WorldWideScience

Sample records for sour crudes

  1. Identification of crude-oil components and microorganisms that cause souring under anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, R; Toyama, K; Miyanaga, K; Tanji, Y

    2014-02-01

    Oil souring has important implications with respect to energy resources. Understanding the physiology of the microorganisms that play a role and the biological mechanisms are both important for the maintenance of infrastructure and mitigation of corrosion processes. The objective of this study was to identify crude-oil components and microorganisms in oil-field water that contribute to crude-oil souring. To identify the crude-oil components and microorganisms that are responsible for anaerobic souring in oil reservoirs, biological conversion of crude-oil components under anaerobic conditions was investigated. Microorganisms in oil field water in Akita, Japan degraded alkanes and aromatics to volatile fatty acids (VFAs) under anaerobic conditions, and fermenting bacteria such as Fusibacter sp. were involved in VFA production. Aromatics such as toluene and ethylbenzene were degraded by sulfate-reducing bacteria (Desulfotignum sp.) via the fumarate-addition pathway and not only degradation of VFA but also degradation of aromatics by sulfate-reducing bacteria was the cause of souring. Naphthenic acid and 2,4-xylenol were not converted.

  2. Organic constituents in sour condensates from shale-oil and petroleum-crude runs at Sohio's Toledo refinery: identification and wastewater-control-technology considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wingender, R J; Harrison, W; Raphaelian, L A

    1981-02-01

    Samples of sour condensate generated from the continuous processing of both crude shale oil and petroleum crude were collected and extracted with methylene chloride. The extracts were analyzed using capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry at Argonne National Laboratory and Radian Corporation. Qualitatively, the predominant types of organic compounds present in the shale-oil sour condensate were pyridines and anilines; semiquantitatively, these compounds were present at a concentration of 5.7 ppM, or about 78% of the total concentration of components detected. In contrast, straight-chain alkanes were the predominant types of compounds found in the sour condensate produced during isocracking of conventional crude oil. The approximate concentration of straight-chain alkanes, 8.3 ppM, and of other branched and/or unsaturated hydrocarbons, 6.8 ppM, amounted to 88% of the total concentration of components detected in the sour condensate from the petroleum-crude run. Nitrogen compounds in the shale-oil sour condensate may necessitate alterations of the sour water and refinery wastewater-treatment facilities to provide for organics degradation and to accommodate the potentially greater ammonia loadings. This would include use of larger amounts of caustic to enhance ammonia removal by steam stripping. Possible problems associated with biological removal of organic-nitrogen compounds should be investigated in future experimental shale-oil refining runs.

  3. Heavy crude oil and synthetic crude market outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, G.R.

    1997-01-01

    This presentation included an outline of the international heavy crude supply and demand versus Canadian heavy crude supply and disposition, and pricing outlook for synthetic crudes. Differences among crude oils such as light sweet, light sour, heavy and bitumen were described and illustrated with respect to their gravity, API, percentage of sulphur, metals and nitrogen. Internationally, heavy and sour crude supplies are forecast to increase significantly over the next four years. Discoveries of light sour crude in offshore Gulf of Mexico will provide a major new source of sour crude to U.S. Gulf Coast refineries. Venezuela's supplies of heavy and sour crude are also expected to increase over the next few years. Mexico and Canada have plans to increase their heavy crude production. All of the crudes will be aimed at the U.S. Gulf Coast and Midwest markets. Pentanes and condensates are also expected to increase based on the growing Canadian natural gas production. Diluent demand will also grow to match Canadian heavy crude/bitumen production. U.S. midwest refiners are proposing expansions to allow them to process more Canadian heavy crude oil. At present, only a few refineries are equipped to process significant amounts of synthetic crude. It was suggested that to absorb available heavy and synthetic production, increased penetration into both Canadian and U.S. markets will be required. Some refineries may have to be modified to process heavy and synthetic oil supplies. Heavy oil and synthetic producers may need to develop relationships with refiners such as joint ventures and term supply agreements to secure markets. 2 tabs., 12 figs

  4. Effect of adding sour yoghurt and dough as bacterial inoculant on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inoculation of whole-crop corn with sourdough and sour yoghurt significantly decreased pH, ash content and ammonia nitrogen, while dry matter determined using toloen distillation (DMT), Flieg point, crude protein (CP), and total nitrogen increased (P<0.05). Key words: Silage, sour yoghurt, sourdough, corn forage.

  5. Sour pressure swing adsorption process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadra, Shubhra Jyoti; Wright, Andrew David; Hufton, Jeffrey Raymond; Kloosterman, Jeffrey William; Amy, Fabrice; Weist, Jr., Edward Landis

    2017-11-07

    Methods and apparatuses for separating CO.sub.2 and sulfur-containing compounds from a synthesis gas obtained from gasification of a carbonaceous feedstock. The primary separating steps are performed using a sour pressure swing adsorption (SPSA) system, followed by an acid gas enrichment system and a sulfur removal unit. The SPSA system includes multiple pressure equalization steps and a rinse step using a rinse gas that is supplied from a source other than directly from one of the adsorber beds of the SPSA system.

  6. The chemistry of sour taste and the strategy to reduce the sour taste of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Liu, Fang

    2015-10-15

    The contributions of free hydrogen ions, undissociated hydrogen ions in protonated acid species, and anionic acid species to sour taste were studied through sensory experiments. According to tasting results, it can be inferred that the basic substance producing a sour taste is the hydrogen ion, including free hydrogen ions and undissociated hydrogen ions. The intensity of a sour taste is determined by the total concentration of free hydrogen ions and undissociated hydrogen ions. The anionic acid species (without hydrogen ions) does not produce a sour taste but can intensify or weaken the intensity of a sour taste. It seems that hydroxyl or conjugated groups in anionic acid species can intensify the sour taste produced by hydrogen ions. The following strategy to reduce the sensory sourness is advanced: not only reduce free hydrogen ions, namely elevate pH value, but also reduce the undissociated hydrogen ions contained in protonated acid species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Modelling souring in a high salinity reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Michael; Crossland, Alan; Stott, Jim

    2006-03-15

    CAPCIS Ltd (Capcis) have developed a souring model for use in highly saline reservoirs where salinity limits the growth of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB). Capcis have successfully applied the model to a field in North Africa. The conceptual basis of the model considers the course of the H2S from generation in the reservoir including dilution, sulphide retardation and scavenging and H2S fluid phase partitioning. At each stage mathematical equations governing the behaviour of the H2S were produced. In order to estimate the potential for H2S generation, it is required to know the chemistry of the injection and formation waters, as well as the properties of the indigenous SRB, i.e. the maximum salinity for their growth. This is determined by bottle testing of H2S generation by SRB at a range of injection/formation water ratios. The maximum salinity for SRB growth then determines the mixing ratios at which H2S generation takes place. Sulphide retardation due to adsorption at immobile interfaces was empirically modeled from reservoir data. Sulphide scavenging due to reaction with iron generated from corrosion was also modelled. Reservoir mineral scavenging was not modelled but could be incorporated in an extension to the model. Finally, in order to compute the gas-phase concentration of generated H2S, the H2S in the well stream is partitioned between the gas, oil and water phases. Capcis has carried out detailed computations of H2S solubility in crude oil and formation waters and the derivation of distribution ratios based on the respective partition coefficients using Gerard's line method, a modification of Henry's Law. (author) (tk)

  8. Corrosion of steels in sour gas environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twigg, R.J.

    1984-03-01

    This report presents a study on the effects of sour gas environments on steels. Emphasis is placed on alloys commonly used in the heavy water, sour gas and refining industries. In addition, 'high strength, low alloy' steels, known as 'oil country tubular goods', are included. Reference is made to the effects of hydrogen sulphide environments on austenitic steels and on certain specialty steels. Theories of hydrogen-related cracking mechanisms are outlined with emphasis placed on sulphide stress cracking and hydrogen induced cracking in carbon and low alloy steels. Methods of controlling sulphide stress cracking and hydrogen induced cracking are addressed separately. Case histories from the heavy water, refining, and sour gas industries are used to illustrate operating experience and failure mechanisms. Finally, recommendations, based largely on the author's industrial experience, are made with respect to quality assurance and inspection requirements for sour service components. Only published literature was surveyed. Abstracts were made of all references, reviewing the major sources in detail

  9. SOUR MILK FORMULAS IN NUTRITION OF INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.F. Lukushkina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Health-giving properties of fermented food are related to the fact, that acid medium improves assimilation of protein and fat, increases absorption of iron and zinc, improves digestion. But the kefir and other sour milk food based on the whole milk can’t be used in nutrition of infants as human milk substitute because of high content of protein, high osmolarity, deficiency of vitamins and microelements. The article describes the results of clinical approbation of new modern sour milk formula «NAN sour milk», containing proper amount of high-quality protein (OptiPro, enriched with lactalbumin and all sufficient vitamins and microelements. This mixture contains also probiotics (B. lactis, providing high functionality of this food. Key words: infants, sour milk formula, nutrition.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(1:136-141

  10. Bortezomib alters sour taste sensitivity in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Ohishi

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced taste disorder is one of the critical issues in cancer therapy. Bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor, is a key agent in multiple myeloma therapy, but it induces a taste disorder. In this study, we investigated the characteristics of bortezomib-induced taste disorder and the underlying mechanism in mice. Among the five basic tastes, the sour taste sensitivity of mice was significantly increased by bortezomib administration. In bortezomib-administered mice, protein expression of PKD2L1 was increased. The increased sour taste sensitivity induced by bortezomib returned to the control level on cessation of its administration. These results suggest that an increase in protein expression of PKD2L1 enhances the sour taste sensitivity in bortezomib-administered mice, and this alteration is reversed on cessation of its administration. Keywords: Taste disorder, Bortezomib, Sour taste, Chemotherapy, Adverse effect

  11. Reduction of Sulphur Content of Urals Crude Oil Prior to Processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of sulphur in crude oil poses enormous challenges as regards its negative environmental and economic impacts. As such, the safety of the personnel and the equipment is at high risk during the processing of Urals crude oil in Kaduna Refining and Petrochemical Company (KRPC) because of its sour nature.

  12. SOUR MILK FOODSTUFF IN INFANTS DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. Borovik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Products of sour milk are widely used in nutrition of infants. They are an important source of digestible proteins, vitamins and potassium. Regular intake of sour milk foodstuff has favorable influence on intestinal microbiocenosis, functioning of the immune system, improves secretory and motor functions of the gastrointestinal tract, stimulates appetites and increases bioavailability of micronutrients. Modern line in functional diet is enrichment of sour milk foodstuff with probiotics. Strains of microorganisms used in manufacture of products with probiotic action are proven to be safe and effective in prophylaxis and treatment of various diseases. Modern data which confirm prophylactic and medicinal properties of probiotic-containing foodstuff, especially bioyoghurts for children, are shown in this article.

  13. Crude petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Crude petroleum statistics by country of production, export values and import values from 1983 to 1988 are given. Table A.1 of the Annex includes free market prices and price indices for crude petroleum based on average of Dubai, United Kingdom Brent and Alaska N Slope crude prices (price expressed in dollars/barrel). The data sources are: Crude petroleum United Nations Statistical Office; OPEC Annual Statistical Bulletin, and Petroleum Economist. For trade the sources of data are: National trade statistics; United Nations international trade statistics; International Moneytary Fund (IMF); Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC); UNCTAD secretariat estimates. Tabs

  14. Supply, storage and handling of elemental sulfur derived from sour gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, P.D.; Davis, P.M.; Dowling, N.I.; Calgary Univ., AB

    2003-01-01

    This presentation reviews the supply picture for solid elemental sulfur. It also assesses methods for its storage as well as the disposal of the precursor hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) by acid gas injection. Both above and below ground block storage is considered environmentally acceptable for sulfur storage as long as measures are taken to minimize the physical and biological breakdown of the sulfur. The preferred option is to store solid elemental sulfur underground, particularly if it is to remain in storage for a prolonged period. Future changes in supply of sulfur will likely be controlled by incremental production of sour gas and utilization of oil sands bitumen. It is expected that future sulfur production from conventional crude oil will remain static or will slowly decrease. The degree to which acid gas injection is applied to large sour gas developments in the Middle East and the Caspian regions will have a significant impact on world sulfur supply. 9 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  15. Sweet and sour taste preferences of children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, D.G.

    2004-01-01

    In the industrialized countries children have many foods to choose from, both healthy and unhealthy products, these choices mainly depend on children's taste preferences. The present thesis focused on preferences for sweet and sour taste of young children (4- to 12-years of age) living in the US and

  16. 21 CFR 131.160 - Sour cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.160 Sour cream. (a... of analysis. Referenced methods in paragraph (c) (1) and (2) of this section are from “Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists,” 13th Ed. (1980), which is...

