Henseliani.- C. Lair: Morphismes et structures algebriques.- B.A. Mitchell: Introduction to category theory and homological algebra.- R. Rivet: Anneaux de series formelles et anneaux henseliens.- P. Salmon: Applicazioni della K-teoria all'algebra commutativa.- M. Tierney: Axiomatic sheaf theory: some constructions and applications.- C.B. Winters: An elementary lecture on algebraic spaces.

  7. Indigenous oil crops as a source for production of biodiesel in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.L.A. Mahunnah

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, oils extracted from four crops, Jatropha curcas L., Croton megalocarpus Hutch, Calodendrum capense (L.f. Thunb. (cape chestnut and Cocos nucifera L. (coconut were transesterified in methanol using sodium hydroxide as a catalyst. Methyl esters obtained were characterized by GC-MS and further tested for fuel properties relative to convectional diesel fuels (automotive and kerosene. Methyl esters of commercial oils: sunflower and soybean were also tested for fuel properties for comparison. Some of parameters tested included kinematic viscosity, flash point, distillation temperatures, copper corrosion, cetane number, ash content, and gross heating value. The results showed hexadecanoate and octadecanoate were common fatty acids esters identified in the four analyzed methyl esters. Total unsaturation was highest for Croton ester with 86.6 %, Jatropha and C. capense esters had unsaturation of 65.2 % and 61.2 %, respectively, while coconut ester recorded only 2.8 %. The ester viscosities at 40 °C were with range of 4.16-4.63 mm2/s except coconut ester with viscosity 2.71 mm2/s, which is close to that of kerosene 2.35 mm2/s. The esters were found to be less volatile that diesel fuels with coconut esters registering as most volatile among the esters. Esters of sunflower and soybean have their volatility very close to that of Jatropha ester. The flash points of the esters were typically much higher (> 100 °C than petroleum diesels, automotives and kerosene (74 and 45.5 °C, respectively. Jatropha, sunflower and soybean esters passed the ASTM standard D6751 for flash point; 130 °C minimum, all the esters however were within the European standard EN-14214 for biodiesel of above 101 °C. The density of the esters was found to be 2-4 % higher than that of petroleum automotive diesel and 10-12 % more than that of kerosene. The heating values of the esters were however 12 % lower than diesel fuels on average. In general, coconut esters were

  8. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER--INSTITUTIONAL OIL-FIRED BOILER

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA seeks to understand the correlation between ambient fine PM and adverse human health effects, and there are no reliable emission factors to use for estimating PM2.5 or NH3. The most common source of directly emitted PM2.5 is incomplete combustion of fossil or biomass fuels. M...

  9. Contributions of natural and anthropogenic sources to ambient ammonia in the Athabasca Oil Sands and north-western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, Cynthia H.; Makar, Paul A.; Shephard, Mark W.; Zhang, Leiming; Zhang, Junhua; Zheng, Qiong; Akingunola, Ayodeji; Wentworth, Gregory R.; Murphy, Jennifer G.; Kharol, Shailesh K.; Cady-Pereira, Karen E.

    2018-02-01

    Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) is a short-lived pollutant that plays an important role in aerosol chemistry and nitrogen deposition. Dominant NH3 emissions are from agriculture and forest fires, both of which are increasing globally. Even remote regions with relatively low ambient NH3 concentrations, such as northern Alberta and Saskatchewan in northern Canada, may be of interest because of industrial oil sands emissions and a sensitive ecological system. A previous attempt to model NH3 in the region showed a substantial negative bias compared to satellite and aircraft observations. Known missing sources of NH3 in the model were re-emission of NH3 from plants and soils (bidirectional flux) and forest fire emissions, but the relative impact of these sources on NH3 concentrations was unknown. Here we have used a research version of the high-resolution air quality forecasting model, GEM-MACH, to quantify the relative impacts of semi-natural (bidirectional flux of NH3 and forest fire emissions) and direct anthropogenic (oil sand operations, combustion of fossil fuels, and agriculture) sources on ammonia volume mixing ratios, both at the surface and aloft, with a focus on the Athabasca Oil Sands region during a measurement-intensive campaign in the summer of 2013. The addition of fires and bidirectional flux to GEM-MACH has improved the model bias, slope, and correlation coefficients relative to ground, aircraft, and satellite NH3 measurements significantly.By running the GEM-MACH-Bidi model in three configurations and calculating their differences, we find that averaged over Alberta and Saskatchewan during this time period an average of 23.1 % of surface NH3 came from direct anthropogenic sources, 56.6 % (or 1.24 ppbv) from bidirectional flux (re-emission from plants and soils), and 20.3 % (or 0.42 ppbv) from forest fires. In the NH3 total column, an average of 19.5 % came from direct anthropogenic sources, 50.0 % from bidirectional flux, and 30.5 % from forest fires. The

  10. Contributions of natural and anthropogenic sources to ambient ammonia in the Athabasca Oil Sands and north-western Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Whaley

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric ammonia (NH3 is a short-lived pollutant that plays an important role in aerosol chemistry and nitrogen deposition. Dominant NH3 emissions are from agriculture and forest fires, both of which are increasing globally. Even remote regions with relatively low ambient NH3 concentrations, such as northern Alberta and Saskatchewan in northern Canada, may be of interest because of industrial oil sands emissions and a sensitive ecological system. A previous attempt to model NH3 in the region showed a substantial negative bias compared to satellite and aircraft observations. Known missing sources of NH3 in the model were re-emission of NH3 from plants and soils (bidirectional flux and forest fire emissions, but the relative impact of these sources on NH3 concentrations was unknown. Here we have used a research version of the high-resolution air quality forecasting model, GEM-MACH, to quantify the relative impacts of semi-natural (bidirectional flux of NH3 and forest fire emissions and direct anthropogenic (oil sand operations, combustion of fossil fuels, and agriculture sources on ammonia volume mixing ratios, both at the surface and aloft, with a focus on the Athabasca Oil Sands region during a measurement-intensive campaign in the summer of 2013. The addition of fires and bidirectional flux to GEM-MACH has improved the model bias, slope, and correlation coefficients relative to ground, aircraft, and satellite NH3 measurements significantly.By running the GEM-MACH-Bidi model in three configurations and calculating their differences, we find that averaged over Alberta and Saskatchewan during this time period an average of 23.1 % of surface NH3 came from direct anthropogenic sources, 56.6 % (or 1.24 ppbv from bidirectional flux (re-emission from plants and soils, and 20.3 % (or 0.42 ppbv from forest fires. In the NH3 total column, an average of 19.5 % came from direct anthropogenic sources, 50.0 % from bidirectional flux, and 30

  11. Unique occurrence of unusual fatty acid in the seed oil of Aegle marmelos Corre: Screening the rich source of seed oil for bio-energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katagi, Kariyappa S.; Munnolli, Ravindra S.; Hosamani, Kallappa M.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, an attempt has been made to characterize, isolate and elucidate the structure of unusual fatty acid in the seed oil of Aegle marmelos Corre. Further, this nonedible seed oil is screened for its bio-diesel or industrial feedstock property. The Aegle marmelos Corre seeds yielded 49.0% oil. The seed oil contains 12.5% of 12-hydroxyoctadec-cis-9-enoic acid (ricinoleic acid) along with other normal fatty acids. The identification and characterization was supported by FTIR, 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR, MS, GC analysis and chemical degradation technique. A good agreement is seen between the calculated and experimental results of iodine value (IV) and saponification value (SV). The prominent parameters of bio-diesel such as cetane number (CN), lower heating value (LHV) and higher heating value (HHV) are deployed to envisage the quality of oil for use as bio-diesel. This seed oil is nonedible and is found to be the alternative feed stock for the production of bio-diesel since it convenes the major specifications of bio-diesel. The bio-diesel property of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) of this seed oil is compared with other bio-diesels.

  12. LIBERTARISMO & ERROR CATEGORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos G. Patarroyo G.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se ofrece una defensa del libertarismo frente a dos acusaciones según las cuales éste comete un error categorial. Para ello, se utiliza la filosofía de Gilbert Ryle como herramienta para explicar las razones que fundamentan estas acusaciones y para mostrar por qué, pese a que ciertas versiones del libertarismo que acuden a la causalidad de agentes o al dualismo cartesiano cometen estos errores, un libertarismo que busque en el indeterminismo fisicalista la base de la posibilidad de la libertad humana no necesariamente puede ser acusado de incurrir en ellos.

  13. Libertarianism & Category-Mistake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos G. Patarroyo G.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a defense against two accusations according to which libertarianism incurs in a category-mistake. The philosophy of Gilbert Ryle will be used to explain the reasons which ground these accusations. Further, it will be shown why, although certain sorts of libertarianism based on agent-causation or Cartesian dualism incur in these mistakes, there is at least one version of libertarianism to which this criticism does not necessarily apply: the version that seeks to find in physical indeterminism the grounding of human free will.

  14. Libertarismo & Error Categorial

    OpenAIRE

    PATARROYO G, CARLOS G

    2009-01-01

    En este artículo se ofrece una defensa del libertarismo frente a dos acusaciones según las cuales éste comete un error categorial. Para ello, se utiliza la filosofía de Gilbert Ryle como herramienta para explicar las razones que fundamentan estas acusaciones y para mostrar por qué, pese a que ciertas versiones del libertarismo que acuden a la causalidad de agentes o al dualismo cartesiano cometen estos errores, un libertarismo que busque en el indeterminismo fisicalista la base de la posibili...

  15. Application of EM holographic methods to borehole vertical electric source data to map a fuel oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartel, L.C.

    1993-01-01

    The multifrequency, multisource holographic method used in the analysis of seismic data is to extended electromagnetic (EM) data within the audio frequency range. The method is applied to the secondary magnetic fields produced by a borehole, vertical electric source (VES). The holographic method is a numerical reconstruction procedure based on the double focusing principle for both the source array and the receiver array. The approach used here is to Fourier transform the constructed image from frequency space to time space and set time equal to zero. The image is formed when the in-phase part (real part) is a maximum or the out-of-phase (imaginary part) is a minimum; i.e., the EM wave is phase coherent at its origination. In the application here the secondary magnetic fields are treated as scattered fields. In the numerical reconstruction, the seismic analog of the wave vector is used; i.e., the imaginary part of the actual wave vector is ignored. The multifrequency, multisource holographic method is applied to calculated model data and to actual field data acquired to map a diesel fuel oil spill

  16. Applications of EM holographic methods to borehole vertical electric source data to map a fuel oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartel, L.C.

    1993-01-01

    The multifrequency, multisource holographic method used in the analysis of seismic data is to extended electromagnetic (EM) data within the audio frequency range. The method is applied to the secondary magnetic fields produced by a borehole, vertical electric source (VES). The holographic method is a numerical reconstruction procedure based on the double focusing principle for both the source array and the receiver array. The approach used here is to Fourier transform the constructed image from frequency space to time space and set time equal to zero. The image is formed when the in-phase part (real part) is a maximum or the out-of-phase (imaginary part) is a minimum; i.e., the EM wave is phase coherent at its origination. In the application here the secondary magnetic fields are treated as scattered fields. In the numerical reconstruction, the seismic analog of the wave vector is used; i.e., the imaginary part of the actual wave vector is ignore. The multifrequency, multisource holographic method is applied to calculated model data and to actual field data acquired to map a diesel fuel oil spill

  17. Biosurfactant production from marine hydrocarbon-degrading consortia and pure bacterial strains using crude oil as carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Eleftheria; Fodelianakis, Stilianos; Korkakaki, Emmanouela; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Biosurfactants (BSs) are "green" amphiphilic molecules produced by microorganisms during biodegradation, increasing the bioavailability of organic pollutants. In this work, the BS production yield of marine hydrocarbon degraders isolated from Elefsina bay in Eastern Mediterranean Sea has been investigated. The drop collapse test was used as a preliminary screening test to confirm BS producing strains or mixed consortia. The community structure of the best consortia based on the drop collapse test was determined by 16S-rDNA pyrotag screening. Subsequently, the effect of incubation time, temperature, substrate and supplementation with inorganic nutrients, on BS production, was examined. Two types of BS - lipid mixtures were extracted from the culture broth; the low molecular weight BS Rhamnolipids and Sophorolipids. Crude extracts were purified by silica gel column chromatography and then identified by thin layer chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Results indicate that BS production yield remains constant and low while it is independent of the total culture biomass, carbon source, and temperature. A constant BS concentration in a culture broth with continuous degradation of crude oil (CO) implies that the BS producing microbes generate no more than the required amount of BSs that enables biodegradation of the CO. Isolated pure strains were found to have higher specific production yields than the complex microbial marine community-consortia. The heavy oil fraction of CO has emerged as a promising substrate for BS production (by marine BS producers) with fewer impurities in the final product. Furthermore, a particular strain isolated from sediments, Paracoccus marcusii, may be an optimal choice for bioremediation purposes as its biomass remains trapped in the hydrocarbon phase, not suffering from potential dilution effects by sea currents.

  18. Biosurfactant production from marine hydrocarbon-degrading consortia and pure bacterial strains using crude oil as carbon source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Eleftheria; Fodelianakis, Stilianos; Korkakaki, Emmanouela; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Biosurfactants (BSs) are “green” amphiphilic molecules produced by microorganisms during biodegradation, increasing the bioavailability of organic pollutants. In this work, the BS production yield of marine hydrocarbon degraders isolated from Elefsina bay in Eastern Mediterranean Sea has been investigated. The drop collapse test was used as a preliminary screening test to confirm BS producing strains or mixed consortia. The community structure of the best consortia based on the drop collapse test was determined by 16S-rDNA pyrotag screening. Subsequently, the effect of incubation time, temperature, substrate and supplementation with inorganic nutrients, on BS production, was examined. Two types of BS – lipid mixtures were extracted from the culture broth; the low molecular weight BS Rhamnolipids and Sophorolipids. Crude extracts were purified by silica gel column chromatography and then identified by thin layer chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Results indicate that BS production yield remains constant and low while it is independent of the total culture biomass, carbon source, and temperature. A constant BS concentration in a culture broth with continuous degradation of crude oil (CO) implies that the BS producing microbes generate no more than the required amount of BSs that enables biodegradation of the CO. Isolated pure strains were found to have higher specific production yields than the complex microbial marine community-consortia. The heavy oil fraction of CO has emerged as a promising substrate for BS production (by marine BS producers) with fewer impurities in the final product. Furthermore, a particular strain isolated from sediments, Paracoccus marcusii, may be an optimal choice for bioremediation purposes as its biomass remains trapped in the hydrocarbon phase, not suffering from potential dilution effects by sea currents. PMID:25904907

  19. Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation Parameters, and Production Performance in Response to Dietary Grain Source and Oil Supplement of Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahryar Kargar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction High-producing dairy cows require large amounts of concentrates that are rich in energy and crude protein to meet their nutrient requirements. Cereal grains and oil supplements are commonly used for increasing energy density of diets fed to high-producing dairy cows. Dietary grain source (barley vs. corn and oil supplement (soybean- vs. fish oil resulted in varied dry matter intake and milk production responses in different research studies based on effects on nutrient digestibility and rumen fermentation characteristics. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to determine the effects of, and interactions between, grain source and oil supplement on the feed intake, rumen fermentation characteristics, nutrient digestibility and lactational performance of Holstein cows. Materials and Methods Eight lactating multiparous Holstein cows (parity = 3.3 ± 1.3 and days in milk = 77 ± 22.1; mean ± SD, were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 25-d periods. Each experimental period consisted of an 18-d diet adaptation period and a 7-d collection period. Cows within a square were assigned randomly to dietary treatments. Cows were blocked into 2 squares of 4 cows each based upon milk production, and days in milk, and within blocks were assigned to 1 of the 4 experimental diets with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement: 1 BF = barley-based diet supplemented with fish oil at 2% of dietary DM, 2 BS = barley-based diet supplemented with soybean oil at 2% of dietary DM, 3 CF = corn-based diet supplemented with fish oil at 2% of dietary DM, and 4 CS = corn-based diet supplemented with soybean oil at 2% of dietary DM. The TMR amounts offered and refused were measured daily for each cow and DMI determined daily for each cow. Cows were milked three times daily at 0200, 1000, and 1800 h in a herringbone milking parlor. Milk yield for all cows was recorded and sampled at each milking during the last 7 d of each period. Milk samples were

  20. Beyond the Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Jeffrey

    2015-07-01

    Shushu is a Turkish Cypriot drag performance artist and the article begins with a discussion of a short film about him by a Greek Cypriot playwright, film maker, and gay activist. The film is interesting in its own right as a documentary about a complex personality, but it is also relevant to wider discussion of sexual and gender identity and categorization in a country divided by history, religion, politics, and military occupation. Shushu rejects easy identification as gay or transgender, or anything else. He is his own self. But refusing a recognized and recognizable identity brings problems, and I detected a pervasive mood of melancholy in his portrayal. The article builds from this starting point to explore the problematic nature of identities and categorizations in the contemporary world. The analysis opens with the power of words and language in defining and classifying sexuality. The early sexologists set in motion a whole catalogue of categories which continue to shape sexual thinking, believing that they were providing a scientific basis for a more humane treatment of sexual variations. This logic continues in DSM-5. The historical effect, however, has been more complex. Categorizations have often fixed individuals into a narrow band of definitions and identities that marginalize and pathologize. The emergence of radical sexual-social movements from the late 1960s offered new forms of grassroots knowledge in opposition to the sexological tradition, but at first these movements worked to affirm rather than challenge the significance of identity categories. Increasingly, however, identities have been problematized and challenged for limiting sexual and gender possibilities, leading to the apparently paradoxical situation where sexual identities are seen as both necessary and impossible. There are emotional costs both in affirming a fixed identity and in rejecting one. Shushu is caught in this dilemma, leading to the pervasive sense of loss that shapes the

  1. Oil from transgenic Camelina sativa containing over 25 % n-3 long-chain PUFA as the major lipid source in feed for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancor, Mónica B; Li, Keshuai; Bucerzan, Valentin S; Sprague, Matthew; Sayanova, Olga; Usher, Sarah; Han, Lihua; Norambuena, Fernando; Torrissen, Ole; Napier, Johnathan A; Tocher, Douglas R; Olsen, Rolf E

    2018-06-01

    Facing a bottleneck in the growth of aquaculture, and a gap in the supply and demand of the highly beneficial n-3 long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA), sustainable alternatives to traditional marine-based feeds are required. Therefore, in the present trial, a novel oil obtained from a genetically engineered oilseed crop, Camelina sativa, that supplied over 25 % n-3 LC-PUFA was tested as a sole dietary-added lipid source in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) feed. Three groups of fish were fed three experimental diets for 12 weeks with the same basal composition and containing 20 % added oil supplied by either a blend of fish oil and rapeseed oil (1:3) (COM) reflecting current commercial formulations, wild-type Camelina oil (WCO) or the novel transgenic Camelina oil (TCO). There were no negative effects on the growth, survival rate or health of the fish. The whole fish and flesh n-3 LC-PUFA levels were highest in fish fed TCO, with levels more than 2-fold higher compared with those of fish fed the COM and WCO diets, respectively. Diet TCO had no negative impacts on the evaluated immune and physiological parameters of head kidney monocytes. The transcriptomic responses of liver and mid-intestine showed only mild effects on metabolism genes. Overall, the results clearly indicated that the oil from transgenic Camelina was highly efficient in supplying n-3 LC-PUFA providing levels double that obtained with a current commercial standard, and similar to those a decade ago before substantial dietary fishmeal and oil replacement.

  2. AGRO-INDUSTRIAL WASTE SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT – A POTENTIAL SOURCE OF ECONOMIC BENEFITS TO PALM OIL MILLS IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Loan Liew

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the decades the palm oil industry has managed some challen ging environmental concerns regarding land transformation and degradation, increas e in eutrophication, changing habitats of wildlife, pesticides runoff into inland wa tercourses, and probable climate change. Countries producing palm oil desire to do so in a more sustainable way that will leave the environment evergreen. Therefore this paper aims to encourage sustainable management of agro-industrial waste and its potenti al in making financial returns from the same waste. Hence, the study was conducted with the participation of seven local palm oil mills having different capacities and oper ation age. Attention was given to milling waste as they could cause serious environmenta l menace if unattended to properly. Milling waste includ es lignocellulosic palm biomas s namely the empty fruit bunches (EFB, oil palm shell (OPS, mesocarp fibres, pal m oil mill effluent (POME, and palm oil mill sludge (POMS, as well as solid waste generated from the further processing of these biomass into the palm oil fuel ashe s (POFA and palm oil clinkers (POC. The opportunities available to the Malaysian pa lm oil industry and the financial benefits which may accr ue from waste generated during palm oil production process cannot be over emphasized.

  3. Identifying the sources of produced water in the oil field by isotopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Minh Quy; Hoang Long; Le Thi Thu Huong; Luong Van Huan; Vo Thi Tuong Hanh

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to identify the sources of the formation water in the Southwest Su-Tu-Den (STD SW) basement reservoir. To achieve the objective, isotopic techniques along with geochemical analysis for chloride, bromide, strontium dissolved in the water were applied. The isotopic techniques used in this study were the determination of water stable isotopes signatures (δ 2 H and (δ 18 O) and of the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of strontium in rock cutting sample and that dissolved in the formation water. The obtained results showed that the stable isotopes compositions of water in the Lower Miocene was -3‰ and -23‰ for (δ 18 O and (δ 2 H, respectively indicating the primeval nature of seawater in the reservoir. Meanwhile, the isotopic composition of water in the basement was clustered in a range of alternated freshwater with (δ 18 O and (δ 2 H being -(3-4)‰ and -(54-60)‰, respectively). The strontium isotopes ratio for water in the Lower Miocene reservoir was lower compared to that for water in the basement confirming the different natures of the water in the two reservoirs. The obtained results are assured for the techniques applicability, and it is recommended that studies on identification of the flow-path of the formation water in the STD SW basement reservoir should be continued. (author)

  4. Redox Status and Neuro Inflammation Indexes in Cerebellum and Motor Cortex of Wistar Rats Supplemented with Natural Sources of Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Astaxanthin: Fish Oil, Krill Oil, and Algal Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana G. Polotow

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Health authorities worldwide have consistently recommended the regular consumption of marine fishes and seafood to preserve memory, sustain cognitive functions, and prevent neurodegenerative processes in humans. Shrimp, crabs, lobster, and salmon are of particular interest in the human diet due to their substantial provision of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3/PUFAs and the antioxidant carotenoid astaxanthin (ASTA. However, the optimal ratio between these nutraceuticals in natural sources is apparently the key factor for maximum protection against most neuro-motor disorders. Therefore, we aimed here to investigate the effects of a long-term supplementation with (n-3/PUFAs-rich fish oil, ASTA-rich algal biomass, the combination of them, or krill oil (a natural combination of both nutrients on baseline redox balance and neuro-inflammation indexes in cerebellum and motor cortex of Wistar rats. Significant changes in redox metabolism were only observed upon ASTA supplementation, which reinforce its antioxidant properties with a putative mitochondrial-centered action in rat brain. Krill oil imposed mild astrocyte activation in motor cortex of Wistar rats, although no redox or inflammatory index was concomitantly altered. In summary, there is no experimental evidence that krill oil, fish oil, oralgal biomass (minor variation, drastically change the baseline oxidative conditions or the neuro-inflammatory scenario in neuromotor-associated rat brain regions.

  5. Redox Status and Neuro Inflammation Indexes in Cerebellum and Motor Cortex of Wistar Rats Supplemented with Natural Sources of Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Astaxanthin: Fish Oil, Krill Oil, and Algal Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polotow, Tatiana G; Poppe, Sandra C; Vardaris, Cristina V; Ganini, Douglas; Guariroba, Maísa; Mattei, Rita; Hatanaka, Elaine; Martins, Maria F; Bondan, Eduardo F; Barros, Marcelo P

    2015-09-28

    Health authorities worldwide have consistently recommended the regular consumption of marine fishes and seafood to preserve memory, sustain cognitive functions, and prevent neurodegenerative processes in humans. Shrimp, crabs, lobster, and salmon are of particular interest in the human diet due to their substantial provision of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3/PUFAs) and the antioxidant carotenoid astaxanthin (ASTA). However, the optimal ratio between these nutraceuticals in natural sources is apparently the key factor for maximum protection against most neuro-motor disorders. Therefore, we aimed here to investigate the effects of a long-term supplementation with (n-3)/PUFAs-rich fish oil, ASTA-rich algal biomass, the combination of them, or krill oil (a natural combination of both nutrients) on baseline redox balance and neuro-inflammation indexes in cerebellum and motor cortex of Wistar rats. Significant changes in redox metabolism were only observed upon ASTA supplementation, which reinforce its antioxidant properties with a putative mitochondrial-centered action in rat brain. Krill oil imposed mild astrocyte activation in motor cortex of Wistar rats, although no redox or inflammatory index was concomitantly altered. In summary, there is no experimental evidence that krill oil, fish oil, oralgal biomass (minor variation), drastically change the baseline oxidative conditions or the neuro-inflammatory scenario in neuromotor-associated rat brain regions.

  6. Oil crises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linderoth, H.

    1992-01-01

    The author's aim was to give very precise information on the many causes and effects of the oil crises that have occurred since 1900, and at the same time offer the reader the possibility to build up a basic knowledge of the oil industry and market, as he feels that the public is often subjected to misleading information. Political and economical aspects are elaborated. First-hand sources such as statistics and investigations have been used as far as possible to give information on the oil market. An oil crisis is defined by the author as a significant change in the price of oil compared to prices of other goods. Changes can be in the form of either rising or falling prices. A special chapter concentrates on Denmark in relation to the oil crises. (AB) (165 refs.)

