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Sample records for sour taste perception

  1. Sour ageusia in two individuals implicates ion channels of the ASIC and PKD families in human sour taste perception at the anterior tongue.

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    Taufiqul Huque

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of sour taste in humans is incompletely understood at the receptor cell level. We report here on two patients with an acquired sour ageusia. Each patient was unresponsive to sour stimuli, but both showed normal responses to bitter, sweet, and salty stimuli.Lingual fungiform papillae, containing taste cells, were obtained by biopsy from the two patients, and from three sour-normal individuals, and analyzed by RT-PCR. The following transcripts were undetectable in the patients, even after 50 cycles of amplification, but readily detectable in the sour-normal subjects: acid sensing ion channels (ASICs 1a, 1beta, 2a, 2b, and 3; and polycystic kidney disease (PKD channels PKD1L3 and PKD2L1. Patients and sour-normals expressed the taste-related phospholipase C-beta2, the delta-subunit of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC and the bitter receptor T2R14, as well as beta-actin. Genomic analysis of one patient, using buccal tissue, did not show absence of the genes for ASIC1a and PKD2L1. Immunohistochemistry of fungiform papillae from sour-normal subjects revealed labeling of taste bud cells by antibodies to ASICs 1a and 1beta, PKD2L1, phospholipase C-beta2, and delta-ENaC. An antibody to PKD1L3 labeled tissue outside taste bud cells.These data suggest a role for ASICs and PKDs in human sour perception. This is the first report of sour ageusia in humans, and the very existence of such individuals ("natural knockouts" suggests a cell lineage for sour that is independent of the other taste modalities.

  2. Bortezomib alters sour taste sensitivity in mice

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    Akihiro Ohishi

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced taste disorder is one of the critical issues in cancer therapy. Bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor, is a key agent in multiple myeloma therapy, but it induces a taste disorder. In this study, we investigated the characteristics of bortezomib-induced taste disorder and the underlying mechanism in mice. Among the five basic tastes, the sour taste sensitivity of mice was significantly increased by bortezomib administration. In bortezomib-administered mice, protein expression of PKD2L1 was increased. The increased sour taste sensitivity induced by bortezomib returned to the control level on cessation of its administration. These results suggest that an increase in protein expression of PKD2L1 enhances the sour taste sensitivity in bortezomib-administered mice, and this alteration is reversed on cessation of its administration. Keywords: Taste disorder, Bortezomib, Sour taste, Chemotherapy, Adverse effect

  3. The chemistry of sour taste and the strategy to reduce the sour taste of beer.

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    Li, Hong; Liu, Fang

    2015-10-15

    The contributions of free hydrogen ions, undissociated hydrogen ions in protonated acid species, and anionic acid species to sour taste were studied through sensory experiments. According to tasting results, it can be inferred that the basic substance producing a sour taste is the hydrogen ion, including free hydrogen ions and undissociated hydrogen ions. The intensity of a sour taste is determined by the total concentration of free hydrogen ions and undissociated hydrogen ions. The anionic acid species (without hydrogen ions) does not produce a sour taste but can intensify or weaken the intensity of a sour taste. It seems that hydroxyl or conjugated groups in anionic acid species can intensify the sour taste produced by hydrogen ions. The following strategy to reduce the sensory sourness is advanced: not only reduce free hydrogen ions, namely elevate pH value, but also reduce the undissociated hydrogen ions contained in protonated acid species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sweet and sour taste preferences of children

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    Liem, D.G.

    2004-01-01

    In the industrialized countries children have many foods to choose from, both healthy and unhealthy products, these choices mainly depend on children's taste preferences. The present thesis focused on preferences for sweet and sour taste of young children (4- to 12-years of age) living in the US and

  5. Sour Taste preferences of children relate to preference of novel and intense stimuli

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    Liem, D.G.; Westerbeek, A.; Wolterink, S.; Kok, F.J.; Graaf, de C.

    2004-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that some children have a preference for sour tastes. The origin of this preference remains unclear. We investigated whether preference for sour tastes is related to a difference in rated sour intensity due to physiological properties of saliva, or to an overall

  6. Presynaptic (Type III) cells in mouse taste buds sense sour (acid) taste.

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    Huang, Yijen A; Maruyama, Yutaka; Stimac, Robert; Roper, Stephen D

    2008-06-15

    Taste buds contain two types of cells that directly participate in taste transduction - receptor (Type II) cells and presynaptic (Type III) cells. Receptor cells respond to sweet, bitter and umami taste stimulation but until recently the identity of cells that respond directly to sour (acid) tastants has only been inferred from recordings in situ, from behavioural studies, and from immunostaining for putative sour transduction molecules. Using calcium imaging on single isolated taste cells and with biosensor cells to identify neurotransmitter release, we show that presynaptic (Type III) cells specifically respond to acid taste stimulation and release serotonin. By recording responses in cells isolated from taste buds and in taste cells in lingual slices to acetic acid titrated to different acid levels (pH), we also show that the active stimulus for acid taste is the membrane-permeant, uncharged acetic acid moiety (CH(3)COOH), not free protons (H(+)). That observation is consistent with the proximate stimulus for acid taste being intracellular acidification, not extracellular protons per se. These findings may also have implications for other sensory receptors that respond to acids, such as nociceptors.

  7. Ghrelin is produced in taste cells and ghrelin receptor null mice show reduced taste responsivity to salty (NaCl and sour (citric acid tastants.

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    Yu-Kyong Shin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The gustatory system plays a critical role in determining food preferences, food intake and energy balance. The exact mechanisms that fine tune taste sensitivity are currently poorly defined, but it is clear that numerous factors such as efferent input and specific signal transduction cascades are involved.Using immunohistochemical analyses, we show that ghrelin, a hormone classically considered to be an appetite-regulating hormone, is present within the taste buds of the tongue. Prepro-ghrelin, prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC 1/3, ghrelin, its cognate receptor (GHSR, and ghrelin-O-acyltransferase (GOAT , the enzyme that activates ghrelin are expressed in Type I, II, III and IV taste cells of mouse taste buds. In addition, ghrelin and GHSR co-localize in the same taste cells, suggesting that ghrelin works in an autocrine manner in taste cells. To determine a role for ghrelin in modifying taste perception, we performed taste behavioral tests using GHSR null mice. GHSR null mice exhibited significantly reduced taste responsivity to sour (citric acid and salty (sodium chloride tastants.These findings suggest that ghrelin plays a local modulatory role in determining taste bud signaling and function and could be a novel mechanism for the modulation of salty and sour taste responsivity.

  8. Acid stimulation (sour taste elicits GABA and serotonin release from mouse taste cells.

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    Yijen A Huang

    Full Text Available Several transmitter candidates including serotonin (5-HT, ATP, and norepinephrine (NE have been identified in taste buds. Recently, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA as well as the associated synthetic enzymes and receptors have also been identified in taste cells. GABA reduces taste-evoked ATP secretion from Receptor cells and is considered to be an inhibitory transmitter in taste buds. However, to date, the identity of GABAergic taste cells and the specific stimulus for GABA release are not well understood. In the present study, we used genetically-engineered Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells stably co-expressing GABA(B receptors and Gαqo5 proteins to measure GABA release from isolated taste buds. We recorded robust responses from GABA biosensors when they were positioned against taste buds isolated from mouse circumvallate papillae and the buds were depolarized with KCl or a stimulated with an acid (sour taste. In contrast, a mixture of sweet and bitter taste stimuli did not trigger GABA release. KCl- or acid-evoked GABA secretion from taste buds was Ca(2+-dependent; removing Ca(2+ from the bathing medium eliminated GABA secretion. Finally, we isolated individual taste cells to identify the origin of GABA secretion. GABA was released only from Presynaptic (Type III cells and not from Receptor (Type II cells. Previously, we reported that 5-HT released from Presynaptic cells inhibits taste-evoked ATP secretion. Combined with the recent findings that GABA depresses taste-evoked ATP secretion, the present results indicate that GABA and 5-HT are inhibitory transmitters in mouse taste buds and both likely play an important role in modulating taste responses.

  9. A large increase of sour taste receptor cells in Skn-1-deficient mice does not alter the number of their sour taste signal-transmitting gustatory neurons.

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    Maeda, Naohiro; Narukawa, Masataka; Ishimaru, Yoshiro; Yamamoto, Kurumi; Misaka, Takumi; Abe, Keiko

    2017-05-01

    The connections between taste receptor cells (TRCs) and innervating gustatory neurons are formed in a mutually dependent manner during development. To investigate whether a change in the ratio of cell types that compose taste buds influences the number of innervating gustatory neurons, we analyzed the proportion of gustatory neurons that transmit sour taste signals in adult Skn-1a -/- mice in which the number of sour TRCs is greatly increased. We generated polycystic kidney disease 1 like 3-wheat germ agglutinin (pkd1l3-WGA)/Skn-1a +/+ and pkd1l3-WGA/Skn-1a -/- mice by crossing Skn-1a -/- mice and pkd1l3-WGA transgenic mice, in which neural pathways of sour taste signals can be visualized. The number of WGA-positive cells in the circumvallate papillae is 3-fold higher in taste buds of pkd1l3-WGA/Skn-1a -/- mice relative to pkd1l3-WGA/Skn-1a +/+ mice. Intriguingly, the ratio of WGA-positive neurons to P2X 2 -expressing gustatory neurons in nodose/petrosal ganglia was similar between pkd1l3-WGA/Skn-1a +/+ and pkd1l3-WGA/Skn-1a -/- mice. In conclusion, an alteration in the ratio of cell types that compose taste buds does not influence the number of gustatory neurons that transmit sour taste signals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. 5-HT3A -driven green fluorescent protein delineates gustatory fibers innervating sour-responsive taste cells: A labeled line for sour taste?

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    Stratford, J M; Larson, E D; Yang, R; Salcedo, E; Finger, T E

    2017-07-01

    Taste buds contain multiple cell types with each type expressing receptors and transduction components for a subset of taste qualities. The sour sensing cells, Type III cells, release serotonin (5-HT) in response to the presence of sour (acidic) tastants and this released 5-HT activates 5-HT 3 receptors on the gustatory nerves. We show here, using 5-HT 3A GFP mice, that 5-HT 3 -expressing nerve fibers preferentially contact and receive synaptic contact from Type III taste cells. Further, these 5-HT 3 -expressing nerve fibers terminate in a restricted central-lateral portion of the nucleus of the solitary tract (nTS)-the same area that shows increased c-Fos expression upon presentation of a sour tastant (30 mM citric acid). This acid stimulation also evokes c-Fos in the laterally adjacent mediodorsal spinal trigeminal nucleus (DMSp5), but this trigeminal activation is not associated with the presence of 5-HT 3 -expressing nerve fibers as it is in the nTS. Rather, the neuronal activation in the trigeminal complex likely is attributable to direct depolarization of acid-sensitive trigeminal nerve fibers, for example, polymodal nociceptors, rather than through taste buds. Taken together, these findings suggest that transmission of sour taste information involves communication between Type III taste cells and 5-HT 3 -expressing afferent nerve fibers that project to a restricted portion of the nTS consistent with a crude mapping of taste quality information in the primary gustatory nucleus. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Alteration in salivary properties and taste perception in OSMF

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    Sujatha Dyasanoor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess and compare the salivary flow rate (SFR, pH and taste perception among oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF and apparently healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: Ninety subjects (45 OSMF + 45 controls were enrolled in the study for estimating and analogizing the SFR, pH, and taste perception executing modified Schirmer, pH, and taste strips. The SFR, pH, and taste perception were evaluated and compared between 14 Stage I and 31 Stage II OSMF subjects. The entered data were analyzed using SPSS 21.0 software. Results: A statistically significant decrease in SFR among OSMF group (23.4 mm at 3rd min and hypogeusia to salty (62.2%, and dysgeusia to sour taste (40% when compared to apparently healthy subjects (30.7 mm at 3rd min was noted. Statistical significance (P < 0.05% inferring hyposalivation in Stage II OSMF (24.1 mm at 3rd min juxtaposing with Stage I OSMF (31.4 mm at 3rd min. Statistically significant hypogeusia to salty (n = 23 and sweet (n = 16 and dysgeusia (n = 14 to sour among Stage II OSMF when differentiated with Stage I OSMF. The mean pH among the OSMF and control groups demonstrated no statistical significance. Conclusion: The findings from the study demonstrated marked decrease of SFR and taste perception to salty and sour among Stage II OSMF when compared to Stage I OSMF subjects.

  12. Fruit and snack consumption related to sweet, sour and salty taste preferences

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    Sijtsema, S.J.; Reinders, M.J.; Hiller, S.; Guardia, D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – To better understand fruit consumption and its determinants this paper aims to explore the relationship between the consumption of different types of fruit and other snacks and consumer taste preferences for sweet, salty and sour is explored. Design/methodology/approach – Respondents

  13. Taste perception, associated hormonal modulation, and nutrient intake

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    Loper, Hillary B.; La Sala, Michael; Dotson, Cedrick

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that taste perception influences food intake. After ingestion, gustatory receptors relay sensory signals to the brain, which segregates, evaluates, and distinguishes the stimuli, leading to the experience known as “flavor.” It is well accepted that five taste qualities – sweet, salty, bitter, sour, and umami – can be perceived by animals. In this review, the anatomy and physiology of human taste buds, the hormonal modulation of taste function, the importance of genetic chemosensory variation, and the influence of gustatory functioning on macronutrient selection and eating behavior are discussed. Individual genotypic variation results in specific phenotypes of food preference and nutrient intake. Understanding the role of taste in food selection and ingestive behavior is important for expanding our understanding of the factors involved in body weight maintenance and the risk of chronic diseases including obesity, atherosclerosis, cancer, diabetes, liver disease, and hypertension. PMID:26024495

  14. The Miracle Fruit: An Undergraduate Laboratory Exercise in Taste Sensation and Perception.

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    Lipatova, Olga; Campolattaro, Matthew M

    2016-01-01

    "Miracle Fruit" is a taste-altering berry that causes sour foods to be perceived as sweet. The present paper describes a laboratory exercise that uses Miracle Fruit to educate students about the sensation and perception of taste. This laboratory exercise reinforces course material pertaining to the function of sweet taste receptors covered in a Sensation and Perception course at Christopher Newport University. Here we provide a step-by-step explanation of the methodology, and an example of data collected and analyzed by one group of students who participated in this laboratory exercise. The origins of the Miracle Fruit, the structure and the physiological function of miraculin (the glycoprotein responsible for the taste-modifying effect found in the pulp of the Miracle Fruit) were discussed before the laboratory exercise. Students then sampled foods known to target different types of tastes (i.e., sweet, sour, bitter and salty) and rated their perception of taste intensity for each food item. Next, students each consumed Miracle Fruit berries, then resampled each original food item and again recorded their perception of taste intensity ratings for these foods. The data confirmed that the sour food items were perceived sweeter after the Miracle Fruit was consumed. The students also completed a written assignment to assess what they learned about the origins, structure, and physiological function of Miracle Fruit. This hands-on laboratory exercise received positive feedback from students. The exercise can be used by other neuroscience educators to teach concepts related to the sensory system of taste.

  15. A crossmodal role for audition in taste perception.

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    Yan, Kimberly S; Dando, Robin

    2015-06-01

    Our sense of taste can be influenced by our other senses, with several groups having explored the effects of olfactory, visual, or tactile stimulation on what we perceive as taste. Research into multisensory, or crossmodal perception has rarely linked our sense of taste with that of audition. In our study, 48 participants in a crossover experiment sampled multiple concentrations of solutions of 5 prototypic tastants, during conditions with or without broad spectrum auditory stimulation, simulating that of airline cabin noise. Airline cabins are an unusual environment, in which food is consumed routinely under extreme noise conditions, often over 85 dB, and in which the perceived quality of food is often criticized. Participants rated the intensity of solutions representing varying concentrations of the 5 basic tastes on the general Labeled Magnitude Scale. No difference in intensity ratings was evident between the control and sound condition for salty, sour, or bitter tastes. Likewise, panelists did not perform differently during sound conditions when rating tactile, visual, or auditory stimulation, or in reaction time tests. Interestingly, sweet taste intensity was rated progressively lower, whereas the perception of umami taste was augmented during the experimental sound condition, to a progressively greater degree with increasing concentration. We postulate that this effect arises from mechanostimulation of the chorda tympani nerve, which transits directly across the tympanic membrane of the middle ear. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. The influence of sour taste and cold temperature in pharyngeal transit duration in patients with stroke

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    Paula Cristina Cola

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The effect of sour taste and food temperature variations in dysphagic patients has not been entirely clarified. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of sour and cold food in the pharyngeal transit times of patients with stroke. METHODS: Patients participating in this study were 30 right-handed adults, 16 of which were male and 14 were female, aged 41 to 88 (average age 62.3 years with ictus varying from 1 to 30 days (median of 6 days. To analyze the pharyngeal transit time a videofluoroscopy swallow test was performed. Each patient was observed during swallow of a 5 mL paste bolus given by spoon, totaling four different stimuli (natural, cold, sour and cold sour, one at a time, room temperature (22ºC and cold (8ºC were used. Later, the tests were analyzed using specific software to measure bolus transit time during the pharyngeal phase. RESULTS: The results showed that the pharyngeal transit time was significantly shorter during swallow of cold sour bolus when compared with other stimuli. Conclusion - Sour taste stimuli associated to cold temperature cause significant change in swallowing patterns, by shortening the pharyngeal transit time, which may lead to positive effects in patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia.CONTEXTO: O efeito do sabor azedo e as variações da temperatura dos alimentos em indivíduos disfágicos, ainda não foi totalmente esclarecidos. OBJETIVO: Verificar o efeito do sabor azedo e da temperatura fria no tempo de trânsito faríngeo da deglutição em indivíduos após acidente vascular encefálico hemisférico isquêmico. MÉTODOS: Participaram deste estudo 30 indivíduos adultos, sendo 16 do gênero masculino e 14 do feminino, destros, com faixa etária variando de 41 a 88 anos (média de 62,3 anos e ictus que variou de 1 a 30 dias (mediana de 6 dias. Para analisar o tempo de trânsito faríngeo da deglutição foi realizado o exame de videofluoroscopia da deglutição. Cada indivíduo foi observado durante a

  17. Anatomy, physiology and diagnostic considerations of taste and smell disorders

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    A. Visser; R. van Weissenbruch; A. Vissink; A. van Nieuw Amerongen; F.K.L. Spijkervet; Dr. Harriët Jager-Wittenaar

    2013-01-01

    Taste and smell perception are closely related. The taste perception is performed by taste buds which can distinguish salt, sour, sweet, bitter, and umami. Moreover, 2,000-4,000 smells can be recognized. Many taste disorders are in fact smell disorders. Saliva affects taste perception because it

  18. Differences in Taste Perception and Spicy Preference: A Thai-Japanese Cross-cultural Study.

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    Trachootham, Dunyaporn; Satoh-Kuriwada, Shizuko; Lam-Ubol, Aroonwan; Promkam, Chadamas; Chotechuang, Nattida; Sasano, Takashi; Shoji, Noriaki

    2017-12-25

    Taste perception is influenced by several factors. However, the relation between taste perception and food culture is unclear. This study compared taste thresholds between populations with different food culture, i.e. Thai and Japanese. A matched case-control study was conducted in 168 adults (84 for each; aged between 50 and 90 years). The age, sex, systemic disease, medication, smoking, xerostomia, and oral hygiene of both groups were not different. Recognition thresholds (RTs) of sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami were measured using filter paper disc (FPD). Detection taste thresholds were measured using electrogustometry. Spicy preference was measured by calibrated questionnaires. Higher RTs of all tastes and higher detection taste thresholds were found in Thai as compared to those of Japanese (P differences between 2 countries. The average thresholds for sweet, salty, sour, and bitter in Thai and Japanese were 4 and 2, respectively. The average threshold for umami in Thai and Japanese was 5 and 3, respectively. Moreover, Thai population had stronger preference for spicy food (P culture on taste perception. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Perception of basic tastes and threshold sensitivity during testing of selected judges

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    Peter Zajác

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false SK JA X-NONE The sense of taste is one of the most important human senses. Alteration in taste perception can greately interfere to our lives, because it influences our dietary habits and consequently general human health. Many physiological and external factors can cause the loss of taste perception. These factors include for example certain diseases, the side effect of the use of certain medicaments, head trauma, gender, dietary habbits, smoking, role of saliva, age, stress and many more. In this paper we are discussing perception of basic tastes and treshold sensitivity during testing of selected groupe of 500 sensory judges. A resolution taste test and sensitivity treshold test were performed using basic tastes (sour, bitter, salty, sweet, umami, astringent, metallic. We have found that the perception of basic tastes decreese with human age. Smoking leads to significant errors in the determination of basic tastes. Different mistakes occures in different age categories. This study suggests further researches, investigating various factors influencing taste perception.  doi:10.5219/259

  20. Sarco/Endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPases (SERCA contribute to GPCR-mediated taste perception.

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    Naoko Iguchi

    Full Text Available The sense of taste is important for providing animals with valuable information about the qualities of food, such as nutritional or harmful nature. Mammals, including humans, can recognize at least five primary taste qualities: sweet, umami (savory, bitter, sour, and salty. Recent studies have identified molecules and mechanisms underlying the initial steps of tastant-triggered molecular events in taste bud cells, particularly the requirement of increased cytosolic free Ca(2+ concentration ([Ca(2+](c for normal taste signal transduction and transmission. Little, however, is known about the mechanisms controlling the removal of elevated [Ca(2+](c from the cytosol of taste receptor cells (TRCs and how the disruption of these mechanisms affects taste perception. To investigate the molecular mechanism of Ca(2+ clearance in TRCs, we sought the molecules involved in [Ca(2+](c regulation using a single-taste-cell transcriptome approach. We found that Serca3, a member of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+-ATPase (SERCA family that sequesters cytosolic Ca(2+ into endoplasmic reticulum, is exclusively expressed in sweet/umami/bitter TRCs, which rely on intracellular Ca(2+ release for signaling. Serca3-knockout (KO mice displayed significantly increased aversive behavioral responses and greater gustatory nerve responses to bitter taste substances but not to sweet or umami taste substances. Further studies showed that Serca2 was mainly expressed in the T1R3-expressing sweet and umami TRCs, suggesting that the loss of function of Serca3 was possibly compensated by Serca2 in these TRCs in the mutant mice. Our data demonstrate that the SERCA family members play an important role in the Ca(2+ clearance in TRCs and that mutation of these proteins may alter bitter and perhaps sweet and umami taste perception.

  1. Changes in taste sensation of sour, salty, sweet, bitter, umami, and spicy, as well as levels of malondialdehyde serum in radiographers

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    Agniz Nur Aulia

    2016-06-01

    on the effects of radiation on cancer patients show that radiation can cause an increase in bitterness and metal taste [in cancer patients] leading to discomfort in the oral cavity. In body, free radicals then can cause lipid peroxidation process. Lipid peroxidation is an oxidative destruction of polyunsaturated fatty acid producing malondialdehyde (MDA. Purpose: This study aimed to determine the effects of radiation on changes in the taste sensation of sour, salty, sweet, bitter, umami, and spicy as well as the levels of MDA serum in radiographers. Method: This study was an observational laboratory research using post- test control design. Samples were selected using simple random sampling technique. The samples were seven radiographers who have been working for five years in the laboratory and radiographic units in Surabaya. Result: Based on the results of statistical tests, it showed that there were no differences in the sensitivity of all tastes between the groups tested. Moreover, the results also depicted considerable value for the sour taste was 0.550, the saltiness was 0.775, the sweetness was 0.294, the bitter taste was 0.065, the umami taste was 0.705, and the spicy taste was 0.319 (p>0.05. However, the dramatic increase was higlighted in levels of MDA serum with a significant value of 0.065 (p>0.005. Conclusion. There were no changes in the sensitivity of sour, salty, sweet, bitter, umami, and spicy tastes, but there was a significant increased in level of MDA serum in the radiographers compared to the control group.

  2. Evaluation of participants' perception and taste thresholds with a zirconia palatal plate.

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    Wada, Takeshi; Takano, Tomofumi; Tasaka, Akinori; Ueda, Takayuki; Sakurai, Kaoru

    2016-10-01

    Zirconia and cobalt-chromium can withstand a similar degree of loading. Therefore, using a zirconia base for removable dentures could allow the thickness of the palatal area to be reduced similarly to metal base dentures. We hypothesized that zirconia palatal plate for removable dentures provides a high level of participants' perception without influencing taste thresholds. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the participants' perception and taste thresholds of zirconia palatal plate. Palatal plates fabricated using acrylic resin, zirconia, and cobalt-chromium alloy were inserted into healthy individuals. Taste thresholds were investigated using the whole-mouth gustatory test, and participants' perception was evaluated using the 100-mm visual analog scale to assess the ease of pronunciation, ease of swallowing, sensation of temperature, metallic taste, sensation of foreign body, subjective sensory about weight, adhesiveness of chewing gum, and general satisfaction. For the taste thresholds, no significant differences were noted in sweet, salty, sour, bitter, or umami tastes among participants wearing no plate, or the resin, zirconia, and metal plates. Speech was easier and foreign body sensation was lower with the zirconia plate than with the resin plate. Evaluation of the adhesiveness of chewing gum showed that chewing gum does not readily adhere to the zirconia plate in comparison with the metal plate. The comprehensive participants' perception of the zirconia plate was evaluated as being superior to the resin plate. A zirconia palatal plate provides a high level of participants' perception without influencing taste thresholds. Copyright © 2016 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Selecting odorant compounds to enhance sweet flavor perception by gas chromatography/olfactometry-associated taste (GC/O-AT).

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    Barba, Carmen; Beno, Noelle; Guichard, Elisabeth; Thomas-Danguin, Thierry

    2018-08-15

    Gas chromatography/olfactometry-associated taste (GC/O-AT) analysis combined with mass spectrometry allowed identification of odorant compounds associated with taste attributes (sweet, salty, bitter and sour) in a multi-fruit juice. Nine compounds were selected for their odor-associated sweetness enhancement in a multi-fruit juice odor context using Olfactoscan and for their odor-induced sweet taste enhancement in sucrose solution and sugar-reduced fruit juice through sensory tests. Sweetness of the fruit juice odor was significantly enhanced by methyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate and linalool; sweet perception was significantly enhanced in 7% sucrose solution by ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, furaneol and γ-decalactone, and in 32% sugar-reduced fruit juice by ethyl 2-methylbutanoate. GC/O-AT analysis is a novel, efficient approach to select odorants associated with a given taste. The further screening of taste-associated odorants by Olfactoscan helps to identify the most efficient odorants to enhance a target taste perception and may be used to find new ways to modulate taste perception in foods and beverages. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Association between Salivary Leptin Levels and Taste Perception in Children

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    Lénia Rodrigues

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The satiety inducing hormone leptin acts not only at central nervous system but also at peripheral level. Leptin receptors are found in several sense related organs, including the mouth. A role of leptin in sweet taste response has been suggested but, until now, studies have been based on in vitro experiments, or in assessing the levels of the hormone in circulation. The present study investigated whether the levels of leptin in saliva are related to taste perception in children and whether Body Mass Index (BMI affects such relationship. Sweet and bitter taste sensitivity was assessed for 121 children aged 9-10 years and unstimulated whole saliva was collected for leptin quantification, using ELISA technique. Children females with lower sweet taste sensitivity presented higher salivary leptin levels, but this is only in the normal weight ones. For bitter taste, association between salivary leptin and caffeine threshold detection was observed only in preobese boys, with higher levels of salivary hormone in low sensitive individuals. This study is the first presenting evidences of a relationship between salivary leptin levels and taste perception, which is sex and BMI dependent. The mode of action of salivary leptin at taste receptor level should be elucidated in future studies.

  5. Zizyphin modulates calcium signalling in human taste bud cells and fat taste perception in the mouse.

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    Murtaza, Babar; Berrichi, Meryem; Bennamar, Chahid; Tordjmann, Thierry; Djeziri, Fatima Z; Hichami, Aziz; Leemput, Julia; Belarbi, Meriem; Ozdener, Hakan; Khan, Naim A

    2017-10-01

    Zizyphin, isolated from Zizyphus sps. leaf extracts, has been shown to modulate sugar taste perception, and the palatability of a sweet solution is increased by the addition of fatty acids. We, therefore, studied whether zizyphin also modulates fat taste perception. Zizyphin was purified from edible fruit of Zizyphus lotus L. Zizyphin-induced increases in [Ca 2+ ]i in human taste bud cells (hTBC). Zizyphin shared the endoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ pool and also recruited, in part, Ca 2+ from extracellular environment via the opening of store-operated Ca 2+ channels. Zizyphin exerted additive actions on linoleic acid (LA)-induced increases in [Ca 2+ ]i in these cells, indicating that zizyphin does not exert its action via fatty acid receptors. However, zizyphin seemed to exert, at least in part, its action via bile acid receptor Takeda-G-protein-receptor-5 in hTBC. In behavioural tests, mice exhibited preference for both LA and zizyphin. Interestingly, zizyphin increased the preference for a solution containing-LA. This study is the first evidence of the modulation of fat taste perception by zizyphin at the cellular level in hTBC. Our study might be helpful for considering the synthesis of zizyphin analogues as 'taste modifiers' with a potential in the management of obesity and lipid-mediated disorders. © 2017 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  6. Association between taste receptor (TAS) genes and the perception of wine characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrai, Maura; Campa, Daniele; Vodicka, Pavel; Flamini, Riccardo; Martelli, Irene; Slyskova, Jana; Jiraskova, Katerina; Rejhova, Alexandra; Vodenkova, Sona; Canzian, Federico; Bertelli, Alberto; Dalla Vedova, Antonio; Bavaresco, Luigi; Vodickova, Ludmila; Barale, Roberto

    2017-08-23

    Several studies have suggested a possible relationship between polymorphic variants of the taste receptors genes and the acceptance, liking and intake of food and beverages. In the last decade investigators have attempted to link the individual ability to taste 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) and the sensations, such as astringency and bitterness, elicited by wine or its components, but with contradictory results. We have used the genotype instead of the phenotype (responsiveness to PROP or other tastants), to test the possible relation between genetic variability and the perception of wine characteristic in 528 subjects from Italy and the Czech Republic. We observed several interesting associations, among which the association between several TAS2R38 gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (P = 0.002) and the TAS2R16-rs6466849 polymorphism with wine sourness P = 0.0003). These associations were consistent in both populations, even though the country of origin was an important factor in the two models, thus indicating therefore that genetics alongside cultural factors also play a significant role in the individual liking of wine.

  7. Sweet and bitter taste perception of women during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nanou, Evangelia; Brandt, Sarah Østergaard; Weenen, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    and bitterness, respectively. Pregnant women completed also a self-administered questionnaire on changes in sweet and bitter taste perception due to pregnancy. Results: Perceived intensity of sweetness and bitterness was not different between pregnant and nonpregnant women for any of the products. However......Introduction: Changes in sweet and bitter taste perception during pregnancy have been reported in a limited number of studies leading, however, to inconclusive results. The current study aimed to investigate possible differences in perceived intensity and liking of sweetness and bitterness between......, the liking of the least sweet apple + berry juice was significantly higher, and the optimal preferred sugar content was significantly lower in pregnant compared to nonpregnant women. With regards to self-report, pregnant women who reported higher sensitivity in sweet or bitter taste did not have...

  8. Effects of Visual Food Texture on Taste Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsunori Okajima

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Food color affects taste perception. However, the possible effects of the visual texture of a foodstuff on taste and flavor, without associated changes to color, are currently unknown. We conducted a series of experiments designed to investigate how the visual texture and appearance of food influences its perceived taste and flavor by developing an Augmented Reality system. Participants observed a video of tomato ketchup as a food stimulus on a white dish placed behind a flat LC-display on which was mounted a video camera. The luminance distribution of the ketchup in the dynamic video was continuously and quantitatively modified by tracking specified colors in real-time. We changed the skewness of the luminance histogram of each frame in the video keeping the xy-chromaticity values intact. Participants watched themselves dip a spoon into the ketchup from the video feed (which could be altered, but then ate it with their eyes closed. They reported before and after tasting the ketchup on the perceived consistency (a liquid to solid continuum the food looked and felt and how tasty it looked or felt. The experimental results suggest that visual texture, independent of color, affects the taste and flavor as well as the appearance of foods.

  9. Alteration in Taste Perception among Young Children during the use of Removable Orthodontic Appliance Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razdan, Priyanka; Sakthivel, V S; Naqvi, Zuber A; Goyal, Vinod; Tripathi, Swati; Singh, Smita

    2017-07-01

    The sense of smell is very influential in the taste of foods. If the smell pleases us, we anticipate the taste of the food with a great deal of relish. If our sense of smell is impaired, so is our taste. The effect of appliance on taste perceptions has always had a controversial subject. The present study was designed to analyze the change in taste perception in children using removable orthodontic appliances. All the selected volunteers were given different taste stimuli and were asked to score as per their perception. The verbal score was calculated based on the correct and incorrect taste stimuli given to them. Visual analog scale was used to assess intensity and hedonic (palatability) estimation of the volunteers. The volunteers from both study and control groups scored different values for taste stimuli. The majority of stimuli were estimated correctly by both groups. There was no statistically significant difference between the study and control groups. In different testing sessions, the scoring of the volunteers was nearly constant, indicating that an appliance does not play a major role in the alteration of taste stimuli. The appliance brings about transient change in taste perception, we should educate the patient before delivering the appliance about the transient change in taste perception and encourage full-time wear of the appliance, including during meals, without fear of affecting taste sensations.

  10. Breadth of Tuning and Taste Coding in Mammalian Taste Buds

    OpenAIRE

    Tomchik, Seth M.; Berg, Stephanie; Kim, Joung Woul; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Roper, Stephen D.

    2007-01-01

    A longstanding question in taste research concerns taste coding and, in particular, how broadly are individual taste bud cells tuned to taste qualities (sweet, bitter, umami, salty, and sour). Taste bud cells express G-protein-coupled receptors for sweet, bitter, or umami tastes but not in combination. However, responses to multiple taste qualities have been recorded in individual taste cells. We and others have shown previously there are two classes of taste bud cells directly involved in gu...

  11. The relationships between phenylthiocarbamide taste perception and smoking, work out habits and susceptibility to depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevgi Durna Daştan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC is known as phenylthiourea and it is an organic compound that has the phenyl ring. Ability to perceive the tastes of PTC chemical is related to the dominance of taste genes. There are a large number of population studies regarding the PTC taste perception and different personal characteristics or disease conditions. The purpose of this study is to reveal and compare the relation between the PTC taste perception and work-out habits, smoking, alcohol consumption and tendency to the depression of people. A total of 2500 adults were volunteered to be included in this study. PTC taste perception was measured by tasting with PTC solution (10 mg/L filtered in a paper. It showed that tasters were significantly more frequent (81.8% than nontasters (18.2% in all population. And in some parameters analyzed in this study, there are significant differences. The taste genetics show up with environmental factors and create the sense of taste, which develops the feeding behaviors. The taste perception resulting from food and beverages diversifies by genetic and environmental effects and the nervous system interprets this perception. This study is enlightening in terms of presenting that the taste perception of people affects their lifestyles and lead them to start and either continue or discontinue some habits.

  12. Is Sweet Taste Perception Associated with Sweet Food Liking and Intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, Shakeela N; Kruger, Rozanne; Walsh, Daniel C I; Cao, Guojiao; Rivers, Stacey; Richter, Marilize; Breier, Bernhard H

    2017-07-14

    A range of psychophysical taste measurements are used to characterize an individual's sweet taste perception and to assess links between taste perception and dietary intake. The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between four different psychophysical measurements of sweet taste perception, and to explore which measures of sweet taste perception relate to sweet food intake. Forty-four women aged 20-40 years were recruited for the study. Four measures of sweet taste perception (detection and recognition thresholds, and sweet taste intensity and hedonic liking of suprathreshold concentrations) were assessed using glucose as the tastant. Dietary measurements included a four-day weighed food record, a sweet food-food frequency questionnaire and a sweet beverage liking questionnaire. Glucose detection and recognition thresholds showed no correlation with suprathreshold taste measurements or any dietary intake measurement. Importantly, sweet taste intensity correlated negatively with total energy and carbohydrate (starch, total sugar, fructose, glucose) intakes, frequency of sweet food intake and sweet beverage liking. Furthermore, sweet hedonic liking correlated positively with total energy and carbohydrate (total sugar, fructose, glucose) intakes. The present study shows a clear link between sweet taste intensity and hedonic liking with sweet food liking, and total energy, carbohydrate and sugar intake.

  13. Music to Make Your Mouth Water? Assessing the Potential Influence of Sour Music on Salivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian J.; Knoeferle, Klemens; Spence, Charles

    2017-01-01

    People robustly associate various sound attributes with specific smells/tastes, and soundtracks that are associated with specific tastes can influence people’s evaluation of the taste of food and drink. However, it is currently unknown whether such soundtracks directly impact the eating experience via physiological changes (an embodiment account), or whether they act at a higher cognitive level, or both. The present research assessed a version of the embodiment account, where a soundtrack associated with sourness is hypothesized to induce a physiological response in the listener by increasing salivary flow. Salivation was measured while participants were exposed to three different experimental conditions – a sour soundtrack, a muted lemon video showing a man eating a lemon, and a silent baseline condition. The results revealed that salivation during the lemon video condition was significantly greater than in the sour soundtrack and baseline conditions. However, contrary to our hypothesis, there was no significant difference between salivation levels in the sour soundtrack compared to the baseline condition. These results are discussed in terms of potential mechanisms underlying the auditory modulation of taste perception/evaluation. PMID:28491044

  14. Music to Make Your Mouth Water? Assessing the Potential Influence of Sour Music on Salivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian J. Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available People robustly associate various sound attributes with specific smells/tastes, and soundtracks that are associated with specific tastes can influence people’s evaluation of the taste of food and drink. However, it is currently unknown whether such soundtracks directly impact the eating experience via physiological changes (an embodiment account, or whether they act at a higher cognitive level, or both. The present research assessed a version of the embodiment account, where a soundtrack associated with sourness is hypothesized to induce a physiological response in the listener by increasing salivary flow. Salivation was measured while participants were exposed to three different experimental conditions – a sour soundtrack, a muted lemon video showing a man eating a lemon, and a silent baseline condition. The results revealed that salivation during the lemon video condition was significantly greater than in the sour soundtrack and baseline conditions. However, contrary to our hypothesis, there was no significant difference between salivation levels in the sour soundtrack compared to the baseline condition. These results are discussed in terms of potential mechanisms underlying the auditory modulation of taste perception/evaluation.

  15. Taste and smell perception and quality of life during and after systemic therapy for breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Y. C.; Boesveldt, S.; Kelfkens, C. S.; Posthuma, E. E.; van den Berg, M. M. G. A.; de Kruif, J. Th C. M.; Haringhuizen, A.; Sommeijer, D. W.; Buist, N.; Grosfeld, S.; de Graaf, C.; van Laarhoven, H. W. M.; Kampman, E.; Winkels, R. M.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess self-reported taste and smell perception after chemotherapy in breast cancer patients compared with women without cancer, and to assess whether taste and smell perception is associated with quality of life after the end of chemotherapy. We included 135 newly

  16. Sweet Taste Perception is Associated with Body Mass Index at the Phenotypic and Genotypic Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Liang-Dar; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Ong, Jue-Sheng; Breslin, Paul A S; Reed, Danielle R; MacGregor, Stuart; Gharahkhani, Puya; Martin, Nicholas G; Rentería, Miguel E

    2016-10-01

    Investigations on the relationship between sweet taste perception and body mass index (BMI) have been inconclusive. Here, we report a longitudinal analysis using a genetically informative sample of 1,576 adolescent Australian twins to explore the relationship between BMI and sweet taste. First, we estimated the phenotypic correlations between perception scores for four different sweet compounds (glucose, fructose, neohesperidine dihydrochalcone (NHDC), and aspartame) and BMI. Then, we computed the association between adolescent taste perception and BMI in early adulthood (reported 9 years later). Finally, we used twin modeling and polygenic risk prediction analysis to investigate the genetic overlap between BMI and sweet taste perception. Our findings revealed that BMI in early adulthood was significantly associated with each of the sweet perception scores, with the strongest correlation observed in aspartame with r = 0.09 (p = .007). However, only limited evidence of association was observed between sweet taste perception and BMI that was measured at the same time (in adolescence), with the strongest evidence of association observed for glucose with a correlation coefficient of r = 0.06 (p = .029) and for aspartame with r = 0.06 (p = .035). We found a significant (p sweet taste perception in adolescence can be a potential indicator of BMI in early adulthood. This association is further supported by evidence of genetic overlap between the traits, suggesting that some BMI genes may be acting through biological pathways of taste perception.

  17. Sweet love: The effects of sweet taste experience on romantic perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, D.N.; Tan, K.; Arriaga, X.B.; Chan, K.Q.

    2015-01-01

    Terms of endearment such as sweetie, honey, and sugar are commonly used in the context of describing romantic partners. This article explores how a relatively subtle manipulation, namely taste sensations, might influence romantic perceptions of a nonestablished relationship. Consistent with

  18. Taste perception: Risk factor or protection for dependents during drug use cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Rosane Paz Arruda Teo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The increase in appetite and, consequently, in body weight, evidenced in the majority of addicts under treatment, may be related to taste, since heavy drug use can lead to changes in taste buds. This study aimed to investigate the association between taste perception and nutritional status of drug addicts under treatment. The study was conducted in two therapeutic communities in the municipality of Chapecó, Santa Catarina state, with 39 male addicts over 18 years old. Primary data on weight and height were collected for assessment of nutritional status, and a taste acuity test was applied; also, secondary data were collected on age, length of stay, types of drugs used, and age of drug use onset, from the addicts’ records. It was possible to observe that 56.5% of dependents were at nutritional risk for being overweight. Taste acuity significantly differed for the basic tastes evaluated (p= 0.014, being higher for salty (94.9%, followed by sweet (89.7%, acid (79.5%, and bitter (38, 5% tastes, but it was not associated with the study variables. We conclude that the drug use cessation can have a similar effect to that of caloric deprivation on the taste acuity of dependents, interfering on excessive weight gain. However, it is suggested that the improvement of taste perception be oriented in the therapeutic setting, so that it becomes, in these conditions, a protection factor for dependents, strengthening them to overcome their condition of vulnerability.

  19. Discrimination of taste qualities among mouse fungiform taste bud cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Ryusuke; Miyauchi, Aya; Yasuo, Toshiaki; Jyotaki, Masafumi; Murata, Yoshihiro; Yasumatsu, Keiko; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Obata, Kunihiko; Ueno, Hiroshi; Margolskee, Robert F; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2009-09-15

    Multiple lines of evidence from molecular studies indicate that individual taste qualities are encoded by distinct taste receptor cells. In contrast, many physiological studies have found that a significant proportion of taste cells respond to multiple taste qualities. To reconcile this apparent discrepancy and to identify taste cells that underlie each taste quality, we investigated taste responses of individual mouse fungiform taste cells that express gustducin or GAD67, markers for specific types of taste cells. Type II taste cells respond to sweet, bitter or umami tastants, express taste receptors, gustducin and other transduction components. Type III cells possess putative sour taste receptors, and have well elaborated conventional synapses. Consistent with these findings we found that gustducin-expressing Type II taste cells responded best to sweet (25/49), bitter (20/49) or umami (4/49) stimuli, while all GAD67 (Type III) taste cells examined (44/44) responded to sour stimuli and a portion of them showed multiple taste sensitivities, suggesting discrimination of each taste quality among taste bud cells. These results were largely consistent with those previously reported with circumvallate papillae taste cells. Bitter-best taste cells responded to multiple bitter compounds such as quinine, denatonium and cyclohexamide. Three sour compounds, HCl, acetic acid and citric acid, elicited responses in sour-best taste cells. These results suggest that taste cells may be capable of recognizing multiple taste compounds that elicit similar taste sensation. We did not find any NaCl-best cells among the gustducin and GAD67 taste cells, raising the possibility that salt sensitive taste cells comprise a different population.

  20. Taste perception and implicit attitude toward sweet related to body mass index and soft drink supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, Francesco; Donaldson, Lucy F; Markland, David A; Loveday, Helina; Jackson, Matthew J; Kubis, Hans-Peter

    2011-08-01

    These studies examined the differences in sweet taste perception and implicit attitude toward sweet between normal-weight and overweight/obese adults; and tested the effects of soft drink consumption on sweet taste, explicit preference and implicit attitude toward sweet in normal-weight subjects. In study 1, normal-weight (n = 22) and overweight/obese (n = 11) adults were assessed for sweet taste intensity and pleasantness. Implicit attitude toward sweet was assessed by implicit association test (IAT). In study 2, normal-weight, lightly active adults (n = 12) underwent one month soft drink supplementation (≈760 ml/day). This increased their daily carbohydrate intake by 2.1 ± 0.2g/kg body weight. Sweet taste perception, explicit preference and implicit attitudes to sweet were assessed. In both studies salty taste was also assessed as a contrasting perception. Overweight/obese subjects perceived sweet and salty tastes as less intense (-23% and -19%, respectively) and reported higher IAT scores for sweet than normal-weight controls (2.1-fold). The supplementation changed sweet intensity/pleasantness ratings and it increased explicit preference (2.3-fold) for sweet in a subgroup of initial sucrose-dislikers. In conclusion, overweight/obese individuals are more implicitly attracted to sweet. One month of soft drink supplementation changed sweet taste perception of normal-weight subjects. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A longitudinal study of altered taste and smell perception and change in blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y-H; Huang, Z; Vaidya, A; Li, J; Curhan, G C; Wu, S; Gao, X

    2018-05-29

    Previous studies suggest that olfactory receptors, which mediate smell chemosensation, are located in the kidney and involved in blood pressure regulation. Mammalian epithelial sodium channels located in taste receptor cells are also found to participate in blood pressure regulation. However, there is currently no human study that has examined the association between taste and smell function and blood pressure. We thus conducted a longitudinal study to examine whether participants with altered taste and smell perception had larger increases in blood pressure compared with those without altered perception in a community-based cohort. The study included 5190 Chinese adults (4058 men and 1132 women) who were normotensive at baseline. Taste and smell perception were assessed via questionnaire in 2012 (baseline). Blood pressure was measured in 2012 and 2014 to determine relative change in blood pressure. Mean differences of 2-year blood pressure change and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) across four categories of taste and smell perception were calculated after adjusting for known risk factors for hypertension. After adjusting for potential confounders, individuals with altered taste and smell perception had larger increases in systolic blood pressure (adjusted mean difference = 5.1 mmHg, 95% CI: 0.1-10.0, p-value: 0.04) and mean arterial pressure (adjusted mean difference = 3.8 mmHg, 95% CI: 0.4-7.1, p-value: 0.03) after two years of follow-up compared with those having neither altered taste nor altered smell perception. No significant association was observed in individuals with altered taste or smell perception only. Our results suggest an association between chemosensory function and blood pressure. Copyright © 2018 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

  2. Neural correlates of taste perception in congenital olfactory impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Léa; Vestergaard, Martin; Madsen, Kristoffer

    2014-01-01

    taste identification accuracy and its neural correlates using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 12 congenitally olfactory impaired individuals and 8 normosmic controls. Results showed that taste identification was worse in congenitally olfactory impaired compared to control subjects. The fMRI...

  3. Taste profile characterization of white ginseng by electronic tongue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2012-05-10

    May 10, 2012 ... the flavor of substances such as foods and poisons. Humans perceive taste through sensory organs called taste buds concentrated on the upper tongue surface. Basic taste contributes to the sensation and flavor of foods in the mouth. Sourness is the taste that detects acidity. The sourness of substances is ...

  4. Tasting green: An experimental design for investigating consumer perception of organic wine

    OpenAIRE

    Wiedmann, Klaus-Peter; Hennigs, Nadine; Behrens, Stefan Henrik; Klarmann, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: There is empirical evidence that the image of organic products has a stronger effect on consumer perception than the intrinsic characteristics. Against this background, the aim of this paper is twofold; first, to ascertain if the stimulus "organic food", placed by storytelling, influences the perception of wine. Based on this, the study tries to discover wherein a positive perception of organic wine might be reflected (e.g. willingness to pay premium prices, better taste perception)....

  5. PERCEPTION OF SWEET TASTE IS IMPORTANT FOR VOLUNTARY ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION IN MICE

    OpenAIRE

    Blednov, Y.A.; Walker, D.; Martinez, M.; Levine, M.; Damak, S.; Margolskee, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    To directly evaluate the association between taste perception and alcohol intake, we used three different mutant mice, each lacking a gene expressed in taste buds and critical to taste transduction: α-gustducin (Gnat3), Tas1r3 or Trpm5. Null mutant mice lacking any of these three genes showed lower preference score for alcohol and consumed less alcohol in a two-bottle choice test, as compared with wild-type littermates. These null mice also showed lower preference score for saccharin solution...

  6. Food Color and Its Impact on Taste/Flavor Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spence, Charles; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina

    2016-01-01

    Color is perhaps the single most important product-intrinsic sensory cue when it comes to setting our expectations regarding the likely taste and flavor of food and drink. To date, a large body of research has demonstrated that changing the hue or intensity/saturation of the color of a variety of

  7. Association between the number of fungiform papillae on the tip of the tongue and sensory taste perception in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilani, Hannah; Ahrens, Wohlfgang; Buchecker, Kirsten; Russo, Paola; Hebestreit, Antje

    2017-01-01

    Background : To measure sensory taste perception in children with an accurate and reproducible method is challenging and objective measurement methods are scarce. Objective : Aim was to characterize sensory taste perception, by measuring the number of fungiform papillae (FP) and to investigate whether the number of FP is associated with sensitivity for bitter taste and with taste preferences for sweet, salty, fatty or umami in children between 8 and 11 years of age. Design : Number of FP was measured with a digital camera in 83 children in a German subsample of the IDEFICS study. Among those 56 children performed a taste threshold test for bitter and taste preference tests for sweet, salty, fatty and umami. The association between the number of FP and sensory taste perception was analysed. Results : There is a tendency towards a lower number of FP in children with a higher fat preference (30 vs. 25 papillae, p=0.06). Results show no association between the number of FP and neither the bitter taste thresholds nor taste preferences for sweet, salty and umami. Conclusion : Bitter taste threshold might be independent of the number of FP, while the perception of fat was associated with the number of FP.

  8. Evolution of sweet taste perception in hummingbirds by transformation of the ancestral umami receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Maude W.; Toda, Yasuka; Nakagita, Tomoya; O'Connell, Mary J.; Klasing, Kirk C.; Misaka, Takumi; Edwards, Scott V.; Liberles, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    Sensory systems define an animal's capacity for perception and can evolve to promote survival in new environmental niches. We have uncovered a noncanonical mechanism for sweet taste perception that evolved in hummingbirds since their divergence from insectivorous swifts, their closest relatives. We observed the widespread absence in birds of an essential subunit (T1R2) of the only known vertebrate sweet receptor, raising questions about how specialized nectar feeders such as hummingbirds sense sugars. Receptor expression studies revealed that the ancestral umami receptor (the T1R1-T1R3 heterodimer) was repurposed in hummingbirds to function as a carbohydrate receptor. Furthermore, the molecular recognition properties of T1R1-T1R3 guided taste behavior in captive and wild hummingbirds. We propose that changing taste receptor function enabled hummingbirds to perceive and use nectar, facilitating the massive radiation of hummingbird species. PMID:25146290

  9. Sensory biology. Evolution of sweet taste perception in hummingbirds by transformation of the ancestral umami receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Maude W; Toda, Yasuka; Nakagita, Tomoya; O'Connell, Mary J; Klasing, Kirk C; Misaka, Takumi; Edwards, Scott V; Liberles, Stephen D

    2014-08-22

    Sensory systems define an animal's capacity for perception and can evolve to promote survival in new environmental niches. We have uncovered a noncanonical mechanism for sweet taste perception that evolved in hummingbirds since their divergence from insectivorous swifts, their closest relatives. We observed the widespread absence in birds of an essential subunit (T1R2) of the only known vertebrate sweet receptor, raising questions about how specialized nectar feeders such as hummingbirds sense sugars. Receptor expression studies revealed that the ancestral umami receptor (the T1R1-T1R3 heterodimer) was repurposed in hummingbirds to function as a carbohydrate receptor. Furthermore, the molecular recognition properties of T1R1-T1R3 guided taste behavior in captive and wild hummingbirds. We propose that changing taste receptor function enabled hummingbirds to perceive and use nectar, facilitating the massive radiation of hummingbird species. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. Evolution of sweet taste perception in hummingbirds by transformation of the ancestral umami receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Baldwin, Maude Wheeler; Toda, Y.; Nakagita, T.; O'Connell, Mary J.; Klasing, Kirk C.; Misaka, T.; Edwards, Scott V.; Liberles, Stephen D

    2014-01-01

    Sensory systems define an animal's capacity for perception and can evolve to promote survival in new environmental niches. We have uncovered a noncanonical mechanism for sweet taste perception that evolved in hummingbirds since their divergence from insectivorous swifts, their closest relatives. We observed the widespread absence in birds of an essential subunit (T1R2) of the only known vertebrate sweet receptor, raising questions about how specialized nectar feeders such as hummingbirds sens...

  11. Taste perception and sensory sensitivity: Relationship to feeding problems in boys with Barth Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Stacey; Kreider, Consuelo M; Meeley, Lauren E; Bendixen, Roxanna M

    2015-03-01

    Feeding problems are common in boys with Barth syndrome and may contribute to the population's propensity for growth delay and muscle weakness. The purpose of this study was to quantify and describe these feeding issues and examine altered taste perception and sensory sensitivity as contributing factors. A cross-sectional, two-group comparison design was used to examine feeding preferences and behaviors, chemical taste perception, and sensory sensitivities in fifty boys with (n=24) and without (n=26) Barth ages 4-17 years. Taste perception was measured using chemical test strips saturated with phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and sodium benzoate (NaB). Feeding problems were documented by parents using a Food Inventory, while sensory sensitivities were recorded using a Short Sensory Profile. Boys with Barth differed significantly from typical peers with regards to problem feeding behaviors. For boys with Barth, food refusal and food selectivity were identified as being present in 50% the sample, while 70% of had identified problems related to gagging or swallowing foods. About half of all Barth families noted that their child's eating habits did not match the family's and that separate meals were often prepared. As demonstrated in previous research, about 50% of boys with Barth demonstrated probable or definite differences in taste/smell sensitivity, which was significantly higher than controls. On tests of chemical taste perception, boys with Barth were significantly more likely to be supertasters to PTC and non-tasters to NaB. Taster-status did not directly relate to the presence of feeding problems, however, taste/smell sensitivity did significantly relate to food selectivity by type and texture. Results indicate feeding problems in at least 50-70% of boys with Barth syndrome, and suggest that behaviors are often present before 6 months of age. Differences in taste perception may influence dietary choices in boys with Barth, particularly their craving of salty foods

  12. Mechanism of fat taste perception: Association with diet and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongli; Archer, Nicholas; Duesing, Konsta; Hannan, Garry; Keast, Russell

    2016-07-01

    Energy homeostasis plays a significant role in food consumption and body weight regulation with fat intake being an area of particular interest due to its palatability and high energy density. Increasing evidence from humans and animal studies indicate the existence of a taste modality responsive to fat via its breakdown product fatty acids. These studies implicate multiple candidate receptors and ion channels for fatty acid taste detection, indicating a complex peripheral physiology that is currently not well understood. Additionally, a limited number of studies suggest a reduced ability to detect fatty acids is associated with obesity and a diet high in fat reduces an individual's ability to detect fatty acids. To support this, genetic variants within candidate fatty acid receptors are also associated with obesity reduced ability to detect fatty acids. Understanding oral peripheral fatty acid transduction mechanisms and the association with fat consumption may provide the basis of novel approaches to control development of obesity. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Enhancement of retronasal odors by taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Barry G; Nachtigal, Danielle; Hammond, Samuel; Lim, Juyun

    2012-01-01

    Psychophysical studies of interactions between retronasal olfaction and taste have focused most often on the enhancement of tastes by odors, which has been attributed primarily to a response bias (i.e., halo dumping). Based upon preliminary evidence that retronasal odors could also be enhanced by taste, the present study measured both forms of enhancement using appropriate response categories. In the first experiment, subjects rated taste ("sweet," "sour," "salty," and "bitter") and odor ("other") intensity for aqueous samples of 3 tastants (sucrose, NaCl, and citric acid) and 3 odorants (vanillin, citral, and furaneol), both alone and in taste-odor mixtures. The results showed that sucrose, but not the other taste stimuli, significantly increased the perceived intensity of all 3 odors. Enhancement of tastes by odors was inconsistent and generally weaker than enhancement of odors by sucrose. A second experiment used a flavored beverage and a custard dessert to test whether the findings from the first experiment would hold for the perception of actual foods. Adding sucrose significantly enhanced the intensity of "cherry" and "vanilla" flavors, whereas adding vanillin did not significantly enhance the intensity of sweetness. It is proposed that enhancement of retronasal odors by a sweet stimulus results from an adaptive sensory mechanism that serves to increase the salience of the flavor of nutritive foods. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  14. Rewiring the taste system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hojoon; Macpherson, Lindsey J; Parada, Camilo A; Zuker, Charles S; Ryba, Nicholas J P

    2017-08-17

    In mammals, taste buds typically contain 50-100 tightly packed taste-receptor cells (TRCs), representing all five basic qualities: sweet, sour, bitter, salty and umami. Notably, mature taste cells have life spans of only 5-20 days and, consequently, are constantly replenished by differentiation of taste stem cells. Given the importance of establishing and maintaining appropriate connectivity between TRCs and their partner ganglion neurons (that is, ensuring that a labelled line from sweet TRCs connects to sweet neurons, bitter TRCs to bitter neurons, sour to sour, and so on), we examined how new connections are specified to retain fidelity of signal transmission. Here we show that bitter and sweet TRCs provide instructive signals to bitter and sweet target neurons via different guidance molecules (SEMA3A and SEMA7A). We demonstrate that targeted expression of SEMA3A or SEMA7A in different classes of TRCs produces peripheral taste systems with miswired sweet or bitter cells. Indeed, we engineered mice with bitter neurons that now responded to sweet tastants, sweet neurons that responded to bitter or sweet neurons responding to sour stimuli. Together, these results uncover the basic logic of the wiring of the taste system at the periphery, and illustrate how a labelled-line sensory circuit preserves signalling integrity despite rapid and stochastic turnover of receptor cells.

  15. Changes of sour taste and the composition of carboxylic acids induced in brewed coffee by γ-irradiation on green beans and storage of roast beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomoda, Goro; Matsuyama, Jun; Nagano, Akiko; Namatame, Mitsuko; Morita, Yoshiaki.

    1980-01-01

    Brazil santos green coffee beans were irradiated with 60 Co-γ rays at doses of 0, 0.05, 0.5 and 1.5 Mrad respectively and changes of the composition of carboxylic acids in roast beans were analyzed by means of GLC together with those of the organoleptic properties of roast beans during storage by use of the cup testing. The total acid content immediately after roasting was about 6,000 mg/100 g (roast beans) and the composition of carboxylic acids was as follows. Chlorogenic acid: hydroxy-carboxylic acids: mono-carboxylic acid: others = 73 : 18 : 7 : 2. Fresh coffee flavour was influenced markedly especially in acid taste by both irradiation of γ-rays on green beans and storage of roast beans, because of the change of above acids composition. On γ-ray irradiation, the change of the acid composition were more clear than that of stored roast beans. Therefore, the quality of γ-irradiated coffee beans seems to be closely associated with the ratio of hydroxy-carboxylic acids mg/ monocarboxylic acids mg, but little with total acid content. (author)

  16. β-catenin is required for taste bud cell renewal and behavioral taste perception in adult mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dany Gaillard

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Taste stimuli are transduced by taste buds and transmitted to the brain via afferent gustatory fibers. Renewal of taste receptor cells from actively dividing progenitors is finely tuned to maintain taste sensitivity throughout life. We show that conditional β-catenin deletion in mouse taste progenitors leads to rapid depletion of progenitors and Shh+ precursors, which in turn causes taste bud loss, followed by loss of gustatory nerve fibers. In addition, our data suggest LEF1, TCF7 and Wnt3 are involved in a Wnt pathway regulatory feedback loop that controls taste cell renewal in the circumvallate papilla epithelium. Unexpectedly, taste bud decline is greater in the anterior tongue and palate than in the posterior tongue. Mutant mice with this regional pattern of taste bud loss were unable to discern sweet at any concentration, but could distinguish bitter stimuli, albeit with reduced sensitivity. Our findings are consistent with published reports wherein anterior taste buds have higher sweet sensitivity while posterior taste buds are better tuned to bitter, and suggest β-catenin plays a greater role in renewal of anterior versus posterior taste buds.

  17. β-catenin is required for taste bud cell renewal and behavioral taste perception in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Dany; Bowles, Spencer G; Salcedo, Ernesto; Xu, Mingang; Millar, Sarah E; Barlow, Linda A

    2017-08-01

    Taste stimuli are transduced by taste buds and transmitted to the brain via afferent gustatory fibers. Renewal of taste receptor cells from actively dividing progenitors is finely tuned to maintain taste sensitivity throughout life. We show that conditional β-catenin deletion in mouse taste progenitors leads to rapid depletion of progenitors and Shh+ precursors, which in turn causes taste bud loss, followed by loss of gustatory nerve fibers. In addition, our data suggest LEF1, TCF7 and Wnt3 are involved in a Wnt pathway regulatory feedback loop that controls taste cell renewal in the circumvallate papilla epithelium. Unexpectedly, taste bud decline is greater in the anterior tongue and palate than in the posterior tongue. Mutant mice with this regional pattern of taste bud loss were unable to discern sweet at any concentration, but could distinguish bitter stimuli, albeit with reduced sensitivity. Our findings are consistent with published reports wherein anterior taste buds have higher sweet sensitivity while posterior taste buds are better tuned to bitter, and suggest β-catenin plays a greater role in renewal of anterior versus posterior taste buds.

  18. β-catenin is required for taste bud cell renewal and behavioral taste perception in adult mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Dany; Xu, Mingang; Millar, Sarah E.

    2017-01-01

    Taste stimuli are transduced by taste buds and transmitted to the brain via afferent gustatory fibers. Renewal of taste receptor cells from actively dividing progenitors is finely tuned to maintain taste sensitivity throughout life. We show that conditional β-catenin deletion in mouse taste progenitors leads to rapid depletion of progenitors and Shh+ precursors, which in turn causes taste bud loss, followed by loss of gustatory nerve fibers. In addition, our data suggest LEF1, TCF7 and Wnt3 are involved in a Wnt pathway regulatory feedback loop that controls taste cell renewal in the circumvallate papilla epithelium. Unexpectedly, taste bud decline is greater in the anterior tongue and palate than in the posterior tongue. Mutant mice with this regional pattern of taste bud loss were unable to discern sweet at any concentration, but could distinguish bitter stimuli, albeit with reduced sensitivity. Our findings are consistent with published reports wherein anterior taste buds have higher sweet sensitivity while posterior taste buds are better tuned to bitter, and suggest β-catenin plays a greater role in renewal of anterior versus posterior taste buds. PMID:28846687

  19. The Role of New Removable Complete Dentures in Stimulated Salivary Flow and Taste Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tango, Rubens Nisie; Arata, Anelyse; Borges, Alexandre Luiz Souto; Costa, Anna K F; Pereira, Luciano Jose; Kaminagakura, Estela

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of replacement of inadequate complete dentures on salivary flow and taste perception in geriatric patients. Thirty-three patients, 13 males and 20 females, with a mean age of 64.4 years were submitted to stimulated and unstimulated salivary flow rate and salivary pH measurements, and sense of taste evaluation. Tests were performed 3 months before complete denture substitution and 3 weeks after denture insertion. The mean for unstimulated saliva (USS) was 2.1 ml before and 2.7 ml after replacement (p = 0.003). The mean volume of stimulated saliva was 6.3 ml before and 8.2 ml after replacement (p = 0.004). The pH mean of USS was 7.8 ± 0.44 before and 8.02 ± 0.41 after replacement (p = 0.005). No statistically significant difference was determined in the sense of taste before and 3 weeks after complete denture replacement. The replacement of inadequate complete dentures increases saliva flow; however, it does not improve taste perception. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  20. The Influence of Sweet Taste Perception on Dietary Intake in Relation to Dental Caries and BMI in Saudi Arabian Schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Ashi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of sweet taste perception on dietary habits in Saudi schoolchildren. In addition, the relationship between dietary habits and both caries and BMI was studied. Methods. A cross-sectional observational study comprising 225 schoolchildren aged 13–15 years from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, was conducted. The consumption frequency of certain food items was analysed from a beverage and snack questionnaire and a three-day estimated dietary record was obtained. The sweet taste perception level was determined as sweet taste threshold (TT and sweet taste preference (TP. Children were grouped into low, medium, and high, according to their sweet taste perception level. ICDAS and DMFS indices were used for caries registration and anthropometric measurements using BMI were collected. Results. Sweet taste perception was found to be negatively correlated to the number of main meals and positively correlated to both snack and sweet intake occasions. Statistically significant differences were found between the TT and TP groups with regard to the number of main meals and sweet intake (p≤0.01. No significant correlation between the dietary variables and caries or BMI was found. Conclusions. The dietary habits and sweet intake were found to be influenced by the sweet taste perception level, while the relation between the dietary habits and the caries and BMI was found insignificant.