  17. 5-HT3A -driven green fluorescent protein delineates gustatory fibers innervating sour-responsive taste cells: A labeled line for sour taste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratford, J M; Larson, E D; Yang, R; Salcedo, E; Finger, T E

    2017-07-01

    Taste buds contain multiple cell types with each type expressing receptors and transduction components for a subset of taste qualities. The sour sensing cells, Type III cells, release serotonin (5-HT) in response to the presence of sour (acidic) tastants and this released 5-HT activates 5-HT 3 receptors on the gustatory nerves. We show here, using 5-HT 3A GFP mice, that 5-HT 3 -expressing nerve fibers preferentially contact and receive synaptic contact from Type III taste cells. Further, these 5-HT 3 -expressing nerve fibers terminate in a restricted central-lateral portion of the nucleus of the solitary tract (nTS)-the same area that shows increased c-Fos expression upon presentation of a sour tastant (30 mM citric acid). This acid stimulation also evokes c-Fos in the laterally adjacent mediodorsal spinal trigeminal nucleus (DMSp5), but this trigeminal activation is not associated with the presence of 5-HT 3 -expressing nerve fibers as it is in the nTS. Rather, the neuronal activation in the trigeminal complex likely is attributable to direct depolarization of acid-sensitive trigeminal nerve fibers, for example, polymodal nociceptors, rather than through taste buds. Taken together, these findings suggest that transmission of sour taste information involves communication between Type III taste cells and 5-HT 3 -expressing afferent nerve fibers that project to a restricted portion of the nTS consistent with a crude mapping of taste quality information in the primary gustatory nucleus. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Primary souring: A novel bacteria-free method for sour beer production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osburn, Kara; Amaral, Justin; Metcalf, Sara R; Nickens, David M; Rogers, Cody M; Sausen, Christopher; Caputo, Robert; Miller, Justin; Li, Hongde; Tennessen, Jason M; Bochman, Matthew L

    2018-04-01

    In the beverage fermentation industry, especially at the craft or micro level, there is a movement to incorporate as many local ingredients as possible to both capture terroir and stimulate local economies. In the case of craft beer, this has traditionally only encompassed locally sourced barley, hops, and other agricultural adjuncts. The identification and use of novel yeasts in brewing lags behind. We sought to bridge this gap by bio-prospecting for wild yeasts, with a focus on the American Midwest. We isolated 284 different strains from 54 species of yeast and have begun to determine their fermentation characteristics. During this work, we found several isolates of five species that produce lactic acid and ethanol during wort fermentation: Hanseniaspora vineae, Lachancea fermentati, Lachancea thermotolerans, Schizosaccharomyces japonicus, and Wickerhamomyces anomalus. Tested representatives of these species yielded excellent attenuation, lactic acid production, and sensory characteristics, positioning them as viable alternatives to lactic acid bacteria (LAB) for the production of sour beers. Indeed, we suggest a new LAB-free paradigm for sour beer production that we term "primary souring" because the lactic acid production and resultant pH decrease occurs during primary fermentation, as opposed to kettle souring or souring via mixed culture fermentation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Numerical simulation of a sour gas flare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, A. [Alberta Research Council, Devon, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Due to the limited amount of information in the literature on sour gas flares and the cost of conducting wind tunnel and field experiments on sour flares, this presentation presented a modelling project that predicted the effect of operating conditions on flare performance and emissions. The objectives of the project were to adapt an existing numerical model suitable for flare simulation, incorporate sulfur chemistry, and run simulations for a range of conditions typical of sour flares in Alberta. The study involved the use of modelling expertise at the University of Utah, and employed large eddy simulation (LES) methods to model open flames. The existing model included the prediction of turbulent flow field; hydrocarbon reaction chemistry; soot formation; and radiation heat transfer. The presentation addressed the unique features of the model and discussed whether LES could predict the flow field. Other topics that were presented included the results from a University of Utah comparison; challenges of the LES model; an example of a run time issue; predicting the impact of operating conditions; and the results of simulations. Last, several next steps were identified and preliminary results were provided. Future work will focus on reducing computation time and increasing information reporting. figs.

  20. Enbridge system : crude types, transportation and handling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anand, A. [Enbridge Corp., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The supply of crude oil from the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin is expected to increase by approximately 2.1 million barrels per day by 2015. The crudes that Enbridge handles range from 19 API to 40 API and 0.1 per cent sulphur to 4.7 per cent sulphur. The diverse supply of crude oil that the Enbridge system handles includes conventional heavy, synthetic heavy, heavy high tan, heavy low residual, medium, light sour, heavy sour, light sweet, light sweet synthetic, condensate and olefinic crudes. This presentation discussed Enbridge's plans for infrastructure expansion, crude types and quality assurance program. The company's infrastructure plans include the expansion of regional pipelines to bring more supplies to the mainline; expansion of the mainline capacity to existing markets; and providing pipeline access to new markets. Merchant storage terminals will be provided in some locations. The quality of various crude types will be maintained through judicious sequencing and tank bottoms crossings. tabs., figs.

  1. Desulfurization of AL-Ahdab Crude Oil using Oxidative Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Neran Khalel Ibrahim; Saja Mohsen Jabbar

    2015-01-01

    Two different oxidative desulfurization strategies based on oxidation/adsorption or oxidation/extraction were evaluated for the desulfurization of AL-Ahdab (AHD) sour crude oil (3.9wt% sulfur content). In the oxidation process, a homogenous oxidizing agent comprising of hydrogen peroxide and formic acid was used. Activated carbons were used as sorbent/catalyst in the oxidation/adsorption process while acetonitrile was used as an extraction solvent in the oxidation/extraction process. For the ...

  2. Reservoir souring: it is all about risk mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuijvenhoven, Cor [Shell (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The presence of H2S in produced fluid can be due to various sources, among which are heat/rock interaction and leaks from other reservoirs. This paper discusses the reasons, risk assessment and tools for mitigating reservoir souring. Uncontrolled microorganism activity can cause a sweet reservoir (without H2S) to become sour (production of H2S). The development of bacteria is one of the main causes of reservoir souring in unconventional gas fields. It is difficult to predict souring in seawater due to produced water re-injection (PWRI). Risk assessment and modeling techniques for reservoir souring are discussed. Some of the factors controlling H2S production include injection location, presence of scavenging minerals and biogenic souring. Mitigation methods such as biocide treatment of injection water, sulphate removal from seawater, microbial monitoring techniques such as the molecular microbiology method (MMM), and enumeration by serial dilution are explained. In summary, it can be concluded that reservoir souring is a long-term problem and should be assessed at the beginning of operations.

  3. Nature of local benefits to communities impacted by sour gas development : Public safety and sour gas recommendation 79 : Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    The Provincial Advisory Committee on Public Safety and Sour Gas of Alberta issued a report in December 2002, in which recommendations were made on how to improve the sour gas regulatory system and reduce the impacts of sour gas on public safety and health. Recommendation 79 of this report called for a study to determine the nature of local benefits such as property taxes and local business opportunities, to communities affected by sour gas development. The present document was prepared by a multi-stake holder committee consisting of representatives from municipal government, academia, industry associations, the provincial government, and the public. One of its objectives was to identify matters of importance to stake holders concerning the study. The committee examined three major areas: economic benefit, net financial benefit to municipalities, and impact of sour gas development on local residents. The results indicated that the province and municipalities in which sour gas activities take place benefit from these activities. All Albertans benefit somewhat, and those living in areas where the sour gas industry operates might benefit through employment or the net benefit accrued to municipal government. A detailed quantification of local benefits at the municipal level for individuals was provided in this document. A full accounting of costs or negative impacts that may affect some individuals was not provided. refs., 6 tabs

  4. De novo transcriptome assembly of a sour cherry cultivar, Schattenmorelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonhwa Jo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus in the genus Prunus in the family Rosaceae is one of the most popular stone fruit trees worldwide. Of known sour cherry cultivars, the Schattenmorelle is a famous old sour cherry with a high amount of fruit production. The Schattenmorelle was selected before 1650 and described in the 1800s. This cultivar was named after gardens of the Chateau de Moreille in which the cultivar was initially found. In order to identify new genes and to develop genetic markers for sour cherry, we performed a transcriptome analysis of a sour cherry. We selected the cultivar Schattenmorelle, which is among commercially important cultivars in Europe and North America. We obtained 2.05 GB raw data from the Schattenmorelle (NCBI accession number: SRX1187170. De novo transcriptome assembly using Trinity identified 61,053 transcripts in which N50 was 611 bp. Next, we identified 25,585 protein coding sequences using TransDecoder. The identified proteins were blasted against NCBI's non-redundant database for annotation. Based on blast search, we taxonomically classified the obtained sequences. As a result, we provide the transcriptome of sour cherry cultivar Schattenmorelle using next generation sequencing.

  5. Corrosion inhibitor development for slightly sour environments with oxygen intrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wylde, J.; Wang, H.; Li, J. [Clariant Oil Services North America, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation reported on a study that examined the effect of oxygen on the inhibition of carbon steel in slightly sour corrosion, and the initiation and propagation of localized attack. Oxygen can enter sour water injection systems through the vapor space in storage tanks and process system. Oxygen aggravates the corrosion attack by participating in the cathodic reaction under full or partial diffusion control. Laboratory testing results were reported in this presentation along with the development of corrosion inhibitors for such a slightly sour system. Bubble testing cells were used with continuous H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixture gas sparging and occasional oxygen intrusion of 2 to 4 hours during a week long test. Linear polarization resistance (LPR) measurements and weight loss corrosion coupons were used to quantify the corrosion attack. The findings were presented in terms of the magnitude of localized attacks at different oxygen concentrations and intrusion periods, with and without the presence of corrosion inhibitors. tabs., figs.

  6. Sour Taste preferences of children relate to preference of novel and intense stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, D.G.; Westerbeek, A.; Wolterink, S.; Kok, F.J.; Graaf, de C.

    2004-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that some children have a preference for sour tastes. The origin of this preference remains unclear. We investigated whether preference for sour tastes is related to a difference in rated sour intensity due to physiological properties of saliva, or to an overall

  7. Industrial processing effects on phenolic compounds in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, G.; Capanoglu, E.; Gomez-Roldan, M.V.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Boyacioglu, D.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The processed juice (or nectar) of the sour cherry, Prunus cerasus L., is widely consumed in the Balkan region and Turkey. Sour cherry is known to be rich in polyphenolic compounds, such as anthocyanins and procyanidins. In this work, the effects of processing of sour cherry fruit to nectar on

  8. Bioactivity of sour cherry cultivars grown in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoo, Gaik Ming; Clausen, Morten Rahr; Pedersen, Bjarne Hjelmsted

    2012-01-01

    Thirty four varieties of sour cherries (Prunus cerasus) were investigated for their total antioxidant activity, Caco-2 cancer cell proliferation inhibitory activity and effect on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. Total phenolic content, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and cancer cell ...

  9. Lifting the US crude oil export ban: A numerical partial equilibrium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langer, Lissy; Huppmann, Daniel; Holz, Franziska

    2016-01-01

    The upheaval in global crude oil markets and the boom in shale oil production in North America brought scrutiny on the US export ban for crude oil from 1975. The ban was eventually lifted in early 2016. This paper examines the shifts of global trade flows and strategic refinery investments in a spatial, game-theoretic partial equilibrium model. We consider detailed oil supply chain infrastructure with multiple crude oil types, distinct oil products, as well as specific refinery configurations and modes of transport. Prices, quantities produced and consumed, as well as infrastructure and refining capacity investments are endogenous to the model. We compare two scenarios: an insulated US crude oil market, and a counter-factual with lifted export restrictions. We find a significant expansion of US sweet crude exports with the lift of the export ban. In the US refinery sector, more (imported) heavy sour crude is transformed. Countries importing US sweet crude gain from higher product output, while avoiding costly refinery investments. Producers of heavy sour crude (e.g. the Middle East) are incentivised to climb up the value chain to defend their market share and maintain their dominant position. - Highlights: • We study the impacts of lifting the US crude ban on global oil flows and investments. • We find massive expansion of US sweet crude oil exports. • We analyze the resulting welfare effects for US producers, refiners and consumers. • We indicate the changes on global trade patterns. • We conclude that lifting the ban is the right policy for the US and the global economy.

  10. Reservoir Souring - Latest developments for application and mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Richard J; Folwell, Benjamin D; Wirekoh, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Sulphate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP) have been identified in oil field fluids since the 1920s. SRP reduce sulphate to sulphide, a toxic and corrosive species that impacts on operational safety, metallurgy and both capital and operational cost. Differences in water cut, temperature, pressure...... and fluid chemistry can impact on the observed H2S concentration, meaning that an increase in H2S concentration does not always correlate with activity of SRP. However it wasn't until the 1990s that SRP activity was accepted as the leading cause of reservoir souring (i.e. an increase in H2S concentrations...... to reservoir souring. This has led to some recent advances in microbial control and detection, however, despite this, many of the methods used routinely for microbial control and detection are over a century old. We therefore look towards emerging and novel mitigation technologies that may be used...