  7. Characterization of calcium oxide catalysts from natural sources and their application in the transesterification of sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Leandro Marques; Saboya, Rosana Maria Alves; Campelo, Natália de Sousa; Cecilia, Juan Antonio; Rodríguez-Castellón, Enrique; Cavalcante, Célio Loureiro; Vieira, Rodrigo Silveira

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic activities of calcium oxide obtained from natural sources (crab shell and eggshell) were characterized and evaluated in the transesterification of vegetable oil. These catalysts are mainly composed of calcium carbonate, which is partially converted into CaO after calcination (900°C for 2h). The catalysts have some advantages, such as abundant occurrence, low cost, porous structure, and nontoxic. The materials were characterized by XRD, FTIR, TG/DTG, CO2-TPD, XPS, SEM, and BET methods. The thermal treatment produces small particles of CaCO3 and CaO that are responsible for the catalytic activity. The conversion from triglycerides to methyl ester was not observed in transesterification carried out using natural crab shell and eggshell. Under optimized reaction conditions, the conversions to YFAME using the calcined catalysts were: crab shell (83.10±0.27 wt.%) and eggshell (97.75±0.02 wt.%). These results, showed that these materials have promising viability in transesterification for biodiesel production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 14 CFR 25.1023 - Oil radiators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil radiators. 25.1023 Section 25.1023... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1023 Oil radiators. (a) Each oil radiator... would be subjected in operation. (b) Each oil radiator air duct must be located so that, in case of fire...

  9. 14 CFR 29.1023 - Oil radiators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil radiators. 29.1023 Section 29.1023... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1023 Oil radiators. (a) Each oil radiator must be able to withstand any vibration, inertia, and oil pressure loads to which it would be...

  10. Categories for Observing Language Arts Instruction (COLAI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benterud, Julianna G.

    Designed to study individual use of time spent in reading during regularly scheduled language arts instruction in a natural classroom setting, this coding sheet consists of nine categories: (1) engagement, (2) area of language arts, (3) instructional setting, (4) partner (teacher or pupil(s)), (5) source of content, (6) type of unit, (7) assigned…

  11. Language categories in Russian morphology

    OpenAIRE

    زهرایی زهرایی

    2009-01-01

    When studying Russian morphology, one can distinguish two categories. These categories are “grammatical” and “lexico-grammatical”. Grammatical categories can be specified through a series of grammatical features of words. Considering different criteria, Russian grammarians and linguists divide grammatical categories of their language into different types. In determining lexico-grammatical types, in addition to a series of grammatical features, they also consider a series of lexico-semantic fe...

  12. Thiourea, a ROS scavenger, regulates source-to-sink relationship to enhance crop yield and oil content in Brassica juncea (L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Pandey

    Full Text Available In the present agricultural scenario, the major thrust is to increase crop productivity so as to ensure sustainability. In an earlier study, foliar application of thiourea (TU; a non physiological thiol based ROS scavenger has been demonstrated to enhance the stress tolerance and yield of different crops under field condition. Towards this endeavor, present work deals with the effect of TU on photosynthetic efficiency and source-to-sink relationship of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea for understanding its mode of action. The application of TU increased the efficiency of both PSI and PSII photosystems and vegetative growth of plant. The comparative analysis of sucrose to starch ratio and expression level of sugar transporters confirmed the higher source and sink strength in response to TU treatment. The biochemical evidence in support of this was derived from higher activities of sucrose phosphate synthase and fructose-1,6-bis-phosphatase at source; and sucrose synthase and different classes of invertases at both source and sink. This indicated an overall increase in photoassimilate level at sink. An additional contribution through pod photosynthesis was confirmed through the analysis of phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase enzyme activity and level of organic acids. The increased photoassimilate level was also co-ordinated with acetyl coA carboxylase mediated oil biosynthesis. All these changes were ultimately reflected in the form of 10 and 20% increase in total yield and oil content, respectively under TU treatment as compared to control. Additionally, no change was observed in oil composition of seeds derived from TU treated plants. The study thus signifies the co-ordinated regulation of key steps of photosynthesis and source-to-sink relationship through the external application of TU resulting in increased crop yield and oil content.

  13. Hydrocarbon migration and accumulation in the Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation, Changling Sag, southern Songliao Basin: Insights from integrated analyses of fluid inclusion, oil source correlation and basin modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Tian; He, Sheng; Wang, Dexi; Hou, Yuguang

    2014-08-01

    The Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation acts as both the source and reservoir sequence in the Changling Sag, situated in the southern end of the Songliao Basin, northeast China. An integrated approach involving determination of hydrocarbon charging history, oil source correlation and hydrocarbon generation dynamic modeling was used to investigate hydrocarbon migration processes and further predict the favorable targets of hydrocarbon accumulations in the Qingshankou Formation. The hydrocarbon generation and charge history was investigated using fluid inclusion analysis, in combination with stratigraphic burial and thermal modeling. The source rocks began to generate hydrocarbons at around 82 Ma and the hydrocarbon charge event occurred from approximately 78 Ma to the end of Cretaceous (65.5 Ma) when a large tectonic uplift took place. Correlation of stable carbon isotopes of oils and extracts of source rocks indicates that oil was generated mainly from the first member of Qingshankou Formation (K2qn1), suggesting that hydrocarbon may have migrated vertically. Three dimensional (3D) petroleum system modeling was used to evaluate the processes of secondary hydrocarbon migration in the Qingshankou Formation since the latest Cretaceous. During the Late Cretaceous, hydrocarbon, mainly originated from the Qianan depression, migrated laterally to adjacent structural highs. Subsequent tectonic inversion, defined as the late Yanshan Orogeny, significantly changed hydrocarbon migration patterns, probably causing redistribution of primary hydrocarbon reservoirs. In the Tertiary, the Heidimiao depression was buried much deeper than the Qianan depression and became the main source kitchen. Hydrocarbon migration was primarily controlled by fluid potential and generally migrated from relatively high potential areas to low potential areas. Structural highs and lithologic transitions are potential traps for current oil and gas exploration. Finally, several preferred hydrocarbon

  14. 40 CFR 417.156 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... standard shall be: (1) For normal operation of spray drying towers above, the following values pertain.... Oil and grease Do. pH Do. (2) For air quality restricted operation of a spray drying tower, but only... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Spray Dried...

  15. 40 CFR 426.126 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Incandescent Lamp Envelope Manufacturing... established. Pollutant or pollutant property Pretreatment standards Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days shall not exceed— Metric units (g/kkg of furnace pull) Oil (animal and...

  16. Pomegranate seed oil, a rich source of punicic acid, prevents diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroegrijk, Irene O. C. M.; van Diepen, Janna A.; van den Berg, Sjoerd; Westbroek, Irene; Keizer, Hiskias; Gambelli, Luisa; Hontecillas, Raquel; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep; Zondag, Gerben C. M.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Havekes, Louis M.; Voshol, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Pomegranate seed oil has been shown to protect against diet induced obesity and insulin resistance. To characterize the metabolic effects of punicic acid on high fat diet induced obesity and insulin resistance. High-fat diet or high-fat diet with 1% Pomegranate seed oil (PUA) was fed for 12weeks to

  17. INFLUENCE OF SELENIUM CONTENT AND OIL SOURCES IN FEED ON CONCENTRATION OF THYROID GLAND HORMONES AND ELECTROLYTE IN BROILER BLOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlata Kralik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to elaborate the influence of designed mixtures used in broilers fattening on the concentration of electrolytes and thyroid gland hormones in the blood.. The research was carried out on 120 male Ross 308 hybrid broilers. The fattening lasted for 42 days. During the first three weeks of fattening broilers were fed standard starter diet containing 22% crude protein and 13.90 MJ/kg ME. During the last three weeks of fattening, broilers were divided into 6 experimental groups, each fed specially prepared finisher diets (P1=6% sunflower oil+0.0 mg Se/kg of feed, P2=6% linseed oil+0.0 mg Se/kg of feed, P3=6% sunflower oil+0.3 mg Se/kg of feed, P4=6% linseed oil+0.3 mg Se/kg of feed, P5=6% sunflower oil+0.5 mg Se/kg of feed, P6=6% linseed oil+0.5 mg Se/kg of feed. Finisher diet was balanced at 18.02% crude protein and 14.40 MJ/kg ME. It was found out that the type of oil in chicken feed influenced to blood pH (P <0.001, whereas selenium level (P=0.014 in the feed, as well as the oil type and selenium level interaction (P<0.001 influenced the concentration of potassium in the blood. Oil type (P=0.037 influenced the concentration of fT3, which was lower in chickens fed mixtures with addition of linseed oil than in the chickens fed sunflower oil added mixtures. Interaction of selenium content and oil type had influence on differences in concentration of fT4 as well as on the ratio of fT3/fT4, (P<0.001, i.e. P=0.021. The research results indicated that oils supplemented to broiler diets and combined with different organic selenium concentrations affected pH, concentration of some electrolytes and thyroid gland hormones in broiler blood, however, all obtained values were within reference range for poultry.

  18. Source and distribution of naturally occurring arsenic in groundwater from Alberta’s Southern Oil Sands Regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncur, Michael C.; Paktunc, Dogan; Jean Birks, S.; Ptacek, Carol J.; Welsh, Brent; Thibault, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Widespread naturally occurring As in groundwater with concentrations up to 179 μg/L. • 50% of the 816 water wells sampled exceeded 10 μg/L of As. • As(III) was the dominant species in 74% of the groundwater samples. • Shallow groundwater As is derived from arsenian pyrite oxidation. • In deeper sediments, As release is associated with Fe(III) reduction. - Abstract: Arsenic (As) concentrations as high as 179 μg/L have been observed in shallow groundwater in the Alberta’s Southern Oil Sand Regions. The geology of this area of Alberta includes a thick cover (up to 200 m) of unconsolidated glacial deposits, with a number of regional interglacial sand and gravel aquifers, underlain by marine shale. Arsenic concentrations observed in 216 unconsolidated sediment samples ranged from 1 and 17 ppm. A survey of over 800 water wells sampled for As in the area found that 50% of the wells contained As concentrations exceeding drinking water guidelines of 10 μg/L. Higher As concentrations in groundwater were associated with reducing conditions. Measurements of As speciation from 175 groundwater samples indicate that As(III) was the dominant species in 74% of the wells. Speciation model calculations showed that the majority of groundwater samples were undersaturated with respect to ferrihydrite, suggesting that reductive dissolution of Fe-oxyhydroxides may be the source of some As in groundwater. Detailed mineralogical characterization of sediment samples collected from two formations revealed the presence of fresh framboidal pyrite in the deeper unoxidized sediments. Electron microprobe analysis employing wavelength dispersive spectrometry indicated that the framboidal pyrite had variable As content with an average As concentration of 530 ppm, reaching up to 1840 ppm. In contrast, the oxidized sediments did not contain framboidal pyrite, but exhibited spheroidal Fe-oxyhydroxide grains with elevated As concentrations. The habit and composition suggest

  19. Ultrasound-assisted single-drop microextraction for the determination of cadmium in vegetable oils using high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Jorge S.; Anunciação, Taiana A.; Brandão, Geovani C.; Dantas, Alailson F.; Lemos, Valfredo A.

    2015-01-01

    This work presents an ultrasound-assisted single-drop microextraction procedure for the determination of cadmium in vegetable oils using high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Some initial tests showed that the best extraction efficiency was obtained when using ultrasound instead of mechanical agitation, indicating that acoustic cavitation improved the extraction process. Nitric, hydrochloric and acetic acids were evaluated for use in the extraction process, and HNO 3 gave the best results. A two-level full-factorial design was applied to investigate the best conditions for the extraction of Cd from the oil samples. The influences of the sonication amplitude, time and temperature of the extraction were evaluated. The results of the design revealed that all of the variables had a significant effect on the experimental results. Afterward, a Box–Behnken design was applied to determine the optimum conditions for the determination of cadmium in vegetable oil samples. According to a multivariate study, the optimum conditions were as follows: sonication amplitude of 60%, extraction time of 15 min, extraction temperature of 46 °C and 0.1 mol L −1 HNO 3 as the extractor solution. Under optimized conditions, the developed method allows for the determination of Cd in oil samples with a limit of quantification of 7.0 ng kg −1 . Addition and recovery experiments were performed in vegetable oil samples to evaluate the accuracy of the method, and the recoveries obtained varied from 90% to 115%. The samples were also analyzed after the acid digestion procedure, and the paired t-test (95% confidence level) did not show significant differences from the proposed method. - Highlights: • The determination of cadmium in vegetable oils was developed using UA-SDME. • HR-CS ET-AAS was employed as a detection technique with direct drop sampling. • The procedure allowed for a reduction in the consumption of reagents and samples

  20. Ultrasound-assisted single-drop microextraction for the determination of cadmium in vegetable oils using high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Jorge S.; Anunciação, Taiana A. [Departamento de Química Analítica, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus Universitário de Ondina, Salvador, Bahia 40170-280 (Brazil); Brandão, Geovani C. [Departamento de Química Analítica, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus Universitário de Ondina, Salvador, Bahia 40170-280 (Brazil); INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus Universitário de Ondina, Salvador, Bahia 40170-280 (Brazil); Dantas, Alailson F. [Departamento de Química Analítica, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus Universitário de Ondina, Salvador, Bahia 40170-280 (Brazil); Lemos, Valfredo A. [Laboratório de Química Analítica (LQA), Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, Campus de Jequié, Jequié, Bahia 45506-191 (Brazil); and others

    2015-05-01

    This work presents an ultrasound-assisted single-drop microextraction procedure for the determination of cadmium in vegetable oils using high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Some initial tests showed that the best extraction efficiency was obtained when using ultrasound instead of mechanical agitation, indicating that acoustic cavitation improved the extraction process. Nitric, hydrochloric and acetic acids were evaluated for use in the extraction process, and HNO{sub 3} gave the best results. A two-level full-factorial design was applied to investigate the best conditions for the extraction of Cd from the oil samples. The influences of the sonication amplitude, time and temperature of the extraction were evaluated. The results of the design revealed that all of the variables had a significant effect on the experimental results. Afterward, a Box–Behnken design was applied to determine the optimum conditions for the determination of cadmium in vegetable oil samples. According to a multivariate study, the optimum conditions were as follows: sonication amplitude of 60%, extraction time of 15 min, extraction temperature of 46 °C and 0.1 mol L{sup −1} HNO{sub 3} as the extractor solution. Under optimized conditions, the developed method allows for the determination of Cd in oil samples with a limit of quantification of 7.0 ng kg{sup −1}. Addition and recovery experiments were performed in vegetable oil samples to evaluate the accuracy of the method, and the recoveries obtained varied from 90% to 115%. The samples were also analyzed after the acid digestion procedure, and the paired t-test (95% confidence level) did not show significant differences from the proposed method. - Highlights: • The determination of cadmium in vegetable oils was developed using UA-SDME. • HR-CS ET-AAS was employed as a detection technique with direct drop sampling. • The procedure allowed for a reduction in the consumption of reagents and

  1. 75 FR 22363 - United States Standards for Grades of Olive Oil and Olive-Pomace Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... it as extra virgin olive oil at a premium price. The petitioners requested that the U.S. grade... requirements. The virgin olive oil category, which includes extra virgin olive oil, is unprocessed. Olive oil...: Section 52.1539, Aspect at 20 degrees after 24 hours. Extra virgin and virgin olive oils can be filtered...

  2. sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yin Chiang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the simplified models of the ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode multiplexer network with Bernoulli random traffic sources. Based on the model, the performance measures are analyzed by the different output service schemes.

  3. 77 FR 72653 - Designation of Product Categories for Federal Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... corrosion removers; microbial cleaning products; paint removers; and water turbine bearing oils. USDA is... cover a wide range of products. For some product categories, there are subgroups of products that meet... corrosion remover products are required to meet, but it may have information on only one type of metal...

  4. Subject categories and scope descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is one in a series of publications known as the ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series. It defines the subject categories and provides the scope descriptions to be used for categorization of the nuclear literature for the preparation of INIS and ETDE input by national and regional centres. Together with the other volumes of the INIS Reference Series it defines the rules, standards and practices and provides the authorities to be used in the International Nuclear Information System and ETDE. A complete list of the volumes published in the INIS Reference Series may be found on the inside front cover of this publication. This INIS/ETDE Reference Series document is intended to serve two purposes: to define the subject scope of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) and the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and to define the subject classification scheme of INIS and ETDE. It is thus the guide to the inputting centres in determining which items of literature should be reported, and in determining where the full bibliographic entry and abstract of each item should be included in INIS or ETDE database. Each category is identified by a category code consisting of three alphanumeric characters. A scope description is given for each subject category. The scope of INIS is the sum of the scopes of all the categories. With most categories cross references are provided to other categories where appropriate. Cross references should be of assistance in finding the appropriate category; in fact, by indicating topics that are excluded from the category in question, the cross references help to clarify and define the scope of the category to which they are appended. A Subject Index is included as an aid to subject classifiers, but it is only an aid and not a means for subject classification. It facilitates the use of this document, but is no substitute for the description of the scope of the subject categories

  5. HFRR investigation of biobased and petroleum based oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biobased oils come in a wide range of chemical structures as do petroleum based oils. In addition, a distinct structural difference exists between these two broad categories of oils. Previous work has shown that, in spite of the structural differences, these two categories of oils display similar pr...

  6. Radiation protection in category III large gamma irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Neivaldo; Furlan, Gilberto Ribeiro; Itepan, Natanael Marcio

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the advantages of category III large gamma irradiator compared to the others, with emphasis on aspects of radiological protection, in the industrial sector. This category is a kind of irradiators almost unknown to the regulators authorities and the industrial community, despite its simple construction and greater radiation safety intrinsic to the model, able to maintain an efficiency of productivity comparable to those of category IV. Worldwide, there are installed more than 200 category IV irradiators and there is none of a category III irradiator in operation. In a category III gamma irradiator, the source remains fixed in the bottom of the tank, always shielded by water, negating the exposition risk. Taking into account the benefits in relation to radiation safety, the category III large irradiators are highly recommended for industrial, commercial purposes or scientific research. (author)

  7. Oil palm biomass utilization as an energy source and its possibility use for polygeneration scenarios in Langsa City, Aceh Province, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hani, M. R.; Mahidin, M.; Husin, H.; Hamdani, H.; Khairil, K.

    2018-03-01

    This article deals with the discussion on the recent status of oil palm biomass utilization as an energy source and its possibility use for polygeneration system. The discussion focused only on the energy viewpoint. At this point, many projects and research have been developed in order to utilize the oil palm biomass to meet the energy demand of industries and communities, especially in the largest producing countries: Indonesia and Malaysia; and a few in Thailand, Africa, Latin America and Europe. Through the simulation work in the case study, it is evident that the government of Langsa City can fulfill the fresh water to their community and electricity to Langsa Harbor only by using EFB and PKS from one POM with the generated power of 12 MW, while the desalination plant consumes about 7 MW of electricity. If all potency of biomass from all POMs in Aceh Timur and Aceh Tamiang, without the combination of other primary energy sources is used, Langsa City might earn surplus of energy. The use of the oil palm biomass for polygeneration scenarios is possible and feasible from the technical point of view.

  8. How categories come to matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leahu, Lucian; Cohn, Marisa; March, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    In a study of users' interactions with Siri, the iPhone personal assistant application, we noticed the emergence of overlaps and blurrings between explanatory categories such as "human" and "machine". We found that users work to purify these categories, thus resolving the tensions related to the ...... initial data analysis, due to our own forms of latent purification, and outline the particular analytic techniques that helped lead to this discovery. We thus provide an illustrative case of how categories come to matter in HCI research and design.......In a study of users' interactions with Siri, the iPhone personal assistant application, we noticed the emergence of overlaps and blurrings between explanatory categories such as "human" and "machine". We found that users work to purify these categories, thus resolving the tensions related...

  9. The composition of category conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Russell R C; Crisp, Richard J

    2005-05-01

    In three experiments, the authors investigated the impression formation process resulting from the perception of familiar or unfamiliar social category combinations. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to generate attributes associated with either a familiar or unfamiliar social category conjunction. Compared to familiar combinations, the authors found that when the conjunction was unfamiliar, participants formed their impression less from the individual constituent categories and relatively more from novel emergent attributes. In Experiment 2, the authors replicated this effect using alternative experimental materials. In Experiment 3, the effect generalized to additional (orthogonally combined) gender and occupation categories. The implications of these findings for understanding the processes involved in the conjunction of social categories, and the formation of new stereotypes, are discussed.

  10. Ultrasound-assisted single-drop microextraction for the determination of cadmium in vegetable oils using high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Jorge S.; Anunciação, Taiana A.; Brandão, Geovani C.; Dantas, Alailson F.; Lemos, Valfredo A.; Teixeira, Leonardo S. G.

    2015-05-01

    This work presents an ultrasound-assisted single-drop microextraction procedure for the determination of cadmium in vegetable oils using high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Some initial tests showed that the best extraction efficiency was obtained when using ultrasound instead of mechanical agitation, indicating that acoustic cavitation improved the extraction process. Nitric, hydrochloric and acetic acids were evaluated for use in the extraction process, and HNO3 gave the best results. A two-level full-factorial design was applied to investigate the best conditions for the extraction of Cd from the oil samples. The influences of the sonication amplitude, time and temperature of the extraction were evaluated. The results of the design revealed that all of the variables had a significant effect on the experimental results. Afterward, a Box-Behnken design was applied to determine the optimum conditions for the determination of cadmium in vegetable oil samples. According to a multivariate study, the optimum conditions were as follows: sonication amplitude of 60%, extraction time of 15 min, extraction temperature of 46 °C and 0.1 mol L- 1 HNO3 as the extractor solution. Under optimized conditions, the developed method allows for the determination of Cd in oil samples with a limit of quantification of 7.0 ng kg- 1. Addition and recovery experiments were performed in vegetable oil samples to evaluate the accuracy of the method, and the recoveries obtained varied from 90% to 115%. The samples were also analyzed after the acid digestion procedure, and the paired t-test (95% confidence level) did not show significant differences from the proposed method.

  11. The pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR) as a source of high quality process heat for sustainable oil sands expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, A.; Kuhr, R.

    2008-01-01

    Bitumen extraction, processing and upgrading consumes large quantities of natural gas for production of steam, hot water and hydrogen. Massive expansion of bitumen production is planned in response to energy demands, oil prices, and the desire for energy security. The PBMR in its Process Heat configuration supports applications that compete in a cost effective and environmentally sustainable way with natural gas fired boilers and steam methane reforming. The PBMR has the benefit of size, passive nuclear safety characteristics (encompassing Generation IV safety principles), high reliability, high temperature process heat (750-950 o C) in a modular design suited to the oil sands industry. (author)

  12. WERE OIL PRICE MARKETS THE SOURCE OF CREDIT CRISIS IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES? EVIDENCE USING A VAR-MGARCH-DCC MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadhem Selmi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role of oil prices, credit, financial and commercial linkages in the propagation of industrial market crises during the period 2004-2012. Using VAR-MGARCH-DCC model regressions on seven markets finds that credit linkage played a significant role in the subprime, financial and global crises. Our results also show that the European debt crisis has already spread like a crisis from oil prices to Ireland and Portugal, and other countries are now at risk: Spain is a probable candidate for financial crisis.

  13. How do Category Managers Manage?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft; Sigurbjornsson, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to explore the managerial role of category managers in purchasing. A network management perspective is adopted. A case based research methodology is applied, and three category managers managing a diverse set of component and service categories in a global production...... firm is observed while providing accounts of their progress and results in meetings. We conclude that the network management classification scheme originally deve loped by Harland and Knight (2001) and Knight and Harland (2005) is a valuable and fertile theoretical framework for the analysis...

  14. Chemical profiling of gaharu oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat Rasol Awang; Mohd Fajri Osman; Ahsanulkhaliqin Abd Wahab; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim; Shaiful Azuar Mohamad

    2006-01-01

    Gaharu oil from Aquilaria agallocha and Aquilaria malaccensis Lamk has been reported to contain different phytochemicals components (Ishihara et al., 1993). There are also differences reported by gaharu oil suppliers. The differences suggested they originate from varied of sources of gaharu wood, oleoresin maturity and extraction technology employed. In this study, gaharu oil purchased from different sources were initially analysed and later cross-examined against chemical components of oil extracted from wood sources systematically graded. The gaharu oil components obtained from this work will be presented and discussed. Initiative to profile oil provides impetus to database development and standardisation of gaharu oil. (Author)

  15. Source and Biological Response of Biochar Organic Compounds Released into Water; Relationships with Bio-Oil Composition and Carbonization Degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghidotti, Michele; Fabbri, Daniele; Mašek, Ondřej; Mackay, Colin Logan; Montalti, Marco; Hornung, Andreas

    2017-06-06

    Water-soluble organic compounds (WSOCs) were extracted from corn stalk biochar produced at increasing pyrolysis temperatures (350-650 °C) and from the corresponding vapors, collected as bio-oil. WSOCs were characterized by gas chromatography (semivolatile fraction), negative electron spray ionization high resolution mass spectrometry (hydrophilic fraction) and fluorescence spectroscopy. The pattern of semivolatile WSOCs in bio-oil was dominated by aromatic products from lignocellulose, while in biochar was featured by saturated carboxylic acids from hemi/cellulose and lipids with concentrations decreasing with decreasing H/C ratios. Hydrophilic species in poorly carbonized biochar resembled those in bio-oil, but the increasing charring intensity caused a marked reduction in the molecular complexity and degree of aromaticity. Differences in the fluorescence spectra were attributed to the predominance of fulvic acid-like structures in biochar and lignin-like moieties in bio-oil. The divergence between pyrolysis vapors and biochar in the distribution of WSOCs with increasing carbonization was explained by the hydrophobic carbonaceous matrix acting like a filter favoring the release into water of carboxylic and fulvic acid-like components. The formation of these structures was confirmed in biochar produced by pilot plant pyrolysis units. Biochar affected differently shoot and root length of cress seedlings in germination tests highlighting its complex role on plant growth.