  1. Fundamental Flaws In The Derivation Of Stevens' Law For Taste Within Norwich's Entropy Theory of Perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nizami, Lance

    2010-01-01

    Norwich's Entropy Theory of Perception (1975-present) is a general theory of perception, based on Shannon's Information Theory. Among many bold claims, the Entropy Theory presents a truly astounding result: that Stevens' Law with an Index of 1, an empirical power relation of direct proportionality between perceived taste intensity and stimulus concentration, arises from theory alone. Norwich's theorizing starts with several extraordinary hypotheses. First, 'multiple, parallel receptor-neuron units' without collaterals 'carry essentially the same message to the brain', i.e. the rate-level curves are identical. Second, sensation is proportional to firing rate. Third, firing rate is proportional to the taste receptor's 'resolvable uncertainty'. Fourth, the 'resolvable uncertainty' is obtained from Shannon's Information Theory. Finally, 'resolvable uncertainty' also depends upon the microscopic thermodynamic density fluctuation of the tasted solute. Norwich proves that density fluctuation is density variance, which is proportional to solute concentration, all based on the theory of fluctuations in fluid composition from Tolman's classic physics text, 'The Principles of Statistical Mechanics'. Altogether, according to Norwich, perceived taste intensity is theoretically proportional to solute concentration. Such a universal rule for taste, one that is independent of solute identity, personal physiological differences, and psychophysical task, is truly remarkable and is well-deserving of scrutiny. Norwich's crucial step was the derivation of density variance. That step was meticulously reconstructed here. It transpires that the appropriate fluctuation is Tolman's mean-square fractional density fluctuation, not density variance as used by Norwich. Tolman's algebra yields a 'Stevens Index' of -1 rather than 1. As 'Stevens Index' empirically always exceeds zero, the Index of -1 suggests that it is risky to infer psychophysical laws of sensory response from information theory

  2. The Influence of Pregnancy on Sweet Taste Perception and Plaque Acidogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonbul, H; Ashi, H; Aljahdali, E; Campus, G; Lingström, P

    2017-05-01

    Objectives Women undergo different physiological and oral changes during pregnancy and this may increase the risk of dental caries and other oral diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in biofilm acidogenicity and correlate them to sweet taste perception in pregnant and non-pregnant women. Methods Three groups of Saudi women participated in this cross-sectional study: (1) women in early pregnancy (n = 40/mean age 29.6 years/DMFT 10.7), (2) women in late pregnancy (n = 40/29.5 years/DMFT 10.8) and (3) non-pregnant women (n = 41/27.7 years/DMFT 12.3). Changes in plaque pH were determined by using colour-coded indicator strips before and after a 1-min rinse with a 10% sucrose solution. A taste perception test determining sweet preference and threshold levels was also performed. Results A significant difference regarding plaque pH was seen between the early, late and non-pregnant women when calculated as the area under the curve (p pregnant women may undergo taste changes and experience lower plaque pH, which may result in an increased risk of dental caries.

  3. Perception of sweet taste is important for voluntary alcohol consumption in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blednov, Y A; Walker, D; Martinez, M; Levine, M; Damak, S; Margolskee, R F

    2008-02-01

    To directly evaluate the association between taste perception and alcohol intake, we used three different mutant mice, each lacking a gene expressed in taste buds and critical to taste transduction: alpha-gustducin (Gnat3), Tas1r3 or Trpm5. Null mutant mice lacking any of these three genes showed lower preference score for alcohol and consumed less alcohol in a two-bottle choice test, as compared with wild-type littermates. These null mice also showed lower preference score for saccharin solutions than did wild-type littermates. In contrast, avoidance of quinine solutions was less in Gnat3 or Trpm5 knockout mice than in wild-type mice, whereas Tas1r3 null mice were not different from wild type in their response to quinine solutions. There were no differences in null vs. wild-type mice in their consumption of sodium chloride solutions. To determine the cause for reduction of ethanol intake, we studied other ethanol-induced behaviors known to be related to alcohol consumption. There were no differences between null and wild-type mice in ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex, severity of acute ethanol withdrawal or conditioned place preference for ethanol. Weaker conditioned taste aversion (CTA) to alcohol in null mice may have been caused by weaker rewarding value of the conditioned stimulus (saccharin). When saccharin was replaced by sodium chloride, no differences in CTA to alcohol between knockout and wild-type mice were seen. Thus, deletion of any one of three different genes involved in detection of sweet taste leads to a substantial reduction of alcohol intake without any changes in pharmacological actions of ethanol.

  4. Research progress of the bitter taste receptor genes in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ping; Luo, Rui-Jian

    2018-02-20

    Among the five basic tastes (umami, sweet, bitter, salty and sour), the perception of bitterness is believed to protect animals from digesting toxic and harmful substances, thus it is vital for animal survival. The taste of bitterness is triggered by the interaction between bitter substances and bitter taste receptors, which are encoded by Tas2rs. The gene numbers vary largely across species to meet different demands. So far, several ligands of bitter receptors have been identified in primates. They also discovered that the selective pressure of certain bitter taste receptor genes vary across taxa, genes or even different functional regions of the gene. In this review, we summarize the research progress of bitter taste receptor genes in primates by introducing the functional diversity of bitter receptors, the specific interaction between bitter taste receptors and ligands, the relationship between the evolutionary pattern of bitter taste receptors and diets, and the adaptive evolution of bitter taste receptor genes. We aim to provide a reference for further research on bitter receptor genes in primates.

  5. Accuracy of self-report in detecting taste dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soter, Ana; Kim, John; Jackman, Alexis; Tourbier, Isabelle; Kaul, Arti; Doty, Richard L

    2008-04-01

    To determine the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value of responses to the following questionnaire statements in detecting taste loss: "I can detect salt in chips, pretzels, or salted nuts," "I can detect sourness in vinegar, pickles, or lemon," "I can detect sweetness in soda, cookies, or ice cream," and "I can detect bitterness, in coffee, beer, or tonic water." Responses to an additional item, "I can detect chocolate in cocoa, cake or candy," was examined to determine whether patients clearly differentiate between taste loss and flavor loss secondary to olfactory dysfunction. A total of 469 patients (207 men, mean age = 54 years, standard deviation = 15 years; and 262 women, mean age = 54 years, standard deviation = 14 years) were administered a questionnaire containing these questions with the response categories of "easily," "somewhat," and "not at all," followed by a comprehensive taste and smell test battery. The questionnaire items poorly detected bona fide taste problems. However, they were sensitive in detecting persons without such problems (i.e., they exhibited low positive but high negative predictive value). Dysfunction categories of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) were not meaningfully related to subjects' responses to the questionnaire statements. Both sex and age influenced performance on most of the taste tests, with older persons performing more poorly than younger ones and women typically outperforming men. Although it is commonly assumed that straight-forward questions concerning taste may be useful in detecting taste disorders, this study suggests this is not the case. However, patients who specifically report having no problems with taste perception usually do not exhibit taste dysfunction. The difficulty in detecting true taste problems by focused questionnaire items likely reflects a combination of factors. These include the relatively low prevalence of taste deficits in the

  6. The Influence of Pregnancy on Sweet Taste Perception and Plaque Acidogenicity

    OpenAIRE

    Sonbul, H.; Ashi, H.; Aljahdali, E.; Campus, G.; Lingstr?m, P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Women undergo different physiological and oral changes during pregnancy and this may increase the risk of dental caries and other oral diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in biofilm acidogenicity and correlate them to sweet taste perception in pregnant and non-pregnant women. Methods Three groups of Saudi women participated in this cross-sectional study: (1) women in early pregnancy (n?=?40/mean age 29.6?years/DMFT 10.7), (2) women in late pregnancy (n...

  7. Sweet Taste Perception and Dental Caries in 13- to 15-Year-Olds: A Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashi, H; Lara-Capi, C; Campus, G; Klingberg, G; Lingström, P

    2017-01-01

    Dietary habits and, in particular, the intake frequency of sucrose are of major importance for the development of dental caries. The perception of sweet taste is believed to have an influence on sucrose intake and therefore affects the predisposition to dental caries. The aim was to study the caries experience and sweet taste perception and to further analyze the possible relationship between the 2 tested variables in 13- to 15-year-old children from 3 different geographical areas. A cross-sectional survey comprising 669 children (220 Italian, 224 Mexican, and 225 Saudi Arabian) was conducted. The children were examined in their school setting. A sweet taste perception level was determined by the sweet taste threshold (TT) and sweet taste preference (TP). The sweet test was performed with sucrose solutions varying in concentration from 1.63 to 821.52 g/L. The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) and DMFS indices were used to diagnose caries. The highest mean value for TT was found for Italian children followed by Saudi and Mexican. Saudi schoolchildren showed the highest mean values for TP and DMFS, followed by Italian and Mexican. A statistically significant difference for TP, TT, DMFS, and initial caries was found between the 3 countries. A weak yet positive correlation was found between taste perception (TT and TP) versus DMFS and manifest caries in all 3 countries (r = 0.137-0.313). The findings of the present study showed a variation in sweet taste perception between the 3 countries, which may influence the caries outcome of the children in the individual countries. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. A gray matter of taste: sound perception, music cognition, and Baumgarten's aesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannese, Alessia

    2012-09-01

    Music is an ancient and ubiquitous form of human expression. One important component for which music is sought after is its aesthetic value, whose appreciation has typically been associated with largely learned, culturally determined factors, such as education, exposure, and social pressure. However, neuroscientific evidence shows that the aesthetic response to music is often associated with automatic, physically- and biologically-grounded events, such as shivers, chills, increased heart rate, and motor synchronization, suggesting the existence of an underlying biological platform upon which contextual factors may act. Drawing on philosophical notions and neuroscientific evidence, I argue that, although there is no denying that social and cultural context play a substantial role in shaping the aesthetic response to music, these act upon largely universal, biological mechanisms involved with neural processing. I propose that the simultaneous presence of culturally-influenced and biologically-determined contributions to the aesthetic response to music epitomizes Baumgarten's equation of sensory perception with taste. Taking the argument one step further, I suggest that the heavily embodied aesthetic response to music bridges the cleavage between the two discrepant meanings-the one referring to sensory perception, the other referring to judgments of taste-traditionally attributed to the word "aesthetics" in the sciences and the humanities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Perception of taste in HIV-positive individuals in treatment antiretroviral: results of a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Indiara Welter; da Silva, Ruann Oswaldo Carvalho; Chaiben, Cassiano Lima; Fernandes, Ângela; Naval Machado, Maria Ângela; de Lima, Antonio Adilson Soares

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of taste in HIV-infected patients. One hundred males and females (11 to 60 years old) were divided into two groups (50 patients infected by HIV and 50 controls) and evaluated for gustatory function. The results revealed that the mean score in the evaluation of taste was significantly lower in individuals with HIV when compared to controls for both sides of the tongue (p < 0.05). Patients with HIV infection had difficulty recognizing the bitter taste, followed by salty and sweet. When each side of the tongue was evaluated separately and compared, the Wilcoxon test showed that there was no significant difference on the tongue of individuals with HIV. The prevalence of hypogeusia was 20% in individuals with this disease. Individuals with HIV infection may have a deficit in taste that can affect your general and oral health. © 2016 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Predicting consumer liking and preference based on emotional responses and sensory perception: A study with basic taste solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samant, Shilpa S; Chapko, Matthew J; Seo, Han-Seok

    2017-10-01

    Traditional methods of sensory testing focus on capturing information about multisensory perceptions, but do not necessarily measure emotions elicited by these food and beverages. The objective of this study was to develop an optimum model of predicting overall liking (rating) and preference (choice) based on taste intensity and evoked emotions. One hundred and two participants (51 females) were asked to taste water, sucrose, citric acid, salt, and caffeine solutions. Their emotional responses toward each sample were measured by a combination of a self-reported emotion questionnaire (EsSense25), facial expressions, and autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses. In addition, their perceived intensity and overall liking were measured. After a break, participants re-tasted the samples and ranked them according to their preference. The results showed that emotional responses measured using self-reported emotion questionnaire and facial expression analysis along with perceived taste intensity performed best to predict overall liking as well as preference, while ANS measures showed limited contribution. Contrary to some previous research, this study demonstrated that not only negative emotions, but also positive ones could help predict consumer liking and preference. In addition, since there were subtle differences in the prediction models of overall liking and preference, both aspects should be taken into account to understand consumer behavior. In conclusion, combination of evoked emotions along with sensory perception could help better understand consumer acceptance as well as preference toward basic taste solutions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. An assessment of the effects of wine volatiles on the perception of taste and astringency in wine

    OpenAIRE

    Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Campo, Eva; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación; Valentin, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work is measuring the effect of different volatile extract compositions on the perception of taste, astringency, global intensity and persistence of wine. Six Spanish wines, two from Chardonnay and four from Tempranillo grapes, all of them showing different chemical and sensory characteristics, were selected. Wines were separated into volatile and non-volatile fractions by solid phase extraction and lyophilisation and further liquid extraction, respectively. Eighteen "re...

  12. The effect of cigarillo packaging elements on young adult perceptions of product flavor, taste, smell, and appeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meernik, Clare; Ranney, Leah M; Lazard, Allison J; Kim, KyungSu; Queen, Tara L; Avishai, Aya; Boynton, Marcella H; Sheeran, Paschal J; Goldstein, Adam O

    2018-01-01

    Product packaging has long been used by the tobacco industry to target consumers and manipulate product perceptions. This study examines the extent to which cigarillo packaging influences perceptions of product flavor, taste, smell, and appeal. A web-based experiment was conducted among young adults. Participants viewed three randomly selected cigarillo packs, varying on pack flavor descriptor, color, type, branding, and warning-totaling 180 pack images. Mixed-effects models were used to estimate the effect of pack elements on product perceptions. A total of 2,664 current, ever, and never little cigar and cigarillo users participated. Cigarillo packs with a flavor descriptor were perceived as having a more favorable taste (β = 0.21, p product taste (pictorial: β = -0.07, p = .03) and smell (text-only: β = -0.08, p = .01; pictorial: β = -0.09, p = .007), warnings did not moderate the effects of flavor descriptor or color. To our knowledge, this study provides the first quantitative evidence that cigarillo packaging alters consumers' cognitive responses, and warnings on packs do not suffice to overcome the effects of product packaging. The findings support efforts at federal, state, and local levels to prohibit flavor descriptors and their associated product flavoring in non-cigarette products such as cigarillos, along with new data that supports restrictions on flavor cues and colors.

  13. Caffeine May Reduce Perceived Sweet Taste in Humans, Supporting Evidence That Adenosine Receptors Modulate Taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Ezen; Picket, Benjamin; Dando, Robin

    2017-09-01

    Multiple recent reports have detailed the presence of adenosine receptors in sweet sensitive taste cells of mice. These receptors are activated by endogenous adenosine in the plasma to enhance sweet signals within the taste bud, before reporting to the primary afferent. As we commonly consume caffeine, a powerful antagonist for such receptors, in our daily lives, an intriguing question we sought to answer was whether the caffeine we habitually consume in coffee can inhibit the perception of sweet taste in humans. 107 panelists were randomly assigned to 2 groups, sampling decaffeinated coffee supplemented with either 200 mg of caffeine, about the level found in a strong cup of coffee, or an equally bitter concentration of quinine. Participants subsequently performed sensory testing, with the session repeated in the alternative condition in a second session on a separate day. Panelists rated both the sweetened coffee itself and subsequent sucrose solutions as less sweet in the caffeine condition, despite the treatment having no effect on bitter, sour, salty, or umami perception. Panelists were also unable to discern whether they had consumed the caffeinated or noncaffeinated coffee, with ratings of alertness increased equally, but no significant improvement in reaction times, highlighting coffee's powerful placebo effect. This work validates earlier observations in rodents in a human population. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  14. TRPs in Taste and Chemesthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    TRP channels are expressed in taste buds, nerve fibers, and keratinocytes in the oronasal cavity. These channels play integral roles in transducing chemical stimuli, giving rise to sensations of taste, irritation, warmth, coolness, and pungency. Specifically, TRPM5 acts downstream of taste receptors in the taste transduction pathway. TRPM5 channels convert taste-evoked intracellular Ca2+ release into membrane depolarization to trigger taste transmitter secretion. PKD2L1 is expressed in acid-sensitive (sour) taste bud cells but is unlikely to be the transducer for sour taste. TRPV1 is a receptor for pungent chemical stimuli such as capsaicin and for several irritants (chemesthesis). It is controversial whether TRPV1 is present in the taste buds and plays a direct role in taste. Instead, TRPV1 is expressed in non-gustatory sensory afferent fibers and in keratinocytes of the oronasal cavity. In many sensory fibers and epithelial cells lining the oronasal cavity, TRPA1 is also co-expressed with TRPV1. As with TRPV1, TRPA1 transduces a wide variety of irritants and, in combination with TRPV1, assures that there is a broad response to noxious chemical stimuli. Other TRP channels, including TRPM8, TRPV3, and TRPV4, play less prominent roles in chemesthesis and no known role in taste, per se. The pungency of foods and beverages is likely highly influenced by the temperature at which they are consumed, their acidity, and, for beverages, their carbonation. All these factors modulate the activity of TRP channels in taste buds and in the oronasal mucosa. PMID:24961971

  15. A comparison of English and Japanese taste languages: taste descriptive methodology, codability and the umami taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, M; Ishii, R

    1986-05-01

    Everyday taste descriptions for a range of stimuli were obtained from selected groups of American and Japanese subjects, using a variety of stimuli, stimulus presentation procedures and response conditions. In English there was a tendency to use a quadrapartite classification system: 'sweet', 'sour', 'salty' and 'bitter'. The Japanese had a different strategy, adding a fifth label: 'Ajinomoto', referring to the taste of monosodium glutamate. This label was generally replaced by umami--the scientific term--by Japanese who were workers or trained tasters involved with glutamate manufacture. Cultural differences in taste language have consequences for taste psychophysicists who impose a quadrapartite restriction on allowable taste descriptions. Stimulus presentation by filter-paper or aqueous solution elicited the same response trends. Language codability was only an indicator of degree of taste mixedness/singularity if used statistically with samples of sufficient size; it had little value as an indicator for individual subjects.

  16. Effect of Chorda Tympani Nerve Transection on Salt Taste Perception in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiwatari, Yutaka; Theodorides, Maria L.; Bachmanov, Alexander A.

    2011-01-01

    Effects of gustatory nerve transection on salt taste have been studied extensively in rats and hamsters but have not been well explored in the mouse. We examined the effects of chorda tympani (CT) nerve transection on NaCl taste preferences and thresholds in outbred CD-1 mice using a high-throughput phenotyping method developed in our laboratory. To measure taste thresholds, mice were conditioned by oral self-administration of LiCl or NaCl and then presented with NaCl concentration series in 2-bottle preference tests. LiCl-conditioned and control NaCl-exposed mice were given bilateral transections of the CT nerve (LiCl-CTX, NaCl-CTX) or were left intact as controls (LiCl-CNT, NaCl-CNT). After recovery from surgery, mice received a concentration series of NaCl (0–300 mM) in 48-h 2-bottle tests. CT transection increased NaCl taste thresholds in LiCl-conditioned mice and eliminated avoidance of concentrated NaCl in control NaCl-exposed mice. This demonstrates that in mice, the CT nerve is important for detection and recognition of NaCl taste and is necessary for the normal avoidance of high concentrations of NaCl. The results of this experiment also show that the method of high-throughput phenotyping of salt taste thresholds is suitable for detecting changes in the taste periphery in mouse genetic studies. PMID:21743094

  17. The effect of colour on the perception of taste, quality and preference ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study utilized twenty four (24) psychology students of Covenant University as participants. The colour of the fruit drink served as the independent variable while ... significant difference in the association of colour with taste based on gender ...

  18. Association of tongue brushing with the number of fungiform taste buds and taste perception: A preliminary study using confocal laser scanning microscopy in combination with a filter-paper disc method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Junichi; Saito, Takehisa; Ito, Tetsufumi; Yoshimura, Hitoshi; Matsuda, Shinpei; Yoshida, Hisato; Fujita, Ryousuke; Sano, Kazuo

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association of tongue brushing with the number of fungiform taste buds and taste perception using a confocal laser scanning microscopy in combination with a filter-paper disc method (FPDM). Twenty-four subjects with or without a habit of tongue brushing (11 males and 13 females, 20-46 years old) participated in this study. Nine of the 24 subjects had no habit of tongue brushing (Group 1, n=9). Fifteen subjects had a habit of tongue brushing, and the brushing regions of the tongue were as follows: central region (Group 2, n=7), or entire region (Group 3, n=8) of the tongue dorsum. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy, the average number of taste buds per fungiform papilla (FP) was counted. Taste perception was evaluated using an FPDM. These observations were performed in the midlateral region of the tongue since the distribution of fungiform papillae is large in the midlateral region compared to that in the central region. The subjects in Group 3 showed a significantly decreased number of fungiform taste buds compared to Group 1 and Group 2. Group 3 also showed significantly higher FPDM scores than the other two groups. Excessive tongue brushing of the entire tongue dorsum, including the midlateral region, may have an association with the decreased number of FP and taste buds and decreased taste sensation. To avoid these conditions, instituting proper tongue brushing methods, such as limiting it to the central region of the tongue and using a light touch, is suggested and is important for the subjects who are eager to participate in tongue brushing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhancement of Retronasal Odors by Taste

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Barry G.; Nachtigal, Danielle; Hammond, Samuel; Lim, Juyun

    2011-01-01

    Psychophysical studies of interactions between retronasal olfaction and taste have focused most often on the enhancement of tastes by odors, which has been attributed primarily to a response bias (i.e., halo dumping). Based upon preliminary evidence that retronasal odors could also be enhanced by taste, the present study measured both forms of enhancement using appropriate response categories. In the first experiment, subjects rated taste (“sweet,” “sour,” “salty,” and “bitter”) and odor (“ot...

  20. Differences in Swallowing between High and Low Concentration Taste Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Nagy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Taste is a property that is thought to potentially modulate swallowing behavior. Whether such effects depend on taste, intensity remains unclear. This study explored differences in the amplitudes of tongue-palate pressures in swallowing as a function of taste stimulus concentration. Tongue-palate pressures were collected in 80 healthy women, in two age groups (under 40, over 60, stratified by genetic taste status (nontasters, supertasters. Liquids with different taste qualities (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter were presented in high and low concentrations. General labeled magnitude scale ratings captured perceived taste intensity and liking/disliking of the test liquids. Path analysis explored whether factors of taste, concentration, age group, and/or genetic taste status impacted: (1 perceived intensity; (2 palatability; and (3 swallowing pressures. Higher ratings of perceived intensity were found in supertasters and with higher concentrations, which were more liked/disliked than lower concentrations. Sweet stimuli were more palatable than sour, salty, or bitter stimuli. Higher concentrations elicited stronger tongue-palate pressures independently and in association with intensity ratings. The perceived intensity of a taste stimulus varies as a function of stimulus concentration, taste quality, participant age, and genetic taste status and influences swallowing pressure amplitudes. High-concentration salty and sour stimuli elicit the greatest tongue-palate pressures.

  1. Tasting with Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Sakai

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Whenever we eat and drink something, we experience the sense of taste. We attribute the sense of taste to gustation without doubt, but it is not true. The olfaction is the most important component of the flavor. On the other hand, the gustation (basic tastes is affected strongly by the olfaction; when participants tasted solutions containing odors without any tastants, they reported there were some tastes. Odors of the foods and beverages show interaction with (potentiate and/or inhibit basic tastes, and determined the flavor of them. Here, some experiments exploring about the role of the vision in the sense of taste are shown: The color of sushi distorted (enhanced or eliminated the perception of fishy, the color of the packages of chocolate distorted the perception of taste, the color of syrup determined the participants' ability of identification of the flavor, and so on. These results show the vision is an important component of the sense of taste. These visual effects on taste are supposed to be mediated by the olfaction. It is because there are many studies showing the vision affects the olfaction, but studies showing the vision affects gustation are very little and inconsistent with each other.

  2. Taste disorders: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Ambaldhage

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For maintenance of the health of an individual, taste sensation is very important. It is an important sensation that serves to assess the nutritious content of food, support oral intake, and prevent ingestion of potentially toxic substances. Disturbances in the perception of taste can lead to loss of appetite, causing malnutrition and thus distressing both the physical and psychological well-being of the patient. Oral physicians are often the first clinicians who hear complaints about alteration in taste from the patients. In spite of the effect of taste changes on health, literature on the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and precise treatment of taste disorders are less. Taste changes may lead patients to seek inappropriate dental treatments. Proper diagnosis of the etiology is the foremost step in the treatment of taste disorders. Thus, it is important that dental clinicians to be familiar with the various causes and proper management of taste changes. In this article, we have reviewed related articles focusing on taste disorders and their management, to provide a quick sketch for the clinicians. A detailed search was performed to identify the systematic reviews and research articles on taste disorders, using PUBMED and Cochrane. All the authors independently extracted data for analysis and review. Ultimately, 26 articles underwent a full text review. In conclusion, the research to date certainly offers us valid management strategies for taste disorders. Meanwhile, practical strategies with the highest success are needed for further intervention.

  3. Effect of Heavy Consumption of Alcoholic Beverages on the Perception of Sweet and Salty Taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Camile S; Dias, Vaneria R; Almeida, Juliane A Regis; Brazil, Jamile M; Santos, Ramon A; Milagres, Maria P

    2016-05-01

    To determine the threshold index of sweet and salty tastes in alcoholics undergoing treatment. Taste threshold was assessed using type 3-Alternative Forced Choice in a control group (92 non-alcoholic volunteers) and a test group (92 alcoholics in therapy). The test group completed a structured questionnaire on lifestyle and habits. Significant difference were found between the threshold rates found in the test (3.78) and control groups (1.39). In the salty stimulus, no significant difference was noted in the threshold detection between the control (0.17) and test groups (0.30). A significant correlation was observed between the index Pearson's threshold to sweet taste in the test group and their reported alcohol consumption. The test group reported characteristics such as loss of appetite (93%), weight loss during consumption (62%) and weight gain after quitting drinking (72%). That the alcoholic group reported less sensitivity to sweet taste suggests that drinking habits may influence choice of foods, with a greater preference for foods with higher sucrose concentration. This contribute to poor health, because excess consumption of sugar raises risk for several diseases. No conclusive results were found for the salty stimulus. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  4. Primacy and Recency Effects for Taste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Thomas A.; Katz, Jeffrey S.

    2018-01-01

    Historically, much of what we know about human memory has been discovered in experiments using visual and verbal stimuli. In two experiments, participants demonstrated reliably high recognition for nonverbal liquids. In Experiment 1, participants showed high accuracy for recognizing tastes (bitter, salty, sour, sweet) over a 30-s delay in a…

  5. Association between taste receptor (TAS) genes and the perception of wine characteristics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Carrai, M.; Campa, D.; Vodička, Pavel; Flamini, R.; Martelli, I.; Slyšková, Jana; Jirásková, Kateřina; Rejhová, Alexandra; Vodenková, Soňa; Canzian, F.; Bertelli, A.; Dalla Vedova, A.; Bavaresco, L.; Vodičková, Ludmila; Barale, R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, aug (2017), s. 9239 ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NV15-27580A; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14050 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : single-nucleotide polymorphisms * bitter-taste * alcohol-consumption Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  6. Genetic and molecular basis of individual differences in human umami taste perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriatsu Shigemura

    Full Text Available Umami taste (corresponds to savory in English is elicited by L-glutamate, typically as its Na salt (monosodium glutamate: MSG, and is one of five basic taste qualities that plays a key role in intake of amino acids. A particular property of umami is the synergistic potentiation of glutamate by purine nucleotide monophosphates (IMP, GMP. A heterodimer of a G protein coupled receptor, TAS1R1 and TAS1R3, is proposed to function as its receptor. However, little is known about genetic variation of TAS1R1 and TAS1R3 and its potential links with individual differences in umami sensitivity. Here we investigated the association between recognition thresholds for umami substances and genetic variations in human TAS1R1 and TAS1R3, and the functions of TAS1R1/TAS1R3 variants using a heterologous expression system. Our study demonstrated that the TAS1R1-372T creates a more sensitive umami receptor than -372A, while TAS1R3-757C creates a less sensitive one than -757R for MSG and MSG plus IMP, and showed a strong correlation between the recognition thresholds and in vitro dose-response relationships. These results in human studies support the propositions that a TAS1R1/TAS1R3 heterodimer acts as an umami receptor, and that genetic variation in this heterodimer directly affects umami taste sensitivity.

  7. Influence of flavour absorption by food-packaging materials (low-density polyethylene, polycarbonate and polyethylene terephthalate) on taste perception of a model solution and orange juice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willige, van R.W.G.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Legger, A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of flavour absorption by low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polycarbonate (PC) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) on taste perception of a model solution containing seven flavour compounds and orange juice in glass bottles was studied with and without pieces of the respective plastic

  8. Genetics of sweet taste preferences†

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmanov, Alexander A; Bosak, Natalia P; Floriano, Wely B; Inoue, Masashi; Li, Xia; Lin, Cailu; Murovets, Vladimir O; Reed, Danielle R; Zolotarev, Vasily A; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2011-01-01

    Sweet taste is a powerful factor influencing food acceptance. There is considerable variation in sweet taste perception and preferences within and among species. Although learning and homeostatic mechanisms contribute to this variation in sweet taste, much of it is genetically determined. Recent studies have shown that variation in the T1R genes contributes to within- and between-species differences in sweet taste. In addition, our ongoing studies using the mouse model demonstrate that a sign...

  9. Taste information derived from T1R-expressing taste cells in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Ryusuke; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2016-03-01

    The taste system of animals is used to detect valuable nutrients and harmful compounds in foods. In humans and mice, sweet, bitter, salty, sour and umami tastes are considered the five basic taste qualities. Sweet and umami tastes are mediated by G-protein-coupled receptors, belonging to the T1R (taste receptor type 1) family. This family consists of three members (T1R1, T1R2 and T1R3). They function as sweet or umami taste receptors by forming heterodimeric complexes, T1R1+T1R3 (umami) or T1R2+T1R3 (sweet). Receptors for each of the basic tastes are thought to be expressed exclusively in taste bud cells. Sweet (T1R2+T1R3-expressing) taste cells were thought to be segregated from umami (T1R1+T1R3-expressing) taste cells in taste buds. However, recent studies have revealed that a significant portion of taste cells in mice expressed all T1R subunits and responded to both sweet and umami compounds. This suggests that sweet and umami taste cells may not be segregated. Mice are able to discriminate between sweet and umami tastes, and both tastes contribute to behavioural preferences for sweet or umami compounds. There is growing evidence that T1R3 is also involved in behavioural avoidance of calcium tastes in mice, which implies that there may be a further population of T1R-expressing taste cells that mediate aversion to calcium taste. Therefore the simple view of detection and segregation of sweet and umami tastes by T1R-expressing taste cells, in mice, is now open to re-examination. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  10. Enhancement of Saltiness Perception by Monosodium Glutamate Taste and Soy Sauce Odor: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuma, Takuya; Maruyama, Hiroaki; Sakai, Nobuyuki

    2018-02-26

    Previous studies have reported that the umami taste of monosodium l-glutamate (MSG) and salty-smelling odors (e.g., soy sauce, bacon, sardines) enhance the perception of saltiness. This study aimed to investigate the neural basis of the enhancement of saltiness in human participants using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). University students who had passed a taste panel test participated in this study. Sodium chloride solutions were presented with or without either 0.10% MSG or the odor of soy sauce. The participants were asked to drink a cup of the stimulus and to evaluate only saltiness intensity in Experiment 1, as well as other sensory qualities in Experiment 2, and temporal brain activity was measured using fNIRS. In Experiment 3, the participants were asked to evaluate saltiness intensity using the time-intensity (TI) method, and the response of the parotid salivary glands was measured using fNIRS. The fNIRS data showed that the added MSG and soy sauce enhanced the hemodynamic response in temporal brain regions, including the frontal operculum, but no effect on the hemodynamic salivary responses was detected. These results indicate that the perceived enhancement of saltiness occurs in the brain region that is involved in central gustatory processing. Furthermore, the results of the sensory evaluations suggest that enhancement of saltiness by the addition of MSG is mainly based on fusion of the salty-like property of MSG and saltiness of NaCl, whereas enhancement by the addition of soy sauce odor is mainly based on modulation of the temporal dynamics of saltiness perception.

  11. Genetic variations in taste perception modify alcohol drinking behavior in Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Hwa; Lee, Jeonghee; Yang, Sarah; Kim, Jeongseon

    2017-06-01

    The sensory components of alcohol affect the onset of individual's drinking. Therefore, variations in taste receptor genes may lead to differential sensitivity for alcohol taste, which may modify an individual's drinking behavior. This study examined the influence of genetic variants in the taste-sensing mechanism on alcohol drinking behavior and the choice of alcoholic beverages. A total of 1829 Koreans were analyzed for their alcohol drinking status (drinker/non-drinker), total alcohol consumption (g/day), heavy drinking (≥30 g/day) and type of regularly consumed alcoholic beverages. Twenty-one genetic variations in bitterness, sweetness, umami and fatty acid sensing were also genotyped. Our findings suggested that multiple genetic variants modified individuals' alcohol drinking behavior. Genetic variations in the T2R bitterness receptor family were associated with overall drinking behavior. Subjects with the TAS2R38 AVI haplotype were less likely to be a drinker [odds ratio (OR): 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.59-0.95], and TAS2R5 rs2227264 predicted the level of total alcohol consumption (p = 0.01). In contrast, the T1R sweet and umami receptor family was associated with heavy drinking. TAS1R3 rs307355 CT carriers were more likely to be heavy drinkers (OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.06-2.19). The genetic variants were also associated with the choice of alcoholic beverages. The homo-recessive type of TAS2R4 rs2233998 (OR: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.11-2.37) and TAS2R5 rs2227264 (OR: 1.72, 95% CI: 1.14-2.58) were associated with consumption of rice wine. However, TAS1R2 rs35874116 was associated with wine drinking (OR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.43-0.98) and the consumption level (p = 0.04). These findings suggest that multiple genetic variations in taste receptors influence drinking behavior in Koreans. Genetic variations are also responsible for the preference of particular alcoholic beverages, which may contribute to an individual's alcohol drinking behavior. Copyright © 2017

  12. Insights on consciousness from taste memory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Milagros

    2016-01-01

    Taste research in rodents supports the relevance of memory in order to determine the content of consciousness by modifying both taste perception and later action. Associated with this issue is the fact that taste and visual modalities share anatomical circuits traditionally related to conscious memory. This challenges the view of taste memory as a type of non-declarative unconscious memory.

  13. "What's Your Taste in Music?" A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Various Soundscapes in Evoking Specific Tastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian Janice; Woods, Andy T; Spence, Charles

    2015-12-01

    We report on the results of two online experiments designed to compare different soundtracks that had been composed (by various researchers and sound designers) in order to evoke/match different basic tastes. In Experiment 1, 100 participants listened to samples from 24 soundtracks and chose the taste (sweet, sour, salty, or bitter) that best matched each sample. Overall, the sweet soundtracks most effectively evoked the taste intended by the composer (participants chose sweet 56.9% of the time for the sweet soundtracks), whereas the bitter soundtracks were the least effective (participants chose bitter 31.4% of the time for the bitter soundtracks), compared with chance (choosing any specific taste 25% of the time). In Experiment 2, 50 participants rated their emotional responses (in terms of pleasantness and arousal) to the same 24 soundtrack samples and also to imaginary sweet/sour/salty/bitter-tasting foods. Associations between soundtracks and tastes were partly mediated by pleasantness for the sweet and bitter tastes and partly by arousal for the sour tastes. These results demonstrate how emotion mediation may be an additional mechanism behind sound-taste correspondences.

  14. Voltage-gated sodium channels in taste bud cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Na; Lu, Min; Echeverri, Fernando; Laita, Bianca; Kalabat, Dalia; Williams, Mark E; Hevezi, Peter; Zlotnik, Albert; Moyer, Bryan D

    2009-03-12

    Taste bud cells transmit information regarding the contents of food from taste receptors embedded in apical microvilli to gustatory nerve fibers innervating basolateral membranes. In particular, taste cells depolarize, activate voltage-gated sodium channels, and fire action potentials in response to tastants. Initial cell depolarization is attributable to sodium influx through TRPM5 in sweet, bitter, and umami cells and an undetermined cation influx through an ion channel in sour cells expressing PKD2L1, a candidate sour taste receptor. The molecular identity of the voltage-gated sodium channels that sense depolarizing signals and subsequently initiate action potentials coding taste information to gustatory nerve fibers is unknown. We describe the molecular and histological expression profiles of cation channels involved in electrical signal transmission from apical to basolateral membrane domains. TRPM5 was positioned immediately beneath tight junctions to receive calcium signals originating from sweet, bitter, and umami receptor activation, while PKD2L1 was positioned at the taste pore. Using mouse taste bud and lingual epithelial cells collected by laser capture microdissection, SCN2A, SCN3A, and SCN9A voltage-gated sodium channel transcripts were expressed in taste tissue. SCN2A, SCN3A, and SCN9A were expressed beneath tight junctions in subsets of taste cells. SCN3A and SCN9A were expressed in TRPM5 cells, while SCN2A was expressed in TRPM5 and PKD2L1 cells. HCN4, a gene previously implicated in sour taste, was expressed in PKD2L1 cells and localized to cell processes beneath the taste pore. SCN2A, SCN3A and SCN9A voltage-gated sodium channels are positioned to sense initial depolarizing signals stemming from taste receptor activation and initiate taste cell action potentials. SCN2A, SCN3A and SCN9A gene products likely account for the tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium currents in taste receptor cells.

  15. Saliva and gastrointestinal functions of mastication, taste and textural perception, swallowing and initial digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge; Sørensen, Christiane E; Proctor, Gordon

    2018-01-01

    pattern. This review paper provides insight into the mechanisms by which saliva acts in relation to taste, mastication, bolus formation, enzymatic digestion, and swallowing. Also the protective functions of saliva including maintenance of dental and mucosal integrity will be discussed as they indirectly......Saliva exerts multiple functions in relation to the initial digestive processes taking place in the upper parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Ingestion of food and beverages, in turn, is a strong stimulus for secretion of saliva with a differential composition depending on the neuronal stimulation...... influence the digestive process. The final part of this paper focuses on the implications of xerostomia and salivary gland dysfunction on gastrointestinal functions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  16. What do love and jealousy taste like?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kai Qin; Tong, Eddie M W; Tan, Deborah H; Koh, Alethea H Q

    2013-12-01

    Metaphorical expressions linking love and jealousy to sweet, sour, and bitter tastes are common in normal language use and suggest that these emotions may influence perceptual taste judgments. Hence, we investigated whether the phenomenological experiences of love and jealousy are embodied in the taste sensations of sweetness, sourness, and bitterness. Studies 1A and 1B validated that these metaphors are widely endorsed. In three subsequent studies, participants induced to feel love rated a variety of tastants (sweet-sour candy, bitter-sweet chocolates, and distilled water) as sweeter than those who were induced to feel jealous, neutral, or happy. However, those induced to feel jealous did not differ from those induced to feel happy or neutral on bitter and sour ratings. These findings imply that emotions can influence basic perceptual judgments, but metaphors that refer to the body do not necessarily influence perceptual judgments the way they imply. We further suggest that future research in metaphoric social cognition and metaphor theory may benefit from investigating how such metaphors could have originated.

  17. Effects of Sleeve Gastrectomy vs. Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass on Eating Behavior and Sweet Taste Perception in Subjects with Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Nance

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that weight loss induced by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB has greater effects on taste perception and eating behavior than comparable weight loss induced by sleeve gastrectomy (SG. We evaluated the following outcomes in 31 subjects both before and after ~20% weight loss induced by RYGB (n = 23 or SG (n = 8: (1 sweet, savory, and salty taste sensitivity; (2 the most preferred concentrations of sucrose and monosodium glutamate; (3 sweetness palatability, by using validated sensory testing techniques; and (4 eating behavior, by using the Food Craving Inventory and the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire. We found that neither RYGB nor SG affected sweetness or saltiness sensitivity. However, weight loss induced by either RYGB or SG caused the same decrease in: (1 frequency of cravings for foods; (2 influence of emotions and external food cues on eating behavior; and (3 shifted sweetness palatability from pleasant to unpleasant when repetitively tasting sucrose (all p-values ≤ 0.01. Therefore, when matched on weight loss, SG and RYGB cause the same beneficial effects on key factors involved in the regulation of eating behavior and hedonic component of taste perception.

  18. Expression of the synaptic exocytosis-regulating molecule complexin 2 in taste buds and its participation in peripheral taste transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Azusa; Narukawa, Masataka; Ohmoto, Makoto; Yoshimoto, Joto; Abe, Keiko; Misaka, Takumi

    2015-06-01

    Taste information from type III taste cells to gustatory neurons is thought to be transmitted via synapses. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying taste transduction through this pathway have not been fully elucidated. In this study, to identify molecules that participate in synaptic taste transduction, we investigated whether complexins (Cplxs), which play roles in regulating membrane fusion in synaptic vesicle exocytosis, were expressed in taste bud cells. Among four Cplx isoforms, strong expression of Cplx2 mRNA was detected in type III taste cells. To investigate the function of CPLX2 in taste transduction, we observed taste responses in CPLX2-knockout mice. When assessed with electrophysiological and behavioral assays, taste responses to some sour stimuli in CPLX2-knockout mice were significantly lower than those in wild-type mice. These results suggested that CPLX2 participated in synaptic taste transduction from type III taste cells to gustatory neurons. A part of taste information is thought to be transmitted via synapses. However, the molecular mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. To identify molecules that participate in synaptic taste transduction, we investigated complexins (Cplxs) expression in taste bud cells. Strong expression of Cplx2 mRNA was detected in taste bud cells. Furthermore, taste responses to some sour stimuli in CPLX2- knockout mice were significantly lower than those in wild-type mice. These suggested that CPLX2 participated in synaptic taste transduction. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The International Society for Neurochemistry.

  19. Age-related changes in mouse taste bud morphology, hormone expression, and taste responsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yu-Kyong; Cong, Wei-na; Cai, Huan; Kim, Wook; Maudsley, Stuart; Egan, Josephine M; Martin, Bronwen

    2012-04-01

    Normal aging is a complex process that affects every organ system in the body, including the taste system. Thus, we investigated the effects of the normal aging process on taste bud morphology, function, and taste responsivity in male mice at 2, 10, and 18 months of age. The 18-month-old animals demonstrated a significant reduction in taste bud size and number of taste cells per bud compared with the 2- and 10-month-old animals. The 18-month-old animals exhibited a significant reduction of protein gene product 9.5 and sonic hedgehog immunoreactivity (taste cell markers). The number of taste cells expressing the sweet taste receptor subunit, T1R3, and the sweet taste modulating hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1, were reduced in the 18-month-old mice. Concordant with taste cell alterations, the 18-month-old animals demonstrated reduced sweet taste responsivity compared with the younger animals and the other major taste modalities (salty, sour, and bitter) remained intact.

  20. [Functional properties of taste bud cells. Mechanisms of afferent neurotransmission in Type II taste receptor cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov, R A

    2013-01-01

    Taste Bud cells are heterogeneous in their morphology and functionality. These cells are responsible for sensing a wide variety of substances and for associating detected compounds with a different taste: bitter, sweet, salty, sour and umami. Today we know that each of the five basic tastes corresponds to distinct cell populations organized into three basic morpho-functional cell types. In addition, some receptor cells of the taste bud demonstrate glia-related functions. In this article we expand on some properties of these three morphological receptor cell types. Main focus is devoted to the Type II cells and unusual mechanism for afferent neurotransmission in these cells. Taste cells of the Type II consist of three populations detecting bitter, sweet and umami tastes, and, thus, evoke a serious scientific interest.

  1. Perception of olive oils sensory defects using a potentiometric taste device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso, Ana C A; Silva, Lucas M; Rodrigues, Nuno; Rebello, Ligia P G; Dias, Luís G; Pereira, José A; Peres, António M

    2018-01-01

    The capability of perceiving olive oils sensory defects and intensities plays a key role on olive oils quality grade classification since olive oils can only be classified as extra-virgin if no defect can be perceived by a human trained sensory panel. Otherwise, olive oils may be classified as virgin or lampante depending on the median intensity of the defect predominantly perceived and on the physicochemical levels. However, sensory analysis is time-consuming and requires an official sensory panel, which can only evaluate a low number of samples per day. In this work, the potential use of an electronic tongue as a taste sensor device to identify the defect predominantly perceived in olive oils was evaluated. The potentiometric profiles recorded showed that intra- and inter-day signal drifts could be neglected (i.e., relative standard deviations lower than 25%), being not statistically significant the effect of the analysis day on the overall recorded E-tongue sensor fingerprints (P-value = 0.5715, for multivariate analysis of variance using Pillai's trace test), which significantly differ according to the olive oils' sensory defect (P-value = 0.0084, for multivariate analysis of variance using Pillai's trace test). Thus, a linear discriminant model based on 19 potentiometric signal sensors, selected by the simulated annealing algorithm, could be established to correctly predict the olive oil main sensory defect (fusty, rancid, wet-wood or winey-vinegary) with average sensitivity of 75 ± 3% and specificity of 73 ± 4% (repeated K-fold cross-validation variant: 4 folds×10 repeats). Similarly, a linear discriminant model, based on 24 selected sensors, correctly classified 92 ± 3% of the olive oils as virgin or lampante, being an average specificity of 93 ± 3% achieved. The overall satisfactory predictive performances strengthen the feasibility of the developed taste sensor device as a complementary methodology for olive oils' defects analysis and subsequent

  2. Taste Perception: An Examination of Fat Preference, Sensory Specific Satiety, and the Function of Eating Among Moderately Obese and Normal Weight Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-02-20

    key will take you into the food database so you can find the specific type of food you have eaten. For example if you ate a roasted chicken breast...you would type in chicken , press the Enter key and then press an arrow key to locate chicken , breast, meat only, roasted in the food database...Taste Perception 61 Appendix B: Pudding Recipes High fat pudding

  3. De Gustibus: time scale of loss and recovery of tastes caused by radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maes, Annelies; Huygh, Ingrid; Weltens, Caroline; Vandevelde, Guy; Delaere, Pierre; Evers, Georges; Bogaert, Walter van den

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the prevalence and distress of taste loss at different intervals after radiotherapy (RT) for head and neck cancer. Materials and methods: In four different groups of head and neck cancer patients (73 patients in total), taste loss and distress due to taste loss were evaluated by taste acuity tests and taste questionnaires. Group 1 (n=17) was analyzed prior to RT. Groups 2 (n=17), 3 (n=17) and 4 (n=22) were at 2, 6 and 12-24 months after treatment, respectively. A cross-sectional analysis was performed between these four groups. Results: Prior to initiation of RT (group 1), partial taste loss was observed in 35, 18 and 6% of patients for bitter, salt and sweet, respectively. At 2 months after RT (group 2), taste loss (partial or total) was seen in 88, 82, 76 and 53% for bitter, salt, sweet and sour, respectively. At 6 months (group 3), partial taste loss was seen in 71, 65, 41 and 41% (bitter, salt, sweet, sour) and after 1-2 years (group 4) in 41, 50, 27 and 27% (bitter, salt, sweet, sour). Distress caused by taste loss was most frequent in group 2 (82%). Conclusions: In this study, loss of taste after RT was found to be most pronounced after 2 months. Bitter and salt qualities were most impaired. Gradual recovery was seen during the first year after treatment. Partial taste loss still persisted 1-2 years after treatment and was responsible for slight to moderate discomfort

  4. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy T. Woods

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, it has been demonstrated that people associate each of the basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty with specific colors (e.g., red, green, black, and white. In the present study, we investigated whether pairs of colors (both associated with a particular taste or taste word would give rise to stronger associations relative to pairs of colors that were associated with different tastes. We replicate the findings of previous studies highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. However, while there was evidence that pairs of colors could indeed communicate taste information more consistently than single colors, our participants took more than twice as long to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors. Possible reasons for these results are discussed.

  5. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Andy T; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that people associate each of the basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty) with specific colors (e.g., red, green, black, and white). In the present study, we investigated whether pairs of colors (both associated with a particular taste or taste word) would give rise to stronger associations relative to pairs of colors that were associated with different tastes. We replicate the findings of previous studies highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. However, while there was evidence that pairs of colors could indeed communicate taste information more consistently than single colors, our participants took more than twice as long to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors. Possible reasons for these results are discussed.

  6. Taste of Fat: A Sixth Taste Modality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnard, Philippe; Passilly-Degrace, Patricia; Khan, Naim A

    2016-01-01

    An attraction for palatable foods rich in lipids is shared by rodents and humans. Over the last decade, the mechanisms responsible for this specific eating behavior have been actively studied, and compelling evidence implicates a taste component in the orosensory detection of dietary lipids [i.e., long-chain fatty acids (LCFA)], in addition to textural, olfactory, and postingestive cues. The interactions between LCFA and specific receptors in taste bud cells (TBC) elicit physiological changes that affect both food intake and digestive functions. After a short overview of the gustatory pathway, this review brings together the key findings consistent with the existence of a sixth taste modality devoted to the perception of lipids. The main steps leading to this new paradigm (i.e., chemoreception of LCFA in TBC, cell signaling cascade, transfer of lipid signals throughout the gustatory nervous pathway, and their physiological consequences) will be critically analyzed. The limitations to this concept will also be discussed in the light of our current knowledge of the sense of taste. Finally, we will analyze the recent literature on obesity-related dysfunctions in the orosensory detection of lipids ("fatty" taste?), in relation to the overconsumption of fat-rich foods and the associated health risks. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Perceived Odor-Taste Congruence Influences Intensity and Pleasantness Differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsellem, Sherlley; Ohla, Kathrin

    2016-10-01

    The role of congruence in cross-modal interactions has received little attention. In most experiments involving cross-modal pairs, congruence is conceived of as a binary process according to which cross-modal pairs are categorized as perceptually and/or semantically matching or mismatching. The present study investigated whether odor-taste congruence can be perceived gradually and whether congruence impacts other facets of subjective experience, that is, intensity, pleasantness, and familiarity. To address these questions, we presented food odorants (chicken, orange, and 3 mixtures of the 2) and tastants (savory-salty and sour-sweet) in pairs varying in congruence. Participants were to report the perceived congruence of the pairs along with intensity, pleasantness, and familiarity. We found that participants could perceive distinct congruence levels, thereby favoring a multilevel account of congruence perception. In addition, familiarity and pleasantness followed the same pattern as the congruence while intensity was highest for the most congruent and the most incongruent pairs whereas intensities of the intermediary-congruent pairs were reduced. Principal component analysis revealed that pleasantness and familiarity form one dimension of the phenomenological experience of odor-taste pairs that was orthogonal to intensity. The results bear implications for the understanding the behavioral underpinnings of perseverance of habitual food choices. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Sour pressure swing adsorption process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadra, Shubhra Jyoti; Wright, Andrew David; Hufton, Jeffrey Raymond; Kloosterman, Jeffrey William; Amy, Fabrice; Weist, Jr., Edward Landis

    2017-11-07

    Methods and apparatuses for separating CO.sub.2 and sulfur-containing compounds from a synthesis gas obtained from gasification of a carbonaceous feedstock. The primary separating steps are performed using a sour pressure swing adsorption (SPSA) system, followed by an acid gas enrichment system and a sulfur removal unit. The SPSA system includes multiple pressure equalization steps and a rinse step using a rinse gas that is supplied from a source other than directly from one of the adsorber beds of the SPSA system.

  9. “What’s Your Taste in Music?” A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Various Soundscapes in Evoking Specific Tastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian (Janice Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on the results of two online experiments designed to compare different soundtracks that had been composed (by various researchers and sound designers in order to evoke/match different basic tastes. In Experiment 1, 100 participants listened to samples from 24 soundtracks and chose the taste (sweet, sour, salty, or bitter that best matched each sample. Overall, the sweet soundtracks most effectively evoked the taste intended by the composer (participants chose sweet 56.9% of the time for the sweet soundtracks, whereas the bitter soundtracks were the least effective (participants chose bitter 31.4% of the time for the bitter soundtracks, compared with chance (choosing any specific taste 25% of the time. In Experiment 2, 50 participants rated their emotional responses (in terms of pleasantness and arousal to the same 24 soundtrack samples and also to imaginary sweet/sour/salty/bitter-tasting foods. Associations between soundtracks and tastes were partly mediated by pleasantness for the sweet and bitter tastes and partly by arousal for the sour tastes. These results demonstrate how emotion mediation may be an additional mechanism behind sound-taste correspondences.

  10. “What’s Your Taste in Music?” A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Various Soundscapes in Evoking Specific Tastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Andy T.; Spence, Charles

    2015-01-01

    We report on the results of two online experiments designed to compare different soundtracks that had been composed (by various researchers and sound designers) in order to evoke/match different basic tastes. In Experiment 1, 100 participants listened to samples from 24 soundtracks and chose the taste (sweet, sour, salty, or bitter) that best matched each sample. Overall, the sweet soundtracks most effectively evoked the taste intended by the composer (participants chose sweet 56.9% of the time for the sweet soundtracks), whereas the bitter soundtracks were the least effective (participants chose bitter 31.4% of the time for the bitter soundtracks), compared with chance (choosing any specific taste 25% of the time). In Experiment 2, 50 participants rated their emotional responses (in terms of pleasantness and arousal) to the same 24 soundtrack samples and also to imaginary sweet/sour/salty/bitter-tasting foods. Associations between soundtracks and tastes were partly mediated by pleasantness for the sweet and bitter tastes and partly by arousal for the sour tastes. These results demonstrate how emotion mediation may be an additional mechanism behind sound-taste correspondences. PMID:27551365

  11. Colorimetric Sensor Array for White Wine Tasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Chung

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A colorimetric sensor array was developed to characterize and quantify the taste of white wines. A charge-coupled device (CCD camera captured images of the sensor array from 23 different white wine samples, and the change in the R, G, B color components from the control were analyzed by principal component analysis. Additionally, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to analyze the chemical components of each wine sample responsible for its taste. A two-dimensional score plot was created with 23 data points. It revealed clusters created from the same type of grape, and trends of sweetness, sourness, and astringency were mapped. An artificial neural network model was developed to predict the degree of sweetness, sourness, and astringency of the white wines. The coefficients of determination (R2 for the HPLC results and the sweetness, sourness, and astringency were 0.96, 0.95, and 0.83, respectively. This research could provide a simple and low-cost but sensitive taste prediction system, and, by helping consumer selection, will be able to have a positive effect on the wine industry.

  12. Colorimetric Sensor Array for White Wine Tasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Soo; Park, Tu San; Park, Soo Hyun; Kim, Joon Yong; Park, Seongmin; Son, Daesik; Bae, Young Min; Cho, Seong In

    2015-07-24

    A colorimetric sensor array was developed to characterize and quantify the taste of white wines. A charge-coupled device (CCD) camera captured images of the sensor array from 23 different white wine samples, and the change in the R, G, B color components from the control were analyzed by principal component analysis. Additionally, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze the chemical components of each wine sample responsible for its taste. A two-dimensional score plot was created with 23 data points. It revealed clusters created from the same type of grape, and trends of sweetness, sourness, and astringency were mapped. An artificial neural network model was developed to predict the degree of sweetness, sourness, and astringency of the white wines. The coefficients of determination (R2) for the HPLC results and the sweetness, sourness, and astringency were 0.96, 0.95, and 0.83, respectively. This research could provide a simple and low-cost but sensitive taste prediction system, and, by helping consumer selection, will be able to have a positive effect on the wine industry.

  13. Taste buds as peripheral chemosensory processors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Stephen D

    2013-01-01

    Taste buds are peripheral chemosensory organs situated in the oral cavity. Each taste bud consists of a community of 50-100 cells that interact synaptically during gustatory stimulation. At least three distinct cell types are found in mammalian taste buds - Type I cells, Receptor (Type II) cells, and Presynaptic (Type III) cells. Type I cells appear to be glial-like cells. Receptor cells express G protein-coupled taste receptors for sweet, bitter, or umami compounds. Presynaptic cells transduce acid stimuli (sour taste). Cells that sense salt (NaCl) taste have not yet been confidently identified in terms of these cell types. During gustatory stimulation, taste bud cells secrete synaptic, autocrine, and paracrine transmitters. These transmitters include ATP, acetylcholine (ACh), serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE), and GABA. Glutamate is an efferent transmitter that stimulates Presynaptic cells to release 5-HT. This chapter discusses these transmitters, which cells release them, the postsynaptic targets for the transmitters, and how cell-cell communication shapes taste bud signaling via these transmitters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Liking, salt taste perception and use of table salt when consuming reduced-salt chicken stews in light of South Africa's new salt regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Kock, H L; Zandstra, E H; Sayed, N; Wentzel-Viljoen, E

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of salt reduction on liking, salt taste perception, and use of table salt when consuming chicken stew in light of South Africa's new salt recommendations. In total, 432 South-African consumers (aged 35.2 ± 12.3 years) consumed a full portion of a chicken stew meal once at a central location. Four stock cube powders varying in salt content were used to prepare chicken stews: 1) no reduction - 2013 Na level; regular salt level as currently available on the South African market (24473 mg Na/100 g), 2) salt reduction smaller than 2016 level, i.e. 10%-reduced (22025 mg Na/100 g), 3) 2016 salt level, as per regulatory prescriptions (18000 mg Na/100 g), 4) 2019 salt level, as per regulatory prescriptions (13000 mg Na/100 g). Consumers were randomly allocated to consume one of the four meals. Liking, salt taste perception, and use of table salt and pepper were measured. Chicken stews prepared with reduced-salt stock powders were equally well-liked as chicken stews with the current salt level. Moreover, a gradual reduction of the salt in the chicken stews resulted in a reduced salt intake, up to an average of 19% for the total group compared to the benchmark 2013 Na level stew. However, 19% of consumers compensated by adding salt back to full compensation in some cases. More salt was added with increased reductions of salt in the meals, even to the point of full compensation. Further investigation into the impacts of nutrition communication and education about salt reduction on salt taste perception and use is needed. This research provides new consumer insights on salt use and emphasises the need for consumer-focused behaviour change approaches, in addition to reformulation of products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Percepção de sabores em pacientes com acidente vascular encefálico Taste perception in stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leda Maria Tavares Alves

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a percepção dos sabores amargo, azedo, doce e neutro. MÉTODO: foram estudados 36 pacientes com Acidente Vascular Encefálico (AVE (5 hemorrágicos e 31 isquêmicos e 30 sujeitos controles. Foi realizada avaliação fonoaudiológica estrutural e funcional incluindo postura, vedamento labial, presença de resíduos, tosse, engasgo, e ausculta cervical. Cada sujeito deglutiu em sequência aleatória 5 mL de líquido com os 4 sabores [chá de boldo (amargo, suco de limão diluído (azedo, sacarose diluída (doce e água (neutro] na temperatura ambiente. Entre as deglutições os participantes eram questionados sobre a dificuldade em deglutir e qual o sabor do líquido daquela deglutição. RESULTADOS: entre os pacientes houve maior freqüência de erros na identificação dos sabores amargo (controles: 16,7%, AVE: 47,3%, p=0,01 e azedo (controles: 6,7%, AVE: 27,8%, p=0,05, sem diferenças para o sabores neutro (controles: 10,0%, AVE: 16,7%, p=0,50 e doce (controles: 13,3%, AVE: 16,7%, p=0,80. Os pacientes com AVE tiveram maior dificuldade para deglutir os líquidos do que os controles (pPURPOSE: to assess the perception of bitter, sour, sweet and neutral flavors in stroke patients. METHOD: we studied 36 patients with stroke (5 hemorrhagic and 31 ischemic and had a 30 subjects' control group. W performed a structural and functional oral and pharyngeal evaluation including posture, lip sealing, presence of residues, cough, choking, and cervical auscultation. Five ml of fluids with the 4 flavors ["boldus" tea (bitter, diluted lemon juice (sour, diluted sucrose (sweet, and water (neutral] were offered in random sequence under room temperature. Participants were questioned, between swallows, on the difficulty in swallowing and which flavor they had just swallowed. RESULTS: patients with stroke had greater difficulty in swallowing the fluids than control group (p<0.04. Patients made more mistakes in identifying bitter (control: 16

  16. Habitual Tastes and Embedded Taste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Liselotte

    2016-01-01

    The interest of this paper is to position taste within the framework of time. This might seem peculiar given that taste, in its physical sense, is referred to as an ephemeral experience taking place in the mouth. Taste, however, is more than that. It is the transient experience that infiltrates...... may be bridged by story-telling or other ways of handing over historically embedded practices, but this leaves a more fundamental question unanswered. Namely, that given that all remembrance has individual recollection as the point of departure, then how does individual recollection of tastes...

  17. The taste-visual cross-modal Stroop effect: An event-related brain potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, X; Dupuis-Roy, N; Yang, X L; Qiu, J F; Zhang, Q L

    2014-03-28

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded to explore, for the first time, the electrophysiological correlates of the taste-visual cross-modal Stroop effect. Eighteen healthy participants were presented with a taste stimulus and a food image, and asked to categorize the image as "sweet" or "sour" by pressing the relevant button as quickly as possible. Accurate categorization of the image was faster when it was presented with a congruent taste stimulus (e.g., sour taste/image of lemon) than with an incongruent one (e.g., sour taste/image of ice cream). ERP analyses revealed a negative difference component (ND430-620) between 430 and 620ms in the taste-visual cross-modal Stroop interference. Dipole source analysis of the difference wave (incongruent minus congruent) indicated that two generators localized in the prefrontal cortex and the parahippocampal gyrus contributed to this taste-visual cross-modal Stroop effect. This result suggests that the prefrontal cortex is associated with the process of conflict control in the taste-visual cross-modal Stroop effect. Also, we speculate that the parahippocampal gyrus is associated with the process of discordant information in the taste-visual cross-modal Stroop effect. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fabrication of taste sensor for education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao; Tahara, Yusuke; Toko, Kiyoshi; Kuriyaki, Hisao

    2017-03-01

    In order to solve the unconcern to usefulness of learning science among high school students in Japan, we developed a simple fabricated taste sensor with sensitivity and selectivity to each taste quality, which can be applied in science class. A commercialized Teflon membrane was used as the polymer membrane holding lipids. In addition, a non-adhesive method is considered to combine the membrane and the sensor electrode using a plastic cap which is easily accessible. The taste sensor for education fabricated in this way showed a good selectivity and sensitivity. By adjusting the composition of trioctylmethylammonium chloride (TOMA) and phosphoric acid di(2-ethylhexyl) ester (PAEE) included in lipid solution, we improved the selectivity of this simple taste sensor to saltiness and sourness. To verify this taste sensor as a useful science teaching material for science class, we applied this taste sensor into a science class for university students. By comparing the results between the sensory test and the sensor response, humans taste showed the same tendency just as the sensor response, which proved the sensor as a useful teaching material for science class.

  19. Corrosion of steels in sour gas environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twigg, R.J.

    1984-03-01

    This report presents a study on the effects of sour gas environments on steels. Emphasis is placed on alloys commonly used in the heavy water, sour gas and refining industries. In addition, 'high strength, low alloy' steels, known as 'oil country tubular goods', are included. Reference is made to the effects of hydrogen sulphide environments on austenitic steels and on certain specialty steels. Theories of hydrogen-related cracking mechanisms are outlined with emphasis placed on sulphide stress cracking and hydrogen induced cracking in carbon and low alloy steels. Methods of controlling sulphide stress cracking and hydrogen induced cracking are addressed separately. Case histories from the heavy water, refining, and sour gas industries are used to illustrate operating experience and failure mechanisms. Finally, recommendations, based largely on the author's industrial experience, are made with respect to quality assurance and inspection requirements for sour service components. Only published literature was surveyed. Abstracts were made of all references, reviewing the major sources in detail

  20. SOUR MILK FORMULAS IN NUTRITION OF INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.F. Lukushkina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Health-giving properties of fermented food are related to the fact, that acid medium improves assimilation of protein and fat, increases absorption of iron and zinc, improves digestion. But the kefir and other sour milk food based on the whole milk can’t be used in nutrition of infants as human milk substitute because of high content of protein, high osmolarity, deficiency of vitamins and microelements. The article describes the results of clinical approbation of new modern sour milk formula «NAN sour milk», containing proper amount of high-quality protein (OptiPro, enriched with lactalbumin and all sufficient vitamins and microelements. This mixture contains also probiotics (B. lactis, providing high functionality of this food. Key words: infants, sour milk formula, nutrition.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(1:136-141

  1. Induction of ectopic taste buds by SHH reveals the competency and plasticity of adult lingual epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, David; Seidel, Kerstin; Salcedo, Ernesto; Ahn, Christina; de Sauvage, Frederic J.; Klein, Ophir D.; Barlow, Linda A.

    2014-01-01

    Taste buds are assemblies of elongated epithelial cells, which are innervated by gustatory nerves that transmit taste information to the brain stem. Taste cells are continuously renewed throughout life via proliferation of epithelial progenitors, but the molecular regulation of this process remains unknown. During embryogenesis, sonic hedgehog (SHH) negatively regulates taste bud patterning, such that inhibition of SHH causes the formation of more and larger taste bud primordia, including in regions of the tongue normally devoid of taste buds. Here, using a Cre-lox system to drive constitutive expression of SHH, we identify the effects of SHH on the lingual epithelium of adult mice. We show that misexpression of SHH transforms lingual epithelial cell fate, such that daughter cells of lingual epithelial progenitors form cell type-replete, onion-shaped taste buds, rather than non-taste, pseudostratified epithelium. These SHH-induced ectopic taste buds are found in regions of the adult tongue previously thought incapable of generating taste organs. The ectopic buds are composed of all taste cell types, including support cells and detectors of sweet, bitter, umami, salt and sour, and recapitulate the molecular differentiation process of endogenous taste buds. In contrast to the well-established nerve dependence of endogenous taste buds, however, ectopic taste buds form independently of both gustatory and somatosensory innervation. As innervation is required for SHH expression by endogenous taste buds, our data suggest that SHH can replace the need for innervation to drive the entire program of taste bud differentiation. PMID:24993944

  2. The number of taste buds is related to bitter taste sensitivity in layer and broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Ken-ichi; Shiraishi, Jun-ichi; Nishimura, Shotaro; Bungo, Takashi; Tabata, Shoji

    2010-04-01

    The relationship between taste sensitivity and the number of taste buds using a bitter tastant, quinine hydrochloride, was investigated in White Leghorn, Rhode Island Red, and broiler chickens. The White Leghorn and Rhode Island Red strains were able to perceive 2.0 mmol/L quinine hydrochloride, but the taste sensitivity of Rhode Island Red chickens was higher than that of White Leghorn chickens. Broiler chickens perceived 0.5 mmol/L quinine hydrochloride. The number of taste buds in the White Leghorn strain was the lowest, then the Rhode Island Red strain, with the number of taste buds highest in the broiler chickens. The number of taste buds was well correlated with bitter taste sensitivity. Therefore, we suggest that the number of taste buds is a vital factor in the perception of bitter taste and may be useful in selecting appropriate feeds for chickens.