  11. Organic acid profile of commercial sour cassava starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEMIATE I.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic acids are present in sour cassava starch ("polvilho azedo" and contribute with organoleptic and physical characteristics like aroma, flavor and the exclusive baking property, that differentiate this product from the native cassava starch. Samples of commercial sour cassava starch collected in South and Southeast Brazil were prepared for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis. The HPLC equipment had a Biorad Aminex HPX-87H column for organic acid analysis and a refractometric detector. Analysis was carried out with 0.005M sulfuric acid as mobile phase, 0.6ml/min flow rate and column temperature of 60° C. The acids quantified were lactic (0.036 to 0.813 g/100g, acetic (0 to 0.068 g/100g, propionic (0 to 0.013 g/100g and butyric (0 to 0.057 g/100g, that are produced during the natural fermentation of cassava starch. Results showed large variation among samples, even within the same region. Some samples exhibited high acid levels, mainly lactic acid, but in these neither propionic nor butyric acids were detected. Absence of butyric acid was not expected because this is an important component of the sour cassava starch aroma, and the lack of this acid may suggest that such samples were produced without the natural fermentation step.

  12. Sour ageusia in two individuals implicates ion channels of the ASIC and PKD families in human sour taste perception at the anterior tongue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufiqul Huque

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of sour taste in humans is incompletely understood at the receptor cell level. We report here on two patients with an acquired sour ageusia. Each patient was unresponsive to sour stimuli, but both showed normal responses to bitter, sweet, and salty stimuli.Lingual fungiform papillae, containing taste cells, were obtained by biopsy from the two patients, and from three sour-normal individuals, and analyzed by RT-PCR. The following transcripts were undetectable in the patients, even after 50 cycles of amplification, but readily detectable in the sour-normal subjects: acid sensing ion channels (ASICs 1a, 1beta, 2a, 2b, and 3; and polycystic kidney disease (PKD channels PKD1L3 and PKD2L1. Patients and sour-normals expressed the taste-related phospholipase C-beta2, the delta-subunit of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC and the bitter receptor T2R14, as well as beta-actin. Genomic analysis of one patient, using buccal tissue, did not show absence of the genes for ASIC1a and PKD2L1. Immunohistochemistry of fungiform papillae from sour-normal subjects revealed labeling of taste bud cells by antibodies to ASICs 1a and 1beta, PKD2L1, phospholipase C-beta2, and delta-ENaC. An antibody to PKD1L3 labeled tissue outside taste bud cells.These data suggest a role for ASICs and PKDs in human sour perception. This is the first report of sour ageusia in humans, and the very existence of such individuals ("natural knockouts" suggests a cell lineage for sour that is independent of the other taste modalities.

  13. Maximising profitability through the use of simulation for new market crudes evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, Maryro P. [KBC Advanced Technologies, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    There is nothing that contributes more to the cost of production for a refinery than the cost of crude oil and other feedstocks. The efficient and effective evaluation and selection of crude oil to a refinery will have a very significant impact on its profitability. The crude oil selected will impact the utilization and output from different process units, has the potential to impact maintenance and energy costs, and will impact product properties from the refinery. The tools and knowledge necessary for a good new crude evaluation program are addressed as part of this paper. The work process is outlined in detail. Finally, we address some of the risk management issues inherent in processing high margin crudes. Innovative simulation tools like Petro-SIM offer the platform to evaluate opportunities to capture the value that the sour/sweet crude differential and that the new crudes coming in to the market have to offer for a given refinery configuration. The paper provides comments on how KBC's methodology has helped refiners to check their ability to run new challenging crudes. (author)

  14. Crude oil market report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Falling demand for refined products and an excess of production capacity are driving world oil prices down further. Competitive price cutting, notably by Mexico, Britain, and the Soviet Union, has left Saudi Arabia the only guardian of a costly pricing discipline in terms of crude oil sales. The current crisis is limited to the producers of crude oil. Refineries are now deciding what, where, and how to buy crude in order to meet the requirements of a slack market place. Saudi Arabia could precipitate a price collapse below $20 per barrel by increasing production volume, but that seems unlikely. 1 figure, 2 tables.

  15. Dense film polyimide membranes for aggressive sour gas feed separations

    KAUST Repository

    Kraftschik, Brian

    2013-02-01

    Dense film membranes of the copolyimide 6FDA-DAM:DABA (3:2) are studied for simultaneous removal of CO2 and H2S from sour natural gas streams. Pure and mixed gas permeation as well as pure gas sorption data are reported at 35°C and pressures up to 62bar. The H2S partial pressures used are representative of highly aggressive field operations. Penetrant-induced plasticization effects are evident at feed pressures below 1bar in pure H2S feeds; sub-Tg thermal annealing is used to effectively mitigate this effect, and these annealed films are used throughout the study. Surprisingly, H2S/CH4 selectivity nearly doubles for mixed gas testing in comparison to the pure component ideal selectivity values and approaches the level of a state-of-the-art glassy polymer, cellulose acetate (CA), at H2S partial pressures above 2bar. Furthermore, permeation experiments using a 9.95% H2S, 19.9% CO2, 70.15% CH4 mixture at low feed pressures give CO2/CH4 selectivity of up to 49-over 30% greater than the pure component selectivity for 6FDA-DAM:DABA (3:2). The overall sour gas separation performance of this polyimide is comparable to high-performance rubbery polymer membranes, which have been reported for only moderate H2S partial pressure feeds, and is superior to that for CA based on a practical combined acid gas separation efficiency metric that we introduce. Finally, methods for continued development of the current polyimide membrane material for aggressive sour gas separations are presented. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Dense film polyimide membranes for aggressive sour gas feed separations

    KAUST Repository

    Kraftschik, Brian; Koros, William J.; Johnson, J.R.; Karvan, Oguz

    2013-01-01

    Dense film membranes of the copolyimide 6FDA-DAM:DABA (3:2) are studied for simultaneous removal of CO2 and H2S from sour natural gas streams. Pure and mixed gas permeation as well as pure gas sorption data are reported at 35°C and pressures up to 62bar. The H2S partial pressures used are representative of highly aggressive field operations. Penetrant-induced plasticization effects are evident at feed pressures below 1bar in pure H2S feeds; sub-Tg thermal annealing is used to effectively mitigate this effect, and these annealed films are used throughout the study. Surprisingly, H2S/CH4 selectivity nearly doubles for mixed gas testing in comparison to the pure component ideal selectivity values and approaches the level of a state-of-the-art glassy polymer, cellulose acetate (CA), at H2S partial pressures above 2bar. Furthermore, permeation experiments using a 9.95% H2S, 19.9% CO2, 70.15% CH4 mixture at low feed pressures give CO2/CH4 selectivity of up to 49-over 30% greater than the pure component selectivity for 6FDA-DAM:DABA (3:2). The overall sour gas separation performance of this polyimide is comparable to high-performance rubbery polymer membranes, which have been reported for only moderate H2S partial pressure feeds, and is superior to that for CA based on a practical combined acid gas separation efficiency metric that we introduce. Finally, methods for continued development of the current polyimide membrane material for aggressive sour gas separations are presented. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Sour gas map of Alberta and British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Geographic locations of sour gas wells in Alberta and British Columbia are shown (by geographic coordinates) on a large-size fold-out map issued as a supplement to the July issue of Oilweek Magazine. Pools are color coded based on hydrogen sulphide content. Five classes are recognized, i. e.: hydrogen sulphide content less than one percent; between one and 4.9 per cent; between five and 9.9 per cent; between ten and 29.9 per cent ; and hydrogen sulphide content exceeding 30 per cent. The locations of gas processing plants with sulphur recovery are also identified

  18. Heptyl vicianoside and methyl caramboside from sour star fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dan; Jia, Xuchao; Xie, Haihui

    2018-04-23

    Two new alkyl glycosides, heptyl vicianoside (1) and methyl 2-O-β-d-fucopyranosyl-α-l-arabinofuranoside (methyl caramboside, 4), were isolated from the sour fruit of Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae), along with octyl vicianoside (2), cis-3-hexenyl rutinoside (3), and methyl α-d-fructofuranoside (5). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods. Compounds 2, 3, and 5 were obtained from the genus Averrhoa for the first time. All the compounds were evaluated for in vitro α-glucosidase, pancreatic lipase, and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities, but none of them were potent.

  19. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, L.M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... height, mass loss rate and residues of three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), two crude oils (DUC and REBCO) and one hydrocarbon liquid mixture of the aforementioned hydrocarbon liquids were studied using the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus. The experimental results were compared...... on the highest achievable oil slick temperature. Based on this mechanism, predictions can then be made depending on the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and the measured surface temperature....

  20. 27 CFR 25.192 - Removal of sour or damaged beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... beer. 25.192 Section 25.192 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Removal of Beer Unfit for Beverage Use § 25.192 Removal of sour or damaged beer. (a) Containers. The brewer shall remove sour or...

  1. Some effects of winter grazing of Dohne sour veld | PF | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The utilisation of spared sour veld poses practical problems. As a result of the development of high level protein or nitrogen supplements it has however become possible to efficiently graze spared veld. Results of experiments during three winters where spared sour veld was grazed off either by sheep or by cattle are given.

  2. Evaluation and improvement of sour property packages in UniSim design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J.; Zhao, E.; Wang, L.; Saha, S. [Honeywell, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation described specialty fluid packages for modeling oil and gas process systems involving sour gases in contact with aqueous phase. UniSim Design is a popular process simulation tool in the oil and gas industry. The sour Peng-Robinson (PR) and sour Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) models are commonly used for handling sour system where hydrogen sulphide (H{sub 2}S), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) or ammonia (NH{sub 3}) are in contact with an aqueous phase. These sour options combine the PR/SRK equation of state and Wilson's API-sour model where the equation of state is used to determine the fugacities of the vapor and liquid hydrocarbon phases, plus the enthalpy for all 3 phases. The Wilson's API-sour method is used for the aqueous phase calculations, which accounts for the ionization of H{sub 2}S, CO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} in the aqueous phase. The efficiency of these 2 thermodynamic property packages were evaluated in this study by comparing industrial and experimental data and the results from other similar models. The purpose of this study was to improve these property packages for more accurate and reliable modeling of sour systems. tabs., figs.

  3. Investigating animal health effects of sour gas acid forming emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of sour gas well blowout emissions on livestock are reviewed. Guidelines for safe drilling operations in hydrogen sulfide environments, general hazards and characteristics of hydrogen sulfide, and guidelines for field investigation into the effects of sour gas and acid emissions on livestock are discussed. A case history involving the Ross No. 2 gas well blowout of July 1985 in Rankin County, Mississippi is presented. The blowout lasted for 72 days, and at peak discharge the 500 ppM radius was ca 3.5 miles. A cattle embryo transplant operation located one half mile from the well was affected by the blowout. Examination by a local veterinarian of the cattle demonstrated eye irritation, epiphora, nasal discharge and coughing. After one and a half months of exposure, most animals showed clinical signs of a severe dry hacking cough, epiphora, dry rales over the thoracic inlet, and a bronchial popping sound over the lateral thorax. All animals had eye irritation. Of 55 animals showing signs of respiratory distress and eye irritations, 15 were still clinically ill in May of 1986. 7 refs., 1 tab

  4. Sour and duke cherry viruses in South-West Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo PÉREZ-SÁNCHEZ

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the phytosanitary status of sour and duke cherry genetic resources in the Iberian Peninsula, and the incidence and leaf symptoms induced by the Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV, Prune dwarf virus (PDV and Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV. Young leaf samples were taken from 204 sour and duke cherry trees belonging to ten cultivars, and were assayed by DAS-ELISA. Samples positive for any of the three viruses were also tested by RT-PCR. To associate the leaf symptoms with virus presence, 50 mature leaves from each infected tree were visually inspected during the summer. The ELISA and RT-PCR results indicated that 63% of the cherry trees were infected by at least one of these viruses. PNRSV occurred in all cultivars sampled and presented the highest infection rate (46%, followed by PDV (31% and ACLSV (6%. Many trees, (60 to 100%, were asymptomatic while harbouring single and mixed virus infections. The leaf symptoms associated with the viruses included chlorotic and dark brown necrotic ringspots on secondary veins and interveinal regions, for PNRSV, generalized chlorosis around the midveins, for PDV, chlorotic and reddish necrotic ringspots, for ACLSV, and generalized interveinal chlorosis, for mixed PNRSV and PDVinfections.

  5. 1999 Crude oil market outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochener, J.