  16. Reflections on oil crops as sources of energy. I - jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis), a lubricant of the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, G.

    1983-06-01

    It is only in the last few years that public interest has been awakened in a modest oil-yielding shrub of the desert regions of California, Arizona (USA) and Mexico: jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis). This interest would seem to be justified in view of the qualities of the oil, which is altogether similar to sperm whale oil, and the possibilities it offers, notably as a lubricant. Naturally, as it is a rare product and its domestication has barely started, it has a fabulous market value (it reaches US $200/gal in 1981), but this will drop rapidly once development programmes get under way (already in 1983 the oil was to be found at US $ 50/55 gal). One-track research would be unprofitable. This drought-resistant shrub does not offer efficiency against desertification nor as an ally in the reclamation of climatically underprivileged, depopulated regions. This article makes an approach to a strategy and gives a broad outline for a programme. (Refs. 19).

  17. Pomegranate seed oil, a rich source of punicic acid, prevents diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroegrijk, I.O.; Diepen, J.A. van; Berg, S.; Westbroek, I.; Keizer, H.; Gambelli, L.; Hontecillas, R.; Bassaganya-Riera, J.; Zondag, G.C.; Romijn, J.A.; Havekes, L.M.; Voshol, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pomegranate seed oil has been shown to protect against diet induced obesity and insulin resistance. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the metabolic effects of punicic acid on high fat diet induced obesity and insulin resistance. DESIGN: High-fat diet or high-fat diet with 1% Pomegranate seed

  18. Isotope-based partitioning of streamflow in the oil sands region, northern Alberta: Towards a monitoring strategy for assessing flow sources and water quality controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Gibson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Study region: This study is based on the rapidly developing Athabasca Oil Sands region, northeastern Alberta. Study focus: Hydrograph separation using stable isotopes of water is applied to partition streamflow sources in the Athabasca River and its tributaries. Distinct isotopic labelling of snow, rain, groundwater and surface water are applied to estimate the contribution of these sources to streamflow from analysis of multi-year records of isotopes in streamflow. New hydrological insights for the region: The results provide new insight into runoff generation mechanisms operating in six tributaries and at four stations along the Athabasca River. Groundwater, found to be an important flow source at all stations, is the dominant component of the hydrograph in three tributaries (Steepbank R., Muskeg R., Firebag R., accounting for 39–50% of annual streamflow. Surface water, mainly drainage from peatlands, is also found to be widely important, and dominant in three tributaries (Clearwater R., Mackay R., Ells R., accounting for 45–81% of annual streamflow. Fairly limited contributions from direct precipitation illustrate that most snow and rain events result in indirect displacement of pre-event water by fill and spill mechanisms. Systematic shifts in regional groundwater to surface-water ratios are expected to be an important control on spatial and temporal distribution of water quality parameters and useful for evaluating the susceptibility of rivers to climate and development impacts. Keywords: Stable isotopes, Hydrograph separation, Groundwater, Surface water, Snowmelt, Oil sands

  19. Use of Plackett-Burman design for rapid screening of nitrogen and carbon sources for the production of lipase in solid state fermentation by Yarrowia lipolytica from mustard oil cake (Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarat Babu Imandi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mustard oil cake (Brassica napus, the residue obtained after extraction of mustard oil from mustard oil seeds, was investigated for the production of lipase under solid state fermentation (SSF using the marine yeast Yarrowia lipolytica NCIM 3589. Process parameters such as incubation time, biomass concentration, initial moisture content, carbon source concentration and nitrogen source concentration of the medium were optimized. Screening of ten nitrogen and five carbon sources has been accomplished with the help of Plackett-Burman design. The highest lipase activity of 57.89 units per gram of dry fermented substrate (U/gds was observed with the substrate of mustard oil cake in four days of fermentation.

  20. Homological algebra in -abelian categories

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deren Luo

    2017-08-16

    Aug 16, 2017 ... Homological algebra in n-abelian categories. 627. We recall the Comparison lemma, together with its dual, plays a central role in the sequel. Lemma 2.1 [13, Comparison lemma 2.1]. Let C be an additive category and X ∈ Ch. ≥0(C) a complex such that for all k ≥ 0the morphism dk+1. X is a weak cokernel ...

  1. Data categories for marine planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightsom, Frances L.; Cicchetti, Giancarlo; Wahle, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. National Ocean Policy calls for a science- and ecosystem-based approach to comprehensive planning and management of human activities and their impacts on America’s oceans. The Ocean Community in Data.gov is an outcome of 2010–2011 work by an interagency working group charged with designing a national information management system to support ocean planning. Within the working group, a smaller team developed a list of the data categories specifically relevant to marine planning. This set of categories is an important consensus statement of the breadth of information types required for ocean planning from a national, multidisciplinary perspective. Although the categories were described in a working document in 2011, they have not yet been fully implemented explicitly in online services or geospatial metadata, in part because authoritative definitions were not created formally. This document describes the purpose of the data categories, provides definitions, and identifies relations among the categories and between the categories and external standards. It is intended to be used by ocean data providers, managers, and users in order to provide a transparent and consistent framework for organizing and describing complex information about marine ecosystems and their connections to humans.

  2. Investigation of chemical modifiers for the direct determination of arsenic in fish oil using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Éderson R; de Almeida, Tarcísio S; Borges, Daniel L G; Carasek, Eduardo; Welz, Bernhard; Feldmann, Jörg; Campo Menoyo, Javier Del

    2016-04-01

    High-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS GF AAS) has been applied for the development of a method for the determination of total As in fish oil samples using direct analysis. The method does not use any sample pretreatment, besides dilution with 1-propanole, in order to decrease the oil viscosity. The stability and sensitivity of As were evaluated using ruthenium and iridium as permanent chemical modifiers and palladium added in solution over the sample. The best results were obtained with ruthenium as the permanent modifier and palladium in solution added to samples and standard solutions. Under these conditions, aqueous standard solutions could be used for calibration for the fish oil samples diluted with 1-propanole. The pyrolysis and atomization temperatures were 1400 °C and 2300 °C, respectively, and the limit of detection and characteristic mass were 30 pg and 43 pg, respectively. Accuracy and precision of the method have been evaluated using microwave-assisted acid digestion of the samples with subsequent determination by HR-CS GF AAS and ICP-MS; the results were in agreement (95% confidence level) with those of the proposed method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A source of almost pure methyl chavicol: volatile oil from the aerial parts of Tagetes lucida (Asteraceaecultivated in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F Cicció

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The plant Tagetes lucida Cav.(syn.T.florida Sweet,T.schiedeana Less.is an aromatic herb distributed naturally from Mexico to Honduras,at elevations between 1 000 and 2 000 m.It is used as a spice,for medicine,as insecticide and as ornamental plant.It is cultivated commercially in Costa Rica as a spice herb;it contains an oil having an anise-like odor,and the fresh aerial parts of this plant are sold in the supermarket as a substitute of tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L..The essential oils isolated from aerial parts bought,at May and October,in a supermarket in San José (Costa Rica.Fresh flowering aerial parts,flowers and leaves plus stems, were subjected to hydrodistillation for 3 hr using a modified Clevenger-type apparatus.The distilled oils were collected and dried over anhydrous sodium sulphate and stored in a freezer (0-10 °C.The light yellow green oil yield was about 0.07%(v/w.GC/MS analyses were performed using a Shimadzu GCMS-QP5050 apparatus and CLASS 5000 software with Wiley 139 computer database.Identification of the components of the oil was performed using the retention indices,which were calculated in relation to a homologous series of hydrocarbons, and by comparison of their mass spectra with those published in the literature or those of our own database. Thirty compounds were identified,of which methyl chavicol (95-97%was the major constituent.From flower oil,two bithienyls were detected as minor constituents. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(4:853-857.Epub 2005 Jun 24.Los aceites esenciales extraídos de las partes aéreas de la planta Tagetes lucida Cav.cultivada en Costa Rica y utilizada como condimento,fue estudiado mediante la técnica de GC/MS en combinación con los índices de retención.Se identificaron treinta compuestos.El componente mayoritario resultó ser metil chavicol (estragolen un 95-97%.En el aceite de las flores se detectaron e identificaron dos compuestos minoritarios que resultaron ser bitienilos no informados

  4. Produced water ponds are an important source of aromatics and alcohols in Rocky Mountain oil and gas basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, S. N.

    2017-12-01

    Most of the water extracted with oil and natural gas (i.e., produced water) is disposed of by injection into the subsurface. In the arid western United States, however, a significant portion of produced water is discharged in ponds for evaporative disposal, and produced water is often stored in open ponds prior to subsurface injection. Even though they are common in the West (Utah's Uinta Basin has almost 200 ha), produced water ponds have been excluded from oil and gas emissions inventories because little information about their emission rates and speciation is available. We used flux chambers and inverse plume modeling to measure emissions of methane, C2-C11 hydrocarbons, light alcohols, carbonyls, and carbon dioxide from oil and gas produced water storage and disposal ponds in the Uinta Basin and the Upper Green River Basin, Wyoming, during 2013-2017. Methanol was the most abundant organic compound in produced water (91 ± 2% of the total volatile organic concentration; mean ± 95% confidence interval) but accounted for only 25 ± 30% of total organic compound emissions from produced water ponds. Non-methane hydrocarbons, especially C6-C9 alkanes and aromatics, accounted for the majority of emitted organics. We were able to predict emissions of individual compounds based on water concentrations, but only to within an order of magnitude. The speciation and magnitude of emissions varied strongly across facilities and was influenced by water age, the presence or absence of oil sheens, and with meteorological conditions (especially ice cover). Flux chamber measurements were lower than estimates from inverse modeling techniques.Based on our flux chamber measurements, we estimate that produced water ponds are responsible for between 3 and 9% of all non-methane organic compound emissions in the Uinta Basin (or as much as 18% if we rely on our inverse modeling results). Emissions from produced water ponds contain little methane and are more reactive (i.e., they have

  5. Profiling and quantification of phenolic compounds in Camellia seed oils: Natural tea polyphenols in vegetable oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqin; Zeng, Qiumei; Del Mar Contreras, María; Wang, Lijuan

    2017-12-01

    In Asia, tea seed oils (seed oils from Camellia oleifera, C. chekiangoleosa, and C. sinensis) are used in edible, medicinal, and cosmetic applications. However, these oils differ in their fatty acid contents, and there is little known about their phenolic compounds. Here we analyzed the phenolic compounds of seed oils from three species gathered from 15 regions of China. Twenty-four phenolic compounds were characterized by HPLC-Q-TOF-MS, including benzoic acids (6), cinnamic acids (6), a hydroxyphenylacetic acid, flavanols (4), flavonols (3), flavones (2), and dihydroflavonoids (2). Some of these phenolic compounds had not previously been reported from C. sinensis (20), C. oleifera (15), and C. chekiangoleosa (24) seed oils. Quantification was done by HPLC-QqQ-MS using 24 chemical standards. The total concentrations in the studied samples ranged from 20.56 to 88.56μg/g. Phenolic acids were the most abundant class, accounting for 76.2-90.4%, with benzoic acid, found at up to 18.87μg/g. The concentration of catechins, typical of tea polyphenols, ranged between 2.1% and 9.7%, while the other flavonoids varied from 4.2% to 17.8%. Although the cultivation region affected the phenolic composition of the Camellia seed oils, in our hierarchical clustering analysis, the samples clustered according to species. The phenolic composition of the seed oils from C. oleifera and C. chekiangoelosa were similar. We found that the phenolic categories in Camellia seed oils were similar to tea polyphenols, thereby identifying a source of liposoluble tea polyphenols and potentially accounting for some of the reported activities of these oils. In addition, this work provides basic data that allows distinction of various Camellia seed oils, as well as improvements to be made in their quality standards. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Radiological source tracking in oil/gas, medical and other industries: requirements and specifications for passive RFID technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowla, Farid U. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Subsurface sensors that employ radioisotopes, such 241Am-Be and 137Cs, for reservoir characterization must be tracked for safety and security reasons. Other radiological sources are also widely used in medicine. The radiological source containers, in both applications, are small, mobile and used widely worldwide. The nuclear sources pose radiological dispersal device (RDD) security risks. Security concerns with the industrial use of radionuclide sources is in fact quite high as it is estimated that each year hundreds of sealed sources go missing, either lost or stolen. Risk mitigation efforts include enhanced regulations, source-use guidelines, research and development on electronic tracking of sources. This report summarizes the major elements of the requirements and operational concepts of nuclear sources with the goal of developing automated electronic tagging and locating systems.

  7. Cod Liver Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cod liver oil can be obtained from eating fresh cod liver or by taking supplements. Cod liver oil is used as a source of vitamin A ... called macular degeneration. Some people put cod liver oil on their skin to speed healing of wounds, ...

  8. Oil vulnerability index of oil-importing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Eshita

    2008-01-01

    This paper assesses the relative oil vulnerability of 26 net oil-importing countries for the year 2004 on the basis of various indicators - the ratio of value of oil imports to gross domestic product (GDP), oil consumption per unit of GDP, GDP per capita and oil share in total energy supply, ratio of domestic reserves to oil consumption, exposure to geopolitical oil market concentration risks as measured by net oil import dependence, diversification of supply sources, political risk in oil-supplying countries, and market liquidity. The approach using the principal component technique has been adopted to combine these individual indicators into a composite index of oil vulnerability. Such an index captures the relative sensitivity of various economies towards developments of the international oil market, with a higher index indicating higher vulnerability. The results show that there are considerable differences in the values of individual indicators of oil vulnerability and overall oil vulnerability index among the countries (both inter and intraregional). (author)

  9. Oil vulnerability index of oil-importing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Eshita [The Energy and Resources Institute, Darbari Seth Block, Habitat Place, New Delhi 110 003 (India)

    2008-03-15

    This paper assesses the relative oil vulnerability of 26 net oil-importing countries for the year 2004 on the basis of various indicators - the ratio of value of oil imports to gross domestic product (GDP), oil consumption per unit of GDP, GDP per capita and oil share in total energy supply, ratio of domestic reserves to oil consumption, exposure to geopolitical oil market concentration risks as measured by net oil import dependence, diversification of supply sources, political risk in oil-supplying countries, and market liquidity. The approach using the principal component technique has been adopted to combine these individual indicators into a composite index of oil vulnerability. Such an index captures the relative sensitivity of various economies towards developments of the international oil market, with a higher index indicating higher vulnerability. The results show that there are considerable differences in the values of individual indicators of oil vulnerability and overall oil vulnerability index among the countries (both inter and intraregional). (author)

  10. Composition and Variability of the Essential Oil of the Flowers of Lavandula stoechas from Various Geographical Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Bella, Salvatore; Tuttolomondo, Teresa; Dugo, Giacomo; Ruberto, Giuseppe; Leto, Claudio; Napoli, Edoardo M; Potorti, Angela Giorgia; Fede, Maria Rita; Virga, Giuseppe; Leone, Raffaele; D'Anna, Eleonora; Licata, Mario

    2015-11-01

    Samples of flowers of wild Lavandula stoechas L. spp. stoechas populations were collected in three areas of Sicily (Italy) and were characterized in agronomic and chemical terms. Essential oil (EO) was extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. GC-FID and GC-MS analyses permitted identification of 89 compounds from the EO. The samples were separated into 3 groups using PCA (Principal Component Analysis) statistical method, with reference to the chemical composition of the EO. All three Sicilian populations of lavender were identified as the fenchone chemotype with percentage content ranged between 52.8-71.1%. The population of Partinico showed the highest dry weight of flowers per plant (221.3 g), but the lowest EO yield (0.37%). The essential oils of the three wild Sicilian populations of L. stoechas L. spp. stoechas showed a greater chemical differentiation than those obtained from other Mediterranean areas.

  11. Made in China : the face of logistics in the Canadian oil patch is changing as more supplies are sourced overseas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stastny, P.

    2006-01-01

    A review of transportation issues relating to the oil and gas industry was presented. In order to reduce costs, many of the components used by the Canadian oil and gas industry are now being manufactured in other countries or regions. The outsourcing of manufactured components has in turn placed a premium on the logistical expertise used to navigate cost-effective routing options by rail, sea or truck. Intermodal traffic of containerized goods has achieved consistent growth in Canada since 2001. In order to safeguard their interests, income funds investing in oil and gas companies are now involved in a series of mergers, acquisitions and consolidations within the transport industry. In eastern Canada, TransForce and Contrans income trusts have bought approximately 150 transportation companies in Canada. The Mullen Group Income Fund has purchased several large trucking companies to become one of the largest service-related income funds in the country. Over the past 7 years, the number of small carriers in Canada has dropped from 8000 to nearly 6000. Shippers are now aiming to reduce their management burden and negotiate better rates by giving shipping volumes to fewer carriers. Ramping technology and regulatory costs are also impacting the transport industry. Mobility technology is considered a critical competitive tool by 75 per cent of fleet operators. By merging with larger companies, smaller trucking companies can access capital for making needed investments in technology. Labour shortages and the high price of fuels has meant that many oil and gas companies have made a number of changes in their transportation plans, including reducing the number of trips to and from wellsites. 2 figs

  12. Chemometric techniques in oil classification from oil spill fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Azimah; Toriman, Mohd Ekhwan; Juahir, Hafizan; Kassim, Azlina Md; Zain, Sharifuddin Md; Ahmad, Wan Kamaruzaman Wan; Wong, Kok Fah; Retnam, Ananthy; Zali, Munirah Abdul; Mokhtar, Mazlin; Yusri, Mohd Ayub

    2016-10-15

    Extended use of GC-FID and GC-MS in oil spill fingerprinting and matching is significantly important for oil classification from the oil spill sources collected from various areas of Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah (East Malaysia). Oil spill fingerprinting from GC-FID and GC-MS coupled with chemometric techniques (discriminant analysis and principal component analysis) is used as a diagnostic tool to classify the types of oil polluting the water. Clustering and discrimination of oil spill compounds in the water from the actual site of oil spill events are divided into four groups viz. diesel, Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO), Mixture Oil containing Light Fuel Oil (MOLFO) and Waste Oil (WO) according to the similarity of their intrinsic chemical properties. Principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrates that diesel, HFO, MOLFO and WO are types of oil or oil products from complex oil mixtures with a total variance of 85.34% and are identified with various anthropogenic activities related to either intentional releasing of oil or accidental discharge of oil into the environment. Our results show that the use of chemometric techniques is significant in providing independent validation for classifying the types of spilled oil in the investigation of oil spill pollution in Malaysia. This, in consequence would result in cost and time saving in identification of the oil spill sources. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. 40 CFR 421.304 - Standards of performance for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary and... Chromium (total) 0.474 0.192 Lead 0.359 0.167 Nickel 0.705 0.474 Titanium 0.679 0.295 Oil and grease 12.820...

  14. Category O for quantum groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henning Haahr; Mazorchuk, Volodymyr

    2015-01-01

    We study the BGG-categories O_q associated to quantum groups. We prove that many properties of the ordinary BGG-category O for a semisimple complex Lie algebra carry over to the quantum case. Of particular interest is the case when q is a complex root of unity. Here we prove a tensor decomposition...... for simple modules, projective modules, and indecomposable tilting modules. Using the known Kazhdan–Lusztig conjectures for O and for finite-dimensional U_q-modules we are able to determine all irreducible characters as well as the characters of all indecomposable tilting modules in O_q . As a consequence......, we also recover the known result that the generic quantum case behaves like the classical category O....

  15. I. Forensic data analysis by pattern recognition. Categorization of white bond papers by elemental composition. II. Source identification of oil spills by pattern recognition analysis of natural elemental composition. III. Improving the reliability of factor analysis of chemical measured analytical data by utilizing the measured analytical uncertainity. IV. Elucidating the structure of some clinical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duewer, D.L.

    1977-01-01

    Pattern recognition techniques are applied to the analysis of white bond papers and the problem of determining the source of an oil spill. In each case, an elemental analysis by neutron activation is employed. For the determination of source of oil spills, the field sample was weathered prior to activation analysis. A procedure for including measured analytical uncertainty into data analysis methodology is discussed, with particular reference to factor analysis. The suitability of various dispersion matrices and matrix rank determination criteria for data having analytical uncertainty is investigated. A criterion useful for judging the number of factors insensitive to analytical uncertainty is presented. A model data structure for investigating the behavior of factor analysis techniques in a known, controlled manner is described and analyzed. A chemically interesting test data base having analytical uncertainty is analyzed and compared with the model data. The data structure of 22 blood constituents in three categories of liver disease (viral or toxic hepatitis, alcoholic liver diseases and obstructive processes) is studied using various statistical and pattern recognition techniques. Comparison of classification results on the original data, in combination with principal component analysis, suggests a possible underlying structure for the data. This model structure is tested by the application of two simple data transformations. Analysis of the transformed data appears to confirm that some basic understanding of the studied data has been achieved

  16. Hippocampal activation during episodic and semantic memory retrieval: comparing category production and category cued recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Lee; Cox, Christine; Hayes, Scott M; Nadel, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    Whether or not the hippocampus participates in semantic memory retrieval has been the focus of much debate in the literature. However, few neuroimaging studies have directly compared hippocampal activation during semantic and episodic retrieval tasks that are well matched in all respects other than the source of the retrieved information. In Experiment 1, we compared hippocampal fMRI activation during a classic semantic memory task, category production, and an episodic version of the same task, category cued recall. Left hippocampal activation was observed in both episodic and semantic conditions, although other regions of the brain clearly distinguished the two tasks. Interestingly, participants reported using retrieval strategies during the semantic retrieval task that relied on autobiographical and spatial information; for example, visualizing themselves in their kitchen while producing items for the category kitchen utensils. In Experiment 2, we considered whether the use of these spatial and autobiographical retrieval strategies could have accounted for the hippocampal activation observed in Experiment 1. Categories were presented that elicited one of three retrieval strategy types, autobiographical and spatial, autobiographical and nonspatial, and neither autobiographical nor spatial. Once again, similar hippocampal activation was observed for all three category types, regardless of the inclusion of spatial or autobiographical content. We conclude that the distinction between semantic and episodic memory is more complex than classic memory models suggest.

  17. FINANCIAL CONTROL AS A CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Yu. Volkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the basics of “financial control” as a category. The main attention is concentrated on the “control” itself (asa term, multiplicity of interpretation of“financial control” term and its juristic-practical matching. The duality of financial control category is detected. The identity of terms “financial control” and “state financial control” is justified. The article also offers ways of development of financial control juristical regulation.

  18. A Contribution to the Problem of Initiation of a Combustion Source in an Oil-Saturated Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koznacheev, I. A.; Dobrego, K. V.

    2013-11-01

    The problem on in-situ self-ignition of an oil-saturated bed under the conditions of forced filtration of an oxygen-containing gas has been solved with analytical and numerical methods with account of the burnout of a deficient gas component. The influence of the burnout of this component and of convective removal of heat from the bed on the time of its self-ignition has been determined. Recommendations for the optimum regime of initiation of the self-ignition of the bed with account of variation of the blast flow rate and the oxygen content have been given.

  19. Giant Taro (Alocasia macrorrhiza) Root Meal with or without Coconut Oil Slurry as Source of Dietary Energy for Laying Hens

    OpenAIRE

    Diarra, S.S.; Oikali, C.; Rasch, I.M.; Taro, L.; Vatigava, M.; Amosa, F.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of feeding Alocasia macrorrhiza root meal (AMRM) with or without added coconut oil slurry (COS) on egg production and egg qualities was investigated in a 20-week experiment. A control diet based on maize and 4 other diets containing 10 and 20% AMRM with or without COS were fed each to 4 replicates of 10 birds in a completely randomized design. There were no significant dietary effects on feed intake (FI) and the intake of lysine, methionine and metabolizable energy (ME). Birds fed ...

  20. International Conference on Category Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Pedicchio, Maria; Rosolini, Guiseppe

    1991-01-01

    With one exception, these papers are original and fully refereed research articles on various applications of Category Theory to Algebraic Topology, Logic and Computer Science. The exception is an outstanding and lengthy survey paper by Joyal/Street (80 pp) on a growing subject: it gives an account of classical Tannaka duality in such a way as to be accessible to the general mathematical reader, and to provide a key for entry to more recent developments and quantum groups. No expertise in either representation theory or category theory is assumed. Topics such as the Fourier cotransform, Tannaka duality for homogeneous spaces, braided tensor categories, Yang-Baxter operators, Knot invariants and quantum groups are introduced and studies. From the Contents: P.J. Freyd: Algebraically complete categories.- J.M.E. Hyland: First steps in synthetic domain theory.- G. Janelidze, W. Tholen: How algebraic is the change-of-base functor?.- A. Joyal, R. Street: An introduction to Tannaka duality and quantum groups.- A. Jo...