  3. Voltage-gated sodium channels in taste bud cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Mark E

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taste bud cells transmit information regarding the contents of food from taste receptors embedded in apical microvilli to gustatory nerve fibers innervating basolateral membranes. In particular, taste cells depolarize, activate voltage-gated sodium channels, and fire action potentials in response to tastants. Initial cell depolarization is attributable to sodium influx through TRPM5 in sweet, bitter, and umami cells and an undetermined cation influx through an ion channel in sour cells expressing PKD2L1, a candidate sour taste receptor. The molecular identity of the voltage-gated sodium channels that sense depolarizing signals and subsequently initiate action potentials coding taste information to gustatory nerve fibers is unknown. Results We describe the molecular and histological expression profiles of cation channels involved in electrical signal transmission from apical to basolateral membrane domains. TRPM5 was positioned immediately beneath tight junctions to receive calcium signals originating from sweet, bitter, and umami receptor activation, while PKD2L1 was positioned at the taste pore. Using mouse taste bud and lingual epithelial cells collected by laser capture microdissection, SCN2A, SCN3A, and SCN9A voltage-gated sodium channel transcripts were expressed in taste tissue. SCN2A, SCN3A, and SCN9A were expressed beneath tight junctions in subsets of taste cells. SCN3A and SCN9A were expressed in TRPM5 cells, while SCN2A was expressed in TRPM5 and PKD2L1 cells. HCN4, a gene previously implicated in sour taste, was expressed in PKD2L1 cells and localized to cell processes beneath the taste pore. Conclusion SCN2A, SCN3A and SCN9A voltage-gated sodium channels are positioned to sense initial depolarizing signals stemming from taste receptor activation and initiate taste cell action potentials. SCN2A, SCN3A and SCN9A gene products likely account for the tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium currents in taste receptor cells.

  4. Sixth taste – starch taste?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zygmunt Zdrojewicz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Scientists from Oregon State University, USA, came up with the newest theory of the sixth taste – starch taste that might soon join the basic five tastes. This argument is supported by studies done on both animals and humans, the results of which seem to indicate the existence of separate receptors for starch taste, others than for sweet taste. Starch is a glucose homopolymer that forms an α-glucoside chain called glucosan or glucan. This polysaccharide constitutes the most important source of carbohydrates in food. It can be found in groats, potatoes, legumes, grains, manioc and corn. Apart from its presence in food, starch is also used in textile, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and stationery industries as well as in glue production. This polysaccharide is made of an unbranched helical structure – amylose (15–20%, and a structure that forms branched chains – amylopectin (80–85%. The starch structure, degree of its crystallisation or hydration as well as its availability determine the speed of food-contained starch hydrolysis by amylase. So far, starch has been considered tasteless, but the newest report shows that for people of different origins it is associated with various aliments specific for each culture. Apart from a number of scientific experiments using sweet taste inhibitors, the existence of the sixth taste is also confirmed by molecular studies. However, in order to officially include starch taste to the basic human tastes, it must fulfil certain criteria. The aim of the study is to present contemporary views on starch.

  5. Progress and renewal in gustation: new insights into taste bud development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Linda A

    2015-11-01

    The sense of taste, or gustation, is mediated by taste buds, which are housed in specialized taste papillae found in a stereotyped pattern on the surface of the tongue. Each bud, regardless of its location, is a collection of ∼100 cells that belong to at least five different functional classes, which transduce sweet, bitter, salt, sour and umami (the taste of glutamate) signals. Taste receptor cells harbor functional similarities to neurons but, like epithelial cells, are rapidly and continuously renewed throughout adult life. Here, I review recent advances in our understanding of how the pattern of taste buds is established in embryos and discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms governing taste cell turnover. I also highlight how these findings aid our understanding of how and why many cancer therapies result in taste dysfunction. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Food packaging cues influence taste perception and increase effort provision for a recommended snack product in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eEnax

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Food marketing research shows that child-directed marketing cues have pronounced effects on food preferences and consumption, but are most often placed on products with low nutritional quality. Effects of child-directed marketing strategies for healthy food products remain to be studied in more detail. Previous research suggests that effort provision explains additional variance in food choice. This study investigated the effects of packaging cues on explicit preferences and effort provision for healthy food items in elementary school children. Each of 179 children rated three, objectively identical, recommended yoghurt-cereal-fruit snacks presented with different packaging cues. Packaging cues included a plain label, a label focusing on health aspects of the product, and a label that additionally included unknown cartoon characters. The children were asked to state the subjective taste-pleasantness of the respective food items. We also used a novel approach to measure effort provision for food items in children, namely handgrip strength. Results show that packaging cues significantly induce a taste-placebo effect in 88% of the children, i.e., differences in taste ratings for objectively identical products. Taste ratings were highest for the child-directed product that included cartoon characters. Also, applied effort to receive the child-directed product was significantly higher. Our results confirm the positive effect of child-directed marketing strategies also for healthy snack food products. Using handgrip strength as a measure to determine the amount of effort children are willing to provide for a product may explain additional variance in food choice and might prove to be a promising additional research tool for field studies and the assessment of public policy interventions.

  7. Food packaging cues influence taste perception and increase effort provision for a recommended snack product in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enax, Laura; Weber, Bernd; Ahlers, Maren; Kaiser, Ulrike; Diethelm, Katharina; Holtkamp, Dominik; Faupel, Ulya; Holzmüller, Hartmut H; Kersting, Mathilde

    2015-01-01

    Food marketing research shows that child-directed marketing cues have pronounced effects on food preferences and consumption, but are most often placed on products with low nutritional quality. Effects of child-directed marketing strategies for healthy food products remain to be studied in more detail. Previous research suggests that effort provision explains additional variance in food choice. This study investigated the effects of packaging cues on explicit preferences and effort provision for healthy food items in elementary school children. Each of 179 children rated three, objectively identical, recommended yogurt-cereal-fruit snacks presented with different packaging cues. Packaging cues included a plain label, a label focusing on health aspects of the product, and a label that additionally included unknown cartoon characters. The children were asked to state the subjective taste-pleasantness of the respective food items. We also used a novel approach to measure effort provision for food items in children, namely handgrip strength. Results show that packaging cues significantly induce a taste-placebo effect in 88% of the children, i.e., differences in taste ratings for objectively identical products. Taste ratings were highest for the child-directed product that included cartoon characters. Also, applied effort to receive the child-directed product was significantly higher. Our results confirm the positive effect of child-directed marketing strategies also for healthy snack food products. Using handgrip strength as a measure to determine the amount of effort children are willing to provide for a product may explain additional variance in food choice and might prove to be a promising additional research tool for field studies and the assessment of public policy interventions.

  8. Food packaging cues influence taste perception and increase effort provision for a recommended snack product in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enax, Laura; Weber, Bernd; Ahlers, Maren; Kaiser, Ulrike; Diethelm, Katharina; Holtkamp, Dominik; Faupel, Ulya; Holzmüller, Hartmut H.; Kersting, Mathilde

    2015-01-01

    Food marketing research shows that child-directed marketing cues have pronounced effects on food preferences and consumption, but are most often placed on products with low nutritional quality. Effects of child-directed marketing strategies for healthy food products remain to be studied in more detail. Previous research suggests that effort provision explains additional variance in food choice. This study investigated the effects of packaging cues on explicit preferences and effort provision for healthy food items in elementary school children. Each of 179 children rated three, objectively identical, recommended yogurt-cereal-fruit snacks presented with different packaging cues. Packaging cues included a plain label, a label focusing on health aspects of the product, and a label that additionally included unknown cartoon characters. The children were asked to state the subjective taste-pleasantness of the respective food items. We also used a novel approach to measure effort provision for food items in children, namely handgrip strength. Results show that packaging cues significantly induce a taste-placebo effect in 88% of the children, i.e., differences in taste ratings for objectively identical products. Taste ratings were highest for the child-directed product that included cartoon characters. Also, applied effort to receive the child-directed product was significantly higher. Our results confirm the positive effect of child-directed marketing strategies also for healthy snack food products. Using handgrip strength as a measure to determine the amount of effort children are willing to provide for a product may explain additional variance in food choice and might prove to be a promising additional research tool for field studies and the assessment of public policy interventions. PMID:26191012

  9. Processing of visual food cues during bitter taste perception in female patients with binge-eating symptoms: A cross-modal ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schienle, Anne; Scharmüller, Wilfried; Schwab, Daniela

    2017-11-01

    In healthy individuals, the perception of an intense bitter taste decreased the reward value of visual food cues, as reflected by the reduction of a specific event-related brain potential (ERP), frontal late positivity. The current cross-modal ERP study investigated responses of female patients with binge-eating symptoms (BES) to this type of visual-gustatory stimulation. Women with BES (n=36) and female control participants (n=38) viewed food images after they rinsed their mouth with either bitter wormwood tea or water. Relative to controls, the patients showed elevated late positivity (LPP: 400-700ms) to the food images in the bitter condition. The LPP source was located in the medial prefrontal cortex. Both groups did not differ in the ratings for the fluids (intensity, bitterness, disgust). This ERP study showed that a bitter taste did not decrease late positivity to visual food cues (reflecting food reward) in women with BES. The atypical bitter responding might be a biological marker of this condition and possibly contributes to overeating. Future studies should additionally record food intake behavior to further investigate this mechanism. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Radiation-induced changes in taste acuity in cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossman, K.L.; Henkin, R.I.

    1978-01-01

    Changes in taste acuity were measured in 27 patients with various forms of cancer who received radiation to the head and neck region. In 9 of these patients (group I), measurements of taste acuity were made more than 1 year after completion of radiation therapy. In the other 18 patients (group II), taste measurements were made before, during, and approximately 1 month after radiation therapy. Taste acuity was measured for four taste qualities (salt, sweet, sour, and bitter) by a forced choice-three stimulus drop technique which measured detection and recognition thresholds and by a forced scaling technique which measured taste intensity responsiveness. In group II patients, impaired acuity, as indicated by elevated detection and recognition thresholds, was observed approximately 3 weeks after initiation of radiotherapy. The bitter and salt qualities showed the earliest and greatest impairment and the sweet quality the least. Taste intensity responsiveness also was impaired in group II patients. As for thresholds, scaling impairment was most severe for bitter and salt taste qualities. Scaling impairment occurred before changes in either detection or recognition thresholds. Detection and recognition thresholds determined in group I patients also showed salt and bitter qualities were affected more severely than either sweet or sour qualities. Zinc administration to group I patients in an uncontrolled study suggested that zinc therapy may be useful in ameliorating taste impairment in some patients. These results suggest that taste loss may be a factor in the anorexia and weight loss that is observed commonly in patients who have undergone radiation treatment. Correction of this abnormality may be useful in aiding the nutritional status of these patients

  11. Late taste disorders in bone marrow transplantation: clinical evaluation with taste solutions in autologous and allogeneic bone marrow recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinone, M G; Rizzoni, D; Ferremi, P; Rossi, G; Izzi, T; Brusotti, C

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the type and the significance of taste disorders in allogeneic bone marrow transplanted patients. In a retrospective study the taste threshold of a cohort of 15 allogeneic bone marrow transplanted patients, 4-51 months after transplantation (mean: 30.6 +/- 15.8), was compared to the taste threshold of 8 autologous bone marrow recipients, 4-48 months after transplantation (mean: 24.12 +/- 12.18), and to the taste threshold of a group of 20 consecutive normal subjects. Allogeneic bone marrow transplanted patients showed a significant hypogeusia for salt (Pearson's chi square p = 0.0002; Yates' correction p = 0.0007) and sour (Pearson's chi square p = 0.001; Yates' correction p = 0.008). No significant variations were observed for sweet and bitter. Autologous bone marrow recipients did not show any significant variation of taste acuity for sweet, salt or sour; a constant reduction of the taste threshold for bitter was observed, but the values were not significantly different from normal (Pearson's chi square p = 0.47; Yates' correction p = 0.83). So, late and selective taste disorders are observed in allogeneic bone marrow transplanted patients. Since the severity of the disorders is not strictly related to the severity of chronic oral G.V.H.D., taste analysis could discover the slightest, clinically undetectable cases of chronic oral G.V.H.D. The mechanism of immune aggression on the sensorial taste cells is poorly understood. Further trials are needed to define variations of taste acuity not only after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, but also in systemic immune diseases.

  12. Smell and Taste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gustatory (taste nerve) cells are clustered in the taste buds of the mouth and throat. They react to ... that can be seen on the tongue contain taste buds. These surface cells send taste information to nearby ...

  13. Longitudinal analysis of calorie restriction on rat taste bud morphology and expression of sweet taste modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Huan; Daimon, Caitlin M; Cong, Wei-Na; Wang, Rui; Chirdon, Patrick; de Cabo, Rafael; Sévigny, Jean; Maudsley, Stuart; Martin, Bronwen

    2014-05-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is a lifestyle intervention employed to reduce body weight and improve metabolic functions primarily via reduction of ingested carbohydrates and fats. Taste perception is highly related to functional metabolic status and body adiposity. We have previously shown that sweet taste perception diminishes with age; however, relatively little is known about the effects of various lengths of CR upon taste cell morphology and function. We investigated the effects of CR on taste bud morphology and expression of sweet taste-related modulators in 5-, 17-, and 30-month-old rats. In ad libitum (AL) and CR rats, we consistently found the following parameters altered significantly with advancing age: reduction of taste bud size and taste cell numbers per taste bud and reduced expression of sonic hedgehog, type 1 taste receptor 3 (T1r3), α-gustducin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). In the oldest rats, CR affected a significant reduction of tongue T1r3, GLP-1, and α-gustducin expression compared with age-matched AL rats. Leptin receptor immunopositive cells were elevated in 17- and 30-month-old CR rats compared with age-matched AL rats. These alterations of sweet taste-related modulators, specifically during advanced aging, suggest that sweet taste perception may be altered in response to different lengths of CR.

  14. SOUR MILK FOODSTUFF IN INFANTS DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. Borovik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Products of sour milk are widely used in nutrition of infants. They are an important source of digestible proteins, vitamins and potassium. Regular intake of sour milk foodstuff has favorable influence on intestinal microbiocenosis, functioning of the immune system, improves secretory and motor functions of the gastrointestinal tract, stimulates appetites and increases bioavailability of micronutrients. Modern line in functional diet is enrichment of sour milk foodstuff with probiotics. Strains of microorganisms used in manufacture of products with probiotic action are proven to be safe and effective in prophylaxis and treatment of various diseases. Modern data which confirm prophylactic and medicinal properties of probiotic-containing foodstuff, especially bioyoghurts for children, are shown in this article.

  15. Taste and Temperature in Swallowing Transit Time after Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula C. Cola

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oropharyngeal dysphagia is common in individuals after stroke. Taste and temperature are used in dysphagia rehabilitation. The influence of stimuli, such as taste and temperature, on swallowing biomechanics has been investigated in both healthy individuals and in individuals with neurological disease. However, some questions still remain unanswered, such as how the sequence of offered stimuli influences the pharyngeal response. The goal of the present study was to determine the influence of the sequence of stimuli, sour taste and cold temperature, on pharyngeal transit time during deglutition in individuals after stroke. Methods: The study included 60 individuals with unilateral ischemic stroke, 29 males and 31 females, aged 41–88 years (mean age: 66.2 years examined 0–50 days after ictus (median: 6 days, with mild to moderate oropharyngeal dysphagia. Exclusion criteria were hemorrhagic stroke patients, patients with decreased level of consciousness, and clinically unstable patients, as confirmed by medical evaluation. The individuals were divided into two groups of 30 individuals each. Group 1 received a nonrandomized sequence of stimuli (i.e. natural, cold, sour, and sour-cold and group 2 received a randomized sequence of stimuli. A videofluoroscopic swallowing study was performed to analyze the pharyngeal transit time. Four different stimuli (natural, cold, sour, and sour-cold were offered. The images were digitalized and specific software was used to measure the pharyngeal transit time. Since the values did not present regular distribution and uniform variances, nonparametric tests were performed. Results: Individuals in group 1 presented a significantly shorter pharyngeal transit time with the sour-cold stimulus than with the other stimuli. Individuals in group 2 did not show a significant difference in pharyngeal transit time between stimuli. Conclusions: The results showed that the sequence of offered stimuli influences

  16. Zinc content of selected tissues and taste perception in rats fed zinc deficient and zinc adequate rations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeckner, L.S.; Kies, C.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of feeding zinc sufficient and zinc deficient rations on taste sensitivity and zinc contents of selected organs in rats. The 36 Sprague-Dawley male weanling rats were divided into 2 groups and fed zinc deficient or zinc adequate rations. The animals were subjected to 4 trial periods in which a choice of deionized distilled water or a solution of quinine sulfate at 1.28 x 10 -6 was given. A randomized schedule for rat sacrifice was used. No differences were found between zinc deficient and zinc adequate rats in taste preference aversion scores for quinine sulfate in the first three trial periods; however, in the last trial period rats in the zinc sufficient group drank somewhat less water containing quinine sulfate as a percentage of total water consumption than did rats fed the zinc deficient ration. Significantly higher zinc contents of kidney, brain and parotid salivary glands were seen in zinc adequate rats compared to zinc deficient rats at the end of the study. However, liver and tongue zinc levels were lower for both groups at the close of the study than were those of rats sacrificed at the beginning of the study

  17. The semantic basis of taste-shape associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Velasco

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous research shows that people systematically match tastes with shapes. Here, we assess the extent to which matched taste and shape stimuli share a common semantic space and whether semantically congruent versus incongruent taste/shape associations can influence the speed with which people respond to both shapes and taste words. In Experiment 1, semantic differentiation was used to assess the semantic space of both taste words and shapes. The results suggest a common semantic space containing two principal components (seemingly, intensity and hedonics and two principal clusters, one including round shapes and the taste word “sweet,” and the other including angular shapes and the taste words “salty,” “sour,” and “bitter.” The former cluster appears more positively-valenced whilst less potent than the latter. In Experiment 2, two speeded classification tasks assessed whether congruent versus incongruent mappings of stimuli and responses (e.g., sweet with round versus sweet with angular would influence the speed of participants’ responding, to both shapes and taste words. The results revealed an overall effect of congruence with congruent trials yielding faster responses than their incongruent counterparts. These results are consistent with previous evidence suggesting a close relation (or crossmodal correspondence between tastes and shape curvature that may derive from common semantic coding, perhaps along the intensity and hedonic dimensions.

  18. Changes in taste preference after colorectal surgery: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welchman, Sophie; Hiotis, Perryhan; Pengelly, Steven; Hughes, Georgina; Halford, Jason; Christiansen, Paul; Lewis, Stephen

    2015-10-01

    Nutrition is a key component of surgical enhanced recovery programmes. However, alterations in food preferences are often reported as reasons for patients not eating in the early postoperative period. We hypothesised that taste preferences are altered in the early postoperative period and this dysgeusia affects patients' food choices during this critical time. This is a longitudinal study looking at taste preferences of patients recovering from surgery. Patients undergoing colonic resections were recruited. Using visual analogue scales participants completed a questionnaire, taste tests and preference scoring of food images for the 6 groups of taste (bitter, salty, savoury, sour, spicy and sweet) preoperatively and on postoperative days 1-3. Patients were also offered snacks postoperatively, which represented foods from the six groups and consumption was measured. Differences from baseline were assessed using the Friedman's and Wilcoxon tests. 31 patients were studied. In the immediate postoperative period participants reported deterioration in their sense of taste (p ≤ 0.001), increased nausea (p palatability for salty taste increased (p = 0.001) following surgery. The highest rated images were for savoury food with only the ratings for salty food increasing after surgery (p foods in the postoperative period. Bitter, sour and spicy foods were the least frequently consumed. This is the first study to investigate postsurgical patients' food preferences. A consistent change in all the individual tastes with the exception of salty in the postoperative period was observed. The most desirable tastes were for savoury and sweet, reflecting patients' preoperative preferences. An improved understanding of taste may improve the resumption of eating after colonic surgery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  19. Regulation of bitter taste responses by tumor necrosis factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Pu; Jyotaki, Masafumi; Kim, Agnes; Chai, Jinghua; Simon, Nirvine; Zhou, Minliang; Bachmanov, Alexander A; Huang, Liquan; Wang, Hong

    2015-10-01

    Inflammatory cytokines are important regulators of metabolism and food intake. Over production of inflammatory cytokines during bacterial and viral infections leads to anorexia and reduced food intake. However, it remains unclear whether any inflammatory cytokines are involved in the regulation of taste reception, the sensory mechanism governing food intake. Previously, we showed that tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a potent proinflammatory cytokine, is preferentially expressed in a subset of taste bud cells. The level of TNF in taste cells can be further induced by inflammatory stimuli. To investigate whether TNF plays a role in regulating taste responses, in this study, we performed taste behavioral tests and gustatory nerve recordings in TNF knockout mice. Behavioral tests showed that TNF-deficient mice are significantly less sensitive to the bitter compound quinine than wild-type mice, while their responses to sweet, umami, salty, and sour compounds are comparable to those of wild-type controls. Furthermore, nerve recording experiments showed that the chorda tympani nerve in TNF knockout mice is much less responsive to bitter compounds than that in wild-type mice. Chorda tympani nerve responses to sweet, umami, salty, and sour compounds are similar between TNF knockout and wild-type mice, consistent with the results from behavioral tests. We further showed that taste bud cells express the two known TNF receptors TNFR1 and TNFR2 and, therefore, are potential targets of TNF. Together, our results suggest that TNF signaling preferentially modulates bitter taste responses. This mechanism may contribute to taste dysfunction, particularly taste distortion, associated with infections and some chronic inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Taste and smell changes in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJpma, Irene

    2017-01-01

    Patients with cancer often experience changes in taste and smell perception during chemotherapy. The aim of this dissertation was to investigate taste and smell changes and short- and long-term effects of chemotherapy in a homogeneous population of testicular cancer patients treated with

  1. Asians' Facial Responsiveness to Basic Tastes by Automated Facial Expression Analysis System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Ruicong; Cao, Lianyu; Cao, Gang

    2017-03-01

    Growing evidence shows that consumer choices in real life are mostly driven by unconscious mechanisms rather than conscious. The unconscious process could be measured by behavioral measurements. This study aims to apply automatic facial expression analysis technique for consumers' emotion representation, and explore the relationships between sensory perception and facial responses. Basic taste solutions (sourness, sweetness, bitterness, umami, and saltiness) with 6 levels plus water were used, which could cover most of the tastes found in food and drink. The other contribution of this study is to analyze the characteristics of facial expressions and correlation between facial expressions and perceptive hedonic liking for Asian consumers. Up until now, the facial expression application researches only reported for western consumers, while few related researches investigated the facial responses during food consuming for Asian consumers. Experimental results indicated that facial expressions could identify different stimuli with various concentrations and different hedonic levels. The perceived liking increased at lower concentrations and decreased at higher concentrations, while samples with medium concentrations were perceived as the most pleasant except sweetness and bitterness. High correlations were founded between perceived intensities of bitterness, umami, saltiness, and facial reactions of disgust and fear. Facial expression disgust and anger could characterize emotion "dislike," and happiness could characterize emotion "like," while neutral could represent "neither like nor dislike." The identified facial expressions agree with the perceived sensory emotions elicited by basic taste solutions. The correlation analysis between hedonic levels and facial expression intensities obtained in this study are in accordance with that discussed for western consumers. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  2. Food Science of Dashi and Umami Taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Kumiko

    2016-01-01

    Umami is a basic tastes, along with sweet, salty, bitter and sour, which is imparted by glutamate, one of the free amino acids in foods. Since its discovery of umami by a Japanese scientist in 1908, umami is now perceived globally a basic taste. Recent collaboration among chefs and researchers on traditional soup stocks showed a difference in taste profiles of Japanese soup stock 'dashi' and Western style soup stock. The free amino acids profile's in dashi and soup stock showed how Japanese have traditionally adopted a simple umami taste. The exchange of knowledge on cooking methods and diverse types of umami rich foods in different countries displays the blending of the culinary arts, food science and technology for healthy and tasty solutions. Since Japanese cuisine 'WASHOKU' was listed in the 'Intangible Heritage of UNESCO' in 2013, many people in the world now have great interest in Japanese cuisine. One of the unique characteristics of this cuisine is that 'dashi' is an indispensable material for cooking a variety of Japanese dishes. Many chefs from Europe, US and South America have come to Japan to learn Japanese cuisine in the last 10 years, and umami has become recognized as a common taste worldwide. Researchers and culinary professionals have begun to pay attention to the traditional seasonings and condiments rich in glutamate available throughout the world.

  3. Type III Cells in Anterior Taste Fields Are More Immunohistochemically Diverse Than Those of Posterior Taste Fields in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Courtney E; Finger, Thomas E; Kinnamon, Sue C

    2017-10-31

    Activation of Type III cells in mammalian taste buds is implicated in the transduction of acids (sour) and salty stimuli. Several lines of evidence suggest that function of Type III cells in the anterior taste fields may differ from that of Type III cells in posterior taste fields. Underlying anatomy to support this observation is, however, scant. Most existing immunohistochemical data characterizing this cell type focus on circumvallate taste buds in the posterior tongue. Equivalent data from anterior taste fields-fungiform papillae and soft palate-are lacking. Here, we compare Type III cells in four taste fields: fungiform, soft palate, circumvallate, and foliate in terms of reactivity to four canonical markers of Type III cells: polycystic kidney disease 2-like 1 (PKD2L1), synaptosomal associated protein 25 (SNAP25), serotonin (5-HT), and glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67). Our findings indicate that while PKD2L1, 5-HT, and SNAP25 are highly coincident in posterior taste fields, they diverge in anterior taste fields. In particular, a subset of taste cells expresses PKD2L1 without the synaptic markers, and a subset of SNAP25 cells lacks expression of PKD2L1. In posterior taste fields, GAD67-positive cells are a subset of PKD2L1 expressing taste cells, but anterior taste fields also contain a significant population of GAD67-only expressing cells. These differences in expression patterns may underlie the observed functional differences between anterior and posterior taste fields. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. ERK1/2 activation in human taste bud cells regulates fatty acid signaling and gustatory perception of fat in mice and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Selvakumar; Ozdener, Mehmet Hakan; Abdoul-Azize, Souleymane; Saito, Katsuyoshi; Malik, Bilal; Maquart, Guillaume; Hashimoto, Toshihiro; Marambaud, Philippe; Aribi, Mourad; Tordoff, Michael G; Besnard, Philippe; Khan, Naim Akhtar

    2016-10-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem. An in-depth knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of oro-sensory detection of dietary lipids may help fight it. Humans and rodents can detect fatty acids via lipido-receptors, such as CD36 and GPR120. We studied the implication of the MAPK pathways, in particular, ERK1/2, in the gustatory detection of fatty acids. Linoleic acid, a dietary fatty acid, induced via CD36 the phosphorylation of MEK1/2-ERK1/2-ETS-like transcription factor-1 cascade, which requires Fyn-Src kinase and lipid rafts in human taste bud cells (TBCs). ERK1/2 cascade was activated by Ca 2+ signaling via opening of the calcium-homeostasis modulator-1 (CALHM1) channel. Furthermore, fatty acid-evoked Ca 2+ signaling and ERK1/2 phosphorylation were decreased in both human TBCs after small interfering RNA knockdown of CALHM1 channel and in TBCs from Calhm1 -/- mice. Targeted knockdown of ERK1/2 by small interfering RNA or PD0325901 (MEK1/2 inhibitor) in the tongue and genetic ablation of Erk1 or Calhm1 genes impaired preference for dietary fat in mice. Lingual inhibition of ERK1/2 in healthy volunteers also decreased orogustatory sensitivity for linoleic acid. Our data demonstrate that ERK1/2-MAPK cascade is regulated by the opening of CALHM1 Ca 2+ channel in TBCs to modulate orogustatory detection of dietary lipids in mice and humans.-Subramaniam, S., Ozdener, M. H., Abdoul-Azize, S., Saito, K., Malik, B., Maquart, G., Hashimoto, T., Marambaud, P., Aribi, M., Tordoff, M. G., Besnard, P., Khan, N. A. ERK1/2 activation in human taste bud cells regulates fatty acid signaling and gustatory perception of fat in mice and humans. © FASEB.

  5. 21 CFR 131.160 - Sour cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.160 Sour cream. (a... of analysis. Referenced methods in paragraph (c) (1) and (2) of this section are from “Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists,” 13th Ed. (1980), which is...

  6. NEURAL ORGANIZATION OF SENSORY INFORMATIONS FOR TASTE,

    Science.gov (United States)

    TASTE , ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY), (*NERVES, *TONGUE), NERVE CELLS, NERVE IMPULSES, PHYSIOLOGY, NERVOUS SYSTEM, STIMULATION(PHYSIOLOGY), NERVE FIBERS, RATS...HAMSTERS, STIMULATION(PHYSIOLOGY), PERCEPTION, COOLING, BEHAVIOR, PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, TEMPERATURE, THRESHOLDS(PHYSIOLOGY), CHEMORECEPTORS , STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, JAPAN

  7. Radiogenic damage to the sense of taste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz-Freywald, G.

    1975-01-01

    In order to determine radiogenic impairment of taste and the natural laws it obeys, gustometric investigations were carried out on 11 patients under radiation treatment. From the investigations it could be seen that the first measurable impairment is present after about 2,000 rad and the climax of the sensory radiation injury occurs after 4,000 rad. The individual taste qualities are damaged in the sequence bitter, sweet, salty and sour. Then the taste surprisingly improves somewhat although irradiation continues. Our observation that the interval between sensation threshold and recognition threshold during radiotherapy grows indicating an apparently stronger damage to the recognition threshold and only later goes back to the standard, is also new and has so far no explanation. It was seen in all posttherapeutical taste tests that the taste function was only fully normalized with a few patients, while in most cases a more or less large function defect remained. This result contradicts the general opinion that there is a complete restitution at the latest 3 months after terminating the irradiation. The present result is fully confirmed by the post-investigation of 55 patients whose irradiation went back up to 13 years. A significant, remaining reduction of the average taste function can also be found here. As the extent of the remaining taste impairment is measurable but very small, it is hardly ever noticed by the patients. Similar to in the course investigations, one could see here, too, that the sensation thresholds on the long run are less damaged than the recognition thresholds. (orig./MG) [de

  8. Tasteful Brands: Products of Brands Perceived to be Warm and Competent Taste Subjectively Better

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyka Bratanova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Using survey and experimental data, the present research examines the effect of brand perception on experienced taste. The content of brand perception can be organized along the two social perception dimensions of warmth and competence. We use these two dimensions to systematically investigate the influence of brand perception on experienced taste and consumer behavior toward food products. The brand’s perceived warmth and competence independently influenced taste, both when it was measured as a belief and as an embodied experience following consumption. Taste mediated the link between brand’s warmth and competence perceptions and three consumer behavioral tendencies crucial for the marketing success of brands: buying intentions, brand loyalty, and support for the brand.

  9. When music is salty: The crossmodal associations between sound and taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guetta, Rachel; Loui, Psyche

    2017-01-01

    Here we investigate associations between complex auditory and complex taste stimuli. A novel piece of music was composed and recorded in four different styles of musical articulation to reflect the four basic tastes groups (sweet, sour, salty, bitter). In Experiment 1, participants performed above chance at pairing the music clips with corresponding taste words. Experiment 2 uses multidimensional scaling to interpret how participants categorize these musical stimuli, and to show that auditory categories can be organized in a similar manner as taste categories. Experiment 3 introduces four different flavors of custom-made chocolate ganache and shows that participants can match music clips with the corresponding taste stimuli with above-chance accuracy. Experiment 4 demonstrates the partial role of pleasantness in crossmodal mappings between sound and taste. The present findings confirm that individuals are able to make crossmodal associations between complex auditory and gustatory stimuli, and that valence may mediate multisensory integration in the general population.

  10. Primary souring: A novel bacteria-free method for sour beer production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osburn, Kara; Amaral, Justin; Metcalf, Sara R; Nickens, David M; Rogers, Cody M; Sausen, Christopher; Caputo, Robert; Miller, Justin; Li, Hongde; Tennessen, Jason M; Bochman, Matthew L

    2018-04-01

    In the beverage fermentation industry, especially at the craft or micro level, there is a movement to incorporate as many local ingredients as possible to both capture terroir and stimulate local economies. In the case of craft beer, this has traditionally only encompassed locally sourced barley, hops, and other agricultural adjuncts. The identification and use of novel yeasts in brewing lags behind. We sought to bridge this gap by bio-prospecting for wild yeasts, with a focus on the American Midwest. We isolated 284 different strains from 54 species of yeast and have begun to determine their fermentation characteristics. During this work, we found several isolates of five species that produce lactic acid and ethanol during wort fermentation: Hanseniaspora vineae, Lachancea fermentati, Lachancea thermotolerans, Schizosaccharomyces japonicus, and Wickerhamomyces anomalus. Tested representatives of these species yielded excellent attenuation, lactic acid production, and sensory characteristics, positioning them as viable alternatives to lactic acid bacteria (LAB) for the production of sour beers. Indeed, we suggest a new LAB-free paradigm for sour beer production that we term "primary souring" because the lactic acid production and resultant pH decrease occurs during primary fermentation, as opposed to kettle souring or souring via mixed culture fermentation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Numerical simulation of a sour gas flare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, A. [Alberta Research Council, Devon, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Due to the limited amount of information in the literature on sour gas flares and the cost of conducting wind tunnel and field experiments on sour flares, this presentation presented a modelling project that predicted the effect of operating conditions on flare performance and emissions. The objectives of the project were to adapt an existing numerical model suitable for flare simulation, incorporate sulfur chemistry, and run simulations for a range of conditions typical of sour flares in Alberta. The study involved the use of modelling expertise at the University of Utah, and employed large eddy simulation (LES) methods to model open flames. The existing model included the prediction of turbulent flow field; hydrocarbon reaction chemistry; soot formation; and radiation heat transfer. The presentation addressed the unique features of the model and discussed whether LES could predict the flow field. Other topics that were presented included the results from a University of Utah comparison; challenges of the LES model; an example of a run time issue; predicting the impact of operating conditions; and the results of simulations. Last, several next steps were identified and preliminary results were provided. Future work will focus on reducing computation time and increasing information reporting. figs.

  12. Leptin Suppresses Mouse Taste Cell Responses to Sweet Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Ryusuke; Noguchi, Kenshi; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Jyotaki, Masafumi; Takahashi, Ichiro; Margolskee, Robert F; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2015-11-01

    Leptin is known to selectively suppress neural and behavioral responses to sweet-tasting compounds. However, the molecular basis for the effect of leptin on sweet taste is not known. Here, we report that leptin suppresses sweet taste via leptin receptors (Ob-Rb) and KATP channels expressed selectively in sweet-sensitive taste cells. Ob-Rb was more often expressed in taste cells that expressed T1R3 (a sweet receptor component) than in those that expressed glutamate-aspartate transporter (a marker for Type I taste cells) or GAD67 (a marker for Type III taste cells). Systemically administered leptin suppressed taste cell responses to sweet but not to bitter or sour compounds. This effect was blocked by a leptin antagonist and was absent in leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice and mice with diet-induced obesity. Blocking the KATP channel subunit sulfonylurea receptor 1, which was frequently coexpressed with Ob-Rb in T1R3-expressing taste cells, eliminated the effect of leptin on sweet taste. In contrast, activating the KATP channel with diazoxide mimicked the sweet-suppressing effect of leptin. These results indicate that leptin acts via Ob-Rb and KATP channels that are present in T1R3-expressing taste cells to selectively suppress their responses to sweet compounds. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  13. Gli3 is a negative regulator of Tas1r3-expressing taste cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyotaki, Masafumi; Redding, Kevin; Jiang, Peihua

    2018-01-01

    Mouse taste receptor cells survive from 3–24 days, necessitating their regeneration throughout adulthood. In anterior tongue, sonic hedgehog (SHH), released by a subpopulation of basal taste cells, regulates transcription factors Gli2 and Gli3 in stem cells to control taste cell regeneration. Using single-cell RNA-Seq we found that Gli3 is highly expressed in Tas1r3-expressing taste receptor cells and Lgr5+ taste stem cells in posterior tongue. By PCR and immunohistochemistry we found that Gli3 was expressed in taste buds in all taste fields. Conditional knockout mice lacking Gli3 in the posterior tongue (Gli3CKO) had larger taste buds containing more taste cells than did control wild-type (Gli3WT) mice. In comparison to wild-type mice, Gli3CKO mice had more Lgr5+ and Tas1r3+ cells, but fewer type III cells. Similar changes were observed ex vivo in Gli3CKO taste organoids cultured from Lgr5+ taste stem cells. Further, the expression of several taste marker and Gli3 target genes was altered in Gli3CKO mice and/or organoids. Mirroring these changes, Gli3CKO mice had increased lick responses to sweet and umami stimuli, decreased lick responses to bitter and sour taste stimuli, and increased glossopharyngeal taste nerve responses to sweet and bitter compounds. Our results indicate that Gli3 is a suppressor of stem cell proliferation that affects the number and function of mature taste cells, especially Tas1r3+ cells, in adult posterior tongue. Our findings shed light on the role of the Shh pathway in adult taste cell regeneration and may help devise strategies for treating taste distortions from chemotherapy and aging. PMID:29415007

  14. Taste intensities of ten vegetables commonly consumed in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Stokkom, V L; Teo, P S; Mars, M; de Graaf, C; van Kooten, O; Stieger, M

    2016-09-01

    Bitterness has been suggested to be the main reason for the limited palatability of several vegetables. Vegetable acceptance has been associated with preparation method. However, the taste intensity of a variety of vegetables prepared by different methods has not been studied yet. The objective of this study is to assess the intensity of the five basic tastes and fattiness of ten vegetables commonly consumed in the Netherlands prepared by different methods using the modified Spectrum method. Intensities of sweetness, sourness, bitterness, umami, saltiness and fattiness were assessed for ten vegetables (cauliflower, broccoli, leek, carrot, onion, red bell pepper, French beans, tomato, cucumber and iceberg lettuce) by a panel (n=9) trained in a modified Spectrum method. Each vegetable was assessed prepared by different methods (raw, cooked, mashed and as a cold pressed juice). Spectrum based reference solutions were available with fixed reference points at 13.3mm (R1), 33.3mm (R2) and 66.7mm (R3) for each taste modality on a 100mm line scale. For saltiness, R1 and R3 differed (16.7mm and 56.7mm). Mean intensities of all taste modalities and fattiness for all vegetables were mostly below R1 (13.3mm). Significant differences (p<0.05) within vegetables between preparation methods were found. Sweetness was the most intensive taste, followed by sourness, bitterness, fattiness, umami and saltiness. In conclusion, all ten vegetables prepared by different methods showed low mean intensities of all taste modalities and fattiness. Preparation method affected taste and fattiness intensity and the effect differed by vegetable type. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Glucagon-like peptide-1 is specifically involved in sweet taste transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Shingo; Yasumatsu, Keiko; Inoue, Mayuko; Iwata, Shusuke; Yoshida, Ryusuke; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Drucker, Daniel J; Margolskee, Robert F; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2015-06-01

    Five fundamental taste qualities (sweet, bitter, salty, sour, umami) are sensed by dedicated taste cells (TCs) that relay quality information to gustatory nerve fibers. In peripheral taste signaling pathways, ATP has been identified as a functional neurotransmitter, but it remains to be determined how specificity of different taste qualities is maintained across synapses. Recent studies demonstrated that some gut peptides are released from taste buds by prolonged application of particular taste stimuli, suggesting their potential involvement in taste information coding. In this study, we focused on the function of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in initial responses to taste stimulation. GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) null mice had reduced neural and behavioral responses specifically to sweet compounds compared to wild-type (WT) mice. Some sweet responsive TCs expressed GLP-1 and its receptors were expressed in gustatory neurons. GLP-1 was released immediately from taste bud cells in response to sweet compounds but not to other taste stimuli. Intravenous administration of GLP-1 elicited transient responses in a subset of sweet-sensitive gustatory nerve fibers but did not affect other types of fibers, and this response was suppressed by pre-administration of the GLP-1R antagonist Exendin-4(3-39). Thus GLP-1 may be involved in normal sweet taste signal transmission in mice. © FASEB.

  16. Induction of ectopic taste buds by SHH reveals the competency and plasticity of adult lingual epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, David; Seidel, Kerstin; Salcedo, Ernesto; Ahn, Christina; de Sauvage, Frederic J; Klein, Ophir D; Barlow, Linda A

    2014-08-01

    Taste buds are assemblies of elongated epithelial cells, which are innervated by gustatory nerves that transmit taste information to the brain stem. Taste cells are continuously renewed throughout life via proliferation of epithelial progenitors, but the molecular regulation of this process remains unknown. During embryogenesis, sonic hedgehog (SHH) negatively regulates taste bud patterning, such that inhibition of SHH causes the formation of more and larger taste bud primordia, including in regions of the tongue normally devoid of taste buds. Here, using a Cre-lox system to drive constitutive expression of SHH, we identify the effects of SHH on the lingual epithelium of adult mice. We show that misexpression of SHH transforms lingual epithelial cell fate, such that daughter cells of lingual epithelial progenitors form cell type-replete, onion-shaped taste buds, rather than non-taste, pseudostratified epithelium. These SHH-induced ectopic taste buds are found in regions of the adult tongue previously thought incapable of generating taste organs. The ectopic buds are composed of all taste cell types, including support cells and detectors of sweet, bitter, umami, salt and sour, and recapitulate the molecular differentiation process of endogenous taste buds. In contrast to the well-established nerve dependence of endogenous taste buds, however, ectopic taste buds form independently of both gustatory and somatosensory innervation. As innervation is required for SHH expression by endogenous taste buds, our data suggest that SHH can replace the need for innervation to drive the entire program of taste bud differentiation. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Taste characteristics of Chinese bayberry juice characterized by sensory evaluation, chromatography analysis, and an electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haiyan; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Jie; Tian, Huaixiang

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate the taste characteristics of Chinese bayberry juice, four types of bayberry juice sourced from different origins and varieties were analysed using sensory evaluation, chromatography, spectroscopy analysis and an electronic tongue (E-tongue). Nine organic acids and three sugars were assessed using high performance liquid chromatography. Total polyphenols were measured by spectrophotometry. The overall taste profile was collected using the E-tongue. The four types of bayberry juice differed in the sensory attributes of sour, sweet, bitter, and astringent. The E-tongue responses combined with discriminant analysis were able to characterise the taste profiles of the juices. The relationships between the taste compounds and the sensory panel scores established by partial least squares showed that total polyphenols, quininic acid, maleic acid, fructose, citric acid, lactic acid, succinic acid and sucrose made significant contributions to the taste characteristics of the Chinese bayberry juice.

  18. A composition algorithm based on crossmodal taste-music correspondences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno eMesz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available While there is broad consensus about the structural similarities between language and music, comparably less attention has been devoted to semantic correspondences between these two ubiquitous manifestations of human culture. We have investigated the relations between music and a narrow and bounded domain of semantics: the words and concepts referring to taste sensations. In a recent work, we found that taste words were consistently mapped to musical parameters. Bitter is associated with low-pitched and continuous music (legato, salty is characterized by silences between notes (staccato, sour is high pitched, dissonant and fast and sweet is consonant, slow and soft (Mesz2011. Here we extended these ideas, in a synergistic dialog between music and science, investigating whether music can be algorithmically generated from taste-words. We developed and implemented an algorithm that exploits a large corpus of classic and popular songs. New musical pieces were produced by choosing fragments from the corpus and modifying them to minimize their distance to the region in musical space that characterizes each taste. In order to test the capability of the produced music to elicit significant associations with the different tastes, musical pieces were produced and judged by a group of non musicians. Results showed that participants could decode well above chance the taste-word of the composition. We also discuss how our findings can be expressed in a performance bridging music and cognitive science.

  19. Metallic taste in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    IJpma, I; Renken, R J; Ter Horst, G J; Reyners, A K L

    2015-02-01

    Metallic taste is a taste alteration frequently reported by cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. Attention to this side effect of chemotherapy is limited. This review addresses the definition, assessment methods, prevalence, duration, etiology, and management strategies of metallic taste in chemotherapy treated cancer patients. Literature search for metallic taste and chemotherapy was performed in PubMed up to September 2014, resulting in 184 articles of which 13 articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria: English publications addressing metallic taste in cancer patients treated with FDA-approved chemotherapy. An additional search in Google Scholar, in related articles of both search engines, and subsequent in the reference lists, resulted in 13 additional articles included in this review. Cancer patient forums were visited to explore management strategies. Prevalence of metallic taste ranged from 9.7% to 78% among patients with various cancers, chemotherapy treatments, and treatment phases. No studies have been performed to investigate the influence of metallic taste on dietary intake, body weight, and quality of life. Several management strategies can be recommended for cancer patients: using plastic utensils, eating cold or frozen foods, adding strong herbs, spices, sweetener or acid to foods, eating sweet and sour foods, using 'miracle fruit' supplements, and rinsing with chelating agents. Although metallic taste is a frequent side effect of chemotherapy and a much discussed topic on cancer patient forums, literature regarding metallic taste among chemotherapy treated cancer patients is scarce. More awareness for this side effect can improve the support for these patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cross-cultural differences in crossmodal correspondences between basic tastes and visual features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaoang; Woods, Andy T; van den Bosch, Jasper J F; McKenzie, Kirsten J; Velasco, Carlos; Spence, Charles

    2014-01-01

    We report a cross-cultural study designed to investigate crossmodal correspondences between a variety of visual features (11 colors, 15 shapes, and 2 textures) and the five basic taste terms (bitter, salty, sour, sweet, and umami). A total of 452 participants from China, India, Malaysia, and the USA viewed color patches, shapes, and textures online and had to choose the taste term that best matched the image and then rate their confidence in their choice. Across the four groups of participants, the results revealed a number of crossmodal correspondences between certain colors/shapes and bitter, sour, and sweet tastes. Crossmodal correspondences were also documented between the color white and smooth/rough textures on the one hand and the salt taste on the other. Cross-cultural differences were observed in the correspondences between certain colors, shapes, and one of the textures and the taste terms. The taste-patterns shown by the participants from the four countries tested in the present study are quite different from one another, and these differences cannot easily be attributed merely to whether a country is Eastern or Western. These findings therefore highlight the impact of cultural background on crossmodal correspondences. As such, they raise a number of interesting questions regarding the neural mechanisms underlying crossmodal correspondences.

  1. Cross-cultural differences in crossmodal correspondences between basic tastes and visual features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaoang; Woods, Andy T.; van den Bosch, Jasper J. F.; McKenzie, Kirsten J.; Velasco, Carlos; Spence, Charles

    2014-01-01

    We report a cross-cultural study designed to investigate crossmodal correspondences between a variety of visual features (11 colors, 15 shapes, and 2 textures) and the five basic taste terms (bitter, salty, sour, sweet, and umami). A total of 452 participants from China, India, Malaysia, and the USA viewed color patches, shapes, and textures online and had to choose the taste term that best matched the image and then rate their confidence in their choice. Across the four groups of participants, the results revealed a number of crossmodal correspondences between certain colors/shapes and bitter, sour, and sweet tastes. Crossmodal correspondences were also documented between the color white and smooth/rough textures on the one hand and the salt taste on the other. Cross-cultural differences were observed in the correspondences between certain colors, shapes, and one of the textures and the taste terms. The taste-patterns shown by the participants from the four countries tested in the present study are quite different from one another, and these differences cannot easily be attributed merely to whether a country is Eastern or Western. These findings therefore highlight the impact of cultural background on crossmodal correspondences. As such, they raise a number of interesting questions regarding the neural mechanisms underlying crossmodal correspondences. PMID:25538643

  2. Cross-cultural differences in crossmodal correspondences between basic tastes and visual features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoang eWan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a cross-cultural study designed to investigate crossmodal correspondences between a variety of visual features (11 colours, 15 shapes, and 2 textures and the five basic taste terms (bitter, salty, sour, sweet, and umami. A total of 452 participants from China, India, Malaysia, and the USA viewed colour patches, shapes, and textures online and had to choose the taste term that best matched the image and then rate their confidence in their choice. Across the four groups of participants, the results revealed a number of crossmodal correspondences between certain colours/shapes and bitter, sour, and sweet tastes. Crossmodal correspondences were also documented between the colour white and smooth/rough textures on the one hand and the salt taste on the other. Cross-cultural differences were observed in the correspondences between certain colours, shapes, and one of the textures and the taste terms. The taste-patterns shown by the participants from the four countries tested in present study are quite different from one another, and these differences cannot easily be attributed merely to whether a country is Eastern or Western. These findings therefore highlight the impact of cultural background on crossmodal correspondences. As such, they raise a number of interesting questions regarding the neural mechanisms underlying crossmodal correspondences.

  3. Reservoir souring: it is all about risk mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuijvenhoven, Cor [Shell (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The presence of H2S in produced fluid can be due to various sources, among which are heat/rock interaction and leaks from other reservoirs. This paper discusses the reasons, risk assessment and tools for mitigating reservoir souring. Uncontrolled microorganism activity can cause a sweet reservoir (without H2S) to become sour (production of H2S). The development of bacteria is one of the main causes of reservoir souring in unconventional gas fields. It is difficult to predict souring in seawater due to produced water re-injection (PWRI). Risk assessment and modeling techniques for reservoir souring are discussed. Some of the factors controlling H2S production include injection location, presence of scavenging minerals and biogenic souring. Mitigation methods such as biocide treatment of injection water, sulphate removal from seawater, microbial monitoring techniques such as the molecular microbiology method (MMM), and enumeration by serial dilution are explained. In summary, it can be concluded that reservoir souring is a long-term problem and should be assessed at the beginning of operations.

  4. Evaluation of Taste Properties of Commercially Available Salts

    OpenAIRE

    ISHIKAWA, Kyoko; SUGIMOTO, Maho; KUMAGAI, Masanori; MATSUNAGA, Ryuji

    2006-01-01

    This study examined commercially available salts'taste properties. The salts were used in preparation of four dishes: asazuke of cucumber, asazuke of Chinese cabbage, clear soup, and green soybean rice. The respective tastes of the salts in those prepared foods differed from those of the salts alone. We evaluated the parameters: saltiness, mildness, unpleasantness, and palatability. Differences of the salt samples affected the perception of saltiness. Results of taste sensor analyses showed t...

  5. SUBSTANTIATION OF STORAGE PARAMETERS OF THE SOUR-MILK INFANT DRINK «BIOLAKT»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tkachenko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the quality indicators of sour-milk infant drink «Biolakt» characterized by high probiotic and immunomodulatory properties and low allergic effect that were made according to the improved technology and stored in sealed-off containers at temperature (4±2 ºС during 28 days have been studied: organoleptic properties of taste and odour, consistency and appearance; physical and chemical properties – titrated acidity, ºТ; active acidity, pH units; moisture retention property, %; microbiological properties – number of living cells of mixed cultures B. bifidum 1 + B. longum Я3 + B. infantis 512, CFU/cm3; the most probable number of living cells of monocultures L. acidophilus La-5, CFU/cm3; presence of coli form bacteria in 0.3 cm3; presence of  Salmonella in 50 cm3; biochemical properties – antioxidant activity, activity units; and maximum possible content of malondialdehyde at complete oxidation of the product ingredients, mg/100 g. It is proved that under indicated conditions in the course of 24 days the studied samples of target products possess high organoleptic and standardized for sour-milk infant drinks physical, chemical, biochemical and microbiological indicators and are, also, characterized by high content of probiotics: (0.43…8.60∙109 and (0.25…1.10∙109 CFU/cm3 of living cells of bifidus bacteria and lactobacilli, accordingly.It has been established that the limit storage period of sour-milk infant drink «Biolakt» produced according to the improved technology and stored at temperature (4±2 ºС should not exceed 12 days with due account of the safety margin for sour-milk infant drinks (provided they are kept in sealed-off containers.It has been proved that the target product formulas should include lactulose, polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-3 FT EU of «Fortitech» company (Denmark, vitamin complex FT 041081EU of «Fortitech» company (Denmark and/or complex of mineral substances FT 042836EU of

  6. Nature of local benefits to communities impacted by sour gas development : Public safety and sour gas recommendation 79 : Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    The Provincial Advisory Committee on Public Safety and Sour Gas of Alberta issued a report in December 2002, in which recommendations were made on how to improve the sour gas regulatory system and reduce the impacts of sour gas on public safety and health. Recommendation 79 of this report called for a study to determine the nature of local benefits such as property taxes and local business opportunities, to communities affected by sour gas development. The present document was prepared by a multi-stake holder committee consisting of representatives from municipal government, academia, industry associations, the provincial government, and the public. One of its objectives was to identify matters of importance to stake holders concerning the study. The committee examined three major areas: economic benefit, net financial benefit to municipalities, and impact of sour gas development on local residents. The results indicated that the province and municipalities in which sour gas activities take place benefit from these activities. All Albertans benefit somewhat, and those living in areas where the sour gas industry operates might benefit through employment or the net benefit accrued to municipal government. A detailed quantification of local benefits at the municipal level for individuals was provided in this document. A full accounting of costs or negative impacts that may affect some individuals was not provided. refs., 6 tabs

  7. Gustatory stimuli representing different perceptual qualities elicit distinct patterns of neuropeptide secretion from taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraedts, Maartje C P; Munger, Steven D

    2013-04-24

    Taste stimuli that evoke different perceptual qualities (e.g., sweet, umami, bitter, sour, salty) are detected by dedicated subpopulations of taste bud cells that use distinct combinations of sensory receptors and transduction molecules. Here, we report that taste stimuli also elicit unique patterns of neuropeptide secretion from taste buds that are correlated with those perceptual qualities. We measured tastant-dependent secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucagon, and neuropeptide Y (NPY) from circumvallate papillae of Tas1r3(+/+), Tas1r3(+/-) and Tas1r3 (-/-) mice. Isolated tongue epithelia were mounted in modified Ussing chambers, permitting apical stimulation of taste buds; secreted peptides were collected from the basal side and measured by specific ELISAs. Appetitive stimuli (sweet: glucose, sucralose; umami: monosodium glutamate; polysaccharide: Polycose) elicited GLP-1 and NPY secretion and inhibited basal glucagon secretion. Sweet and umami stimuli were ineffective in Tas1r3(-/-) mice, indicating an obligatory role for the T1R3 subunit common to the sweet and umami taste receptors. Polycose responses were unaffected by T1R3 deletion, consistent with the presence of a distinct polysaccharide taste receptor. The effects of sweet stimuli on peptide secretion also required the closing of ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channels, as the KATP channel activator diazoxide inhibited the effects of glucose and sucralose on both GLP-1 and glucagon release. Both sour citric acid and salty NaCl increased NPY secretion but had no effects on GLP-1 or glucagon. Bitter denatonium showed no effects on these peptides. Together, these results suggest that taste stimuli of different perceptual qualities elicit unique patterns of neuropeptide secretion from taste buds.

  8. β-Catenin Signaling Biases Multipotent Lingual Epithelial Progenitors to Differentiate and Acquire Specific Taste Cell Fates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dany Gaillard

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Continuous taste bud cell renewal is essential to maintain taste function in adults; however, the molecular mechanisms that regulate taste cell turnover are unknown. Using inducible Cre-lox technology, we show that activation of β-catenin signaling in multipotent lingual epithelial progenitors outside of taste buds diverts daughter cells from a general epithelial to a taste bud fate. Moreover, while taste buds comprise 3 morphological types, β-catenin activation drives overproduction of primarily glial-like Type I taste cells in both anterior fungiform (FF and posterior circumvallate (CV taste buds, with a small increase in Type II receptor cells for sweet, bitter and umami, but does not alter Type III sour detector cells. Beta-catenin activation in post-mitotic taste bud precursors likewise regulates cell differentiation; forced activation of β-catenin in these Shh+ cells promotes Type I cell fate in both FF and CV taste buds, but likely does so non-cell autonomously. Our data are consistent with a model where β-catenin signaling levels within lingual epithelial progenitors dictate cell fate prior to or during entry of new cells into taste buds; high signaling induces Type I cells, intermediate levels drive Type II cell differentiation, while low levels may drive differentiation of Type III cells.

  9. β-Catenin Signaling Biases Multipotent Lingual Epithelial Progenitors to Differentiate and Acquire Specific Taste Cell Fates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Dany; Xu, Mingang; Liu, Fei; Millar, Sarah E; Barlow, Linda A

    2015-05-01

    Continuous taste bud cell renewal is essential to maintain taste function in adults; however, the molecular mechanisms that regulate taste cell turnover are unknown. Using inducible Cre-lox technology, we show that activation of β-catenin signaling in multipotent lingual epithelial progenitors outside of taste buds diverts daughter cells from a general epithelial to a taste bud fate. Moreover, while taste buds comprise 3 morphological types, β-catenin activation drives overproduction of primarily glial-like Type I taste cells in both anterior fungiform (FF) and posterior circumvallate (CV) taste buds, with a small increase in Type II receptor cells for sweet, bitter and umami, but does not alter Type III sour detector cells. Beta-catenin activation in post-mitotic taste bud precursors likewise regulates cell differentiation; forced activation of β-catenin in these Shh+ cells promotes Type I cell fate in both FF and CV taste buds, but likely does so non-cell autonomously. Our data are consistent with a model where β-catenin signaling levels within lingual epithelial progenitors dictate cell fate prior to or during entry of new cells into taste buds; high signaling induces Type I cells, intermediate levels drive Type II cell differentiation, while low levels may drive differentiation of Type III cells.

  10. Clinical aspects and treatment of taste and smell disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.K.L. Spijkervet; R. Weissenbruch; A. Visser; Dr. Harriët Jager-Wittenaar; A. van Nieuw Amerongen; A. Vissink

    2013-01-01

    Taste and smell perception are closely related. Many chemosensory disorders which result in faulty taste are in fact smell disorders. Causes of chemosensory disorders which call for attention are ageing, medication, natural proteins, burning mouth syndrome, nerve injuries, aerate disorders in the

  11. Taste sensor; Mikaku sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toko, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1998-03-05

    This paper introduces a taste sensor having a lipid/polymer membrane to work as a receptor of taste substances. The paper describes the following matters: this sensor uses a hollow polyvinyl chloride rod filled with KCl aqueous solution, and placed with silver and silver chloride wires, whose cross section is affixed with a lipid/polymer membrane as a lipid membrane electrode to identify taste from seven or eight kinds of response patterns of electric potential output from the lipid/polymer membrane; measurements of different substances presenting acidic taste, salty taste, bitter taste, sweet taste and flavor by using this sensor identified clearly each taste (similar response is shown to a similar taste even if the substances are different); different responses are indicated on different brands of beers; from the result of measuring a great variety of mineral waters, a possibility was suggested that this taste sensor could be used for water quality monitoring sensors; and application of this taste sensor may be expected as a maturation control sensor for Japanese sake (wine) and miso (bean paste) manufacturing. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Taste sensing FET (TSFET)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toko, K.; Yasuda, R.; Ezaki, S. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Fujiyoshi, T. [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-12-20

    Taste can be quantified using a multichannel taste sensor with lipid/polymer membranes. Its sensitivity and stability are superior to those of humans. A present study is concerned with the first step of miniaturization and integration of the taste sensor with lipid/polymer membranes using FET. As a result, it was found that gate-source voltage of the taste sensing FET showed the same behaviors as the conventional taste sensor utilizing the membrane-potential change due to five kinds of taste substances. Discrimination of foodstuffs was very easy. A thin lipid membrane formed using LB technique was also tried. These results will open doors to fabrication of a miniaturized, integrated taste sensing system. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Alterations in taste distinguishing in patients irradiated for malignant tumours of head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimo, J.; Parkanyiova, V.; Polcikova, E.

    1976-01-01

    In 20 patients treated with percutaneous gamma radiotherapy for carcinomas of the head or the neck, alterations were studied in taste following radiation doses of 1,000; 2,000; 3,000; 4,000; 5,000; and 6,000 rads. It was found that with increasing radiation doses the patients lost the ability of distinguishing sweet, salty, sour and bitter qualities, in that order. (L.O.)

  14. De novo transcriptome assembly of a sour cherry cultivar, Schattenmorelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonhwa Jo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus in the genus Prunus in the family Rosaceae is one of the most popular stone fruit trees worldwide. Of known sour cherry cultivars, the Schattenmorelle is a famous old sour cherry with a high amount of fruit production. The Schattenmorelle was selected before 1650 and described in the 1800s. This cultivar was named after gardens of the Chateau de Moreille in which the cultivar was initially found. In order to identify new genes and to develop genetic markers for sour cherry, we performed a transcriptome analysis of a sour cherry. We selected the cultivar Schattenmorelle, which is among commercially important cultivars in Europe and North America. We obtained 2.05 GB raw data from the Schattenmorelle (NCBI accession number: SRX1187170. De novo transcriptome assembly using Trinity identified 61,053 transcripts in which N50 was 611 bp. Next, we identified 25,585 protein coding sequences using TransDecoder. The identified proteins were blasted against NCBI's non-redundant database for annotation. Based on blast search, we taxonomically classified the obtained sequences. As a result, we provide the transcriptome of sour cherry cultivar Schattenmorelle using next generation sequencing.

  15. Behavioral analysis of Drosophila transformants expressing human taste receptor genes in the gustatory receptor neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Ryota; Sasaki, Yuko; Morita, Hiromi; Komai, Michio; Shirakawa, Hitoshi; Goto, Tomoko; Furuyama, Akira; Isono, Kunio

    2012-06-01

    Transgenic Drosophila expressing human T2R4 and T2R38 bitter-taste receptors or PKD2L1 sour-taste receptor in the fly gustatory receptor neurons and other tissues were prepared using conventional Gal4/UAS binary system. Molecular analysis showed that the transgene mRNAs are expressed according to the tissue specificity of the Gal4 drivers. Transformants expressing the transgene taste receptors in the fly taste neurons were then studied by a behavioral assay to analyze whether transgene chemoreceptors are functional and coupled to the cell response. Since wild-type flies show strong aversion against the T2R ligands as in mammals, the authors analyzed the transformants where the transgenes are expressed in the fly sugar receptor neurons so that they promote feeding ligand-dependently if they are functional and activate the neurons. Although the feeding preference varied considerably among different strains and individuals, statistical analysis using large numbers of transformants indicated that transformants expressing T2R4 showed a small but significant increase in the preference for denatonium and quinine, the T2R4 ligands, as compared to the control flies, whereas transformants expressing T2R38 did not. Similarly, transformants expressing T2R38 and PKD2L1 also showed a similar preference increase for T2R38-specific ligand phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and a sour-taste ligand, citric acid, respectively. Taken together, the transformants expressing mammalian taste receptors showed a small but significant increase in the feeding preference that is taste receptor and also ligand dependent. Although future improvements are required to attain performance comparable to the endogenous robust response, Drosophila taste neurons may serve as a potential in vivo heterologous expression system for analyzing chemoreceptor function.