    1998-01-01

    Baseline projection handling of crude oil prices was discussed, based on actual crude oil price trends from 1992 to 1998. Attention was drawn to the lack of correlation between crude oil and natural gas prices. Predictions for crude oil production were extended to the year 2015. As far as the immediate future is concerned the crude oil price for 1999 was predicted to continue to be sluggish due to competitive pressure from refined products at burner tip. tabs., figs

  6. A review of the implications of sour gas setbacks on the ability to develop property : public safety and sour gas recommendation 53

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    All sour gas facilities in Alberta have a required setback, which is the minimum distance that must be maintained between the energy facility and a dwelling, rural housing development, urban centre or public facility. The size of the setback depends on the classification levels of the sour gas facilities. This paper reviewed the economic implications of sour gas setback restrictions for landowners with reference to Recommendation 53. The methodology of the study included a telephone and electronic mail survey to prequalify municipalities, cities and towns located in the sour gas producing regions of Alberta and the selection of 11 cases for further detailed analysis. The findings of the survey and case studies were then used to examine whether landowners were treated fairly in cases where a setback impact occurred. The frequency of setback incidents was described as common by 13 jurisdictions, occasional by 33 jurisdictions and as emerging by 30 jurisdictions. Results indicated that impacts on property development due to sour gas setbacks were widespread across the province. Observed mitigation measures included the modification of development plans by landowners to avoid setback restrictions; encouraging land development proposals away from areas known to have sour gas activity; and the oil and gas industry working with landowners to locate proposed facilities in order to minimize setback restrictions. Results of the survey suggested that ineffective communication was the predominant factor leading to conflicts, particularly when parties were not familiar with setback requirements or the implications for property development. It was suggested that policy makers should aim to reduce the number of conflicts between sour gas setbacks and property development. Recommendations to improve communication included closing gaps in regulations, processes and practices; and reducing surface and subsurface interface conflicts. 9 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  7. Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Sour Cherries Characterized by Different In Vitro Antioxidant Power and Polyphenolic Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Nóra; Blázovics, Anna; Fébel, Hedvig; Salido, Sofía; Altarejos, Joaquín; Fehér, Erzsébet; Kocsis, Ibolya; Szentmihályi, Klára; Abrankó, László; Hegedűs, Attila; Stefanovits-Bányai, Éva

    2015-12-01

    The aims of the present study were to clarify in vivo effects of three sour cherry cultivars characterized by different polyphenolic composition in hyperlipidemic animals in a short term experiment. The three different sour cherry cultivars were chosen based on their total in vitro antioxidant capacity, total polyphenolic, monomeric anthocyanin and flavonoid content. Male Wistar rats were divided randomly into eight groups: rats kept on normal diet (control) and normal diet supplied with sour cherry powder of one of the three cultivars; others were kept on fat-rich diet and fat-rich diet supplied with sour cherry powder prepared from one of the three cultivars. The treatment lasted 10 days. Lyophilized sour cherry administered in the diet decreased both total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels, and increased the HDL cholesterol concentration in sera of hyperlipidemic animals. Significant differences were found in the efficacy of different sour cherry cultivars in case of hyperlipidemia. Sour cherries characterized by higher polyphenol content seem to have a more pronounced effect on serum cholesterol levels. Our results suggest that besides anthocyanins, colourless polyphenols also have lipid lowering effect.

  8. Compact type mutants in apple and sour cherries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagaja, S.W.; Przybyla, A.

    1976-01-01

    Induction of mutations in deciduous fruits is considered complementary to the conventional breeding methods. Several promissing mutants, particularly in apples, were described and some of them were introduced to commercial orchards. Studies described herein are aimed at developing compact type mutants in apple cultivars, apple rootstocks and in sour cherry cultivars. Data obtained so far confirm the results of the other authors, who developed compact type mutants in apples and sweet cherries. Physiological studies have shown that the leaves of spontaneous apple mutants of compact type are more efficient in photosynthesis than the leaves of respective standards. In spite of this, using branch ringing techniques, it was found that the leaves of compacts and those of standards do not differ in their productivity. There seem to be several advantages in employing tissue culture technique in mutation breeding. That is why a project was started to work out a method of growing apple shoots from adventitious buds developed on sections of roots. (author)

  9. Advanced technologies for manufacturing high strength sour grade UOE line pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Kenji; Omura, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Nobuaki; Minato, Izuru; Yamamoto, Akio [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Kashima, (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    A new kind of high strength pipeline has been manufactured for sour service in offshore pipelines. This paper first presents a review of developments in manufacturing technology to improve sour resistance. This was particularly the case with Grade UOE line pipe. The improvement was achieved by optimizing the continuous casting process, monitoring the shape of inclusions (such as MnS, CaS, Al2O3, CaO-Al2O3) and decreasing coarse precipitates (Nb(C,N), TiN). The study then used the HIC evaluation method to determine hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) resistance of the material and HAZ test for sulfide stress cracking (SSC) resistance. The evaluation of the NACE TM0284 solution A showed that these pipelines are able to resist severe sour conditions because of good HIC and SSC resistance. Optimizing others components like alloying elements and the ACC process would improve sour resistance in future applications.

  10. Methods of analyzing crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Jjunju, Fred Paul Mark; Li, Anyin; Rogan, Iman S.

    2017-08-15

    The invention generally relates to methods of analyzing crude oil. In certain embodiments, methods of the invention involve obtaining a crude oil sample, and subjecting the crude oil sample to mass spectrometry analysis. In certain embodiments, the method is performed without any sample pre-purification steps.

  11. Development of compact mutants in apple and sour cherry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagaja, S.W.; Przybyla, A.; Machnik, B.

    1982-01-01

    During the period 1973 - 79 studies were conducted with the aim of developing compact mutants in apple and cherry cultivars and in apple vegetative rootstocks. During the investigations the effect of the dose of gamma rays on frequency of the mutants was studied. Attempts were also made to evolve a micropropagation technique adapted to propagate P 2 and P 22 apple rootstocks, as an aid in mutation breeding. Several mutants were produced in all the material studied, but none of them have yet reached a sufficient developmental stage to enable their complete assessment. On the basis of the results obtained so far the following conclusions can be drawn: higher doses of irradiation resulted in higher frequency of mutants in most apple cultivars and apple rootstocks; in sour cherries the effect of dose depended on the cultivars. Among V 1 shoots developed from sleeping buds on irradiated scion wood, compact mutants were found; their frequency, however, was about 60% lower than among V 1 shoots developed directly from irradiated dormant buds. In apple rootstocks A 2 and M 26 several dwarfed mutants were found; some of these produced thorny plants and some had lower rooting ability; both these characteristics are inferior from the practical point of view. Multiplication and rooting media for in vitro propagation of apple rootstocks, worked out for M 26, were found unsuitable for the rootstocks P 2 and P 22; modifications made in the growth substance composition of the above media enabled satisfactory propagation to be obtained. (author)

  12. Precipitation hardened nickel-base alloys for sour gas environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, M.; Mukai, S.; Kudo, T.; Okada, Y.; Ikeda, A.

    1987-01-01

    SCC (Stress Corrosion Cracking) in sour gas environments of γ'(gamma prime: Ni/sub 3/(Ti and/or Al)) and γ''(gamma double prime: Ni/sub 3/Nb) precipitation hardened nickel-base alloys has been studied using the SSRT (Slow Strain Rate Tensile) test, anodic polarization measurement and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The γ'-type alloy containing Ti was more susceptible to SCC in the SSRT tests up to 350 0 F(450 K) than the γ''-type alloy containing Nb. The susceptibility to SCC was related to their deformation structures in terms of stress localization and sensitivity to pitting corrosion in H/sub 2/S solutions. TEM observation showed the γ'-type alloy deformed by the superlattice dislocations in coplanar structures. This mode of deformation induced the stress localization to some boundaries such as grain boundary and as a result the susceptibility to SCC of the γ'-type alloy was increased. On the other hand, the γ''-type alloy deformed by the massive dislocation not in coplanar structures so that it was less susceptible to SCC in terms of the stress localization. The anodic polarization measurement suggested the γ'-type alloy was more susceptible to pitting corrosion compared with the γ''-type alloy

  13. Desulfurization of AL-Ahdab Crude Oil using Oxidative Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neran Khalel Ibrahim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Two different oxidative desulfurization strategies based on oxidation/adsorption or oxidation/extraction were evaluated for the desulfurization of AL-Ahdab (AHD sour crude oil (3.9wt% sulfur content. In the oxidation process, a homogenous oxidizing agent comprising of hydrogen peroxide and formic acid was used. Activated carbons were used as sorbent/catalyst in the oxidation/adsorption process while acetonitrile was used as an extraction solvent in the oxidation/extraction process. For the oxidation/adsorption scheme, the experimental results indicated that the oxidation desulfurization efficiency was enhanced on using activated carbon as catalyst/sorbent. The effects of the operating conditions (contact time, temperature, mixing speed and sorbent dose on the desulfurization efficiency were examined. The desulfurization efficiency measured at the best operating conditions(optimum conditions: 60 , 500rpm, 60min contact time and sorbent dose of 0.7g AC/100 ml AHD crude, was 32.8% corresponding to a sulfur content of 2.6 wt%. Applying the same optimum operating conditions and at 3:1 solvent/oil ratio, the oxidation/extraction method gave comparable desulfurization efficiency of 31.5%.

  14. A large increase of sour taste receptor cells in Skn-1-deficient mice does not alter the number of their sour taste signal-transmitting gustatory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Naohiro; Narukawa, Masataka; Ishimaru, Yoshiro; Yamamoto, Kurumi; Misaka, Takumi; Abe, Keiko

    2017-05-01

    The connections between taste receptor cells (TRCs) and innervating gustatory neurons are formed in a mutually dependent manner during development. To investigate whether a change in the ratio of cell types that compose taste buds influences the number of innervating gustatory neurons, we analyzed the proportion of gustatory neurons that transmit sour taste signals in adult Skn-1a -/- mice in which the number of sour TRCs is greatly increased. We generated polycystic kidney disease 1 like 3-wheat germ agglutinin (pkd1l3-WGA)/Skn-1a +/+ and pkd1l3-WGA/Skn-1a -/- mice by crossing Skn-1a -/- mice and pkd1l3-WGA transgenic mice, in which neural pathways of sour taste signals can be visualized. The number of WGA-positive cells in the circumvallate papillae is 3-fold higher in taste buds of pkd1l3-WGA/Skn-1a -/- mice relative to pkd1l3-WGA/Skn-1a +/+ mice. Intriguingly, the ratio of WGA-positive neurons to P2X 2 -expressing gustatory neurons in nodose/petrosal ganglia was similar between pkd1l3-WGA/Skn-1a +/+ and pkd1l3-WGA/Skn-1a -/- mice. In conclusion, an alteration in the ratio of cell types that compose taste buds does not influence the number of gustatory neurons that transmit sour taste signals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Public safety and sour gas quarterly progress report October - December 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, V.; Lillo, H.; Craig, M.; Neilson, G.

    2003-01-01

    This third quarterly progress report for the business year 2002-2003 on the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) Public Safety and Sour Gas initiative covers projects based on the 87 recommendations made by the Provincial Advisory Committee on Public Safety and Sour Gas (Advisory Committee) in December 2000. As of December 2002, work has been completed on 16 recommendations and is proceeding on 50 recommendations. This report includes several tables indicating the status of recommendations as either complete or ongoing. The recommendation categories include: (1) sour gas development, planning and approval, (2) sour gas operations, (3) emergency preparedness, and (4) information, communication and consultation. The report also summarizes the health effects and sour gas research. Recommendations completed as of December 2002 include: plant proliferation; pre-license review of critical well license applications; license application training/certification information requirement; increase sour gas inspections; increase inspections of new and noncompliant operators; implement 100 per cent inspection rate for critical wells near people; response to sour gas complaints; enhance EUB capability to monitor for complaint response/compliance; complaint/incident response program for Aboriginal communities; interim policy on ERP review and reduced EPZs; infrastructure and resources for Aboriginal community ERP; field staff in industry-landowner discussions; EUB involvement in mediation of application issues; and, timely and meaningful public consultation for First Nations and Metis. Alberta Health and Wellness is currently evaluating the health effects of H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} and the work is near completion. Other ongoing work includes the development of a draft protocol to address the involvement of regional health authorities (RHAs), the early involvement of RHAs and other local government bodies, and a process for communication between the EUB field staff and

  16. Genetic and molecular characterization of three novel S-haplotypes in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Tatsuya; Potter, Daniel; Tao, Ryutaro; Vieira, Cristina P; Vieira, Jorge; Iezzoni, Amy F

    2008-01-01

    Tetraploid sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) exhibits gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) whereby the specificity of self-pollen rejection is controlled by alleles of the stylar and pollen specificity genes, S-RNase and SFB (S haplotype-specific F-box protein gene), respectively. As sour cherry selections can be either self-compatible (SC) or self-incompatible (SI), polyploidy per se does not result in SC. Instead the genotype-dependent loss of SI in sour cherry is due to the accumulation of non-functional S-haplotypes. The presence of two or more non-functional S-haplotypes within sour cherry 2x pollen renders that pollen SC. Two new S-haplotypes from sour cherry, S(33) and S(34), that are presumed to be contributed by the P. fruticosa species parent, the complete S-RNase and SFB sequences of a third S-haplotype, S(35), plus the presence of two previously identified sweet cherry S-haplotypes, S(14) and S(16) are described here. Genetic segregation data demonstrated that the S(16)-, S(33)-, S(34)-, and S(35)-haplotypes present in sour cherry are fully functional. This result is consistent with our previous finding that 'hetero-allelic' pollen is incompatible in sour cherry. Phylogenetic analyses of the SFB and S-RNase sequences from available Prunus species reveal that the relationships among S-haplotypes show no correspondence to known organismal relationships at any taxonomic level within Prunus, indicating that polymorphisms at the S-locus have been maintained throughout the evolution of the genus. Furthermore, the phylogenetic relationships among SFB sequences are generally incongruent with those among S-RNase sequences for the same S-haplotypes. Hypotheses compatible with these results are discussed.