  1. Learnable Classes of Categorial Grammars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Makoto

    Learnability theory is an attempt to illuminate the concept of learnability using a mathematical model of learning. Two models of learning of categorial grammars are examined here: the standard model, in which sentences presented to the learner are flat strings of words, and one in which sentences are presented in the form of functor-argument…

  2. Language universals without universal categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croft, W.; van Lier, E.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors present their views on an article by author Sandra Chung related to lexical categories. According to them, Chung's article critiques an analysis of word classes in Chamorro by author Donald M. Topping. They discuss the restatements made by Chung on Topping's criteria for

  3. Auditory and phonetic category formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudbeek, Martijn; Cutler, A.; Smits, R.; Swingley, D.; Cohen, Henri; Lefebvre, Claire

    2017-01-01

    Among infants' first steps in language acquisition is learning the relevant contrasts of the language-specific phonemic repertoire. This learning is viewed as the formation of categories in a multidimensional psychophysical space. Research in the visual modality has shown that for adults, some kinds

  4. Analysis of Volatile Markers for Virgin Olive Oil Aroma Defects by SPME-GC/FID: Possible Sources of Incorrect Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver-Pozo, Celia; Aparicio-Ruiz, Ramón; Romero, Inmaculada; García-González, Diego L

    2015-12-09

    The need to explain virgin olive oil (VOO) aroma descriptors by means of volatiles has raised interest in applying analytical techniques for trapping and quantitating volatiles. Static headspace sampling with solid phase microextraction (SPME) as trapping material is one of the most applied solutions for analyzing volatiles. The use of an internal standard and the determination of the response factors of the main volatiles seem to guarantee the correct determination of volatile concentrations in VOOs by SPME-GC/FID. This paper, however, shows that the competition phenomena between volatiles in their adsorption to the SPME fiber, inherent in static headspace sampling, may affect the quantitation. These phenomena are more noticeable in the particular case of highly odorant matrices, such as rancid and vinegary VOOs with high intensity of defect. The competition phenomena can modify the measurement sensitivity, which can be observed in volatile quantitation as well as in the recording of internal standard areas in different matrices. This paper analyzes the bias of the peak areas and concentrations of those volatiles that are markers for each sensory defect of VOOs (rancid, vinegary, musty, and fusty) when the intensity and complexity of aroma are increased. Of the 17 volatile markers studied in this work, 10 presented some anomalies in the quantitation in highly odorant matrices due the competition phenomena. However, quantitation was not affected in the concentration ranges at which each volatile marker is typically found in the defective oils they were characteristic of, validating their use as markers.

  5. Asian oil demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesharaki, F.

    2005-01-01

    This conference presentation examined global oil market development and the role of Asian demand. It discussed plateau change versus cyclical movement in the global oil market; supply and demand issues of OPEC and non-OPEC oil; if high oil prices reduce demand; and the Asian oil picture in the global context. Asian oil demand has accounted for about 50 per cent of the global incremental oil market growth. The presentation provided data charts in graphical format on global and Asia-Pacific incremental oil demand from 1990-2005; Asia oil demand growth for selected nations; real GDP growth in selected Asian countries; and, Asia-Pacific oil production and net import requirements. It also included charts in petroleum product demand for Asia-Pacific, China, India, Japan, and South Korea. Other data charts included key indicators for China's petroleum sector; China crude production and net oil import requirements; China's imports and the share of the Middle East; China's oil exports and imports; China's crude imports by source for 2004; China's imports of main oil products for 2004; India's refining capacity; India's product balance for net-imports and net-exports; and India's trade pattern of oil products. tabs., figs

  6. Use of polar and nonpolar fractions as additional information sources for studying thermoxidized virgin olive oils by FTIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tena, N.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy has been proposed to study the degradation of virgin olive oils (VOO in samples undergoing thermoxidation. The polar and nonpolar fractions of oxidized oils have been analyzed by FTIR to provide further information on the minor spectral changes taking place during thermoxidation. This information assists in the interpretation of the spectra of the samples. For this purpose polar and nonpolar fractions of 47 VOO samples thermoxidized (190 °C in a fryer were analyzed by FTIR. The time-course change of the band area assigned to single cis double bonds was explained by their correlation with the decrease in oleic acid (adjusted-R2=0.93. The bands assigned to the hydroxyl groups and the first overtone of ester groups was better studied in the spectra collected for the polar and nonpolar fractions, respectively. The bands assigned to peroxide, epoxy, tertiary alcohols and fatty acids were clearly observed in the spectra of the polar fraction while they are not noticeable in the spectra of the oils.La espectroscopía de infrarrojos por transformada de Fourier (FTIR se ha propuesto para estudiar la degradación de los aceites de oliva vírgenes (AOV sujetas a termoxidación. Las fracciones polares y no polares de aceites oxidados se analizaron mediante FTIR para obtener más información sobre los cambios espectrales menores que tienen lugar durante la termoxidación. Esa información ayuda en la interpretación de los espectros de las muestras puras. Con este objetivo, fracciones polares y no polares de 47 AOV termoxidados (190 °C en una freidora se analizaron mediante FTIR. La banda asignada a dobles enlaces cis se explica por su correlación con la disminución de ácido oleico (R2-ajustado=0,93. Las bandas asignadas a los grupos hidroxilos y del primer sobretono de los grupos éster se estudió mejor en los espectros recogidos para la fracción polar y no polar, respectivamente. Grupos asignados a per

  7. Renewable Oil Extracted from Indonesian Srikaya’s (Annona squamosa sp. Seed: Another Potent Source for Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masruri Masruri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study looks at the wastes derived from Indonesian fruit as prospect for biofuels. This report investigates the chemical composition of Srikaya (Annona squamosal sp. seed, which is disposed as waste products from traditional markets. The seeds were extracted with various extraction methods and the oil obtained was analysed by means of gas chromatography (GC/FID, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS, infra-red spectrometry and ultra-violet-visible spectrometry. It was found 2 h extraction using soxhlet apparatus with diethyl ether as solvent gave the optimum time extraction. Moreover, five major components were isolated from i.e.: ethyl hexadecanoate, ethyl hexadec-9-enoate, ethyl octadecanoate, 2-hydroxy-1,3-propanediyl hexadecanoate, octadec-9-enaldehyde, and unknown compound, respectively.

  8. Interim report for documentation of computer programs for crude oil profile analysis. [Codes, CV, CRULE, CPR, CIMPACT, ENT ADJ, REF VOLS, CIMP PRT, C MODEL, C PRINT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    This report is summarizing the findings and documenting the programs developed by Economic Regulatory Administration (ERA) for the Crude Oil Profile Analysis. Based on a variety of estimates and assumptions from different sources, ERA developed a series of computer programs which generate a 24-month projection of the crude oil production in each of the price categories. AVANTE International Systems Corporation is contracted to provide an organized documentation for all of these data base, assumptions, estimation rationale and computing procedures.

  9. The use of the isotopic composition of individual compounds for correlating spilled oils and refined products in the environment with suspected sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philp, R.P.; Allen, J.; Kuder, T.

    2002-01-01

    Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (CGMS) are two methods generally used to correlate crude oils and refined products found in the environment with their suspected pollution sources. In certain cases, this can be done with bulk carbon isotope compositions, but with crude condensates, or refined products, the lack of biomarkers prohibits the successful use for making unique correlations. Such products can be correlated using an alternative method which makes use of combined gas chromatography-isotope ratio and mass spectrometry (GCIRMS). This method makes it possible to determine the carbon and hydrogen isotopic composition of individual compounds in crude oil, thus producing isotopic fingerprints that could be used in correlation studies. The feasibility of using of GCIRMS to correlate various spilled products in different environments was the main focus of this study. The authors are not proposing that this method will replace GC or GCMS, but are suggesting that it is a powerful tool that could be used in conjunction with the early methods. Carbon and hydrogen isotopic fractionation has been reported for light components such as benzene and toluene. Higher carbon numbered compounds do not seem to undergo major carbon isotopic fractionation as a result of weathering. Hydrogen variations are currently undergoing investigation for compounds with a carbon number greater than C10. Also, isotopic fractionation for refined products has the potential to attenuate naturally. 33 refs., 6 figs

  10. Grammatical Constructions as Relational Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwater, Micah B

    2017-07-01

    This paper argues that grammatical constructions, specifically argument structure constructions that determine the "who did what to whom" part of sentence meaning and how this meaning is expressed syntactically, can be considered a kind of relational category. That is, grammatical constructions are represented as the abstraction of the syntactic and semantic relations of the exemplar utterances that are expressed in that construction, and it enables the generation of novel exemplars. To support this argument, I review evidence that there are parallel behavioral patterns between how children learn relational categories generally and how they learn grammatical constructions specifically. Then, I discuss computational simulations of how grammatical constructions are abstracted from exemplar sentences using a domain-general relational cognitive architecture. Last, I review evidence from adult language processing that shows parallel behavioral patterns with expert behavior from other cognitive domains. After reviewing the evidence, I consider how to integrate this account with other theories of language development. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  11. A Formal Calculus for Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cáccamo, Mario José

    This dissertation studies the logic underlying category theory. In particular we present a formal calculus for reasoning about universal properties. The aim is to systematise judgements about functoriality and naturality central to categorical reasoning. The calculus is based on a language which...... extends the typed lambda calculus with new binders to represent universal constructions. The types of the languages are interpreted as locally small categories and the expressions represent functors. The logic supports a syntactic treatment of universality and duality. Contravariance requires a definition...... of universality generous enough to deal with functors of mixed variance. Ends generalise limits to cover these kinds of functors and moreover provide the basis for a very convenient algebraic manipulation of expressions. The equational theory of the lambda calculus is extended with new rules for the definitions...

  12. Seismic Category I Structures Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endebrock, E.G.; Dove, R.C.; Anderson, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    The Seismic Category I Structures Program currently being carried out at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is sponsored by the Mechanical/Structural Engineering Branch, Division of Engineering Technology of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This project is part of a program designed to increase confidence in the assessment of Category I nuclear power plant structural behavior beyond the design limit. The program involves the design, construction, and testing of heavily reinforced concrete models of auxiliary buildings, fuel-handling buildings, etc., but doe not include the reactor containment building. The overall goal of the program is to supply to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission experimental information and a validated procedure to establish the sensitivity of the dynamic response of these structures to earthquakes of magnitude beyond the design basis earthquake

  13. Different Categories of Business Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona-Valeria TOMA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Every business organisation involves some element of risk. Unmitigated risks can result in lost opportunity, financial losses, loss of reputation, or loss of the right to operate in a jurisdiction. Like any other risk type, understanding business risks is quite important for every business to garner profits instead of facing losses. A business risk is a universal risk type; this means that every business in the world faces business risks. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the different categories of business risk in order to create the appropriate strategies. The aim of this paper is to describe the most important categories of business risks and to make sure that every type of risk receives equal treatment and consideration.

  14. Virtue Ethics: The Misleading Category

    OpenAIRE

    Martha Nussbaum

    1998-01-01

    Virtue ethics is frequently considered to be a single category of ethical theory, and a rival to Kantianismand Utilitarianism. I argue that this approach is a mistake, because both Kantians and Utilitarians can, and do, have an interest in the virtues and the forrnation of character. But even if we focus on the group of ethical theorists who are most commonly called "virtue theorists" because they reject the guidance of both Kantianism and Utilitarianism, and derive inspiration from ancient G...

  15. Virtue Ethics: The Misleading Category

    OpenAIRE

    Nussbaum, Martha

    2013-01-01

    Virtue ethics is frequently considered to be a single category of ethical theory, and a rival to Kantianismand Utilitarianism. I argue that this approach is a mistake, because both Kantians and Utilitarians can, and do, have an interest in the virtues and the forrnation of character. But even if we focus on the group of ethical theorists who are most commonly called "virtue theorists" because they reject the guidance of both Kantianism and Utilitarianism, and derive inspiration from ancient G...

  16. 1999 who's who category index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A classified index and alphabetical directory of Canadian corporate entities involved in the production, manufacturing, conversion, service, retail sales, research and development, transportation, insurance, legal and communications aspects of propane in Canada is provided. The alphabetical directory section provides the usual business information (name, postal address, phone, fax, e-mail and Internet addresses), names of principal officers, affiliations, products or services produced or marketed, and the category under which the company is listed in the classified index

  17. Traceability from weathered oil spills in the marine environment to the original contamination source. A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimov, N.; Pavlova, A.

    2000-01-01

    An algorithm for stepwise approximation to the most reliable source of contamination is proposed. The concept of the algorithm is based on discrimination rather than on similarity. Gradually, by means of more complicated and higher distinguishing power approaches, the differences between the spilled sample and the suspected source are checked. Capillary gas chromatography with flame-ionization and mass spectrometric detection was applied to gather the necessary data. Fingerprint, diagnostic parameter approaches and pattern recognition methods were used for reliably distinguishing the analytical results. If the compared samples are not discriminated by any means, they are considered as identical. (Author)

  18. Biomass gasification bottom ash as a source of CaO catalyst for biodiesel production via transesterification of palm oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maneerung, Thawatchai; Kawi, Sibudjing; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CaO catalyst was successfully developed from wood gasification bottom ash. • CaCO 3 in bottom ash can be converted to CaO catalyst by calcination. • CaO catalysts derived from bottom ash exhibited high activity towards transesterification. • CaO catalysts derived from bottom ash can be reutilized up to four times. - Abstract: The main aim of this research is to develop environmentally and economically benign heterogeneous catalysts for biodiesel production via transesterification of palm oil. For this propose, calcium oxide (CaO) catalyst has been developed from bottom ash waste arising from woody biomass gasification. Calcium carbonate was found to be the main component in bottom ash and can be transformed into the active CaO catalyst by simple calcination at 800 °C without any chemical treatment. The obtained CaO catalysts exhibit high biodiesel production activity, over 90% yield of methyl ester can be achieved at the optimized reaction condition. Experimental kinetic data fit well the pseudo-first order kinetic model. The activation energy (E a ) of the transesterification reaction was calculated to be 83.9 kJ mol −1 . Moreover, the CaO catalysts derived from woody biomass gasification bottom ash can be reutilized up to four times, offering the efficient and low-cost CaO catalysts which could make biodiesel production process more economic and environmental friendly

  19. Giant Taro (Alocasia macrorrhiza Root Meal with or without Coconut Oil Slurry as Source of Dietary Energy for Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diarra, S.S.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of feeding Alocasia macrorrhiza root meal (AMRM with or without added coconut oil slurry (COS on egg production and egg qualities was investigated in a 20-week experiment. A control diet based on maize and 4 other diets containing 10 and 20% AMRM with or without COS were fed each to 4 replicates of 10 birds in a completely randomized design. There were no significant dietary effects on feed intake (FI and the intake of lysine, methionine and metabolizable energy (ME. Birds fed the 20% AMRM_COS added significantly less weight during the experimental period compared to the control fed group. Body weight change (BWC did not differ among the AMRM fed birds. Per cent hen-day and feed conversion ratio were depressed on 20% AMRM and egg weight on 10% AMRM but these depressing effects were overcome by COS addition. Egg shape index, Haugh unit and per cent shell were not affected by the diet. It is concluded that AMRM can replace 10% dietary maize without adverse effect on laying performance but 20% replacement negatively impacts on hen-day and egg weight. These adverse effects are however, overcome by treating AMRM with COS at the ratio of 9: 1. More research into higher levels of COS treated AMRM in the diet is warranted.

  20. A category of its own?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Jørgen; Roberts, Nigel S.

    1996-01-01

    of these systems on the proportionality of the representation of political parties are, indeed, comparable. The four electoral systems were the basis of their countries' general elections during 1994. The results of these elections are used for analyses and discussions of the relative importance of the differences......At first sight, the electoral systems in Denmark, Germany, South Africa and Sweden may seem different and attaempt to categorize them together odd. All four, however, belong to the same category, which Arend Lijphart calls 'proportional representation two-tier districting systems', and the effects...

  1. Functional categories in comparative linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    , Roger M. 1979. Linguistic knowledge and cultural knowledge: some doubts and speculation. American Anthropologist 81-1, 14-36. Levinson, Stephen C. 1997. From outer to inner space: linguistic categories and non-linguistic thinking. In J. Nuyts and E. Pederson (eds.), Language and Conceptualization, 13......). Furthermore certain ‘ontological categories’ are language-specific (Malt 1995). For example, speakers of Kalam (New Guinea) do not classify the cassowary as a bird, because they believe it has a mythical kinship relation with humans (Bulmer 1967).       In this talk I will discuss the role of functional...

  2. 14 CFR 23.3 - Airplane categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane categories. 23.3 Section 23.3... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES General § 23.3 Airplane categories. (a) The normal category is limited to airplanes that have a seating configuration, excluding pilot...

  3. Characteristics of source rocks of the Datangpo Fm, Nanhua System, at the southeastern margin of Sichuan Basin and their significance to oil and gas exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengye Xie

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, much attention has been paid to the development environment, biogenetic compositions and hydrocarbon generation characteristics of ancient source rocks in the deep strata of the Sichuan Basin because oil and gas exploration extends continuously to the deep and ultra-deep strata and a giant gas field with the explored reserves of more than 1 × 1012 m3 was discovered in the Middle and Upper Proterozoic–Lower Paleozoic strata in the stable inherited paleo-uplift of the central Sichuan Basin. Based on the previous geological research results, outcrop section of the Datangpo Fm, Nanhua System, at the southeastern margin of the Sichuan Basin was observed and the samples taken from the source rocks were tested and analyzed in terms of their organic geochemistry and organic petrology. It is shown that high-quality black shale source rocks of the Datangpo Fm are developed in the tensional background at the southeastern margin of the Sichuan Basin between two glacial ages, i.e., Gucheng and Nantuo ages in the Nanhua Period. Their thickness is 16–180 m and mineral compositions are mainly clay minerals and clastic quartz. Besides, shale in the Datangpo Fm is of high-quality sapropel type source rock with high abundance at an over-mature stage, and it is characterized by low pristane/phytane ratios (0.32–0.83, low gammacerane abundance, high-abundance tricyclic terpane and higher-content C27 and C29 gonane, indicating that biogenetic compositions are mainly algae and microbes in a strong reducing environment with low salinity. It is concluded that the Datangpo Fm source rocks may be developed in the rift of Nanhua System in central Sichuan Basin. Paleo-uplifts and paleo-slopes before the Caledonian are the favorable locations for the accumulation of dispersed liquid hydrocarbons and paleo-reservoirs derived from the Datangpo Fm source rocks. In addition, scale accumulation zones of dispersed organic matter cracking gas and paleo

  4. Utah Heavy Oil Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Bauman; S. Burian; M. Deo; E. Eddings; R. Gani; R. Goel; C.K. Huang; M. Hogue; R. Keiter; L. Li; J. Ruple; T. Ring; P. Rose; M. Skliar; P.J. Smith; J.P. Spinti; P. Tiwari; J. Wilkey; K. Uchitel

    2009-10-20

    The Utah Heavy Oil Program (UHOP) was established in June 2006 to provide multidisciplinary research support to federal and state constituents for addressing the wide-ranging issues surrounding the creation of an industry for unconventional oil production in the United States. Additionally, UHOP was to serve as an on-going source of unbiased information to the nation surrounding technical, economic, legal and environmental aspects of developing heavy oil, oil sands, and oil shale resources. UHOP fulGilled its role by completing three tasks. First, in response to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Section 369(p), UHOP published an update report to the 1987 technical and economic assessment of domestic heavy oil resources that was prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The UHOP report, entitled 'A Technical, Economic, and Legal Assessment of North American Heavy Oil, Oil Sands, and Oil Shale Resources' was published in electronic and hard copy form in October 2007. Second, UHOP developed of a comprehensive, publicly accessible online repository of unconventional oil resources in North America based on the DSpace software platform. An interactive map was also developed as a source of geospatial information and as a means to interact with the repository from a geospatial setting. All documents uploaded to the repository are fully searchable by author, title, and keywords. Third, UHOP sponsored Give research projects related to unconventional fuels development. Two projects looked at issues associated with oil shale production, including oil shale pyrolysis kinetics, resource heterogeneity, and reservoir simulation. One project evaluated in situ production from Utah oil sands. Another project focused on water availability and produced water treatments. The last project considered commercial oil shale leasing from a policy, environmental, and economic perspective.

  5. Aspect as a Communicative Category

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durst-Andersen, Per

    2018-01-01

    On the basis of internal evidence from primarily the use of imperfective forms and external evidence from primarily first language acquisition, it is argued that English, Russian, and French aspect differ from one another, because they go back to an obligatory choice among three possible communic......On the basis of internal evidence from primarily the use of imperfective forms and external evidence from primarily first language acquisition, it is argued that English, Russian, and French aspect differ from one another, because they go back to an obligatory choice among three possible...... communicative directions: should a grammatical category be grounded in the speaker's experience of a situation, in the situation referred to or in the hearer as information about the situation? The progressive vs. non-progressive distinction in English is acquired in the present tense of atelic (simplex) verbs...... to the meta-distinction between atelic (simplex) and telic (complex) verbs. It is second-person oriented. The specific order arrived at reflects the Peircean categories of Firstness, Secondness, and Thirdness and their predictions. This can account for the fact that the English and Russian types can be found...

  6. Radon, methane, carbon dioxide, oil seeps and potentially harmful elements from natural sources and mining area: relevance to planning and development in Great Britain. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    Contaminated land is a major environmental issue in Great Britain mainly due to increased awareness and the change in public attitudes, but also due to pressures of UK and EC environmental legislation and directives. Government policy with respect to contaminated land is to deal with actual threats to health on a risk-based approach taking into account the use and environmental setting of the land; and to bring contaminated land back into beneficial use as far as practicable, and taking into account the principles of sustainability. The government has been concerned primarily with land which is being or has been put to potentially contaminative uses. However, some potentially harmful substances occur naturally and this review is concerned principally with three groups of 'natural' contaminants from geological sources: natural radioactivity, including radon, background radioactivity, and radioactive waters, derived mainly from uranium minerals and their weathering products in rocks and soils; methane, carbon dioxide and oil derived from coal bearing rocks, hydrocarbon source rocks, peat and other natural accumulations of organic matter; and potentially harmful chemical elements (PHEs), including arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, fluorine, lead, mercury, nickel, and zinc, derived from naturally occurring rocks and minerals. (author)

  7. Determination of 2-alkylcyclobutanones in ultraviolet light-irradiated fatty acids, triglycerides, corn oil, and pork samples: Identifying a new source of 2-alkylcyclobutanones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangpeng; Chan, Wan

    2017-02-15

    Previous studies have established that 2-alkylcyclobutanones (2-ACBs) are unique radiolytic products in lipid-containing foods that could only be formed through exposure to ionizing radiation, but not by any other means of physical/heat treatment methods. Therefore, 2-ACBs are currently the marker molecules required by the European Committee for Standardization to be used to identify foods irradiated with ionizing irradiation. Using a spectrum of state-of-the-art analytical instruments, we present in this study for the first time that the generation of 2-ACBs was also possible when fatty acids and triglycerides are exposed to a non-ionizing, short-wavelength ultraviolet (UV-C) light source. An irradiation dosage-dependent formation of 2-ACBs was also observed in UV-C irradiated fatty acids, triglycerides, corn oil, and pork samples. With UV-C irradiation becoming an increasingly common food treatment procedure, it is anticipated that the results from this study will alert food scientists and regulatory officials to a potential new source for 2-ACBs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. OIL AS POLITICAL WEAPON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana, BUICAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil (called by some black gold has not always been as coveted and used, but only in the last hundred years has established itself as a highly sought after as an indispensable proper functioning of modern economic activity that an important factor in international politics. International oil regime has changed in the last decades. In 1960, oil regime was a private oligopol which had links with governments main consuming countries. By then the price of a barrel of oil was two U.S. dollars and seven major transnational oil companies decided the amount of oil that will be produced. Meanwhile the world region with the largest oil exports were more strongly expressed nationalism and decolonization. Result, it was so in the late 60s in the region occur independent states. They have created an organization aim of this resource to their advantage - OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Thus since 1973 there have been changes in the international regime governing oil field, namely producing countries were fixed production rate and price. After this time the oil weapon has become increasingly important in the management of international relations. Oil influenced the great powers to Middle East conflicts that occurred in the last century, but their attitude about the emergence of new sources of oil outside OPEC. In the late 90's, Russia has become a major supplier of oil to the West.

  9. Possible Involvement of Permian Phosphoria Formation Oil as a Source of REE and Other Metals Associated with Complex U-V Mineralization in the Northern Bighorn Basin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita L. Moore-Nall

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The origin of V, U, REE and other metals in the Permian Phosphoria Formation have been speculated and studied by numerous scientists. The exceptionally high concentrations of metals have been interpreted to reflect fundamental transitions from anoxic to oxic marine conditions. Much of the oil in the Bighorn Basin, is sourced by the Phosphoria Formation. Two of the top 10 producing oil fields in Wyoming are located approximately 50 km west of two abandoned U-V mining districts in the northern portion of the basin. These fields produce from basin margin anticlinal structures from Mississippian age reservoir rock. Samples collected from abandoned U-V mines and prospects hosted in Mississippian aged paleokarst in Montana and Wyoming have hydrocarbon residue present and contain anomalous high concentrations of many metals that are found in similar concentrations in the Phosphoria Formation. As, Hg, Mo, Pb, Tl, U, V and Zn, often metals of environmental concern occur in high concentrations in Phosphoria Formation samples and had values ranging from 30–1295 ppm As, 0.179–12.8 ppm Hg, 2–791 ppm Mo, <2–146 ppm Pb, 10–490 ppm Tl, 907–86,800 ppm U, 1240–18,900 ppm V, and 7–2230 ppm Zn, in mineralized samples from this study. The REE plus Y composition of Madison Limestone- and limestone breccia hosted-bitumen reflect similar patterns to both mineralized samples from this study and to U.S. Geological Survey rock samples from studies of the Phosphoria Formation. Geochemical, mineralogical and field data were used to investigate past theories for mineralization of these deposits to determine if U present in home wells and Hg content of fish from rivers on the proximal Crow Indian Reservation may have been derived from these deposits or related to their mode of mineralization.