  16. Subjective intensity and pleasantness in taste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuizen, M.G.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis contains studies on intensity and pleasantness in taste perception. There is a formal relationship between intensity and hedonic value of stimuli, which can be expressed in an inverted U. The fact that pleasantness depends partially on stimulus intensity poses a problem when one wants to

  17. Dietary customs and food availability shape the preferences for basic tastes: A cross-cultural study among Polish, Tsimane' and Hadza societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Pellegrino, Robert; Butovskaya, Marina; Marczak, Michalina; Niemczyk, Agnieszka; Huanca, Tomas; Sorokowski, Piotr

    2017-09-01

    Biological significance of food components suggests that preferences for basic tastes should be similar across cultures. On the other hand, cultural factors play an important role in diet and can consequently influence individual preference for food. To date, very few studies have compared basic tastes preferences among populations of very diverse environmental and cultural conditions, and research rather did not involve traditional populations for whom the biological significance of different food components might be the most pronounced. Hence, our study focused on basic taste preferences in three populations, covering a broad difference in diet due to environmental and cultural conditions, market availability, dietary habits and food acquirement: 1) a modern society (Poles, n = 200), 2) forager-horticulturalists from Amazon/Bolivia (Tsimane', n = 138), and 3) hunter-gatherers from Tanzania (Hadza, n = 85). The preferences for basic tastes were measured with sprays containing supra-threshold levels of sweet, sour, bitter, salty, and umami taste solutions. We observed several interesting differences between participating societies. We found that Tsimane' and Polish participants liked the sweet taste more than other tastes, while Hadza participants liked salty and sour tastes more than the remaining tastes. Further, Polish people found bitter taste particularly aversive, which was not observed in the traditional societies. Interestingly, no cross-cultural differences were observed for relative liking of umami taste - it was rated closely to neutral by members of all participating societies. Additionally, Hadza showed a pattern to like basic tastes that are more common to their current diet than societies with access to different food sources. These findings demonstrate the impact of diet and market availability on preference for basic tastes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of radiotherapy on the sense of taste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umeyama, Masayoshi; Suzaki, Harumi [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-07-01

    The adverse effects of radiotherapy for cancer in the head and neck region include impairment of the sense of taste and smell and dry mouth. The present study was conducted to examine the effects of such radiotherapy on the sense of taste, in view of its influence on the quality of life of patients with malignant tumors of the head and neck following treatment. In 18 patients with malignant tumors of the head and neck (mean age, 59.9 years) the sense of taste was tested using the filter-paper disc method, serially before and after radiotherapy with {sup 60}Co {gamma} rays, in order to analyze the changes in gustatory threshold after radiotherapy. The patients were also observed for subjective symptoms, including dry mouth and impairment of the sense of taste, and changes in the lingual surface over the course of radiotherapy. No increase in the gustatory threshold or subjective impairment of the sense of taste was noted after radiotherapy when the field of irradiation did not include the tongue (4 cases of laryngeal cancer). When the field of irradiation included a part of the tongue (3 cases of maxillary cancer, 3 cases of hypopharyngeal cancer, 1 case of epipharyngeal cancer) or the entire tongue (2 cases of lingual cancer, 2 cases of cancer of the floor of the mouth, 3 cases of mesopharyngeal cancer), dry mouth was noted after irradiation at 7.2-39.6 Gy, and the gustatory threshold increased after irradiation at 12-40 Gy. Subjective impairment of the sense of taste was also reported after irradiation at 10-25.2 Gy, which was restored to normal within 2-3 months after the end of radiotherapy. In relation to the quality of taste, the gustatory threshold for sweet tastes increased the slowest, and was restored rapidly. In contrast, the gustatory threshold for sour tastes increased most rapidly, and was restored slowly. The relationship between the serum zinc level and the increase in gustatory threshold was unclear. There was a tendency for the lingual surface to

  19. Effects of radiotherapy on the sense of taste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umeyama, Masayoshi; Suzaki, Harumi

    2001-01-01

    The adverse effects of radiotherapy for cancer in the head and neck region include impairment of the sense of taste and smell and dry mouth. The present study was conducted to examine the effects of such radiotherapy on the sense of taste, in view of its influence on the quality of life of patients with malignant tumors of the head and neck following treatment. In 18 patients with malignant tumors of the head and neck (mean age, 59.9 years) the sense of taste was tested using the filter-paper disc method, serially before and after radiotherapy with 60 Co γ rays, in order to analyze the changes in gustatory threshold after radiotherapy. The patients were also observed for subjective symptoms, including dry mouth and impairment of the sense of taste, and changes in the lingual surface over the course of radiotherapy. No increase in the gustatory threshold or subjective impairment of the sense of taste was noted after radiotherapy when the field of irradiation did not include the tongue (4 cases of laryngeal cancer). When the field of irradiation included a part of the tongue (3 cases of maxillary cancer, 3 cases of hypopharyngeal cancer, 1 case of epipharyngeal cancer) or the entire tongue (2 cases of lingual cancer, 2 cases of cancer of the floor of the mouth, 3 cases of mesopharyngeal cancer), dry mouth was noted after irradiation at 7.2-39.6 Gy, and the gustatory threshold increased after irradiation at 12-40 Gy. Subjective impairment of the sense of taste was also reported after irradiation at 10-25.2 Gy, which was restored to normal within 2-3 months after the end of radiotherapy. In relation to the quality of taste, the gustatory threshold for sweet tastes increased the slowest, and was restored rapidly. In contrast, the gustatory threshold for sour tastes increased most rapidly, and was restored slowly. The relationship between the serum zinc level and the increase in gustatory threshold was unclear. There was a tendency for the lingual surface to become dry

  20. Sonic hedgehog-expressing basal cells are general post-mitotic precursors of functional taste receptor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Hirohito; Scott, Jennifer K.; Harada, Shuitsu; Barlow, Linda A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Taste buds contain ~60 elongate cells and several basal cells. Elongate cells comprise three functional taste cell types: I - glial cells, II - bitter/sweet/umami receptor cells, and III - sour detectors. Although taste cells are continuously renewed, lineage relationships among cell types are ill-defined. Basal cells have been proposed as taste bud stem cells, a subset of which express Sonic hedgehog (Shh). However, Shh+ basal cells turnover rapidly suggesting that Shh+ cells are precursors of some or all taste cell types. Results To fate map Shh-expressing cells, mice carrying ShhCreERT2 and a high (CAG-CAT-EGFP) or low (R26RLacZ) efficiency reporter allele were given tamoxifen to activate Cre in Shh+ cells. Using R26RLacZ, lineage-labeled cells occur singly within buds, supporting a post-mitotic state for Shh+ cells. Using either reporter, we show that Shh+ cells differentiate into all three taste cell types, in proportions reflecting cell type ratios in taste buds (I > II > III). Conclusions Shh+ cells are not stem cells, but are post-mitotic, immediate precursors of taste cells. Shh+ cells differentiate into each of the three taste cell types, and the choice of a specific taste cell fate is regulated to maintain the proper ratio within buds. PMID:24590958

  1. Taste in holon paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimova G. P.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available in this research the authors tried to investigate and generalize theoretic and applied studies of aesthetic taste, as well as, opportunities of its productivity distribution in terms of socio-cultural, person-professional and psychological levels. The article deals with traditional outlooks upon the origin of taste and its relationship with art and its current situation of taste functioning in terms of increasing globalization, virtualization and informatization of modern society.

  2. Caffeine taste signaling in Drosophila larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthi A Apostolopoulou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Drosophila larva has a simple peripheral nervous system with a comparably small number of sensory neurons located externally at the head or internally along the pharynx to assess its chemical environment. It is assumed that larval taste coding occurs mainly via external organs (the dorsal, terminal and ventral organ. However, the contribution of the internal pharyngeal sensory organs has not been explored. Here we find that larvae require a single pharyngeal gustatory receptor neuron pair called D1, which is located in the dorsal pharyngeal sensilla, in order to avoid caffeine and to associate an odor with caffeine punishment. In contrast, caffeine-driven reduction in feeding in non-choice situations does not require D1. Hence, this work provides data on taste coding via different receptor neurons, depending on the behavioral context. Furthermore, we show that the larval pharyngeal system is involved in bitter tasting. Using ectopic expressions, we show that the caffeine receptor in neuron D1 requires the function of at least four receptor genes: the putative coreceptors Gr33a, Gr66a, the putative caffeine-specific receptor Gr93a, and yet unknown additional molecular component(s. This suggests that larval taste perception is more complex than previously assumed already at the sensory level. Taste information from different sensory organs located outside at the head or inside along the pharynx of the larva is assembled to trigger taste guided behaviours.

  3. Video: Taste - no waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamuk, Anette; Mortensen, Birthe Kofoed; Mithril, Charlotte Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    of different foods. In addition, the aim was to create experiences which could show how taste and taste courage are influenced by social interactions and relations. A final aim was to bring awareness of how you can reduce waste with the example of how to use all parts of fruits and vegetables. In total......, approximately 120 children aged 10-12 years participated. In one workshop, children experimented with making juice to explore the basic tastes and worked with the pulp as an example of how to reduce food waste. In another workshop, the children prepared and tasted roasted insects as an example of a future novel...

  4. Abstract: Taste - no waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mithril, Charlotte Elisabeth; Kamuk, Anette; Hoffmeyer, Agnete

    of different foods. In addition, the aim was to create experiences which could show how taste and taste courage are influenced by social interactions and relations. A final aim was to bring awareness of how you can reduce waste with the example of how to use all parts of fruits and vegetables. In total......, approximately 120 children aged 10-12 years participated. In one workshop, children experimented with making juice to explore the basic tastes and worked with the pulp as an example of how to reduce food waste. In another workshop, the children prepared and tasted roasted insects as an example of a future novel...

  5. An itinerant sensory approach to investigate consumers' perception and acceptability at a food exhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torri, Luisa; Salini, Silvia

    2016-12-01

    In a food exhibition where several producers of the same product category are present at the same time, consumers usually have the opportunity to taste several free samples of the same product type, thus they can experience and compare the sensory characteristics of each and evaluate their liking for each sample tasted. This study assessed the potential of an itinerant sensory data collection in understanding the consumers' perception and acceptance of cheese during a multiple tasting experience at a food exhibition. Subjects tasted seven samples of Parmigiano Reggiano cheese aged for different times (24 and 36months) at seven producer stands and recorded their evaluations using tablets, on which an application specifically developed for this study was installed. This evaluation situation was defined as "pseudo-natural," in opposition to the "natural" and the "naturalistic" settings. The itinerant sensory session comprised a liking test, a rate-all-that-apply (RATA) test using a just about right (JAR) scale, a food pairing test, and a questionnaire. Consumers significantly (panalysis, and decision tree models in investigating the relationships between liking and the RATA data, provided results revealing that the attributes elasticity, sweetness, humidity, fresh fruit, and butter were the main drivers of liking. Whereas, the attributes sourness, bitterness, and hardness were the main drivers of dislike. Therefore, even though no significant differences in terms of liking were observed among the tested cheeses, consumers preferred the attributes more frequently perceived in the least aged products. In conclusion, the presented itinerant sensory approach had provided meaningful information to understand the consumers' cheese perception and acceptability. In the future, it could advantageously be applied for studying food perception in other situations in which subjects naturally choose or consume several products while freely moving from one to another (e.g. self

  6. Modelling souring in a high salinity reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Michael; Crossland, Alan; Stott, Jim

    2006-03-15

    CAPCIS Ltd (Capcis) have developed a souring model for use in highly saline reservoirs where salinity limits the growth of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB). Capcis have successfully applied the model to a field in North Africa. The conceptual basis of the model considers the course of the H2S from generation in the reservoir including dilution, sulphide retardation and scavenging and H2S fluid phase partitioning. At each stage mathematical equations governing the behaviour of the H2S were produced. In order to estimate the potential for H2S generation, it is required to know the chemistry of the injection and formation waters, as well as the properties of the indigenous SRB, i.e. the maximum salinity for their growth. This is determined by bottle testing of H2S generation by SRB at a range of injection/formation water ratios. The maximum salinity for SRB growth then determines the mixing ratios at which H2S generation takes place. Sulphide retardation due to adsorption at immobile interfaces was empirically modeled from reservoir data. Sulphide scavenging due to reaction with iron generated from corrosion was also modelled. Reservoir mineral scavenging was not modelled but could be incorporated in an extension to the model. Finally, in order to compute the gas-phase concentration of generated H2S, the H2S in the well stream is partitioned between the gas, oil and water phases. Capcis has carried out detailed computations of H2S solubility in crude oil and formation waters and the derivation of distribution ratios based on the respective partition coefficients using Gerard's line method, a modification of Henry's Law. (author) (tk)

  7. Processing umami and other tastes in mammalian taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Stephen D; Chaudhari, Nirupa

    2009-07-01

    Neuroscientists are now coming to appreciate that a significant degree of information processing occurs in the peripheral sensory organs of taste prior to signals propagating to the brain. Gustatory stimulation causes taste bud cells to secrete neurotransmitters that act on adjacent taste bud cells (paracrine transmitters) as well as on primary sensory afferent fibers (neurocrine transmitters). Paracrine transmission, representing cell-cell communication within the taste bud, has the potential to shape the final signal output that taste buds transmit to the brain. The following paragraphs summarize current thinking about how taste signals generally, and umami taste in particular, are processed in taste buds.

  8. Defects in the peripheral taste structure and function in the MRL/lpr mouse model of autoimmune disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Kim

    Full Text Available While our understanding of the molecular and cellular aspects of taste reception and signaling continues to improve, the aberrations in these processes that lead to taste dysfunction remain largely unexplored. Abnormalities in taste can develop in a variety of diseases, including infections and autoimmune disorders. In this study, we used a mouse model of autoimmune disease to investigate the underlying mechanisms of taste disorders. MRL/MpJ-Fas(lpr/J (MRL/lpr mice develop a systemic autoimmunity with phenotypic similarities to human systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjögren's syndrome. Our results show that the taste tissues of MRL/lpr mice exhibit characteristics of inflammation, including infiltration of T lymphocytes and elevated levels of some inflammatory cytokines. Histological studies reveal that the taste buds of MRL/lpr mice are smaller than those of wild-type congenic control (MRL/+/+ mice. 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU pulse-chase experiments show that fewer BrdU-labeled cells enter the taste buds of MRL/lpr mice, suggesting an inhibition of taste cell renewal. Real-time RT-PCR analyses show that mRNA levels of several type II taste cell markers are lower in MRL/lpr mice. Immunohistochemical analyses confirm a significant reduction in the number of gustducin-positive taste receptor cells in the taste buds of MRL/lpr mice. Furthermore, MRL/lpr mice exhibit reduced gustatory nerve responses to the bitter compound quinine and the sweet compound saccharin and reduced behavioral responses to bitter, sweet, and umami taste substances compared with controls. In contrast, their responses to salty and sour compounds are comparable to those of control mice in both nerve recording and behavioral experiments. Together, our results suggest that type II taste receptor cells, which are essential for bitter, sweet, and umami taste reception and signaling, are selectively affected in MRL/lpr mice, a model for autoimmune disease with chronic

  9. The Role of 5-HT3 Receptors in Signaling from Taste Buds to Nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Eric D; Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Voigt, Anja; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Kinnamon, Sue C; Finger, Thomas E

    2015-12-02

    Activation of taste buds triggers the release of several neurotransmitters, including ATP and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT). Type III taste cells release 5-HT directly in response to acidic (sour) stimuli and indirectly in response to bitter and sweet tasting stimuli. Although ATP is necessary for activation of nerve fibers for all taste stimuli, the role of 5-HT is unclear. We investigated whether gustatory afferents express functional 5-HT3 receptors and, if so, whether these receptors play a role in transmission of taste information from taste buds to nerves. In mice expressing GFP under the control of the 5-HT(3A) promoter, a subset of cells in the geniculate ganglion and nerve fibers in taste buds are GFP-positive. RT-PCR and in situ hybridization confirmed the presence of 5-HT(3A) mRNA in the geniculate ganglion. Functional studies show that only those geniculate ganglion cells expressing 5-HT3A-driven GFP respond to 10 μM 5-HT and this response is blocked by 1 μM ondansetron, a 5-HT3 antagonist, and mimicked by application of 10 μM m-chlorophenylbiguanide, a 5-HT3 agonist. Pharmacological blockade of 5-HT3 receptors in vivo or genetic deletion of the 5-HT3 receptors reduces taste nerve responses to acids and other taste stimuli compared with controls, but only when urethane was used as the anesthetic. We find that anesthetic levels of pentobarbital reduce taste nerve responses apparently by blocking the 5-HT3 receptors. Our results suggest that 5-HT released from type III cells activates gustatory nerve fibers via 5-HT3 receptors, accounting for a significant proportion of the neural taste response. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3515984-12$15.00/0.

  10. Olfaction, taste, and cognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rouby, Catherine

    2002-01-01

    .... The book is conveniently divided into sections, including linguistic representations, emotion, memory, neural bases, and individual variation. Leading experts have written chapters on many facets of taste and smell, including odor memory, cortical representations, psychophysics and functional imaging studies, genetic variation in taste, and ...

  11. What Are Taste Buds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español What Are Taste Buds? KidsHealth / For Kids / What Are Taste Buds? ...

  12. Corrosion inhibitor development for slightly sour environments with oxygen intrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wylde, J.; Wang, H.; Li, J. [Clariant Oil Services North America, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation reported on a study that examined the effect of oxygen on the inhibition of carbon steel in slightly sour corrosion, and the initiation and propagation of localized attack. Oxygen can enter sour water injection systems through the vapor space in storage tanks and process system. Oxygen aggravates the corrosion attack by participating in the cathodic reaction under full or partial diffusion control. Laboratory testing results were reported in this presentation along with the development of corrosion inhibitors for such a slightly sour system. Bubble testing cells were used with continuous H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixture gas sparging and occasional oxygen intrusion of 2 to 4 hours during a week long test. Linear polarization resistance (LPR) measurements and weight loss corrosion coupons were used to quantify the corrosion attack. The findings were presented in terms of the magnitude of localized attacks at different oxygen concentrations and intrusion periods, with and without the presence of corrosion inhibitors. tabs., figs.

  13. The Perception of the Jesuits in the Portuguese World: between the Trade of and the Taste of «Orientalia» (16th-17th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Osswald

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Jesuits became reputed commissioners of orientalia, during the 16th and the 17th centuries. Their commission of orientalia included exotica, rarita, and naturalia. Due to the fact that they were members of a religious order, a considerable part of orientalia had a religious character. At least, at the beginning, those objects were destined mainly to the liturgy in the missions. Nevertheless, the Jesuits quickly developed an exquisite collectionism taste of those objects and as traders. Among the orientalia that arose the greater interest among the Jesuits, reference shall be made to Japanese silk and silver transported by the Nau do Trato, Indian rarita, such as jewellery and ivory sculpture, and also naturalia and exotica, such as pearls and bezoar stones. The Jesuits moreover joined immediately the interest for Chinese porcelain and lacquerware. The Jesuits were fundamental agents from a technical viewpoint. They are credited with the creation of the Goa stones and the introduction of the Cassius purple. Jesuit authors further wrote important technical treatises. The trade and collectionism of orientalia by the Jesuits were often excessive. However, the repetition of the interdictions by both the General Claudio Acquaviva and the General Everardo Mercuriano clearly illustrates the incapacity of the authorities to put an end to inappropriate practices to religious men of owning luxurious objects and fomenting the taste for luxury, through the offer of orientalia.

  14. Taste acuity, plasma zinc levels, and weight loss during radiotherapy: a study of relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolze, M.S.; Fosmire, G.J.; Stryker, J.A.; Chung, C.K.; Flipse, B.G.

    1982-01-01

    Thirty-five patients who were to undergo radiotherapy and 13 normal subjects were evaluated with taste questionnaires, taste acuity tests, and plasma zinc analyses. The studies were repeated on the patients in the fifth week of radiotherapy. The mean taste thresholds for NaCl (salt), sucrose (sweet), HCl (sour), and urea (bitter) were elevated and the plasma zinc levels were lower (77.2 +/- 11.8 vs. 94.6 +/- 30.1 g/100 ml, p . 0.055) for the patients than for the controls. However, there was not a significant correlation between the taste thresholds and plasma zinc levels at any time. The mean weight loss experienced by the 14 patients who reported subjective taste alteration in the fifth week was 3.1 kg versus 0.1 kg (p . 0.005) for those who did not report taste alteration. The data suggest that alterations in taste acuity, but not plasma zinc levels, are associated with weight loss during radiotherapy

  15. Taste acuity, plasma zinc levels, and weight loss during radiotherapy: a study of relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolze, M.S.; Fosmire, G.J.; Stryker, J.A.; Chung, C.K.; Flipse, B.G.

    1982-01-01

    Thirty-five patients who were to undergo radiotherapy and 13 normal subjects were evaluated with taste questionnaires, taste acuity tests, and plasma zinc analyses. The studies were repeated on the patients in the fifth week of radiotherapy. The mean taste thresholds for NaCl (salt), sucrose (sweet), HCl (sour), and urea (bitter) were elevated and the plasma zinc levels were lower (77.2 +/- 11.8 vs. 94.6 +/- 30.1 g/100 ml, p = 0.055) for the patients than for the controls. However, there was not a significant correlation between the taste thresholds and plasma zinc levels at any time. The mean weight loss experienced by the 14 patients who reported subjective taste alteration in the fifth week was 3.1 kg versus 0.1 kg (p = 0.005) for those who did not report taste alteration. The data suggest that alterations in taste acuity, but not plasma zinc levels, are associated with weight loss during radiotherapy

  16. Modulation of taste responsiveness by the satiation hormone peptide YY

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Sala, Michael S.; Hurtado, Maria D.; Brown, Alicia R.; Bohórquez, Diego V.; Liddle, Rodger A.; Herzog, Herbert; Zolotukhin, Sergei; Dotson, Cedrick D.

    2013-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the peripheral taste system may be modulated in the context of an animal's metabolic state. One purported mechanism for this phenomenon is that circulating gastrointestinal peptides modulate the functioning of the peripheral gustatory system. Recent evidence suggests endocrine signaling in the oral cavity can influence food intake (FI) and satiety. We hypothesized that these hormones may be affecting FI by influencing taste perception. We used immunohistochemistry along with genetic knockout models and the specific reconstitution of peptide YY (PYY) in saliva using gene therapy protocols to identify a role for PYY signaling in taste. We show that PYY is expressed in subsets of taste cells in murine taste buds. We also show, using brief-access testing with PYY knockouts, that PYY signaling modulates responsiveness to bitter-tasting stimuli, as well as to lipid emulsions. We show that salivary PYY augmentation, via viral vector therapy, rescues behavioral responsiveness to a lipid emulsion but not to bitter stimuli and that this response is likely mediated via activation of Y2 receptors localized apically in taste cells. Our findings suggest distinct functions for PYY produced locally in taste cells vs. that circulating systemically.—La Sala, M. S., Hurtado, M. D., Brown, A. R., Bohórquez, D. V., Liddle, R. A., Herzog, H., Zolotukhin, S., Dotson, C. D. Modulation of taste responsiveness by the satiation hormone peptide YY. PMID:24043261

  17. Drugs and taste aversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rondeau, D.B.; Jolicoeur, F.B.; Merkel, A.D.; Wayner, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The literature on the effects of drugs on the acquisition and the magnitude of taste aversion is reviewed and discussed. Then, the results of a series of experiments on the effects of phenobarbital and related drugs on taste aversion are reported. A standard taste aversion model was used in all experiments; test drugs were injected prior to drinking in a one bottle situation on the first test day following the taste aversion treatment. Phenobarbital in doses ranging from 20 to 80 mg/kg significantly attenuated taste aversion induced by lithium chloride (LiCl) and x-radiation, the maximal effect occurred with the 60 mg/kg dose. The attenuating effect was found to be dependent upon the magnitude of the aversion to the sapid solution. Phenobarbital completely abolished aversion produced by 0.375 mEq LiCl while the attenuation effect decreased linearly with higher doses of LiCl. Results also indicate that phenobarbital's attenuating effect cannot be solely attributed to its dipsogenic characteristic or to its state dependent learning effect. Attenuation of LiCl aversion to a saccharin solution was also observed following single doses of amobarbital, 30 mg/kg, pentobarbital, 15 mg/kg, and chloropromazine, 0.75 mg/kg. Taste aversion was not affected by other doses of those drugs or by hexobarbital, barbital, and chlordiazepoxide. Phenobarbital's attenuating effect on taste aversion is discussed in relation to other known behavioral and neurophysiological effects of the drug

  18. Industrial processing effects on phenolic compounds in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, G.; Capanoglu, E.; Gomez-Roldan, M.V.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Boyacioglu, D.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The processed juice (or nectar) of the sour cherry, Prunus cerasus L., is widely consumed in the Balkan region and Turkey. Sour cherry is known to be rich in polyphenolic compounds, such as anthocyanins and procyanidins. In this work, the effects of processing of sour cherry fruit to nectar on

  19. What is taste and how do we teach taste?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Qvortrup, Lars

    2017-01-01

    students to learn about taste. This section presents a systematic division of taste into its four main dimensions: The dimension of good taste, the dimension of healthy taste, the dimension of perceived taste, and the dimension of moral taste. The second section comprises taste as an instrument of teaching....... Here, the intention is to use ‘taste’ as a means to teach home economics and food education. This section answers the question of how to teach in a way that enables the students to develop knowledge and skills in relation to the four dimensions of taste. In this section four knowledge types...... and argument forms are presented, each related to one of the four taste dimensions, because they provide a basis for structuring an appropriate curriculum of taste. The final aim is to enable students to make well-reasoned food decisions with ‘taste’ as the compass of judgment....

  20. Taste, terroir, and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinder RM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Roger M PinderInternational Journal of Wine Research, York, UKWine drinkers have long acknowledged the link between taste and terroir, the often unmistakable connection between the flavor of a wine and the particular patch of ground in which the vines were grown. But the science behind the connection, indeed the whole concept of taste and terroir, has long been disputed. New technological developments in both "neuroenology" – how the brain creates the taste of wine1 – and in wine chemistry2 have offered more insight into the science.

  1. Determination of taste-active compounds of a bitter Camembert cheese by omission tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, E; Septier, C; Leconte, N; Salles, C; Le Quere, J L

    2001-11-01

    The taste-active compounds of a Camembert cheese selected for its intense bitterness defect were investigated. The water-soluble fraction (WSE) was extracted with pure water and fractionated by successive tangential ultrafiltrations and nanofiltration. The physicochemical assessment of these fractions led to the construction of a model WSE which was compared by sensory evaluation to the crude water-soluble extract, using a panel of 16 trained tasters. As no significant difference was perceived, this model WSE was then used directly or mixed with other cheese components for omission tests. Among the main taste characteristics of the WSE (salty, sour, umami and bitter), bitterness was found to be due to small peptides whose mass distribution was obtained by RPHPLC-MS (400-3000 Da) and whose taste properties are discussed.

  2. Bioactivity of sour cherry cultivars grown in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoo, Gaik Ming; Clausen, Morten Rahr; Pedersen, Bjarne Hjelmsted

    2012-01-01

    Thirty four varieties of sour cherries (Prunus cerasus) were investigated for their total antioxidant activity, Caco-2 cancer cell proliferation inhibitory activity and effect on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. Total phenolic content, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and cancer cell ...

  3. Taste didactic reflection theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Qvortrup, Lars

    and gastrophysicists), and social sciences (anthropologists) as well as educators (preschool, elementary, secondary and vocational schools, colleges and universities) and chefs. Through interdisciplinary research collaboration and communication we attempt to span the perceived chasm separating food-sensory science......, high schools and vocational educations. By integrating research, taste, learning, didactics and communication, our projects focus on three main areas: sensory sciences and didactics; gastrophysics and the integration of scientific disciplines; and innovation and honing of culinary skills. While we...... teach pupils, students and the broader public in educational institutions and festivals about and through taste, we also study their use of taste, taste preferences, and learning processes by gathering empirical data for anthropological, sensory and pedagogical research. At the conference, we wish...

  4. Smelling and Tasting Underwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atema, Jelle

    1980-01-01

    Discusses differences between smell and taste, comparing these senses in organisms in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Describes the chemical environment underwater and in air, differences in chemoreceptors to receive stimuli, and the organs, brain, and behavior involved in chemoreception. (CS)

  5. Evolution of the composition of a selected bitter Camembert cheese during ripening: release and migration of taste-active compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, E; Tournier, C; Salles, C; Le Quéré, J L

    2001-06-01

    The aim of this study was to add to the understanding of changes in taste that occur during the ripening of a bitter Camembert cheese by the evolution of its composition. Physicochemical analyses were performed on rind, under-rind, and center portions of a Camembert cheese selected for its intense bitterness. At each of the six steps of ripening studied organic acids, sugars, total nitrogen, soluble nitrogen, phosphotungstic acid soluble nitrogen, non-protein nitrogen, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Pi, Cl, and biogenic amines were quantified in each portion. Changes in cheese composition seemed to mainly result from the development of Penicillium camemberti on the cheese outer layer. Migration phenomena and the release of potentially taste-active compounds allowed for the evolution of saltiness, sourness, and bitterness throughout ripening to be better understood. Apart from taste-active compounds, the impact of the cheese matrix on its taste development is discussed.

  6. Taste as feeling

    OpenAIRE

    Highmore, Ben

    2016-01-01

    This article is premised on two presumptions. The first is, I think, uncontroversial, the second less so. The first presumption is that today, serious discussions about taste usually start out by rehearsing Pierre Bourdieu’s contribution to our understanding of how taste preferences operate in society. This, then, is merely to recognize that when Bourdieu first published books such as The Love of Art (1969, written with Alain Darbel) and Distinctions: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Tas...

  7. Highly Sensitive Multi-Channel IDC Sensor Array for Low Concentration Taste Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rajibur Rahaman Khan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we designed and developed an interdigitated capacitor (IDC-based taste sensor array to detect different taste substances. The designed taste sensing array has four IDC sensing elements. The four IDC taste sensing elements of the array are fabricated by incorporating four different types of lipids into the polymer, dioctyl phenylphosphonate (DOPP and tetrahydrofuran (THF to make the respective dielectric materials that are individually placed onto an interdigitated electrode (IDE via spin coating. When the dielectric material of an IDC sensing element comes into contact with a taste substance, its dielectric properties change with the capacitance of the IDC sensing element; this, in turn, changes the voltage across the IDC, as well as the output voltage of each channel of the system. In order to assess the effectiveness of the sensing system, four taste substances, namely sourness (HCl, saltiness (NaCl, sweetness (glucose and bitterness (quinine-HCl, were tested. The IDC taste sensor array had rapid response and recovery times of about 12.9 s and 13.39 s, respectively, with highly stable response properties. The response property of the proposed IDC taste sensor array was linear, and its correlation coefficient R2 was about 0.9958 over the dynamic range of the taste sensor array as the taste substance concentration was varied from 1 μM to 1 M. The proposed IDC taste sensor array has several other advantages, such as real-time monitoring capabilities, high sensitivity 45.78 mV/decade, good reproducibility with a standard deviation of about 0.029 and compactness, and the circuitry is based on readily available and inexpensive electronic components. The proposed IDC taste sensor array was compared with the potentiometric taste sensor with respect to sensitivity, dynamic range width, linearity and response time. We found that the proposed IDC sensor array has better performance. Finally, principal component analysis (PCA was applied

  8. Similar taste-nutrient relationships in commonly consumed Dutch and Malaysian foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Pey Sze; van Langeveld, Astrid W B; Pol, Korrie; Siebelink, Els; de Graaf, Cees; Yan, See Wan; Mars, Monica

    2018-06-01

    Three recent studies showed that taste intensity signals nutrient content. However, current data reflects only the food patterns in Western societies. No study has yet been performed in Asian culture. The Malaysian cuisine represents a mixture of Malay, Chinese and Indian foods. This study aimed to investigate the associations between taste intensity and nutrient content in commonly consumed Dutch (NL) and Malaysian (MY) foods. Perceived intensities of sweetness, sourness, bitterness, umami, saltiness and fat sensation were assessed for 469 Dutch and 423 Malaysian commonly consumed foods representing about 83% and 88% of an individual's average daily energy intake in each respective country. We used a trained Dutch (n = 15) and Malaysian panel (n = 20) with quantitative sensory Spectrum™ 100-point rating scales and reference solutions, R1 (13-point), R2 (33-point) and R3 (67-point). Dutch and Malaysian foods had relatively low mean sourness and bitterness (taste intensity of Malaysian foods (15-point) was higher than that of Dutch foods (8-point). Positive associations were found between sweetness and mono- and disaccharides (R 2  = 0.67 (NL), 0.38 (MY)), between umami and protein (R 2  = 0.29 (NL), 0.26 (MY)), between saltiness and sodium (R 2  = 0.48 (NL), 0.27 (MY)), and between fat sensation and fat content (R 2  = 0.56 (NL), 0.17(MY)) in Dutch and Malaysian foods (all, p < 0.001). The associations between taste intensity and nutrient content are not different between different countries, except for fat sensation-fat content. The two dimensional basic taste-nutrient space, representing the variance and associations between tastes and nutrients, is similar between Dutch and Malaysian commonly consumed foods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Lipid-Lowering Pharmaceutical Clofibrate Inhibits Human Sweet Taste

    OpenAIRE

    Kochem, Matthew; Breslin, Paul A.S.

    2016-01-01

    T1R2-T1R3 is a heteromeric receptor that binds sugars, high potency sweeteners, and sweet taste blockers. In rodents, T1R2-T1R3 is largely responsible for transducing sweet taste perception. T1R2-T1R3 is also expressed in non-taste tissues, and a growing body of evidence suggests that it helps regulate glucose and lipid metabolism. It was previously shown that clofibric acid, a blood lipid-lowering drug, binds T1R2-T1R3 and inhibits its activity in vitro. The purpose of this study was to dete...

  10. Optical fiber taste sensors using potential sensitive dye coatings. Makuden'i kanjusei shikisomaku wo mochiita hikari fiber mikaku sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamakawa, S.; Yamaguchi, A. (Toyama National College of Maritime Technology, Toyama (Japan))

    1992-12-20

    The present paper proposes a new taste recognition system using optical response patterns from multi-channel optical fiber sensors having potential sensitive dye coatings. It was found that the sensors give large changes in optical absorption spectra of the dyes when they are immersed in various taste solutions. Consequently, it was shown that the sensors can be used as a taste sensor. Six dyes, which give large changes in dye absorption, were selected from twenty dyes and used for six-channel optical fiber taste sensors array. The absorption spectra change data were processed by multiple discriminant analysis and neural networks using back-propagation algorithm. From the analytical results, it was demonstrated that salty (NaCl), bitter (quinidine), sweet (sucrose), sour (HCl), and umami (sodium glutamate) substances can be recognized from each other by using the optical taste sensor system. 11 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Oro-gustatory perception of dietary lipids and calcium signaling in taste bud cells are altered in nutritionally obesity-prone Psammomys obesus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoul-Azize, Souleymane; Atek-Mebarki, Feriel; Bitam, Arezki; Sadou, Hassimi; Koceïr, Elhadj Ahmed; Khan, Naim Akhtar

    2013-01-01

    Since the increasing prevalence of obesity is one of the major health problems of the modern era, understanding the mechanisms of oro-gustatory detection of dietary fat is critical for the prevention and treatment of obesity. We have conducted the present study on Psammomys obesus, the rodent desert gerbil which is a unique polygenic natural animal model of obesity. Our results show that obese animals exhibit a strong preference for lipid solutions in a two-bottle test. Interestingly, the expression of CD36, a lipido-receptor, in taste buds cells (TBC), isolated from circumvallate papillae, was decreased at mRNA level, but remained unaltered at protein level, in obese animals. We further studied the effects of linoleic acid (LA), a long-chain fatty acid, on the increases in free intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) concentrations, [Ca(2+)]i, in the TBC of P. obesus. LA induced increases in [Ca(2+)]i, largely via CD36, from intracellular pool, followed by the opening of store-operated Ca(2+) (SOC) channels in the TBC of these animals. The action of this fatty acid on the increases in [Ca(2+)]i was higher in obese animals than that in controls. However, the release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores, studied also by employing thapsigargin, was lower in TBC of obese animals than control rodents. In this study, we show, for the first time, that increased lipid intake and altered Ca(2+) signaling in TBC are associated with obesity in Psammomys obesus.

  12. Oro-gustatory perception of dietary lipids and calcium signaling in taste bud cells are altered in nutritionally obesity-prone Psammomys obesus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souleymane Abdoul-Azize

    Full Text Available Since the increasing prevalence of obesity is one of the major health problems of the modern era, understanding the mechanisms of oro-gustatory detection of dietary fat is critical for the prevention and treatment of obesity. We have conducted the present study on Psammomys obesus, the rodent desert gerbil which is a unique polygenic natural animal model of obesity. Our results show that obese animals exhibit a strong preference for lipid solutions in a two-bottle test. Interestingly, the expression of CD36, a lipido-receptor, in taste buds cells (TBC, isolated from circumvallate papillae, was decreased at mRNA level, but remained unaltered at protein level, in obese animals. We further studied the effects of linoleic acid (LA, a long-chain fatty acid, on the increases in free intracellular calcium (Ca(2+ concentrations, [Ca(2+]i, in the TBC of P. obesus. LA induced increases in [Ca(2+]i, largely via CD36, from intracellular pool, followed by the opening of store-operated Ca(2+ (SOC channels in the TBC of these animals. The action of this fatty acid on the increases in [Ca(2+]i was higher in obese animals than that in controls. However, the release of Ca(2+ from intracellular stores, studied also by employing thapsigargin, was lower in TBC of obese animals than control rodents. In this study, we show, for the first time, that increased lipid intake and altered Ca(2+ signaling in TBC are associated with obesity in Psammomys obesus.

  13. Individual differences in bitter taste preferences are associated with antisocial personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagioglou, Christina; Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    In two studies, we investigated how bitter taste preferences might be associated with antisocial personality traits. Two US American community samples (total N = 953; mean age = 35.65 years; 48% females) self-reported their taste preferences using two complementary preference measures and answered a number of personality questionnaires assessing Machiavellianism, psychopathy, narcissism, everyday sadism, trait aggression, and the Big Five factors of personality. The results of both studies confirmed the hypothesis that bitter taste preferences are positively associated with malevolent personality traits, with the most robust relation to everyday sadism and psychopathy. Regression analyses confirmed that this association holds when controlling for sweet, sour, and salty taste preferences and that bitter taste preferences are the overall strongest predictor compared to the other taste preferences. The data thereby provide novel insights into the relationship between personality and the ubiquitous behaviors of eating and drinking by consistently demonstrating a robust relation between increased enjoyment of bitter foods and heightened sadistic proclivities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. As bitter as a trombone: synesthetic correspondences in nonsynesthetes between tastes/flavors and musical notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisinel, Anne-Sylvie; Spence, Charles

    2010-10-01

    In parallel to studies of various cases of synesthesia, many cross-modal correspondences have also been documented in nonsynesthetes. Among these correspondences, implicit associations between taste and pitch have been reported recently (Crisinel & Spence, 2009, 2010). Here, we replicate and extend these findings through explicit matching of sounds of varying pitch to a range of tastes/flavors. In addition, participants in the experiment reported here also chose the type of musical instrument most appropriate for each taste/flavor. The association of sweet and sour tastes to high-pitched notes was confirmed. By contrast, umami and bitter tastes were preferentially matched to low-pitched notes. Flavors did not display such strong pitch associations. The choice of musical instrument seems to have been driven primarily by a matching of the hedonic value and familiarity of the two types of stimuli. Our results raise important questions about our representation of tastes and flavors and could also lead to applications in the marketing of food products.

  15. Expression of genes encoding multi-transmembrane proteins in specific primate taste cell populations.

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    Bryan D Moyer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Using fungiform (FG and circumvallate (CV taste buds isolated by laser capture microdissection and analyzed using gene arrays, we previously constructed a comprehensive database of gene expression in primates, which revealed over 2,300 taste bud-associated genes. Bioinformatics analyses identified hundreds of genes predicted to encode multi-transmembrane domain proteins with no previous association with taste function. A first step in elucidating the roles these gene products play in gustation is to identify the specific taste cell types in which they are expressed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using double label in situ hybridization analyses, we identified seven new genes expressed in specific taste cell types, including sweet, bitter, and umami cells (TRPM5-positive, sour cells (PKD2L1-positive, as well as other taste cell populations. Transmembrane protein 44 (TMEM44, a protein with seven predicted transmembrane domains with no homology to GPCRs, is expressed in a TRPM5-negative and PKD2L1-negative population that is enriched in the bottom portion of taste buds and may represent developmentally immature taste cells. Calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1, a component of a novel calcium channel, along with family members CALHM2 and CALHM3; multiple C2 domains; transmembrane 1 (MCTP1, a calcium-binding transmembrane protein; and anoctamin 7 (ANO7, a member of the recently identified calcium-gated chloride channel family, are all expressed in TRPM5 cells. These proteins may modulate and effect calcium signalling stemming from sweet, bitter, and umami receptor activation. Synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2B (SV2B, a regulator of synaptic vesicle exocytosis, is expressed in PKD2L1 cells, suggesting that this taste cell population transmits tastant information to gustatory afferent nerve fibers via exocytic neurotransmitter release. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Identification of genes encoding multi-transmembrane domain proteins

  16. Processing Umami and Other Tastes in Mammalian Taste Buds

    OpenAIRE

    Roper, Stephen D.; Chaudhari, Nirupa

    2009-01-01

    Neuroscientists are now coming to appreciate that a significant degree of information processing occurs in the peripheral sensory organs of taste prior to signals propagating to the brain. Gustatory stimulation causes taste bud cells to secrete neurotransmitters that act on adjacent taste bud cells (paracrine transmitters) as well as on primary sensory afferent fibers (neurocrine transmitters). Paracrine transmission, representing cell-cell communication within the taste bud, has the potentia...

  17. Taste isn't just for taste buds anymore

    OpenAIRE

    Finger, Thomas E.; Kinnamon, Sue C.

    2011-01-01

    Taste is a discriminative sense involving specialized receptor cells of the oral cavity (taste buds) and at least two distinct families of G protein-coupled receptor molecules that detect nutritionally important substances or potential toxins. Yet the receptor mechanisms that drive taste also are utilized by numerous systems throughout the body. How and why these so-called taste receptors are used to regulate digestion and respiration is now a matter of intense study. In this article we provi...

  18. Tasting in mundane practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Anna

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents an ethnographic investigation into practices of tasting. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in various Western Europe settings in which people sensually engaged with food and drinks, the chapters show how tasting is done by research subjects in sensory science laboratories; guests...... response to a food object, leading on to a multi-sensory experience of its qualities, that do not just emerge from the food but are co-shaped by the context and that give rise to sensorial knowledge. By investigating specificities, articulating alternatives, showing construction processes, and typecasting...... particular practices, the chapters unpack each of these assumptions. What emerges is an alternative, composite understanding of tasting as variously done in varied mundane practices....

  19. Reservoir Souring - Latest developments for application and mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Richard J; Folwell, Benjamin D; Wirekoh, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Sulphate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP) have been identified in oil field fluids since the 1920s. SRP reduce sulphate to sulphide, a toxic and corrosive species that impacts on operational safety, metallurgy and both capital and operational cost. Differences in water cut, temperature, pressure...... and fluid chemistry can impact on the observed H2S concentration, meaning that an increase in H2S concentration does not always correlate with activity of SRP. However it wasn't until the 1990s that SRP activity was accepted as the leading cause of reservoir souring (i.e. an increase in H2S concentrations...... to reservoir souring. This has led to some recent advances in microbial control and detection, however, despite this, many of the methods used routinely for microbial control and detection are over a century old. We therefore look towards emerging and novel mitigation technologies that may be used...

  20. Mixing methods, tasting fingers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Anna; Mol, Annemarie; Satalkar, Priya

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on an ethnographic experiment. Four finger eating experts and three novices sat down for a hot meal and ate with their hands. Drawing on the technique of playing with the familiar and the strange, our aim was not to explain our responses, but to articulate them. As we seek...... words to do so, we are compelled to stretch the verb "to taste." Tasting, or so our ethnographic experiment suggests, need not be understood as an activity confined to the tongue. Instead, if given a chance, it may viscously spread out to the fingers and come to include appreciative reactions otherwise...

  1. Detection of bitterness-Suppression using a taste sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iiyama, Satoru; Ezaki, Shu; Toko, Kiyoshi

    2008-01-01

    We tried to detect the suppression of bitterness with a taste sensor. Quinine hydrochloride, which has a positive charge usually cause large potential change of negatively, charged membranes of the sensor. The potential change was decreased by sour substances such as acetic acid. The decrease of the potential change of response implies a decrease in the intensity of bitterness. Contrary to this, response of the sensor to sodium picrate, which has a negative charge, was diminished by sodium salts of organic acids. As the hydrophobicity of organic acids increased, the suppression of bitterness also increased. The present study is expected to provide a new quantitative technique to measure the strength of bitterness of foods and drugs in place of sensory evaluation. (author)

  2. Using Sound-Taste Correspondences to Enhance the Subjective Value of Tasting Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe eReinoso Carvalho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The soundscapes of those places where we eat and drink can influence our perception of taste. Here, we investigated whether contextual sound would enhance the subjective value of a tasting experience. The customers in a chocolate shop were invited to take part in an experiment in which they had to evaluate a chocolate’s taste while listening to an auditory stimulus. Four different conditions were presented to four different groups in a between-participants design. Envisioning a more ecological approach, a pre-recorded piece of popular music and the shop’s own soundscape were used as the sonic stimuli. The results revealed that not only did the customers report having a significantly better tasting experience when the sounds were presented as part of the food’s identity, but they were also willing to pay significantly more for the experience. The method outlined here paves a new approach to dealing with the design of multisensory tasting experiences, and gastronomic situations.

  3. Is wine savory? Umami taste in wine

    OpenAIRE

    Alice, Vilela; António, Inês; Fernanda, Cosme

    2016-01-01

    Umami is an important taste element in natural products like wine. The umami taste has distinctive properties that differentiate it from other tastes, including a taste-enhancing synergism between two umami compounds, L-glutamate and 5’-ribonulceotides, and a prolonged aftertaste. In human taste cells, taste buds transduce the chemicals that elicit the umami tastes into membrane depolarization, which triggers release of transmitter to activate gustatory afferent nerve fibers. Umami taste stim...

  4. Organic acid profile of commercial sour cassava starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEMIATE I.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic acids are present in sour cassava starch ("polvilho azedo" and contribute with organoleptic and physical characteristics like aroma, flavor and the exclusive baking property, that differentiate this product from the native cassava starch. Samples of commercial sour cassava starch collected in South and Southeast Brazil were prepared for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis. The HPLC equipment had a Biorad Aminex HPX-87H column for organic acid analysis and a refractometric detector. Analysis was carried out with 0.005M sulfuric acid as mobile phase, 0.6ml/min flow rate and column temperature of 60° C. The acids quantified were lactic (0.036 to 0.813 g/100g, acetic (0 to 0.068 g/100g, propionic (0 to 0.013 g/100g and butyric (0 to 0.057 g/100g, that are produced during the natural fermentation of cassava starch. Results showed large variation among samples, even within the same region. Some samples exhibited high acid levels, mainly lactic acid, but in these neither propionic nor butyric acids were detected. Absence of butyric acid was not expected because this is an important component of the sour cassava starch aroma, and the lack of this acid may suggest that such samples were produced without the natural fermentation step.

  5. Sensory perception of and salivary protein response to astringency as a function of the 6-n-propylthioural (PROP) bitter-taste phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Melania; Yousaf, Neeta Y; Mattes, Mitchell Z; Cabras, Tiziana; Messana, Irene; Crnjar, Roberto; Tomassini Barbarossa, Iole; Tepper, Beverly J

    2017-05-01

    Individual differences in astringency perception are poorly understood. Astringency from tannins stimulates the release of specific classes of salivary proteins. These proteins form complexes with tannins, altering their perceived astringency and reducing their bioavailability. We studied the bitter compound, 6-n-propylthioural (PROP), as a phenotypic marker for variation in astringency perception and salivary protein responses. Seventy-nine subjects classified by PROP taster status rated cranberry juice cocktail (CJC; with added sugar) supplemented with 0, 1.5 or 2.0g/L tannic acid (TA). Saliva for protein analyses was collected at rest, or after stimulation with TA or cranberry juice (CJ; without added sugar). CJC with 1.5g/L tannic acid was found to be less astringent, and was liked more by PROP non-taster males than PROP taster males, consistent with the expectation that non-tasters are less sensitive to astringency. Levels of acidic Proline Rich Proteins (aPRPs) and basic Proline Rich Proteins (bPRPs) decreased after TA, while levels of aPRPs, bPRPs and Cystatins unexpectedly rose after CJ. Increases in bPRPs and Cystatins were only observed in PROP tasters. The PROP phenotype plays a gender-specific, but somewhat limited role in the perceived astringency of tannic-acid supplemented, cranberry juice cocktail. The PROP phenotype (regardless of gender) may also be involved in the release of salivary proteins previously implicated in oral health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of fast food branding on young children's taste preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Thomas N; Borzekowski, Dina L G; Matheson, Donna M; Kraemer, Helena C

    2007-08-01

    To examine the effects of cumulative, real-world marketing and brand exposures on young children by testing the influence of branding from a heavily marketed source on taste preferences. Experimental study. Children tasted 5 pairs of identical foods and beverages in packaging from McDonald's and matched but unbranded packaging and were asked to indicate if they tasted the same or if one tasted better. Preschools for low-income children. Sixty-three children (mean +/- SD age, 4.6 +/- 0.5 years; range, 3.5-5.4 years). Branding of fast foods. A summary total taste preference score (ranging from -1 for the unbranded samples to 0 for no preference and +1 for McDonald's branded samples) was used to test the null hypothesis that children would express no preference. The mean +/- SD total taste preference score across all food comparisons was 0.37 +/- 0.45 (median, 0.20; interquartile range, 0.00-0.80) and significantly greater than zero (Pbranding among children with more television sets in their homes and children who ate food from McDonald's more often. Branding of foods and beverages influences young children's taste perceptions. The findings are consistent with recommendations to regulate marketing to young children and also suggest that branding may be a useful strategy for improving young children's eating behaviors.

  7. Tasting the World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Recent research in sociology of art indicates an increasing heterogeneity and openness in cultural taste and consumption. This tendency also appears to be sanctified by developments in the arts and aesthetic theory of the last decades. Compared to former more exclusive and elitist cultures of tas...

  8. The taste looks good

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, G.; Young, T.; Schrauwers, A.

    2005-01-01

    For over two decades, fruit and other agricultural products have been sorted using the 'electronic eye'. The eye selects purely by such external properties as colour, and cannot judge taste. Dr Gerrit Polder, an electrical engineer at Wageningen University, carried out his doctorate research at

  9. Brazilian consumers' perception of tenderness of beef steaks classified by shear force and taste Percepção pelos consumidores brasileiros da maciez da carne classificada pela força de cisalhamento e sabor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Francisquine Delgado

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of consumer perception of meat tenderness and taste is essential to forecast a Brazilian quality value-based beef market. This study aimed to verify perception of tender (WBSF 4.8 kg strip loin steak or uncharacteristic (calcium-treated/Ca-IM and normal (non-calcium/NO-Ca meat taste by consumers according to gender, age, education and income levels. Steaks were previously classified by shear force measurements as tender or tough. Each consumer was served a paired sample of one tender and of one tough steak, which were either Ca-IM or NO-Ca treated before tenderness classification. Three hundred and eight consumers answered a nine-point intensity (tenderness and hedonic (taste scales evaluation questionnaire. Among consumers, 82.2% indicated beef as first choice meat products, 75.3% had beef at least four times a week; 39.3% considered taste as the most important meat attribute and 30.2% considered tenderness; 75.8% were males; 73.6% were 21 to 55 years old; 56.7% had college education; 76.6% had monthly income higher than US $ 435,00. Tender steaks were scored highest (P O conhecimento da percepção de maciez e sabor da carne bovina pelo consumidor é essencial para vislumbrar um mercado brasileiro que pague por qualidade. Este estudo avaliou a percepção diferenciada de contra-filé macio (WBSF 4.8 kg, ou ainda com sabor não característico (imersão em Ca/ Ca-IM ou normal (sem cálcio/ NO-Ca de acordo com sexo, faixa etária, e nível de escolaridade formal e renda dos consumidores. Os bifes foram pareados em amostras macia/dura e Ca-IM/NO-Ca, e servidos a 308 consumidores que responderam a um questionário apresentando escalas de intensidade (maciez e hedônica (sabor de nove pontos. O perfil dos consumidores mostrava que: 82,2% indicaram carne bovina como sua primeira escolha entre as carnes; 75,3% consumiam carne bovina pelo menos quatro vezes por semana; 39,3% consideravam sabor como o atributo mais importante durante o

  10. Oxytocin decreases sweet taste sensitivity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Michael S; Perea-Martinez, Isabel; Abouyared, Marianne; St John, Steven J; Chaudhari, Nirupa

    2015-03-15

    Oxytocin (OXT) suppresses food intake and lack of OXT leads to overconsumption of sucrose. Taste bud cells were recently discovered to express OXT-receptor. In the present study we tested whether administering OXT to wild-type mice affects their licking behavior for tastants in a paradigm designed to be sensitive to taste perception. We injected C57BL/6J mice intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 10mg/kg OXT and assayed their brief-access lick responses, motivated by water deprivation, to NaCl (300mM), citric acid (20mM), quinine (0.3mM), saccharin (10mM), and a mix of MSG and IMP (100mM and 0.5mM respectively). OXT had no effect on licking for NaCl, citric acid, or quinine. A possible effect of OXT on saccharin and MSG+IMP was difficult to interpret due to unexpectedly low lick rates to water (the vehicle for all taste solutions), likely caused by the use of a high OXT dose that suppressed licking and other behaviors. A subsequent experiment focused on another preferred tastant, sucrose, and employed a much lower OXT dose (0.1mg/kg). This modification, based on our measurements of plasma OXT following i.p. injection, permitted us to elevate plasma [OXT] sufficiently to preferentially activate taste bud cells. OXT at this low dose significantly reduced licking responses to 0.3M sucrose, and overall shifted the sucrose concentration - behavioral response curves rightward (mean EC50saline=0.362M vs. EC50OXT=0.466M). Males did not differ from females under any condition in this study. We propose that circulating oxytocin is another factor that modulates taste-based behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Neural processing of basic tastes in healthy young and older adults - an fMRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, Heleen R.; Dalenberg, Jelle R.; Renken, Remco J.; ter Horst, Gert J.; Lorist, Monicque M.

    2015-01-01

    Ageing affects taste perception as shown in psychophysical studies, however, underlying structural and functional mechanisms of these changes are still largely unknown. To investigate the neurobiology of age-related differences associated with processing of basic tastes, we measured brain activation

  12. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes II: Foreground–Background Color Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando; Velasco, Carlos; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    People associate basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty) with specific colors (e.g., pink or red, green or yellow, black or purple, and white or blue). In the present study, we investigated whether a color bordered by another color (either the same or different) would give rise to stronger taste associations relative to a single patch of color. We replicate previous findings, highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. On occasion, color pairs were found to communicate taste expectations more consistently than were single color patches. Furthermore, and in contrast to a recent study in which the color pairs were shown side-by-side, participants took no longer to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors (they had taken twice as long to respond to the color pairs in the previous study). Possible reasons for these results are discussed, and potential applications for the results, and for the testing methodology developed, are outlined. PMID:27708752

  13. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes II: Foreground-Background Color Combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Andy T; Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando; Velasco, Carlos; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    People associate basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty) with specific colors (e.g., pink or red, green or yellow, black or purple, and white or blue). In the present study, we investigated whether a color bordered by another color (either the same or different) would give rise to stronger taste associations relative to a single patch of color. We replicate previous findings, highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. On occasion, color pairs were found to communicate taste expectations more consistently than were single color patches. Furthermore, and in contrast to a recent study in which the color pairs were shown side-by-side, participants took no longer to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors (they had taken twice as long to respond to the color pairs in the previous study). Possible reasons for these results are discussed, and potential applications for the results, and for the testing methodology developed, are outlined.

  14. Effect of ionizing radiation on the taste function of patients submitted to head and neck radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Amaro Ilidio Vespasiano; Galante, Celio

    2011-01-01

    Objective: to evaluate the effects of ionizing radiation on the taste function in patients submitted to radiotherapy in the head and neck region. Materials and methods: twenty patients diagnosed with head and neck tumors and undergoing treatment in the Division of Radiotherapy at Santa Casa de Misericordia de Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, were selected. For their taste function testing, four solutions were manipulated with salt (NaCl), sugar (sucrose), citric acid (for acidity), and urea (for bitterness), at three different (low, medium and high) concentrations. Weekly tests were performed during the first three weeks of radiotherapy, with random administration of the solutions (three drops each) respecting the order of their concentration levels (low, medium and high). After the application of each solution, the patient reported which flavor he/she tasted. Results: a statistically significant difference was observed in the loss of taste function as the results in the 1st and 4th weeks of treatment were compared, with salty solution at the three concentration levels, with the sweet solution at low and medium concentrations, and with the sour and bitter solutions, only at low concentration. Conclusion: ionizing radiation alters the taste function of patients submitted to head and neck radiotherapy. (author)

  15. Effect of ionizing radiation on the taste function of patients submitted to head and neck radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Amaro Ilidio Vespasiano [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Galante, Celio [Santa Casa de Misericordia de Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Div. de Radioterapia; Manzi, Flavio Ricardo, E-mail: manzi@pucminas.b [Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Minas Gerais (PUC-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    Objective: to evaluate the effects of ionizing radiation on the taste function in patients submitted to radiotherapy in the head and neck region. Materials and methods: twenty patients diagnosed with head and neck tumors and undergoing treatment in the Division of Radiotherapy at Santa Casa de Misericordia de Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, were selected. For their taste function testing, four solutions were manipulated with salt (NaCl), sugar (sucrose), citric acid (for acidity), and urea (for bitterness), at three different (low, medium and high) concentrations. Weekly tests were performed during the first three weeks of radiotherapy, with random administration of the solutions (three drops each) respecting the order of their concentration levels (low, medium and high). After the application of each solution, the patient reported which flavor he/she tasted. Results: a statistically significant difference was observed in the loss of taste function as the results in the 1st and 4th weeks of treatment were compared, with salty solution at the three concentration levels, with the sweet solution at low and medium concentrations, and with the sour and bitter solutions, only at low concentration. Conclusion: ionizing radiation alters the taste function of patients submitted to head and neck radiotherapy. (author)

  16. Learning through the taste system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Scott

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Taste is the final arbiter of which chemicals from the environment will be admitted to the body. The action of swallowing a substance leads to a physiological consequence of which the taste system should be informed. Accordingly, taste neurons in the central nervous system are closely allied with those that receive input from the viscera so as to monitor the impact of a recently ingested substance. There is behavioral, anatomical, electrophysiological, gene expression, and neurochemical evidence that the consequences of ingestion influence subsequent food selection through development of either a conditioned taste aversion (if illness ensues or a conditioned taste preference (if satiety. This ongoing communication between taste and the viscera permits the animal to tailor its taste system to its individual needs over a lifetime.

  17. Taste buds: cells, signals and synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Stephen D; Chaudhari, Nirupa

    2017-08-01

    The past decade has witnessed a consolidation and refinement of the extraordinary progress made in taste research. This Review describes recent advances in our understanding of taste receptors, taste buds, and the connections between taste buds and sensory afferent fibres. The article discusses new findings regarding the cellular mechanisms for detecting tastes, new data on the transmitters involved in taste processing and new studies that address longstanding arguments about taste coding.

  18. Dense film polyimide membranes for aggressive sour gas feed separations

    KAUST Repository

    Kraftschik, Brian

    2013-02-01

    Dense film membranes of the copolyimide 6FDA-DAM:DABA (3:2) are studied for simultaneous removal of CO2 and H2S from sour natural gas streams. Pure and mixed gas permeation as well as pure gas sorption data are reported at 35°C and pressures up to 62bar. The H2S partial pressures used are representative of highly aggressive field operations. Penetrant-induced plasticization effects are evident at feed pressures below 1bar in pure H2S feeds; sub-Tg thermal annealing is used to effectively mitigate this effect, and these annealed films are used throughout the study. Surprisingly, H2S/CH4 selectivity nearly doubles for mixed gas testing in comparison to the pure component ideal selectivity values and approaches the level of a state-of-the-art glassy polymer, cellulose acetate (CA), at H2S partial pressures above 2bar. Furthermore, permeation experiments using a 9.95% H2S, 19.9% CO2, 70.15% CH4 mixture at low feed pressures give CO2/CH4 selectivity of up to 49-over 30% greater than the pure component selectivity for 6FDA-DAM:DABA (3:2). The overall sour gas separation performance of this polyimide is comparable to high-performance rubbery polymer membranes, which have been reported for only moderate H2S partial pressure feeds, and is superior to that for CA based on a practical combined acid gas separation efficiency metric that we introduce. Finally, methods for continued development of the current polyimide membrane material for aggressive sour gas separations are presented. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  19. Dense film polyimide membranes for aggressive sour gas feed separations

    KAUST Repository

    Kraftschik, Brian; Koros, William J.; Johnson, J.R.; Karvan, Oguz

    2013-01-01

    Dense film membranes of the copolyimide 6FDA-DAM:DABA (3:2) are studied for simultaneous removal of CO2 and H2S from sour natural gas streams. Pure and mixed gas permeation as well as pure gas sorption data are reported at 35°C and pressures up to 62bar. The H2S partial pressures used are representative of highly aggressive field operations. Penetrant-induced plasticization effects are evident at feed pressures below 1bar in pure H2S feeds; sub-Tg thermal annealing is used to effectively mitigate this effect, and these annealed films are used throughout the study. Surprisingly, H2S/CH4 selectivity nearly doubles for mixed gas testing in comparison to the pure component ideal selectivity values and approaches the level of a state-of-the-art glassy polymer, cellulose acetate (CA), at H2S partial pressures above 2bar. Furthermore, permeation experiments using a 9.95% H2S, 19.9% CO2, 70.15% CH4 mixture at low feed pressures give CO2/CH4 selectivity of up to 49-over 30% greater than the pure component selectivity for 6FDA-DAM:DABA (3:2). The overall sour gas separation performance of this polyimide is comparable to high-performance rubbery polymer membranes, which have been reported for only moderate H2S partial pressure feeds, and is superior to that for CA based on a practical combined acid gas separation efficiency metric that we introduce. Finally, methods for continued development of the current polyimide membrane material for aggressive sour gas separations are presented. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  20. (Re)tasting places

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Liselotte

    2015-01-01

    What does geographical origin mean? It is an expression that associates food and wine with a specific place, an association embedded in the concept ‘terroir’ that refers to the complex interaction between a physical environment and local craftsmanship. It is a claim protected through labelling......-schemes and a claim that adds value to the place-related foods. However, viewing the connection between food and place as a question of proving a relationship or as a matter of protecting commercial claims does not seem to provide a satisfactory account for the status of geographically designated foods as being...... particularly attractive Central to the interest of this paper is to approach an understanding of geographical origin as a point of reference for taste. In terms of being sensory experience, taste is subjective. It is difficult to describe verbally and yet at the same time it is a trigger of the memory of past...

  1. Sour gas map of Alberta and British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Geographic locations of sour gas wells in Alberta and British Columbia are shown (by geographic coordinates) on a large-size fold-out map issued as a supplement to the July issue of Oilweek Magazine. Pools are color coded based on hydrogen sulphide content. Five classes are recognized, i. e.: hydrogen sulphide content less than one percent; between one and 4.9 per cent; between five and 9.9 per cent; between ten and 29.9 per cent ; and hydrogen sulphide content exceeding 30 per cent. The locations of gas processing plants with sulphur recovery are also identified

  2. Heptyl vicianoside and methyl caramboside from sour star fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dan; Jia, Xuchao; Xie, Haihui

    2018-04-23

    Two new alkyl glycosides, heptyl vicianoside (1) and methyl 2-O-β-d-fucopyranosyl-α-l-arabinofuranoside (methyl caramboside, 4), were isolated from the sour fruit of Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae), along with octyl vicianoside (2), cis-3-hexenyl rutinoside (3), and methyl α-d-fructofuranoside (5). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods. Compounds 2, 3, and 5 were obtained from the genus Averrhoa for the first time. All the compounds were evaluated for in vitro α-glucosidase, pancreatic lipase, and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities, but none of them were potent.

  3. TEXTURAL, FLOW AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF FIVE “FRUZELINA” WITH SOUR CHERRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Bojdo Tomasiak

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Gel with sour cherries called “Fruzelina” is a new product in the Polish market widely used in food industry as a decorative element or filling for pastries, as an ingredient in fruit desserts, as an additive to ice creams, whipped cream and waffles. The cherry gels are the product prepared using different types of chemically modified starches. Starch is an additive used to ensure rich and short texture and high viscosity of “Fruzelina”. Food texture and viscosity may be measured by senses and instrumentally. Because of fact that sensory analysis is time consuming and very costly, it is easier and cheaper to determine food properties, especially their texture and flow behaviour by appropriate mechanical tests. The aim of this work was to study the rheological behavior of five cherry gels and evaluate the correlation between textural, flow and sensory properties of these gels measured instrumentally and by human senses. The back extrusion test has been found to be applicable to study the textural properties of cherry gels. There was high positive correlation between gel texture measured by senses and texture parameters measured in back extrusion test. Similar high correlation was identified for consistency coefficient K obtained in Ostwald de Waele model and gel texture assessed by sensory panel. It was found that values of sensory parameters such as taste and odour decreased as the rheological parameters increased. High negative correlations were observed in these cases. Therefore, instrumental measurements can be alternative for more expensive sensory methods. doi:10.5219/53

  4. A taste for ATP: neurotransmission in taste buds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnamon, Sue C.; Finger, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Not only is ATP a ubiquitous source of energy but it is also used widely as an intercellular signal. For example, keratinocytes release ATP in response to numerous external stimuli including pressure, heat, and chemical insult. The released ATP activates purinergic receptors on nerve fibers to generate nociceptive signals. The importance of an ATP signal in epithelial-to-neuronal signaling is nowhere more evident than in the taste system. The receptor cells of taste buds release ATP in response to appropriate stimulation by tastants and the released ATP then activates P2X2 and P2X3 receptors on the taste nerves. Genetic ablation of the relevant P2X receptors leaves an animal without the ability to taste any primary taste quality. Of interest is that release of ATP by taste receptor cells occurs in a non-vesicular fashion, apparently via gated membrane channels. Further, in keeping with the crucial role of ATP as a neurotransmitter in this system, a subset of taste cells expresses a specific ectoATPase, NTPDase2, necessary to clear extracellular ATP which otherwise will desensitize the P2X receptors on the taste nerves. The unique utilization of ATP as a key neurotransmitter in the taste system may reflect the epithelial rather than neuronal origins of the receptor cells. PMID:24385952

  5. A taste for ATP: neurotransmission in taste buds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Finger

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Not only is ATP a ubiquitous source of energy but it is also used widely as an intercellular signal. For example, keratinocytes release ATP in response to numerous external stimuli including pressure, heat and chemical insult. The released ATP activates purinergic receptors on nerve fibers to generate nociceptive signals. The importance of an ATP signal in epithelial-to-neuronal signaling is nowhere more evident than in the taste system. The receptor cells of taste buds release ATP in response to appropriate stimulation by tastants and the released ATP then activates P2X2 and P2X3 receptors on the taste nerves. Genetic ablation of the relevant P2X receptors leaves an animal without the ability to taste any primary taste quality. Of interest is that release of ATP by taste receptor cells occurs in a non-vesicular fashion, apparently via gated membrane channels. Further, in keeping with the crucial role of ATP as a neurotransmitter in this system, a subset of taste cells expresses a specific ectoATPase, NTPDase2, necessary to clear extracellular ATP which otherwise will desensitize the P2X receptors on the taste nerves. The unique utilization of ATP as a key neurotransmitter in the taste system may reflect the epithelial rather than neuronal origins of the receptor cells.

  6. Characteristic changes of saliva and taste in burning mouth syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imura, Hiroko; Shimada, Masahiko; Yamazaki, Yoko; Sugimoto, Kumiko

    2016-03-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is characterized by chronic pain with a burning sensation of the tongue and oral mucosa and reported to be often accompanied by subjective xerostomia and dysgeusia. Since the etiology of BMS has not been elucidated, to understand the characteristics of BMS, we measured some components of saliva and taste sensitivity and compared the measured values between BMS and healthy subjects. Unstimulated saliva was collected from 15 female BMS patients and 30 healthy women. The flow rate, viscosity (spinnability) and concentration of secretory IgA (SIgA) of saliva and serum antioxidant capacity were measured. The recognition thresholds for sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami tastes were measured by whole-mouth method. The statistical analyses were performed using Student's t-test, and P < 0.05 was considered to be significant. In BMS group, the flow rate of saliva was significantly lower and the spinnability was significantly higher compared with healthy group. The secreted amount of SIgA per min and serum antioxidant capacity was significantly lower in the patients. The threshold for sourness in patients was significantly higher, while those for other tastes did not differ from healthy group. BMS patients showed lower salivary flow and higher salivary spinnability. These results together with decreased SIgA amount, suggest that BMS may be relevant to the deterioration of salivary condition, which could in turn affect taste function. Furthermore, the lower antioxidant capacity in patient's serum suggests that it can serve as a diagnostic tool for BMS. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Pragmatically on the sense of taste - a short treatise based on culinary art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waluga, Marek; Jonderko, Krzysztof; Buschhaus, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    The sense of taste is essential for proper functioning of the organism. The authors describe, in an accessible way, the complex mechanisms of taste perception. The structure of particular taste receptors, variants of their activation, as well as physical and chemical factors modifying the sensation of taste, are presented. Exquisite culinary examples are given in order to facilitate the reader with the understanding of why, at the level of the cerebral cortex, a virtually infinite number of combinations of taste sensations can be perceived. The discourse is spiced up by reflections of the eminent philosopher of taste, J.A. Brillat-Savarin, who convinces us that food intake should be not only a physiological act, but also a refined pleasure.