  17. Record prices [crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2006-01-01

    Crude oil prices climbed to new record levels on fears of a future loss of supplies from Iran as Washington stepped up its efforts to persuade Tehran to abandon its programme to produce nuclear fuel. IPE's December Brent contract set a new record for the exchange by trading at $75.80/bbl on 21st April. On the same day October WTI reached an all-time high of $77.30/bbl on Nymex. US product prices gained as refiners struggled to produce sufficient middle distillate. Alarmed by the rising retail price of gasoline, the US Senate debated a reduction in the already low US tax rate on motor spirit. The House of Representatives passed a measure to prohibit overcharging for petrol, diesel and heating oil, but Democrats rejected a Republican proposal to speed-up the process for approving new refineries. President George W Bush announced a temporary easing of new gasoline and diesel specifications (see 'Focus', March 2006) to allow more fuel to be produced. He also agreed to delay the repayment of some 2.1 mn bbl of crude oil lent to companies after last year's hurricanes from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. California announced an inquiry into alleged overcharging for fuel by oil companies operating in the state. (author)

  18. Corrosion behaviour of steels and CRA in sour gas environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara, M. Alvarez de; Lancha, A.M.; Hernandez, F.; Gomez-Briceno, D. [CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Coca, P. [ELCOGAS, S.A., C.T. GICC Puertollano, Carretera de Calzada de Calatrava a Puertollano, km 27, 13500 Puertollano, Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    The ELCOGAS power plant in Puertollano (Spain), with 335 MWe (ISO conditions), is an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant built to demonstrate both the technical and economic feasibility of this alternative for clean generation of electricity from coal. IGCC technology is based on a coal gasification process, namely the conversion of coal into combustible gas, which is then subjected to an exhaustive cleaning process. The result is a synthetic gas, virtually free of pollutants that can be burned with a high efficiency in a combined cycle electricity-generating unit. Basically, the ELCOGAS plant consists of three islands jointly designed and integrated into the process: gasification island, air separation island and combined cycle island. In the gasification island, the gas from the gasifier is cleaned (de-dusted and washed) and desulfurized before being sent to the combined cycle island. The washing system consists of a Venturi scrubber with a separator where halogens and alkalis (NH{sub 3}, HCl, HF) are removed from the previously de-dusted gas by means of the wash water. The halogens and alkalis removed are then stripped from the wash water as stripped gas, which is a sour gas. The coal-gas coming from the separator proceeds to sulphur removal in a MDEA system and then, the clean gas (mainly CO, H{sub 2}) is sent to the combined cycle plant. As COS is a significant part of the sulphur containing gases in the coal gas, hydrolysis of the COS to H{sub 2}S takes place before the desulfurization stage, since MDEA is a selective amine for H{sub 2}S. There are many important areas related to materials corrosion within the gas cleaning system. In the ELCOGAS plant carbon steels, austenitic stainless steels and nickel based alloys, such as AISI 316Ti, AISI 904L and Hastelloy C276, are used in the Venturi, the water separator and the strippers. AISI 316Ti is used for the gas piping from the separator to the COS hydrolysis system. Laboratory tests to evaluate

  19. Polyphenols and Volatiles in Fruits of Two Sour Cherry Cultivars, Some Berry Fruits and Their Jams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Levaj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports about the content of polyphenols and volatiles in fresh fruits of two sour cherry cultivars (Marasca and Oblačinska, some berry fruits (strawberry Maya, raspberry Willamette and wild blueberry and the corresponding low sugar jams. Phenolic compounds (hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids, flavan 3-ols and flavonols were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Those found in the fruits were also found in the jams. Jams contained lower amounts of polyphenols than fresh fuits, but their overall retention in jams was relatively high. Among fruits, sour cherry Marasca had the highest level of polyphenols, while sour cherry Marasca jam and raspberry Willamette jam had the highest level of polyphenols among jams. The major flavonoid in all investigated fruits, except in sour cherry Oblačinska, was (–-epicatechin. Sour cherry Marasca had the highest level of (–-epicatechin (95.75 mg/kg, and it also contained very high amounts of flavonols, derivatives of quercetin and kaempferol. Hydroxybenzoic acids (HBAs were not found in sour cherries Marasca and Oblačinska, but were found in berry fruits and jams. Phenolic compound (+-gallocatechin was found only in Marasca fruit and jam. Ellagic acid was found in the highest concentration in raspberry Willamette fruit and jam. Hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs were found in all the investigated fruits, with the exception of a derivative of ferulic acid, which was not found in strawberry. Derivatives of caffeic, p-coumaric and chlorogenic acids were found in all the investigated fruits, with chlorogenic acid being the most abundant, especially in sour cherry Marasca. Volatiles were determined by gas chromatography (GC and expressed as the peak area of the identified compounds. All investigated volatiles of fresh fruit were also determined in the related jams with relatively high retention. Sour cherries Marasca and Oblačinska contained the same volatile compounds, but

  20. Strategies to diagnose and control microbial souring in natural gas storage reservoirs and produced water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, E.A.; Derr, R.M.; Pope, D.H.

    1995-12-31

    Hydrogen sulfide production (souring) in natural gas storage reservoirs and produced water systems is a safety and environmental problem that can lead to operational shutdown when local hydrogen sulfide standards are exceeded. Systems affected by microbial souring have historically been treated using biocides that target the general microbial community. However, requirements for more environmentally friendly solutions have led to treatment strategies in which sulfide production can be controlled with minimal impact to the system and environment. Some of these strategies are based on microbial and/or nutritional augmentation of the sour environment. Through research sponsored by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) in Chicago, Illinois, methods have been developed for early detection of microbial souring in natural gas storage reservoirs, and a variety of mitigation strategies have been evaluated. The effectiveness of traditional biocide treatment in gas storage reservoirs was shown to depend heavily on the methods by which the chemical is applied. An innovative strategy using nitrate was tested and proved ideal for produced water and wastewater systems. Another strategy using elemental iodine was effective for sulfide control in evaporation ponds and is currently being tested in microbially sour natural gas storage wells.

  1. Maglev crude oil pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knolle, Ernst G.

    1994-01-01

    This maglev crude oil pipeline consists of two conduits guiding an endless stream of long containers. One conduit carries loaded containers and the other empty returns. The containers are levitated by permanent magnets in repulsion and propelled by stationary linear induction motors. The containers are linked to each other in a manner that allows them, while in continuous motion, to be folded into side by side position at loading and unloading points. This folding causes a speed reduction in proportion to the ratio of container diameter to container length. While in side by side position, containers are opened at their ends to be filled or emptied. Container size and speed are elected to produce a desired carrying capacity.

  2. Using Thermodynamics to Predict the Outcomes of Nitrate-Based Oil Reservoir Souring Control Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Dolfing

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Souring is the undesirable production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S in oil reservoirs by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB. Souring is a common problem during secondary oil recovery via water flooding, especially when seawater with its high sulfate concentration is introduced. Nitrate injection into these oil reservoirs can prevent and remediate souring by stimulating nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB. Two conceptually different mechanisms for NRB-facilitated souring control have been proposed: nitrate-sulfate competition for electron donors (oil-derived organics or H2 and nitrate driven sulfide oxidation. Thermodynamics can facilitate predictions about which nitrate-driven mechanism is most likely to occur in different scenarios. From a thermodynamic perspective the question “Which reaction yields more energy, nitrate driven oxidation of sulfide or nitrate driven oxidation of organic compounds?” can be rephrased as: “Is acetate driven sulfate reduction to sulfide exergonic or endergonic?” Our analysis indicates that under conditions encountered in oil fields, sulfate driven oxidation of acetate (or other SRB organic electron donors is always more favorable than sulfide oxidation to sulfate. That predicts that organotrophic NRB that oxidize acetate would outcompete lithotrophic NRB that oxidize sulfide. However, sulfide oxidation to elemental sulfur is different. At low acetate HS− oxidation is more favorable than acetate oxidation. Incomplete oxidation of sulfide to S0 is likely to occur when nitrate levels are low, and is favored by low temperatures; conditions that can be encountered at oil field above-ground facilities where intermediate sulfur compounds like S0 may cause corrosion. These findings have implications for reservoir management strategies and for assessing the success and progress of nitrate-based souring control strategies and the attendant risks of corrosion associated with souring and nitrate injection.

  3. Efficacy of gaseous ozone to counteract postharvest table grape sour rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, L; Caputo, L; Quintieri, L; de Candia, S; Baruzzi, F

    2017-09-01

    This work aims at studying the efficacy of low doses of gaseous ozone in postharvest control of the table grape sour rot, a disease generally attributed to a consortium of non-Saccharomyces yeasts (NSY) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB). Sour rot incidence of wounded berries, inoculated with 8 NSYstrains, or 7 AAB, or 56 yeast-bacterium associations, was monitored at 25 °C up to six days. Sour rot incidence in wounded berries inoculated with yeast-bacterium associations resulted higher than in berries inoculated with one single NSY or AAB strain. Among all NSY-AAB associations, the yeast-bacterium association composed of Candida zemplinina CBS 9494 (Cz) and Acetobacter syzygii LMG 21419 (As) showed the highest prevalence of sour rot; thus, after preliminary in vitro assays, this simplified As-Cz microbial consortium was inoculated in wounded berries that were stored at 4 °C for ten days under ozone (2.14 mg m -3 ) or in air. At the end of cold storage, no berries showed sour-rot symptoms although ozonation mainly affected As viable cell count. After additional 12 days at 25 °C, the sour rot index of inoculated As-Cz berries previously cold-stored under ozone or in air accounted for 22.6 ± 3.7% and 66.7 ± 4.5%, respectively. Molecular analyses of dominant AAB and NSY populations of both sound and rotten berries during post-refrigeration period revealed the appearance of new strains mainly belonging to Gluconobacter albidus and Hanseniaspora uvarum species, respectively. Cold ozonation resulted an effective approach to extend the shelf-life of table grapes also after cold storage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Source-Sink Relations in Fruits VII. Effects of Pruning in Sour Cherry and Plum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo; Hansen, P.

    1993-01-01

    Sour cherries cv. 'Stevnsbær' and plums cv. 'Victoria' were heavily pruned in 1987. Fruit samples were collected during the growing season and concentrations of different quality components were determined. Pruning resulted in a small increase in fruit size, the effect being greater on the older...... trees (sour cherries) or at the lower crop load (plum). Additionally, pruning decreased the con­centrations of total and soluble dry matter and of anthocya­nins ('Stevnsbær'), while titratable acids showed an increas­ing tendency. The effects of pruning are discussed based on influences on root...

  5. Mulher, cura e pajelança em Soure (Ilha do Marajó-PA).

    OpenAIRE

    Mayra Cristina Silva Faro; UEPA

    2012-01-01

    Neste trabalho pretendo apresentar alguns resultados de uma pesquisa que vem sendo realizada desde 2009 sobre a pajelança cabocla e as mulheres pajés na cidade de Soure, Ilha do Marajó/PA. Este estudo tem como objetivos analisar práticas e saberes de cura em Soure, e observar o papel da mulher no contexto religioso e simbólico da pajelança. Compreende-se pajelança cabocla como um conjunto de crenças e práticas de cura bastante difundida na Amazônia, em que encontram-se mesclados em graus vari...

  6. Canada's crude oil resources : crude oil in our daily lives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bott, R.