  10. Discharges of produced waters from oil and gas extraction via wastewater treatment plants are sources of disinfection by-products to receiving streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladik, Michelle; Focazio, Michael J.; Engle, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Fluids co-produced with oil and gas production (produced waters) are often brines that contain elevated concentrations of bromide. Bromide is an important precursor of several toxic disinfection by-products (DBPs) and the treatment of produced water may lead to more brominated DBPs. To determine if wastewater treatment plants that accept produced waters discharge greater amounts of brominated DBPs, water samples were collected in Pennsylvania from four sites along a large river including an upstream site, a site below a publicly owned wastewater treatment plant (POTW) outfall (does not accept produced water), a site below an oil and gas commercial wastewater treatment plant (CWT) outfall, and downstream of the POTW and CWT. Of 29 DBPs analyzed, the site at the POTW outfall had the highest number detected (six) ranging in concentration from 0.01 to 0.09 μg L− 1 with a similar mixture of DBPs that have been detected at POTW outfalls elsewhere in the United States. The DBP profile at the CWT outfall was much different, although only two DBPs, dibromochloronitromethane (DBCNM) and chloroform, were detected, DBCNM was found at relatively high concentrations (up to 8.5 μg L− 1). The water at the CWT outfall also had a mixture of inorganic and organic precursors including elevated concentrations of bromide (75 mg L− 1) and other organic DBP precursors (phenol at 15 μg L− 1). To corroborate these DBP results, samples were collected in Pennsylvania from additional POTW and CWT outfalls that accept produced waters. The additional CWT also had high concentrations of DBCNM (3.1 μg L− 1) while the POTWs that accept produced waters had elevated numbers (up to 15) and concentrations of DBPs, especially brominated and iodinated THMs (up to 12 μg L− 1 total THM concentration). Therefore, produced water brines that have been disinfected are potential sources of DBPs along with DBP precursors to streams wherever these wastewaters are discharged.

  11. 2D seismic interpretation and characterization of the Hauterivian-Early Barremian source rock in Al Baraka oil field, Komombo Basin, Upper Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Moamen; Darwish, M.; Essa, Mahmoud A.; Abdelhady, A.

    2018-03-01

    Komombo Basin is located in Upper Egypt about 570 km southeast of Cairo; it is an asymmetrical half graben and the first oil producing basin in Upper Egypt. The Six Hills Formation is of Early Cretaceous age and subdivided into seven members from base to top (A-G); meanwhile the B member is of Hauterivian-Early Barremian and it is the only source rock of Komombo Basin. Therefore, a detailed study of the SR should be carried out, which includes the determination of the main structural elements, thickness, facies distribution and characterization of the B member SR which has not been conducted previously in the study area. Twenty 2D seismic lines were interpreted with three vertical seismic profiles (VSP) to construct the depth structure-tectonic map on the top of the B member and to highlight the major structural elements. The interpretation of depth structure contour map shows two main fault trends directed towards the NW-SE and NE to ENE directions. The NW-SE trend is the dominant one, creating a major half-graben system. Also the depth values range from -8400 ft at the depocenter in the eastern part to -4800 ft at the shoulder of the basin in the northwestern part of the study area. Meanwhile the Isopach contour map of the B member shows a variable thickness ranging between 300 ft to 750 ft. The facies model shows that the B member SR is composed mainly of shale with some sandstone streaks. The B member rock samples were collected from Al Baraka-1 and Al Baraka SE-1 in the eastern part of Komombo Basin. The results indicate that the organic matter content (TOC) has mainly good to very good (1-3.36 wt %), The B member samples have HI values in the range 157-365 (mg HC/g TOC) and dominated by Type II/III kerogen, and is thus considered to be oil-gas prone based on Rock-Eval pyrolysis, Tmax values between 442° and 456° C therefore interpreted to be mature for hydrocarbon generation. Based on the measured vitrinite equivalent reflectance values, the B member SR

  12. Electricity/oil substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melvin, J.G.

    1980-09-01

    The extent to which electricity could substitute for imported oil in Canada is assessed and it is concluded that the bulk of projected oil imports could be displaced. This substitution of electricity for oil could be largely completed within two decades, with existing technology, using Canadian resources. The substitution of electricity for imported oil would result in relatively low energy costs and would stimulate economic growth. Energy self-sufficiency through the substitution of electricity for oil is uniquely a Canadian option; it is not open to other industrial countries. The option exists because of Canada's resources of oil sands for essential liquid fuels, hydraulic and nuclear electrical potential, and natural gas as an interim source of energy. While other countries face an energy crisis due to declining supplies of oil, Canada faces opportunities. The policies of Federal and Provincial governments, as perceived by individual decision makers, will have a major influence on Canada's ability to realize opportunities. (auth)

  13. Alternatives to OPEC oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.

    1981-01-01

    This paper starts from the assumption that, for various reasons, the supply of OPEC oil required to meet a rising world energy demand will continue to be limited. Its purpose is to present a synoptic look at the various sources of energy which are alternatives to OPEC oil, with an economic commentary on the prospects for each source. A wide variety of projects are going forward for the development of non-OPEC oil, gas, coal, and nuclear power, as well as renewable energy resources. Special attention is devoted to questions of energy pricing, investment costs, and sources of finance. (author)

  14. Standardization of radioactive waste categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    A large amount of information about most aspects of radioactive waste management has been accumulated and made available to interested nations in recent years. The efficiency of this service has been somewhat hampered because the terminology used to describe the different types of radioactive waste has varied from country to country and indeed from installation to installation within a given country. This publication is the outcome of a panel meeting on Standardization of Radioactive Waste Categories. It presents a simple standard to be used as a common language between people working in the field of waste management at nuclear installations. The purpose of the standard is only to act as a practical tool for increasing efficiency in communicating, collecting and assessing technical and economical information in the common interest of all nations and the developing countries in particular. 20 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  15. Foliar Essential Oil Glands of Eucalyptus Subgenus Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae Are a Rich Source of Flavonoids and Related Non-Volatile Constituents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Q D Goodger

    Full Text Available The sub-dermal secretory cavities (glands embedded within the leaves of Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae were once thought to be the exclusive repositories of monoterpene and sesquiterpene oils. Recent research has debunked this theory and shown that abundant non-volatile compounds also occur within foliar glands. In particular, glands of four species in subgenus Eucalyptus contain the biologically active flavanone pinocembrin. Pinocembrin shows great promise as a pharmaceutical and is predominantly plant-sourced, so Eucalyptus could be a potential commercial source of such compounds. To explore this we quantified and assessed the purity of pinocembrin in glands of 11 species of E. subg. Eucalyptus using Electro-Spray Ionisation Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry of acetonitrile extracts and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry analyses of hexane extracts of isolated glands which were free from other leaf tissues. Our results showed that the glands of subgenus Eucalyptus contain numerous flavanones that are structurally related to pinocembrin and often present in much greater abundance. The maximum concentration of pinocembrin was 2 mg g-1 dry leaf found in E. stellulata, whereas that of dimethylpinocembrin (5,7-dimethoxyflavanone was 10 mg g-1 in E. oreades and that of pinostrobin (5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone was 12 mg g-1 in E. nitida. We also found that the flavanones are exclusively located within the foliar glands rather than distributed throughout leaf tissues. The flavanones differ from the non-methylated pinocembrin in the degree and positions of methylation. This finding is particularly important given the attractiveness of methylated flavonoids as pharmaceuticals and therapeutics. Another important finding was that glands of some members of the subgenus also contain flavanone O-glucosides and flavanone-β-triketone conjugates. In addition, glands contain free β-triketones, β-triketone heterodimers and chromone C-glucosides. Therefore, the

  16. Foliar Essential Oil Glands of Eucalyptus Subgenus Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) Are a Rich Source of Flavonoids and Related Non-Volatile Constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodger, Jason Q D; Seneratne, Samiddhi L; Nicolle, Dean; Woodrow, Ian E

    2016-01-01

    The sub-dermal secretory cavities (glands) embedded within the leaves of Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) were once thought to be the exclusive repositories of monoterpene and sesquiterpene oils. Recent research has debunked this theory and shown that abundant non-volatile compounds also occur within foliar glands. In particular, glands of four species in subgenus Eucalyptus contain the biologically active flavanone pinocembrin. Pinocembrin shows great promise as a pharmaceutical and is predominantly plant-sourced, so Eucalyptus could be a potential commercial source of such compounds. To explore this we quantified and assessed the purity of pinocembrin in glands of 11 species of E. subg. Eucalyptus using Electro-Spray Ionisation Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry of acetonitrile extracts and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry analyses of hexane extracts of isolated glands which were free from other leaf tissues. Our results showed that the glands of subgenus Eucalyptus contain numerous flavanones that are structurally related to pinocembrin and often present in much greater abundance. The maximum concentration of pinocembrin was 2 mg g-1 dry leaf found in E. stellulata, whereas that of dimethylpinocembrin (5,7-dimethoxyflavanone) was 10 mg g-1 in E. oreades and that of pinostrobin (5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone) was 12 mg g-1 in E. nitida. We also found that the flavanones are exclusively located within the foliar glands rather than distributed throughout leaf tissues. The flavanones differ from the non-methylated pinocembrin in the degree and positions of methylation. This finding is particularly important given the attractiveness of methylated flavonoids as pharmaceuticals and therapeutics. Another important finding was that glands of some members of the subgenus also contain flavanone O-glucosides and flavanone-β-triketone conjugates. In addition, glands contain free β-triketones, β-triketone heterodimers and chromone C-glucosides. Therefore, the foliar glands

  17. [Research on Rapid Discrimination of Edible Oil by ATR Infrared Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao; Yuan, Hong-fu; Song, Chun-feng; Hu, Ai-qin; Li, Xiao-yu; Zhao, Zhong; Li, Xiu-qin; Guo Zhen; Zhu, Zhi-qiang

    2015-07-01

    A rapid discrimination method of edible oils, KL-BP model, was proposed by attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy. The model extracts the characteristic of classification from source data by KL and reduces data dimension at the same time. Then the neural network model is constructed by the new data which as the input of the model. 84 edible oil samples which include sesame oil, corn oil, canola oil, blend oil, sunflower oil, peanut oil, olive oil, soybean oil and tea seed oil, were collected and their infrared spectra determined using an ATR FT-IR spectrometer. In order to compare the method performance, principal component analysis (PCA) direct-classification model, KL direct-classification model, PLS-DA model, PCA-BP model and KL-BP model are constructed in this paper. The results show that the recognition rates of PCA, PCA-BP, KL, PLS-DA and KL-BP are 59.1%, 68.2%, 77.3%, 77.3% and 90.9% for discriminating the 9 kinds of edible oils, respectively. KL extracts the eigenvector which make the distance between different class and distance of every class ratio is the largest. So the method can get much more classify information than PCA. BP neural network can effectively enhance the classification ability and accuracy. Taking full of the advantages of KL in extracting more category information in dimension reducing and the features of BP neural network in self-learning, adaptive, nonlinear, the KL-BP method has the best classification ability and recognition accuracy and great importance for rapidly recognizing edible oil in practice.

  18. 14 CFR 29.1019 - Oil strainer or filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil strainer or filter. 29.1019 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1019 Oil strainer or filter. (a) Each turbine engine installation must incorporate an oil strainer or filter through which all of...

  19. 14 CFR 25.1019 - Oil strainer or filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil strainer or filter. 25.1019 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1019 Oil strainer or filter. (a) Each turbine engine installation must incorporate an oil strainer or filter through which all of the...

  20. 14 CFR 27.1019 - Oil strainer or filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil strainer or filter. 27.1019 Section 27... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 27.1019 Oil strainer or filter. (a) Each turbine engine installation must incorporate an oil strainer or filter through which all of the...

  1. Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  2. Diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil ... Diesel oil ... Diesel oil poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of ... most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to inhaling the fumes. NERVOUS ...

  3. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... up. How Oil Harms Animals and Plants in Marine Environments In general, oil spills can affect animals and plants in two ways: from the oil ... up. How Oil Harms Animals and Plants in Marine Environments In general, oil spills can affect animals and plants in two ways: from the oil ...

  4. Oil shale commercialization study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, M.M.

    1981-09-01

    Ninety four possible oil shale sections in southern Idaho were located and chemically analyzed. Sixty-two of these shales show good promise of possible oil and probable gas potential. Sixty of the potential oil and gas shales represent the Succor Creek Formation of Miocene age in southwestern Idaho. Two of the shales represent Cretaceous formations in eastern Idaho, which should be further investigated to determine their realistic value and areal extent. Samples of the older Mesozonic and paleozoic sections show promise but have not been chemically analyzed and will need greater attention to determine their potential. Geothermal resources are of high potential in Idaho and are important to oil shale prospects. Geothermal conditions raise the geothermal gradient and act as maturing agents to oil shale. They also might be used in the retorting and refining processes. Oil shales at the surface, which appear to have good oil or gas potential should have much higher potential at depth where the geothermal gradient is high. Samples from deep petroleum exploration wells indicate that the succor Creek shales have undergone considerable maturation with depth of burial and should produce gas and possibly oil. Most of Idaho's shales that have been analyzed have a greater potential for gas than for oil but some oil potential is indicated. The Miocene shales of the Succor Creek Formation should be considered as gas and possibly oil source material for the future when technology has been perfectes. 11 refs.

  5. 40 CFR 98.190 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (a) Lime manufacturing plants (LMPs) engage in the manufacture of a lime product (e.g., calcium oxide, high-calcium quicklime, calcium hydroxide, hydrated lime, dolomitic quicklime, dolomitic hydrate, or... kraft pulp mill, soda pulp mill, sulfite pulp mill, or only processes sludge containing calcium...

  6. 40 CFR 98.250 - Definition of source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; asphalt blowing operations; blowdown systems; storage tanks; process equipment components (compressors... plants (i.e., hydrogen plants that are owned or under the direct control of the refinery owner and...

  7. 40 CFR 98.270 - Definition of source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... this section: (1) Chemical recovery furnaces at kraft and soda mills (including recovery furnaces that burn spent pulping liquor produced by both the kraft and semichemical process). (2) Chemical recovery... into paperboard products (e.g., containers), or operate coating and laminating processes. (b) The...

  8. Color categories and color appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue–green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary were perceptually exaggerated. This task did not require overt judgments of the perceived colors, and the tendency to group showed only a weak and inconsistent categorical bias. In a second case, we analyzed results from two prior studies of hue scaling of chromatic stimuli (De Valois, De Valois, Switkes, & Mahon, 1997; Malkoc, Kay, & Webster, 2005), to test whether color appearance changed more rapidly around the blue–green boundary. In this task observers directly judge the perceived color of the stimuli and these judgments tended to show much stronger categorical effects. The differences between these tasks could arise either because different signals mediate color grouping and color appearance, or because linguistic categories might differentially intrude on the response to color and/or on the perception of color. Our results suggest that the interaction between language and color processing may be highly dependent on the specific task and cognitive demands and strategies of the observer, and also highlight pronounced individual differences in the tendency to exhibit categorical responses. PMID:22176751

  9. The oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durousset, M.

    1999-01-01

    This document presents todays economical and strategic realities of the oil market. According to the author, petroleum will remain a vital energy source essentially supplied by the Middle-East with strong increasing and decreasing demand changes. (J.S.)

  10. Evaluation of bread crumbs as a potential carbon source for the growth of thraustochytrid species for oil and omega-3 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyagarajan, Tamilselvi; Puri, Munish; Vongsvivut, Jitraporn; Barrow, Colin J

    2014-05-23

    The utilization of food waste by microorganisms to produce omega-3 fatty acids or biofuel is a potentially low cost method with positive environmental benefits. In the present study, the marine microorganisms Thraustochytrium sp. AH-2 and Schizochytrium sp. SR21 were used to evaluate the potential of breadcrumbs as an alternate carbon source for the production of lipids under static fermentation conditions. For the Thraustochytrium sp. AH-2, submerged liquid fermentation with 3% glucose produced 4.3 g/L of biomass and 44.16 mg/g of saturated fatty acids after seven days. Static fermentation with 0.5% and 1% breadcrumbs resulted in 2.5 and 4.7 g/L of biomass, and 42.4 and 33.6 mg/g of saturated fatty acids, respectively. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies confirmed the growth of both strains on breadcrumbs. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy for both strains were consistent with the utilization of breadcrumbs for the production of unsaturated lipids, albeit at relatively low levels. The total lipid yield for static fermentation with bread crumbs was marginally lower than that of fermentation with glucose media, while the yield of unsaturated fatty acids was considerably lower, indicating that static fermentation may be more appropriate for the production of biodiesel than for the production of omega-3 rich oils in these strains.

  11. Evaluation of Bread Crumbs as a Potential Carbon Source for the Growth of Thraustochytrid Species for Oil and Omega-3 Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamilselvi Thyagarajan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of food waste by microorganisms to produce omega-3 fatty acids or biofuel is a potentially low cost method with positive environmental benefits. In the present study, the marine microorganisms Thraustochytrium sp. AH-2 and Schizochytrium sp. SR21 were used to evaluate the potential of breadcrumbs as an alternate carbon source for the production of lipids under static fermentation conditions. For the Thraustochytrium sp. AH-2, submerged liquid fermentation with 3% glucose produced 4.3 g/L of biomass and 44.16 mg/g of saturated fatty acids after seven days. Static fermentation with 0.5% and 1% breadcrumbs resulted in 2.5 and 4.7 g/L of biomass, and 42.4 and 33.6 mg/g of saturated fatty acids, respectively. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM studies confirmed the growth of both strains on breadcrumbs. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR spectroscopy for both strains were consistent with the utilization of breadcrumbs for the production of unsaturated lipids, albeit at relatively low levels. The total lipid yield for static fermentation with bread crumbs was marginally lower than that of fermentation with glucose media, while the yield of unsaturated fatty acids was considerably lower, indicating that static fermentation may be more appropriate for the production of biodiesel than for the production of omega-3 rich oils in these strains.

  12. The Micro-Category Account of Analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Adam E.; Fugelsang, Jonathan A.; Kraemer, David J. M.; Dunbar, Kevin N.

    2008-01-01

    Here, we investigate how activation of mental representations of categories during analogical reasoning influences subsequent cognitive processing. Specifically, we present and test the central predictions of the "Micro-Category" account of analogy. This account emphasizes the role of categories in aligning terms for analogical mapping. In a…

  13. Individual differences in attention during category learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, M.D.; Wetzels, R.

    2010-01-01

    A central idea in many successful models of category learning—including the Generalized Context Model (GCM)—is that people selectively attend to those dimensions of stimuli that are relevant for dividing them into categories. We use the GCM to re-examine some previously analyzed category learning

  14. Peak oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, W. H.; Campbell, C. J.; Zagar, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Oil and gas were formed under exceptional conditions in the geological past, meaning that they are subject to natural depletion, such that the past growth in production must give way to decline. Although depletion is a simple concept to grasp, public data on the resource base are extremely unreliable due to ambiguous definitions and lax reporting. The oil industry is reluctant to admit to an onset of decline carrying obvious adverse financial consequences. There are several different categories of oil and gas, from tar sands to deep water fields, each with specific characteristics that need to be evaluated. It is important to build a global model on a country by country basis in order that anomalous statistics may be identified and evaluated. Such a study suggests that the world faces the onset of decline, with far-reaching consequences given the central role of oil-based energy. It is accordingly an important subject deserving detailed consideration by policy makers. (author)

  15. Magnetic composites based on natural sources used for removal of oil; Compositos magneticos baseados em fontes naturais usados para remocao de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grance, E.G.O.; Varela, A.; Daher, E.; Gomes, L.Q.; Michel, R.C.; Souza Junior, F.G. [Instituto de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano - Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: fernando_gomes@ima.ufrj.br; Rodrigues, C.H.M. [Coordenadoria da Licenciatura em Quimica. Instituto Federal do Espirito Santo, Aracruz, ES (Brazil); Oliveira, G.E. [Departamento de Quimica - Centro de Ciencias Exatas - Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Present paper deals with the preparation and characterization of a magnetic resin based on lignin from Kraft process. This material, due to this aromatic / aliphatic balance is able to oil spill clean up processes. The resin was prepared through bulk polycondensation of lignin, cashew nutshell liquid and formaldehyde in presence of maghemite nanoparticles. Obtained magnetic composites were studied using ATR, FTIR and SAXS. Magnetic force and oil removal capability tests were also performed. Results showed that obtained materials posses a considerable magnetic force and a good oil removal capability. One part of the best material was able to remove eleven parts of oil from the water, making it a good absorber. (author)

  16. Bundles of C*-categories and duality

    OpenAIRE

    Vasselli, Ezio

    2005-01-01

    We introduce the notions of multiplier C*-category and continuous bundle of C*-categories, as the categorical analogues of the corresponding C*-algebraic notions. Every symmetric tensor C*-category with conjugates is a continuous bundle of C*-categories, with base space the spectrum of the C*-algebra associated with the identity object. We classify tensor C*-categories with fibre the dual of a compact Lie group in terms of suitable principal bundles. This also provides a classification for ce...

  17. Fuel properties and engine performance of biodiesel from waste cooking oil collected in Dhaka city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, R. B.; Islam, R.; Uddin, M. N.; Ehsan, Md.

    2016-07-01

    Waste cooking oil can be a potential source of biodiesel that has least effect on the edible oil consumption. Increasing number of hotel-restaurants and more active monitoring by health authorities have increased the generation of waste cooking oil significantly in densely populated cities like Dhaka. If not used or disposed properly, waste cooking oil itself may generate lot of environmental issues. In this work, waste cooking oils from different restaurants within Dhaka City were collected and some relevant properties of these waste oils were measured. Based on the samples studied one with the highest potential as biodiesel feed was identified and processed for engine performance. Standard trans-esterification process was used to produce biodiesel from the selected waste cooking oil. Biodiesel blends of B20 and B40 category were made and tested on a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine. Engine performance parameters included - bhp, bsfc and exhaust emission for rated and part load conditions. Results give a quantitative assessment of the potential of using biodiesel from waste cooking oil as fuel for diesel engines in Bangladesh.

  18. Real-time measurements of particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from stationary combustion sources used in oil and gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, D. W.; Hencken, K. R.; Johnsen, H. A.; Ross, J. R.; Walsh, P. M.

    1998-01-01

    Particulate matter emissions and some components of the particles were measured in the exhaust from combustion equipment used in oil and gas production operations near Bakersfield, California. The combustion sources included a 22.5 MW (electric) turbine generator, a 342-Bhp rich-burn spark ignition engine, and a 50 million Btu/h steam generator, all fired using natural gas. The particle components and measurement techniques were as follows: (1) Calcium, magnesium, sodium, silicon, and iron were measured using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), (2) particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were detected using the charge produced by photoionization, (3) particles having sizes between 0.1 and 7.5 (micro)m were counted using an instrument based on light scattering, and (4) total particulate matter was measured according to US EPA Method 5. Not all of the methods were applied to all of the sources. Measurements were also made in the ambient air near the combustion air inlets to the units, for comparison with the concentrations in the exhaust, but the inlet and outlet measurements were not done simultaneously. Calcium, sodium, and silicon were found in the exhaust from the steam generator at concentrations similar to those in the ambient air near the inlet to the burner. Sodium and silicon were observed in the engine exhaust at levels a factor of four higher than their concentrations in the air. The principal metal observed in the engine exhaust was calcium, a component of the lubricating oil, at a concentration of 11.6 (micro)g/m 3 . The air entering the gas turbine is filtered, so the average concentrations of metals in the turbine exhaust under steady operating conditions were even lower than in the air. During start-up following a shut-down to wash the turbine, silicon and iron were the major species in the stack, at concentrations of 6.4 and 16.2 (micro)g/m 3 , respectively. A possible source of silicon is the water injected into the turbine

  19. Energy dependence, the greenhouse effect and agricultural surpluses: the internalisation of external effects of fossil fuel sources by the marketing of vegetable oil as a motor-fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, G.

    1992-01-01

    The limits of growth of the economy lie not only in the availability of petroleum but in the problems of disposing of it (e.g. oil spills) and of its waste products. Vegetable oils are the natural alternative, and the author reports on an engine designed by his company which fits into natural ecological cycles. (author)

  20. Essential Oils from Different Plant Parts of Eucalyptus cinerea F. Muell. ex Benth. (Myrtaceae as a Source of 1,8-Cineole and Their Bioactivities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoe Nakashima

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus cinerea, known as silver dollar tree, has few descriptions in traditional medicine. Chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of the essential oils of leaves, flowers and fruits, collected seasonally, were determined by GC/MS and disk diffusion/MIC, respectively. 1,8-Cineole was the main compound, particularly in fresh leaves—Spring (74.98%, dried leaves—Spring (85.32%, flowers—Winter (78.76% and fruits—Winter (80.97%. Other compounds were found in the aerial parts in all seasons: α-pinene (2.41% to 10.13%, limonene (1.46% to 4.43%, α-terpineol (1.73% to 11.72%, and α-terpinyl acetate (3.04% to 20.44%. The essential oils showed antimicrobial activities against bacteria and yeasts, with the best results being found for the dried autumn and winter leaves oils (MIC < 0.39 mg/mL against Streptococcus pyogenes. For the other tested microorganisms the following MIC results were found: Staphylococcus aureus—Dried leaves oil from summer (0.78 mg/mL, Pseudomonas aeruginosa—Flowers oil from autumn and fruits oil from winter (1.56 mg/mL and Candida albicans—Flowers oil from autumn and fruits oils from winter and spring (0.78 mg/mL.

  1. PRECEDENCE AS A PSYCHOLINGUISTIC CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panarina Nadezhda Sergeevna

    2015-06-01

    . In summary, any speech act assumes particular correlation and content of meaning components. Presence of culturological component in meaning structure represents specific nature of speech activity structural elements. Therefore, precedence is a psycholinguistic category, which must be considered taking into account structural features of a particular speech activity.