  8. 27 CFR 25.192 - Removal of sour or damaged beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... beer. 25.192 Section 25.192 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Removal of Beer Unfit for Beverage Use § 25.192 Removal of sour or damaged beer. (a) Containers. The brewer shall remove sour or...

  9. Some effects of winter grazing of Dohne sour veld | PF | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The utilisation of spared sour veld poses practical problems. As a result of the development of high level protein or nitrogen supplements it has however become possible to efficiently graze spared veld. Results of experiments during three winters where spared sour veld was grazed off either by sheep or by cattle are given.

  10. Effect of adding sour yoghurt and dough as bacterial inoculant on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inoculation of whole-crop corn with sourdough and sour yoghurt significantly decreased pH, ash content and ammonia nitrogen, while dry matter determined using toloen distillation (DMT), Flieg point, crude protein (CP), and total nitrogen increased (P<0.05). Key words: Silage, sour yoghurt, sourdough, corn forage.

  11. Evaluation and improvement of sour property packages in UniSim design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J.; Zhao, E.; Wang, L.; Saha, S. [Honeywell, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation described specialty fluid packages for modeling oil and gas process systems involving sour gases in contact with aqueous phase. UniSim Design is a popular process simulation tool in the oil and gas industry. The sour Peng-Robinson (PR) and sour Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) models are commonly used for handling sour system where hydrogen sulphide (H{sub 2}S), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) or ammonia (NH{sub 3}) are in contact with an aqueous phase. These sour options combine the PR/SRK equation of state and Wilson's API-sour model where the equation of state is used to determine the fugacities of the vapor and liquid hydrocarbon phases, plus the enthalpy for all 3 phases. The Wilson's API-sour method is used for the aqueous phase calculations, which accounts for the ionization of H{sub 2}S, CO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} in the aqueous phase. The efficiency of these 2 thermodynamic property packages were evaluated in this study by comparing industrial and experimental data and the results from other similar models. The purpose of this study was to improve these property packages for more accurate and reliable modeling of sour systems. tabs., figs.

  12. Bioelectronic tongue of taste buds on microelectrode array for salt sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingjun; Zhang, Fenni; Zhang, Diming; Hu, Ning; Wang, Hua; Hsia, K Jimmy; Wang, Ping

    2013-02-15

    Taste has received great attention for its potential applications. In this work, we combine the biological tissue with micro-chips to establish a novel bioelectronic tongue system for salt taste detection. Before experiment, we established a computational model of action potential in salt taste receptor cell, simulating the responsive results to natural salt stimuli of NaCl solution with various concentrations. Then 36-channel microelectrode arrays (MEA) with the diameter of 30 μm were fabricated on the glass substrate, and taste epithelium was stripped from rat and fixed on MEA. When stimulated by the salt stimuli, electrophysiological activities of taste receptor cells in taste buds were measured through a multi-channel recording system. Both simulation and experiment results showed a dose-dependent increase in NaCl-induced potentials of taste receptor cells, which indicated good applications in salt measurements. The multi-channel analysis demonstrated that different groups of MEA channels were activated during stimulations, indicating non-overlapping populations of receptor cells in taste buds involved in salt taste perception. The study provides an effective and reliable biosensor platform to help recognize and distinguish salt taste components. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Investigating animal health effects of sour gas acid forming emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of sour gas well blowout emissions on livestock are reviewed. Guidelines for safe drilling operations in hydrogen sulfide environments, general hazards and characteristics of hydrogen sulfide, and guidelines for field investigation into the effects of sour gas and acid emissions on livestock are discussed. A case history involving the Ross No. 2 gas well blowout of July 1985 in Rankin County, Mississippi is presented. The blowout lasted for 72 days, and at peak discharge the 500 ppM radius was ca 3.5 miles. A cattle embryo transplant operation located one half mile from the well was affected by the blowout. Examination by a local veterinarian of the cattle demonstrated eye irritation, epiphora, nasal discharge and coughing. After one and a half months of exposure, most animals showed clinical signs of a severe dry hacking cough, epiphora, dry rales over the thoracic inlet, and a bronchial popping sound over the lateral thorax. All animals had eye irritation. Of 55 animals showing signs of respiratory distress and eye irritations, 15 were still clinically ill in May of 1986. 7 refs., 1 tab

  14. Sour and duke cherry viruses in South-West Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo PÉREZ-SÁNCHEZ

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the phytosanitary status of sour and duke cherry genetic resources in the Iberian Peninsula, and the incidence and leaf symptoms induced by the Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV, Prune dwarf virus (PDV and Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV. Young leaf samples were taken from 204 sour and duke cherry trees belonging to ten cultivars, and were assayed by DAS-ELISA. Samples positive for any of the three viruses were also tested by RT-PCR. To associate the leaf symptoms with virus presence, 50 mature leaves from each infected tree were visually inspected during the summer. The ELISA and RT-PCR results indicated that 63% of the cherry trees were infected by at least one of these viruses. PNRSV occurred in all cultivars sampled and presented the highest infection rate (46%, followed by PDV (31% and ACLSV (6%. Many trees, (60 to 100%, were asymptomatic while harbouring single and mixed virus infections. The leaf symptoms associated with the viruses included chlorotic and dark brown necrotic ringspots on secondary veins and interveinal regions, for PNRSV, generalized chlorosis around the midveins, for PDV, chlorotic and reddish necrotic ringspots, for ACLSV, and generalized interveinal chlorosis, for mixed PNRSV and PDVinfections.

  15. Calcium Signaling in Taste Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medler, Kathryn F.

    2014-01-01

    The sense of taste is a common ability shared by all organisms and is used to detect nutrients as well as potentially harmful compounds. Thus taste is critical to survival. Despite its importance, surprisingly little is known about the mechanisms generating and regulating responses to taste stimuli. All taste responses depend on calcium signals to generate appropriate responses which are relayed to the brain. Some taste cells have conventional synapses and rely on calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels. Other taste cells lack these synapses and depend on calcium release to formulate an output signal through a hemichannel. Beyond establishing these characteristics, few studies have focused on understanding how these calcium signals are formed. We identified multiple calcium clearance mechanisms that regulate calcium levels in taste cells as well as a calcium influx that contributes to maintaining appropriate calcium homeostasis in these cells. Multiple factors regulate the evoked taste signals with varying roles in different cell populations. Clearly, calcium signaling is a dynamic process in taste cells and is more complex than has previously been appreciated. PMID:25450977

  16. Use of Multi-Intake Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) to Evaluate the Influence of Cheese on Wine Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galmarini, Mara V; Loiseau, Anne-Laure; Visalli, Michel; Schlich, Pascal

    2016-10-01

    Though the gastronomic sector recommends certain wine-cheese associations, there is little sensory evidence on how cheese influences the perception of wine. It was the aim of this study to dynamically characterize 4 wines as they would be perceived when consumed with and without cheese. The tasting protocol was based on multi-intake temporal dominance of sensations (TDS) coupled with hedonic rating. In the 1st session, 31 French wine and cheese consumers evaluated the wines (Pacherenc, Sancerre, Bourgogne, and Madiran) over 3 consecutive sips. In the following sessions, they performed the same task, but eating small portions of cheese (Epoisses, Comté, Roquefort, Crottin de Chavignol) between sips. All cheeses were tasted with all wines over 4 sessions. TDS data were mainly analyzed in terms of each attribute's duration of dominance by analysis of variance, multivariate analysis of variance, and canonical variate analysis. Results showed that cheese consumption had an impact (P < 0.1) on dominance duration of attributes and on preference for most wines. For example, in Madiran, all cheeses reduced dominance duration (P < 0.01) of astringency and sourness and increased duration of red fruit aroma. Although the number of consumers was small to make extended general conclusions on wine's preference, significant changes were observed before and after cheese intake. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  17. Clofibrate inhibits the umami-savory taste of glutamate

    OpenAIRE

    Kochem, Matthew; Breslin, Paul A. S.

    2017-01-01

    In humans, umami taste can increase the palatability of foods rich in the amino acids glutamate and aspartate and the 5'-ribonucleotides IMP and GMP. Umami taste is transduced, in part, by T1R1-T1R3, a heteromeric G-protein coupled receptor. Umami perception is inhibited by sodium lactisole, which binds to the T1R3 subunit in vitro. Lactisole is structurally similar to the fibrate drugs. Clofibric acid, a lipid lowering drug, also binds the T1R3 subunit in vitro. The purpose of this study was...

  18. Amiloride-sensitive channels in type I fungiform taste cells in mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clapp Tod R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taste buds are the sensory organs of taste perception. Three types of taste cells have been described. Type I cells have voltage-gated outward currents, but lack voltage-gated inward currents. These cells have been presumed to play only a support role in the taste bud. Type II cells have voltage-gated Na+ and K+ current, and the receptors and transduction machinery for bitter, sweet, and umami taste stimuli. Type III cells have voltage-gated Na+, K+, and Ca2+ currents, and make prominent synapses with afferent nerve fibers. Na+ salt transduction in part involves amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs. In rodents, these channels are located in taste cells of fungiform papillae on the anterior part of the tongue innervated by the chorda tympani nerve. However, the taste cell type that expresses ENaCs is not known. This study used whole cell recordings of single fungiform taste cells of transgenic mice expressing GFP in Type II taste cells to identify the taste cells responding to amiloride. We also used immunocytochemistry to further define and compare cell types in fungiform and circumvallate taste buds of these mice. Results Taste cell types were identified by their response to depolarizing voltage steps and their presence or absence of GFP fluorescence. TRPM5-GFP taste cells expressed large voltage-gated Na+ and K+ currents, but lacked voltage-gated Ca2+ currents, as expected from previous studies. Approximately half of the unlabeled cells had similar membrane properties, suggesting they comprise a separate population of Type II cells. The other half expressed voltage-gated outward currents only, typical of Type I cells. A single taste cell had voltage-gated Ca2+ current characteristic of Type III cells. Responses to amiloride occurred only in cells that lacked voltage-gated inward currents. Immunocytochemistry showed that fungiform taste buds have significantly fewer Type II cells expressing PLC signalling

  19. The taste of desserts' packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeeke, C J; Peters, M E

    1991-10-01

    This article reports an experiment on expressing the behavioural meaning of designed objects. Can a designer express the taste of a desert in the form of its packaging and can consumers match these forms when tasting the desserts? Analysis of responses of 12 adults indicates positive answers to these questions.

  20. Tasting Wine: A Learning Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Tanya J.; Donaldson, Jilleen A.; Harry, Emma

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a field trip by senior undergraduate anthropology students to a local winery, where they participated in a wine-tasting class with winery staff. In response to explicit hints from a wine-tasting facilitator, and more subtle cues from the cultural capital embedded in their surroundings and the winery staff, the students…

  1. A Physiologic Role for Serotonergic Transmission in Adult Rat Taste Buds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Luc; Zhao, Fang-li; Kolli, Tamara; Herness, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Of the multiple neurotransmitters and neuropeptides expressed in the mammalian taste bud, serotonin remains both the most studied and least understood. Serotonin is expressed in a subset of taste receptor cells that form synapses with afferent nerve fibers (type III cells) and was once thought to be essential to neurotransmission (now understood as purinergic). However, the discovery of the 5-HT1A serotonin receptor in a subset of taste receptor cells paracrine to type III cell suggested a role in cell-to-cell communication during the processing of taste information. Functional data describing this role are lacking. Using anatomical and neurophysiological techniques, this study proposes a modulatory role for serotonin during the processing of taste information. Double labeling immunocytochemical and single cell RT-PCR technique experiments documented that 5-HT1A-expressing cells co-expressed markers for type II cells, cells which express T1R or T2R receptors and release ATP. These cells did not co-express type III cells markers. Neurophysiological recordings from the chorda tympani nerve, which innervates anterior taste buds, were performed prior to and during intravenous injection of a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist. These experiments revealed that serotonin facilitates processing of taste information for tastants representing sweet, sour, salty, and bitter taste qualities. On the other hand, injection of ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, was without effect. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that serotonin is a crucial element in a finely-tuned feedback loop involving the 5-HT1A receptor, ATP, and purinoceptors. It is hypothesized that serotonin facilitates gustatory signals by regulating the release of ATP through ATP-release channels possibly through phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate resynthesis. By doing so, 5-HT1A activation prevents desensitization of post-synaptic purinergic receptors expressed on afferent nerve fibers and enhances the

  2. A physiologic role for serotonergic transmission in adult rat taste buds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Jaber

    Full Text Available Of the multiple neurotransmitters and neuropeptides expressed in the mammalian taste bud, serotonin remains both the most studied and least understood. Serotonin is expressed in a subset of taste receptor cells that form synapses with afferent nerve fibers (type III cells and was once thought to be essential to neurotransmission (now understood as purinergic. However, the discovery of the 5-HT1A serotonin receptor in a subset of taste receptor cells paracrine to type III cell suggested a role in cell-to-cell communication during the processing of taste information. Functional data describing this role are lacking. Using anatomical and neurophysiological techniques, this study proposes a modulatory role for serotonin during the processing of taste information. Double labeling immunocytochemical and single cell RT-PCR technique experiments documented that 5-HT1A-expressing cells co-expressed markers for type II cells, cells which express T1R or T2R receptors and release ATP. These cells did not co-express type III cells markers. Neurophysiological recordings from the chorda tympani nerve, which innervates anterior taste buds, were performed prior to and during intravenous injection of a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist. These experiments revealed that serotonin facilitates processing of taste information for tastants representing sweet, sour, salty, and bitter taste qualities. On the other hand, injection of ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, was without effect. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that serotonin is a crucial element in a finely-tuned feedback loop involving the 5-HT1A receptor, ATP, and purinoceptors. It is hypothesized that serotonin facilitates gustatory signals by regulating the release of ATP through ATP-release channels possibly through phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate resynthesis. By doing so, 5-HT1A activation prevents desensitization of post-synaptic purinergic receptors expressed on afferent nerve fibers

  3. A physiologic role for serotonergic transmission in adult rat taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Luc; Zhao, Fang-li; Kolli, Tamara; Herness, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Of the multiple neurotransmitters and neuropeptides expressed in the mammalian taste bud, serotonin remains both the most studied and least understood. Serotonin is expressed in a subset of taste receptor cells that form synapses with afferent nerve fibers (type III cells) and was once thought to be essential to neurotransmission (now understood as purinergic). However, the discovery of the 5-HT1A serotonin receptor in a subset of taste receptor cells paracrine to type III cell suggested a role in cell-to-cell communication during the processing of taste information. Functional data describing this role are lacking. Using anatomical and neurophysiological techniques, this study proposes a modulatory role for serotonin during the processing of taste information. Double labeling immunocytochemical and single cell RT-PCR technique experiments documented that 5-HT1A-expressing cells co-expressed markers for type II cells, cells which express T1R or T2R receptors and release ATP. These cells did not co-express type III cells markers. Neurophysiological recordings from the chorda tympani nerve, which innervates anterior taste buds, were performed prior to and during intravenous injection of a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist. These experiments revealed that serotonin facilitates processing of taste information for tastants representing sweet, sour, salty, and bitter taste qualities. On the other hand, injection of ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, was without effect. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that serotonin is a crucial element in a finely-tuned feedback loop involving the 5-HT1A receptor, ATP, and purinoceptors. It is hypothesized that serotonin facilitates gustatory signals by regulating the release of ATP through ATP-release channels possibly through phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate resynthesis. By doing so, 5-HT1A activation prevents desensitization of post-synaptic purinergic receptors expressed on afferent nerve fibers and enhances the

  4. A review of the implications of sour gas setbacks on the ability to develop property : public safety and sour gas recommendation 53

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    All sour gas facilities in Alberta have a required setback, which is the minimum distance that must be maintained between the energy facility and a dwelling, rural housing development, urban centre or public facility. The size of the setback depends on the classification levels of the sour gas facilities. This paper reviewed the economic implications of sour gas setback restrictions for landowners with reference to Recommendation 53. The methodology of the study included a telephone and electronic mail survey to prequalify municipalities, cities and towns located in the sour gas producing regions of Alberta and the selection of 11 cases for further detailed analysis. The findings of the survey and case studies were then used to examine whether landowners were treated fairly in cases where a setback impact occurred. The frequency of setback incidents was described as common by 13 jurisdictions, occasional by 33 jurisdictions and as emerging by 30 jurisdictions. Results indicated that impacts on property development due to sour gas setbacks were widespread across the province. Observed mitigation measures included the modification of development plans by landowners to avoid setback restrictions; encouraging land development proposals away from areas known to have sour gas activity; and the oil and gas industry working with landowners to locate proposed facilities in order to minimize setback restrictions. Results of the survey suggested that ineffective communication was the predominant factor leading to conflicts, particularly when parties were not familiar with setback requirements or the implications for property development. It was suggested that policy makers should aim to reduce the number of conflicts between sour gas setbacks and property development. Recommendations to improve communication included closing gaps in regulations, processes and practices; and reducing surface and subsurface interface conflicts. 9 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  5. DEVELOPING A SENSE OF TASTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapsimali, Marika; Barlow, Linda A.

    2012-01-01

    Taste buds are found in a distributed array on the tongue surface, and are innervated by cranial nerves that convey taste information to the brain. For nearly a century, taste buds were thought to be induced by nerves late in embryonic development. However, this view has shifted dramatically. A host of studies now indicate that taste bud development is initiated and proceeds via processes that are nerve-independent, occur long before birth, and governed by cellular and molecular mechanisms intrinsic to the developing tongue. Here we review the state of our understanding of the molecular and cellular regulation of taste bud development, incorporating important new data obtained through the use of two powerful genetic systems, mouse and zebrafish. PMID:23182899

  6. Taste and hypertension in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roura, Eugeni; Foster, Simon; Winklebach, Anja

    2016-01-01

    The association between salty taste and NaCl intake with hypertension is well-established, although it is far from completely understood. Other taste types such as sweet, umami or bitter have also been related to alterations in blood pressure. Here, we review the mutual relationship between taste...... and hypertension to identify potential avenues to better control blood pressure. This review focuses on published data involving humans, with the exception of a section on molecular mechanisms. There is compelling evidence to suggest that changes in salty taste sensitivity can be used to predict the onset...... of hypertension. This goes hand in hand with the medical concept of sodium sensitivity, which also increases with age, particularly in hypertensive patients. The association of hypertension with the loss of taste acuity less definitive with some data/conclusions masked by the use of anti-hypertensive drugs...

  7. Limited taste discrimination in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masek, Pavel; Scott, Kristin

    2010-08-17

    In the gustatory systems of mammals and flies, different populations of sensory cells recognize different taste modalities, such that there are cells that respond selectively to sugars and others to bitter compounds. This organization readily allows animals to distinguish compounds of different modalities but may limit the ability to distinguish compounds within one taste modality. Here, we developed a behavioral paradigm in Drosophila melanogaster to evaluate directly the tastes that a fly distinguishes. These studies reveal that flies do not discriminate among different sugars, or among different bitter compounds, based on chemical identity. Instead, flies show a limited ability to distinguish compounds within a modality based on intensity or palatability. Taste associative learning, similar to olfactory learning, requires the mushroom bodies, suggesting fundamental similarities in brain mechanisms underlying behavioral plasticity. Overall, these studies provide insight into the discriminative capacity of the Drosophila gustatory system and the modulation of taste behavior.

  8. Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Sour Cherries Characterized by Different In Vitro Antioxidant Power and Polyphenolic Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Nóra; Blázovics, Anna; Fébel, Hedvig; Salido, Sofía; Altarejos, Joaquín; Fehér, Erzsébet; Kocsis, Ibolya; Szentmihályi, Klára; Abrankó, László; Hegedűs, Attila; Stefanovits-Bányai, Éva

    2015-12-01

    The aims of the present study were to clarify in vivo effects of three sour cherry cultivars characterized by different polyphenolic composition in hyperlipidemic animals in a short term experiment. The three different sour cherry cultivars were chosen based on their total in vitro antioxidant capacity, total polyphenolic, monomeric anthocyanin and flavonoid content. Male Wistar rats were divided randomly into eight groups: rats kept on normal diet (control) and normal diet supplied with sour cherry powder of one of the three cultivars; others were kept on fat-rich diet and fat-rich diet supplied with sour cherry powder prepared from one of the three cultivars. The treatment lasted 10 days. Lyophilized sour cherry administered in the diet decreased both total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels, and increased the HDL cholesterol concentration in sera of hyperlipidemic animals. Significant differences were found in the efficacy of different sour cherry cultivars in case of hyperlipidemia. Sour cherries characterized by higher polyphenol content seem to have a more pronounced effect on serum cholesterol levels. Our results suggest that besides anthocyanins, colourless polyphenols also have lipid lowering effect.

  9. Compact type mutants in apple and sour cherries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagaja, S.W.; Przybyla, A.

    1976-01-01

    Induction of mutations in deciduous fruits is considered complementary to the conventional breeding methods. Several promissing mutants, particularly in apples, were described and some of them were introduced to commercial orchards. Studies described herein are aimed at developing compact type mutants in apple cultivars, apple rootstocks and in sour cherry cultivars. Data obtained so far confirm the results of the other authors, who developed compact type mutants in apples and sweet cherries. Physiological studies have shown that the leaves of spontaneous apple mutants of compact type are more efficient in photosynthesis than the leaves of respective standards. In spite of this, using branch ringing techniques, it was found that the leaves of compacts and those of standards do not differ in their productivity. There seem to be several advantages in employing tissue culture technique in mutation breeding. That is why a project was started to work out a method of growing apple shoots from adventitious buds developed on sections of roots. (author)

  10. Altered lipid and salt taste responsivity in ghrelin and GOAT null mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Cai

    Full Text Available Taste perception plays an important role in regulating food preference, eating behavior and energy homeostasis. Taste perception is modulated by a variety of factors, including gastric hormones such as ghrelin. Ghrelin can regulate growth hormone release, food intake, adiposity, and energy metabolism. Octanoylation of ghrelin by ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT is a specific post-translational modification which is essential for many biological activities of ghrelin. Ghrelin and GOAT are both widely expressed in many organs including the gustatory system. In the current study, overall metabolic profiles were assessed in wild-type (WT, ghrelin knockout (ghrelin(-/-, and GOAT knockout (GOAT(-/- mice. Ghrelin(-/- mice exhibited decreased food intake, increased plasma triglycerides and increased ketone bodies compared to WT mice while demonstrating WT-like body weight, fat composition and glucose control. In contrast GOAT(-/- mice exhibited reduced body weight, adiposity, resting glucose and insulin levels compared to WT mice. Brief access taste behavioral tests were performed to determine taste responsivity in WT, ghrelin(-/- and GOAT(-/- mice. Ghrelin and GOAT null mice possessed reduced lipid taste responsivity. Furthermore, we found that salty taste responsivity was attenuated in ghrelin(-/- mice, yet potentiated in GOAT(-/- mice compared to WT mice. Expression of the potential lipid taste regulators Cd36 and Gpr120 were reduced in the taste buds of ghrelin and GOAT null mice, while the salt-sensitive ENaC subunit was increased in GOAT(-/- mice compared with WT mice. The altered expression of Cd36, Gpr120 and ENaC may be responsible for the altered lipid and salt taste perception in ghrelin(-/- and GOAT(-/- mice. The data presented in the current study potentially implicates ghrelin signaling activity in the modulation of both lipid and salt taste modalities.

  11. A taste of cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verde, L.

    2011-01-01

    This is the summary of two lectures that aim to give an overview of cosmology. I will not try to be toa rigorous in derivations, nor to give a full historical overview. The idea is to provide a 'taste' of cosmology and some of the interesting topics it covers. The standard cosmological model is presented and I highlight the successes of cosmology over the past decade or so. Keys to the development of the standard cosmological model are observations of the cosmic microwave background and of large-scale structure, which are introduced. Inflation and dark energy and the outlook for the future are also discussed. Slides from the lectures are available from the school web site: physicschool.web.cern.ch/PhysicSchool/CLASHEP/CLASHEP2011/. (author)

  12. A Taste of Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Verde, L.

    2013-06-27

    This is the summary of two lectures that aim to give an overview of cosmology. I will not try to be too rigorous in derivations, nor to give a full historical overview. The idea is to provide a "taste" of cosmology and some of the interesting topics it covers. The standard cosmological model is presented and I highlight the successes of cosmology over the past decade or so. Keys to the development of the standard cosmological model are observations of the cosmic microwave background and of large-scale structure, which are introduced. Inflation and dark energy and the outlook for the future are also discussed. Slides from the lectures are available from the school website: physicschool.web.cern.ch/PhysicSchool/CLASHEP/CLASHEP2011/.

  13. Does Zinc Sulfate Prevent Therapy-Induced Taste Alterations in Head and Neck Cancer Patients? Results of Phase III Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial from the North Central Cancer Treatment Group (N01C4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halyard, Michele Y.; Jatoi, Aminah; Sloan, Jeff A.; Bearden, James D.; Vora, Sujay A.; Atherton, Pamela J.; Perez, Edith A.; Soori, Gammi; Zalduendo, Anthony C.; Zhu, Angela; Stella, Philip J.; Loprinzi, Charles L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Taste alterations (dysgeusia) are well described in head and neck cancer patients who undergo radiotherapy (RT). Anecdotal observations and pilot studies have suggested zinc may mitigate these symptoms. This multi-institutional, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to provide definitive evidence of this mineral's palliative efficacy. Methods and Materials: A total of 169 evaluable patients were randomly assigned to zinc sulfate 45 mg orally three times daily vs. placebo. Treatment was to be given throughout RT and for 1 month after. All patients were scheduled to receive ≥2,000 cGy of external beam RT to ≥30% of the oral cavity, were able to take oral medication, and had no oral thrush at study entry. Changes in taste were assessed using the previously validated Wickham questionnaire. Results: At baseline, the groups were comparable in age, gender, and planned radiation dose (<6,000 vs. ≥6,000 cGy). Overall, 61 zinc-treated (73%) and 71 placebo-exposed (84%) patients described taste alterations during the first 2 months (p = 0.16). The median interval to taste alterations was 2.3 vs. 1.6 weeks in the zinc-treated and placebo-exposed patients, respectively (p = 0.09). The reported taste alterations included the absence of any taste (16%), bitter taste (8%), salty taste (5%), sour taste (4%), sweet taste (5%), and the presence of a metallic taste (10%), as well as other descriptions provided by a write in response (81%). Zinc sulfate did not favorably affect the interval to taste recovery. Conclusion: Zinc sulfate, as prescribed in this trial, did not prevent taste alterations in cancer patients who were undergoing RT to the oral pharynx

  14. Discrete innervation of murine taste buds by peripheral taste neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Faisal N; Whitehead, Mark C

    2006-08-09

    The peripheral taste system likely maintains a specific relationship between ganglion cells that signal a particular taste quality and taste bud cells responsive to that quality. We have explored a measure of the receptoneural relationship in the mouse. By injecting single fungiform taste buds with lipophilic retrograde neuroanatomical markers, the number of labeled geniculate ganglion cells innervating single buds on the tongue were identified. We found that three to five ganglion cells innervate a single bud. Injecting neighboring buds with different color markers showed that the buds are primarily innervated by separate populations of geniculate cells (i.e., multiply labeled ganglion cells are rare). In other words, each taste bud is innervated by a population of neurons that only connects with that bud. Palate bud injections revealed a similar, relatively exclusive receptoneural relationship. Injecting buds in different regions of the tongue did not reveal a topographic representation of buds in the geniculate ganglion, despite a stereotyped patterned arrangement of fungiform buds as rows and columns on the tongue. However, ganglion cells innervating the tongue and palate were differentially concentrated in lateral and rostral regions of the ganglion, respectively. The principal finding that small groups of ganglion cells send sensory fibers that converge selectively on a single bud is a new-found measure of specific matching between the two principal cellular elements of the mouse peripheral taste system. Repetition of the experiments in the hamster showed a more divergent innervation of buds in this species. The results indicate that whatever taste quality is signaled by a murine geniculate ganglion neuron, that signal reflects the activity of cells in a single taste bud.

  15. Advanced technologies for manufacturing high strength sour grade UOE line pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Kenji; Omura, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Nobuaki; Minato, Izuru; Yamamoto, Akio [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Kashima, (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    A new kind of high strength pipeline has been manufactured for sour service in offshore pipelines. This paper first presents a review of developments in manufacturing technology to improve sour resistance. This was particularly the case with Grade UOE line pipe. The improvement was achieved by optimizing the continuous casting process, monitoring the shape of inclusions (such as MnS, CaS, Al2O3, CaO-Al2O3) and decreasing coarse precipitates (Nb(C,N), TiN). The study then used the HIC evaluation method to determine hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) resistance of the material and HAZ test for sulfide stress cracking (SSC) resistance. The evaluation of the NACE TM0284 solution A showed that these pipelines are able to resist severe sour conditions because of good HIC and SSC resistance. Optimizing others components like alloying elements and the ACC process would improve sour resistance in future applications.

  16. Understanding taste dysfunction in patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Laura; Mahon, Suzanne M

    2012-04-01

    Taste dysfunction is a significant but underestimated issue for patients with cancer. Impaired taste results in changes in diet and appetite, early satiety, and impaired social interactions. Nurses can play a key role in educating patients and families on the pathophysiology of taste dysfunction by suggesting interventions to treat the consequences of taste dysfunction, when available, and offering psychosocial support as patients cope with this often devastating consequence of treatment. Taste recognition helps humans identify the nutritional quality of food and signals the digestive tract to begin secreting enzymes. Spoiled or tainted foods typically are recognized by their bad taste. Along with the other sensory systems, taste is crucial for helping patients treated for cancer feel normal. This article will review the anatomy and physiology of taste; define the different types of taste dysfunction, including the underlying pathophysiologic basis related to cancer treatment; and discuss potential nursing interventions to manage the consequences of taste dysfunction.

  17. Sweet taste receptor gene variation and aspartame taste in primates and other species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Bachmanov, Alexander A; Maehashi, Kenji; Li, Weihua; Lim, Raymond; Brand, Joseph G; Beauchamp, Gary K; Reed, Danielle R; Thai, Chloe; Floriano, Wely B

    2011-06-01

    Aspartame is a sweetener added to foods and beverages as a low-calorie sugar replacement. Unlike sugars, which are apparently perceived as sweet and desirable by a range of mammals, the ability to taste aspartame varies, with humans, apes, and Old World monkeys perceiving aspartame as sweet but not other primate species. To investigate whether the ability to perceive the sweetness of aspartame correlates with variations in the DNA sequence of the genes encoding sweet taste receptor proteins, T1R2 and T1R3, we sequenced these genes in 9 aspartame taster and nontaster primate species. We then compared these sequences with sequences of their orthologs in 4 other nontasters species. We identified 9 variant sites in the gene encoding T1R2 and 32 variant sites in the gene encoding T1R3 that distinguish aspartame tasters and nontasters. Molecular docking of aspartame to computer-generated models of the T1R2 + T1R3 receptor dimer suggests that species variation at a secondary, allosteric binding site in the T1R2 protein is the most likely origin of differences in perception of the sweetness of aspartame. These results identified a previously unknown site of aspartame interaction with the sweet receptor and suggest that the ability to taste aspartame might have developed during evolution to exploit a specialized food niche.

  18. Disorders of Smell and Taste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... RESOURCES Medical Societies Patient Education About this Website Font Size + - Home > CONDITIONS > Disorders of Smell & Taste Adult ... permanent smell loss. Patients who have had this type of loss describe immediate burning sensation when using ...

  19. Acquiring taste in home economics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbak Larsen, Christian

    Objective: To explore how home economics was taught in Denmark before the recent Danish school reform, which also revised the objectives and content of home economics, naming it Food Knowledge (Madkundskab) Methods: Participant observation was done in home economic lessons in two case schools...... appreciated by the group of boys, and others again learned to stick with their idiosyncrasies when pressured by the teacher. Conclusions: Children were acquiring taste in the home economic lessons, but not only the kind of tastes that the teacher had planned for. This leads to reflections on the very complex...... process of taste acquiring and to a call for further research into taste acquiring in complex real life contexts as home economics lessons....

  20. Taste bud cells and nerves

    OpenAIRE

    武田,正子/内田,暢彦/鈴木,裕子; タケダ,マサコ/ウチダ,ノブヒコ/スズキ,ユウコ; TAKEDA,Masako/UCHIDA,Nobuhiko/SUZUKI,Yuko

    2002-01-01

    Sectioning of glossopharyngeal nerves which innervate the taste buds in the circumvallate papillae caused apoptosis of taste buds, the numbers decreasing and the taste buds disappearing after 11 days. This indicates that gustatory nerves may release a trophic substance that induces and maintains taste buds. Taste bud cells contain neurotrophins, NCAM, NSE, PGP9.5, and NeuroD which are specific markers of neurons. The BDNF and GDNF of neurotrophins, and Trk B and GFRαl of their receptors were ...

  1. Clofibrate inhibits the umami-savory taste of glutamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochem, Matthew; Breslin, Paul A S

    2017-01-01

    In humans, umami taste can increase the palatability of foods rich in the amino acids glutamate and aspartate and the 5'-ribonucleotides IMP and GMP. Umami taste is transduced, in part, by T1R1-T1R3, a heteromeric G-protein coupled receptor. Umami perception is inhibited by sodium lactisole, which binds to the T1R3 subunit in vitro. Lactisole is structurally similar to the fibrate drugs. Clofibric acid, a lipid lowering drug, also binds the T1R3 subunit in vitro. The purpose of this study was to determine whether clofibric acid inhibits the umami taste of glutamate in human subjects. Ten participants rated the umami taste intensity elicited by 20 mM monosodium glutamate (MSG) mixed with varying concentrations of clofibric acid (0 to 16 mM). In addition, fourteen participants rated the effect of 1.4 mM clofibric acid on umami enhancement by 5' ribonucleotides. Participants were instructed to rate perceived intensity using a general Labeled Magnitude Scale (gLMS). Each participant was tested in triplicate. Clofibric acid inhibited umami taste intensity from 20 mM MSG in a dose dependent manner. Whereas MSG neat elicited "moderate" umami taste intensity, the addition of 16 mM clofibric acid elicited only "weak" umami intensity on average, and in some subjects no umami taste was elicited. We further show that 1.4 mM clofibric acid suppressed umami enhancement from GMP, but not from IMP. This study provides in vivo evidence that clofibric acid inhibits glutamate taste perception, presumably via T1R1-T1R3 inhibition, and lends further evidence that the T1R1-T1R3 receptor is the principal umami receptor in humans. T1R receptors are expressed extra-orally throughout the alimentary tract and in regulatory organs and are known to influence glucose and lipid metabolism. Whether clofibric acid as a lipid-lowering drug affects human metabolism, in part, through T1R inhibition warrants further examination.

  2. Quantitative analysis of taste bud cell numbers in fungiform and soft palate taste buds of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtubo, Yoshitaka; Yoshii, Kiyonori

    2011-01-07

    Mammalian taste bud cells (TBCs) consist of several cell types equipped with different taste receptor molecules, and hence the ratio of cell types in a taste bud constitutes the taste responses of the taste bud. Here we show that the population of immunohistochemically identified cell types per taste bud is proportional to the number of total TBCs in the taste bud or the area of the taste bud in fungiform papillae, and that the proportions differ among cell types. This result is applicable to soft palate taste buds. However, the density of almost all cell types, the population of cell types divided by the area of the respective taste buds, is significantly higher in soft palates. These results suggest that the turnover of TBCs is regulated to keep the ratio of each cell type constant, and that taste responsiveness is different between fungiform and soft palate taste buds. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of compact mutants in apple and sour cherry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagaja, S.W.; Przybyla, A.; Machnik, B.

    1982-01-01

    During the period 1973 - 79 studies were conducted with the aim of developing compact mutants in apple and cherry cultivars and in apple vegetative rootstocks. During the investigations the effect of the dose of gamma rays on frequency of the mutants was studied. Attempts were also made to evolve a micropropagation technique adapted to propagate P 2 and P 22 apple rootstocks, as an aid in mutation breeding. Several mutants were produced in all the material studied, but none of them have yet reached a sufficient developmental stage to enable their complete assessment. On the basis of the results obtained so far the following conclusions can be drawn: higher doses of irradiation resulted in higher frequency of mutants in most apple cultivars and apple rootstocks; in sour cherries the effect of dose depended on the cultivars. Among V 1 shoots developed from sleeping buds on irradiated scion wood, compact mutants were found; their frequency, however, was about 60% lower than among V 1 shoots developed directly from irradiated dormant buds. In apple rootstocks A 2 and M 26 several dwarfed mutants were found; some of these produced thorny plants and some had lower rooting ability; both these characteristics are inferior from the practical point of view. Multiplication and rooting media for in vitro propagation of apple rootstocks, worked out for M 26, were found unsuitable for the rootstocks P 2 and P 22; modifications made in the growth substance composition of the above media enabled satisfactory propagation to be obtained. (author)

  4. Precipitation hardened nickel-base alloys for sour gas environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, M.; Mukai, S.; Kudo, T.; Okada, Y.; Ikeda, A.

    1987-01-01

    SCC (Stress Corrosion Cracking) in sour gas environments of γ'(gamma prime: Ni/sub 3/(Ti and/or Al)) and γ''(gamma double prime: Ni/sub 3/Nb) precipitation hardened nickel-base alloys has been studied using the SSRT (Slow Strain Rate Tensile) test, anodic polarization measurement and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The γ'-type alloy containing Ti was more susceptible to SCC in the SSRT tests up to 350 0 F(450 K) than the γ''-type alloy containing Nb. The susceptibility to SCC was related to their deformation structures in terms of stress localization and sensitivity to pitting corrosion in H/sub 2/S solutions. TEM observation showed the γ'-type alloy deformed by the superlattice dislocations in coplanar structures. This mode of deformation induced the stress localization to some boundaries such as grain boundary and as a result the susceptibility to SCC of the γ'-type alloy was increased. On the other hand, the γ''-type alloy deformed by the massive dislocation not in coplanar structures so that it was less susceptible to SCC in terms of the stress localization. The anodic polarization measurement suggested the γ'-type alloy was more susceptible to pitting corrosion compared with the γ''-type alloy

  5. The Effect of Alcohol on the Nature of Lexical Representations in Different Taste Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Baskini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Moderate alcohol consumption may be involved in cognitive feedback mechanisms (Hofmann & Friese, 2008, participants execute verbal fluency test (VFT better (Cerhan et al., 1998 and there is positive association between sweet taste and excessive alcohol intake (Lange, Kampov-Polevoy, & Garbutt, 2010. We investigate the immediate pharmacological consequences of moderate to light alcohol consumption in verbal fluency and categorical sorting within the different taste domains (i.e. sweet, salty, sour and bitter. Our hypothesis is that subjects under the influence of light to moderate alcohol will produce more items in the sweet domain. 53 healthy adults had moderate alcohol consumption and were compared in two semantic tasks to 53 adults, who did not drink alcohol. Mann-Whitney U tests showed that the total number of clusters, switches, and repetitions were equal between the two groups in all taste domains (p-values: .211, .401, and .684 respectively. The number of responses in the alcohol group generated more disinhibiting intrusive words during the VFTs as compared to the control group (p-value: <.001. VFTs and the order of taste preference in the card-sorting task showed positive correlation and agreement. Light to moderate alcohol did not affect verbal fluency. However, participants under the influence of alcohol generated significantly more errors in the VFTs that were emotionally laden. This corroborates with research that certain emotions are innervated with taste domains. This leaves open question about the effects of alcohol on decision making in eating and executive functions as they relate to lexical representations.

  6. Qualitative analysis of MMI raters' scorings of medical school candidates: A matter of taste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Mette K; Lykkegaard, Eva; Lund, Ole; O'Neill, Lotte D

    2018-05-01

    Recent years have seen leading medical educationalists repeatedly call for a paradigm shift in the way we view, value and use subjectivity in assessment. The argument is that subjective expert raters generally bring desired quality, not just noise, to performance evaluations. While several reviews document the psychometric qualities of the Multiple Mini-Interview (MMI), we currently lack qualitative studies examining what we can learn from MMI raters' subjectivity. The present qualitative study therefore investigates rater subjectivity or taste in MMI selection interview. Taste (Bourdieu 1984) is a practical sense, which makes it possible at a pre-reflective level to apply 'invisible' or 'tacit' categories of perception for distinguishing between good and bad. The study draws on data from explorative in-depth interviews with 12 purposefully selected MMI raters. We find that MMI raters spontaneously applied subjective criteria-their taste-enabling them to assess the candidates' interpersonal attributes and to predict the candidates' potential. In addition, MMI raters seemed to share a taste for certain qualities in the candidates (e.g. reflectivity, resilience, empathy, contact, alikeness, 'the good colleague'); hence, taste may be the result of an ongoing enculturation in medical education and healthcare systems. This study suggests that taste is an inevitable condition in the assessment of students' performance. The MMI set-up should therefore make room for MMI raters' taste and their connoisseurship, i.e. their ability to taste, to improve the quality of their assessment of medical school candidates.

  7. Acid-sensing ion channels and transient-receptor potential ion channels in zebrafish taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levanti, M; Randazzo, B; Viña, E; Montalbano, G; Garcia-Suarez, O; Germanà, A; Vega, J A; Abbate, F

    2016-09-01

    Sensory information from the environment is required for life and survival, and it is detected by specialized cells which together make up the sensory system. The fish sensory system includes specialized organs that are able to detect mechanical and chemical stimuli. In particular, taste buds are small organs located on the tongue in terrestrial vertebrates that function in the perception of taste. In fish, taste buds occur on the lips, the flanks, and the caudal (tail) fins of some species and on the barbels of others. In fish taste receptor cells, different classes of ion channels have been detected which, like in mammals, presumably participate in the detection and/or transduction of chemical gustatory signals. However, since some of these ion channels are involved in the detection of additional sensory modalities, it can be hypothesized that taste cells sense stimuli other than those specific for taste. This mini-review summarizes current knowledge on the presence of transient-receptor potential (TRP) and acid-sensing (ASIC) ion channels in the taste buds of teleosts, especially adult zebrafish. Up to now ASIC4, TRPC2, TRPA1, TRPV1 and TRPV4 ion channels have been found in the sensory cells, while ASIC2 was detected in the nerves supplying the taste buds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. On the Emerging Role of the Taste Receptor Type 1 (T1R Family of Nutrient-Sensors in the Musculoskeletal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoichiro Kokabu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The special sense of taste guides and guards food intake and is essential for body maintenance. Salty and sour tastes are sensed via ion channels or gated ion channels while G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs of the taste receptor type 1 (T1R family sense sweet and umami tastes and GPCRs of the taste receptor type 2 (T2R family sense bitter tastes. T1R and T2R receptors share similar downstream signaling pathways that result in the stimulation of phospholipase-C-β2. The T1R family includes three members that form heterodimeric complexes to recognize either amino acids or sweet molecules such as glucose. Although these functions were originally described in gustatory tissue, T1R family members are expressed in numerous non-gustatory tissues and are now viewed as nutrient sensors that play important roles in monitoring global glucose and amino acid status. Here, we highlight emerging evidence detailing the function of T1R family members in the musculoskeletal system and review these findings in the context of the musculoskeletal diseases sarcopenia and osteoporosis, which are major public health problems among the elderly that affect locomotion, activities of daily living, and quality of life. These studies raise the possibility that T1R family member function may be modulated for therapeutic benefit.

  9. The Insula and Taste Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adonis Yiannakas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The sense of taste is a key component of the sensory machinery, enabling the evaluation of both the safety as well as forming associations regarding the nutritional value of ingestible substances. Indicative of the salience of the modality, taste conditioning can be achieved in rodents upon a single pairing of a tastant with a chemical stimulus inducing malaise. This robust associative learning paradigm has been heavily linked with activity within the insular cortex (IC, among other regions, such as the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex. A number of studies have demonstrated taste memory formation to be dependent on protein synthesis at the IC and to correlate with the induction of signaling cascades involved in synaptic plasticity. Taste learning has been shown to require the differential involvement of dopaminergic GABAergic, glutamatergic, muscarinic neurotransmission across an extended taste learning circuit. The subsequent activation of downstream protein kinases (ERK, CaMKII, transcription factors (CREB, Elk-1 and immediate early genes (c-fos, Arc, has been implicated in the regulation of the different phases of taste learning. This review discusses the relevant neurotransmission, molecular signaling pathways and genetic markers involved in novel and aversive taste learning, with a particular focus on the IC. Imaging and other studies in humans have implicated the IC in the pathophysiology of a number of cognitive disorders. We conclude that the IC participates in circuit-wide computations that modulate the interception and encoding of sensory information, as well as the formation of subjective internal representations that control the expression of motivated behaviors.

  10. Effects of visual priming on taste-odor interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marije van Beilen

    Full Text Available Little is known about the influence of visual characteristics other than colour on flavor perception, and the complex interactions between more than two sensory modalities. This study focused on the effects of recognizability of visual (texture information on flavor perception of odorized sweet beverages. Participants rated the perceived sweetness of odorized sucrose solutions in the presence or absence of either a congruent or incongruent visual context. Odors were qualitatively reminiscent of sweet foods (strawberry and caramel or not (savoury. Visual context was either an image of the same sweet foods (figurative context or a visual texture derived from this product (non-figurative context. Textures were created using a texture synthesis method that preserved perceived food qualities while removing object information. Odor-taste combinations were rated sweeter within a figurative than a non-figurative context. This behaviour was exhibited for all odor-taste combinations, even in trials without images, indicating sustained priming by figurative visual context. A non-figurative context showed a transient sweetening effect. Sweetness was generally enhanced most by the strawberry odor. We conclude that the degree of recognizability of visual information (figurative versus non-figurative, influences flavor perception differently. Our results suggest that this visual context priming is mediated by separate sustained and transient processes that are differently evoked by figurative and non-figurative visual contexts. These components operate independent of the congruency of the image-odor-taste combinations.

  11. Lipid-Lowering Pharmaceutical Clofibrate Inhibits Human Sweet Taste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochem, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    T1R2-T1R3 is a heteromeric receptor that binds sugars, high potency sweeteners, and sweet taste blockers. In rodents, T1R2-T1R3 is largely responsible for transducing sweet taste perception. T1R2-T1R3 is also expressed in non-taste tissues, and a growing body of evidence suggests that it helps regulate glucose and lipid metabolism. It was previously shown that clofibric acid, a blood lipid-lowering drug, binds T1R2-T1R3 and inhibits its activity in vitro. The purpose of this study was to determine whether clofibric acid inhibits sweetness perception in humans and is, therefore, a T1R2-T1R3 antagonist in vivo. Fourteen participants rated the sweetness intensity of 4 sweeteners (sucrose, sucralose, Na cyclamate, acesulfame K) across a broad range of concentrations. Each sweetener was prepared in solution neat and in mixture with either clofibric acid or lactisole. Clofibric acid inhibited sweetness of every sweetener. Consistent with competitive binding, inhibition by clofibric acid was diminished with increasing sweetener concentration. This study provides in vivo evidence that the lipid-lowering drug clofibric acid inhibits sweetness perception and is, therefore, a T1R carbohydrate receptor inhibitor. Our results are consistent with previous in vitro findings. Given that T1R2-T1R3 may in part regulate glucose and lipid metabolism, future studies should investigate the metabolic effects of T1R inhibition. PMID:27742692

  12. Public safety and sour gas quarterly progress report October - December 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, V.; Lillo, H.; Craig, M.; Neilson, G.

    2003-01-01

    This third quarterly progress report for the business year 2002-2003 on the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) Public Safety and Sour Gas initiative covers projects based on the 87 recommendations made by the Provincial Advisory Committee on Public Safety and Sour Gas (Advisory Committee) in December 2000. As of December 2002, work has been completed on 16 recommendations and is proceeding on 50 recommendations. This report includes several tables indicating the status of recommendations as either complete or ongoing. The recommendation categories include: (1) sour gas development, planning and approval, (2) sour gas operations, (3) emergency preparedness, and (4) information, communication and consultation. The report also summarizes the health effects and sour gas research. Recommendations completed as of December 2002 include: plant proliferation; pre-license review of critical well license applications; license application training/certification information requirement; increase sour gas inspections; increase inspections of new and noncompliant operators; implement 100 per cent inspection rate for critical wells near people; response to sour gas complaints; enhance EUB capability to monitor for complaint response/compliance; complaint/incident response program for Aboriginal communities; interim policy on ERP review and reduced EPZs; infrastructure and resources for Aboriginal community ERP; field staff in industry-landowner discussions; EUB involvement in mediation of application issues; and, timely and meaningful public consultation for First Nations and Metis. Alberta Health and Wellness is currently evaluating the health effects of H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} and the work is near completion. Other ongoing work includes the development of a draft protocol to address the involvement of regional health authorities (RHAs), the early involvement of RHAs and other local government bodies, and a process for communication between the EUB field staff and

  13. Genetic and molecular characterization of three novel S-haplotypes in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Tatsuya; Potter, Daniel; Tao, Ryutaro; Vieira, Cristina P; Vieira, Jorge; Iezzoni, Amy F

    2008-01-01

    Tetraploid sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) exhibits gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) whereby the specificity of self-pollen rejection is controlled by alleles of the stylar and pollen specificity genes, S-RNase and SFB (S haplotype-specific F-box protein gene), respectively. As sour cherry selections can be either self-compatible (SC) or self-incompatible (SI), polyploidy per se does not result in SC. Instead the genotype-dependent loss of SI in sour cherry is due to the accumulation of non-functional S-haplotypes. The presence of two or more non-functional S-haplotypes within sour cherry 2x pollen renders that pollen SC. Two new S-haplotypes from sour cherry, S(33) and S(34), that are presumed to be contributed by the P. fruticosa species parent, the complete S-RNase and SFB sequences of a third S-haplotype, S(35), plus the presence of two previously identified sweet cherry S-haplotypes, S(14) and S(16) are described here. Genetic segregation data demonstrated that the S(16)-, S(33)-, S(34)-, and S(35)-haplotypes present in sour cherry are fully functional. This result is consistent with our previous finding that 'hetero-allelic' pollen is incompatible in sour cherry. Phylogenetic analyses of the SFB and S-RNase sequences from available Prunus species reveal that the relationships among S-haplotypes show no correspondence to known organismal relationships at any taxonomic level within Prunus, indicating that polymorphisms at the S-locus have been maintained throughout the evolution of the genus. Furthermore, the phylogenetic relationships among SFB sequences are generally incongruent with those among S-RNase sequences for the same S-haplotypes. Hypotheses compatible with these results are discussed.

  14. Instrumental measurement of beer taste attributes using an electronic tongue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Polshin, Evgeny; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Lammertyn, Jeroen; Nicolai, Bart; Saison, Daan; Delvaux, Freddy R.; Delvaux, Filip; Legin, Andrey

    2009-01-01

    The present study deals with the evaluation of the electronic tongue multisensor system as an analytical tool for the rapid assessment of taste and flavour of beer. Fifty samples of Belgian and Dutch beers of different types (lager beers, ales, wheat beers, etc.), which were characterized with respect to the sensory properties, were measured using the electronic tongue (ET) based on potentiometric chemical sensors developed in Laboratory of Chemical Sensors of St. Petersburg University. The analysis of the sensory data and the calculation of the compromise average scores was made using STATIS. The beer samples were discriminated using both sensory panel and ET data based on PCA, and both data sets were compared using Canonical Correlation Analysis. The ET data were related to the sensory beer attributes using Partial Least Square regression for each attribute separately. Validation was done based on a test set comprising one-third of all samples. The ET was capable of predicting with good precision 20 sensory attributes of beer including such as bitter, sweet, sour, fruity, caramel, artificial, burnt, intensity and body.

  15. Instrumental measurement of beer taste attributes using an electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Polshin, Evgeny; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Lammertyn, Jeroen; Nicolai, Bart; Saison, Daan; Delvaux, Freddy R; Delvaux, Filip; Legin, Andrey

    2009-07-30

    The present study deals with the evaluation of the electronic tongue multisensor system as an analytical tool for the rapid assessment of taste and flavour of beer. Fifty samples of Belgian and Dutch beers of different types (lager beers, ales, wheat beers, etc.), which were characterized with respect to the sensory properties, were measured using the electronic tongue (ET) based on potentiometric chemical sensors developed in Laboratory of Chemical Sensors of St. Petersburg University. The analysis of the sensory data and the calculation of the compromise average scores was made using STATIS. The beer samples were discriminated using both sensory panel and ET data based on PCA, and both data sets were compared using Canonical Correlation Analysis. The ET data were related to the sensory beer attributes using Partial Least Square regression for each attribute separately. Validation was done based on a test set comprising one-third of all samples. The ET was capable of predicting with good precision 20 sensory attributes of beer including such as bitter, sweet, sour, fruity, caramel, artificial, burnt, intensity and body.

  16. Instrumental measurement of beer taste attributes using an electronic tongue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudnitskaya, Alisa, E-mail: alisa.rudnitskaya@gmail.com [Chemistry Department, University of Aveiro, Aveiro (Portugal); Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Polshin, Evgeny [Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); BIOSYST/MeBioS, Catholic University of Leuven, W. De Croylaan 42, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Kirsanov, Dmitry [Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Lammertyn, Jeroen; Nicolai, Bart [BIOSYST/MeBioS, Catholic University of Leuven, W. De Croylaan 42, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Saison, Daan; Delvaux, Freddy R.; Delvaux, Filip [Centre for Malting and Brewing Sciences, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Heverelee (Belgium); Legin, Andrey [Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-30

    The present study deals with the evaluation of the electronic tongue multisensor system as an analytical tool for the rapid assessment of taste and flavour of beer. Fifty samples of Belgian and Dutch beers of different types (lager beers, ales, wheat beers, etc.), which were characterized with respect to the sensory properties, were measured using the electronic tongue (ET) based on potentiometric chemical sensors developed in Laboratory of Chemical Sensors of St. Petersburg University. The analysis of the sensory data and the calculation of the compromise average scores was made using STATIS. The beer samples were discriminated using both sensory panel and ET data based on PCA, and both data sets were compared using Canonical Correlation Analysis. The ET data were related to the sensory beer attributes using Partial Least Square regression for each attribute separately. Validation was done based on a test set comprising one-third of all samples. The ET was capable of predicting with good precision 20 sensory attributes of beer including such as bitter, sweet, sour, fruity, caramel, artificial, burnt, intensity and body.

  17. Explaining and predicting individually experienced liking of berry fractions by the hTAS2R38 taste receptor genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, Oskar; Ahola, Johanna; Sandell, Mari

    2013-02-01

    The roles of taste and astringent properties, food choice motives and health concerns in liking of bilberry and crowberry samples were studied using a sensory panel prescreened for the hTAS2R38 taste receptor genotype. The subjects rated the intensity of sourness, bitterness and two astringent properties (soft, velvety and rough, puckering) of all berry samples. They also scored the liking of juice fractions and completed a food choice motive and health concern questionnaire. Regression models were used to combine different data sets and to predict liking of the extracts. Sourness contributed positively to the liking of berry fractions, and bitterness and rough astringency were negative factors. The hTAS2R38 genotype affected the liking of polyphenol-rich extracts, which were significantly bitter and astringent. Based on the genotype grouping of subjects, PAV homozygotes gave lower ratings to the attributes than AVI homozygotes. In contrast, PAV homozygotes were predicted to dislike the extracts notably more than AVI homozygotes. Health concern and food choice motives related to health and weight control had significant roles in individual liking of juice fractions. Our results indicate that mood was more important to the PAV homozygotes than to the AVI homozygotes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Corrosion behaviour of steels and CRA in sour gas environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara, M. Alvarez de; Lancha, A.M.; Hernandez, F.; Gomez-Briceno, D. [CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Coca, P. [ELCOGAS, S.A., C.T. GICC Puertollano, Carretera de Calzada de Calatrava a Puertollano, km 27, 13500 Puertollano, Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    The ELCOGAS power plant in Puertollano (Spain), with 335 MWe (ISO conditions), is an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant built to demonstrate both the technical and economic feasibility of this alternative for clean generation of electricity from coal. IGCC technology is based on a coal gasification process, namely the conversion of coal into combustible gas, which is then subjected to an exhaustive cleaning process. The result is a synthetic gas, virtually free of pollutants that can be burned with a high efficiency in a combined cycle electricity-generating unit. Basically, the ELCOGAS plant consists of three islands jointly designed and integrated into the process: gasification island, air separation island and combined cycle island. In the gasification island, the gas from the gasifier is cleaned (de-dusted and washed) and desulfurized before being sent to the combined cycle island. The washing system consists of a Venturi scrubber with a separator where halogens and alkalis (NH{sub 3}, HCl, HF) are removed from the previously de-dusted gas by means of the wash water. The halogens and alkalis removed are then stripped from the wash water as stripped gas, which is a sour gas. The coal-gas coming from the separator proceeds to sulphur removal in a MDEA system and then, the clean gas (mainly CO, H{sub 2}) is sent to the combined cycle plant. As COS is a significant part of the sulphur containing gases in the coal gas, hydrolysis of the COS to H{sub 2}S takes place before the desulfurization stage, since MDEA is a selective amine for H{sub 2}S. There are many important areas related to materials corrosion within the gas cleaning system. In the ELCOGAS plant carbon steels, austenitic stainless steels and nickel based alloys, such as AISI 316Ti, AISI 904L and Hastelloy C276, are used in the Venturi, the water separator and the strippers. AISI 316Ti is used for the gas piping from the separator to the COS hydrolysis system. Laboratory tests to evaluate

  19. Polyphenols and Volatiles in Fruits of Two Sour Cherry Cultivars, Some Berry Fruits and Their Jams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Levaj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports about the content of polyphenols and volatiles in fresh fruits of two sour cherry cultivars (Marasca and Oblačinska, some berry fruits (strawberry Maya, raspberry Willamette and wild blueberry and the corresponding low sugar jams. Phenolic compounds (hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids, flavan 3-ols and flavonols were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Those found in the fruits were also found in the jams. Jams contained lower amounts of polyphenols than fresh fuits, but their overall retention in jams was relatively high. Among fruits, sour cherry Marasca had the highest level of polyphenols, while sour cherry Marasca jam and raspberry Willamette jam had the highest level of polyphenols among jams. The major flavonoid in all investigated fruits, except in sour cherry Oblačinska, was (–-epicatechin. Sour cherry Marasca had the highest level of (–-epicatechin (95.75 mg/kg, and it also contained very high amounts of flavonols, derivatives of quercetin and kaempferol. Hydroxybenzoic acids (HBAs were not found in sour cherries Marasca and Oblačinska, but were found in berry fruits and jams. Phenolic compound (+-gallocatechin was found only in Marasca fruit and jam. Ellagic acid was found in the highest concentration in raspberry Willamette fruit and jam. Hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs were found in all the investigated fruits, with the exception of a derivative of ferulic acid, which was not found in strawberry. Derivatives of caffeic, p-coumaric and chlorogenic acids were found in all the investigated fruits, with chlorogenic acid being the most abundant, especially in sour cherry Marasca. Volatiles were determined by gas chromatography (GC and expressed as the peak area of the identified compounds. All investigated volatiles of fresh fruit were also determined in the related jams with relatively high retention. Sour cherries Marasca and Oblačinska contained the same volatile compounds, but

  20. What is the role of metabolic hormones in taste buds of the tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Huan; Maudsley, Stuart; Martin, Bronwen

    2014-01-01

    Gustation is one of the important chemical senses that guides the organism to identify nutrition while avoiding toxic chemicals. An increasing number of metabolic hormones and/or hormone receptors have been identified in the taste buds of the tongue and are involved in modulating taste perception. The gustatory system constitutes an additional endocrine regulatory locus that affects food intake, and in turn whole-body energy homeostasis. Here we provide an overview of the main metabolic hormones known to be present in the taste buds of the tongue; discuss their potential functional roles in taste perception and energy homeostasis and how their functional integrity is altered in the metabolic imbalance status (obesity and diabetes) and aging process. Better understanding of the functional roles of metabolic hormones in flavor perception as well as the link between taste perception and peripheral metabolism may be vital for developing strategies to promote healthier eating and prevent obesity or lifestyle-related disorders. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Strategies to diagnose and control microbial souring in natural gas storage reservoirs and produced water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, E.A.; Derr, R.M.; Pope, D.H.

    1995-12-31

    Hydrogen sulfide production (souring) in natural gas storage reservoirs and produced water systems is a safety and environmental problem that can lead to operational shutdown when local hydrogen sulfide standards are exceeded. Systems affected by microbial souring have historically been treated using biocides that target the general microbial community. However, requirements for more environmentally friendly solutions have led to treatment strategies in which sulfide production can be controlled with minimal impact to the system and environment. Some of these strategies are based on microbial and/or nutritional augmentation of the sour environment. Through research sponsored by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) in Chicago, Illinois, methods have been developed for early detection of microbial souring in natural gas storage reservoirs, and a variety of mitigation strategies have been evaluated. The effectiveness of traditional biocide treatment in gas storage reservoirs was shown to depend heavily on the methods by which the chemical is applied. An innovative strategy using nitrate was tested and proved ideal for produced water and wastewater systems. Another strategy using elemental iodine was effective for sulfide control in evaporation ponds and is currently being tested in microbially sour natural gas storage wells.

  2. Bottled vs. Canned Beer: Do They Really Taste Different?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Barnett

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available People often say that beer tastes better from a bottle than from a can. However, one can ask how reliable this perceived difference is across consumers. And, if reliable, one can further ask whether it is a purely psychological phenomenon (associated with the influence of packaging on taste perception, or whether instead it reflects some more mundane physico-chemical interaction between the packaging material (or packing procedure/process and the contents. Two experiments were conducted in order to address these questions. In the main experiment, 151 participants at the 2016 Edinburgh Science Festival were served a special ‘craft beer’ in a plastic cup. The beer was either poured from a bottle or can (a between-participants experimental design was used. The participants were encouraged to pick up the packaging in order to inspect the label before tasting the beer. The participants rated the perceived taste, quality, and freshness of the beer, as well as their likelihood of purchase, and estimated the price. All of the beer came from the same batch (specifically a Session IPA from Barney’s Brewery in Edinburgh. None of the participants were familiar with this particular craft brew. Nevertheless, those who evaluated the beer from the bottle rated it as tasting better than those who rated the beer served from the can. Having demonstrated such a perceptual difference (in terms of taste, we then went on to investigate whether people would prefer one packaging format over the other when the beer from bottle and can was served blind to a new group of participants (i.e., when the participants did not know the packaging material. The participants in this control study (n = 29 were asked which beer they preferred. Alternatively, they could state that the two samples tasted the same. No sign of a consistent preference was obtained under such blind tasting conditions. Explanations for the psychological impact of the packaging format, in terms of

  3. Changes in taste bud volume during taste disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srur, Ehab; Pau, Hans Wilhelm; Just, Tino

    2011-08-01

    On-line mapping and serial volume measurements of taste buds with confocal laser scanning microscopy provide information on the peripheral gustatory organ over time. We report the volumetric measurements of four selected fungiform papillae over 8 weeks in a 62-year-old man with taste disturbance, which was more apparent on the right than on the left side. In the two papillae on the right side, no taste buds were detected within the fungiform papillae in the sixth and eighth week. During sixth and eighth week, there was no response to the highest presented stimuli in electrogustometry (1 mA) on the right-sided tongue tip nor at the tongue edge. The morphology (shape, diameter) of the fungiform papillae on both sides remained unchanged. Comparison of the time course of the volume changes revealed differences corresponding to gustatory sensitivity. These findings suggest that the time course of volume changes indicated taste disturbance in our patient, rather than morphological changes in the fungiform papillae. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Taste bud regeneration and the search for taste progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, H; Barlow, L A

    2010-06-01

    While the taste periphery has been studied for over a century, we are only beginning to understand how this important sensory system is maintained throughout adult life. With the advent of molecular genetics in rodent models, and the upswing in translational approaches that impact human patients, we expect the field will make significant advances in the near future.

  5. Developing and regenerating a sense of taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Linda A; Klein, Ophir D

    2015-01-01

    Taste is one of the fundamental senses, and it is essential for our ability to ingest nutritious substances and to detect and avoid potentially toxic ones. Taste buds, which are clusters of neuroepithelial receptor cells, are housed in highly organized structures called taste papillae in the oral cavity. Whereas the overall structure of the taste periphery is conserved in almost all vertebrates examined to date, the anatomical, histological, and cell biological, as well as potentially the molecular details of taste buds in the oral cavity are diverse across species and even among individuals. In mammals, several types of gustatory papillae reside on the tongue in highly ordered arrangements, and the patterning and distribution of the mature papillae depend on coordinated molecular events in embryogenesis. In this review, we highlight new findings in the field of taste development, including how taste buds are patterned and how taste cell fate is regulated. We discuss whether a specialized taste bud stem cell population exists and how extrinsic signals can define which cell lineages are generated. We also address the question of whether molecular regulation of taste cell renewal is analogous to that of taste bud development. Finally, we conclude with suggestions for future directions, including the potential influence of the maternal diet and maternal health on the sense of taste in utero. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Distribution of sensory taste thresholds for phenylthiocarbamide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ability to taste Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC), a bitter organic compound has been described as a bimodal autosomal trait in both genetic and anthropological studies. This study is based on the ability of a person to taste PTC. The present study reports the threshold distribution of PTC taste sensitivity among some Muslim ...