    2001-10-01

    Created in 1975, the Petroleum Communication Foundation is a not-for-profit organization. The objective of the Foundation is to inform Canadians about the petroleum industry in Canada. It produces educational, fact-based publications and programs, employing a multi-stakeholder review process. The first section of this publication is devoted to crude oil and the benefits that are derived from it. It begins by providing a brief definition of crude oil, then moves to the many uses in our daily lives and the environmental impacts like air pollution, spills, and footprint on the land from exploration and production activities. Section 2 details the many uses of crude oil and identifies the major oil producing regions of Canada. A quick mention is made of non-conventional sources of crude oil. The search for crude oil is the topic of section 3 of the document, providing an overview of the exploration activities, the access rights that must be obtained before gaining access to the resource. The drilling of oil is discussed in section 4. Section 5 deals with issues pertaining to reservoirs within rocks, while section 6 covers the feeding of the refineries, discussing topics from the movement of oil to market to the refining of the crude oil, and the pricing issues. In section 7, the uncertain future is examined with a view of balancing the supply and demand, as crude oil is a non-renewable resource. Supplementary information is provided concerning additional publications published by various organizations and agencies. figs

  7. Crude incompatibility problems at heavy crude unit desalter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirmani, Z.; Khurshid, A.; Alam, N.; Gul, S.; Ahmed, N.

    2009-01-01

    Attock Refinery Limited (ARL) is based at Rawalpindi, Pakistan and operates a 40,000 Barrels per Stream Day (BPSD) refinery. The Heavy Crude Unit (HCU) of ARL is a fully integrated two-stage 10,000 BPSD Atmospheric and 5,700 BPSD Vacuum Distillation Unit. A 3-stage desalter designed to reduce salt and BS and W content from 2,000 parts per thousand barrels (PTB) and 2% to less than 5 PTB and 0.1% respectively, is part of HCU. The feedstock is a composite blend of 14 local Heavy Crudes received at the Refinery. Although in the past this desalter had been giving good performance, over the last one year, period since August 2005, at least nine shutdowns of the unit took place due to salt slippage and consequential tube leakages at the overhead Crude-Naphtha vapor Heat Exchanger where partial condensation of naphtha takes place. Final condensation is achieved in trim condenser. High salted water carry-over with the crude caused increased hydrolysis, formation of Hydrochloric acid and increase of tail water chlorides. Salt contents at the outlet of third desalter at times increased up to 400 PTB with 3.2% BS and W during the above mentioned upsets, as compared to normal 5-10 PTB. Fallout from this loss of desalter control was the creation of large quantities of slop due to draining of strong water oil emulsion from the desalters. Individual crudes of the blend were analyzed for affinity of water and emulsion stability. It was observed that 3 of the 14 crudes formed very strong while the remaining crudes formed weak oil water emulsion, which easily separated water from oil in desalter without any operational problem. Study was further narrowed down to one crude evaluation. Alkaline earth metallic naphthenate surfactants were detected and isolated as responsible for the strong water oil and sediments emulsion. The isolated crude was next withdrawn from the Heavy Crude blend. As soon as it was isolated and its ratio in heavy crude tank came down to 0.7 %, the problem began

  8. Evaluation of maize-soybean flour blends for sour maize bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Properties examined included amylose content, bulk density, dispersibility, swelling power, water absorption capacity and viscoelastic properties. The effect of the different flour/meal samples on the properties of sour maize bread were evaluated by baking bread samples with the different flours/meals using a mixed starter ...

  9. Changes in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) antioxidants during nectar processing and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, G.; Capanoglu, E.; Kamiloglu, S.; Boyacioglu, D.; Vos, de C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) is rich in polyphenols, and like its processed products, is especially rich in anthocyanins. We have applied HPLC, spectrophotometric and on-line antioxidant detection methods to follow the fate of cherry antioxidants during an entire multi-step industrial-scale

  10. Music to Make Your Mouth Water? Assessing the Potential Influence of Sour Music on Salivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian J.; Knoeferle, Klemens; Spence, Charles

    2017-01-01

    People robustly associate various sound attributes with specific smells/tastes, and soundtracks that are associated with specific tastes can influence people’s evaluation of the taste of food and drink. However, it is currently unknown whether such soundtracks directly impact the eating experience via physiological changes (an embodiment account), or whether they act at a higher cognitive level, or both. The present research assessed a version of the embodiment account, where a soundtrack associated with sourness is hypothesized to induce a physiological response in the listener by increasing salivary flow. Salivation was measured while participants were exposed to three different experimental conditions – a sour soundtrack, a muted lemon video showing a man eating a lemon, and a silent baseline condition. The results revealed that salivation during the lemon video condition was significantly greater than in the sour soundtrack and baseline conditions. However, contrary to our hypothesis, there was no significant difference between salivation levels in the sour soundtrack compared to the baseline condition. These results are discussed in terms of potential mechanisms underlying the auditory modulation of taste perception/evaluation. PMID:28491044

  11. Phytoplasmas in apricot, peach and sour cherry orchards in East Bohemia, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ludvíková, H.; Fránová, Jana; Suchá, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 64, Suppl. (2011), s. 67-68 ISSN 1721-8861 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC09021 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum * PCR/RFLP * apricot, peach and sour cherry orchards Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.592, year: 2011

  12. Music to Make Your Mouth Water? Assessing the Potential Influence of Sour Music on Salivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian J. Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available People robustly associate various sound attributes with specific smells/tastes, and soundtracks that are associated with specific tastes can influence people’s evaluation of the taste of food and drink. However, it is currently unknown whether such soundtracks directly impact the eating experience via physiological changes (an embodiment account, or whether they act at a higher cognitive level, or both. The present research assessed a version of the embodiment account, where a soundtrack associated with sourness is hypothesized to induce a physiological response in the listener by increasing salivary flow. Salivation was measured while participants were exposed to three different experimental conditions – a sour soundtrack, a muted lemon video showing a man eating a lemon, and a silent baseline condition. The results revealed that salivation during the lemon video condition was significantly greater than in the sour soundtrack and baseline conditions. However, contrary to our hypothesis, there was no significant difference between salivation levels in the sour soundtrack compared to the baseline condition. These results are discussed in terms of potential mechanisms underlying the auditory modulation of taste perception/evaluation.

  13. Fruit and snack consumption related to sweet, sour and salty taste preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, S.J.; Reinders, M.J.; Hiller, S.; Guardia, D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – To better understand fruit consumption and its determinants this paper aims to explore the relationship between the consumption of different types of fruit and other snacks and consumer taste preferences for sweet, salty and sour is explored. Design/methodology/approach – Respondents

  14. Direct photothermal techniques for quantification of anthocyanins in sour cherry cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doka, O.; Ficzek, G.; Bicanic, D.D.; Spruijt, R.B.; Luterotti, S.; Toth, M.; Buijnsters, J.G.; György Végvári, G.

    2011-01-01

    The analytical performance of the newly proposed laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) and of optothermal window (OW) method for quantification of total anthocyanin concentration (TAC) in five sour cherry varieties is compared to that of the spectrophotometry (SP). High performance liquid

  15. A Canadian refiner's perspective of synthetic crudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halford, T.L.; McIntosh, A.P.; Rasmussen

    1997-01-01

    Some of the factors affecting a refiner's choice of crude oil include refinery hardware, particularly gas oil crackers, products slate and product specifications, crude availability, relative crude price and crude quality. An overview of synthetic crude, the use of synthetic crude combined with other crudes and a comparison of synthetic crude with conventional crude oil was given. The two main users of synthetic crude are basically two groups of refiners, those large groups who use synthetic crude combined with other crudes, and a smaller group who run synthetic crude on specially designed units as a sole feed. The effects of changes in fuel legislation were reviewed. It was predicted that the changes will have a mixed impact on the value of synthetic crude, but low sulphur diesel regulations and gasoline sulphur regulations will make current synthetic crudes attractive. The big future change with a negative impact will be diesel cetane increases to reduce engine emissions. This will reduce synthetic crude attractiveness due to distillate yields and quality and high gas oil yields. Similarly, any legislation limiting aromatics in diesel fuel will also make synthetic crudes less attractive. Problems experienced by refiners with hardware dedicated to synthetic crude (salt, naphthenic acid, fouling, quality variations) were also reviewed. 3 tabs

  16. Exports of crude oil, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    Effective June 1, 1985, licensing and charging of oil exports ended. The Board now issues export orders specifying neither volumes nor prices and covering an exportation period of up to 1 year for light crude oil and up to 2 years for heavy crude oil, available on request to both Canadian and foreign companies. The Board has assumed a monitoring role, and export prices and volumes are reported monthly by exporters. This annual report provides a review of the volumes and prices associated with the supply and disposition of Canadian crude oil during 1988. Highlights are given with detailed information on prices, both internationally, in Canada, and the Chicago posted price by light or heavy crude, and on volumes including capacity and disposition in both domestic and export markets. A short description of the import market is included. Comparisons are made with the previous year. Export volumes of light crude oil in 1988 increased by 13% to average 50,200 m 3 /d. Export volumes of heavy crude also increased by ca 13% to 62,600 m 3 /d. 15 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Market potential for Canadian crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, M.; Fisher, L.; Golosinski, D.; Luthin, A.; Gill, L.; Raggett, C.

    1997-01-01

    Future key markets for Canadian crude were evaluated, and probable flow volumes and prices were identified. Key concerns of market participants such as pricing, alternative crude sources, pipeline tariffs and crude quality, were examined. An overview of the competition faced by Canadian crude supply in global markets was presented. World crude oil supply and demand was discussed. US and Canadian crude oil supply (2000 to 2010), refinery demand for light and heavy crudes, existing future crude oil and refined product pipeline infrastructure, and pricing implications of changing crude oil flows were analyzed. The general conclusion was that the US market will continue to provide growing markets for Canadian crude oil, and that the Canadian supply to fulfill increased export requirements will be available due to the combined effects of increasing heavy crude supply, growing production from the east coast offshore, and recent and ongoing pipeline expansions and additions. 20 refs., 64 tabs., 42 figs

  18. 15 CFR 754.2 - Crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... processed through a crude oil distillation tower. Included are reconstituted crude petroleum, and lease... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crude oil. 754.2 Section 754.2....2 Crude oil. (a) License requirement. As indicated by the SS notation in the “License Requirements...

  19. Application of natural antimicrobial compounds for reservoir souring and MIC prevention in offshore oil and gas production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Skovhus, Torben Lund; Mashietti, Marco

    Offshore oil production facilities are subjectable to internal corrosion, potentially leading to human and environmental risk and significant economic losses. Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) and reservoir souring - sulphide production by sulfate reducing microorganisms in the reservo...

  20. Domino effect of pollution from sour gas fields : failing legume nodulation and the honey industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirker, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    The sustainability of the honey industry in Alberta's Peace Country has been threatened by pollution from sour gas fields. The region has suffered crop reductions and chlorosis in grains, grasses, and legumes. Severe die-back and die-off of aspens and poplars has also been observed. Crops per colony were reduced by as much as 75 per cent, and winter losses more than tripled. Nectar flow patterns shifted from main flow in early summer to late flows in August or September from second growth alfalfa. A sampling of 27 fields found nitrogen fixation in alfalfa and red clovers lacking in areas downwind from major oil and sour gas flaring facilities. The reduction of the early season nectar flow appears to be caused by the synergistic interaction of ozone and sulphur compounds when ozone levels are at their highest. Reduced ozone levels in the fall permit a late, but uncertain flow from alfalfa plants

  1. Domino effect of pollution from sour gas fields : failing legume nodulation and the honey industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirker, H.J. [Peace Country Agricultural Protection Association, AB (Canada)

    1998-10-01

    The sustainability of the honey industry in Alberta`s Peace Country has been threatened by pollution from sour gas fields. The region has suffered crop reductions and chlorosis in grains, grasses, and legumes. Severe die-back and die-off of aspens and poplars has also been observed. Crops per colony were reduced by as much as 75 per cent, and winter losses more than tripled. Nectar flow patterns shifted from main flow in early summer to late flows in August or September from second growth alfalfa. A sampling of 27 fields found nitrogen fixation in alfalfa and red clovers lacking in areas downwind from major oil and sour gas flaring facilities. The reduction of the early season nectar flow appears to be caused by the synergistic interaction of ozone and sulphur compounds when ozone levels are at their highest. Reduced ozone levels in the fall permit a late, but uncertain flow from alfalfa plants.