  2. Oil market prices 1989/1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, G.

    1991-01-01

    There are many oil markets. Oil Market Prices lists the markets, provides statistics on prices and the volumes of trade, analyses the price structures in the markets and provides supplementary information on ocean freight rates and oil refining margins. Oil Market Prices will serve as a permanent record of crude oil prices including those quoted on the futures and forward markets, the many wholesale prices for refined oil products, prices consumers pay and the average prices received by the oil companies. In all instances the sources of the statistics are given together with comprehensive listing of alternative sources. (Author)

  3. Procedural-Based Category Learning in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: Impact of Category Number and Category Continuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vincent eFiloteo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Previously we found that Parkinson's disease (PD patients are impaired in procedural-based category learning when category membership is defined by a nonlinear relationship between stimulus dimensions, but these same patients are normal when the rule is defined by a linear relationship (Filoteo et al., 2005; Maddox & Filoteo, 2001. We suggested that PD patients' impairment was due to a deficit in recruiting ‘striatal units' to represent complex nonlinear rules. In the present study, we further examined the nature of PD patients' procedural-based deficit in two experiments designed to examine the impact of (1 the number of categories, and (2 category discontinuity on learning. Results indicated that PD patients were impaired only under discontinuous category conditions but were normal when the number of categories was increased from two to four. The lack of impairment in the four-category condition suggests normal integrity of striatal medium spiny cells involved in procedural-based category learning. In contrast, and consistent with our previous observation of a nonlinear deficit, the finding that PD patients were impaired in the discontinuous condition suggests that these patients are impaired when they have to associate perceptually distinct exemplars with the same category. Theoretically, this deficit might be related to dysfunctional communication among medium spiny neurons within the striatum, particularly given that these are cholinergic neurons and a cholinergic deficiency could underlie some of PD patients’ cognitive impairment.

  4. Feature-Based versus Category-Based Induction with Uncertain Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Oren; Hayes, Brett K.; Newell, Ben R.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that when feature inferences have to be made about an instance whose category membership is uncertain, feature-based inductive reasoning is used to the exclusion of category-based induction. These results contrast with the observation that people can and do use category-based induction when category membership is…

  5. Cultural categories of energy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, S.

    1983-06-01

    Energy use patterns and attitudes are tied to more general cultural patterns, not simply to an economic or engineering rationality. To illustrate this, sharply contrasting use patterns and attitudes toward nuclear energy, coal and alternative forms of energy will be compared for India and the United States. This comparison, focussing on different perceptions of risks associated with developing energy technologies, future energy requirements, environmental concerns, and conservation patterns, will be used to develop a more extensive discussion of the above energy sources in western Europe and South America. The talk will conclude with some conjectures about the implications of cultural differences and political environments for world energy development patterns in the proximate future. Likely cultural and political influences on the direction of energy use (efficiency, rates of adoption of new technology), and energy needs for industrialization and reindustrialization will be described for North America, western Europe, and selected LDC's

  6. Transformer oils as a potential source of environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): an assessment in three central provinces of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedi, Reza; Khakzad, Saeed; Koolivand, Ali; Dobaradaran, Sina; Khaloo, Shokooh Sadat; Jorfi, Sahand; Abtahi, Mehrnoosh

    2017-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination of oils from all transformers of the national electrical grid in Tehran, Qom, and Alborz, three central provinces of Iran, was assessed. The concentration of PCBs in transformer oils was determined by gas chromatography. At the national level, the proportions of transformers with oil PCB contents of 5000 ppm were determined to be 85.7, 12.4, 1.6, 0.1, and 0.1%, respectively. About 0.5% of transformer oils (66,000 kg out of 13,342,000 kg) exhibited PCB levels higher than 50 ppm that based on the Stockholm Convention should be phased out before 2025. The contaminated oils contained 91.4% of detected PCBs (132 kg PCBs out of 144 kg PCBs) and were located in 1.9% of transformers (27 transformers out of 1449 transformers). Statistical analysis indicated that the year of manufacture and manufacturing company provided significant effects on PCB contamination (p value transformer oils in Tehran was higher than that of the other provinces that could be mainly caused by the older average year of manufacture. PCB levels higher than 499 ppm were also observed only in Tehran. This study provided valuable information for future studies on identification of PCB-contaminated transformers as well as planning and design of waste management facilities for PCB-contaminated oils at the national level.

  7. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil ...

  8. Deceased Slabs Drive Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, H. J.; Hannah, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    The application of Re-Os isotope geochemistry to dating single oils is a nascent field [1,2]. Challenges include dissection of oils into asphaltene-maltene (ASPH-MALT) components in a way that preserves meaningful chronologic and source information. Significantly, oil-water mixing rapidly transfers Os to the oil, while Re exchange is sluggish [3]. The Os initial ratio of the oil is shifted in the direction of Os carried in the aqueous fluid, whereas the Re-Os isotopic age is preserved. We show that this phenomenon is operative in natural systems. Further, we show that deserpentinization of old oceanic slabs [4], may be linked to expulsion of Os-enriched waters into overlying sedimentary sections - a process that may be of fundamental importance for oil generation. This conclusion does not diminish the role of traditional organic-rich shales as source rocks for the hydrocarbon, but shows that external fluids are essential to petroleum generation. Moreover, the external fluids may be an important driver for expulsion and migration of oils. We have taken apart several petroleum systems from source rock, to residual oil, to tar mat development, to in situ live oil, through to produced oil. In many cases, a fluid with low 187Os/188Os - unlike that of normal basinal brines - provides a critical component to the oil-water mixture. Funding - CHRONOS project supported by Norwegian petroleum industry (Eni-Norge, Lundin, Aker BP) Acknowledgement - Christine Fichler [4], who first queried us on old slabs and oil, and stimulated ideas. [1] Georgiev, S.V., Stein, H.J., Hannah, J.L., Galimberti, R., Nali, M., Yang, G., and Zimmerman, A. (2016) Re-Os dating of maltenes and asphaltenes within single samples of crude oil: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 179: 53-75. [doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2016.01.016] [2] DiMarzio, J., Georgiev, S.V., Stein, H.J., and Hannah, J.L. (in press) Residency of rhenium and osmium in a heavy crude oil: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. [3] Hurtig, N.C., Georgiev, S

  9. The Oil and Gas Discourse from the Perspective of the Canadian and Albertan Governments, Non-Governmental Organizations and the Oil and Gas Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Noga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three of the major players in the discussion of the production of oil and gas are: (1 government; (2 the oil and gas industry and (3 non-governmental organizations (NGOs. A comparison of contributions from these three sources using a list of positive and negative words from the General Inquirer Category Listings showed that industry provided a very positive message about the production and consumption of oil and gas that is generally reinforced by government whereas NGOs advocated for a reduction in the use of oil and gas. Messages delivered by each player are focused on the same topics in either a positive or negative way and are often contradictory. The authors submit to be properly informed the public must consider all the sources in order to avoid bias. A mind map is presented in a supplementary file which summarizes information from each source in a comprehensive way. This approach can be used by consumers when considering the choice of using oil and gas and can be extended to the discourse beyond Canada.

  10. TV MEDIA ANALYSIS FOR BANKING CATEGORY (2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Elena POȘTOACĂ; Dorian – Laurențiu FLOREA

    2014-01-01

    This article represents a short overview of the media landscape for the banking category in Romania in 2012. Unlike the other categories (for example FMCG – fast moving consumer goods), the banking category is more complex because every bank can communicate for a wider range of products (credits, deposits, packages dedicated to students, pensioners and other types of banking products). In the first part of this paper, there will be presented some theoretical notions about media planning a...

  11. Misremembering emotion: Inductive category effects for complex emotional stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Jonathan C; Crawford, L Elizabeth; Vavra, Dylan T

    2017-07-01

    Memories of objects are biased toward what is typical of the category to which they belong. Prior research on memory for emotional facial expressions has demonstrated a bias towards an emotional expression prototype (e.g., slightly happy faces are remembered as happier). We investigate an alternate source of bias in memory for emotional expressions - the central tendency bias. The central tendency bias skews reconstruction of a memory trace towards the center of the distribution for a particular attribute. This bias has been attributed to a Bayesian combination of an imprecise memory for a particular object with prior information about its category. Until now, studies examining the central tendency bias have focused on simple stimuli. We extend this work to socially relevant, complex, emotional facial expressions. We morphed facial expressions on a continuum from sad to happy. Different ranges of emotion were used in four experiments in which participants viewed individual expressions and, after a variable delay, reproduced each face by adjusting a morph to match it. Estimates were biased toward the center of the presented stimulus range, and the bias increased at longer memory delays, consistent with the Bayesian prediction that as trace memory loses precision, category knowledge is given more weight. The central tendency effect persisted within and across emotion categories (sad, neutral, and happy). This article expands the scope of work on inductive category effects to memory for complex, emotional stimuli.

  12. Application of enhanced gas chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry for monitoring petroleum weathering and forensic source fingerprinting in samples impacted by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Puspa L; Wong, Roberto L; Overton, Edward B

    2017-10-01

    Accurate characterization of petroleum hydrocarbons in complex and weathered oil residues is analytically challenging. This is primarily due to chemical compositional complexity of both the oil residues and environmental matrices, and the lack of instrumental selectivity due to co-elution of interferences with the target analytes. To overcome these analytical selectivity issues, we used an enhanced resolution gas chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) mode (GC/MS/MS-MRM) to eliminate interferences within the ion chromatograms of target analytes found in environmental samples. This new GC/MS/MS-MRM method was developed and used for forensic fingerprinting of deep-water and marsh sediment samples containing oily residues from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. The results showed that the GC/MS/MS-MRM method increases selectivity, eliminates interferences, and provides more accurate quantitation and characterization of trace levels of alkyl-PAHs and biomarker compounds, from weathered oil residues in complex sample matrices. The higher selectivity of the new method, even at low detection limits, provides greater insights on isomer and homolog compositional patterns and the extent of oil weathering under various environmental conditions. The method also provides flat chromatographic baselines for accurate and unambiguous calculation of petroleum forensic biomarker compound ratios. Thus, this GC/MS/MS-MRM method can be a reliable analytical strategy for more accurate and selective trace level analyses in petroleum forensic studies, and for tacking continuous weathering of oil residues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Water issues associated with heavy oil production.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Quinn, J. J.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-11-28

    Crude oil occurs in many different forms throughout the world. An important characteristic of crude oil that affects the ease with which it can be produced is its density and viscosity. Lighter crude oil typically can be produced more easily and at lower cost than heavier crude oil. Historically, much of the nation's oil supply came from domestic or international light or medium crude oil sources. California's extensive heavy oil production for more than a century is a notable exception. Oil and gas companies are actively looking toward heavier crude oil sources to help meet demands and to take advantage of large heavy oil reserves located in North and South America. Heavy oil includes very viscous oil resources like those found in some fields in California and Venezuela, oil shale, and tar sands (called oil sands in Canada). These are described in more detail in the next chapter. Water is integrally associated with conventional oil production. Produced water is the largest byproduct associated with oil production. The cost of managing large volumes of produced water is an important component of the overall cost of producing oil. Most mature oil fields rely on injected water to maintain formation pressure during production. The processes involved with heavy oil production often require external water supplies for steam generation, washing, and other steps. While some heavy oil processes generate produced water, others generate different types of industrial wastewater. Management and disposition of the wastewater presents challenges and costs for the operators. This report describes water requirements relating to heavy oil production and potential sources for that water. The report also describes how water is used and the resulting water quality impacts associated with heavy oil production.

  14. Investigating oiled birds from oil field waste pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, D.G.; Edwards, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    Procedures and results of investigations concerning the oiling of inland raptors, migratory water-fowl and other birds are presented. Freon washings from the oiled birds and oil from the pits were analyzed by gas chromatography. In most instances the source of the oil could be established by chromatographic procedures. The numbers of birds involved (including many on the endangered species list) suggested the need for netting or closing oil field waste pits and mud disposal pits. Maintaining a proper chain of custody was important

  15. Biased Allocation of Faces to Social Categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dotsch, R.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Knippenberg, A.F.M. van

    2011-01-01

    Three studies show that social categorization is biased at the level of category allocation. In all studies, participants categorized faces. In Studies 1 and 2, participants overallocated faces with criminal features-a stereotypical negative trait-to the stigmatized Moroccan category, especially if

  16. The ethnic category from a linguistic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan Săftoiu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I put forward an analysis from a linguistic perspective of an ethnic category in Romania that is defined by at least two terms: gypsy and Romany. The concept of category refers to the members of a particular group that sets apart from other groups by a set of specific elements acknowledged at the level of a larger community. In interaction, individuals frequently use categories and the set of features that a certain category is characterized by, since it is easier to deal with sets of knowledge than with references for each individual separately. The analysis is based on a series of expressions and phrases, proverbs and jokes which were (or still are getting about in the Romanian space and which delineated, at the level of the collective mentality, the image of an ethnic category whose name (still oscillates between two terms. The texts were grouped depending on the different stereotypes associated with the ethnic category under discussion, by highlighting the pejorative connotations of the uses of the term gypsy in relation to the ethnic category Romany, a significance-free category that can be ‘filled up’ by elements that can sketch a positive image.

  17. Shape configuration and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B.

    2006-01-01

    a recent account of category-specificity and lends support to the notion that category-specific impairments can occur for both natural objects and artefacts following damage to pre-semantic stages in visual object recognition. The implications of the present findings are discussed in relation to theories...

  18. Conformal field theories and tensor categories. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Chengming [Nankai Univ., Tianjin (China). Chern Institute of Mathematics; Fuchs, Juergen [Karlstad Univ. (Sweden). Theoretical Physics; Huang, Yi-Zhi [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Kong, Liang [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Inst. for Advanced Study; Runkel, Ingo; Schweigert, Christoph (eds.) [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Mathematics

    2014-08-01

    First book devoted completely to the mathematics of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications. Contributors include both mathematicians and physicists. Some long expository articles are especially suitable for beginners. The present volume is a collection of seven papers that are either based on the talks presented at the workshop ''Conformal field theories and tensor categories'' held June 13 to June 17, 2011 at the Beijing International Center for Mathematical Research, Peking University, or are extensions of the material presented in the talks at the workshop. These papers present new developments beyond rational conformal field theories and modular tensor categories and new applications in mathematics and physics. The topics covered include tensor categories from representation categories of Hopf algebras, applications of conformal field theories and tensor categories to topological phases and gapped systems, logarithmic conformal field theories and the corresponding non-semisimple tensor categories, and new developments in the representation theory of vertex operator algebras. Some of the papers contain detailed introductory material that is helpful for graduate students and researchers looking for an introduction to these research directions. The papers also discuss exciting recent developments in the area of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications and will be extremely useful for researchers working in these areas.

  19. Color descriptors for object category recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Sande, K.E.A.; Gevers, T.; Snoek, C.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Category recognition is important to access visual information on the level of objects. A common approach is to compute image descriptors first and then to apply machine learning to achieve category recognition from annotated examples. As a consequence, the choice of image descriptors is of great

  20. Operadic categories and duoidal Deligne's conjecture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Batanin, M.; Markl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 285, 5 November (2015), s. 1630-1687 ISSN 0001-8708 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : operadic category * duoidal category * Deligne's conjecture Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.405, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0001870815002467

  1. Conformal field theories and tensor categories. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Chengming; Fuchs, Juergen; Huang, Yi-Zhi; Kong, Liang; Runkel, Ingo; Schweigert, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    First book devoted completely to the mathematics of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications. Contributors include both mathematicians and physicists. Some long expository articles are especially suitable for beginners. The present volume is a collection of seven papers that are either based on the talks presented at the workshop ''Conformal field theories and tensor categories'' held June 13 to June 17, 2011 at the Beijing International Center for Mathematical Research, Peking University, or are extensions of the material presented in the talks at the workshop. These papers present new developments beyond rational conformal field theories and modular tensor categories and new applications in mathematics and physics. The topics covered include tensor categories from representation categories of Hopf algebras, applications of conformal field theories and tensor categories to topological phases and gapped systems, logarithmic conformal field theories and the corresponding non-semisimple tensor categories, and new developments in the representation theory of vertex operator algebras. Some of the papers contain detailed introductory material that is helpful for graduate students and researchers looking for an introduction to these research directions. The papers also discuss exciting recent developments in the area of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications and will be extremely useful for researchers working in these areas.

  2. Connections between realcompactifications in various categories ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The author gives a detailed analysis of the relation between the theories of realcompactications and compactications in the category of ditopological texture spaces and in the categories of bitopological spaces and topological spaces. Keywords: Bitopology, texture, ditopology, Stone-Čech compactication, Hewitt real- ...

  3. Finding biomedical categories in Medline®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeganova Lana

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are several humanly defined ontologies relevant to Medline. However, Medline is a fast growing collection of biomedical documents which creates difficulties in updating and expanding these humanly defined ontologies. Automatically identifying meaningful categories of entities in a large text corpus is useful for information extraction, construction of machine learning features, and development of semantic representations. In this paper we describe and compare two methods for automatically learning meaningful biomedical categories in Medline. The first approach is a simple statistical method that uses part-of-speech and frequency information to extract a list of frequent nouns from Medline. The second method implements an alignment-based technique to learn frequent generic patterns that indicate a hyponymy/hypernymy relationship between a pair of noun phrases. We then apply these patterns to Medline to collect frequent hypernyms as potential biomedical categories. Results We study and compare these two alternative sets of terms to identify semantic categories in Medline. We find that both approaches produce reasonable terms as potential categories. We also find that there is a significant agreement between the two sets of terms. The overlap between the two methods improves our confidence regarding categories predicted by these independent methods. Conclusions This study is an initial attempt to extract categories that are discussed in Medline. Rather than imposing external ontologies on Medline, our methods allow categories to emerge from the text.

  4. Appropriate Pupilness: Social Categories Intersecting in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofoed, Jette

    2008-01-01

    The analytical focus in this article is on how social categories intersect in daily school life and how intersections intertwine with other empirically relevant categories such as normality, pupilness and (in)appropriatedness. The point of empirical departure is a daily ritual where teams for football are selected. The article opens up for a…

  5. Life Cycle Assessment for Evaluating On-farm Energy Production: The Case of Sunflower Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Bona

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was to evaluate the production of sunflower oil as a source of bioenergy and its use on the farm. Representative farms of the Veneto Region were analyzed in order to evaluate the possibility of using different biofuels. The results showed that there are only a few feasible alternatives at farm level. The conversion of oil to biodiesel appeared unachievable because of the large number of hectares necessary for optimizing use of the transesterification equipment. A life cycle environmental analysis (LCA was applied to eight different farm types simulating the total replacement of diesel oil by pure vegetable oil (sunflower. The results were not uniform because, considering all the LCA impact categories, some of them turned to be worse than the original scenario (use of diesel oil but there was a substantial advantage for all the farm types in terms of reduction of substances with effects on climate change. Some farms, termed horticultural farm large, unspecialized farm large and unspecialized farm small, had a reduction of more than 99% in the substances with effects on climate change by changing from diesel oil to sunflower oil. The biofuel is not yet competitive as no free market exists for it, but it represents a practical way to avoid the shift of economic benefits from agriculture to industry, as happens with biodiesel production.

  6. Diagnostic Categories in Autobiographical Accounts of Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Working within frameworks drawn from the writings of Immanuel Kant, Alfred Schutz, and Kenneth Burke, this article examines the role that diagnostic categories play in autobiographical accounts of illness, with a special focus on chronic disease. Four lay diagnostic categories, each with different connections to formal medical diagnostic categories, serve as typifications to make sense of the way the lifeworld changes over the course of chronic illness. These diagnostic categories are used in conjunction with another set of typifications: lay epidemiologies, lay etiologies, lay prognostics, and lay therapeutics. Together these serve to construct and reconstruct the self at the center of the lifeworld. Embedded within the lay diagnostic categories are narratives of progression, regression, or stability, forms of typification derived from literary and storytelling genres. These narratives are developed by the self in autobiographical accounts of illness.

  7. Modular categories and 3-manifold invariants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tureav, V.G.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give a concise introduction to the theory of knot invariants and 3-manifold invariants which generalize the Jones polynomial and which may be considered as a mathematical version of the Witten invariants. Such a theory was introduced by N. Reshetikhin and the author on the ground of the theory of quantum groups. here we use more general algebraic objects, specifically, ribbon and modular categories. Such categories in particular arise as the categories of representations of quantum groups. The notion of modular category, interesting in itself, is closely related to the notion of modular tensor category in the sense of G. Moore and N. Seiberg. For simplicity we restrict ourselves in this paper to the case of closed 3-manifolds

  8. SUSTAIN: a network model of category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Bradley C; Medin, Douglas L; Gureckis, Todd M

    2004-04-01

    SUSTAIN (Supervised and Unsupervised STratified Adaptive Incremental Network) is a model of how humans learn categories from examples. SUSTAIN initially assumes a simple category structure. If simple solutions prove inadequate and SUSTAIN is confronted with a surprising event (e.g., it is told that a bat is a mammal instead of a bird), SUSTAIN recruits an additional cluster to represent the surprising event. Newly recruited clusters are available to explain future events and can themselves evolve into prototypes-attractors-rules. SUSTAIN's discovery of category substructure is affected not only by the structure of the world but by the nature of the learning task and the learner's goals. SUSTAIN successfully extends category learning models to studies of inference learning, unsupervised learning, category construction, and contexts in which identification learning is faster than classification learning.

  9. Oil and biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasui, Yoshiaki

    1988-06-01

    The secondary oil recovery due to microorganisms and the production of useful substances from oil distillates using microorganisms are described as examples to solidify the relationship between oil and biotechnology. The secondary crude-oil recovery has been carried out due to the microorganism drive process, which includes the on-the-ground and underground processes. Although the microorganism drive process has been investigated for many years, the selection of the microorganisms is not completely established. Many uncertainties still remain regarding the technical and economic aspects. The single cell protein (SCP) is an example of industrial success in the production of useful substances from the oil. Rumania has produced SCP from normal paraffin and the U. K. from the methanol and the products are used as the protein source for animals. Remarkable progress in the functional efficiency of microorganisms is expected due to the biotechnology for both applications. (4 tabs)

  10. Methodological Aspects of Depreciation as an Economic Category

    OpenAIRE

    Sigidov, Yuriy I.; Rybyantseva, Maria S.; Adamenko, Alexandr A.; Yarushkina, Elena A.

    2016-01-01

    Depreciation is a complex economic category, the essence of which is manifested in the duality: this cost element, and its own source of reproduction of fixed assets and intangible assets. The depreciation laid relationship with asset and liability balance sheet; it touches on aspects such as formation costs, taxation issues, and reproductive process. That is why a methodological study of the depreciation essence, the allocation of the classification of bases, principles and functions seems u...

  11. Social Vision: Visual cues communicate categories to observers

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Kerri L

    2009-01-01

    This information ranges from appreciating category membership to evaluating more enduring traits and dispositions. These aspects of social perception appear to be highly automated, some would even call them obligatory, and they are heavily influenced by two sources of information: the face and the body. From minimal information such as brief exposure to the face or degraded images of dynamic body motion, social judgments are made with remarkable efficiency and, at times, surprising accuracy.

  12. What is behind the increase in oil prices? Analyzing oil consumption and supply relationship with oil price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallo, Andres; Mason, Paul; Shapiro, Steve; Fabritius, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The continuing increases in oil prices have renewed the argument over the real culprits behind these movements. The growth in demand for oil in international markets, especially from the United States and China, is often identified as the main source of consumption pressure on prices, and thus the upward trend in oil prices. This paper uses unit root tests with two endogenous breaks to analyze the characteristics of oil prices, production, and consumption for several countries. By taking into account structural breaks, we find that many countries' oil consumption and oil prices are stationary, while other countries' are not. We also perform causality tests to determine the direction of any possible relationship between oil price and oil consumption and production. Our statistical analysis reveals that production variables cause oil prices, while oil prices tend to cause consumption. As a result, we claim that the blame for the recent fluctuations in oil prices is more appropriately associated with supply factors, not consumption influences. (author)

  13. Can height categories replace weight categories in striking martial arts competitions? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Mashiach-Arazi, Yael; Nouriel, Ariella; Raz, Raanan; Constantini, Naama W

    2015-09-29

    In most combat sports and martial arts, athletes compete within weight categories. Disordered eating behaviors and intentional pre-competition rapid weight loss are commonly seen in this population, attributed to weight categorization. We examined if height categories can be used as an alternative to weight categories for competition, in order to protect the health of athletes. Height and weight of 169 child and adolescent competitive karate athletes were measured. Participants were divided into eleven hypothetical weight categories of 5 kg increments, and eleven hypothetical height categories of 5 cm increments. We calculated the coefficient of variation of height and weight by each division method. We also calculated how many participants fit into corresponding categories of both height and weight, and how many would shift a category if divided by height. There was a high correlation between height and weight (r = 0.91, p<0.001). The mean range of heights seen within current weight categories was reduced by 83% when participants were divided by height. When allocating athletes by height categories, 74% of athletes would shift up or down one weight category at most, compared with the current categorization method. We conclude that dividing young karate athletes by height categories significantly reduced the range of heights of competitors within the category. Such categorization would not cause athletes to compete against much heavier opponents in most cases. Using height categories as a means to reduce eating disorders in combat sports should be further examined.

  14. Volatile organic compound emissions from the oil and natural gas industry in the Uintah Basin, Utah: oil and gas well pad emissions compared to ambient air composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warneke, C.; Geiger, F.; Edwards, P. M.; Dube, W.; Pétron, G.; Kofler, J.; Zahn, A.; Brown, S. S.; Graus, M.; Gilman, J. B.; Lerner, B. M.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; de Gouw, J. A.; Roberts, J. M.