  7. The development of a taste education program for preschoolers and evaluation of a program by parents and childcare personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shon, Choengmin; Park, Young; Ryou, Hyunjoo; Na, Woori; Choi, Kyungsuk

    2012-10-01

    The change in people's dietary life has led to an increase in an intake of processed foods and food chemicals, raising awareness about taste education for preschoolers whose dietary habits start to grow. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness and satisfaction of parents and childcare personnel after developing a taste education program and demonstrating it in class. A part of the curriculum developed by Piusais and Pierre was referred for the program. After educating 524 preschoolers in child care facilities in Seoul, a satisfaction survey was conducted on the program. The data in this study were analyzed using SPSS 14.0. Statistical analysis was conducted based on the frequency after collecting the data. Mean ± SD used to determine satisfaction with taste education, with preferences marked on a five-point scale and the alpha was set at 0.05. The program includes five teachers' guides with subjects of sweetness, saltiness, sourness, bitterness and harmony of flavor, and ten kinds of teaching tools. For the change in parents' recognition of the need for taste education based on five-point scale, the average of 4.06 ± 0.62 before the program has significantly increased to 4.32 ± 0.52 (P facilities, the average scores for education method, education effect, education contents and nutritionists, and teaching tools were at 4.15 ± 0.63, 3.91 ± 0.50, 4.18 ± 0.50, and 3.80 ± 0.56 respectively. In addition, the need for a continuous taste education scored 4.42 ± 0.67. This program has created a positive change in preschoolers' dietary life, therefore the continuation and propagation of the taste education program should be considered.

  8. Visual-gustatory interaction: orbitofrontal and insular cortices mediate the effect of high-calorie visual food cues on taste pleasantness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohla, Kathrin; Toepel, Ulrike; le Coutre, Johannes; Hudry, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Vision provides a primary sensory input for food perception. It raises expectations on taste and nutritional value and drives acceptance or rejection. So far, the impact of visual food cues varying in energy content on subsequent taste integration remains unexplored. Using electrical neuroimaging, we assessed whether high- and low-calorie food cues differentially influence the brain processing and perception of a subsequent neutral electric taste. When viewing high-calorie food images, participants reported the subsequent taste to be more pleasant than when low-calorie food images preceded the identical taste. Moreover, the taste-evoked neural activity was stronger in the bilateral insula and the adjacent frontal operculum (FOP) within 100 ms after taste onset when preceded by high- versus low-calorie cues. A similar pattern evolved in the anterior cingulate (ACC) and medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) around 180 ms, as well as, in the right insula, around 360 ms. The activation differences in the OFC correlated positively with changes in taste pleasantness, a finding that is an accord with the role of the OFC in the hedonic evaluation of taste. Later activation differences in the right insula likely indicate revaluation of interoceptive taste awareness. Our findings reveal previously unknown mechanisms of cross-modal, visual-gustatory, sensory interactions underlying food evaluation.

  9. Using Thermodynamics to Predict the Outcomes of Nitrate-Based Oil Reservoir Souring Control Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Dolfing

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Souring is the undesirable production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S in oil reservoirs by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB. Souring is a common problem during secondary oil recovery via water flooding, especially when seawater with its high sulfate concentration is introduced. Nitrate injection into these oil reservoirs can prevent and remediate souring by stimulating nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB. Two conceptually different mechanisms for NRB-facilitated souring control have been proposed: nitrate-sulfate competition for electron donors (oil-derived organics or H2 and nitrate driven sulfide oxidation. Thermodynamics can facilitate predictions about which nitrate-driven mechanism is most likely to occur in different scenarios. From a thermodynamic perspective the question “Which reaction yields more energy, nitrate driven oxidation of sulfide or nitrate driven oxidation of organic compounds?” can be rephrased as: “Is acetate driven sulfate reduction to sulfide exergonic or endergonic?” Our analysis indicates that under conditions encountered in oil fields, sulfate driven oxidation of acetate (or other SRB organic electron donors is always more favorable than sulfide oxidation to sulfate. That predicts that organotrophic NRB that oxidize acetate would outcompete lithotrophic NRB that oxidize sulfide. However, sulfide oxidation to elemental sulfur is different. At low acetate HS− oxidation is more favorable than acetate oxidation. Incomplete oxidation of sulfide to S0 is likely to occur when nitrate levels are low, and is favored by low temperatures; conditions that can be encountered at oil field above-ground facilities where intermediate sulfur compounds like S0 may cause corrosion. These findings have implications for reservoir management strategies and for assessing the success and progress of nitrate-based souring control strategies and the attendant risks of corrosion associated with souring and nitrate injection.

  10. Efficacy of gaseous ozone to counteract postharvest table grape sour rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, L; Caputo, L; Quintieri, L; de Candia, S; Baruzzi, F

    2017-09-01

    This work aims at studying the efficacy of low doses of gaseous ozone in postharvest control of the table grape sour rot, a disease generally attributed to a consortium of non-Saccharomyces yeasts (NSY) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB). Sour rot incidence of wounded berries, inoculated with 8 NSYstrains, or 7 AAB, or 56 yeast-bacterium associations, was monitored at 25 °C up to six days. Sour rot incidence in wounded berries inoculated with yeast-bacterium associations resulted higher than in berries inoculated with one single NSY or AAB strain. Among all NSY-AAB associations, the yeast-bacterium association composed of Candida zemplinina CBS 9494 (Cz) and Acetobacter syzygii LMG 21419 (As) showed the highest prevalence of sour rot; thus, after preliminary in vitro assays, this simplified As-Cz microbial consortium was inoculated in wounded berries that were stored at 4 °C for ten days under ozone (2.14 mg m -3 ) or in air. At the end of cold storage, no berries showed sour-rot symptoms although ozonation mainly affected As viable cell count. After additional 12 days at 25 °C, the sour rot index of inoculated As-Cz berries previously cold-stored under ozone or in air accounted for 22.6 ± 3.7% and 66.7 ± 4.5%, respectively. Molecular analyses of dominant AAB and NSY populations of both sound and rotten berries during post-refrigeration period revealed the appearance of new strains mainly belonging to Gluconobacter albidus and Hanseniaspora uvarum species, respectively. Cold ozonation resulted an effective approach to extend the shelf-life of table grapes also after cold storage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Polycose Taste Pre-Exposure Fails to Influence Behavioral and Neural Indices of Taste Novelty

    OpenAIRE

    Barot, Sabiha K.; Bernstein, Ilene L.

    2005-01-01

    Taste novelty can strongly modulate the speed and efficacy of taste aversion learning. Novel sweet tastes enhance c-Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI) in the central amygdala and insular cortex. The present studies examined whether this neural correlate of novelty extends to different taste types by measuring FLI signals after exposure to novel and familiar polysaccharide (Polycose®) and salt (NaCl) tastes. Novel Polycose not only failed to elevate FLI expression in central amygdala and insular ...

  12. Participation of the peripheral taste system in aging-dependent changes in taste sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narukawa, Masataka; Kurokawa, Azusa; Kohta, Rie; Misaka, Takumi

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that aging modifies taste sensitivity. However, the factors affecting the changes in taste sensitivity remain unclear. To investigate the cause of the age-related changes in taste sensitivity, we compared the peripheral taste detection systems in young and old mice. First, we examined whether taste sensitivity varied according to age using behavioral assays. We confirmed that the taste sensitivities to salty and bitter tastes decreased with aging. In other assays, the gustatory nerve responses to salty and sweet tastes increased significantly with aging, while those to bitter taste did not change. Thus, the profile of the gustatory nerve responses was inconsistent with the profile of the behavioral responses. Next, we evaluated the expressions of taste-related molecules in the taste buds. Although no apparent differences in the expressions of representative taste receptors were observed between the two age groups, the mRNA expressions of signaling effectors were slightly, but significantly, decreased in old mice. No significant differences in the turnover rates of taste bud cells were observed between the two age groups. Thus, we did not observe any large decreases in the expressions of taste-related molecules and turnover rates of taste bud cells with aging. Based on these findings, we conclude that changes in taste sensitivity with aging were not caused by aging-related degradation of peripheral taste organs. Meanwhile, the concentrations of several serum components that modify taste responses changed with age. Thus, taste signal-modifying factors such as serum components may have a contributing role in aging-related changes in taste sensitivity. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Sensory science research on taste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Recent ethnographies from the anthropology of food and the senses have shown how moments in which people taste foods are shaped by scientific knowledge, methods and rationales. Building on approaches developed in science and technology studies, this paper offers an ethnography of the field to which...

  14. Recent Advances in Molecular Mechanisms of Taste Signaling and Modifying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigemura, Noriatsu; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2016-01-01

    The sense of taste conveys crucial information about the quality and nutritional value of foods before it is ingested. Taste signaling begins with taste cells via taste receptors in oral cavity. Activation of these receptors drives the transduction systems in taste receptor cells. Then particular transmitters are released from the taste cells and activate corresponding afferent gustatory nerve fibers. Recent studies have revealed that taste sensitivities are defined by distinct taste receptors and modulated by endogenous humoral factors in a specific group of taste cells. Such peripheral taste generations and modifications would directly influence intake of nutritive substances. This review will highlight current understanding of molecular mechanisms for taste reception, signal transduction in taste bud cells, transmission between taste cells and nerves, regeneration from taste stem cells, and modification by humoral factors at peripheral taste organs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification and modulation of the key amino acid residue responsible for the pH sensitivity of neoculin, a taste-modifying protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-ichiro Nakajima

    Full Text Available Neoculin occurring in the tropical fruit of Curculigo latifolia is currently the only protein that possesses both a sweet taste and a taste-modifying activity of converting sourness into sweetness. Structurally, this protein is a heterodimer consisting of a neoculin acidic subunit (NAS and a neoculin basic subunit (NBS. Recently, we found that a neoculin variant in which all five histidine residues are replaced with alanine elicits intense sweetness at both neutral and acidic pH but has no taste-modifying activity. To identify the critical histidine residue(s responsible for this activity, we produced a series of His-to-Ala neoculin variants and evaluated their sweetness levels using cell-based calcium imaging and a human sensory test. Our results suggest that NBS His11 functions as a primary pH sensor for neoculin to elicit taste modification. Neoculin variants with substitutions other than His-to-Ala were further analyzed to clarify the role of the NBS position 11 in the taste-modifying activity. We found that the aromatic character of the amino acid side chain is necessary to elicit the pH-dependent sweetness. Interestingly, since the His-to-Tyr variant is a novel taste-modifying protein with alternative pH sensitivity, the position 11 in NBS can be critical to modulate the pH-dependent activity of neoculin. These findings are important for understanding the pH-sensitive functional changes in proteinaceous ligands in general and the interaction of taste receptor-taste substance in particular.

  16. Source-Sink Relations in Fruits VII. Effects of Pruning in Sour Cherry and Plum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo; Hansen, P.

    1993-01-01

    Sour cherries cv. 'Stevnsbær' and plums cv. 'Victoria' were heavily pruned in 1987. Fruit samples were collected during the growing season and concentrations of different quality components were determined. Pruning resulted in a small increase in fruit size, the effect being greater on the older...... trees (sour cherries) or at the lower crop load (plum). Additionally, pruning decreased the con­centrations of total and soluble dry matter and of anthocya­nins ('Stevnsbær'), while titratable acids showed an increas­ing tendency. The effects of pruning are discussed based on influences on root...

  17. Mulher, cura e pajelança em Soure (Ilha do Marajó-PA).

    OpenAIRE

    Mayra Cristina Silva Faro; UEPA

    2012-01-01

    Neste trabalho pretendo apresentar alguns resultados de uma pesquisa que vem sendo realizada desde 2009 sobre a pajelança cabocla e as mulheres pajés na cidade de Soure, Ilha do Marajó/PA. Este estudo tem como objetivos analisar práticas e saberes de cura em Soure, e observar o papel da mulher no contexto religioso e simbólico da pajelança. Compreende-se pajelança cabocla como um conjunto de crenças e práticas de cura bastante difundida na Amazônia, em que encontram-se mesclados em graus vari...

  18. Perceptions of Malaysian colorectal cancer patients regarding dietary intake: a qualitative exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Afzaninawati Suria; Isa, Zaleha Md; Shah, Shamsul Azhar

    2013-01-01

    Changes in dietary practices are known to be associated with changes in the health and disease pattern of a population. This study aimed to qualitatively explore the perception of colorectal cancer patients regarding causes of colorectal cancer and the influence of diet. Twelve respondents from three major ethnicities in Malaysia were selected from the quantitative study on dietary pattern and colorectal cancer carried out earlier in this study. In-depth interviews (IDI), conducted from April until June 2012, were mainly in the Malay language with additional use of English and continued until the saturation point was reached. All interviews were autorecorded so that verbatim transcriptions could be created. Causes of colorectal cancer were categorized into internal and external factors. The majority of respondents agreed that there is an association between Western foods and colorectal cancer. Malaysian traditional diet was not related to colorectal cancer as less preservative agents were used. Malaysian diet preparation consisting of taste of cooking (spicy, salty and sour foods) plus type of cooking (fry, grilled and smoked) were considered causes of colorectal cancer. All respondents changed their dietary pattern to healthy food after being diagnosed with colorectal cancer. Advice from doctors regarding suitable food for colorectal cancer was useful in this regard. Eating outside, use of food flavoring ingredients and preservative agents were considered to be the main factors causing colorectal cancer. All respondents admitted that they changed to a healthy diet after being diagnosed with colorectal cancer.

  19. Bitter taste – cheese failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Kirin

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Bitter taste is serous and very often cheese failure in modern cheesemaking process. In this paper the sources and bitter taste development in cheese will be presented. Bitterness in cheese is linked to bitter compounds development during cheese ripening. Most of the bitter compounds come from bitter peptides, the mechanism of theirs development being due to proteasepeptidase system of the cured enzymes and the milk cultures as well as other proteases present in cheese. By the action of curd enzymes, the milk protein - casein - is firstly degraded into high molecular weight compounds possessing no bitter taste. Those compounds are then degraded, by milk protease cultures, to hydrophobic bitter peptides of low molecular weight further degraded, by bacterial endopeptidase during cheese ripening, to bitter peptides and amino acids. In the case when no balance exists, between bitter compounds development and breakdown by lactic acid bacteria peptidase, an accumulation of bitter peptides occurs thus having an influence on cheese bitterness. During cheese ripening naturally occurring milk protease – plasmin, and thermostable proteases of raw milk microflora are also involved in proteolytic process. Fat cheese lipases, initiated by lipase originating from psychrotrophic bacteria in raw milk as well as other cheese lipases, are also associated with bitter taste generation. The other sources of bitterness come from the forages, the medicament residues as well as washing and disinfecting agents. In order to eliminate these failures a special care should be taken in milk quality as well as curd and milk culture selection. At this point technological norms and procedures, aimed to maintain the proteolysis balance during cheese ripening, should be adjusted, thus eliminating the bitter taste of the cheese.

  20. Development of taste sensor system for differentiation of Indonesian herbal medicines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaltsum, U., E-mail: um-mik@yahoo.co.id [Physics Education Department, IKIP PGRI Semarang (Indonesia); Triyana, K., E-mail: triyana@ugm.ac.id; Siswanta, D., E-mail: triyana@ugm.ac.id [Physics Department, Gadjah Mada University (Indonesia)

    2014-09-25

    In Indonesia, herbal medicines are usually produced by small and medium enterprises which are relatively low in quality control. The purpose of this paper is to report that we have developed a taste sensor system with global selectivity, i.e., electronic tongue (e-tongue) for differentiation of Indonesian herbal medicines. The e-tongue was composed of five kinds of ion selective electrodes as working electrodes, data acquisition system, and pattern recognition system. Each ion selective electrode (ISE) was built by attaching lipid/polymer membrane. For this purpose, the five kinds of membranes were built by mixing lipid, plasticizer (nitrophenyl octyl ether/NPOE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and tetrahydrofuran (THF). In this study, we employed five kinds of lipid, namely oleic acid (OA), dioctyl phosphate (DOP), decyl alcohol (DA), dodecylamine (DDC), and trioctyl methyl ammonium chloride (TOMA). In this case, the membranes transform information of taste substances into electric signal. The five kinds of Indonesian herbal medicine were purchased from local supermarket in Yogyakarta, i.e., kunyit asam (made from turmeric and tamarind), beras kencur (made from rice and kencur), jahe wangi (made from ginger and fragrance), sirih wangi (made from betel leaf), and temulawak (made from Javanese ginger). Prior to detecting the taste from the Indonesian herbal medicine samples, each ion selective electrode was tested with five basic taste samples, i.e., for saltiness, sweetness, umami, bitterness, and sourness. All ISEs showed global selectivity to all samples. Furthermore, the array of ISEs showed specific response pattern to each Indonesian herbal medicine. For pattern recognition system, we employed principle component analysis (PCA). As a result, the e-tongue was able to differentiate five kinds of Indonesian herbal medicines, proven by the total variance of first and second principle components is about 93%. For the future, the e-tongue may be developed for quality

  1. Development of taste sensor system for differentiation of Indonesian herbal medicines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaltsum, U.; Triyana, K.; Siswanta, D.

    2014-01-01

    In Indonesia, herbal medicines are usually produced by small and medium enterprises which are relatively low in quality control. The purpose of this paper is to report that we have developed a taste sensor system with global selectivity, i.e., electronic tongue (e-tongue) for differentiation of Indonesian herbal medicines. The e-tongue was composed of five kinds of ion selective electrodes as working electrodes, data acquisition system, and pattern recognition system. Each ion selective electrode (ISE) was built by attaching lipid/polymer membrane. For this purpose, the five kinds of membranes were built by mixing lipid, plasticizer (nitrophenyl octyl ether/NPOE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and tetrahydrofuran (THF). In this study, we employed five kinds of lipid, namely oleic acid (OA), dioctyl phosphate (DOP), decyl alcohol (DA), dodecylamine (DDC), and trioctyl methyl ammonium chloride (TOMA). In this case, the membranes transform information of taste substances into electric signal. The five kinds of Indonesian herbal medicine were purchased from local supermarket in Yogyakarta, i.e., kunyit asam (made from turmeric and tamarind), beras kencur (made from rice and kencur), jahe wangi (made from ginger and fragrance), sirih wangi (made from betel leaf), and temulawak (made from Javanese ginger). Prior to detecting the taste from the Indonesian herbal medicine samples, each ion selective electrode was tested with five basic taste samples, i.e., for saltiness, sweetness, umami, bitterness, and sourness. All ISEs showed global selectivity to all samples. Furthermore, the array of ISEs showed specific response pattern to each Indonesian herbal medicine. For pattern recognition system, we employed principle component analysis (PCA). As a result, the e-tongue was able to differentiate five kinds of Indonesian herbal medicines, proven by the total variance of first and second principle components is about 93%. For the future, the e-tongue may be developed for quality

  2. Development of taste sensor system for differentiation of Indonesian herbal medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltsum, U.; Triyana, K.; Siswanta, D.

    2014-09-01

    In Indonesia, herbal medicines are usually produced by small and medium enterprises which are relatively low in quality control. The purpose of this paper is to report that we have developed a taste sensor system with global selectivity, i.e., electronic tongue (e-tongue) for differentiation of Indonesian herbal medicines. The e-tongue was composed of five kinds of ion selective electrodes as working electrodes, data acquisition system, and pattern recognition system. Each ion selective electrode (ISE) was built by attaching lipid/polymer membrane. For this purpose, the five kinds of membranes were built by mixing lipid, plasticizer (nitrophenyl octyl ether/NPOE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and tetrahydrofuran (THF). In this study, we employed five kinds of lipid, namely oleic acid (OA), dioctyl phosphate (DOP), decyl alcohol (DA), dodecylamine (DDC), and trioctyl methyl ammonium chloride (TOMA). In this case, the membranes transform information of taste substances into electric signal. The five kinds of Indonesian herbal medicine were purchased from local supermarket in Yogyakarta, i.e., kunyit asam (made from turmeric and tamarind), beras kencur (made from rice and kencur), jahe wangi (made from ginger and fragrance), sirih wangi (made from betel leaf), and temulawak (made from Javanese ginger). Prior to detecting the taste from the Indonesian herbal medicine samples, each ion selective electrode was tested with five basic taste samples, i.e., for saltiness, sweetness, umami, bitterness, and sourness. All ISEs showed global selectivity to all samples. Furthermore, the array of ISEs showed specific response pattern to each Indonesian herbal medicine. For pattern recognition system, we employed principle component analysis (PCA). As a result, the e-tongue was able to differentiate five kinds of Indonesian herbal medicines, proven by the total variance of first and second principle components is about 93%. For the future, the e-tongue may be developed for quality

  3. Free polyunsaturated fatty acids cause taste deterioration of salmon during frozen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, Hanne; Brockhoff, P.M.B.; Jensen, Benny

    2000-01-01

    Increased intensity of train oil taste, bitterness, and metal taste are the most pronounced sensory changes during frozen storage of salmon (Refsgaard, H. H. F.; Brockhoff, P. B.; Jensen, B. Sensory and Chemical Changes in Farmed Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) during Frozen Storage. J. Agric. Food...... Chem. 1998a, 46, 3473-3479). Addition of each of the unsaturated fatty acids: palmitoleic acid (16:1, n - 7), linoleic acid (C18:2, it - 6), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5, it - 3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6, n. - 3) to fresh minced salmon changed the sensory perception and increased...... the intensity of train oil taste, bitterness, and metal taste. The added level of each fatty acid (similar to 1 mg/g salmon meat) was equivalent to the concentration of the fatty acids determined in salmon stored as fillet at -10 degrees C for 6 months. The effect of addition of the fatty acids on the intensity...

  4. Molecular Features Underlying Selectivity in Chicken Bitter Taste Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Di Pizio

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chickens sense the bitter taste of structurally different molecules with merely three bitter taste receptors (Gallus gallus taste 2 receptors, ggTas2rs, representing a minimal case of bitter perception. Some bitter compounds like quinine, diphenidol and chlorpheniramine, activate all three ggTas2rs, while others selectively activate one or two of the receptors. We focus on bitter compounds with different selectivity profiles toward the three receptors, to shed light on the molecular recognition complexity in bitter taste. Using homology modeling and induced-fit docking simulations, we investigated the binding modes of ggTas2r agonists. Interestingly, promiscuous compounds are predicted to establish polar interactions with position 6.51 and hydrophobic interactions with positions 3.32 and 5.42 in all ggTas2rs; whereas certain residues are responsible for receptor selectivity. Lys3.29 and Asn3.36 are suggested as ggTas2r1-specificity-conferring residues; Gln6.55 as ggTas2r2-specificity-conferring residue; Ser5.38 and Gln7.42 as ggTas2r7-specificity conferring residues. The selectivity profile of quinine analogs, quinidine, epiquinidine and ethylhydrocupreine, was then characterized by combining calcium-imaging experiments and in silico approaches. ggTas2r models were used to virtually screen BitterDB compounds. ~50% of compounds known to be bitter to human are likely to be bitter to chicken, with 25, 20, 37% predicted to be ggTas2r1, ggTas2r2, ggTas2r7 agonists, respectively. Predicted ggTas2rs agonists can be tested with in vitro and in vivo experiments, contributing to our understanding of bitter taste in chicken and, consequently, to the improvement of chicken feed.

  5. Bittersweet Findings: Round Cups Fail to Induce Sweeter Taste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casparus J. A. Machiels

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available An increasing body of literature demonstrates that consumers associate visual information with specific gustatory elements. This phenomenon is better known as cross-modal correspondence. A specific correspondence that has received attention of late is the one between round forms and sweet taste. Research indicates that roundness (as opposed to angularity is consistently associated with an increased sweetness perception. Focusing on two different cup forms (round versus angular, two studies tested this association for a butter milk drink and a mate-based soft drink. Results, however, were not able to corroborate the frequently suggested correspondence effect, but a correspondence was found between the angular cup and a more bitter taste for the soft drink. These results are discussed in light of previous findings matching sweetness with roundness and bitterness with angularity, hopefully aiding researchers in this field in conducting future experiments.

  6. Genetic tracing of the gustatory and trigeminal neural pathways originating from T1R3-expressing taste receptor cells and solitary chemoreceptor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmoto, Makoto; Matsumoto, Ichiro; Yasuoka, Akihito; Yoshihara, Yoshihiro; Abe, Keiko

    2008-08-01

    We established transgenic mouse lines expressing a transneuronal tracer, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), under the control of mouse T1R3 gene promoter/enhancer. In the taste buds, WGA transgene was faithfully expressed in T1R3-positive sweet/umami taste receptor cells. WGA protein was transferred not laterally to the synapse-bearing, sour-responsive type III cells in the taste buds but directly to a subset of neurons in the geniculate and nodose/petrosal ganglia, and further conveyed to a rostro-central region of the nucleus of solitary tract. In addition, WGA was expressed in solitary chemoreceptor cells in the nasal epithelium and transferred along the trigeminal sensory pathway to the brainstem neurons. The solitary chemoreceptor cells endogenously expressed T1R3 together with bitter taste receptors T2Rs. This result shows an exceptional signature of receptor expression. Thus, the t1r3-WGA transgenic mice revealed the sweet/umami gustatory pathways from taste receptor cells and the trigeminal neural pathway from solitary chemoreceptor cells.

  7. Intravital Microscopic Interrogation of Peripheral Taste Sensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Myunghwan; Lee, Woei Ming; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2015-03-01

    Intravital microscopy is a powerful tool in neuroscience but has not been adapted to the taste sensory organ due to anatomical constraint. Here we developed an imaging window to facilitate microscopic access to the murine tongue in vivo. Real-time two-photon microscopy allowed the visualization of three-dimensional microanatomy of the intact tongue mucosa and functional activity of taste cells in response to topically administered tastants in live mice. Video microscopy also showed the calcium activity of taste cells elicited by small-sized tastants in the blood circulation. Molecular kinetic analysis suggested that intravascular taste sensation takes place at the microvilli on the apical side of taste cells after diffusion of the molecules through the pericellular capillaries and tight junctions in the taste bud. Our results demonstrate the capabilities and utilities of the new tool for taste research in vivo.

  8. Development of an umami taste sensitivity test and its clinical use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shizuko Satoh-Kuriwada

    Full Text Available There is a close relationship between perception of umami, which has become recognized as the fifth taste, and the human physical condition. We have developed a clinical test for umami taste sensitivity using a filter paper disc with a range of six monosodium glutamate (MSG concentrations. We recruited 28 patients with taste disorders (45-78 years and 184 controls with no taste disorders (102 young [18-25 years] and 82 older [65-89 years] participants. Filter paper discs (5 mm dia. were soaked in aqueous MSG solutions (1, 5, 10, 50, 100 and 200 mM, then placed on three oral sites innervated by different taste nerves. The lowest concentration participants correctly identified was defined as the recognition threshold (RT for MSG. This test showed good reproducibility for inter- and intra-observer variability. We concluded that: (1 The RT of healthy controls differed at measurement sites innervated by different taste nerves; that is, the RT of the anterior tongue was higher than that of either the posterior tongue or the soft palate in both young and older individuals. (2 No significant difference in RT was found between young adults and older individuals at any measurement site. (3 The RT of patients with taste disorders was higher before treatment than that of the healthy controls at any measurement site. (4 The RT after treatment in these patients improved to the same level as that of the healthy controls. (5 The cutoff values of RT, showing the highest diagnostic accuracy (true positives + true negatives, were 200 mM MSG for AT and 50 mM MSG for PT and SP. The diagnostic accuracy at these cutoff values was 0.92, 0.87 and 0.86 for AT, PT and SP, respectively. Consequently, this umami taste sensitivity test is useful for discriminating between normal and abnormal umami taste sensations.

  9. Taste dysfunction in irradiated patients with head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Wen-Kai; Yamamoto, Tomoya; Komiyama, Sohtaro

    2002-01-01

    Taste disorders caused by radiation therapy for head and neck cancer are common. This prospective study of 40 patients with head and neck cancer assessed changes in taste sensations during radiation therapy. The relationship between the time course and the degree of taste disorder was studied. The taste recognition threshold and supra-threshold taste intensity performance for the four basic tastes were measured using the whole-mouth taste method before, during, and after radiation therapy. Bitter taste was affected most. An increase in threshold for sweet taste depended upon whether the tip of tongue was included within the radiation field. The slope of the taste intensity performance did not change during or after radiotherapy. The pattern of salivary dysfunction was different from that of taste dysfunction. The main cause of taste disorders during radiation support the hypothesis that taste dysfunction is due to damage to the taste buds in the radiation field. (author)

  10. Taste dysfunction in irradiated patients with head and neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Wen-Kai; Yamamoto, Tomoya; Komiyama, Sohtaro [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Inokuchi, Akira [Saga Medical School (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    Taste disorders caused by radiation therapy for head and neck cancer are common. This prospective study of 40 patients with head and neck cancer assessed changes in taste sensations during radiation therapy. The relationship between the time course and the degree of taste disorder was studied. The taste recognition threshold and supra-threshold taste intensity performance for the four basic tastes were measured using the whole-mouth taste method before, during, and after radiation therapy. Bitter taste was affected most. An increase in threshold for sweet taste depended upon whether the tip of tongue was included within the radiation field. The slope of the taste intensity performance did not change during or after radiotherapy. The pattern of salivary dysfunction was different from that of taste dysfunction. The main cause of taste disorders during radiation support the hypothesis that taste dysfunction is due to damage to the taste buds in the radiation field. (author)

  11. The bamboo-eating giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) has a sweet tooth: behavioral and molecular responses to compounds that taste sweet to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Peihua; Josue-Almqvist, Jesusa; Jin, Xuelin; Li, Xia; Brand, Joseph G; Margolskee, Robert F; Reed, Danielle R; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of behavioral and genetic information indicates that taste perception and food sources are highly coordinated across many animal species. For example, sweet taste perception is thought to serve to detect and motivate consumption of simple sugars in plants that provide calories. Supporting this is the observation that most plant-eating mammals examined exhibit functional sweet perception, whereas many obligate carnivores have independently lost function of their sweet taste receptors and exhibit no avidity for simple sugars that humans describe as tasting sweet. As part of a larger effort to compare taste structure/function among species, we examined both the behavioral and the molecular nature of sweet taste in a plant-eating animal that does not consume plants with abundant simple sugars, the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). We evaluated two competing hypotheses: as plant-eating mammals, they should have a well-developed sweet taste system; however, as animals that do not normally consume plants with simple sugars, they may have lost sweet taste function, as has occurred in strict carnivores. In behavioral tests, giant pandas avidly consumed most natural sugars and some but not all artificial sweeteners. Cell-based assays revealed similar patterns of sweet receptor responses toward many of the sweeteners. Using mixed pairs of human and giant panda sweet taste receptor units (hT1R2+gpT1R3 and gpT1R2+hT1R3) we identified regions of the sweet receptor that may account for behavioral differences in giant pandas versus humans toward various sugars and artificial sweeteners. Thus, despite the fact that the giant panda's main food, bamboo, is very low in simple sugars, the species has a marked preference for several compounds that taste sweet to humans. We consider possible explanations for retained sweet perception in this species, including the potential extra-oral functions of sweet taste receptors that may be required for animals that consume

  12. A bio-cultural approach to the study of food choice: The contribution of taste genetics, population and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risso, Davide S; Giuliani, Cristina; Antinucci, Marco; Morini, Gabriella; Garagnani, Paolo; Tofanelli, Sergio; Luiselli, Donata

    2017-07-01

    The study of food choice, one of the most complex human traits, requires an integrated approach that takes into account environmental, socio-cultural and biological diversity. We recruited 183 volunteers from four geo-linguistic groups and highly diversified in terms of both genetic background and food habits from whom we collected genotypes and phenotypes tightly linked to taste perception. We confirmed previous genetic associations, in particular with stevioside perception, and noted significant differences in food consumption: in particular, broccoli, mustard and beer consumption scores were significantly higher (Adjusted P = 0.02, Adjusted P diversity and cultural aspects in taste perception and food consumption. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Evaluation of maize-soybean flour blends for sour maize bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Properties examined included amylose content, bulk density, dispersibility, swelling power, water absorption capacity and viscoelastic properties. The effect of the different flour/meal samples on the properties of sour maize bread were evaluated by baking bread samples with the different flours/meals using a mixed starter ...

  14. Changes in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) antioxidants during nectar processing and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, G.; Capanoglu, E.; Kamiloglu, S.; Boyacioglu, D.; Vos, de C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) is rich in polyphenols, and like its processed products, is especially rich in anthocyanins. We have applied HPLC, spectrophotometric and on-line antioxidant detection methods to follow the fate of cherry antioxidants during an entire multi-step industrial-scale

  15. Phytoplasmas in apricot, peach and sour cherry orchards in East Bohemia, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ludvíková, H.; Fránová, Jana; Suchá, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 64, Suppl. (2011), s. 67-68 ISSN 1721-8861 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC09021 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum * PCR/RFLP * apricot, peach and sour cherry orchards Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.592, year: 2011

  16. Identification of crude-oil components and microorganisms that cause souring under anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, R; Toyama, K; Miyanaga, K; Tanji, Y

    2014-02-01

    Oil souring has important implications with respect to energy resources. Understanding the physiology of the microorganisms that play a role and the biological mechanisms are both important for the maintenance of infrastructure and mitigation of corrosion processes. The objective of this study was to identify crude-oil components and microorganisms in oil-field water that contribute to crude-oil souring. To identify the crude-oil components and microorganisms that are responsible for anaerobic souring in oil reservoirs, biological conversion of crude-oil components under anaerobic conditions was investigated. Microorganisms in oil field water in Akita, Japan degraded alkanes and aromatics to volatile fatty acids (VFAs) under anaerobic conditions, and fermenting bacteria such as Fusibacter sp. were involved in VFA production. Aromatics such as toluene and ethylbenzene were degraded by sulfate-reducing bacteria (Desulfotignum sp.) via the fumarate-addition pathway and not only degradation of VFA but also degradation of aromatics by sulfate-reducing bacteria was the cause of souring. Naphthenic acid and 2,4-xylenol were not converted.

  17. Direct photothermal techniques for quantification of anthocyanins in sour cherry cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doka, O.; Ficzek, G.; Bicanic, D.D.; Spruijt, R.B.; Luterotti, S.; Toth, M.; Buijnsters, J.G.; György Végvári, G.

    2011-01-01

    The analytical performance of the newly proposed laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) and of optothermal window (OW) method for quantification of total anthocyanin concentration (TAC) in five sour cherry varieties is compared to that of the spectrophotometry (SP). High performance liquid

  18. Taste as a didactic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Christensen, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    of expectations to students’ learning. This article presents the results of a new quantitative study that investigates students’ work with taste in relation to their own expected learning in the subject Food Knowledge, viewed in the light of three didactic elements: motivation, student participation......Teaching does not necessarily condition learning, and specific didactic elements do not necessarily condition the best learning outcome; this also applies to ‘food and meal’ lessons in schools. Teachers’ didactic reflections usually reflect the content and form of the teaching, as well as a number...... and innovation in school. The method is a questionnaire among students (N= 769) who have competed in Food Fight, a competition that forms part of Food Knowledge. The connection between taste and learning is a relatively unexplored field, and the analysis in this article indicates that the experience of working...

  19. Taste is a didactic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jacob Højgaard

    2015-01-01

    of expectations to students’ learning. This article presents the results of a new quantitative study that investigates students’ work with taste in relation to their own expected learning in the subject Food Knowledge, viewed in the light of three didactic elements: motivation, student participation......Teaching does not necessarily condition learning, and specific didactic elements do not necessarily condition the best learning outcome; this also applies to ‘food and meal’ lessons in schools. Teachers’ didactic reflections usually reflect the content and form of the teaching, as well as a number...... and innovation in school. The method is a questionnaire among students (N= 769) who have competed in Food Fight, a competition that forms part of Food Knowledge. The connection between taste and learning is a relatively unexplored field, and the analysis in this article indicates that the experience of working...

  20. The role of starch and saliva in tribology studies and the sensory perception of protein-added yogurts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morell, Pere; Chen, Jianshe; Fiszman, Susana

    2017-02-22

    Increasing the protein content of yogurts would be a good strategy for enhancing their satiating ability. However, the addition of protein can affect product palatability, contributing astringency or an inhomogeneous texture. Increasingly, studies mimicking oral tribology and oral lubrication have been attracting interest among food researchers because of their link with oral texture sensations. In the present study, four double-protein stirred yogurts were prepared by adding extra skimmed milk powder (MP) or whey protein concentrate (WPC) and by adding a physically modified starch to each (samples MPS and WPCS, respectively) to increase the consistency of the yogurts. The lubricating properties of the four yogurts were examined by tribological methods with the aim of relating these properties to the sensory perception described by flash profiling. Samples were also analysed after mixing with saliva. The tribology results clearly showed that addition of starch reduced the friction coefficient values regardless of the type of protein. Saliva addition produced a further decrease in the friction coefficient values in all the samples. Consequently, adding saliva is recommended when performing tribology measurements of foods in order to give a more realistic picture. The sensory results confirmed that the addition of starch reduced the astringent sensation, especially in sample WPC, while the MP and MPS samples were creamier and smoother. On the other hand, the astringency of sample WPC was not explained by the tribology results. Since this sample was described as "grainy", "gritty", "rough", "acid" and "sour", further studies are necessary to investigate the role of the number, size, shape and distribution of particles in yogurt samples, their role in astringency perception and their interaction with the perception of the tastes mentioned. Oral tribology has shown itself to be an in vitro technique that may aid a better understanding of the dynamics of in

  1. Wine Expertise Predicts Taste Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, John E; Pickering, Gary J

    2012-03-01

    Taste phenotypes have long been studied in relation to alcohol intake, dependence, and family history, with contradictory findings. However, on balance - with appropriate caveats about populations tested, outcomes measured and psychophysical methods used - an association between variation in taste responsiveness and some alcohol behaviors is supported. Recent work suggests super-tasting (operationalized via propylthiouracil (PROP) bitterness) not only associates with heightened response but also with more acute discrimination between stimuli. Here, we explore relationships between food and beverage adventurousness and taste phenotype. A convenience sample of wine drinkers (n=330) were recruited in Ontario and phenotyped for PROP bitterness via filter paper disk. They also filled out a short questionnaire regarding willingness to try new foods, alcoholic beverages and wines as well as level of wine involvement, which was used to classify them as a wine expert (n=110) or wine consumer (n=220). In univariate logisitic models, food adventurousness predicted trying new wines and beverages but not expertise. Likewise, wine expertise predicted willingness to try new wines and beverages but not foods. In separate multivariate logistic models, willingness to try new wines and beverages was predicted by expertise and food adventurousness but not PROP. However, mean PROP bitterness was higher among wine experts than wine consumers, and the conditional distribution functions differed between experts and consumers. In contrast, PROP means and distributions did not differ with food adventurousness. These data suggest individuals may self-select for specific professions based on sensory ability (i.e., an active gene-environment correlation) but phenotype does not explain willingness to try new stimuli.

  2. Taste: The Bedrock of Flavor

    OpenAIRE

    Gary K Beauchamp

    2014-01-01

    The significance of taste for human health:Throughout most of human evolution, the daily decisions of what to put into ones mouth and swallow and what to reject presented challenges fraught with danger. Energy-rich foods were often difficult to find; protein was in short supply; sodium was scarce. Moreover, many plants that did contain nutrients were also equipped with defensive compounds that were poisonous. Now many humans over consume exactly the foods that they evolved to find particu...

  3. Coevolutionary patterning of teeth and taste buds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomquist, Ryan F.; Parnell, Nicholas F.; Phillips, Kristine A.; Fowler, Teresa E.; Yu, Tian Y.; Sharpe, Paul T.; Streelman, J. Todd

    2015-01-01

    Teeth and taste buds are iteratively patterned structures that line the oro-pharynx of vertebrates. Biologists do not fully understand how teeth and taste buds develop from undifferentiated epithelium or how variation in organ density is regulated. These organs are typically studied independently because of their separate anatomical location in mammals: teeth on the jaw margin and taste buds on the tongue. However, in many aquatic animals like bony fishes, teeth and taste buds are colocalized one next to the other. Using genetic mapping in cichlid fishes, we identified shared loci controlling a positive correlation between tooth and taste bud densities. Genome intervals contained candidate genes expressed in tooth and taste bud fields. sfrp5 and bmper, notable for roles in Wingless (Wnt) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, were differentially expressed across cichlid species with divergent tooth and taste bud density, and were expressed in the development of both organs in mice. Synexpression analysis and chemical manipulation of Wnt, BMP, and Hedgehog (Hh) pathways suggest that a common cichlid oral lamina is competent to form teeth or taste buds. Wnt signaling couples tooth and taste bud density and BMP and Hh mediate distinct organ identity. Synthesizing data from fish and mouse, we suggest that the Wnt-BMP-Hh regulatory hierarchy that configures teeth and taste buds on mammalian jaws and tongues may be an evolutionary remnant inherited from ancestors wherein these organs were copatterned from common epithelium. PMID:26483492

  4. Coevolutionary patterning of teeth and taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomquist, Ryan F; Parnell, Nicholas F; Phillips, Kristine A; Fowler, Teresa E; Yu, Tian Y; Sharpe, Paul T; Streelman, J Todd

    2015-11-03

    Teeth and taste buds are iteratively patterned structures that line the oro-pharynx of vertebrates. Biologists do not fully understand how teeth and taste buds develop from undifferentiated epithelium or how variation in organ density is regulated. These organs are typically studied independently because of their separate anatomical location in mammals: teeth on the jaw margin and taste buds on the tongue. However, in many aquatic animals like bony fishes, teeth and taste buds are colocalized one next to the other. Using genetic mapping in cichlid fishes, we identified shared loci controlling a positive correlation between tooth and taste bud densities. Genome intervals contained candidate genes expressed in tooth and taste bud fields. sfrp5 and bmper, notable for roles in Wingless (Wnt) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, were differentially expressed across cichlid species with divergent tooth and taste bud density, and were expressed in the development of both organs in mice. Synexpression analysis and chemical manipulation of Wnt, BMP, and Hedgehog (Hh) pathways suggest that a common cichlid oral lamina is competent to form teeth or taste buds. Wnt signaling couples tooth and taste bud density and BMP and Hh mediate distinct organ identity. Synthesizing data from fish and mouse, we suggest that the Wnt-BMP-Hh regulatory hierarchy that configures teeth and taste buds on mammalian jaws and tongues may be an evolutionary remnant inherited from ancestors wherein these organs were copatterned from common epithelium.

  5. Testing taste sensitivity and aversion in very young children : development of a procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J; Kroeze, J.H.A.; Kamps, WA; Bijleveld, CMA

    Taste perception in 45 3- to 6-year-old children was tested using procedures specifically designed for this age group. Detection thresholds for sucrose and urea were measured by a staircase method and aversion to urea was assessed hedonically, using drawings of facial expressions. All children

  6. Oxytocin signaling in mouse taste buds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Sinclair

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The neuropeptide, oxytocin (OXT, acts on brain circuits to inhibit food intake. Mutant mice lacking OXT (OXT knockout overconsume salty and sweet (i.e. sucrose, saccharin solutions. We asked if OXT might also act on taste buds via its receptor, OXTR.Using RT-PCR, we detected the expression of OXTR in taste buds throughout the oral cavity, but not in adjacent non-taste lingual epithelium. By immunostaining tissues from OXTR-YFP knock-in mice, we found that OXTR is expressed in a subset of Glial-like (Type I taste cells, and also in cells on the periphery of taste buds. Single-cell RT-PCR confirmed this cell-type assignment. Using Ca2+ imaging, we observed that physiologically appropriate concentrations of OXT evoked [Ca2+]i mobilization in a subset of taste cells (EC50 approximately 33 nM. OXT-evoked responses were significantly inhibited by the OXTR antagonist, L-371,257. Isolated OXT-responsive taste cells were neither Receptor (Type II nor Presynaptic (Type III cells, consistent with our immunofluorescence observations. We also investigated the source of OXT peptide that may act on taste cells. Both RT-PCR and immunostaining suggest that the OXT peptide is not produced in taste buds or in their associated nerves. Finally, we also examined the morphology of taste buds from mice that lack OXTR. Taste buds and their constituent cell types appeared very similar in mice with two, one or no copies of the OXTR gene.We conclude that OXT elicits Ca2+ signals via OXTR in murine taste buds. OXT-responsive cells are most likely a subset of Glial-like (Type I taste cells. OXT itself is not produced locally in taste tissue and is likely delivered through the circulation. Loss of OXTR does not grossly alter the morphology of any of the cell types contained in taste buds. Instead, we speculate that OXT-responsive Glial-like (Type I taste bud cells modulate taste signaling and afferent sensory output. Such modulation would complement central pathways of

  7. Oxytocin signaling in mouse taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Michael S; Perea-Martinez, Isabel; Dvoryanchikov, Gennady; Yoshida, Masahide; Nishimori, Katsuhiko; Roper, Stephen D; Chaudhari, Nirupa

    2010-08-05

    The neuropeptide, oxytocin (OXT), acts on brain circuits to inhibit food intake. Mutant mice lacking OXT (OXT knockout) overconsume salty and sweet (i.e. sucrose, saccharin) solutions. We asked if OXT might also act on taste buds via its receptor, OXTR. Using RT-PCR, we detected the expression of OXTR in taste buds throughout the oral cavity, but not in adjacent non-taste lingual epithelium. By immunostaining tissues from OXTR-YFP knock-in mice, we found that OXTR is expressed in a subset of Glial-like (Type I) taste cells, and also in cells on the periphery of taste buds. Single-cell RT-PCR confirmed this cell-type assignment. Using Ca2+ imaging, we observed that physiologically appropriate concentrations of OXT evoked [Ca2+]i mobilization in a subset of taste cells (EC50 approximately 33 nM). OXT-evoked responses were significantly inhibited by the OXTR antagonist, L-371,257. Isolated OXT-responsive taste cells were neither Receptor (Type II) nor Presynaptic (Type III) cells, consistent with our immunofluorescence observations. We also investigated the source of OXT peptide that may act on taste cells. Both RT-PCR and immunostaining suggest that the OXT peptide is not produced in taste buds or in their associated nerves. Finally, we also examined the morphology of taste buds from mice that lack OXTR. Taste buds and their constituent cell types appeared very similar in mice with two, one or no copies of the OXTR gene. We conclude that OXT elicits Ca2+ signals via OXTR in murine taste buds. OXT-responsive cells are most likely a subset of Glial-like (Type I) taste cells. OXT itself is not produced locally in taste tissue and is likely delivered through the circulation. Loss of OXTR does not grossly alter the morphology of any of the cell types contained in taste buds. Instead, we speculate that OXT-responsive Glial-like (Type I) taste bud cells modulate taste signaling and afferent sensory output. Such modulation would complement central pathways of appetite

  8. Decreased expression of CD36 in circumvallate taste buds of high-fat diet induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Zhou, Li-Hong; Ban, Xiang; Liu, Dian-Xin; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Xiao-Min

    2011-10-01

    Mammals spontaneously prefer lipid rich foods. Overconsumption of high-fat diet leads to obesity and related diseases. Recent findings indicate that taste may participate in the orosensory perception of dietary lipids and the fatty taste may contribute to a preference for and excessive consumption of dietary fat. CD36, a trans-membrane glycoprotein, which is located in the taste buds of circumvallate papillae of rodents, appears to be a plausible receptor for this fatty taste. Obese subjects present a stronger preference for fatty foods, though the mechanisms involved are complex and are not fully investigated. Our data from immunofluorescence and real-time RT-PCR showed that the expression levels of CD36 in circumvallate taste buds were significantly lower in high-fat diet induced obese rats as compared with that of control rats fed a normal diet. These results suggest that decreased expression of CD36 in circumvallate taste buds of high-fat diet induced obese rats may be associated with diminished fatty taste sensitivity and in order to compensate the preference for dietary fat, rats consume more fatty foods. Therapeutic strategies designed to alter or manipulate CD36 expression or function in taste buds may have important implications in treating obesity and related diseases. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of Facial Expression by Taste Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobitani, Kensuke; Kato, Kunihito; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko

    In this study, we focused on the basic taste stimulation for the analysis of real facial expressions. We considered that the expressions caused by taste stimulation were unaffected by individuality or emotion, that is, such expressions were involuntary. We analyzed the movement of facial muscles by taste stimulation and compared real expressions with artificial expressions. From the result, we identified an obvious difference between real and artificial expressions. Thus, our method would be a new approach for facial expression recognition.

  10. Ca2+ signaling in taste bud cells and spontaneous preference for fat: unresolved roles of CD36 and GPR120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoul-Azize, Souleymane; Selvakumar, Subramaniam; Sadou, Hassimi; Besnard, Philippe; Khan, Naim Akhtar

    2014-01-01

    Recent compelling evidences from rodent and human studies raise the possibility for an additional sixth taste modality devoted to oro-gustatory perception of dietary lipids. Understanding the mechanisms underlying oro-gustatory detection of dietary fat is critical for the prevention and treatment of obesity. A number of studies have suggested that lingual CD36, a glycoprotein, highly expressed by circumvallate papillae of the tongue, is implicated in the perception of dietary fat taste. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are important signaling molecules for many aspects of cellular functions. It has been shown that these receptors, particularly GPR120, are also involved in lipid taste perception. We have shown that dietary long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs), in CD36-positive taste bud cells (TBC), induce increases in free intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations, [Ca(2+)]i, by recruiting Ca(2+) from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) pool via inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate production, followed by Ca(2+) influx via opening of store-operated Ca(2+) (SOC) channels. GPR120 is also coupled to increases in [Ca(2+)]i by dietary fatty acids. We observed that stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1), a sensor of Ca(2+) depletion in the ER, mediated fatty acid-induced Ca(2+) signaling and spontaneous preference for fat in the mouse. In this review article, we discuss the recent advances and unresolved roles of CD36 and GPR120 in lipid taste signaling in taste bud cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Altered insula response to sweet taste processing after recovery from anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberndorfer, Tyson A; Frank, Guido K W; Simmons, Alan N; Wagner, Angela; McCurdy, Danyale; Fudge, Julie L; Yang, Tony T; Paulus, Martin P; Kaye, Walter H

    2013-10-01

    Recent studies suggest that altered function of higher-order appetitive neural circuitry may contribute to restricted eating in anorexia nervosa and overeating in bulimia nervosa. This study used sweet tastes to interrogate gustatory neurocircuitry involving the anterior insula and related regions that modulate sensory-interoceptive-reward signals in response to palatable foods. Participants who had recovered from anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa were studied to avoid confounding effects of altered nutritional state. Functional MRI measured brain response to repeated tastes of sucrose and sucralose to disentangle neural processing of caloric and noncaloric sweet tastes. Whole-brain functional analysis was constrained to anatomical regions of interest. Relative to matched comparison women (N=14), women recovered from anorexia nervosa (N=14) had significantly diminished and women recovered from bulimia nervosa (N=14) had significantly elevated hemodynamic response to tastes of sucrose in the right anterior insula. Anterior insula response to sucrose compared with sucralose was exaggerated in the recovered group (lower in women recovered from anorexia nervosa and higher in women recovered from bulimia nervosa). The anterior insula integrates sensory reward aspects of taste in the service of nutritional homeostasis. One possibility is that restricted eating and weight loss occur in anorexia nervosa because of a failure to accurately recognize hunger signals, whereas overeating in bulimia nervosa could represent an exaggerated perception of hunger signals. This response may reflect the altered calibration of signals related to sweet taste and the caloric content of food and may offer a pathway to novel and more effective treatments.

  12. Fingerprinting taste buds: intermediate filaments and their implication for taste bud formation.

    OpenAIRE

    Witt, M; Reutter, K; Ganchrow, D; Ganchrow, J R

    2000-01-01

    Intermediate filaments in taste organs of terrestrial (human and chick) as well as aquatic (Xenopus laevis) species were detected using immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. During development, the potential importance of the interface between the taste bud primordium and non-gustatory adjacent tissues is evidenced by the distinct immunoreactivity of a subpopulation of taste bud cells for cytokeratins and vimentin. In human foetuses, the selective molecular marker for taste bud primor...

  13. Hedgehog pathway blockade with the cancer drug LDE225 disrupts taste organs and taste sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Archana; Ermilov, Alexandre N; Allen, Benjamin L; Bradley, Robert M; Dlugosz, Andrzej A; Mistretta, Charlotte M

    2015-02-01

    Taste sensation on the anterior tongue requires chorda tympani nerve function and connections with continuously renewing taste receptor cells. However, it is unclear which signaling pathways regulate the receptor cells to maintain chorda tympani sensation. Hedgehog (HH) signaling controls cell proliferation and differentiation in numerous tissues and is active in taste papillae and taste buds. In contrast, uncontrolled HH signaling drives tumorigenesis, including the common skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma. Systemic HH pathway inhibitors (HPIs) lead to basal cell carcinoma regression, but these drugs cause severe taste disturbances. We tested the hypothesis that taste disruption by HPIs reflects a direct requirement for HH signaling in maintaining taste organs and gustatory sensation. In mice treated with the HPI LDE225 up to 28 days, HH-responding cells were lost in fungiform papilla epithelium, and papillae acquired a conical apex. Taste buds were either absent or severely reduced in size in more than 90% of aberrant papillae. Taste bud remnants expressed the taste cell marker keratin 8, and papillae retained expression of nerve markers, neurofilament and P2X3. Chorda tympani nerve responses to taste stimuli were markedly reduced or absent in LDE225-treated mice. Responses to touch were retained, however, whereas cold responses were retained after 16 days of treatment but lost after 28 days. These data identify a critical, modality-specific requirement for HH signaling in maintaining taste papillae, taste buds and neurophysiological taste function, supporting the proposition that taste disturbances in HPI-treated patients are an on-target response to HH pathway blockade in taste organs. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  14. The Importance of Taste for Food Demand and the Experienced Taste Effect of Healthy Labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    findings imply a large positive effect on demand for potato chips from higher taste scores: when consumers’ experienced taste from potato chips improves by one unit, the average WTP for a 150 gram bag of chips increases by 20 euro cents. The effect from taste on bread demand seems smaller, but may...

  15. A2BR Adenosine Receptor Modulates Sweet Taste in Circumvallate Taste Buds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dan; Shultz, Nicole; Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Ravid, Katya; Kinnamon, Sue C.; Finger, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    In response to taste stimulation, taste buds release ATP, which activates ionotropic ATP receptors (P2X2/P2X3) on taste nerves as well as metabotropic (P2Y) purinergic receptors on taste bud cells. The action of the extracellular ATP is terminated by ectonucleotidases, ultimately generating adenosine, which itself can activate one or more G-protein coupled adenosine receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Here we investigated the expression of adenosine receptors in mouse taste buds at both the nucleotide and protein expression levels. Of the adenosine receptors, only A2B receptor (A2BR) is expressed specifically in taste epithelia. Further, A2BR is expressed abundantly only in a subset of taste bud cells of posterior (circumvallate, foliate), but not anterior (fungiform, palate) taste fields in mice. Analysis of double-labeled tissue indicates that A2BR occurs on Type II taste bud cells that also express Gα14, which is present only in sweet-sensitive taste cells of the foliate and circumvallate papillae. Glossopharyngeal nerve recordings from A2BR knockout mice show significantly reduced responses to both sucrose and synthetic sweeteners, but normal responses to tastants representing other qualities. Thus, our study identified a novel regulator of sweet taste, the A2BR, which functions to potentiate sweet responses in posterior lingual taste fields. PMID:22253866

  16. A2BR adenosine receptor modulates sweet taste in circumvallate taste buds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Kataoka

    Full Text Available In response to taste stimulation, taste buds release ATP, which activates ionotropic ATP receptors (P2X2/P2X3 on taste nerves as well as metabotropic (P2Y purinergic receptors on taste bud cells. The action of the extracellular ATP is terminated by ectonucleotidases, ultimately generating adenosine, which itself can activate one or more G-protein coupled adenosine receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Here we investigated the expression of adenosine receptors in mouse taste buds at both the nucleotide and protein expression levels. Of the adenosine receptors, only A2B receptor (A2BR is expressed specifically in taste epithelia. Further, A2BR is expressed abundantly only in a subset of taste bud cells of posterior (circumvallate, foliate, but not anterior (fungiform, palate taste fields in mice. Analysis of double-labeled tissue indicates that A2BR occurs on Type II taste bud cells that also express Gα14, which is present only in sweet-sensitive taste cells of the foliate and circumvallate papillae. Glossopharyngeal nerve recordings from A2BR knockout mice show significantly reduced responses to both sucrose and synthetic sweeteners, but normal responses to tastants representing other qualities. Thus, our study identified a novel regulator of sweet taste, the A2BR, which functions to potentiate sweet responses in posterior lingual taste fields.

  17. A2BR adenosine receptor modulates sweet taste in circumvallate taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Shinji; Baquero, Arian; Yang, Dan; Shultz, Nicole; Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Ravid, Katya; Kinnamon, Sue C; Finger, Thomas E

    2012-01-01

    In response to taste stimulation, taste buds release ATP, which activates ionotropic ATP receptors (P2X2/P2X3) on taste nerves as well as metabotropic (P2Y) purinergic receptors on taste bud cells. The action of the extracellular ATP is terminated by ectonucleotidases, ultimately generating adenosine, which itself can activate one or more G-protein coupled adenosine receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Here we investigated the expression of adenosine receptors in mouse taste buds at both the nucleotide and protein expression levels. Of the adenosine receptors, only A2B receptor (A2BR) is expressed specifically in taste epithelia. Further, A2BR is expressed abundantly only in a subset of taste bud cells of posterior (circumvallate, foliate), but not anterior (fungiform, palate) taste fields in mice. Analysis of double-labeled tissue indicates that A2BR occurs on Type II taste bud cells that also express Gα14, which is present only in sweet-sensitive taste cells of the foliate and circumvallate papillae. Glossopharyngeal nerve recordings from A2BR knockout mice show significantly reduced responses to both sucrose and synthetic sweeteners, but normal responses to tastants representing other qualities. Thus, our study identified a novel regulator of sweet taste, the A2BR, which functions to potentiate sweet responses in posterior lingual taste fields.

  18. Drosophila fatty acid taste signals through the PLC pathway in sugar-sensing neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Masek

    Full Text Available Taste is the primary sensory system for detecting food quality and palatability. Drosophila detects five distinct taste modalities that include sweet, bitter, salt, water, and the taste of carbonation. Of these, sweet-sensing neurons appear to have utility for the detection of nutritionally rich food while bitter-sensing neurons signal toxicity and confer repulsion. Growing evidence in mammals suggests that taste for fatty acids (FAs signals the presence of dietary lipids and promotes feeding. While flies appear to be attracted to fatty acids, the neural basis for fatty acid detection and attraction are unclear. Here, we demonstrate that a range of FAs are detected by the fly gustatory system and elicit a robust feeding response. Flies lacking olfactory organs respond robustly to FAs, confirming that FA attraction is mediated through the gustatory system. Furthermore, flies detect FAs independent of pH, suggesting the molecular basis for FA taste is not due to acidity. We show that low and medium concentrations of FAs serve as an appetitive signal and they are detected exclusively through the same subset of neurons that sense appetitive sweet substances, including most sugars. In mammals, taste perception of sweet and bitter substances is dependent on phospholipase C (PLC signaling in specialized taste buds. We find that flies mutant for norpA, a Drosophila ortholog of PLC, fail to respond to FAs. Intriguingly, norpA mutants respond normally to other tastants, including sucrose and yeast. The defect of norpA mutants can be rescued by selectively restoring norpA expression in sweet-sensing neurons, corroborating that FAs signal through sweet-sensing neurons, and suggesting PLC signaling in the gustatory system is specifically involved in FA taste. Taken together, these findings reveal that PLC function in Drosophila sweet-sensing neurons is a conserved molecular signaling pathway that confers attraction to fatty acids.

  19. Taste: The Bedrock of Flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary K Beauchamp

    2014-07-01

    There are two general approaches to reducing dietary sodium. First, there is considerable interest in developing salt substitutes and salt enhancers. Potassium chloride is widely used (usually in combination with NaCl as a substitute but it is not ideal since many find it has an unpleasant off-taste. There is considerable academic and industry research to identify new substitutes but to date there are none for salty as there are for sweet taste. A second approach to lowering sodium intake on a population-wide level in the United States, where more than 80% of the average person’s salt intake comes from food purchased and not from being added during cooking or at the table, is for food manufacturers and restaurants to gradually reduce the amount of salt in prepared foods. Experimental studies have demonstrated that if one reduces salt intake preferences for salt are similarly reduced. Based on this, the Institute of Medicine (IOM recommended that the Food and Drug Administration require gradual reduction by food manufacturers and large restaurant chains (IOM. The FDA has not acted on this recommendation. Conclusion. As illustrated by the difficulties in reducing salt in spite of the health benefits (a similar set of arguments for reducing excess consumption of carbohydrate sugars could be made, the sense of taste is a powerful driver of food intake. A deeper understanding of this important but neglected sensory system is required if we are to adequately address critical health problems in modern society that are often driven by excess consumption of tasty nutrients.

  20. Learning context modulates aversive taste strength in honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito Sanchez, Maria Gabriela; Serre, Marion; Avarguès-Weber, Aurore; Dyer, Adrian G; Giurfa, Martin

    2015-03-01

    The capacity of honey bees (Apis mellifera) to detect bitter substances is controversial because they ingest without reluctance different kinds of bitter solutions in the laboratory, whereas free-flying bees avoid them in visual discrimination tasks. Here, we asked whether the gustatory perception of bees changes with the behavioral context so that tastes that are less effective as negative reinforcements in a given context become more effective in a different context. We trained bees to discriminate an odorant paired with 1 mol l(-1) sucrose solution from another odorant paired with either distilled water, 3 mol l(-1) NaCl or 60 mmol l(-1) quinine. Training was either Pavlovian [olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex (PER) in harnessed bees], or mainly operant (olfactory conditioning of free-walking bees in a Y-maze). PER-trained and maze-trained bees were subsequently tested both in their original context and in the alternative context. Whereas PER-trained bees transferred their choice to the Y-maze situation, Y-maze-trained bees did not respond with a PER to odors when subsequently harnessed. In both conditioning protocols, NaCl and distilled water were the strongest and the weakest aversive reinforcement, respectively. A significant variation was found for quinine, which had an intermediate aversive effect in PER conditioning but a more powerful effect in the Y-maze, similar to that of NaCl. These results thus show that the aversive strength of quinine varies with the learning context, and reveal the plasticity of the bee's gustatory system. We discuss the experimental constraints of both learning contexts and focus on stress as a key modulator of taste in the honey bee. Further explorations of bee taste are proposed to understand the physiology of taste modulation in bees. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Failure of Serial Taste-Taste Compound Presentations to Produce Overshadowing of Extinction of Conditioned Taste Aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineno, Oskar

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study overshadowing of extinction in a conditioned taste aversion preparation. In both experiments, aversive conditioning with sucrose was followed by extinction treatment with either sucrose alone or in compound with another taste, citric acid. Experiment 1 employed a simultaneous compound extinction treatment…

  2. Application of natural antimicrobial compounds for reservoir souring and MIC prevention in offshore oil and gas production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Skovhus, Torben Lund; Mashietti, Marco

    Offshore oil production facilities are subjectable to internal corrosion, potentially leading to human and environmental risk and significant economic losses. Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) and reservoir souring - sulphide production by sulfate reducing microorganisms in the reservo...

  3. Adenosine enhances sweet taste through A2B receptors in the taste bud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Robin; Dvoryanchikov, Gennady; Pereira, Elizabeth; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Roper, Stephen D

    2012-01-04

    Mammalian taste buds use ATP as a neurotransmitter. Taste Receptor (type II) cells secrete ATP via gap junction hemichannels into the narrow extracellular spaces within a taste bud. This ATP excites primary sensory afferent fibers and also stimulates neighboring taste bud cells. Here we show that extracellular ATP is enzymatically degraded to adenosine within mouse vallate taste buds and that this nucleoside acts as an autocrine neuromodulator to selectively enhance sweet taste. In Receptor cells in a lingual slice preparation, Ca(2+) mobilization evoked by focally applied artificial sweeteners was significantly enhanced by adenosine (50 μM). Adenosine had no effect on bitter or umami taste responses, and the nucleoside did not affect Presynaptic (type III) taste cells. We also used biosensor cells to measure transmitter release from isolated taste buds. Adenosine (5 μM) enhanced ATP release evoked by sweet but not bitter taste stimuli. Using single-cell reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR on isolated vallate taste cells, we show that many Receptor cells express the adenosine receptor, Adora2b, while Presynaptic (type III) and Glial-like (type I) cells seldom do. Furthermore, Adora2b receptors are significantly associated with expression of the sweet taste receptor subunit, Tas1r2. Adenosine is generated during taste stimulation mainly by the action of the ecto-5'-nucleotidase, NT5E, and to a lesser extent, prostatic acid phosphatase. Both these ecto-nucleotidases are expressed by Presynaptic cells, as shown by single-cell RT-PCR, enzyme histochemistry, and immunofluorescence. Our findings suggest that ATP released during taste reception is degraded to adenosine to exert positive modulation particularly on sweet taste.

  4. Domino effect of pollution from sour gas fields : failing legume nodulation and the honey industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirker, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    The sustainability of the honey industry in Alberta's Peace Country has been threatened by pollution from sour gas fields. The region has suffered crop reductions and chlorosis in grains, grasses, and legumes. Severe die-back and die-off of aspens and poplars has also been observed. Crops per colony were reduced by as much as 75 per cent, and winter losses more than tripled. Nectar flow patterns shifted from main flow in early summer to late flows in August or September from second growth alfalfa. A sampling of 27 fields found nitrogen fixation in alfalfa and red clovers lacking in areas downwind from major oil and sour gas flaring facilities. The reduction of the early season nectar flow appears to be caused by the synergistic interaction of ozone and sulphur compounds when ozone levels are at their highest. Reduced ozone levels in the fall permit a late, but uncertain flow from alfalfa plants

  5. Domino effect of pollution from sour gas fields : failing legume nodulation and the honey industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirker, H.J. [Peace Country Agricultural Protection Association, AB (Canada)

    1998-10-01

    The sustainability of the honey industry in Alberta`s Peace Country has been threatened by pollution from sour gas fields. The region has suffered crop reductions and chlorosis in grains, grasses, and legumes. Severe die-back and die-off of aspens and poplars has also been observed. Crops per colony were reduced by as much as 75 per cent, and winter losses more than tripled. Nectar flow patterns shifted from main flow in early summer to late flows in August or September from second growth alfalfa. A sampling of 27 fields found nitrogen fixation in alfalfa and red clovers lacking in areas downwind from major oil and sour gas flaring facilities. The reduction of the early season nectar flow appears to be caused by the synergistic interaction of ozone and sulphur compounds when ozone levels are at their highest. Reduced ozone levels in the fall permit a late, but uncertain flow from alfalfa plants.