  2. Optimization of Sour Cherry Juice Spray Drying as
Affected by Carrier Material and Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorić, Zoran; Pedisić, Sandra; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica

    2016-01-01

    Summary Response surface methodology was applied for optimization of the sour cherry Marasca juice spray drying process with 20, 30 and 40% of carriers maltodextrin with dextrose equivalent (DE) value of 4–7 and 13–17 and gum arabic, at three drying temperatures: 150, 175 and 200 °C. Increase in carrier mass per volume ratio resulted in lower moisture content and powder hygroscopicity, higher bulk density, solubility and product yield. Higher temperatures decreased the moisture content and bulk density of powders. Temperature of 200 °C and 27% of maltodextrin with 4–7 DE were found to be the most suitable for production of sour cherry Marasca powder. PMID:28115901

  3. Effects of a sour bolus on the intramuscular electromyographic (EMG) activity of muscles in the submental region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Phyllis M; McCulloch, Timothy M; Jaffe, Debra; Neel, Amy T

    2005-01-01

    A sour bolus has been used as a modality in the treatment of oropharyngeal dysphagia based on the hypothesis that this stimulus provides an effective preswallow sensory input that lowers the threshold required to trigger a pharyngeal swallow. The result is a more immediate swallow onset time. Additionally, the sour bolus may invigorate the oral muscles resulting in stronger contractions during the swallow. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the intramuscular electromyographic activity of the mylohyoid, geniohyoid, and anterior belly of the digastric muscles during sour and water boluses with regard to duration, strength, and timing of muscle activation. Muscle duration, swallow onset time, and pattern of muscle activation did not differ for the two bolus types. Muscle activation time was more tightly approximated across the onsets of the three muscles when a sour bolus was used. A sour bolus also resulted in a stronger muscle contraction as evidenced by greater electromyographic activity. These data support the use of a sour bolus as part of a treatment paradigm.

  4. Genetic Diversity Assessment and Identification of New Sour Cherry Genotypes Using Intersimple Sequence Repeat Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghayeh Najafzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Iran is one of the chief origins of subgenus Cerasus germplasm. In this study, the genetic variation of new Iranian sour cherries (which had such superior growth characteristics and fruit quality as to be considered for the introduction of new cultivars was investigated and identified using 23 intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR markers. Results indicated a high level of polymorphism of the genotypes based on these markers. According to these results, primers tested in this study specially ISSR-4, ISSR-6, ISSR-13, ISSR-14, ISSR-16, and ISSR-19 produced good and various levels of amplifications which can be effectively used in genetic studies of the sour cherry. The genetic similarity among genotypes showed a high diversity among the genotypes. Cluster analysis separated improved cultivars from promising Iranian genotypes, and the PCoA supported the cluster analysis results. Since the Iranian genotypes were superior to the improved cultivars and were separated from them in most groups, these genotypes can be considered as distinct genotypes for further evaluations in the framework of breeding programs and new cultivar identification in cherries. Results also confirmed that ISSR is a reliable DNA marker that can be used for exact genetic studies and in sour cherry breeding programs.

  5. Sulphur recovery and sulphur emissions at Alberta sour gas plants : annual report for 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The sulphur recovery of Alberta's grandfathered sour gas plants is monitored by the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board. This report provides an annual summary of industry performance for sulphur recovery at large acid gas flaring sour gas plants, and sulphur recovery at all acid gas injection sour gas plants. It follows Interim Directive (ID) 2001-3 which stipulates guidelines for sulphur recovery for the province of Alberta. It includes a list of grandfathered and non grandfathered plants in Alberta. Grandfathered sulphur recovery plants that exceed expectations have the option to file a sulphur emission performance credit report and can use the credits to meet some of their sulphur requirement in the future. Acid gas flaring plants face more stringent requirements and cannot earn credits. Several plants have degrandfathered in the past 5 years. Eleven have made upgrades, 4 have been relicensed to meet the requirements for new plants, and 4 have shut down. Forty-one grandfathered plants remain. Sulphur emissions have decreased 39 per cent for grandfathered acid gas flaring plants, and 28 per cent for grandfathered sulphur recovery plants. 10 tabs., 3 figs

  6. Crude oil pipeline expansion summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers has been working with producers to address issues associated with the development of new pipeline capacity from western Canada. This document presents an assessment of the need for additional oil pipeline capacity given the changing mix of crude oil types and forecasted supply growth. It is of particular interest to crude oil producers and contributes to current available information for market participants. While detailed, the underlying analysis does not account for all the factors that may come into play when individual market participants make choices about which expansions they may support. The key focus is on the importance of timely expansion. It was emphasized that if pipeline expansions lags the crude supply growth, then the consequences would be both significant and unacceptable. Obstacles to timely expansion are also discussed. The report reviews the production and supply forecasts, the existing crude oil pipeline infrastructure, opportunities for new market development, requirements for new pipeline capacity and tolling options for pipeline development. tabs., figs., 1 appendix

  7. Mercury in Canadian crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollebone, B.P.

    2005-01-01

    Estimates for average mercury concentrations in crude oil range widely from 10 ng/g of oil to 3,500 ng/g of oil. With such a broad range of estimates, it is difficult to determine the contributions of the petroleum sector to the total budget of mercury emissions. In response to concerns that the combustion of petroleum products may be a major source of air-borne mercury pollution, Environment Canada and the Canadian Petroleum Products Institute has undertaken a survey of the average total mercury concentration in crude oil processed in Canadian refineries. In order to calculate the potential upper limit of total mercury in all refined products, samples of more than 30 different types of crude oil collected from refineries were measured for their concentration of mercury as it enters into a refinery before processing. High temperature combustion, cold vapour atomic absorption and cold vapour atomic fluorescence were the techniques used to quantify mercury in the samples. The results of the study provide information on the total mass of mercury present in crude oil processed in Canada each year. Results can be used to determine the impact of vehicle exhaust emissions to the overall Canadian mercury emission budget. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  8. Crude value management through pipeline systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segato, R. [Suncor Energy Marketing Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation reviewed Suncor's integrated oil flow operations with particular focus on the best practices in crude oil quality management from source rocks to refineries. Suncor produces synthetic crude at its operations in Fort McMurray, Alberta. The crude reaches destinations across North America. The quality of injected and delivered crude varies because of pipeline and terminal logistics, which implies changes in valuation. Refinery planners, engineers and crude traders are faced with the challenge of maximizing profitability while minimizing risk. Refiners face a continuously changing landscape in terms of crude classifications, new commodity developments, batch interferences, shared tank bottoms and sampling limitations. tabs., figs.

  9. Biodegradation of chlorobenzene using immobilized crude extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-10-04

    Oct 4, 2007 ... immobilized crude extracts were reused for all other experiments and found that immobilization .... India which are of analytical reagent grade. .... 9. 60. 3. 1. Figure 3. Degradation of chlorobenzene by immobilized crude.

  10. First crude oil from Chukotka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenbrister, L.P.; Demidenko, K.A.; Zhmykhova, N.M.

    1986-01-01

    The physicochemical properties of the crude taken from Neogene deposits at a depth of 1486-1443 m are analyzed. The oil is distinguished by low contents of sulfur and resinous-asphaltenic substances, a high content of wax, and a high yield of light cuts distilling below 350 degrees C. The naptha cuts have high contents of naphthenes, and the diesel fuel cuts have high cetane numbers, low sulfur contents, and high contents of straight chain paraffins. The vacuum gasoil has a low density, a low viscosity, a low carbon residue and low contents of sulfur and nitrogen. This gasoil is a good feedstock for catalytic cracking and hydrocracking. The Verkhne-Echin crude is classified as light, low-sulfur, lowresin and high-wax. It can be used to produce jet fuels and summer-grade diesel fuels with low sulfur contents, as well as high-V.I. lube base stocks and liquid and solid paraffins.

  11. The price of crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhtiari, A.M.S.

    1999-01-01

    The price of crude oil is among the most important prices quoted daily across the world - which is not surprising, since crude oil is the most widely used source of energy worldwide, as well as being a unique commodity. When petroleum burst onto the world stage in 1859, its price first went through some initial gyrations (1860-70), before settling in the $1.00 - 2.00 per barrel range (barring a few exceptions) for a full century. Then, the price underwent two 'shocks' (1973 and 1980), followed by the 'counter-shock' of 1986. Thereafter, the price entered the relative stability of the $15 - 20 /b consensus, where it lingered until recently. Some day, there is bound to be a fresh paradigm of 'insufficient oil reserves', thus ushering in a new era for oil prices. Taking into consideration available data on reserves and expert analysis, it would seem that that day may be years rather than decades away

  12. 7 CFR 29.3015 - Crude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Crude. A subdegree of maturity. Crude leaves are usually hard and slick as a result of extreme immaturity. A similar condition may result from sunburn or sunscald. Any leaf which is crude to the extent of...

  13. Radiation treatment of crude drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stock, A.; Gebhardt, G.; Helle, N.; Schuettler, C.; Boegl, K.W.

    1992-01-01

    It may be necessary to reduce microbiological contamination of crude drugs (medicinal plants or their parts like roots, leaves, flowers). This can be done by treating the drugs with ionizing radiation. Meethods for detection of such an irradiation were developed. It could be pointed out that measurements of luminescence, viscosity and electron spin resonance were suitable for specific drugs, but not for all drugs. (orig.) [de

  14. Case studies of the application of enhanced steel alloys for bottom hole assembly components for sour service conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Alvaro [Nov Grant Prideco, Navasota (United States); Moura, Carlos [ASPEN Assesoria Tecnica e Comercial, Cascavel, PR (Brazil); Johnson, Charles; Landriault, Alain [Weatherford Canda Partnership, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The new more modern drilling programs require the drill string to travel across sour formations in order to reach the hydrocarbon reservoirs. Traditional materials have been employed in the manufacture of HWDP components along with basic heat treatment processes. Standard HWDP tools have started to show their operational as well as environmental limitations when subjected to sour service applications. The advanced, more complex drilling programs require for the HWDP tools to be put in service under different configurations. Either at the bottom of the drill string near the drill bit for vertical well configurations or on top of the drill string for weight application on horizontal or extended reach applications. An operator in northwestern Canada has replaced standard HWDP with enhanced sour service HWDP in order to complete the programmed wells. These enhanced tools offer higher tensile and torque capabilities and improved toughness than standard HWDP tools and in addition, provide protection against sour service conditions. The use of second-generation double shoulder connections (2nd-Gen. DSC) has also provided added torque and tensile capacities to these versatile HWDP tools. For over a year more than a dozen wells have been drilled employing these enhanced BHA tools and have helped the operator reach its targets through sour service formations and produce wells in a safe and cost effective manner. (author)

  15. The influence of sour taste and cold temperature in pharyngeal transit duration in patients with stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristina Cola

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The effect of sour taste and food temperature variations in dysphagic patients has not been entirely clarified. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of sour and cold food in the pharyngeal transit times of patients with stroke. METHODS: Patients participating in this study were 30 right-handed adults, 16 of which were male and 14 were female, aged 41 to 88 (average age 62.3 years with ictus varying from 1 to 30 days (median of 6 days. To analyze the pharyngeal transit time a videofluoroscopy swallow test was performed. Each patient was observed during swallow of a 5 mL paste bolus given by spoon, totaling four different stimuli (natural, cold, sour and cold sour, one at a time, room temperature (22ºC and cold (8ºC were used. Later, the tests were analyzed using specific software to measure bolus transit time during the pharyngeal phase. RESULTS: The results showed that the pharyngeal transit time was significantly shorter during swallow of cold sour bolus when compared with other stimuli. Conclusion - Sour taste stimuli associated to cold temperature cause significant change in swallowing patterns, by shortening the pharyngeal transit time, which may lead to positive effects in patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia.CONTEXTO: O efeito do sabor azedo e as variações da temperatura dos alimentos em indivíduos disfágicos, ainda não foi totalmente esclarecidos. OBJETIVO: Verificar o efeito do sabor azedo e da temperatura fria no tempo de trânsito faríngeo da deglutição em indivíduos após acidente vascular encefálico hemisférico isquêmico. MÉTODOS: Participaram deste estudo 30 indivíduos adultos, sendo 16 do gênero masculino e 14 do feminino, destros, com faixa etária variando de 41 a 88 anos (média de 62,3 anos e ictus que variou de 1 a 30 dias (mediana de 6 dias. Para analisar o tempo de trânsito faríngeo da deglutição foi realizado o exame de videofluoroscopia da deglutição. Cada indivíduo foi observado durante a

  16. Influence of ph on corrosion control of carbon steel by peroxide injection in sour water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Martins Magda; Baptista, Walmar; Joia, Carlos Jose Bandeira de Mello [PROTEMP - PETROBRAS/CENPES, Cidade Universitaria, Quadra 7, Rio de Janeiro, CEP 21949-900 (Brazil); Ponciano, Gomes Jose Antonio da Cunha [Departamento de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais-COPPE/UFRJ, Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Sour hydrogen damage is considered the most important corrosive process in the light-ends recovery section of Fluid Catalytic Cracking Units (FCCU). Corrosion in this condition is due to heavy gas oil that originates great amount of contaminants, such as H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3} and HCN. Hydrogen absorption is promoted by the presence of free cyanides in the environment. The attenuation of this process requires the use of some inhibitors, such as oxygen, hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) or commercial polysulfides. The effect of these compounds is to neutralize free cyanides (CN{sup -}) into thio-sulfides (SCN{sup -}). When peroxide injection is selected, cyanide concentration in sour water has been used as key parameter to start the peroxide introduction. However, the importance of pH in this system has been pointed out by many authors. The aim of this work is to investigate the influence of pH when peroxide injection is carried out in less alkaline conditions of sour water. Electrochemical techniques - like anodic polarization and hydrogen permeation tests - and weight loss measurements were used to evaluate the effectiveness of corrosion control of carbon steel. It was concluded that at pH 7.5 peroxide injection can drive to an increment of the corrosion rate. Besides that, it was concluded that hydrogen permeation into the metal is promoted. Both detrimental effects were due to elemental sulfur generation in this pH range. The adoption of pH as a key parameter for peroxide injection is then suggested. (authors)