    2014-10-01

    Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with oil and natural gas production in the Uintah Basin, Utah were measured at a ground site in Horse Pool and from a NOAA mobile laboratory with PTR-MS instruments. The VOC compositions in the vicinity of individual gas and oil wells and other point sources such as evaporation ponds, compressor stations and injection wells are compared to the measurements at Horse Pool. High mixing ratios of aromatics, alkanes, cycloalkanes and methanol were observed for extended periods of time and for short-term spikes caused by local point sources. The mixing ratios during the time the mobile laboratory spent on the well pads were averaged. High mixing ratios were found close to all point sources, but gas well pads with collection and dehydration on the well pad were clearly associated with higher mixing ratios than other wells. The comparison of the VOC composition of the emissions from the oil and natural gas well pads showed that gas well pads without dehydration on the well pad compared well with the majority of the data at Horse Pool, and that oil well pads compared well with the rest of the ground site data. Oil well pads on average emit heavier compounds than gas well pads. The mobile laboratory measurements confirm the results from an emissions inventory: the main VOC source categories from individual point sources are dehydrators, oil and condensate tank flashing and pneumatic devices and pumps. Raw natural gas is emitted from the pneumatic devices and pumps and heavier VOC mixes from the tank flashings.

  15. Crude oil and finished fuel storage stability: An annotated review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whisman, M.L.; Anderson, R.P.; Woodward, P.W.; Giles, H.N.

    1991-01-01

    A state-of-the-art review and assessment of storage effects on crude oil and product quality was undertaken through a literature search by computer accessing several data base sources. Pertinent citations from that literature search are tabulated for the years 1980 to the present. This 1990 revision supplements earlier reviews by Brinkman and others which covered stability publications through 1979 and an update in 1983 by Goetzinger and others that covered the period 1952--1982. For purposes of organization, citations are listed in the current revision chronologically starting with the earliest 1980 publications. The citations have also been divided according to primary subject matter. Consequently 11 sections appear including: alternate fuels, gasoline, distillate fuel, jet fuel, residual fuel, crude oil, biodegradation, analyses, reaction mechanisms, containment, and handling and storage. Each section contains a brief narrative followed by all the citations for that category.

  16. Economic effects of peak oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, Christian; Lehr, Ulrike; Wiebe, Kirsten S.

    2012-01-01

    Assuming that global oil production peaked, this paper uses scenario analysis to show the economic effects of a possible supply shortage and corresponding rise in oil prices in the next decade on different sectors in Germany and other major economies such as the US, Japan, China, the OPEC or Russia. Due to the price-inelasticity of oil demand the supply shortage leads to a sharp increase in oil prices in the second scenario, with high effects on GDP comparable to the magnitude of the global financial crises in 2008/09. Oil exporting countries benefit from high oil prices, whereas oil importing countries are negatively affected. Generally, the effects in the third scenario are significantly smaller than in the second, showing that energy efficiency measures and the switch to renewable energy sources decreases the countries' dependence on oil imports and hence reduces their vulnerability to oil price shocks on the world market. - Highlights: ► National and sectoral economic effects of peak oil until 2020 are modelled. ► The price elasticity of oil demand is low resulting in high price fluctuations. ► Oil shortage strongly affects transport and indirectly all other sectors. ► Global macroeconomic effects are comparable to the 2008/2009 crisis. ► Country effects depend on oil imports and productivity, and economic structures.

  17. Chemical quality of Baru almond (Dipteryx alata oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Silva Siqueira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Vegetable oils are suitable for human consumption as part of a healthy diet and native fruits of the cerrado, such as almond baru, which are natural sources of these oils. This study informed about the quality of baru oil having as a basis for comparison, soybean oil and olive oil, usually consumed in human diet. Analyzes of acid value, peroxide and iodine for the three oils and fatty acid composition for the baru oil were performed according to official standard methodology. Baru oil has the potential to be part of the human consumption, in healthy diets similarly to soybean oil and olive oil.

  18. Observation versus classification in supervised category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levering, Kimery R; Kurtz, Kenneth J

    2015-02-01

    The traditional supervised classification paradigm encourages learners to acquire only the knowledge needed to predict category membership (a discriminative approach). An alternative that aligns with important aspects of real-world concept formation is learning with a broader focus to acquire knowledge of the internal structure of each category (a generative approach). Our work addresses the impact of a particular component of the traditional classification task: the guess-and-correct cycle. We compare classification learning to a supervised observational learning task in which learners are shown labeled examples but make no classification response. The goals of this work sit at two levels: (1) testing for differences in the nature of the category representations that arise from two basic learning modes; and (2) evaluating the generative/discriminative continuum as a theoretical tool for understand learning modes and their outcomes. Specifically, we view the guess-and-correct cycle as consistent with a more discriminative approach and therefore expected it to lead to narrower category knowledge. Across two experiments, the observational mode led to greater sensitivity to distributional properties of features and correlations between features. We conclude that a relatively subtle procedural difference in supervised category learning substantially impacts what learners come to know about the categories. The results demonstrate the value of the generative/discriminative continuum as a tool for advancing the psychology of category learning and also provide a valuable constraint for formal models and associated theories.

  19. [Efficiency evaluation of capsaicinoids to discriminate bio-waste oils from edible vegetable oils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Lisha; Liu, Honghe; Kang, Li; Jiang, Jie; Liao, Shicheng; Liu, Guihua; Deng, Pingjian

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the efficiency of capsaicinoids to discriminate bio-waste oil from edible vegetable oil. 14 raw vegetable oils, 24 fried waste oils, 34 kitchen-waste oils, 32 edible non-peanut vegetable oil, 32 edible peanuts oil, 16 edible oil add flavorand and 11 refined bio-waste oils were prepared and examined for capsaicinoids including capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin and nonylic acid vanillylamide. The detection results of the above samples were statistically tested based on sample category to assessment identify the effectiveness of the bio-waste oils with capsaicinoids. As a indicator, capsaincin was possessed of high detection sensitivity and has the highest efficiency to discern kitchen-waste oils and refined bio-waste oils samples from edible non-peanut vegetable oil correctly. The accuracy rate of identification were 100% and 90.1% respectively. There is the background in peanut oil. CONCLUSION Capsaicin added in cooking process can be retained in the refining process and hardly be removed in the refining process. In the case of fully eliminating the background interference, capsaicinoids can effectively identify bio-waste oils and edible vegetable oil in combination.

  20. Utilization of oil palm biodiesel solid residue as renewable sources for preparation of granular activated carbon by microwave induced KOH activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, K Y; Hameed, B H

    2013-02-01

    In this work, preparation of granular activated carbon from oil palm biodiesel solid residue, oil palm shell (PSAC) by microwave assisted KOH activation has been attempted. The physical and chemical properties of PSAC were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, volumetric adsorption analyzer and elemental analysis. The adsorption behavior was examined by performing batch adsorption experiments using methylene blue as dye model compound. Equilibrium data were simulated using the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. Kinetic modeling was fitted to the pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and Elovich kinetic models, while the adsorption mechanism was determined using the intraparticle diffusion and Boyd equations. The result was satisfactory fitted to the Langmuir isotherm model with a monolayer adsorption capacity of 343.94mg/g at 30°C. The findings support the potential of oil palm shell for preparation of high surface area activated carbon by microwave assisted KOH activation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Oil shale technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.

    1991-01-01

    Oil shale is undoubtedly an excellent energy source that has great abundance and world-wide distribution. Oil shale industries have seen ups and downs over more than 100 years, depending on the availability and price of conventional petroleum crudes. Market forces as well as environmental factors will greatly affect the interest in development of oil shale. Besides competing with conventional crude oil and natural gas, shale oil will have to compete favorably with coal-derived fuels for similar markets. Crude shale oil is obtained from oil shale by a relatively simple process called retorting. However, the process economics are greatly affected by the thermal efficiencies, the richness of shale, the mass transfer effectiveness, the conversion efficiency, the design of retort, the environmental post-treatment, etc. A great many process ideas and patents related to the oil shale pyrolysis have been developed; however, relatively few field and engineering data have been published. Due to the vast heterogeneity of oil shale and to the complexities of physicochemical process mechanisms, scientific or technological generalization of oil shale retorting is difficult to achieve. Dwindling supplied of worldwide petroleum reserves, as well as the unprecedented appetite of mankind for clean liquid fuel, has made the public concern for future energy market grow rapidly. the clean coal technology and the alternate fuel technology are currently of great significance not only to policy makers, but also to process and chemical researchers. In this book, efforts have been made to make a comprehensive text for the science and technology of oil shale utilization. Therefore, subjects dealing with the terminological definitions, geology and petrology, chemistry, characterization, process engineering, mathematical modeling, chemical reaction engineering, experimental methods, and statistical experimental design, etc. are covered in detail

  2. The impact of category structure and training methodology on learning and generalizing within-category representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ell, Shawn W; Smith, David B; Peralta, Gabriela; Hélie, Sébastien

    2017-08-01

    When interacting with categories, representations focused on within-category relationships are often learned, but the conditions promoting within-category representations and their generalizability are unclear. We report the results of three experiments investigating the impact of category structure and training methodology on the learning and generalization of within-category representations (i.e., correlational structure). Participants were trained on either rule-based or information-integration structures using classification (Is the stimulus a member of Category A or Category B?), concept (e.g., Is the stimulus a member of Category A, Yes or No?), or inference (infer the missing component of the stimulus from a given category) and then tested on either an inference task (Experiments 1 and 2) or a classification task (Experiment 3). For the information-integration structure, within-category representations were consistently learned, could be generalized to novel stimuli, and could be generalized to support inference at test. For the rule-based structure, extended inference training resulted in generalization to novel stimuli (Experiment 2) and inference training resulted in generalization to classification (Experiment 3). These data help to clarify the conditions under which within-category representations can be learned. Moreover, these results make an important contribution in highlighting the impact of category structure and training methodology on the generalization of categorical knowledge.

  3. A Higher-Order Calculus for Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cáccamo, Mario José; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A calculus for a fragment of category theory is presented. The types in the language denote categories and the expressions functors. The judgements of the calculus systematise categorical arguments such as: an expression is functorial in its free variables; two expressions are naturally isomorphic...... in their free variables. There are special binders for limits and more general ends. The rules for limits and ends support an algebraic manipulation of universal constructions as opposed to a more traditional diagrammatic approach. Duality within the calculus and applications in proving continuity are discussed...... with examples. The calculus gives a basis for mechanising a theory of categories in a generic theorem prover like Isabelle....

  4. Kuranishi spaces as a 2-category

    OpenAIRE

    Joyce, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    This is a survey of the author's in-progress book arXiv:1409.6908. 'Kuranishi spaces' were introduced in the work of Fukaya, Oh, Ohta and Ono in symplectic geometry (see e.g. arXiv:1503.07631), as the geometric structure on moduli spaces of $J$-holomorphic curves. We propose a new definition of Kuranishi space, which has the nice property that they form a 2-category $\\bf Kur$. Thus the homotopy category Ho$({\\bf Kur})$ is an ordinary category of Kuranishi spaces. Any Fukaya-Oh-Ohta-Ono (FOOO)...

  5. Categories of space in music and lifestyles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Pavle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the connection between categories of space in music, music production and lifestyles. The relations between the symbolic space of social connections and musical contents in the social space of various status interactions is complex and contradictory. Category of space in the music exists in four forms. Categories of space in the description of the experience of the musical works, as well as in the way of music production (spacing are the integral part of the special way of consumption of these works (home Hi-Fi, and represent the social status, ways of cultural consumption and habitus in general.

  6. Oil risk in oil stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Wang, L

    2008-01-01

    We assess the oil price sensitivities and oil risk premiums of NYSE listed oil & gas firms' returns by using a two-step regression analysis under two different arbitrage pricing models. Thus, we apply the Fama and French (1992) factor returns in a study of oil stocks. In all, we find that the return

  7. Dose mapping in category I irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, Sandip; Shinde, S.H.; Mhatre, S.G.V.

    2012-01-01

    Category I irradiators such as Gamma Chambers and Blood Irradiators are compact self shielded, dry source storage gamma irradiators offering irradiation volume of few hundred cubic centimeters. In the present work, dose distribution profiles along the central vertical plane of the irradiation volume of Gamma Chamber 900 and Blood Irradiator 2000 were measured using Fricke, FBX, and alanine dosimeters. Measured dose distribution profiles in Gamma Chamber 900 differed from the typical generic dose distribution pattern whereas that in Blood Irradiator 2000 was in agreement with the typical pattern. All reagents used were of analytical reagent grade and were used without further purification. Preparation and dose estimations of Fricke and FBX were carried out as recommended. Alanine pellets were directly placed in precleaned polystyrene container having dimensions 6.5 mm o.d., 32 mm height and 3 mm wall thickness. For these dosimeters, dose measurements were made using e-scan Bruker BioSpin alanine dedicated ESR spectrometer. Specially designed perspex jigs were used during irradiation in Gamma Chamber 900 and Blood Irradiator 2000. These jigs provided the reproducible geometry during irradiation, Absorbance measurements were made using a spectrophotometer calibrated as per the recommended procedure. In Gamma Chamber 900, there is a dose distribution variation of about 34% from top to the center, 18% from center to the bottom, and 15% from center to the periphery. Such a dose distribution profile is largely deviating from the typical profile wherein 15% variation is observed from center to the periphery on all sides. Further investigation showed that there was a nonalignment in the source and sample chamber. However, in Blood Irradiator 2000, there is a dose distribution variation of about 20% from top to the center, 15% from center to the bottom, and 12% from center to the periphery. This pattern is very much similar to the typical profile. Hence it is recommended

  8. Words can slow down category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brojde, Chandra L; Porter, Chelsea; Colunga, Eliana

    2011-08-01

    Words have been shown to influence many cognitive tasks, including category learning. Most demonstrations of these effects have focused on instances in which words facilitate performance. One possibility is that words augment representations, predicting an across the-board benefit of words during category learning. We propose that words shift attention to dimensions that have been historically predictive in similar contexts. Under this account, there should be cases in which words are detrimental to performance. The results from two experiments show that words impair learning of object categories under some conditions. Experiment 1 shows that words hurt performance when learning to categorize by texture. Experiment 2 shows that words also hurt when learning to categorize by brightness, leading to selectively attending to shape when both shape and hue could be used to correctly categorize stimuli. We suggest that both the positive and negative effects of words have developmental origins in the history of word usage while learning categories. [corrected

  9. Category-specificity in visual object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Are all categories of objects recognized in the same manner visually? Evidence from neuropsychology suggests they are not: some brain damaged patients are more impaired in recognizing natural objects than artefacts whereas others show the opposite impairment. Category-effects have also been...... demonstrated in neurologically intact subjects, but the findings are contradictory and there is no agreement as to why category-effects arise. This article presents a Pre-semantic Account of Category Effects (PACE) in visual object recognition. PACE assumes two processing stages: shape configuration (the...... binding of shape elements into elaborate shape descriptions) and selection (among competing representations in visual long-term memory), which are held to be differentially affected by the structural similarity between objects. Drawing on evidence from clinical studies, experimental studies...

  10. Visual object recognition and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    This thesis is based on seven published papers. The majority of the papers address two topics in visual object recognition: (i) category-effects at pre-semantic stages, and (ii) the integration of visual elements into elaborate shape descriptions corresponding to whole objects or large object parts...... (shape configuration). In the early writings these two topics were examined more or less independently. In later works, findings concerning category-effects and shape configuration merge into an integrated model, termed RACE, advanced to explain category-effects arising at pre-semantic stages in visual...... in visual long-term memory. In the thesis it is described how this simple model can account for a wide range of findings on category-specificity in both patients with brain damage and normal subjects. Finally, two hypotheses regarding the neural substrates of the model's components - and how activation...

  11. Uniform Reserve Training and Retirement Category Administration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kohner, D

    1997-01-01

    This Instruction implement policy as provided in DoD Directive 1215.6, assigns responsibilities and prescribes procedures that pertain to the designation and use of uniform Reserve component (RC) categories (RCCs...

  12. Topoi the categorial analysis of logic

    CERN Document Server

    Goldblatt, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A classic exposition of a branch of mathematical logic that uses category theory, this text is suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students and accessible to both philosophically and mathematically oriented readers.

  13. Comparing two K-category assignments by a K-category correlation coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorodkin, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Predicted assignments of biological sequences are often evaluated by Matthews correlation coefficient. However, Matthews correlation coefficient applies only to cases where the assignments belong to two categories, and cases with more than two categories are often artificially forced into two...... categories by considering what belongs and what does not belong to one of the categories, leading to the loss of information. Here, an extended correlation coefficient that applies to K-categories is proposed, and this measure is shown to be highly applicable for evaluating prediction of RNA secondary...

  14. Mixed quantum states in higher categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Heunen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There are two ways to describe the interaction between classical and quantum information categorically: one based on completely positive maps between Frobenius algebras, the other using symmetric monoidal 2-categories. This paper makes a first step towards combining the two. The integrated approach allows a unified description of quantum teleportation and classical encryption in a single 2-category, as well as a universal security proof applicable simultaneously to both scenarios.

  15. Derivation of plutonium-239 materials disposition categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brough, W.G.

    1995-01-01

    At this time, the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition within the DOE, is assessing alternatives for the disposition of excess fissile materials. To facilitate the assessment, the Plutonium-Bearing Materials Feed Report for the DOE Fissile Materials Disposition Program Alternatives report was written. The development of the material categories and the derivation of the inventory quantities associated with those categories is documented in this report

  16. Afghan hydrocarbons: a source for development or for conflict? A risk assessment of Norwegian involvement in development of the Afghan oil and gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, Arne; Hakim, Mohammad; Newrozi, Sediqa; Sarwari, Akbar; Williams, Aled

    2010-10-22

    Norad has been engaged in capacity building and provision of technical support to the Afghan Ministry of Mines since 2007. A part of this engagement relates to the development of the Afghan Hydrocarbons Law, and commercialization of gas and oil reserves through an international bidding process. The Afghan oil and gas industry has been in production since the mid 1980s, but is in need of major investments. Afghans interviewed are of the opinion that oil and gas reserves are national property, to be used for the benefit of all Afghans. The review has identified a range of risks and challenges to the further process, and Norad is advised to consider: To await further engagement on policy matters until there is further clarity as to how the Government of Afghanistan aims to develop and utilize these resources. But consider to provide: 1) Advice on the political/diplomatic process of negotiating agreements for utilization and division of underground natural resources; 2) Assist in training and development of Afghan technical expertise in oil and gas exploration, production and management; 3) Assist in the further development of the hydro power and alternative energy sector. (AG)

  17. Discarded seeds from red pepper (Capsicum annum) processing industry as a sustainable source of high added-value compounds and edible oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azabou, Samia; Taheur, Fadia Ben; Jridi, Mourad; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Nasri, Moncef

    2017-10-01

    The chemical composition and the antioxidant properties of Capsicum annum discarded seeds from processing industry with their corresponding extracted oil were investigated. C. annum seeds had high levels of crude proteins (18.30%), crude oil (11.04%), and dietary fibers (60.96%). The lipophilic fraction of C. annum seeds showed higher radical scavenging activity compared to their hydrophilic fraction, while this latter exhibited the highest reducing power. The results of fatty acid composition showed that fatty acids present in C. annum seed oil were mainly polyunsaturated (84.23%), with linoleic acid being the major polyunsaturated fatty acid (70.93%). The major monounsaturated fatty acid was oleic acid (12.18%), while the main saturated fatty acid was palmitic acid (11.90%). C. annum seed oil showed high absorbance in the UV-B, UV-A, and visible ranges. Owing to their composition, C. annum seeds discarded from pepper processing industry as by-product could be potentially used as high added-value ingredients in some food or nutraceutical formulations because they are well endowed with essential nutriments required for human health.

  18. Monoidal categories and topological field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Turaev, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to monoidal categories and their connections with 3-dimensional topological field theories. Starting with basic definitions, it proceeds to the forefront of current research. Part 1 introduces monoidal categories and several of their classes, including rigid, pivotal, spherical, fusion, braided, and modular categories. It then presents deep theorems of Müger on the center of a pivotal fusion category. These theorems are proved in Part 2 using the theory of Hopf monads. In Part 3 the authors define the notion of a topological quantum field theory (TQFT) and construct a Turaev-Viro-type 3-dimensional state sum TQFT from a spherical fusion category. Lastly, in Part 4 this construction is extended to 3-manifolds with colored ribbon graphs, yielding a so-called graph TQFT (and, consequently, a 3-2-1 extended TQFT). The authors then prove the main result of the monograph: the state sum graph TQFT derived from any spherical fusion category is isomorphic to the Reshetikhin-Turaev surgery gr...

  19. Alternative fat sources to animal fat for pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Christensen, Thomas Bruun; Halekoh, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    % of either animal fat, palm oil mix, palm oil, vegetable oil mix, coconut oil, or rapeseed oil were tested in weaned and growing pigs. It was concluded that several vegetable fat sources (palm oil mix, palm oil, coconut oil, rapeseed oil) could be used as alternatives to animal fat in pig feed, whereas fat......The use of fats and oils in diets for pigs is of great importance due to their high energy value. As a consequence of the BSE-crisis in the European Union, the amount of animal fat available for animal feeds has been reduced, and alternative fat sources are of increasing importance. In this paper...

  20. Giant Oil Fields - The Highway to Oil: Giant Oil Fields and their Importance for Future Oil Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robelius, Fredrik

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1950s, oil has been the dominant source of energy in the world. The cheap supply of oil has been the engine for economic growth in the western world. Since future oil demand is expected to increase, the question to what extent future production will be available is important. The belief in a soon peak production of oil is fueled by increasing oil prices. However, the reliability of the oil price as a single parameter can be questioned, as earlier times of high prices have occurred without having anything to do with a lack of oil. Instead, giant oil fields, the largest oil fields in the world, can be used as a parameter. A giant oil field contains at least 500 million barrels of recoverable oil. Only 507, or 1 % of the total number of fields, are giants. Their contribution is striking: over 60 % of the 2005 production and about 65 % of the global ultimate recoverable reserve (URR). However, giant fields are something of the past since a majority of the largest giant fields are over 50 years old and the discovery trend of less giant fields with smaller volumes is clear. A large number of the largest giant fields are found in the countries surrounding the Persian Gulf. The domination of giant fields in global oil production confirms a concept where they govern future production. A model, based on past annual production and URR, has been developed to forecast future production from giant fields. The results, in combination with forecasts on new field developments, heavy oil and oil sand, are used to predict future oil production. In all scenarios, peak oil occurs at about the same time as the giant fields peak. The worst-case scenario sees a peak in 2008 and the best-case scenario, following a 1.4 % demand growth, peaks in 2018

  1. Speculation and the 2008 oil bubble: The DCOT Report analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokic, Damir

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the CFTC's Disaggregated Commitments of Traders (DCOT) Report to get more insights into the behavior of different traders during the 2008 oil bubble. The analysis shows that: (1) the Money Manager category perfectly played the oil bubble, got in early and started selling shortly before the bubble peak; (2) the Producer/Merchant/Processor/User category and the Nonreportable category were covering their short positions into the peak of the bubble; (3) the Swap/Dealer category benefited while the price of oil was rising, but incurred heavy losses as the price of oil collapsed; (4) we find no indications of speculation by any group of traders via the positive feedback trading or rational destabilization; and (5) we do, however, criticize the commercial hedgers for failing to arbitrage the soaring oil prices in 2008. - Highlights: ► We analyze the DCOT Report to study the behavior of traders during the 2008 oil bubble. ► the Money Manger category perfectly played the oil bubble. ► the Producer/Merchant/Processor/User and the Nonreportables engaged in short covering. ► the Swap/Dealer incurred heavy losses as the price of oil collapsed. ► We find no indications of speculation by any category.

  2. Analysis and functional annotation of expressed sequence tags (ESTs from multiple tissues of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Weng-Wah

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oil palm is the second largest source of edible oil which contributes to approximately 20% of the world's production of oils and fats. In order to understand the molecular biology involved in in vitro propagation, flowering, efficient utilization of nitrogen sources and root diseases, we have initiated an expressed sequence tag (EST analysis on oil palm. Results In this study, six cDNA libraries from oil palm zygotic embryos, suspension cells, shoot apical meristems, young flowers, mature flowers and roots, were constructed. We have generated a total of 14537 expressed sequence tags (ESTs from these libraries, from which 6464 tentative unique contigs (TUCs and 2129 singletons were obtained. Approximately 6008 of these tentative unique genes (TUGs have significant matches to the non-redundant protein database, from which 2361 were assigned to one or more Gene Ontology categories. Predominant transcripts and differentially expressed genes were identified in multiple oil palm tissues. Homologues of genes involved in many aspects of flower development were also identified among the EST collection, such as CONSTANS-like, AGAMOUS-like (AGL2, AGL20, LFY-like, SQUAMOSA, SQUAMOSA binding protein (SBP etc. Majority of them are the first representatives in oil palm, providing opportunities to explore the cause of epigenetic homeotic flowering abnormality in oil palm, given the importance of flowering in fruit production. The transcript levels of two flowering-related genes, EgSBP and EgSEP were analysed in the flower tissues of various developmental stages. Gene homologues for enzymes involved in oil biosynthesis, utilization of nitrogen sources, and scavenging of oxygen radicals, were also uncovered among the oil palm ESTs. Conclusion The EST sequences generated will allow comparative genomic studies between oil palm and other monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants, development of gene-targeted markers for the reference genetic map

  3. Lavender oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender oil is an oil made from the flowers of lavender plants. Lavender poisoning can occur when ... further instructions. This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United ...

  4. Petroleum Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Different types of crude oil and refined product, of all different chemical compositions, have distinct physical properties. These properties affect the way oil spreads and breaks down, its hazard to marine and human life, and the likelihood of threat.

  5. 40 CFR 427.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.34 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source subject to...

  6. 40 CFR 427.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Elastomeric Binder) Subcategory § 427.44 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source subject to...