  6. Optimization of Sour Cherry Juice Spray Drying as
Affected by Carrier Material and Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorić, Zoran; Pedisić, Sandra; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica

    2016-01-01

    Summary Response surface methodology was applied for optimization of the sour cherry Marasca juice spray drying process with 20, 30 and 40% of carriers maltodextrin with dextrose equivalent (DE) value of 4–7 and 13–17 and gum arabic, at three drying temperatures: 150, 175 and 200 °C. Increase in carrier mass per volume ratio resulted in lower moisture content and powder hygroscopicity, higher bulk density, solubility and product yield. Higher temperatures decreased the moisture content and bulk density of powders. Temperature of 200 °C and 27% of maltodextrin with 4–7 DE were found to be the most suitable for production of sour cherry Marasca powder. PMID:28115901

  7. Supply, storage and handling of elemental sulfur derived from sour gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, P.D.; Davis, P.M.; Dowling, N.I.; Calgary Univ., AB

    2003-01-01

    This presentation reviews the supply picture for solid elemental sulfur. It also assesses methods for its storage as well as the disposal of the precursor hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) by acid gas injection. Both above and below ground block storage is considered environmentally acceptable for sulfur storage as long as measures are taken to minimize the physical and biological breakdown of the sulfur. The preferred option is to store solid elemental sulfur underground, particularly if it is to remain in storage for a prolonged period. Future changes in supply of sulfur will likely be controlled by incremental production of sour gas and utilization of oil sands bitumen. It is expected that future sulfur production from conventional crude oil will remain static or will slowly decrease. The degree to which acid gas injection is applied to large sour gas developments in the Middle East and the Caspian regions will have a significant impact on world sulfur supply. 9 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  8. Shrinkage of ipsilateral taste buds and hyperplasia of contralateral taste buds following chorda tympani nerve transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Ke; Yang, Juan-Mei; Huang, Yi-Bo; Ren, Dong-Dong; Chi, Fang-Lu

    2015-06-01

    The morphological changes that occur in the taste buds after denervation are not well understood in rats, especially in the contralateral tongue epithelium. In this study, we investigated the time course of morphological changes in the taste buds following unilateral nerve transection. The role of the trigeminal component of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the taste buds was also examined. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection and unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection + lingual nerve transection. Rats were allowed up to 42 days of recovery before being euthanized. The taste buds were visualized using a cytokeratin 8 antibody. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers were quantified and compared among groups. No significant difference was detected between the chorda tympani nerve transection and chorda tympani nerve transection + lingual nerve transection groups. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers on the ipsilateral side all decreased significantly compared with control. On the contralateral side, the number of taste buds remained unchanged over time, but they were larger, and taste receptor cells were more numerous postoperatively. There was no evidence for a role of the trigeminal branch of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the anterior taste buds.

  9. Shrinkage of ipsilateral taste buds and hyperplasia of contralateral taste buds following chorda tympani nerve transection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-ke Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphological changes that occur in the taste buds after denervation are not well understood in rats, especially in the contralateral tongue epithelium. In this study, we investigated the time course of morphological changes in the taste buds following unilateral nerve transection. The role of the trigeminal component of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the taste buds was also examined. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection and unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection + lingual nerve transection. Rats were allowed up to 42 days of recovery before being euthanized. The taste buds were visualized using a cytokeratin 8 antibody. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers were quantified and compared among groups. No significant difference was detected between the chorda tympani nerve transection and chorda tympani nerve transection + lingual nerve transection groups. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers on the ipsilateral side all decreased significantly compared with control. On the contralateral side, the number of taste buds remained unchanged over time, but they were larger, and taste receptor cells were more numerous postoperatively. There was no evidence for a role of the trigeminal branch of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the anterior taste buds.

  10. Learning Consumer Tastes Through Dynamic Assortments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulu, C.; Honhon, D.B.L.P.; Alptekinoglu, A.

    2012-01-01

    How should a firm modify its product assortment over time when learning about consumer tastes? In this paper, we study dynamic assortment decisions in a horizontally differentiated product category for which consumers' diverse tastes can be represented as locations on a Hotelling line. We presume

  11. Peptide regulators of peripheral taste function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, Cedrick D; Geraedts, Maartje C P; Munger, Steven D

    2013-03-01

    The peripheral sensory organ of the gustatory system, the taste bud, contains a heterogeneous collection of sensory cells. These taste cells can differ in the stimuli to which they respond and the receptors and other signaling molecules they employ to transduce and encode those stimuli. This molecular diversity extends to the expression of a varied repertoire of bioactive peptides that appear to play important functional roles in signaling taste information between the taste cells and afferent sensory nerves and/or in processing sensory signals within the taste bud itself. Here, we review studies that examine the expression of bioactive peptides in the taste bud and the impact of those peptides on taste functions. Many of these peptides produced in taste buds are known to affect appetite, satiety or metabolism through their actions in the brain, pancreas and other organs, suggesting a functional link between the gustatory system and the neural and endocrine systems that regulate feeding and nutrient utilization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Immunohistochemical Analysis of Human Vallate Taste Buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizzano, Marco; Grigereit, Laura; Shultz, Nicole; Clary, Matthew S; Finger, Thomas E

    2015-11-01

    The morphology of the vallate papillae from postmortem human samples was investigated with immunohistochemistry. Microscopically, taste buds were present along the inner wall of the papilla, and in some cases in the outer wall as well. The typical taste cell markers PLCβ2, GNAT3 (gustducin) and the T1R3 receptor stain elongated cells in human taste buds consistent with the Type II cells in rodents. In the human tissue, taste bud cells that stain with Type II cell markers, PLCβ2 and GNAT3, also stain with villin antibody. Two typical immunochemical markers for Type III taste cells in rodents, PGP9.5 and SNAP25, fail to stain any taste bud cells in the human postmortem tissue, although these antibodies do stain numerous nerve fibers throughout the specimen. Car4, another Type III cell marker, reacted with only a few taste cells in our samples. Finally, human vallate papillae have a general network of innervation similar to rodents and antibodies directed against SNAP25, PGP9.5, acetylated tubulin and P2X3 all stain free perigemmal nerve endings as well as intragemmal taste fibers. We conclude that with the exception of certain molecular features of Type III cells, human vallate papillae share the structural, morphological, and molecular features observed in rodents. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Effects of a sour bolus on the intramuscular electromyographic (EMG) activity of muscles in the submental region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Phyllis M; McCulloch, Timothy M; Jaffe, Debra; Neel, Amy T

    2005-01-01

    A sour bolus has been used as a modality in the treatment of oropharyngeal dysphagia based on the hypothesis that this stimulus provides an effective preswallow sensory input that lowers the threshold required to trigger a pharyngeal swallow. The result is a more immediate swallow onset time. Additionally, the sour bolus may invigorate the oral muscles resulting in stronger contractions during the swallow. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the intramuscular electromyographic activity of the mylohyoid, geniohyoid, and anterior belly of the digastric muscles during sour and water boluses with regard to duration, strength, and timing of muscle activation. Muscle duration, swallow onset time, and pattern of muscle activation did not differ for the two bolus types. Muscle activation time was more tightly approximated across the onsets of the three muscles when a sour bolus was used. A sour bolus also resulted in a stronger muscle contraction as evidenced by greater electromyographic activity. These data support the use of a sour bolus as part of a treatment paradigm.

  14. Polycose taste pre-exposure fails to influence behavioral and neural indices of taste novelty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barot, Sabiha K; Bernstein, Ilene L

    2005-12-01

    Taste novelty can strongly modulate the speed and efficacy of taste aversion learning. Novel sweet tastes enhance c-Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI) in the central amygdala and insular cortex. The present studies examined whether this neural correlate of novelty extends to different taste types by measuring FLI signals after exposure to novel and familiar polysaccharide (Polycose) and salt (NaCl) tastes. Novel Polycose not only failed to elevate FLI expression in central amygdala and insular cortex, but also failed to induce stronger taste aversion learning than familiar Polycose. Novel NaCl, on the other hand, showed patterns of FLI activation and aversion learning similar to that of novel sweet tastes. Possible reasons for the resistance of Polycose to typical pre-exposure effects are discussed. Copyright (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Genetic Diversity Assessment and Identification of New Sour Cherry Genotypes Using Intersimple Sequence Repeat Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghayeh Najafzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Iran is one of the chief origins of subgenus Cerasus germplasm. In this study, the genetic variation of new Iranian sour cherries (which had such superior growth characteristics and fruit quality as to be considered for the introduction of new cultivars was investigated and identified using 23 intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR markers. Results indicated a high level of polymorphism of the genotypes based on these markers. According to these results, primers tested in this study specially ISSR-4, ISSR-6, ISSR-13, ISSR-14, ISSR-16, and ISSR-19 produced good and various levels of amplifications which can be effectively used in genetic studies of the sour cherry. The genetic similarity among genotypes showed a high diversity among the genotypes. Cluster analysis separated improved cultivars from promising Iranian genotypes, and the PCoA supported the cluster analysis results. Since the Iranian genotypes were superior to the improved cultivars and were separated from them in most groups, these genotypes can be considered as distinct genotypes for further evaluations in the framework of breeding programs and new cultivar identification in cherries. Results also confirmed that ISSR is a reliable DNA marker that can be used for exact genetic studies and in sour cherry breeding programs.

  16. Sulphur recovery and sulphur emissions at Alberta sour gas plants : annual report for 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The sulphur recovery of Alberta's grandfathered sour gas plants is monitored by the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board. This report provides an annual summary of industry performance for sulphur recovery at large acid gas flaring sour gas plants, and sulphur recovery at all acid gas injection sour gas plants. It follows Interim Directive (ID) 2001-3 which stipulates guidelines for sulphur recovery for the province of Alberta. It includes a list of grandfathered and non grandfathered plants in Alberta. Grandfathered sulphur recovery plants that exceed expectations have the option to file a sulphur emission performance credit report and can use the credits to meet some of their sulphur requirement in the future. Acid gas flaring plants face more stringent requirements and cannot earn credits. Several plants have degrandfathered in the past 5 years. Eleven have made upgrades, 4 have been relicensed to meet the requirements for new plants, and 4 have shut down. Forty-one grandfathered plants remain. Sulphur emissions have decreased 39 per cent for grandfathered acid gas flaring plants, and 28 per cent for grandfathered sulphur recovery plants. 10 tabs., 3 figs

  17. Water as an Independent Taste Modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Rosen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available To qualify as a basic taste quality or modality, defined as a group of chemicals that taste alike, three empirical benchmarks have commonly been used. The first is that a candidate group of tastants must have a dedicated transduction mechanism in the peripheral nervous system. The second is that the tastants evoke physiological responses in dedicated afferent taste nerves innervating the oropharyngeal cavity. Last, the taste stimuli evoke activity in central gustatory neurons, some of which may respond only to that group of tastants. Here we argue that water may also be an independent taste modality. This argument is based on the identification of a water dedicated transduction mechanism in the peripheral nervous system, water responsive fibers of the peripheral taste nerves and the observation of water responsive neurons in all gustatory regions within the central nervous system. We have described electrophysiological responses from single neurons in nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS and parabrachial nucleus of the pons (PbN, respectively the first two central relay nuclei in the rodent brainstem, to water presented as a taste stimulus in anesthetized rats. Responses to water were in some cases as robust as responses to other taste qualities and sometimes occurred in the absence of responses to other tastants. Both excitatory and inhibitory responses were observed. Also, the temporal features of the water response resembled those of other taste responses. We argue that water may constitute an independent taste modality that is processed by dedicated neural channels at all levels of the gustatory neuraxis. Water-dedicated neurons in the brainstem may constitute key elements in the regulatory system for fluid in the body, i.e. thirst, and as part of the swallowing reflex circuitry.

  18. Taste bud homeostasis in health, disease, and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Pu; Huang, Liquan; Wang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian taste bud is an onion-shaped epithelial structure with 50-100 tightly packed cells, including taste receptor cells, supporting cells, and basal cells. Taste receptor cells detect nutrients and toxins in the oral cavity and transmit the sensory information to gustatory nerve endings in the buds. Supporting cells may play a role in the clearance of excess neurotransmitters after their release from taste receptor cells. Basal cells are precursor cells that differentiate into mature taste cells. Similar to other epithelial cells, taste cells turn over continuously, with an average life span of about 8-12 days. To maintain structural homeostasis in taste buds, new cells are generated to replace dying cells. Several recent studies using genetic lineage tracing methods have identified populations of progenitor/stem cells for taste buds, although contributions of these progenitor/stem cell populations to taste bud homeostasis have yet to be fully determined. Some regulatory factors of taste cell differentiation and degeneration have been identified, but our understanding of these aspects of taste bud homoeostasis remains limited. Many patients with various diseases develop taste disorders, including taste loss and taste distortion. Decline in taste function also occurs during aging. Recent studies suggest that disruption or alteration of taste bud homeostasis may contribute to taste dysfunction associated with disease and aging.

  19. Taste Bud Homeostasis in Health, Disease, and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian taste bud is an onion-shaped epithelial structure with 50–100 tightly packed cells, including taste receptor cells, supporting cells, and basal cells. Taste receptor cells detect nutrients and toxins in the oral cavity and transmit the sensory information to gustatory nerve endings in the buds. Supporting cells may play a role in the clearance of excess neurotransmitters after their release from taste receptor cells. Basal cells are precursor cells that differentiate into mature taste cells. Similar to other epithelial cells, taste cells turn over continuously, with an average life span of about 8–12 days. To maintain structural homeostasis in taste buds, new cells are generated to replace dying cells. Several recent studies using genetic lineage tracing methods have identified populations of progenitor/stem cells for taste buds, although contributions of these progenitor/stem cell populations to taste bud homeostasis have yet to be fully determined. Some regulatory factors of taste cell differentiation and degeneration have been identified, but our understanding of these aspects of taste bud homoeostasis remains limited. Many patients with various diseases develop taste disorders, including taste loss and taste distortion. Decline in taste function also occurs during aging. Recent studies suggest that disruption or alteration of taste bud homeostasis may contribute to taste dysfunction associated with disease and aging. PMID:24287552

  20. Vismodegib, an antagonist of hedgehog signaling, directly alters taste molecular signaling in taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyekyung; Cong, Wei-Na; Yoon, Jeong Seon; Egan, Josephine M

    2015-02-01

    Vismodegib, a highly selective inhibitor of hedgehog (Hh) pathway, is an approved treatment for basal-cell carcinoma. Patients on treatment with vismodegib often report profound alterations in taste sensation. The cellular mechanisms underlying the alterations have not been studied. Sonic Hh (Shh) signaling is required for cell growth and differentiation. In taste buds, Shh is exclusively expressed in type IV taste cells, which are undifferentiated basal cells and the precursors of the three types of taste sensing cells. Thus, we investigated if vismodegib has an inhibitory effect on taste cell turnover because of its known effects on Hh signaling. We gavaged C57BL/6J male mice daily with either vehicle or 30 mg/kg vismodegib for 15 weeks. The gustatory behavior and immunohistochemical profile of taste cells were examined. Vismodegib-treated mice showed decreased growth rate and behavioral responsivity to sweet and bitter stimuli, compared to vehicle-treated mice. We found that vismodegib-treated mice had significant reductions in taste bud size and numbers of taste cells per taste bud. Additionally, vismodegib treatment resulted in decreased numbers of Ki67- and Shh-expressing cells in taste buds. The numbers of phospholipase Cβ2- and α-gustducin-expressing cells, which contain biochemical machinery for sweet and bitter sensing, were reduced in vismodegib-treated mice. Furthermore, vismodegib treatment resulted in reduction in numbers of T1R3, glucagon-like peptide-1, and glucagon-expressing cells, which are known to modulate sweet taste sensitivity. These results suggest that inhibition of Shh signaling by vismodegib treatment directly results in alteration of taste due to local effects in taste buds. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  1. Vismodegib, an antagonist of hedgehog signaling, directly alters taste molecular signaling in taste buds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hyekyung; Cong, Wei-na; Yoon, Jeong Seon; Egan, Josephine M

    2015-01-01

    Vismodegib, a highly selective inhibitor of hedgehog (Hh) pathway, is an approved treatment for basal-cell carcinoma. Patients on treatment with vismodegib often report profound alterations in taste sensation. The cellular mechanisms underlying the alterations have not been studied. Sonic Hh (Shh) signaling is required for cell growth and differentiation. In taste buds, Shh is exclusively expressed in type IV taste cells, which are undifferentiated basal cells and the precursors of the three types of taste sensing cells. Thus, we investigated if vismodegib has an inhibitory effect on taste cell turnover because of its known effects on Hh signaling. We gavaged C57BL/6J male mice daily with either vehicle or 30 mg/kg vismodegib for 15 weeks. The gustatory behavior and immunohistochemical profile of taste cells were examined. Vismodegib-treated mice showed decreased growth rate and behavioral responsivity to sweet and bitter stimuli, compared to vehicle-treated mice. We found that vismodegib-treated mice had significant reductions in taste bud size and numbers of taste cells per taste bud. Additionally, vismodegib treatment resulted in decreased numbers of Ki67- and Shh-expressing cells in taste buds. The numbers of phospholipase Cβ2- and α-gustducin-expressing cells, which contain biochemical machinery for sweet and bitter sensing, were reduced in vismodegib-treated mice. Furthermore, vismodegib treatment resulted in reduction in numbers of T1R3, glucagon-like peptide-1, and glucagon-expressing cells, which are known to modulate sweet taste sensitivity. These results suggest that inhibition of Shh signaling by vismodegib treatment directly results in alteration of taste due to local effects in taste buds

  2. The influence of oral health on patients' food perception: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batisse, C; Bonnet, G; Eschevins, C; Hennequin, M; Nicolas, E

    2017-12-01

    Oral food perception depends on somatosensory information that includes taste and can be modified by oral components and/or functions such as mastication. The purpose of this study was to describe the interplay between oral health, mastication and taste. A review according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses checklist was conducted on 615 publications found by both PubMed and backward research. Thirty-one studies have been included. The results showed that the decline in taste ability observed during the healthy ageing process could be potentiated by the deterioration of oral health and poor oral hygiene. Prosthetic treatment could modify taste ability and oral food perception. A palatal covering with removable dentures can have an impact on taste perception which may depend on taste modality. During the mastication sequence, taste is apparently scattered throughout the oral cavity, probably through saliva. The deterioration of masticatory function modifies taste perception. Oral health and oral care should consider factors influencing patients' food perception and relations between taste and mastication. Therefore, dentists may modulate these factors to improve food perception and patients' eating pleasure and quality of life. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Radiation effects on bovine taste bud membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shatzman, A.R.; Mossman, K.L.

    1982-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanisms of radiation-induced taste loss, the effects of radiation on preparations of enriched bovine taste bud membranes were studied. Taste buds containing circumvallate papilae, and surrounding control epithelial tissues devoid of taste buds, were obtained from steers and given radiation doses of 0-7000 cGy (rad). Tissue fractions were isolated into membrane-enriched and heterogeneous components using differential and sucrose gradient centrifugation of tissue homogenates. The yield of membranes, as measured by protein content in the buoyant membrane-enriched fractions, was reduced in quantity with increasing radiation dose. The relation between radiation dose and membrane quantity in membrane-enriched fractions could be fit by a simple exponential model with taste bud-derived membranes twice as radiosensitive as membranes from control epithelial tissue. Binding of sucrose, sodium, and acetate and fluoride stimulation of adenylate cyclase were nearly identical in both irradiated and nonirradiated intact membranes. Radiation had no effect on fractions of heterogeneous components. While it is not clear what changes are occurring in enriched taste cell membranes, damage to membranes may play an important role in the taste loss observed in patients following radiotherapy

  4. An increase in visceral fat is associated with a decrease in the taste and olfactory capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Carlos Fernandez-Garcia

    Full Text Available Sensory factors may play an important role in the determination of appetite and food choices. Also, some adipokines may alter or predict the perception and pleasantness of specific odors. We aimed to analyze differences in smell-taste capacity between females with different weights and relate them with fat and fat-free mass, visceral fat, and several adipokines.179 females with different weights (from low weight to morbid obesity were studied. We analyzed the relation between fat, fat-free mass, visceral fat (indirectly estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis with visceral fat rating (VFR, leptin, adiponectin and visfatin. The smell and taste assessments were performed through the "Sniffin' Sticks" and "Taste Strips" respectively.We found a lower score in the measurement of smell (TDI-score (Threshold, Discrimination and Identification in obese subjects. All the olfactory functions measured, such as threshold, discrimination, identification and the TDI-score, correlated negatively with age, body mass index (BMI, leptin, fat mass, fat-free mass and VFR. In a multiple linear regression model, VFR mainly predicted the TDI-score. With regard to the taste function measurements, the normal weight subjects showed a higher score of taste functions. However a tendency to decrease was observed in the groups with greater or lesser BMI. In a multiple linear regression model VFR and age mainly predicted the total taste scores.We show for the first time that a reverse relationship exists between visceral fat and sensory signals, such as smell and taste, across a population with different body weight conditions.

  5. Effects of aroma and taste, independently or in combination, on appetite sensation and subsequent food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wenting; Hewson, Louise; Linforth, Robert; Taylor, Moira; Fisk, Ian D

    2017-07-01

    Food flavour is important in appetite control. The effects of aroma and taste, independently or in combination, on appetite sensation and subsequent food intake, were studied. Twenty-six females (24 ± 4 years, 20.9 ± 1.9 kg⋅m -2 ) consumed, over 15 min period, one of four sample drinks as a preload, followed by an ad libitum consumption of a pasta meal (after 65 min). Sample drinks were: water (S1, 0 kcal), water with strawberry aroma (S2, 0 kcal), water with sucrose and citric acid (S3, 48 kcal) and water with strawberry aroma, sucrose and citric acid (S4, 48 kcal). Appetite sensation did not differ between the S1 (water), S2 (aroma) and S3 (taste) conditions. Compared with S1 (water), S2 (aroma) and S3 (taste), S4 (aroma + taste) suppressed hunger sensation over the 15 min sample drink consumption period (satiation) (p < 0.05). S4 (aroma + taste) further reduced hunger sensation (satiety) more than S1 at 5, 20 and 30 min after the drink was consumed (p < 0.05), more than S2 (aroma) at 5 and 20 min after the drink was consumed (p < 0.05), and more than S3 (taste) at 5 min after the drink was consumed (p < 0.05). Subsequent pasta energy intake did not vary between the sample drink conditions. S4 (aroma + taste) had the strongest perceived flavour. This study suggests that the combination of aroma and taste induced greater satiation and short-term satiety than the independent aroma or taste and water, potentially via increasing the perceived flavour intensity or by enhancing the perceived flavour quality and complexity as a result of aroma-taste cross-modal perception. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Reduces Taste-Evoked ATP Secretion from Mouse Taste Buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Anthony Y; Wu, Sandy Y

    2015-09-16

    Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that peripheral afferent nerve fibers innervating taste buds contain calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), which may be as an efferent transmitter released from peripheral axon terminals. In this report, we determined the targets of CGRP within taste buds and studied what effect CGRP exerts on taste bud function. We isolated mouse taste buds and taste cells, conducted functional imaging using Fura-2, and used cellular biosensors to monitor taste-evoked transmitter release. The findings showed that a subset of Presynaptic (Type III) taste cells (53%) responded to 0.1 μm CGRP with an increase in intracellular Ca(2+). In contrast, Receptor (Type II) taste cells rarely (4%) responded to 0.1 μm CGRP. Using pharmacological tools, the actions of CGRP were probed and elucidated by the CGRP receptor antagonist CGRP(8-37). We demonstrated that this effect of CGRP was dependent on phospholipase C activation and was prevented by the inhibitor U73122. Moreover, applying CGRP caused taste buds to secrete serotonin (5-HT), a Presynaptic (Type III) cell transmitter, but not ATP, a Receptor (Type II) cell transmitter. Further, our previous studies showed that 5-HT released from Presynaptic (Type III) cells provides negative paracrine feedback onto Receptor (Type II) cells by activating 5-HT1A receptors, and reducing ATP secretion. Our data showed that CGRP-evoked 5-HT release reduced taste-evoked ATP secretion. The findings are consistent with a role for CGRP as an inhibitory transmitter that shapes peripheral taste signals via serotonergic signaling during processing gustatory information in taste buds. The taste sensation is initiated with a highly complex set of interactions between a variety of cells located within the taste buds before signal propagation to the brain. Afferent signals from the oral cavity are carried to the brain in chemosensory fibers that contribute to chemesthesis, the general chemical sensitivity of the mucus

  7. Development of printed sensors for taste sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Nag, Anindya

    2018-01-30

    The paper presents an idea of developing taste sensors using novel printed sensors. The raw materials used for developing the sensors were commercial polymer films. Powered graphene was produced using laser induction technique. This powder was separately transferred to Kapton tapes to developed flexible graphene sensors. The fabricated sensors were tested with different chemicals having specific attributes with the idea to develop a taste sensor. Three different types of chemicals were tested and analyzed to verify the ability of the developed sensor patch to differentiate between the individual chemicals. The initial results have provided a significant platform in the process of developing a fully functionalized taste sensing system.

  8. The taste in a polyparadigmal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimova G. P.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available modern spiritual situation is determined as a transfer from a united cultural paradigm to a poliparadigmal cultural space. It is characterized by an unlimited diversity of unlinked spiritual structures, ideas, theories, styles and direction. Polyphony, eclecticism, subjective assembling, inlaid, and omnivorous are perceived as a norm today. Total impact of cultural specimen, intensified by an industry of informational technologies deform valuable aesthetic orientations of a personality, including taste. Individual experience in the taste becomes unified and social. Tastes differentiated before (aesthetic, artistic, mass, elite, etc. became homogenous. Cultural reflection may be a purposeful preservation of elite valuable cultural orientation.

  9. Development of printed sensors for taste sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Nag, Anindya; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents an idea of developing taste sensors using novel printed sensors. The raw materials used for developing the sensors were commercial polymer films. Powered graphene was produced using laser induction technique. This powder was separately transferred to Kapton tapes to developed flexible graphene sensors. The fabricated sensors were tested with different chemicals having specific attributes with the idea to develop a taste sensor. Three different types of chemicals were tested and analyzed to verify the ability of the developed sensor patch to differentiate between the individual chemicals. The initial results have provided a significant platform in the process of developing a fully functionalized taste sensing system.

  10. Modulation of taste sensitivity by GLP-1 signaling in taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Bronwen; Dotson, Cedrick D; Shin, Yu-Kyong; Ji, Sunggoan; Drucker, Daniel J; Maudsley, Stuart; Munger, Steven D

    2009-07-01

    Modulation of sensory function can help animals adjust to a changing external and internal environment. Even so, mechanisms for modulating taste sensitivity are poorly understood. Using immunohistochemical, biochemical, and behavioral approaches, we found that the peptide hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and its receptor (GLP-1R) are expressed in mammalian taste buds. Furthermore, we found that GLP-1 signaling plays an important role in the modulation of taste sensitivity: GLP-1R knockout mice exhibit a dramatic reduction in sweet taste sensitivity as well as an enhanced sensitivity to umami-tasting stimuli. Together, these findings suggest a novel paracrine mechanism for the hormonal modulation of taste function in mammals.

  11. Shrinkage of ipsilateral taste buds and hyperplasia of contralateral taste buds following chorda tympani nerve transection

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yi-ke; Yang, Juan-mei; Huang, Yi-bo; Ren, Dong-dong; Chi, Fang-lu

    2015-01-01

    The morphological changes that occur in the taste buds after denervation are not well understood in rats, especially in the contralateral tongue epithelium. In this study, we investigated the time course of morphological changes in the taste buds following unilateral nerve transection. The role of the trigeminal component of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the taste buds was also examined. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: co...

  12. Chemosensory Dysfunction in Alcohol-Related Disorders: A Joint Exploration of Olfaction and Taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brion, Mélanie; de Timary, Philippe; Vander Stappen, Caroline; Guettat, Lamia; Lecomte, Benoît; Rombaux, Philippe; Maurage, Pierre

    2015-11-01

    Chemosensory (olfaction-taste) dysfunctions are considered as reliable biomarkers in many neurological and psychiatric states. However, experimental measures of chemosensory abilities are lacking in alcohol-dependence (AD) and Korsakoff Syndrome (KS, a neurological complication of AD), despite the role played by alcohol-related odors and taste in the emergence and maintenance of AD. This study thus investigated chemosensory impairments in AD and KS. Olfactory-gustatory measures were taken among 20 KS, 20 AD, and 20 control participants. Olfaction (odor detection-discrimination-identification) was assessed using the "Sniffin Sticks" battery and taste was measured using the "Taste Strips" task. Impairments were found for high-level olfaction in AD (odor discrimination) and KS (odor discrimination-identification), even after controlling for psychopathological comorbidities. Gustatory deficits were also observed in both groups, indexing a global deficit for chemosensory perception. Finally, the gradient of impairment between the successive disease stages for odor identification suggests that the hypothesis of a continuum between AD and KS regarding cognitive deficits can be generalized to chemosensory perception. AD and KS are thus characterized by deficits in chemosensory abilities, which could constitute a marker of the AD-KS transition. In view of its deleterious influence on everyday life, chemosensory dysfunction should also be taken into account in clinical settings. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Taste Bud-Derived BDNF Is Required to Maintain Normal Amounts of Innervation to Adult Taste Buds123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lingbin; Ohman-Gault, Lisa; Ma, Liqun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Gustatory neurons transmit chemical information from taste receptor cells, which reside in taste buds in the oral cavity, to the brain. As adult taste receptor cells are renewed at a constant rate, nerve fibers must reconnect with new taste receptor cells as they arise. Therefore, the maintenance of gustatory innervation to the taste bud is an active process. Understanding how this process is regulated is a fundamental concern of gustatory system biology. We speculated that because brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is required for taste bud innervation during development, it might function to maintain innervation during adulthood. If so, taste buds should lose innervation when Bdnf is deleted in adult mice. To test this idea, we first removed Bdnf from all cells in adulthood using transgenic mice with inducible CreERT2 under the control of the Ubiquitin promoter. When Bdnf was removed, approximately one-half of the innervation to taste buds was lost, and taste buds became smaller because of the loss of taste bud cells. Individual taste buds varied in the amount of innervation each lost, and those that lost the most innervation also lost the most taste bud cells. We then tested the idea that that the taste bud was the source of this BDNF by reducing Bdnf levels specifically in the lingual epithelium and taste buds. Taste buds were confirmed as the source of BDNF regulating innervation. We conclude that BDNF expressed in taste receptor cells is required to maintain normal levels of innervation in adulthood. PMID:26730405

  14. Taste Bud-Derived BDNF Is Required to Maintain Normal Amounts of Innervation to Adult Taste Buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lingbin; Ohman-Gault, Lisa; Ma, Liqun; Krimm, Robin F

    2015-01-01

    Gustatory neurons transmit chemical information from taste receptor cells, which reside in taste buds in the oral cavity, to the brain. As adult taste receptor cells are renewed at a constant rate, nerve fibers must reconnect with new taste receptor cells as they arise. Therefore, the maintenance of gustatory innervation to the taste bud is an active process. Understanding how this process is regulated is a fundamental concern of gustatory system biology. We speculated that because brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is required for taste bud innervation during development, it might function to maintain innervation during adulthood. If so, taste buds should lose innervation when Bdnf is deleted in adult mice. To test this idea, we first removed Bdnf from all cells in adulthood using transgenic mice with inducible CreERT2 under the control of the Ubiquitin promoter. When Bdnf was removed, approximately one-half of the innervation to taste buds was lost, and taste buds became smaller because of the loss of taste bud cells. Individual taste buds varied in the amount of innervation each lost, and those that lost the most innervation also lost the most taste bud cells. We then tested the idea that that the taste bud was the source of this BDNF by reducing Bdnf levels specifically in the lingual epithelium and taste buds. Taste buds were confirmed as the source of BDNF regulating innervation. We conclude that BDNF expressed in taste receptor cells is required to maintain normal levels of innervation in adulthood.

  15. (PTC) taste sensitivity, ABO and Rhesus factor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chibuisi G. Alimba

    diseases [11], thyroid disorders, gastrointestinal ulcers and sus- ceptibility to ... forensic pathology. It has also been ... haemolysate from venous blood of the subjects was placed ..... Phenylthiocarbamide taste sensitivity in chronic peptic ulcer.

  16. Musical taste, employment, education, and global region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Adrian C; Davidson, Jane W

    2013-10-01

    Sociologists have argued that musical taste should vary between social groups, but have not considered whether the effect extends beyond taste into uses of music and also emotional reactions to music. Moreover, previous research has ignored the culture in which participants are located. The present research employed a large sample from five post-industrial global regions and showed that musical taste differed between regions but not according to education and employment; and that there were three-way interactions between education, employment, and region in the uses to which participants put music and also their typical emotional reactions. In addition to providing partial support for existing sociological theory, the findings highlight the potential of culture as a variable in future quantitative research on taste. © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  17. Case studies of the application of enhanced steel alloys for bottom hole assembly components for sour service conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Alvaro [Nov Grant Prideco, Navasota (United States); Moura, Carlos [ASPEN Assesoria Tecnica e Comercial, Cascavel, PR (Brazil); Johnson, Charles; Landriault, Alain [Weatherford Canda Partnership, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The new more modern drilling programs require the drill string to travel across sour formations in order to reach the hydrocarbon reservoirs. Traditional materials have been employed in the manufacture of HWDP components along with basic heat treatment processes. Standard HWDP tools have started to show their operational as well as environmental limitations when subjected to sour service applications. The advanced, more complex drilling programs require for the HWDP tools to be put in service under different configurations. Either at the bottom of the drill string near the drill bit for vertical well configurations or on top of the drill string for weight application on horizontal or extended reach applications. An operator in northwestern Canada has replaced standard HWDP with enhanced sour service HWDP in order to complete the programmed wells. These enhanced tools offer higher tensile and torque capabilities and improved toughness than standard HWDP tools and in addition, provide protection against sour service conditions. The use of second-generation double shoulder connections (2nd-Gen. DSC) has also provided added torque and tensile capacities to these versatile HWDP tools. For over a year more than a dozen wells have been drilled employing these enhanced BHA tools and have helped the operator reach its targets through sour service formations and produce wells in a safe and cost effective manner. (author)

  18. Quantitative analysis of developing epiglottal taste buds in sheep.

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley, R M; Cheal, M L; Kim, Y H

    1980-01-01

    Epiglottal taste buds of the sheep increase in number during development, and continue to increase until the epiglottis has reached its adult size. However, since the increase in taste bud numbers is paralleled by increase in the surface area of the epiglottis, the density of taste buds decreases progressively in the fetus and newborn. After birth the density remains relatively constant. From examination of the morphological stages of epiglottal taste bud development, we conclude that taste b...

  19. Optimizing the sensory characteristics and acceptance of canned cat food: use of a human taste panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, G J

    2009-02-01

    A methodology based on descriptive analysis techniques used in the evaluation of human food has been successfully refined to allow for a human taste panel to profile the flavour and texture of a range of cat food products (CFP) and their component parts. Included in this method is the development of evaluation protocols for homogeneous products and for binary samples containing both meat chunk (MC) and gravy/gel (GG) constituents. Using these techniques, 18 flavour attributes (sweet, sour/acid, tuna, herbal, spicy, soy, salty, cereal, caramel, chicken, methionine, vegetable, offaly, meaty, burnt flavour, prawn, rancid and bitter) and four texture dimensions (hardness, chewiness, grittiness and viscosity) were generated to describe the sensations elicited by 13 commercial pet food samples. These samples differed in intensity for 16 of the 18 flavour attributes, which allows for individual CFP flavour profiles to be developed. Principal components analysis (PCA) could successfully discriminate between samples within the PCA space and also reveal some groupings amongst them. While many flavour attributes were weakly correlated, a large number (describing both taste and retro-nasal aroma qualities) were required to adequately differentiate between samples, suggesting considerable complexity in the products assessed. For both MC and GG, differences between samples for each of the texture dimensions were also found. For MC, grittiness appears to be the most discriminating textural attribute, while for GG viscosity discriminates well between samples. Meat chunks and gravy/gels differed significantly from each other in both flavour and texture. Cat food products differed in their liking ratings, although no differences were found between homogeneous, MC and GG samples, and eight flavour attributes were correlated with overall liking scores. It is now necessary to determine the usefulness and limits of sensory data gathered from human panels in describing and predicting

  20. Controlling taste and odour levels in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, A J

    1980-12-01

    Taste and odor of drinking water supplies act as indicator mechanisms, indicating increased degrees of biological activity, possible contamination of the supply, treatment inadequacies, or contamination of the distribution systems. Disinfection and coagulation are effective preventive measures. Taste and odor problems may arise even with the application of preventive measures, so protective and treatment techniques must be implemented. These include chlorination and activated carbon absorption. (1 photo, 3 references, 1 table)

  1. Taste Receptor Signaling-- From Tongues to Lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnamon, Sue C.

    2013-01-01

    Taste buds are the transducing endorgans of gustation. Each taste bud comprises 50–100 elongated cells, which extend from the basal lamina to the surface of the tongue, where their apical microvilli encounter taste stimuli in the oral cavity. Salts and acids utilize apically located ion channels for transduction, while bitter, sweet and umami (glutamate) stimuli utilize G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and second messenger signaling mechanisms. This review will focus on GPCR signaling mechanisms. Two classes of taste GPCRs have been identified, the T1Rs for sweet and umami (glutamate) stimuli, and the T2Rs for bitter stimuli. These low affinity GPCRs all couple to the same downstream signaling effectors that include Gβγ activation of PLCβ2, IP3-mediated release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores, and Ca2+-dependent activation of the monovalent selective cation channel, TrpM5. These events lead to membrane depolarization, action potentials, and release of ATP as a transmitter to activate gustatory afferents. The Gα subunit, α-gustducin, activates a phosphodiesterase to decrease intracellular cAMP levels, although the precise targets of cAMP have not been identified. With the molecular identification of the taste GPCRs, it has become clear that taste signaling is not limited to taste buds, but occurs in many cell types of the airways. These include solitary chemosensory cells, ciliated epithelial cells, and smooth muscle cells. Bitter receptors are most abundantly expressed in the airways, where they respond to irritating chemicals and promote protective airway reflexes, utilizing the same downstream signaling effectors as taste cells. PMID:21481196

  2. Quantification of taste of green tea with taste sensor; Aji sensor wo mochiita ryokucha no aji no teiryoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikezaki, H.; Taniguchi, A. [Anritsu Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Toko, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1997-08-20

    We have developed a multichannel taste sensor with artificial lipid membranes and have applied it to quantification of taste of green tea. We used multiple regression analysis and found high correlations of outputs of the taste sensor with the results of sensory test (taste, flavor and color) and chemical analyses (amino acids and tannin that are main taste substances in green tea). It is concluded that the taste sensor has a potential for quantification of taste of green tea. The taste sensor responds not only to amino acids and tannin, but also to many other taste substances, and hence it contains much more taste information than conventional chemical analyses. 12 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Influence of ph on corrosion control of carbon steel by peroxide injection in sour water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Martins Magda; Baptista, Walmar; Joia, Carlos Jose Bandeira de Mello [PROTEMP - PETROBRAS/CENPES, Cidade Universitaria, Quadra 7, Rio de Janeiro, CEP 21949-900 (Brazil); Ponciano, Gomes Jose Antonio da Cunha [Departamento de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais-COPPE/UFRJ, Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Sour hydrogen damage is considered the most important corrosive process in the light-ends recovery section of Fluid Catalytic Cracking Units (FCCU). Corrosion in this condition is due to heavy gas oil that originates great amount of contaminants, such as H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3} and HCN. Hydrogen absorption is promoted by the presence of free cyanides in the environment. The attenuation of this process requires the use of some inhibitors, such as oxygen, hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) or commercial polysulfides. The effect of these compounds is to neutralize free cyanides (CN{sup -}) into thio-sulfides (SCN{sup -}). When peroxide injection is selected, cyanide concentration in sour water has been used as key parameter to start the peroxide introduction. However, the importance of pH in this system has been pointed out by many authors. The aim of this work is to investigate the influence of pH when peroxide injection is carried out in less alkaline conditions of sour water. Electrochemical techniques - like anodic polarization and hydrogen permeation tests - and weight loss measurements were used to evaluate the effectiveness of corrosion control of carbon steel. It was concluded that at pH 7.5 peroxide injection can drive to an increment of the corrosion rate. Besides that, it was concluded that hydrogen permeation into the metal is promoted. Both detrimental effects were due to elemental sulfur generation in this pH range. The adoption of pH as a key parameter for peroxide injection is then suggested. (authors)

  4. Development of a novel processing system for efficient sour water stripping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazemi, Abolghasem; Mehrabani-Zeinabad, Arjomand; Beheshti, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    Application of vapor recompression systems can result in enhanced energy efficiency and reduced energy requirements of distillation systems. In vapor recompression systems, temperature and dew point temperature of the top product of the column are increased through compression. By transferring heat from top to bottoms product, required boil up and reflux streams for the column are provided. In this paper, a new system is proposed for efficient stripping of sour water based on vapor recompression. Ammonia and H 2 S are the contaminants of sour water. Initially, based on a certain specifications of products, a sour water stripping system is implemented. A novel processing system is then developed and simulated to reduce utility requirements. The two processing systems are economically evaluated by Aspen Economic Evaluation software. There are 89.0% and 83.7% reduction of hot and cold utility requirements for the proposed system in comparison to the base processing system. However, the new processing system requires new equipment such as compressor and corresponding mechanical work that increases its capital and operating costs in comparison to the base case. However, the results indicate that the proposed system results in reduction of 11.4% of total annual costs and 14.9% of operating costs. - Highlights: • A novel system was developed for enhancement of performance of a distillation system based on vapor recompression. • In this system, utility streams are used for providing thermal energy. • A parametric study is carried out on the proposed processing system. • Applying the proposed system resulted in reduction of energy and utility requirements and costs of the separation process. • Environmental performance of the model was investigated.

  5. Degradation of Anthocyanin Content in Sour Cherry Juice During Heat Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilla Szalóki-Dorkó

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sour cherry juices made from two sour cherry cultivars (Érdi bőtermő and Kántorjánosi 3, were investigated to determine their total anthocyanin content and half-life of anthocyanins during heat treatment at different temperatures (70, 80 and 90 °C for 4 h. Before the heat treatment, Érdi bőtermő juice had higher anthocyanin concentration (812 mg/L than Kántorjánosi 3 juice (513 mg/L. The greatest heat sensitivity of anthocyanins was measured at 90 °C, while the treatments at 80 and 70 °C caused lower thermal degradation. The loss of anthocyanins in Érdi bőtermő juice after treatment was 38, 29 and 18 %, respectively, while in Kántorjánosi 3 juice losses of 46, 29 and 19 % were observed, respectively. At 90 °C sour cherry Érdi bőtermő juice had higher half-life (t1/2 of anthocyanins, while the Kántorjánosi 3 juice had higher t1/2 values at 70 °C. Cyanidin-3-glucosyl-rutinoside was present in higher concentrations in both cultivars (Érdi bőtermő: 348 and Kántorjánosi 3: 200 mg/L than cyanidin-3-rutinoside (177 and 121 mg/L before treatment. However, during the experiment, cyanidin-3-rutinoside was proved to be more resistant to heat. Comparing the two varieties, both investigated pigment compounds were more stable in Kántorjánosi 3 than in Érdi bőtermő. Degradation rate of anthocyanins was cultivar-dependent characteristic, which should be taken into account in the food production.

  6. Effective pollination period in "Oblačinska" sour cherry clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotirić-Akšić Milica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To obtain high yields there should be high flower density and fruit set in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. production. Furthermore, in order to ensure successful fertilization, there should be satisfactory stigma receptivity, rapid pollen tube growth along the style, as well as adequate ovule longevity. This manuscript presents the study of the effective pollination period (EPP of four ‘Oblačinska’ sour cherry clones (II/2, III/9, XI/3 and XIII/1 that differs in pollen germination, fruit set and yields. In order to estimate EPP, pollination was conducted in six different stages of flower development: balloon stage, 2 d before anthesis (-2, at anthesis (0, and 2, 4, 6 and 8 d after anthеsis (DAA. The initial (IFS and final fruit set (FFS were recorded under the field conditions. Alongside with this, the rate of pollen tubes growth in the style was observed with fluorescent microscopy. The experimental design was completely randomized, a two-factorial analysis of variance was carried out and individual testing was performed using LSD test (p ≤ 0.05; p ≤ 0.01. The experiment was set in triplicates. Regarding FFS, clones II/2 and III/9 showed the best results (p ≤ 0.01 in 4 and 6 DAA. The number of pollen tubes in the style of the pistil decreased with subsequent terms of pollination, while its number in the ovule increased up to sixth day after pollination, followed by a decline. Clones II/2 and III/9 showed EPP which lasted from 6 to 8 d, while EPP found in clone XI/3, lasted only 2 d. It is concluded that only clone having long EPP should be used as parents for creating new sour cherry cultivars. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31063 and FP7 Project AREA 316004

  7. The effect of produced water reinjection on reservoir souring in the Statfjord field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoernestad, Eva Oe.; Sunde, Egil; Dinning, Anthony J.

    2006-03-15

    A produced water reinjection (PWRI) pilot test was performed in one well in the Statfjord field in the period 2000-2001. In order to establish the souring parameters and influence of PWRI in the near well area, the well was back flowed prior to PWRI, and at the end of the PWRI test period. Tracer was used for mass balance evaluations. After the PWRI pilot test was finished, the PWRI plant was upgraded at the Statfjord C platform and since 2003; two wells have been re injecting produced water. Nitrate has substituted biocides for corrosion control in the water injection system at the Statfjord B and Statfjord C platforms. Based on experience from other Statoil operated fields, nitrate will improve the corrosion control and in addition reduce the reservoir souring and hence the H2S production. In 2004, three wells were backflowed; a PWRI- injector, a seawater injector and a sea water injector with addition of nitrate. Results from the PWRI pilot test, showed that the sulphide production increased 17 times after PWRI in comparison with seawater injection. In the backflowing studies in 2004, water from the PWRI injector showed considerable higher H2S content (approximately 300 mg/l) than the well injecting only seawater (approximately 3-4 mg/l). The well injecting nitrate showed the lowest sulphide concentration in the backflowed fluids in comparison with the other wells (below 1 mg/l). This illustrates a significant increase in microbiological activity within the near injection area as a result of increased nutrient availability due to PWRI. The impact of PWRI in the lifetime of the Statfjord field has been evaluated and the PWRI strategy may be altered due to increases in souring. (Author)

  8. Change of Taste Sensitivity of Clove Cigarette Smokers in Medan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlina Simamora

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tongue has taste buds that contain taste receptor which affected by many factors, including smoking habit. Objective: To analyze the differences of sweet and bitter taste sensitivity in the pedicab driver clove cigarette smokers compared to non-smokers in Medan Padang Bulan. Methods: This study was conducted by placing the sweet taste strips and bitter taste strips on four taste receptors of the tongue, with increasing solution concentration in 74 subjects. This was a cross sectional study on pedicab driver population in Medan Padang Bulan. Results: There were differences between clove cigarette smokers and non-smokers on sweet taste examination (p<0.005. There was a difference between clove cigarette smokers and non-smokers on examination bitter taste receptors (p<0.005. On the clove cigarette smokers, there was no significant difference between sweet taste and bitter taste on the receptors itself. Conclusion: Non-smokers are more sensitive to sweet taste than the clove cigarette smokers. Bitter taste sensitivity is greater in cigarettes smokers than in non-smokers. Taste receptors on all location of the tongue could taste sweet and bitter substances, but a certain location of taste receptors were more sensitive compared to others.

  9. Whole transcriptome profiling of taste bud cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Sunil K; Lewandowski, Brian C; Qin, Yumei; Kotha, Ramana; Bachmanov, Alexander A; Margolskee, Robert F

    2017-08-08

    Analysis of single-cell RNA-Seq data can provide insights into the specific functions of individual cell types that compose complex tissues. Here, we examined gene expression in two distinct subpopulations of mouse taste cells: Tas1r3-expressing type II cells and physiologically identified type III cells. Our RNA-Seq libraries met high quality control standards and accurately captured differential expression of marker genes for type II (e.g. the Tas1r genes, Plcb2, Trpm5) and type III (e.g. Pkd2l1, Ncam, Snap25) taste cells. Bioinformatics analysis showed that genes regulating responses to stimuli were up-regulated in type II cells, while pathways related to neuronal function were up-regulated in type III cells. We also identified highly expressed genes and pathways associated with chemotaxis and axon guidance, providing new insights into the mechanisms underlying integration of new taste cells into the taste bud. We validated our results by immunohistochemically confirming expression of selected genes encoding synaptic (Cplx2 and Pclo) and semaphorin signalling pathway (Crmp2, PlexinB1, Fes and Sema4a) components. The approach described here could provide a comprehensive map of gene expression for all taste cell subpopulations and will be particularly relevant for cell types in taste buds and other tissues that can be identified only by physiological methods.

  10. Metallic taste from electrical and chemical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, Harry T; Stevens, David A; Chapman, Kathryn W; Kurtz, Anne

    2005-03-01

    A series of three experiments investigated the nature of metallic taste reports after stimulation with solutions of metal salts and after stimulation with metals and electric currents. To stimulate with electricity, a device was fabricated consisting of a small battery affixed to a plastic handle with the anode side exposed for placement on the tongue or oral tissues. Intensity of taste from metals and batteries was dependent upon the voltage and was more robust in areas dense in fungiform papillae. Metallic taste was reported from stimulation with ferrous sulfate solutions, from metals and from electric stimuli. However, reports of metallic taste were more frequent when the word 'metallic' was presented embedded in a list of choices, as opposed to simple free-choice labeling. Intensity decreased for ferrous sulfate when the nose was occluded, consistent with a decrease in retronasal smell, as previously reported. Intensity of taste evoked by copper metal, bimetallic stimuli (zinc/copper) or small batteries (1.5-3 V) was not affected by nasal occlusion. This difference suggests two distinct mechanisms for evocation of metallic taste reports, one dependent upon retronasal smell and a second mediated by oral chemoreceptors.

  11. Glutamate: Tastant and Neuromodulator in Taste Buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Kinnamon, Sue C

    2016-07-01

    In taste buds, glutamate plays a double role as a gustatory stimulus and neuromodulator. The detection of glutamate as a tastant involves several G protein-coupled receptors, including the heterodimer taste receptor type 1, member 1 and 3 as well as metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1 and mGluR4). Both receptor types participate in the detection of glutamate as shown with knockout animals and selective antagonists. At the basal part of taste buds, ionotropic glutamate receptors [N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA] are expressed and participate in the modulation of the taste signal before its transmission to the brain. Evidence suggests that glutamate has an efferent function on taste cells and modulates the release of other neurotransmitters such as serotonin and ATP. This short article reviews the recent developments in the field with regard to glutamate receptors involved in both functions as well as the influence of glutamate on the taste signal. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Investigations of corrosion films formed on API-X52 pipeline steel in acid sour media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Espejel, A. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, IPN-ESIQIE, UPALM Ed. 7, Zacatenco 07738, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Dominguez-Crespo, M.A. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, CICATA-Unidad Altamira-Tamaulipas, km 14.5, Carretera Tampico-Puerto Industrial Altamira, 89600 Altamira, Tamps (Mexico); Cabrera-Sierra, R. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica Industrial, IPN-ESIQIE, UPALM Ed. 7, Zacatenco 07738, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Rodriguez-Meneses, C. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, IPN-ESIQIE, UPALM Ed. 7, Zacatenco 07738, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Arce-Estrada, E.M., E-mail: earce@ipn.m [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, IPN-ESIQIE, UPALM Ed. 7, Zacatenco 07738, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-07-15

    Corrosion films formed by voltammetry using different switching potentials and by immersion on API-X52 pipeline steel in simulated acid sour media (NACE ID182) have been characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Linear Polarization and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. XRD and EDS analysis showed that the films are mainly composed of sulphide compounds (mackinawite, troilite, marcasite and pyrite) as well as iron oxides, as steel damage increases. Across SEM micrographs the corrosion films formed by potentiodynamic and immersion tests are very similar, covering most of the steel. Polarization and EIS results corroborate poor behavior against corrosion.

  13. Investigations of corrosion films formed on API-X52 pipeline steel in acid sour media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Espejel, A.; Dominguez-Crespo, M.A.; Cabrera-Sierra, R.; Rodriguez-Meneses, C.; Arce-Estrada, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    Corrosion films formed by voltammetry using different switching potentials and by immersion on API-X52 pipeline steel in simulated acid sour media (NACE ID182) have been characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Linear Polarization and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. XRD and EDS analysis showed that the films are mainly composed of sulphide compounds (mackinawite, troilite, marcasite and pyrite) as well as iron oxides, as steel damage increases. Across SEM micrographs the corrosion films formed by potentiodynamic and immersion tests are very similar, covering most of the steel. Polarization and EIS results corroborate poor behavior against corrosion.

  14. Individual differences in visual perception and memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colizoli, O.

    2014-01-01

    There is substantial variation in perception and memory in humans. There are individuals who cannot see red at all, and there are individuals who hear colors and taste words. What determines the differences and similarities between individuals' perception and memory? Can we characterize the neural

  15. Neural crest contribution to lingual mesenchyme, epithelium and developing taste papillae and taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Xiang; Komatsu, Yoshihiro; Mishina, Yuji; Mistretta, Charlotte M

    2012-08-15

    The epithelium of mammalian tongue hosts most of the taste buds that transduce gustatory stimuli into neural signals. In the field of taste biology, taste bud cells have been described as arising from "local epithelium", in distinction from many other receptor organs that are derived from neurogenic ectoderm including neural crest (NC). In fact, contribution of NC to both epithelium and mesenchyme in the developing tongue is not fully understood. In the present study we used two independent, well-characterized mouse lines, Wnt1-Cre and P0-Cre that express Cre recombinase in a NC-specific manner, in combination with two Cre reporter mouse lines, R26R and ZEG, and demonstrate a contribution of NC-derived cells to both tongue mesenchyme and epithelium including taste papillae and taste buds. In tongue mesenchyme, distribution of NC-derived cells is in close association with taste papillae. In tongue epithelium, labeled cells are observed in an initial scattered distribution and progress to a clustered pattern between papillae, and within papillae and early taste buds. This provides evidence for a contribution of NC to lingual epithelium. Together with previous reports for the origin of taste bud cells from local epithelium in postnatal mouse, we propose that NC cells migrate into and reside in the epithelium of the tongue primordium at an early embryonic stage, acquire epithelial cell phenotypes, and undergo cell proliferation and differentiation that is involved in the development of taste papillae and taste buds. Our findings lead to a new concept about derivation of taste bud cells that include a NC origin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The perception and preference of consumers for local poultry meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The perception and preference of consumers for local poultry meat in the Kumasi ... reduced its freshness and taste and made it less healthy for consumption. ... the government should subsidize the cost of inputs for the local poultry industry, ...

  17. Impact of obesity on taste receptor expression in extra-oral tissues : emphasis on hypothalamus and brainstem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrera, Moro Chao D.; Argmann, C.; Eijk, van M.; Boot, R.G.; Ottenhoff, R.; Roomen, van C.; Foppen, E.; Siljee, J.E.; Unmehopa, U.A.; Kalsbeek, A.; Aerts, J.M.F.G.

    2016-01-01

    Sweet perception promotes food intake, whereas that of bitterness is inhibitory. Surprisingly, the expression of sweet G protein-coupled taste receptor (GPCTR) subunits (T1R2 and T1R3) and bitter GPCTRs (T2R116, T2R118, T2R138 and T2R104), as well as the α-subunits of the associated signalling

  18. Impact of obesity on taste receptor expression in extra-oral tissues: emphasis on hypothalamus and brainstem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrera Moro Chao, D.; Argmann, C.; van Eijk, M.; Boot, R. G.; Ottenhoff, R.; van Roomen, C.; Foppen, E.; Siljee, J. E.; Unmehopa, U. A.; Kalsbeek, A.; Aerts, J. M. F. G.

    2016-01-01

    Sweet perception promotes food intake, whereas that of bitterness is inhibitory. Surprisingly, the expression of sweet G protein-coupled taste receptor (GPCTR) subunits (T1R2 and T1R3) and bitter GPCTRs (T2R116, T2R118, T2R138 and T2R104), as well as the alpha-subunits of the associated signalling

  19. Matters of taste: bridging molecular physiology and the humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangachari, P K; Rangachari, Usha

    2015-12-01

    Taste perception was the focus of an undergraduate course in the health sciences that bridged the sciences and humanities. A problem-based learning approach was used to study the biological issues, whereas the cultural transmutations of these molecular mechanisms were explored using a variety of resources (novels, cookbooks, and films). Multiple evaluation procedures were used: problem summaries and problem-solving exercises (tripartite problem-solving exercise) for the problem-based learning component and group tasks and individual exercises for the cultural issues. Self-selected groups chose specific tasks from a prescribed list of options (setting up a journal in molecular gastronomy, developing an electronic tongue, designing a restaurant for synesthetes, organizing a farmers' market, marketing a culinary tour, framing hedonic scales, exploring changing tastes through works of art or recipe books, and crafting beers for space travel). Individual tasks were selected from a menu of options (book reviews, film reviews, conversations, creative writing, and oral exams). A few guest lecturers (wine making, cultural anthropology, film analysis, and nutritional epidemiology) added more flavor. The course was rated highly for its learning value (8.5 ± 1.2, n = 62) and helped students relate biological mechanisms to cultural issues (9.0 ± 0.9, n = 62). Copyright © 2015 The American Physiological Society.

  20. Brain Potentials Highlight Stronger Implicit Food Memory for Taste than Health and Context Associations

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogeveen, Heleen R.; Jolij, Jacob; ter Horst, Gert J.; Lorist, Monicque M.

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly consumption of healthy foods is advised to improve population health. Reasons people give for choosing one food over another suggest that non-sensory features like health aspects are appreciated as of lower importance than taste. However, many food choices are made in the absence of the actual perception of a food's sensory properties, and therefore highly rely on previous experiences of similar consumptions stored in memory. In this study we assessed the differential strength of...

  1. Kokumi Substances, Enhancers of Basic Tastes, Induce Responses in Calcium-Sensing Receptor Expressing Taste Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Yutaka; Yasuda, Reiko; Kuroda, Motonaka; Eto, Yuzuru

    2012-01-01

    Recently, we reported that calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is a receptor for kokumi substances, which enhance the intensities of salty, sweet and umami tastes. Furthermore, we found that several γ-glutamyl peptides, which are CaSR agonists, are kokumi substances. In this study, we elucidated the receptor cells for kokumi substances, and their physiological properties. For this purpose, we used Calcium Green-1 loaded mouse taste cells in lingual tissue slices and confocal microscopy. Kokumi substances, applied focally around taste pores, induced an increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in a subset of taste cells. These responses were inhibited by pretreatment with the CaSR inhibitor, NPS2143. However, the kokumi substance-induced responses did not require extracellular Ca2+. CaSR-expressing taste cells are a different subset of cells from the T1R3-expressing umami or sweet taste receptor cells. These observations indicate that CaSR-expressing taste cells are the primary detectors of kokumi substances, and that they are an independent population from the influenced basic taste receptor cells, at least in the case of sweet and umami. PMID:22511946

  2. Interactions between Flavor and Taste: Using Dashi Soup as a Taste Stimulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Sakai

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many researches showing interactions between olfaction and taste. Many of them supported that the interactions are not innate, but are learned through our daily eating experiences. Stevenson (2009 called this phenomenon as “learned synesthesia”. The authors also showed the interactions between flavor and taste are learned and processed by higher cognitive systems in rats and humans (Sakai et al., 2001; Sakai and Imada, 2003. Here the interactions between umami taste and dashi flavors are developed by the daily eating experience of Japanese traditional cuisine. Twenty flavors (such as sea weed, bonito, onion, garlic, ginger etc. by courtesy of YAMAHO CO. Ltd. were used as flavor stimuli. Taste stimuli are monosodium glutamate (umami substance, MSG, miso soup, and Katsuo Dashi (bonito soup stock. Participants tasted these stimuli, 12∼20 stimuli in a day, and evaluated the strength of umami taste, the palatability, congruity between taste and flavor with 100 mm visual analogue scales. The results of evaluations analyzed with the participants' daily eating experience showed the interactions between taste and flavor are developed by their own daily intake of traditional Japanese cuisine, especially dashi soup.

  3. Extinction, Spontaneous Recovery and Renewal of Flavor Preferences Based on Taste-Taste Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Estrella; De la Casa, L. G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents evidence of extinction, spontaneous recovery and renewal in a conditioned preferences paradigm based on taste-taste associations. More specifically, in three experiments rats exposed to a simultaneous compound of citric acid-saccharin solution showed a preference for the citric solution when the preference was measured with a…

  4. Oral coatings: a study on the formation, clearance and perception

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho, S.

    2015-01-01

    Oral coatings are residues of food and beverages that coat the oral mucosa after consumption. Several studies have reported on the lubrication properties in mouth, and the after-feel and after-taste impact of oral coatings. Further, oral coatings have been suggested to influence subsequent taste perception. Although it is well known that oral coatings can influence sensory perception, there was little information available on the chemical composition and physical properties of oral coatings. ...

  5. Taste Disturbance After Palatopharyngeal Surgery for Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Ren Hsiao

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Taste disorder is a rare complication of uvulopalatopharyngoplasty, and may have a significant impact on quality of life. Herein, we report a case of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in a 51- year-old man who experienced taste disturbance after palatopharyngeal surgery using electrocautery for developing a uvulopalatal flap. Gustatory function test using three-drop-method with solutions of highest concentration was implemented to assess the deficiency of four basic tastes. The results showed deficit of sweet taste associated with phantom of bitter taste. The patient reported constant spontaneous bitter taste and dysgeusia in sweet taste with poor quality of life at the 2-year follow-up. We suggest that patients are informed of the potential for taste impairment from palatopharyngeal surgery, as well as reducing the use of electrocautery in developing uvulopalatal flap to reduce damage to taste function.

  6. Exploring taste hyposensitivity in Japanese senior high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuki, Mari; Shinada, Kayoko; Ueno, Masayuki; Zaitsu, Takashi; Wright, Fredrick Allan Clive; Kawaguchi, Yoko

    2012-02-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of taste hyposensitivity and the relationships between sex, oral health status, and eating habits with taste hyposensitivity in Japanese senior high school students. Oral examinations, sweet and salt whole-mouth taste tests, and a questionnaire about eating habits were conducted on 234 senior high school students. Factors affecting taste hyposensitivity were investigated using a multivariate analysis. Sweet-taste hyposensitivity was observed in 7.3% of the students, and salt-taste hyposensitivity in 22.2%. Approximately 3% of the students had both sweet- and salt-taste hyposensitivity, and 22.6% had either sweet- or salt-taste hyposensitivity. In total, 26% had a taste hyposensitivity. There were significant relationships between the intake of instant noodles with sweet-taste hyposensitivity, and the intake of vegetables or isotonic drinks with salt-taste hyposensitivity. There was a significant association between eating habits and taste hyposensitivity in Japanese senior high school students. Taste tests would be a helpful adjunct for students to recognize variations in taste sensitivity, and a questionnaire about their eating habits might provide an effective self-review of their eating habits, and therefore, provide motivation to change. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Spectroscopic and E-tongue evaluation of medicinal plants: A taste of how rasa can be studied.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasundar, Rama; Ghatak, Somenath

    The use of medicinal plants in Ayurveda is based on rasa, generally taken to represent taste as a sensory perception. This chemosensory parameter plays an important role in Ayurvedic pharmacology. The aim is to explore the use of structuro-functional information deduced from analytical techniques for the rasa-based classification of medicinal plants in Ayurveda. Methods of differential sensing and spectroscopic metabolomics have been used in select medicinal plants from three different taste categories (sweet, pungent and multiple taste): Tribulus terrestris, Vitis vinifera and Glycyrrhiza glabra from sweet category; Piper longum, Cuminum cyminum and Capsicum annum from pungent group; Emblica officinalis with five tastes. While Electronic tongue was used for evaluation of the sensorial property of taste, the chemical properties were studied with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) and Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). In terms of taste and phytochemical profiles, all samples were unique but with similarities within each group. While the sensor response in E-tongue showed similarities within the sweet and pungent categories, NMR spectra in the aromatic region showed close similarities between the plants in the sweet category. The sensory, phytochemical and phytoelemental profiles of E. officinalis (with five rasa) in particular, were unique. A combination of sensorial and chemical descriptors is a promising approach for a comprehensive evaluation and fingerprinting of the Ayurvedic pharmacological parameter rasa. Copyright © 2016 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. New highly divergent Plum pox virus isolates infecting sour cherry in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirkov, Sergei; Ivanov, Peter; Sheveleva, Anna; Zakubanskiy, Alexander; Osipov, Gennady

    2017-02-01

    Unusual Plum pox virus (PPV) isolates (named Tat isolates) were discovered on sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) in Russia. They failed to be recognized by RT-PCR using commonly employed primers specific to the strains C or CR (the only ones that proved able to infect sour cherry) as well as to the strains M and W. Some of them can be detected by RT-PCR using the PPV-D-specific primers P1/PD or by TAS-ELISA with the PPV-C-specific monoclonal antibody AC. Phylogenetic analysis of the 3'-terminal genomic region assigned the Tat isolates into the cluster of cherry-adapted strains. However, they grouped separately from the C and CR strains and from each other as well. The sequence divergence of the Tat isolates is comparable to the differences between the known PPV strains. They may represent new group(s) of cherry-adapted isolates which do not seem to belong to any known strain of the virus. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. A Numerical Study of the Sour Gas Reforming in a Dielectric Barrier Discharge Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajedeh Shahsavari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, using a one-dimensional simulation model, the reforming process of sour gas, i.e. CH4, CO2, and H2S, to the various charged particles and syngas in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD reactor is studied. An electric field is applied across the reactor radius, and thus a non-thermal plasma discharge is formed within the reactor. Based on the space-time coupled finite element method, the governing equations are solved, and the temporal and spatial profiles of different formed charged species from sour gas inside the plasma reactor are verified. It is observed that the electric field increases radially towards the cathode electrode. Moreover, the electron density growth rate at the radial positions closer to the cathode surface is smaller than the one in the anode electrode region. Furthermore, as time progresses, the positive ions density near the anode electrode is higher. In addition, the produced syngas density is mainly concentrated in the proximity of anode dielectric electrode.