  7. 40 CFR 417.84 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Soaps Subcategory § 417.84 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source...

  8. Energy information data base: energy categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-03-01

    Citations entered into DOE's computerized bibliographic information system are assigned six-digit subject category numbers to group information broadly for storage, retrieval, and manipulation. These numbers are used in the preparation of printed documents, such as bibliographies and abstract journals, to arrange the citations and as searching aids in the on-line system, DOE/RECON. This document has been prepared for use by those individuals responsible for the assignment of category numbers to documents being entered into the Technical Information Center (TIC) system, those individuals and organizations processing magnetic tape copies of the files, those individuals doing on-line searching for information in TIC-created files, and others who, having no access to RECON, need printed copy. The six-digit numbers assigned to documents are listed, along with the category names and text to define the scope of interest. Asterisks highlight those categories added or changed since the previous printing, and a subject index further details the subject content of each category

  9. When does fading enhance perceptual category learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashler, Harold; Mozer, Michael C

    2013-07-01

    Training that uses exaggerated versions of a stimulus discrimination (fading) has sometimes been found to enhance category learning, mostly in studies involving animals and impaired populations. However, little is known about whether and when fading facilitates learning for typical individuals. This issue was explored in 7 experiments. In Experiments 1 and 2, observers discriminated stimuli based on a single sensory continuum (time duration and line length, respectively). Adaptive fading dramatically improved performance in training (unsurprisingly) but did not enhance learning as assessed in a final test. The same was true for nonadaptive linear fading (Experiment 3). However, when variation in length (predicting category membership) was embedded among other (category-irrelevant) variation, fading dramatically enhanced not only performance in training but also learning as assessed in a final test (Experiments 4 and 5). Fading also helped learners to acquire a color saturation discrimination amid category-irrelevant variation in hue and brightness, although this learning proved transitory after feedback was withdrawn (Experiment 7). Theoretical implications are discussed, and we argue that fading should have practical utility in naturalistic category learning tasks, which involve extremely high dimensional stimuli and many irrelevant dimensions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. TV MEDIA ANALYSIS FOR BANKING CATEGORY (2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Elena POȘTOACĂ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article represents a short overview of the media landscape for the banking category in Romania in 2012. Unlike the other categories (for example FMCG – fast moving consumer goods, the banking category is more complex because every bank can communicate for a wider range of products (credits, deposits, packages dedicated to students, pensioners and other types of banking products. In the first part of this paper, there will be presented some theoretical notions about media planning and media analyses in order for the lecturer to easily go through the second part of the article. The second part of the paper will only refer to TV analyses. This media channel owns the highest budget share in our category, and also in the media mix of every important player, active in the Romanian market. The analyses will show which bank communicated most effectively, which is the most important spender on TV, what banking products had the largest budget allocated, which is the pattern for this category when it comes to allocating audience points for each day interval and so on. The starting point of this analyses is based on the secondary data obtained from InfoSys+ which is the world’s leading TV analyses software, used in more than 29 countries by 8000+ users.

  11. Detection of polychlorinated biphenyls in transformer oils in Vietnam by multiphoton ionization mass spectrometry using a far-ultraviolet femtosecond laser as an ionization source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Vu Thi Thuy; Duong, Vu; Lien, Nghiem Thi Ha; Imasaka, Tomoko; Tang, Yuanyuan; Shibuta, Shinpei; Hamachi, Akifumi; Hoa, Do Quang; Imasaka, Totaro

    2016-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in transformer and food oils were measured using gas chromatography combined with multiphoton ionization mass spectroscopy. An ultrashort laser pulse emitting in the far-ultraviolet region was utilized for efficient ionization of the analytes. Numerous signal peaks were clearly observed for a standard sample mixture of PCBs when the third and fourth harmonic emissions (267 and 200nm) of a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser (800nm) were employed. The signal intensities were found to be greater when measured at 200nm compared with those measured at 267nm, providing lower detection limits especially for highly chlorinated PCBs at shorter wavelengths. After simple pretreatment using disposable columns, PCB congeners were measured and found to be present in the transformer oils used in Vietnam. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of oil for lead shielded glass windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antony, M.P.; Subramaniam, S.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    1997-01-01

    Oil filled glass windows are used in Hot Cells for viewing purposes. Absorption of moisture and radiation can cause degradation of the oil and the degradation products will make the oil cloudy. Hence, it is necessary to replace the oil at least once in two years. The requirements of the oil were met so far by importing it from USA, Germany and France. An attempt has been made to make the oil indigenously with a view to replenish the oil in future, and also as an alternate source for oil import. The details of the development of a radiation resistant oil, its specifications and the test procedures are discussed in this report. (author)

  13. Heterogeneous Data Mining for a Semi-Quantitative Risk Assessment of Oil Contamination from Multiple-Sources in The Ecuadorian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Durango , Juan; Saqalli , Mehdi; Maurice , Laurence; Lerigouleur , Emilie; Maestripieri , Nicolas; Elger , Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The North Ecuadorian Amazon (NEA) is one of the most biodiverse places per surface area on Earth. However, its richness and importance is threatened by complex human activities driven by extensive agriculture development and oil exploration and extraction, directly responsible for forest clearing. Furthermore this extractive industry has long been regarded as polluting the environment and causing cancer and other diseases to the local population. Two periods of extract...

  14. Source rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakr F. Makky

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available West Beni Suef Concession is located at the western part of Beni Suef Basin which is a relatively under-explored basin and lies about 150 km south of Cairo. The major goal of this study is to evaluate the source rock by using different techniques as Rock-Eval pyrolysis, Vitrinite reflectance (%Ro, and well log data of some Cretaceous sequences including Abu Roash (E, F and G members, Kharita and Betty formations. The BasinMod 1D program is used in this study to construct the burial history and calculate the levels of thermal maturity of the Fayoum-1X well based on calibration of measured %Ro and Tmax against calculated %Ro model. The calculated Total Organic Carbon (TOC content from well log data compared with the measured TOC from the Rock-Eval pyrolysis in Fayoum-1X well is shown to match against the shale source rock but gives high values against the limestone source rock. For that, a new model is derived from well log data to calculate accurately the TOC content against the limestone source rock in the study area. The organic matter existing in Abu Roash (F member is fair to excellent and capable of generating a significant amount of hydrocarbons (oil prone produced from (mixed type I/II kerogen. The generation potential of kerogen in Abu Roash (E and G members and Betty formations is ranging from poor to fair, and generating hydrocarbons of oil and gas prone (mixed type II/III kerogen. Eventually, kerogen (type III of Kharita Formation has poor to very good generation potential and mainly produces gas. Thermal maturation of the measured %Ro, calculated %Ro model, Tmax and Production index (PI indicates that Abu Roash (F member exciting in the onset of oil generation, whereas Abu Roash (E and G members, Kharita and Betty formations entered the peak of oil generation.

  15. Oil shale highlights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The low prices of crude oil have continued to retard the commercial development of oil shale and other syn fuels. Although research funds are more difficult to find, some R and D work by industry, academia, and governmental agencies continues in the United States and in other parts of the world. Improvements in retorting technology, upgrading oil-shale feedstock, and developing high-value niche-market products from shale oil are three notable areas of research that have been prominent for the past several years. Although the future prices of conventional crude cannot be predicted, it seems evident that diminishing supplies and a burgeoning world population will force us to turn to alternate fossil fuels as well as to cleaner sources of non-fossil energy. (author)

  16. Oil biodegradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Eenennaam, van Justine S.; Murk, Tinka; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.

    2017-01-01

    During the Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill, interactions between oil, clay particles and marine snow lead to the formation of aggregates. Interactions between these components play an important, but yet not well understood, role in biodegradation of oil in the ocean water. The aim of this study

  17. Beyond Naphthenic Acids: Environmental Screening of Water from Natural Sources and the Athabasca Oil Sands Industry Using Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Mark P; Peru, Kerry M; Fahlman, Brian; Hewitt, L Mark; Frank, Richard A; Headley, John V

    2015-09-01

    There is a growing need for environmental screening of natural waters in the Athabasca region of Alberta, Canada, particularly in the differentiation between anthropogenic and naturally-derived organic compounds associated with weathered bitumen deposits. Previous research has focused primarily upon characterization of naphthenic acids in water samples by negative-ion electrospray ionization methods. Atmospheric pressure photoionization is a much less widely used ionization method, but one that affords the possibility of observing low polarity compounds that cannot be readily observed by electrospray ionization. This study describes the first usage of atmospheric pressure photoionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (in both positive-ion and negative-ion modes) to characterize and compare extracts of oil sands process water, river water, and groundwater samples from areas associated with oil sands mining activities. When comparing mass spectra previously obtained by electrospray ionization and data acquired by atmospheric pressure photoionization, there can be a doubling of the number of components detected. In addition to polar compounds that have previously been observed, low-polarity, sulfur-containing compounds and hydrocarbons that do not incorporate a heteroatom were detected. These latter components, which are not amenable to electrospray ionization, have potential for screening efforts within monitoring programs of the oil sands.

  18. [Laser induced fluorescence spectrum characteristics of common edible oil and fried cooking oil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Tao-tao; Chen, Si-ying; Zhang, Yin-chao; Chen, He; Guo, Pan; Ge, Xian-ying; Gao, Li-lei

    2013-09-01

    In order to detect the trench oil the authors built a trench oil rapid detection system based on laser induced fluorescence detection technology. This system used 355 nm laser as excitation light source. The authors collected the fluorescence spectrum of a variety of edible oil and fried cooking oil (a kind of trench oil) and then set up a fluorescence spectrum database by taking advantage of the trench oil detection system It was found that the fluorescence characteristics of fried cooking oil and common edible oil were obviously different. Then it could easily realize the oil recognition and trench oil rapid detection by using principal component analysis and BP neural network, and the overall recognition rate could reach as high as 97.5%. Experiments showed that laser induced fluorescence spectrum technology was fast, non-contact, and highly sensitive. Combined with BP neural network, it would become a new technique to detect the trench oil.

  19. Grammatical category dissociation in multilingual aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Waked, Arifi N

    2010-03-01

    Word retrieval deficits for specific grammatical categories, such as verbs versus nouns, occur as a consequence of brain damage. Such deficits are informative about the nature of lexical organization in the human brain. This study examined retrieval of grammatical categories across three languages in a trilingual person with aphasia who spoke Arabic, French, and English. In order to delineate the nature of word production difficulty, comprehension was tested, and a variety of concomitant lexical-semantic variables were analysed. The patient demonstrated a consistent noun-verb dissociation in picture naming and narrative speech, with severely impaired production of verbs across all three languages. The cross-linguistically similar noun-verb dissociation, coupled with little evidence of semantic impairment, suggests that (a) the patient has a true "nonsemantic" grammatical category specific deficit, and (b) lexical organization in multilingual speakers shares grammatical class information between languages. The findings of this study contribute to our understanding of the architecture of lexical organization in bilinguals.

  20. From Perceptual Categories to Concepts: What Develops?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloutsky, Vladimir M.

    2010-01-01

    People are remarkably smart: they use language, possess complex motor skills, make non-trivial inferences, develop and use scientific theories, make laws, and adapt to complex dynamic environments. Much of this knowledge requires concepts and this paper focuses on how people acquire concepts. It is argued that conceptual development progresses from simple perceptual grouping to highly abstract scientific concepts. This proposal of conceptual development has four parts. First, it is argued that categories in the world have different structure. Second, there might be different learning systems (sub-served by different brain mechanisms) that evolved to learn categories of differing structures. Third, these systems exhibit differential maturational course, which affects how categories of different structures are learned in the course of development. And finally, an interaction of these components may result in the developmental transition from perceptual groupings to more abstract concepts. This paper reviews a large body of empirical evidence supporting this proposal. PMID:21116483

  1. Lectures on tensor categories and modular functors

    CERN Document Server

    Bakalov, Bojko

    2000-01-01

    This book gives an exposition of the relations among the following three topics: monoidal tensor categories (such as a category of representations of a quantum group), 3-dimensional topological quantum field theory, and 2-dimensional modular functors (which naturally arise in 2-dimensional conformal field theory). The following examples are discussed in detail: the category of representations of a quantum group at a root of unity and the Wess-Zumino-Witten modular functor. The idea that these topics are related first appeared in the physics literature in the study of quantum field theory. Pioneering works of Witten and Moore-Seiberg triggered an avalanche of papers, both physical and mathematical, exploring various aspects of these relations. Upon preparing to lecture on the topic at MIT, however, the authors discovered that the existing literature was difficult and that there were gaps to fill. The text is wholly expository and finely succinct. It gathers results, fills existing gaps, and simplifies some pro...

  2. Multimedia category preferences of working engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baukal, Charles E.; Ausburn, Lynna J.

    2016-09-01

    Many have argued for the importance of continuing engineering education (CEE), but relatively few recommendations were found in the literature for how to use multimedia technologies to deliver it most effectively. The study reported here addressed this gap by investigating the multimedia category preferences of working engineers. Four categories of multimedia, with two types in each category, were studied: verbal (text and narration), static graphics (drawing and photograph), dynamic non-interactive graphics (animation and video), and dynamic interactive graphics (simulated virtual reality (VR) and photo-real VR). The results showed that working engineers strongly preferred text over narration and somewhat preferred drawing over photograph, animation over video, and simulated VR over photo-real VR. These results suggest that a variety of multimedia types should be used in the instructional design of CEE content.

  3. Shape configuration and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, I; Paulson, Olaf B.

    2006-01-01

    and fragmented drawings. We also examined whether fragmentation had different impact on the recognition of natural objects and artefacts and found that recognition of artefacts was more affected by fragmentation than recognition of natural objects. Thus, the usual finding of an advantage for artefacts...... in difficult object decision tasks, which is also found in the present experiments with outlines, is reversed when the stimuli are fragmented. This interaction between category (natural versus artefacts) and stimulus type (outlines versus fragmented forms) is in accordance with predictions derived from...... a recent account of category-specificity and lends support to the notion that category-specific impairments can occur for both natural objects and artefacts following damage to pre-semantic stages in visual object recognition. The implications of the present findings are discussed in relation to theories...

  4. Haematological and Serum Biochemical Parameters of Broiler Chickens Fed Varying Dietary Levels of Fermented Castor Oil Seed Meal (Ricinus communis L. and Different Methionine Sources in South Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayorinde David Adeniran

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, the effect of varying dietary levels of fermented castor oil seed meal (FCSM and different methionine sources (DL-methionine and herbal methionine on haematological and serum biochemical parameters of broilers. A total of 240 one-day-old Anak broiler chicks were used in the experiment lasted 56 days. The dietary experiment was laid out as a completely randomized design in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement consisting of 4 dietary levels of FCSM (0, 50, 100 and 150 g/kg and 2 methionine sources (DL-methionine and herbal methionine. The birds were weighed and randomly distributed into 8 treatments with 3 replicates of 10 birds each. During the starter phase of the experiment, haemoglobin, red blood cell count, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and eosinophil counts were higher (P

  5. Functional categories in agrammatism: evidence from Greek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrakaki, Stavroula; Kouvava, Sofia

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study is twofold. First, to investigate the use of functional categories by two Greek agrammatic aphasics. Second, to discuss the implications of our findings for the characterization of the deficit in agrammatism. The functional categories under investigation were the following: definite and indefinite articles, personal pronouns, aspect, tense, subject-verb agreement, wh-pronouns, complementizers and the mood marker na (=to). Based on data collected through different methods, it is argued that the deficit in agrammatism cannot be described in terms of a structural account but rather by means of difficulties in the implementation of grammatical knowledge.

  6. How to Do Things with Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbe, Anders Dahl

    Consumers and other audiences draw upon cognitive categories when evaluating technological products (Clark, 1985; Kaplan and Tripsas, 2008). Categories such as “mini-van” or “computer” provide labels and conceptual meaning structures that consumers and other market actors draw upon in making sense...... the majority of archival data was collected. Finally, to trace consumer reception of innovations in the design of products and technological innovations, I constructed a data set based on posts from an online hearing aid consumer forum. The initial analysis each spawned into three distinct trajectories...

  7. 加热原油的太阳能-污水源热泵系统的开发%Development on solar-assisted sewage source heat pump system for crude oil heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱剑峰; 王强

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the situations of crude oil heating and oily water utilization were analyzed.The development situation of solar heat pump at home and abroad was introduced.It was put forward that the solar-assisted sewage source heat pump system could be used to reuse oily water for crude oil heating.The composition of the system and five kinds of operation mode were analyzed.The mathematical model was also established.It provided some references for the application of solar-assisted sewage source heat pump system.%分析了油田用热现状和含油污水利用现状,详述了太阳能热泵在国内外的发展现状.在此基础上,提出应用太阳能-污水源热泵系统回收含油污水余热来加热原油,进而分析了该系统的组成及五种运行模式,建立了系统的数学模型,为太阳能-污水源热泵系统的应用提供参考.

  8. [Imperial Oil's Cold Lake oil sands operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingle, H. B.

    1999-01-01

    Imperial Oil Limited's Cold Lake oil sands resources, production and operations in Alberta are discussed. Cold Lake is the company's largest single asset and its largest source of crude oil production. In 1998, Cold Lake accounted for just under half of Imperial's total liquid production, averaging more than 135,000 barrels of bitumen a day. Despite the very difficult operating conditions experienced by the oil sands industry in 1998, Imperial Oil's Cold Lake operations generated a positive cash flow and earnings. Just as important, the near and long-term potential of Cold Lake property continues to be strong, even with the tough market conditions today and the foreseeable future. Proved reserves at the end of 1997 were 1.3 billions barrels, equal to about 24 years of current production, but even more important is Imperial's resource base in the Athabasca region, which represents 150 years of production at current rates. Although production forecasts for the near future are are revised downward because of production shut-in due to low prices, the company is confident of its long-term prospects mainly because of existing infrastructure, superior reservoir quality, 30 years worth of operating improvements and established bitumen-blend markets. Details of the company's future Cold Lake development plans are discussed. The need to continue technology development, which has been at the core of the industry's growth in the past and will continue to be the key to the future, are emphasized

  9. Biodiesel from plant seed oils as an alternate fuel for compression ignition engines-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, C; Ramesh, M; Murugesan, A; Panneerselvam, N; Subramaniam, D; Bharathiraja, M

    2016-12-01

    The modern scenario reveals that the world is facing energy crisis due to the dwindling sources of fossil fuels. Environment protection agencies are more concerned about the atmospheric pollution due to the burning of fossil fuels. Alternative fuel research is getting augmented because of the above reasons. Plant seed oils (vegetable oils) are cleaner, sustainable, and renewable. So, it can be the most suitable alternative fuel for compression ignition (CI) engines. This paper reviews the availability of different types of plant seed oils, several methods for production of biodiesel from vegetable oils, and its properties. The different types of oils considered in this review are cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) oil, ginger oil, eucalyptus oil, rice bran oil, Calophyllum inophyllum, hazelnut oil, sesame oil, clove stem oil, sardine oil, honge oil, polanga oil, mahua oil, rubber seed oil, cotton seed oil, neem oil, jatropha oil, egunsi melon oil, shea butter, linseed oil, Mohr oil, sea lemon oil, pumpkin oil, tobacco seed oil, jojoba oil, and mustard oil. Several methods for production of biodiesel are transesterification, pre-treatment, pyrolysis, and water emulsion are discussed. The various fuel properties considered for review such as specific gravity, viscosity, calorific value, flash point, and fire point are presented. The review also portrays advantages, limitations, performance, and emission characteristics of engine using plant seed oil biodiesel are discussed. Finally, the modeling and optimization of engine for various biofuels with different input and output parameters using artificial neural network, response surface methodology, and Taguchi are included.

  10. Sources of pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Sources of pollution. Domestic wastewater (Sewage). Organic matter; Nitrogen & phosphorus; Pathogens, viruses, …. Agricultural runoff. Nitrogen & phosphorus; Pesticides; Industrial effluents; Organics (oil &grease, pigments, phenols, organic matter ….) Heavy ...

  11. SINTESIS BIODIESEL DARI MINYAK LIMBAH BIJI KARET SEBAGAI SUMBER ENERGI ALTERNATIF (Synthesis of Biodiesel From Waste of Rubber Seed Oil as Alternative Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasmadi Imam Supardi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Biji karet hanya ditemukan sebagai limbah padat dan belum termanfaatkan sepenuhnya. Minyak limbah biji karet yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini mengandung asam lemak bebas yang tinggi, yaitu 97,77% dan mempunyai bilangan asam yang tinggi pula yaitu setara dengan 6,2 mg KOH g minyak, sehingga perlu dilakukan esterifikasi untuk menurunkan kandungan asam lemak bebasnya menjadi ester. Metanol (20% volume minyak direaksikan dengan minyak limbah biji karet dengan katalis asam sulfat 98% (0,5% volume minyak menjadi ester. Dalam operasi reaksi transesterifikasi, digunakan variasi optimasi katalis yaitu pada 0,5% sampai 1,5% KOH dengan suhu operasi 60 o C dalam perbandingan metanol dengan minyak 1:3 (volume, dan dengan kecepatan pengadukan yang sama, didapatkan konsentrasi metil ester yang baik pada katalis 0,75%. Uji fisis minyak limbah biji karet hasil reaksi transesterifikasi adalah Specific Gravity 0,9000, Density 919,5, Korosi Lempeng Tembaga 1b, CCR 1,361% W, Kadar Air 0,22%, Viscosity 11,53mm 2 /s, dan Flash Point 182,5 o C. Hasil uji fisis menunjukkan belum semua parameter metil ester atau biodiesel memenuhi standar biodiesel. Hasil uji Performance unjuk kerja menunjukkan biodiesel yang dicampur solar dengan perbandingan volume 20:80 memberikan hasil emisi gas buang paling bersih dan waktu pembakaran yang paling lama. ABSTRACT Waste of rubber seeds is found only as a solid waste and has not fully exploited. Waste of rubber seed oil used in the research contains high free fatty acids, about 97.77% and higher acidity number, namely 6.2 mg KOH / g oil, so it needs esterification to reduce the free fatty acid content to be changed into ester. Methanol (20% volume of oil reacted with  waste of rubber seed oil to become methyl ester with sulfuric acid 98% (0,5% volume of oil as a catalyst. In the operations of transesterification variations of the optimization of catalyst 0.5% until 1.5% KOH was used with operating temperature of 60o C in

  12. Language specific bootstraps for UG categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kampen, N.J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper argues that the universal categories N/V are not applied to content words before the grammatical markings for reference D(eterminers) and predication I(nflection) have been acquired (van Kampen, 1997, contra Pinker, 1984). Child grammar starts as proto-grammar with language-specific

  13. Quantum logic in dagger kernel categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heunen, C.; Jacobs, B.P.F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates quantum logic from the perspective of categorical logic, and starts from minimal assumptions, namely the existence of involutions/daggers and kernels. The resulting structures turn out to (1) encompass many examples of interest, such as categories of relations, partial

  14. Quantum logic in dagger kernel categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heunen, C.; Jacobs, B.P.F.; Coecke, B.; Panangaden, P.; Selinger, P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates quantum logic from the perspective of categorical logic, and starts from minimal assumptions, namely the existence of involutions/daggers and kernels. The resulting structures turn out to (1) encompass many examples of interest, such as categories of relations, partial

  15. New Evidence for Infant Colour Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Anna; Davies, Ian R. L.

    2004-01-01

    Bornstein, Kessen, and Weiskopf (1976) reported that pre-linguistic infants perceive colour categorically for primary boundaries: Following habituation, dishabituation only occurred if the test stimulus was from a different adult category to the original. Here, we replicated this important study and extended it to include secondary boundaries,…

  16. Ethnicity in censuses: Changeable and inconstant category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrđen Snježana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of ethnicity was set in all censuses of SFRY, as well as in the first censuses in countries that were created after its disintegration. When analyzing the censuses it can be concluded that it is a changeable category. Not only was the manner of forming the question in censuses changing, but also the number of categories of nationality and their order in published census' results. It depended on state policy and the political situation preceding the censuses. Since the answer on the issues of ethnicity is a subjective criterion, and it was written down according to the freely declared statement of the residents, guaranteed by the Constitution. It has often happened that same individuals have declared themselves differently from one census to another, and also some categories of ethnicity have vanished and some others were created. Although in SFRY nations and ethnicities were equal, still indirectly in published results, existence of these two categories was indicated. But, in newly created countries, the manner of forming the question of ethnicity was changed, their number and order were also changed and the notion of 'minority' was again introduced, indicating, beyond doubt, a different status of nationality (except the majority from the one in the former Yugoslavia.

  17. 40 CFR 2.105 - Exemption categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the mandatory disclosure requirements of 5 U.S.C. 552(a): (1)(i) Specifically authorized under... enforcement investigations or prosecutions if such disclosure could reasonably be expected to risk... for Disclosure of Records Under the Freedom of Information Act § 2.105 Exemption categories. (a) The...

  18. Reliability of Multi-Category Rating Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard I.; Vannest, Kimberly J.; Davis, John L.

    2013-01-01

    The use of multi-category scales is increasing for the monitoring of IEP goals, classroom and school rules, and Behavior Improvement Plans (BIPs). Although they require greater inference than traditional data counting, little is known about the inter-rater reliability of these scales. This simulation study examined the performance of nine…

  19. 21 CFR 330.5 - Drug categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug categories. 330.5 Section 330.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN...) Stimulants. (r) Antitussives. (s) Allergy treatment products. (t) Cold remedies. (u) Antirheumatic products...

  20. Shape configuration and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B

    2006-01-01

    in difficult object decision tasks, which is also found in the present experiments with outlines, is reversed when the stimuli are fragmented. This interaction between category (natural versus artefacts) and stimulus type (outlines versus fragmented forms) is in accordance with predictions derived from...