  10. Antimicrobial effect of sour pomegranate sauce on Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kışla, Duygu; Karabıyıklı, Şeniz

    2013-05-01

    Pomegranate sauce is one of the most popular pomegranate products produced in Turkey. This study was conducted to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of both traditional and commercial sour pomegranate sauce samples on Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ATCC 43895). The initial microflora of the pomegranate sauce samples was determined by performing the enumerations of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, yeast and mold, S. aureus, E. coli, and the determination of Salmonella spp. MIC tests were applied to the neutralized and the original (unneutralized) sour pomegranate sauce samples in order to put forth the inhibition effect depending on low pH value. It was found that inhibitory effect of the traditional and the commercial samples, except one sample, on pathogens was not only due to the acidity of the products. The results of MIC tests indicated that although both traditional and commercial samples showed a considerable inhibitory effect on test microorganisms, the traditional pomegranate sauce samples were more effective than the commercial ones. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Cross-Linkable Polyimide Membranes for Improved Plasticization Resistance and Permselectivity in Sour Gas Separations

    KAUST Repository

    Kraftschik, Brian

    2013-09-10

    A series of cross-linkable membrane materials based on the 6FDA-DAM:DABA (3:2) polyimide backbone were synthesized for improved sour gas separation performance, in terms of both membrane stability and permselectivity. Short-chain poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) molecules were used as cross-linking agents in an esterification-based cross-linking reaction. Pure and mixed gas permeation and pure gas sorption experiments were performed on dense films of these materials. Compared to unmodified 6FDA-DAM:DABA (3:2), higher sour gas permselectivity and membrane stability were achieved under aggressive feed conditions. H2S-induced plasticization was not evident until pure H2S feed pressures greater than approximately 6-8 bar. Pure CO 2-induced plasticization only occurred at feed pressures greater than about 25 bar. Under mixed gas feed conditions with 20% H2S, 20% CO2, and 60% CH4 at 35 C, attractive selectivities above 22 and 27 for H2S/CH4 and CO2/CH4, respectively, were observed for a feed pressure of 62 bar with both triethylene glycol and tetraethylene glycol cross-linking agents. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  12. Inhibitory effect of sour pomegranate sauces on some green vegetables and kisir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabiyikli, Seniz; Kisla, Duygu

    2012-04-16

    In this study, the antimicrobial effects of both traditional and commercial pomegranate sour sauce samples on some green vegetables and also on "kısır" which is a popular and traditional appetizer in Turkey were investigated. The inhibitory effect of the pomegranate products on the naturally existing bacterial microflora of lettuce, spring onion, parsley and kısır were analyzed. Also, all these food samples were inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC-25923) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ATCC-43895) and antimicrobial effect of the pomegranate products on the inoculated microflora was detected. All the food samples were treated with pomegranate products for different time periods and the effect of treatment time was investigated. pH and titratable acidity values of the traditional and commercial pomegranate sour sauce samples were detected. The results showed that although the pomegranate products had an antimicrobial effect on the natural bacterial microflora of the food samples, the effect on inoculated food samples was more prominent and additionally the application time was found to be a crucial parameter for both cases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of different levels of sugar on qualitative characteristics of lassi prepared from sour dahi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shah Moazzem

    2018-08-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out to develop lassi from sour dahi using different levels of sugar (10, 15, 20 and 25% and 15% water. Lassi quality was assayed through the study of physical, chemical and microbiological parameters. Results revealed that significant difference existed in overall physical score of lassi samples and the highest score was found in 15% sugar lassi whereas, the lowest score was found in 25% sugar lassi. Total solids, carbohydrate, fat, protein and ash contents differed significantly among various levels of sugar added lassi. From chemical test, it appears that, 15% sugar added lassi possess the highest fat and protein values whereas, the highest total solids and carbohydrate values posses in 25% sugar added lassi. No significant difference (p>0.05 revealed in terms of pH value and acidity percentage among lassi types. Lassi made from 10% sugar was most inferior than other levels of sugar added lassi in respect of microbiological quality- total viable count (×104 cfu/mL content was 95.67±2.08 and coliform (×10 cfu/mL content was 1.00±0.00. Considering above mentioned quality aspects, it might be resolved that lassi could be prepared successfully from sour dahi with 15% sugar keeping water level constant at 15%. [Fundam Appl Agric 2018; 3(2.000: 434-439

  14. Cross-Linkable Polyimide Membranes for Improved Plasticization Resistance and Permselectivity in Sour Gas Separations

    KAUST Repository

    Kraftschik, Brian; Koros, William J.

    2013-01-01

    A series of cross-linkable membrane materials based on the 6FDA-DAM:DABA (3:2) polyimide backbone were synthesized for improved sour gas separation performance, in terms of both membrane stability and permselectivity. Short-chain poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) molecules were used as cross-linking agents in an esterification-based cross-linking reaction. Pure and mixed gas permeation and pure gas sorption experiments were performed on dense films of these materials. Compared to unmodified 6FDA-DAM:DABA (3:2), higher sour gas permselectivity and membrane stability were achieved under aggressive feed conditions. H2S-induced plasticization was not evident until pure H2S feed pressures greater than approximately 6-8 bar. Pure CO 2-induced plasticization only occurred at feed pressures greater than about 25 bar. Under mixed gas feed conditions with 20% H2S, 20% CO2, and 60% CH4 at 35 C, attractive selectivities above 22 and 27 for H2S/CH4 and CO2/CH4, respectively, were observed for a feed pressure of 62 bar with both triethylene glycol and tetraethylene glycol cross-linking agents. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  15. Terminal acidic shock inhibits sour beer bottle conditioning by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Cody M; Veatch, Devon; Covey, Adam; Staton, Caleb; Bochman, Matthew L

    2016-08-01

    During beer fermentation, the brewer's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae experiences a variety of shifting growth conditions, culminating in a low-oxygen, low-nutrient, high-ethanol, acidic environment. In beers that are bottle conditioned (i.e., carbonated in the bottle by supplying yeast with a small amount of sugar to metabolize into CO2), the S. cerevisiae cells must overcome these stressors to perform the ultimate act in beer production. However, medium shock caused by any of these variables can slow, stall, or even kill the yeast, resulting in production delays and economic losses. Here, we describe a medium shock caused by high lactic acid levels in an American sour beer, which we refer to as "terminal acidic shock". Yeast exposed to this shock failed to bottle condition the beer, though they remained viable. The effects of low pH/high [lactic acid] conditions on the growth of six different brewing strains of S. cerevisiae were characterized, and we developed a method to adapt the yeast to growth in acidic beer, enabling proper bottle conditioning. Our findings will aid in the production of sour-style beers, a trending category in the American craft beer scene. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of nitrate injection on microbial enhanced oil recovery and oilfield reservoir souring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marcio Luis Busi; Soares, Hugo Moreira; Furigo, Agenor; Schmidell, Willibaldo; Corseuil, Henry Xavier

    2014-11-01

    Column experiments were utilized to investigate the effects of nitrate injection on sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) inhibition and microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). An indigenous microbial consortium collected from the produced water of a Brazilian offshore field was used as inoculum. The presence of 150 mg/L volatile fatty acids (VFA´s) in the injection water contributed to a high biological electron acceptors demand and the establishment of anaerobic sulfate-reducing conditions. Continuous injection of nitrate (up to 25 mg/L) for 90 days did not inhibit souring. Contrariwise, in nitrogen-limiting conditions, the addition of nitrate stimulated the proliferation of δ-Proteobacteria (including SRB) and the associated sulfide concentration. Denitrification-specific nirK or nirS genes were not detected. A sharp decrease in water interfacial tension (from 20.8 to 14.5 mN/m) observed concomitantly with nitrate consumption and increased oil recovery (4.3 % v/v) demonstrated the benefits of nitrate injection on MEOR. Overall, the results support the notion that the addition of nitrate, at this particular oil reservoir, can benefit MEOR by stimulating the proliferation of fortuitous biosurfactant-producing bacteria. Higher nitrate concentrations exceeding the stoichiometric volatile fatty acid (VFA) biodegradation demands and/or the use of alternative biogenic souring control strategies may be necessary to warrant effective SRB inhibition down gradient from the injection wells.

  17. Quality of sour cherry juice of different clones and cultivars (Prunus cerasus L.) determined by a combined sensory and NMR spectroscopic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Morten Rahr; Pedersen, Bjarne Hjelmsted; Bertram, Hanne Christine S.

    2011-01-01

    Juice was manufactured from seven different sour cherry clones/cultivars and evaluated by quantitative descriptive sensory analysis and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The sensory evaluation showed a large variation in several sensory attributes between the sour cherry clones/cultivars, which could be divided...... into two groups on the basis of both the sensory data and the NMR spectroscopic data. These groups were closely related to the genetic background of the clones. Kelleris clones were distinctly different from Stevnsberry and Fanal clones. Hence, 1H NMR spectroscopic data seem to correlate with sensory...... quality of different sour cherry clones. In addition, malic acid was the most important metabolite for modeling the two highly correlated sensory attributes sweetness and sourness, whereas the glucose content had a slight effect and the fructose content had no impact on sweetness/sourness. Other...

  18. Biological Demalication and Deacetification of Musts and Wines: Can Wine Yeasts Make the Wine Taste Better?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Vilela

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Grape musts sometimes reveal excess acidity. An excessive amount of organic acids negatively affect wine yeasts and yeast fermentation, and the obtained wines are characterized by an inappropriate balance between sweetness, acidity or sourness, and flavor/aroma components. An appropriate acidity, pleasant to the palate is more difficult to achieve in wines that have high acidity due to an excess of malic acid, because the Saccharomyces species in general, cannot effectively degrade malic acid during alcoholic fermentation. One approach to solving this problem is biological deacidification by lactic acid bacteria or non-Saccharomyces yeasts, like Schizosaccharomyces pombe that show the ability to degrade L-malic acid. Excessive volatile acidity in wine is also a problem in the wine industry. The use of free or immobilized Saccharomyces cells has been studied to solve both these problems since these yeasts are wine yeasts that show a good balance between taste/flavor and aromatic compounds during alcoholic fermentation. The aim of this review is to give some insights into the use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains to perform biological demalication (malic acid degradation and deacetification (reduction of volatile acidity of wine in an attempt to better understand their biochemistry and enological features.

  19. [Molecular logic of alcohol and taste].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Ichiro; Abe, Keiko; Arai, Soichi

    2006-10-01

    Ethanol, a main constituent of every alcohol beverage, has long been calling our attention to its gustatory effect. Recent molecular dynamics studies have suggested that ethanol as well as other tastants in foods, when taken in the oral cavity, gives rise to a taste signal which is expressed via reception at taste cells in the taste bud, intracellular signal transduction in collaboration with G proteins and effecters, and signal transmission to synapsed taste neurons, and/or simultaneous reception at and signal transduction in somatosensory neurons. The taste of ethanol and its acceptability are then recognized and judged at the higher center, with generation of various physiological phenomena in the body. We have tried to make an all-inclusive DNA microarray analysis, demonstrating that when a rat tongue is stimulated with a drop of aqueous ethanol in vivo, several particular genes are specifically up- or down-regulated in trigeminal ganglions. These initial gene expression changes at peripheral neurocytes might in whole or in part trigger some of the ethanol-associated gustatory and bodily response. The importance of defining a related molecular logic is emphasized to understand academic and industrial significances of this unique food constituent, ethanol.

  20. Association of Oral Fat Sensitivity with Body Mass Index, Taste Preference, and Eating Habits in Healthy Japanese Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Masanobu; Hong, Guang; Matsuyama, Yusuke; Wang, Weiqi; Izumi, Satoshi; Izumi, Masayuki; Toda, Takashi; Kudo, Tada-Aki

    2016-02-01

    Oral fat sensitivity (OFS, the ability to detect fat) may be related to overeating-induced obesity. However, it is largely unknown whether OFS affects taste preference and eating habits. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate (1) the association between body mass index (BMI) and OFS and (2) the relationship of OFS with four types of taste preference (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter) and eating habits using serial concentrations of oleic acid (OA) homogenized in non-fat milk and a self-reported questionnaire. Participants were 25 healthy Japanese individuals (mean age: 27.0 ± 5.6 years), among whom the OA detection threshold was significantly associated with BMI. Participants were divided into two subgroups based on oral sensitivity to 2.8 mM OA: hypersensitive (able to detect 2.8 mM OA, n = 16) and hyposensitive (unable to detect 2.8 mM OA, n = 9). The degree of sweet taste preference of the hypersensitive group was significantly higher than that of the hyposensitive group. Furthermore, there was significantly higher degree of preference for high-fat sweet foods than low-fat sweet foods in the hypersensitive group. There was also a significant inverse correlation between the OA detection threshold and the degree of both spare eating and postprandial satiety. Thus, OFS is associated not only with BMI, but also with the preference for high-fat sweet foods and eating habits. The present study provides novel insights that measuring OFS may be useful for assessing the risk of obesity associated with overeating in countries, including Japan, where BMI is increasing in the population.

  1. The Role of Cholecystokinin in Peripheral Taste Signaling in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryusuke Yoshida

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cholecystokinin (CCK is a gut hormone released from enteroendocrine cells. CCK functions as an anorexigenic factor by acting on CCK receptors expressed on the vagal afferent nerve and hypothalamus with a synergistic interaction between leptin. In the gut, tastants such as amino acids and bitter compounds stimulate CCK release from enteroendocrine cells via activation of taste transduction pathways. CCK is also expressed in taste buds, suggesting potential roles of CCK in taste signaling in the peripheral taste organ. In the present study, we focused on the function of CCK in the initial responses to taste stimulation. CCK was coexpressed with type II taste cell markers such as Gα-gustducin, phospholipase Cβ2, and transient receptor potential channel M5. Furthermore, a small subset (~30% of CCK-expressing taste cells expressed a sweet/umami taste receptor component, taste receptor type 1 member 3, in taste buds. Because type II taste cells are sweet, umami or bitter taste cells, the majority of CCK-expressing taste cells may be bitter taste cells. CCK-A and -B receptors were expressed in both taste cells and gustatory neurons. CCK receptor knockout mice showed reduced neural responses to bitter compounds compared with wild-type mice. Consistently, intravenous injection of CCK-Ar antagonist lorglumide selectively suppressed gustatory nerve responses to bitter compounds. Intravenous injection of CCK-8 transiently increased gustatory nerve activities in a dose-dependent manner whereas administration of CCK-8 did not affect activities of bitter-sensitive taste cells. Collectively, CCK may be a functionally important neurotransmitter or neuromodulator to activate bitter nerve fibers in peripheral taste tissues.

  2. The bamboo-eating giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca has a sweet tooth: behavioral and molecular responses to compounds that taste sweet to humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peihua Jiang

    Full Text Available A growing body of behavioral and genetic information indicates that taste perception and food sources are highly coordinated across many animal species. For example, sweet taste perception is thought to serve to detect and motivate consumption of simple sugars in plants that provide calories. Supporting this is the observation that most plant-eating mammals examined exhibit functional sweet perception, whereas many obligate carnivores have independently lost function of their sweet taste receptors and exhibit no avidity for simple sugars that humans describe as tasting sweet. As part of a larger effort to compare taste structure/function among species, we examined both the behavioral and the molecular nature of sweet taste in a plant-eating animal that does not consume plants with abundant simple sugars, the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca. We evaluated two competing hypotheses: as plant-eating mammals, they should have a well-developed sweet taste system; however, as animals that do not normally consume plants with simple sugars, they may have lost sweet taste function, as has occurred in strict carnivores. In behavioral tests, giant pandas avidly consumed most natural sugars and some but not all artificial sweeteners. Cell-based assays revealed similar patterns of sweet receptor responses toward many of the sweeteners. Using mixed pairs of human and giant panda sweet taste receptor units (hT1R2+gpT1R3 and gpT1R2+hT1R3 we identified regions of the sweet receptor that may account for behavioral differences in giant pandas versus humans toward various sugars and artificial sweeteners. Thus, despite the fact that the giant panda's main food, bamboo, is very low in simple sugars, the species has a marked preference for several compounds that taste sweet to humans. We consider possible explanations for retained sweet perception in this species, including the potential extra-oral functions of sweet taste receptors that may be required for animals

  3. Subtype-dependent postnatal development of taste receptor cells in mouse fungiform taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtubo, Yoshitaka; Iwamoto, Masafumi; Yoshii, Kiyonori

    2012-06-01

    Taste buds contain two types of taste receptor cells, inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor type 3-immunoreactive cells (type II cells) and synaptosomal-associating protein-25-immunoreactive cells (type III cells). We investigated their postnatal development in mouse fungiform taste buds immunohistochemically and electrophysiologically. The cell density, i.e. the number of cells per taste bud divided by the maximal area of the horizontal cross-section of the taste bud, of type II cells increased by postnatal day (PD)49, where as that of type III cells was unchanged throughout the postnatal observation period and was equal to that of the adult cells at PD1. The immunoreactivity of taste bud cell subtypes was the same as that of their respective subtypes in adult mice throughout the postnatal observation period. Almost all type II cells were immunoreactive to gustducin at PD1, and then the ratio of gustducin-immunoreactive type II cells to all type II cells decreased to a saturation level, ∼60% of all type II cells, by PD15. Type II and III cells generated voltage-gated currents similar to their respective adult cells even at PD3. These results show that infant taste receptor cells are as excitable as those of adults and propagate in a subtype-dependent manner. The relationship between the ratio of each taste receptor cell subtype to all cells and taste nerve responses are discussed. © 2012 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2012 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Identification by functional MRI of human cerebral region activated by taste stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakimoto, Naoya [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Dentistry

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this study was the examination of possible imaging of the primary taste region of human cerebral cortex by functional MRI (fMRI). Subjects were 19-36 years old, healthy adult male and female volunteers given information concerning the purpose, significance and method of the study. MRI equipment was 1.5 T Signa Horizon (GE) with Head Coil. Images were processed by the software FuncTool on the Advantage Windows Workstation (GE). Taste stimulation was done by swab bearing the solution of 4% quinine hydrochloride, 20% sodium chloride or distilled water (control) or by dripping from the syringe of the solutions, 8% tartaric acid or 80% sugar. Preliminary examinations with the swab suggested the possibility of the identification. Further, with use of dripping apparatus, the taste active region was shown to be identified by fMRI and of which area tended to be larger in male than in female: a significant difference was seen for the quinine hydrochloride. As above, the method was suggested to be a diagnostic mean for the taste perception. (K.H.)

  5. Identification by functional MRI of human cerebral region activated by taste stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakimoto, Naoya

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was the examination of possible imaging of the primary taste region of human cerebral cortex by functional MRI (fMRI). Subjects were 19-36 years old, healthy adult male and female volunteers given information concerning the purpose, significance and method of the study. MRI equipment was 1.5 T Signa Horizon (GE) with Head Coil. Images were processed by the software FuncTool on the Advantage Windows Workstation (GE). Taste stimulation was done by swab bearing the solution of 4% quinine hydrochloride, 20% sodium chloride or distilled water (control) or by dripping from the syringe of the solutions, 8% tartaric acid or 80% sugar. Preliminary examinations with the swab suggested the possibility of the identification. Further, with use of dripping apparatus, the taste active region was shown to be identified by fMRI and of which area tended to be larger in male than in female: a significant difference was seen for the quinine hydrochloride. As above, the method was suggested to be a diagnostic mean for the taste perception. (K.H.)

  6. Formation and Control of Sulfur Oxides in Sour Gas Oxy-Combustion: Prediction Using a Reactor Network Model

    KAUST Repository

    Bongartz, Dominik; Shanbhogue, Santosh J.; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Sour natural gas currently requires expensive gas cleanup before it can be used in power generation because it contains large amounts of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and carbon dioxide (CO2) that entail a low heating

  7. A Multistage Fluidized Bed for the Deep Removal of Sour Gases : Proof of Concept and Tray Efficiencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, Rick T.; Bos, Martin J.; Brilman, Derk W. F.

    2018-01-01

    Currently there are significant amounts of natural gas that cannot be produced and treated to meet pipeline specifications, because that would not be economically viable. This work investigates a bench scale multistage fluidized bed (MSFB) with shallow beds for sour gas removal from natural gas

  8. Inhibitory effect of cyanide on wastewater nitrification determined using SOUR and RNA-based gene-specific assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of CN- (CN-) on nitrification was examined with samples from nitrifying wastewater enrichments using two different approaches: by measuring substrate (ammonia) specific oxygen uptake rates (SOUR), and by using RT-qPCR to quantify the transcripts of functional genes inv...

  9. Reduced taste sensitivity in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Lea; Kupers, Ron; Ptito, Maurice

    2013-01-01

    behavioral results showed that compared with the normal sighted, blind subjects have increased thresholds for taste detection and taste identification. This finding is at odds with the superior performance of congenitally blind subjects in several tactile, auditory and olfactory tasks. Our psychometric data...... thresholds of the 5 basic tastants in 13 congenitally blind and 13 sighted control subjects. Participants also answered several eating habits questionnaires, including the Food Neophobia Scale, the Food Variety Seeking Tendency Scale, the Intuitive Eating Scale, and the Body Awareness Questionnaire. Our...

  10. Do Natural Pictures Mean Natural Tastes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Viktor; Barratt, Daniel; Sørensen, Henrik Selsøe

    2015-01-01

    A widespread assumption in Danish consumer law is that if the package of a food product carries a picture of a potentially taste-giving ingredient (say, a strawberry), then consumers will expect the corresponding taste to stem primarily from that ingredient rather than from artificial flavouring....... However, this is not expected to be the case if the packaging carries only a verbal indication of the potential ingredient (say, the word strawberry). We put these assumptions to experimental test. Our goal was to contribute firmer evidence to the legal decision-making in the present field while...

  11. Microsatellite marker development by partial sequencing of the sour passion fruit genome (Passiflora edulis Sims).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Susan; Martins, Alexandre M; Junqueira, Nilton T V; Costa, Ana Maria; Faleiro, Fábio G; Ferreira, Márcio E

    2017-07-21

    The Passiflora genus comprises hundreds of wild and cultivated species of passion fruit used for food, industrial, ornamental and medicinal purposes. Efforts to develop genomic tools for genetic analysis of P. edulis, the most important commercial Passiflora species, are still incipient. In spite of many recognized applications of microsatellite markers in genetics and breeding, their availability for passion fruit research remains restricted. Microsatellite markers in P. edulis are usually limited in number, show reduced polymorphism, and are mostly based on compound or imperfect repeats. Furthermore, they are confined to only a few Passiflora species. We describe the use of NGS technology to partially assemble the P. edulis genome in order to develop hundreds of new microsatellite markers. A total of 14.11 Gbp of Illumina paired-end sequence reads were analyzed to detect simple sequence repeat sites in the sour passion fruit genome. A sample of 1300 contigs containing perfect repeat microsatellite sequences was selected for PCR primer development. Panels of di- and tri-nucleotide repeat markers were then tested in P. edulis germplasm accessions for validation. DNA polymorphism was detected in 74% of the markers (PIC = 0.16 to 0.77; number of alleles/locus = 2 to 7). A core panel of highly polymorphic markers (PIC = 0.46 to 0.77) was used to cross-amplify PCR products in 79 species of Passiflora (including P. edulis), belonging to four subgenera (Astrophea, Decaloba, Distephana and Passiflora). Approximately 71% of the marker/species combinations resulted in positive amplicons in all species tested. DNA polymorphism was detected in germplasm accessions of six closely related Passiflora species (P. edulis, P. alata, P. maliformis, P. nitida, P. quadrangularis and P. setacea) and the data used for accession discrimination and species assignment. A database of P. edulis DNA sequences obtained by NGS technology was examined to identify microsatellite repeats in

  12. SOUR CHERRY (Prunus cerasus L. GENETIC VARIABILITY AND PHOTOSYNTHETIC EFFICIENCY DURING DROUGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Viljevac

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sour cherry is an important fruit in Croatian orchards. Cultivar Oblačinska is predominant in existing orchards with noted intracultivar phenotypic heterogeneity. In this study, the genetic variability of 22 genotypes of cvs. Oblačinska, Maraska and Cigančica, as well as standard cvs. Kelleris 14, Kelleris 16, Kereška, Rexelle and Heimann conserved were investigated. Two types of molecular markers were used: microsatellite markers (SSR in order to identify intercultivar, and AFLP in order to identify intracultivar variabilities. A set of 12 SSR markers revealed small genetic distance between cvs. Maraska and Oblačinska while cv. Cigančica is affined to cv. Oblačinska. Furthermore, cvs. Oblačinska, Cigančica and Maraska were characterized compared to standard ones. AFLP markers didn`t confirm significant intracultivar variability of cv. Oblačinska although the variability has been approved at the morphological, chemical and pomological level. Significant corelation between SSR and AFLP markers was found. Identification of sour cherry cultivars tolerant to drought will enable the sustainability of fruit production with respect to the climate change in the future. For this purpose, the tolerance of seven sour cherry genotypes (cvs. Kelleris 16, Maraska, Cigančica and Oblačinska represented by 4 genotypes: OS, 18, D6 and BOR to drought conditions was tested in order to isolate genotypes with the desired properties. In the greenhouse experiment, cherry plants were exposed to drought stress. The leaf relative water content, OJIP test parameters which specify efficiency of the photosynthetic system based on measurements of chlorophyll a fluorescence, and concentrations of photo-synthetic pigments during the experiment were measured as markers of drought tolerance. Photosynthetic performance index (PIABS comprises three key events in the reaction centre of photosystem II affecting the photosynthetic activity: the absorption of energy

  13. Sweet and sour preferences in young children and adults: role of repeated exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, D.G.; Graaf, de C.

    2004-01-01

    The authors investigated the influence of repeated exposure to orangeades with added sucrose and different concentrations of citric acid, on the taste preferences of 6- to-11-year-old children and young adults. During an intervention study of 8 days, 59 children (9.2±0.9 years) and 46 young adults

  14. Genetic study of phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) taste perception among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohd Fareed

    2012-03-04

    Mar 4, 2012 ... Jammu and Kashmir provide historical, linguistic, cultural, ..... M ± SE. 75.85 ± 1.36. 24.15 ± 1.36. 78.71 ± 1.31. 21.29 ± 1.31. 76.79 ± 1.34. 23.21 ± 1.34 ... The populations of India and other South Asian countries of- fer great ...

  15. Perirhinal Cortex Muscarinic Receptor Blockade Impairs Taste Recognition Memory Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez, Ranier; De la Cruz, Vanesa; Rodriguez-Ortiz, Carlos J.; Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico

    2004-01-01

    The relevance of perirhinal cortical cholinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission for taste recognition memory and learned taste aversion was assessed by microinfusions of muscarinic (scopolamine), NMDA (AP-5), and AMPA (NBQX) receptor antagonists. Infusions of scopolamine, but not AP5 or NBQX, prevented the consolidation of taste recognition memory using attenuation of neophobia as an index. In addition, learned taste aversion in both short- and long-term memory tests was exclusively impa...

  16. Inflammation activates the interferon signaling pathways in taste bud cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Zhou, Minliang; Brand, Joseph; Huang, Liquan

    2007-10-03

    Patients with viral and bacterial infections or other inflammatory illnesses often experience taste dysfunctions. The agents responsible for these taste disorders are thought to be related to infection-induced inflammation, but the mechanisms are not known. As a first step in characterizing the possible role of inflammation in taste disorders, we report here evidence for the presence of interferon (IFN)-mediated signaling pathways in taste bud cells. IFN receptors, particularly the IFN-gamma receptor IFNGR1, are coexpressed with the taste cell-type markers neuronal cell adhesion molecule and alpha-gustducin, suggesting that both the taste receptor cells and synapse-forming cells in the taste bud can be stimulated by IFN. Incubation of taste bud-containing lingual epithelia with recombinant IFN-alpha and IFN-gamma triggered the IFN-mediated signaling cascades, resulting in the phosphorylation of the downstream STAT1 (signal transducer and activator of transcription protein 1) transcription factor. Intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide or polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid into mice, mimicking bacterial and viral infections, respectively, altered gene expression patterns in taste bud cells. Furthermore, the systemic administration of either IFN-alpha or IFN-gamma significantly increased the number of taste bud cells undergoing programmed cell death. These findings suggest that bacterial and viral infection-induced IFNs can act directly on taste bud cells, affecting their cellular function in taste transduction, and that IFN-induced apoptosis in taste buds may cause abnormal cell turnover and skew the representation of different taste bud cell types, leading to the development of taste disorders. To our knowledge, this is the first study providing direct evidence that inflammation can affect taste buds through cytokine signaling pathways.

  17. Inflammation Activates the Interferon Signaling Pathways in Taste Bud Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hong; Zhou, Minliang; Brand, Joseph; Huang, Liquan

    2007-01-01

    Patients with viral and bacterial infections or other inflammatory illnesses often experience taste dysfunctions. The agents responsible for these taste disorders are thought to be related to infection-induced inflammation, but the mechanisms are not known. As a first step in characterizing the possible role of inflammation in taste disorders, we report here evidence for the presence of interferon (IFN)-mediated signaling pathways in taste bud cells. IFN receptors, particularly the IFN-γ rece...

  18. Taste Bud Homeostasis in Health, Disease, and Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Pu; Huang, Liquan; Wang, Hong

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian taste bud is an onion-shaped epithelial structure with 50–100 tightly packed cells, including taste receptor cells, supporting cells, and basal cells. Taste receptor cells detect nutrients and toxins in the oral cavity and transmit the sensory information to gustatory nerve endings in the buds. Supporting cells may play a role in the clearance of excess neurotransmitters after their release from taste receptor cells. Basal cells are precursor cells that differentiate into mature...

  19. Altered learning, memory, and social behavior in type 1 taste receptor subunit 3 knock-out mice are associated with neuronal dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Bronwen; Wang, Rui; Cong, Wei-Na; Daimon, Caitlin M; Wu, Wells W; Ni, Bin; Becker, Kevin G; Lehrmann, Elin; Wood, William H; Zhang, Yongqing; Etienne, Harmonie; van Gastel, Jaana; Azmi, Abdelkrim; Janssens, Jonathan; Maudsley, Stuart

    2017-07-07

    The type 1 taste receptor member 3 (T1R3) is a G protein-coupled receptor involved in sweet-taste perception. Besides the tongue, the T1R3 receptor is highly expressed in brain areas implicated in cognition, including the hippocampus and cortex. As cognitive decline is often preceded by significant metabolic or endocrinological dysfunctions regulated by the sweet-taste perception system, we hypothesized that a disruption of the sweet-taste perception in the brain could have a key role in the development of cognitive dysfunction. To assess the importance of the sweet-taste receptors in the brain, we conducted transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of cortical and hippocampal tissues isolated from T1R3 knock-out (T1R3KO) mice. The effect of an impaired sweet-taste perception system on cognition functions were examined by analyzing synaptic integrity and performing animal behavior on T1R3KO mice. Although T1R3KO mice did not present a metabolically disrupted phenotype, bioinformatic interpretation of the high-dimensionality data indicated a strong neurodegenerative signature associated with significant alterations in pathways involved in neuritogenesis, dendritic growth, and synaptogenesis. Furthermore, a significantly reduced dendritic spine density was observed in T1R3KO mice together with alterations in learning and memory functions as well as sociability deficits. Taken together our data suggest that the sweet-taste receptor system plays an important neurotrophic role in the extralingual central nervous tissue that underpins synaptic function, memory acquisition, and social behavior. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Origin and differential selection of allelic variation at TAS2R16 associated with salicin bitter taste sensitivity in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Michael C; Ranciaro, Alessia; Zinshteyn, Daniel; Rawlings-Goss, Renata; Hirbo, Jibril; Thompson, Simon; Woldemeskel, Dawit; Froment, Alain; Rucker, Joseph B; Omar, Sabah A; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Nyambo, Thomas; Belay, Gurja; Drayna, Dennis; Breslin, Paul A S; Tishkoff, Sarah A

    2014-02-01

    Bitter taste perception influences human nutrition and health, and the genetic variation underlying this trait may play a role in disease susceptibility. To better understand the genetic architecture and patterns of phenotypic variability of bitter taste perception, we sequenced a 996 bp region, encompassing the coding exon of TAS2R16, a bitter taste receptor gene, in 595 individuals from 74 African populations and in 94 non-Africans from 11 populations. We also performed genotype-phenotype association analyses of threshold levels of sensitivity to salicin, a bitter anti-inflammatory compound, in 296 individuals from Central and East Africa. In addition, we characterized TAS2R16 mutants in vitro to investigate the effects of polymorphic loci identified at this locus on receptor function. Here, we report striking signatures of positive selection, including significant Fay and Wu's H statistics predominantly in East Africa, indicating strong local adaptation and greater genetic structure among African populations than expected under neutrality. Furthermore, we observed a "star-like" phylogeny for haplotypes with the derived allele at polymorphic site 516 associated with increased bitter taste perception that is consistent with a model of selection for "high-sensitivity" variation. In contrast, haplotypes carrying the "low-sensitivity" ancestral allele at site 516 showed evidence of strong purifying selection. We also demonstrated, for the first time, the functional effect of nonsynonymous variation at site 516 on salicin phenotypic variance in vivo in diverse Africans and showed that most other nonsynonymous substitutions have weak or no effect on cell surface expression in vitro, suggesting that one main polymorphism at TAS2R16 influences salicin recognition. Additionally, we detected geographic differences in levels of bitter taste perception in Africa not previously reported and infer an East African origin for high salicin sensitivity in human populations.

  1. Effects of aqueous extracts of dried calyx of sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on polygenic dyslipidemia: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Hajifaraji

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Dyslipidemia has been considered as a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. Alternative medicine has a significant role in treatment of dyslipidemia. There are controversial findings regarding the effects of sour tea on dyslipidemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of aqueous extract of dried calyx of sour tea on polygenic dyslipidemia. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was done on 43 adults (30-60 years old with polygenic dyslipidemia that were randomly assigned to the intervention and control groups. The control group was trained in lifestyle modifications at baseline. The intervention group was trained for lifestyle modifications at baseline and received two cups of sour tea daily, and both groups were followed up for 12 weeks. Lipid profile was evaluated at baseline, and six and 12 weeks following the intervention. In addition, dietary and physical activity assessed at baseline for twelve weeks. Results: Mean concentration of total cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C significantly decreased by up to 9.46%, 8.33%, and 9.80%, respectively, after 12 weeks in the intervention group in comparison to their baseline values. However, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio significantly increased  by up to 3.15%, following 12 weeks in the control group in comparison to their baseline values. This study showed no difference in lipid profiles between the two groups, except for HDL-C concentrations. Conclusion: sour tea may have significant positive effects on lipid profile of polygenic dyslipidemia subjects and these effect might be attributed to its anthocyanins and inflation factor content. Therefore, sour tea intake with recommended dietary patterns and physical activity can be useful in regulation of lipid profile in patients with polygenic dyslipidemia.

  2. Radical scavenging activities of Rio Red grapefruits and Sour orange fruit extracts in different in vitro model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakasha, G K; Girennavar, Basavaraj; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2008-07-01

    Antioxidant fractions from two different citrus species such as Rio Red (Citrus paradise Macf.) and Sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.) were extracted with five different polar solvents using Soxhlet type extractor. The total phenolic content of the extracts was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method. Ethyl acetate extract of Rio Red and Sour orange was found to contain maximum phenolics. The dried fractions were screened for their antioxidant activity potential using in vitro model systems such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), phosphomolybdenum method and nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction at different concentrations. The methanol:water (80:20) fraction of Rio Red showed the highest radical scavenging activity 42.5%, 77.8% and 92.1% at 250, 500 and 1000 ppm, respectively, while methanol:water (80:20) fraction of Sour orange showed the lowest radical scavenging activity at all the tested concentrations. All citrus fractions showed good antioxidant capacity by the formation of phosphomolybdenum complex at 200 ppm. In addition, superoxide radical scavenging activity was assayed using non-enzymatic (NADH/phenaxine methosulfate) superoxide generating system. All the extracts showed variable superoxide radical scavenging activity. Moreover, methanol:water (80:20) extract of Rio Red and methanol extract of Sour orange exhibited marked reducing power in potassium ferricyanide reduction method. The data obtained using above in vitro models clearly establish the antioxidant potential of citrus fruit extracts. However, comprehensive studies need to be conducted to ascertain the in vivo bioavailability, safety and efficacy of such extracts in experimental animals. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on antioxidant activity of different polar extracts from Rio Red and Sour oranges.

  3. Evaluation of the glycoside hydrolase activity of a Brettanomyces strain on glycosides from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) used in the production of special fruit beers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daenen, Luk; Sterckx, Femke; Delvaux, Freddy R; Verachtert, Hubert; Derdelinckx, Guy

    2008-11-01

    The glycoside hydrolase activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Brettanomyces custersii was examined on sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) glycosides with bound volatile compounds. Refermentations by the beta-glucosidase-negative S. cerevisiae strains LD25 and LD40 of sour cherry juice-supplemented beer demonstrated only a moderate increase of volatiles. In contrast, the beta-glucosidase-positive B. custersii strain LD72 showed a more pronounced activity towards glycosides with aliphatic alcohols, aromatic compounds and terpenoid alcohols. Important contributors to sour cherry aroma such as benzaldehyde, linalool and eugenol were released during refermentation as shown by analytical tools. A gradually increasing release was observed during refermentations by B. custersii when whole sour cherries, sour cherry pulp or juice were supplemented in the beer. Refermentations with whole sour cherries and with sour cherry stones demonstrated an increased formation of benzyl compounds. Thus, amygdalin was partially hydrolysed, and a large part of the benzaldehyde formed was mainly reduced to benzyl alcohol and some further esterified to benzyl acetate. These findings demonstrate the importance and interesting role of certain Brettanomyces species in the production of fruit lambic beers such as 'Kriek'.

  4. Perirhinal Cortex Muscarinic Receptor Blockade Impairs Taste Recognition Memory Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Ranier; De la Cruz, Vanesa; Rodriguez-Ortiz, Carlos J.; Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico

    2004-01-01

    The relevance of perirhinal cortical cholinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission for taste recognition memory and learned taste aversion was assessed by microinfusions of muscarinic (scopolamine), NMDA (AP-5), and AMPA (NBQX) receptor antagonists. Infusions of scopolamine, but not AP5 or NBQX, prevented the consolidation of taste recognition…

  5. Taste buds in the palatal mucosa of snakes | Berkhoudt | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An examination of the oral mucosa of Crotalus and several Scolecophidia revealed the presence of taste buds. The taste buds in these two divergent groups of snakes are similar in appearance, and correspond to previous descriptions of gustatory organs in other reptiles. Few taste buds were present in any specimen, and ...

  6. Detection and partial molecular characterization of atypical plum pox virus isolates from naturally infected sour cherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirkov, Sergei; Ivanov, Peter; Sheveleva, Anna

    2013-06-01

    Atypical isolates of plum pox virus (PPV) were discovered in naturally infected sour cherry in urban ornamental plantings in Moscow, Russia. The isolates were detected by polyclonal double antibody sandwich ELISA and RT-PCR using universal primers specific for the 3'-non-coding and coat protein (CP) regions of the genome but failed to be recognized by triple antibody sandwich ELISA with the universal monoclonal antibody 5B and by RT-PCR using primers specific to for PPV strains D, M, C and W. Sequence analysis of the CP genes of nine isolates revealed 99.2-100 % within-group identity and 62-85 % identity to conventional PPV strains. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the atypical isolates represent a group that is distinct from the known PPV strains. Alignment of the N-terminal amino acid sequences of CP demonstrated their close similarity to those of a new tentative PPV strain, CR.

  7. Effect of Fermentation and Cooking on Soluble and Bound Phenolic Profiles of Finger Millet Sour Porridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabaza, Molly; Shumoy, Habtu; Muchuweti, Maud; Vandamme, Peter; Raes, Katleen

    2016-10-12

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the soluble and bound phenolic content of finger millet and the impact of process induced changes on phenolic profiles of their sour porridge. Finger millet porridge and intermediate products were collected from four groups of households in the Hwedza communal area, Zimbabwe, after which soluble and bound phenolic compounds (PC) including condensed tannins (CT) were quantified. Bound PC and CT contributed 95% of the total PC and CT. The CT were only detected in the red varieties. Major individual PC identified were catechin occurring in the soluble fraction only, while ferulic, sinapic, and salicylic acid were mainly present in the bound fraction. Fermentation and cooking caused a more than 2-fold increase in soluble PC, CT, and individual PC. Improved traditional processing techniques optimized for improved bioavailability and health benefits of phenolics are highly relevant for the low income populations.

  8. Technique of optimum extraction of pectin from sour orange peels and its chemical evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abid, H.; Hussain, A.; Ali, J.

    2009-01-01

    The extraction of pectin from sour orange peels and effect of pH, temperature, extraction time on the yield and quality of pectin was studied. The extracting reagent was 0.1 N sulphuric acid and variables were pH (1.5, 2.5 and 3.5), extraction time (30, 60 and 120 minutes) and temperature (70 degree C, 80 degree C arid 90 degree C). These variables were significantly affected the extraction of pectin. The best yield (16.10 %) was obtained on soaking the finely ground peels in the sulphuric acid solution of pH, 25 at 80 degree C for 120 minutes. Anhydrogalacturonic acid, methoxyl content were 7310 % and 9.93 %, respectively, while equivalent weight value 945 was obtained by using pH, 2.5 at 80 degree C for 120 minutes. (author)

  9. Control of degreening in postharvest green sour citrus fruit by electrostatic atomized water particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Naoki; Takamura, Kohtaro; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Migita, Catharina Taiko; Masuda, Yukihiro; Maekawa, Tetsuya

    2014-08-01

    The effect of electrostatic atomized water particles (EAWP) on degreening of green sour citrus fruit during storage was determined. Superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals included in EAWP were present on the surface of the fruit peel after the treatment. Hydrogen peroxide was formed from EAWP in an aqueous solution, which could indicate that a hydroxyl radical of EAWP turns to hydrogen peroxide in the fruit flavedo as well as in the aqueous solution. EAWP treatment effectively suppressed the degreening of green yuzu and Nagato-yuzukichi fruits during storage at 20°C. The enhancement in K+ ion leakage of both EAWP-treated fruits reduced in comparison with the control. In spite of EAWP treatment, total peroxide level in both fruits showed almost no changes during storage, suggesting that hydrogen peroxide formed by EAWP treatment could stimulate the activation of hydrogen peroxide scavenging system and control degreening of these fruits during storage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. REPEATED MEASURES ANALYSIS OF CHANGES IN PHOTOSYNTHETIC EFFICIENCY IN SOUR CHERRY DURING WATER DEFICIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Viljevac

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate changes in photosynthetic efficiency applying repeated measures ANOVA using the photosynthetic performance index (PIABS of the JIP-test as a vitality parameter in seven genotypes of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus, L. during 10 days of continuous water deficit. Both univariate and multivariate ANOVA repeated measures revealed highly significant time effect (Days and its subsequent interactions with genotype and water deficit. However, the multivariate Pillai’s trace test detected the interaction Time × Genotype × Water deficit as not significant. According to the Tukey’s Studentized Range (HSD test, differences between the control and genotypes exposed to water stress became significant on the fourth day of the experiment, indicating that the plants on the average, began to lose their photosynthetic efficiency four days after being exposed to water shortage. It corroborates previous findings in other species that PIABS is very sensitive tool for detecting drought stress.

  11. Study on fracture and stress corrosion cracking behavior of casing sour service materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sequera, C.; Gordon, H.

    2003-01-01

    Present work describes sulphide stress corrosion cracking and fracture toughness tests performed to high strength sour service materials of T-95, C-100 and C-110 oil well tubular grades. P-110 was considered as a reference case, since it is one of the high strength materials included in specification 5CT of American Petroleum Institute, API. Sulphide stress corrosion cracking, impact and fracture toughness values obtained in the tests show that there is a correspondence among them. A decreasing classification order was established, namely C-100, T-95, C-110 and P-110. Special grades steels studied demonstrated a better behavior in the evaluated properties than the reference case material grade: P-110. Results obtained indicate that a higher sulphide stress corrosion cracking resistance is related to a higher toughness. The fracture toughness results evidence the hydrogen influence on reducing the toughness values. (author)

  12. Stress corrosion cracking resistance of 22% Cr duplex stainless steel in simulated sour environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, T.; Tsuge, H.; Moroishi, T.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports the effect of nickel and nitrogen contents on stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of 22%Cr - 3%Mo-base duplex stainless steel investigated in simulated sour environments with respect to both the base metal and the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of welding. The threshold stress and the critical chloride concentration for SCC were evaluated as a function of the ferrite content (α-content) in the alloy. The threshold stress is highest at the α-content of 40 to 45%, and is lowered with decreasing and increasing the α-content from its value. The alloy whose α-content exceeds 80% at the HAZ has also high susceptibilities to pitting corrosion and intergranular corrosion (ICG). The critical chloride concentration for cracking increases with the decrease in the α-content. Moreover, the contents of chromium, nickel and molybdenum in the α-phase are considered to be an important factor for determining the critical chloride concentration

  13. Lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation attenuates taste progenitor cell proliferation and shortens the life span of taste bud cells

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    Brand Joseph

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mammalian taste bud, a complex collection of taste sensory cells, supporting cells, and immature basal cells, is the structural unit for detecting taste stimuli in the oral cavity. Even though the cells of the taste bud undergo constant turnover, the structural homeostasis of the bud is maintained by balancing cell proliferation and cell death. Compared with nongustatory lingual epithelial cells, taste cells express higher levels of several inflammatory receptors and signalling proteins. Whether inflammation, an underlying condition in some diseases associated with taste disorders, interferes with taste cell renewal and turnover is unknown. Here we report the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced inflammation on taste progenitor cell proliferation and taste bud cell turnover in mouse taste tissues. Results Intraperitoneal injection of LPS rapidly induced expression of several inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interferon (IFN-γ, and interleukin (IL-6, in mouse circumvallate and foliate papillae. TNF-α and IFN-γ immunoreactivities were preferentially localized to subsets of cells in taste buds. LPS-induced inflammation significantly reduced the number of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU-labeled newborn taste bud cells 1-3 days after LPS injection, suggesting an inhibition of taste bud cell renewal. BrdU pulse-chase experiments showed that BrdU-labeled taste cells had a shorter average life span in LPS-treated mice than in controls. To investigate whether LPS inhibits taste cell renewal by suppressing taste progenitor cell proliferation, we studied the expression of Ki67, a cell proliferation marker. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR revealed that LPS markedly reduced Ki67 mRNA levels in circumvallate and foliate epithelia. Immunofluorescent staining using anti-Ki67 antibodies showed that LPS decreased the number of Ki67-positive cells in the basal regions surrounding circumvallate taste buds

  14. Lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation attenuates taste progenitor cell proliferation and shortens the life span of taste bud cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Zachary J; Kim, Agnes; Huang, Liquan; Brand, Joseph; Wang, Hong

    2010-06-10

    The mammalian taste bud, a complex collection of taste sensory cells, supporting cells, and immature basal cells, is the structural unit for detecting taste stimuli in the oral cavity. Even though the cells of the taste bud undergo constant turnover, the structural homeostasis of the bud is maintained by balancing cell proliferation and cell death. Compared with nongustatory lingual epithelial cells, taste cells express higher levels of several inflammatory receptors and signalling proteins. Whether inflammation, an underlying condition in some diseases associated with taste disorders, interferes with taste cell renewal and turnover is unknown. Here we report the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation on taste progenitor cell proliferation and taste bud cell turnover in mouse taste tissues. Intraperitoneal injection of LPS rapidly induced expression of several inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interferon (IFN)-gamma, and interleukin (IL)-6, in mouse circumvallate and foliate papillae. TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma immunoreactivities were preferentially localized to subsets of cells in taste buds. LPS-induced inflammation significantly reduced the number of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled newborn taste bud cells 1-3 days after LPS injection, suggesting an inhibition of taste bud cell renewal. BrdU pulse-chase experiments showed that BrdU-labeled taste cells had a shorter average life span in LPS-treated mice than in controls. To investigate whether LPS inhibits taste cell renewal by suppressing taste progenitor cell proliferation, we studied the expression of Ki67, a cell proliferation marker. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR revealed that LPS markedly reduced Ki67 mRNA levels in circumvallate and foliate epithelia. Immunofluorescent staining using anti-Ki67 antibodies showed that LPS decreased the number of Ki67-positive cells in the basal regions surrounding circumvallate taste buds, the niche for taste progenitor

  15. [Health effects of sour cherries with unique polyphenolic composition in their fruits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedűs, Attila; Papp, Nóra; Blázovics, Anna; Stefanovitsné Bányai, Éva

    2018-05-01

    Health effects of fruit consumption are confirmed by many studies. Such effects are attributed to the polyphenolic compounds accumulating in fruit skin and mesocarp tissues. They contribute to the regulation on transcriptional, post-transcriptional and epigenetic levels. Since people consume much less fruits than the recommended quantities, a new approach includes the promotion of super fruits that are extremely rich sources of specific health compounds. A comparative analysis of Hungarian stone fruit cultivars detected a huge variability in fruit in vitro antioxidant capacity and total polyphenolic content. Two outstanding sour cherry cultivars ('Pipacs 1' and 'Fanal') were identified to accumulate elevated levels of polyphenolic compounds in their fruits. Sour cherries with different polyphenolic compositions were tested against alimentary induced hyperlipidemia using male Wistar rat model. Consumption of cherry fruit had different consequences for different cultivars: consumption of 'Pipacs 1' and 'Fanal' fruits resulted in 30% lower total cholesterol levels in the sera of hyperlipidemic animals after only 10 days of treatment. However, the consumption of 'Újfehértói fürtös' fruit has not induced significant alterations in the same parameter. Other lipid parameters also reflected the short-term beneficial effects of 'Pipacs 1' and 'Fanal' fruits. We suggest that not only some tropical and berry fruits might be considered as super fruits but certain genotypes of stone fruits as well. These have indeed marked physiological effects. Since 'Pipacs 1' and 'Fanal' are rich sources of colourless polyphenolics (e.g., phenolic acids and isoflavonoids) and anthocyanins, respectively, the protective effects associated with their consumption can be attributed to different polyphenolic compounds. Orv Hetil. 2018; 159(18): 720-725.

  16. Effect of the improved fermentation on physicochemical properties and sensorial acceptability of sour cassava starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Janete Angeloni Marcon

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effect of improved fermentation on sour cassava starch, aiming to reduce its fermentation time and to enhance its expansion capacity as well as its viscoamylographic properties and its sensorial acceptability. Results showed that the improved process of cassava starch production did not harm starch expansion, physicochemical properties or sensorial acceptability; it also produced starches with different viscoamylographic properties, which compared favourably to those of the sour cassava starch produced through current industrial methods.O Polvilho azedo é caracterizado pelas suas propriedades físicas, químicas e reológicas, as quais são diferentes do amido nativo do qual se originou. A propriedade de expansão é uma das mais importantes características do produto, sendo um parâmetro fundamental de avaliação do polvilho azedo. O resultado do perfil viscoamilográfico também é uma importante maneira de avaliação uma vez que cada amido tem um padrão viscoamilográfico definido de acordo com sua organização granular. Este trabalho determinou o efeito da fermentação melhorada pela adição de glicose, sobre o polvilho azedo, apontando para uma redução no tempo de fermentação e avaliando sua capacidade de expansão, suas propriedades viscoamilográficas e aceitabilidade sensorial. O processo de produção de polvilho azedo melhorado não prejudicou a expansão do amido, suas propriedades físico-químicas e sensoriais, mas sim resultou em amidos com diferentes propriedades viscoamilográficas melhores comparativamente ao polvilho azedo produzido pelo processo industrial atual.

  17. Localization of phosphatidylinositol signaling components in rat taste cells: Role in bitter taste transduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, P.M.; Verma, A.; Bredt, D.S.; Snyder, S.H.

    1990-01-01

    To assess the role of phosphatidylinositol turnover in taste transduction we have visualized, in rat tongue, ATP-dependent endoplasmic reticular accumulation of 45 Ca 2+ , inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor binding sites, and phosphatidylinositol turnover monitored by autoradiography of [ 3 H]cytidine diphosphate diacylglycerol formed from [ 3 H]cytidine. Accumulated 45 Ca 2+ , inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors, and phosphatidylinositol turnover are selectively localized to apical areas of the taste buds of circumvallate papillae, which are associated with bitter taste. Further evidence for a role of phosphatidylinositol turnover in bitter taste is our observation of a rapid, selective increase in mass levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate elicited by low concentrations of denatonium, a potently bitter tastant

  18. It's in the eye of the beholder: selective attention to drink properties during tasting influences brain activation in gustatory and reward regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Inge; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M

    2018-04-01

    Statements regarding pleasantness, taste intensity or caloric content on a food label may influence the attention consumers pay to such characteristics during consumption. There is little research on the effects of selective attention on taste perception and associated brain activation in regular drinks. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of selective attention on hedonics, intensity and caloric content on brain responses during tasting drinks. Using functional MRI brain responses of 27 women were measured while they paid attention to the intensity, pleasantness or caloric content of fruit juice, tomato juice and water. Brain activation during tasting largely overlapped between the three selective attention conditions and was found in the rolandic operculum, insula and overlying frontal operculum, striatum, amygdala, thalamus, anterior cingulate cortex and middle orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Brain activation was higher during selective attention to taste intensity compared to calories in the right middle OFC and during selective attention to pleasantness compared to intensity in the right putamen, right ACC and bilateral middle insula. Intensity ratings correlated with brain activation during selective attention to taste intensity in the anterior insula and lateral OFC. Our data suggest that not only the anterior insula but also the middle and lateral OFC are involved in evaluating taste intensity. Furthermore, selective attention to pleasantness engaged regions associated with food reward. Overall, our results indicate that selective attention to food properties can alter the activation of gustatory and reward regions. This may underlie effects of food labels on the consumption experience of consumers.

  19. Controlling or trusting children’s taste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Leer, Jonatan

    2016-01-01

    and not as an important sense, a source to pleasure, or a central way of sensually understanding and approaching the world. In other words, taste literacy becomes a tool to push children towards ‘hegemonic nutrition’. Theoretically, the paper is inspired by the reworking of Foucault’s governmentality concept in recent...

  20. The Musical Taste of Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozgot, V. G.

    2014-01-01

    Data from a longitudinal survey of the musical tastes of young people distinguish five basic vectors of its development: an orientation toward the Western paradigm; young people's unlimited amount of time spent in the consumption of music; the indiscriminate nature of their music interests; the influence that a person's membership in a particular…

  1. On Education and the Taste for Democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Paulo

    1991-01-01

    Argues that it is impossible to teach democracy without living democracy. Shows the need to create the taste for democracy, and the appetite for learning, taking risks, and for appreciating differences. Asserts that teachers are not actually champions of civil rights, freedom and democracy but will be called on to fight for these ideals. (PRA)

  2. Utilitarian Aggregation of Beliefs and Tastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa, Itzhak; Samet, Dov; Schmeidler, David

    2004-01-01

    Harsanyi's utilitarianism is extended here to Savage's framework. We formulate a Pareto condition that implies that both society's utility function and its probability measure are linear combinations of those of the individuals. An indiscriminate Pareto condition has been shown to contradict linear aggregation of beliefs and tastes. We argue that…

  3. Water palatability, a matter of taste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, Manon; van Nes, A.; Tobias, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this trial was to test whether the temperature or additives of the drinking water affected water uptake by nursery pigs. We designed a repeated 4 × 4 Latin Square to control for confounding factors such as; carry-over effects, learning of a preferential taste, daily variation

  4. Radiation-induced taste aversion: effects of radiation exposure level and the exposure-taste interval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spector, A.C.; Smith, J.C.; Hollander, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation-induced taste aversion has been suggested to possibly play a role in the dietary difficulties observed in some radiotherapy patients. In rats, these aversions can still be formed even when the radiation exposure precedes the taste experience by several hours. This study was conducted to examine whether increasing the radiation exposure level could extend the range of the exposure-taste interval that would still support the formation of a taste aversion. Separate groups of rats received either a 100 or 300 R gamma-ray exposure followed 1, 3, 6, or 24 h later by a 10-min saccharin (0.1% w/v) presentation. A control group received a sham exposure followed 1 h later by a 10-min saccharin presentation. Twenty-four hours following the saccharin presentation all rats received a series of twelve 23-h two-bottle preference tests between saccharin and water. The results indicated that the duration of the exposure-taste interval plays an increasingly more important role in determining the initial extent of the aversion as the dose decreases. The course of recovery from taste aversion seems more affected by dose than by the temporal parameters of the conditioning trial

  5. Genetic Sensitivity to the Bitter Taste of 6-n-Propylthiouracil (PROP and Its Association with Physiological Mechanisms Controlling Body Mass Index (BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverly J. Tepper

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Taste sensitivity to the bitter compound 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP is considered a marker for individual differences in taste perception that may influence food preferences and eating behavior, and thereby energy metabolism. This review describes genetic factors that may contribute to PROP sensitivity including: (1 the variants of the TAS2R38 bitter receptor with their different affinities for the stimulus; (2 the gene that controls the gustin protein that acts as a salivary trophic factor for fungiform taste papillae; and (3 other specific salivary proteins that could be involved in facilitating the binding of the PROP molecule with its receptor. In addition, we speculate on the influence of taste sensitivity on energy metabolism, possibly via modulation of the endocannabinoid system, and its possible role in regulating body composition homeostasis.

  6. Glucose transporters are expressed in taste receptor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merigo, Flavia; Benati, Donatella; Cristofoletti, Mirko; Osculati, Francesco; Sbarbati, Andrea

    2011-08-01

    In the intestine, changes of sugar concentration generated in the lumen during digestion induce adaptive responses of glucose transporters in the epithelium. A close matching between the intestinal expression of glucose transporters and the composition and amount of the diet has been provided by several experiments. Functional evidence has demonstrated that the regulation of glucose transporters into enterocytes is induced by the sensing of sugar of the enteroendocrine cells through activation of sweet taste receptors (T1R2 and T1R3) and their associated elements of G-protein-linked signaling pathways (e.g. α-gustducin, phospholipase C β type 2 and transient receptor potential channel M5), which are signaling molecules also involved in the perception of sweet substances in the taste receptor cells (TRCs) of the tongue. Considering this phenotypical similarity between the intestinal cells and TRCs, we evaluated whether the TRCs themselves possess proteins of the glucose transport mechanism. Therefore, we investigated the expression of the typical intestinal glucose transporters (i.e. GLUT2, GLUT5 and SGLT1) in rat circumvallate papillae, using immunohistochemistry, double-labeling immunofluorescence, immunoelectron microscopy and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis. The results showed that GLUT2, GLUT5 and SGLT1 are expressed in TRCs; their immunoreactivity was also observed in cells that displayed staining for α-gustducin and T1R3 receptor. The immunoelectron microscopic results confirmed that GLUT2, GLUT5 and SGLT1 were predominantly expressed in cells with ultrastructural characteristics of chemoreceptor cells. The presence of glucose transporters in TRCs adds a further link between chemosensory information and cellular responses to sweet stimuli that may have important roles in glucose homeostasis, contributing to a better understanding of the pathways implicated in glucose metabolism. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy © 2011

  7. E-tongue: a tool for taste evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Himanshu; Sharma, Aarti; Kumar, Suresh; Roy, Saroj K

    2010-01-01

    Taste has an important role in the development of oral pharmaceuticals. With respect to patient acceptability and compliance, taste is one of the prime factors determining the market penetration and commercial success of oral formulations, especially in pediatric medicine. Taste assessment is one important quality-control parameter for evaluating taste-masked formulations. Hence, pharmaceutical industries invest time, money and resources into developing palatable and pleasant-tasting products. The primary method for the taste measurement of a drug substance or a formulation is by human sensory evaluation, in which tasting a sample is relayed to inspectors. However, this method is impractical for early stage drug development because the test in humans is expensive and the taste of a drug candidate may not be important to the final product. Therefore, taste-sensing analytical devices, which can detect tastes, have been replacing the taste panelists. In the present review we are presenting different aspect of electronic tongue. The review article also discussed some useful patents and instrument with respect to E-tongue.

  8. Volumetry of human taste buds using laser scanning microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, T; Srur, E; Stachs, O; Pau, H W

    2009-10-01

    In vivo laser scanning confocal microscopy is a relatively new, non-invasive method for assessment of oral cavity epithelia. The penetration depth of approximately 200-400 microm allows visualisation of fungiform papillae and their taste buds. This paper describes the technique of in vivo volumetry of human taste buds. Confocal laser scanning microscopy used a diode laser at 670 nm for illumination. Digital laser scanning confocal microscopy equipment consisted of the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph HRTII and the Rostock Cornea Module. Volume scans of fungiform papillae were used for three-dimensional reconstruction of the taste bud. This technique supplied information on taste bud structure and enabled measurement and calculation of taste bud volume. Volumetric data from a 23-year-old man over a nine-day period showed only a small deviation in values. After three to four weeks, phenomenological changes in taste bud structures were found (i.e. a significant increase in volume, followed by disappearance of the taste bud and appearance of a new taste bud). The data obtained indicate the potential application of this non-invasive imaging modality: to evaluate variation of taste bud volume in human fungiform papillae with ageing; to study the effects of chorda tympani nerve transection on taste bud volume; and to demonstrate recovery of taste buds in patients with a severed chorda tympani nerve who show recovery of gustatory sensibility after surgery.

  9. TRPM5, a taste-signaling transient receptor potential ion-channel, is a ubiquitous signaling component in chemosensory cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofmann Thomas

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing number of TRP channels have been identified as key players in the sensation of smell, temperature, mechanical forces and taste. TRPM5 is known to be abundantly expressed in taste receptor cells where it participates in sweet, amino acid and bitter perception. A role of TRPM5 in other sensory systems, however, has not been studied so far. Results Here, we systematically investigated the expression of TRPM5 in rat and mouse tissues. Apart from taste buds, where we found TRPM5 to be predominantly localized on the basolateral surface of taste receptor cells, TRPM5 immunoreactivity was seen in other chemosensory organs – the main olfactory epithelium and the vomeronasal organ. Most strikingly, we found solitary TRPM5-enriched epithelial cells in all parts of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. Based on their tissue distribution, the low cell density, morphological features and co-immunostaining with different epithelial markers, we identified these cells as brush cells (also known as tuft, fibrillovesicular, multivesicular or caveolated cells. In terms of morphological characteristics, brush cells resemble taste receptor cells, while their origin and biological role are still under intensive debate. Conclusion We consider TRPM5 to be an intrinsic signaling component of mammalian chemosensory organs, and provide evidence for brush cells being an important cellular correlate in the periphery.

  10. Formation Dynamics of Oral Oil Coatings and Their Effect on Subsequent Sweetness Perception of Liquid Stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camacho, S.; Eck, van Arianne; De Velde, Van Fred; Stieger, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the formation of oral coatings and their influence on subsequent taste perception is necessary to understand possible taste-masking effects by oil coatings. This study investigated (a) the dynamics of the formation of oral oil coatings formed by o/w emulsions and (b) the effect of oral

  11. Postnatal development of bitter taste avoidance behavior in mice is associated with ACTIN-dependent localization of bitter taste receptors to the microvilli of taste cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Atsuko; Kondo, Kaori; Kunishima, Yoshimi; Iseki, Sachiko; Kondo, Takashi; Ota, Masato S

    2018-01-22

    Bitter taste avoidance behavior (BAB) plays a fundamental role in the avoidance of toxic substances with a bitter taste. However, the molecular basis underlying the development of BAB is unknown. To study critical developmental events by which taste buds turn into functional organs with BAB, we investigated the early phase development of BAB in postnatal mice in response to bitter-tasting compounds, such as quinine and thiamine. Postnatal mice started to exhibit BAB for thiamine and quinine at postnatal day 5 (PD5) and PD7, respectively. Histological analyses of taste buds revealed the formation of microvilli in the taste pores starting at PD5 and the localization of type 2 taste receptor 119 (TAS2R119) at the microvilli at PD6. Treatment of the tongue epithelium with cytochalasin D (CytD), which disturbs ACTIN polymerization in the microvilli, resulted in the loss of TAS2R119 localization at the microvilli and the loss of BAB for quinine and thiamine. The release of ATP from the circumvallate papillae tissue due to taste stimuli was also declined following CytD treatment. These results suggest that the localization of TAS2R119 at the microvilli of taste pores is critical for the initiation of BAB. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Expression of GABAergic receptors in mouse taste receptor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret R Starostik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multiple excitatory neurotransmitters have been identified in the mammalian taste transduction, with few studies focused on inhibitory neurotransmitters. Since the synthetic enzyme glutamate decarboxylase (GAD for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA is expressed in a subset of mouse taste cells, we hypothesized that other components of the GABA signaling pathway are likely expressed in this system. GABA signaling is initiated by the activation of either ionotropic receptors (GABA(A and GABA(C or metabotropic receptors (GABA(B while it is terminated by the re-uptake of GABA through transporters (GATs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR analysis, we investigated the expression of different GABA signaling molecules in the mouse taste system. Taste receptor cells (TRCs in the circumvallate papillae express multiple subunits of the GABA(A and GABA(B receptors as well as multiple GATs. Immunocytochemical analyses examined the distribution of the GABA machinery in the circumvallate papillae. Both GABA(A-and GABA(B- immunoreactivity were detected in the peripheral taste receptor cells. We also used transgenic mice that express green fluorescent protein (GFP in either the Type II taste cells, which can respond to bitter, sweet or umami taste stimuli, or in the Type III GAD67 expressing taste cells. Thus, we were able to identify that GABAergic receptors are expressed in some Type II and Type III taste cells. Mouse GAT4 labeling was concentrated in the cells surrounding the taste buds with a few positively labeled TRCs at the margins of the taste buds. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The presence of GABAergic receptors localized on Type II and Type III taste cells suggests that GABA is likely modulating evoked taste responses in the mouse taste bud.