  17. Development of a novel processing system for efficient sour water stripping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazemi, Abolghasem; Mehrabani-Zeinabad, Arjomand; Beheshti, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    Application of vapor recompression systems can result in enhanced energy efficiency and reduced energy requirements of distillation systems. In vapor recompression systems, temperature and dew point temperature of the top product of the column are increased through compression. By transferring heat from top to bottoms product, required boil up and reflux streams for the column are provided. In this paper, a new system is proposed for efficient stripping of sour water based on vapor recompression. Ammonia and H 2 S are the contaminants of sour water. Initially, based on a certain specifications of products, a sour water stripping system is implemented. A novel processing system is then developed and simulated to reduce utility requirements. The two processing systems are economically evaluated by Aspen Economic Evaluation software. There are 89.0% and 83.7% reduction of hot and cold utility requirements for the proposed system in comparison to the base processing system. However, the new processing system requires new equipment such as compressor and corresponding mechanical work that increases its capital and operating costs in comparison to the base case. However, the results indicate that the proposed system results in reduction of 11.4% of total annual costs and 14.9% of operating costs. - Highlights: • A novel system was developed for enhancement of performance of a distillation system based on vapor recompression. • In this system, utility streams are used for providing thermal energy. • A parametric study is carried out on the proposed processing system. • Applying the proposed system resulted in reduction of energy and utility requirements and costs of the separation process. • Environmental performance of the model was investigated.

  18. Degradation of Anthocyanin Content in Sour Cherry Juice During Heat Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilla Szalóki-Dorkó

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sour cherry juices made from two sour cherry cultivars (Érdi bőtermő and Kántorjánosi 3, were investigated to determine their total anthocyanin content and half-life of anthocyanins during heat treatment at different temperatures (70, 80 and 90 °C for 4 h. Before the heat treatment, Érdi bőtermő juice had higher anthocyanin concentration (812 mg/L than Kántorjánosi 3 juice (513 mg/L. The greatest heat sensitivity of anthocyanins was measured at 90 °C, while the treatments at 80 and 70 °C caused lower thermal degradation. The loss of anthocyanins in Érdi bőtermő juice after treatment was 38, 29 and 18 %, respectively, while in Kántorjánosi 3 juice losses of 46, 29 and 19 % were observed, respectively. At 90 °C sour cherry Érdi bőtermő juice had higher half-life (t1/2 of anthocyanins, while the Kántorjánosi 3 juice had higher t1/2 values at 70 °C. Cyanidin-3-glucosyl-rutinoside was present in higher concentrations in both cultivars (Érdi bőtermő: 348 and Kántorjánosi 3: 200 mg/L than cyanidin-3-rutinoside (177 and 121 mg/L before treatment. However, during the experiment, cyanidin-3-rutinoside was proved to be more resistant to heat. Comparing the two varieties, both investigated pigment compounds were more stable in Kántorjánosi 3 than in Érdi bőtermő. Degradation rate of anthocyanins was cultivar-dependent characteristic, which should be taken into account in the food production.

  19. Effective pollination period in "Oblačinska" sour cherry clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotirić-Akšić Milica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To obtain high yields there should be high flower density and fruit set in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. production. Furthermore, in order to ensure successful fertilization, there should be satisfactory stigma receptivity, rapid pollen tube growth along the style, as well as adequate ovule longevity. This manuscript presents the study of the effective pollination period (EPP of four ‘Oblačinska’ sour cherry clones (II/2, III/9, XI/3 and XIII/1 that differs in pollen germination, fruit set and yields. In order to estimate EPP, pollination was conducted in six different stages of flower development: balloon stage, 2 d before anthesis (-2, at anthesis (0, and 2, 4, 6 and 8 d after anthеsis (DAA. The initial (IFS and final fruit set (FFS were recorded under the field conditions. Alongside with this, the rate of pollen tubes growth in the style was observed with fluorescent microscopy. The experimental design was completely randomized, a two-factorial analysis of variance was carried out and individual testing was performed using LSD test (p ≤ 0.05; p ≤ 0.01. The experiment was set in triplicates. Regarding FFS, clones II/2 and III/9 showed the best results (p ≤ 0.01 in 4 and 6 DAA. The number of pollen tubes in the style of the pistil decreased with subsequent terms of pollination, while its number in the ovule increased up to sixth day after pollination, followed by a decline. Clones II/2 and III/9 showed EPP which lasted from 6 to 8 d, while EPP found in clone XI/3, lasted only 2 d. It is concluded that only clone having long EPP should be used as parents for creating new sour cherry cultivars. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31063 and FP7 Project AREA 316004

  20. The effect of produced water reinjection on reservoir souring in the Statfjord field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoernestad, Eva Oe.; Sunde, Egil; Dinning, Anthony J.

    2006-03-15

    A produced water reinjection (PWRI) pilot test was performed in one well in the Statfjord field in the period 2000-2001. In order to establish the souring parameters and influence of PWRI in the near well area, the well was back flowed prior to PWRI, and at the end of the PWRI test period. Tracer was used for mass balance evaluations. After the PWRI pilot test was finished, the PWRI plant was upgraded at the Statfjord C platform and since 2003; two wells have been re injecting produced water. Nitrate has substituted biocides for corrosion control in the water injection system at the Statfjord B and Statfjord C platforms. Based on experience from other Statoil operated fields, nitrate will improve the corrosion control and in addition reduce the reservoir souring and hence the H2S production. In 2004, three wells were backflowed; a PWRI- injector, a seawater injector and a sea water injector with addition of nitrate. Results from the PWRI pilot test, showed that the sulphide production increased 17 times after PWRI in comparison with seawater injection. In the backflowing studies in 2004, water from the PWRI injector showed considerable higher H2S content (approximately 300 mg/l) than the well injecting only seawater (approximately 3-4 mg/l). The well injecting nitrate showed the lowest sulphide concentration in the backflowed fluids in comparison with the other wells (below 1 mg/l). This illustrates a significant increase in microbiological activity within the near injection area as a result of increased nutrient availability due to PWRI. The impact of PWRI in the lifetime of the Statfjord field has been evaluated and the PWRI strategy may be altered due to increases in souring. (Author)

  1. Benchmark West Texas Intermediate crude assayed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    The paper gives an assay of West Texas Intermediate, one of the world's market crudes. The price of this crude, known as WTI, is followed by market analysts, investors, traders, and industry managers around the world. WTI price is used as a benchmark for pricing all other US crude oils. The 41 degree API < 0.34 wt % sulfur crude is gathered in West Texas and moved to Cushing, Okla., for distribution. The WTI posted prices is the price paid for the crude at the wellhead in West Texas and is the true benchmark on which other US crudes are priced. The spot price is the negotiated price for short-term trades of the crude. And the New York Mercantile Exchange, or Nymex, price is a futures price for barrels delivered at Cushing

  2. Investigations of corrosion films formed on API-X52 pipeline steel in acid sour media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Espejel, A. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, IPN-ESIQIE, UPALM Ed. 7, Zacatenco 07738, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Dominguez-Crespo, M.A. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, CICATA-Unidad Altamira-Tamaulipas, km 14.5, Carretera Tampico-Puerto Industrial Altamira, 89600 Altamira, Tamps (Mexico); Cabrera-Sierra, R. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica Industrial, IPN-ESIQIE, UPALM Ed. 7, Zacatenco 07738, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Rodriguez-Meneses, C. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, IPN-ESIQIE, UPALM Ed. 7, Zacatenco 07738, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Arce-Estrada, E.M., E-mail: earce@ipn.m [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, IPN-ESIQIE, UPALM Ed. 7, Zacatenco 07738, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-07-15

    Corrosion films formed by voltammetry using different switching potentials and by immersion on API-X52 pipeline steel in simulated acid sour media (NACE ID182) have been characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Linear Polarization and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. XRD and EDS analysis showed that the films are mainly composed of sulphide compounds (mackinawite, troilite, marcasite and pyrite) as well as iron oxides, as steel damage increases. Across SEM micrographs the corrosion films formed by potentiodynamic and immersion tests are very similar, covering most of the steel. Polarization and EIS results corroborate poor behavior against corrosion.

  3. SUBSTANTIATION OF STORAGE PARAMETERS OF THE SOUR-MILK INFANT DRINK «BIOLAKT»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tkachenko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the quality indicators of sour-milk infant drink «Biolakt» characterized by high probiotic and immunomodulatory properties and low allergic effect that were made according to the improved technology and stored in sealed-off containers at temperature (4±2 ºС during 28 days have been studied: organoleptic properties of taste and odour, consistency and appearance; physical and chemical properties – titrated acidity, ºТ; active acidity, pH units; moisture retention property, %; microbiological properties – number of living cells of mixed cultures B. bifidum 1 + B. longum Я3 + B. infantis 512, CFU/cm3; the most probable number of living cells of monocultures L. acidophilus La-5, CFU/cm3; presence of coli form bacteria in 0.3 cm3; presence of  Salmonella in 50 cm3; biochemical properties – antioxidant activity, activity units; and maximum possible content of malondialdehyde at complete oxidation of the product ingredients, mg/100 g. It is proved that under indicated conditions in the course of 24 days the studied samples of target products possess high organoleptic and standardized for sour-milk infant drinks physical, chemical, biochemical and microbiological indicators and are, also, characterized by high content of probiotics: (0.43…8.60∙109 and (0.25…1.10∙109 CFU/cm3 of living cells of bifidus bacteria and lactobacilli, accordingly.It has been established that the limit storage period of sour-milk infant drink «Biolakt» produced according to the improved technology and stored at temperature (4±2 ºС should not exceed 12 days with due account of the safety margin for sour-milk infant drinks (provided they are kept in sealed-off containers.It has been proved that the target product formulas should include lactulose, polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-3 FT EU of «Fortitech» company (Denmark, vitamin complex FT 041081EU of «Fortitech» company (Denmark and/or complex of mineral substances FT 042836EU of

  4. Investigations of corrosion films formed on API-X52 pipeline steel in acid sour media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Espejel, A.; Dominguez-Crespo, M.A.; Cabrera-Sierra, R.; Rodriguez-Meneses, C.; Arce-Estrada, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    Corrosion films formed by voltammetry using different switching potentials and by immersion on API-X52 pipeline steel in simulated acid sour media (NACE ID182) have been characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Linear Polarization and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. XRD and EDS analysis showed that the films are mainly composed of sulphide compounds (mackinawite, troilite, marcasite and pyrite) as well as iron oxides, as steel damage increases. Across SEM micrographs the corrosion films formed by potentiodynamic and immersion tests are very similar, covering most of the steel. Polarization and EIS results corroborate poor behavior against corrosion.

  5. New highly divergent Plum pox virus isolates infecting sour cherry in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirkov, Sergei; Ivanov, Peter; Sheveleva, Anna; Zakubanskiy, Alexander; Osipov, Gennady

    2017-02-01

    Unusual Plum pox virus (PPV) isolates (named Tat isolates) were discovered on sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) in Russia. They failed to be recognized by RT-PCR using commonly employed primers specific to the strains C or CR (the only ones that proved able to infect sour cherry) as well as to the strains M and W. Some of them can be detected by RT-PCR using the PPV-D-specific primers P1/PD or by TAS-ELISA with the PPV-C-specific monoclonal antibody AC. Phylogenetic analysis of the 3'-terminal genomic region assigned the Tat isolates into the cluster of cherry-adapted strains. However, they grouped separately from the C and CR strains and from each other as well. The sequence divergence of the Tat isolates is comparable to the differences between the known PPV strains. They may represent new group(s) of cherry-adapted isolates which do not seem to belong to any known strain of the virus. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. A Numerical Study of the Sour Gas Reforming in a Dielectric Barrier Discharge Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajedeh Shahsavari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, using a one-dimensional simulation model, the reforming process of sour gas, i.e. CH4, CO2, and H2S, to the various charged particles and syngas in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD reactor is studied. An electric field is applied across the reactor radius, and thus a non-thermal plasma discharge is formed within the reactor. Based on the space-time coupled finite element method, the governing equations are solved, and the temporal and spatial profiles of different formed charged species from sour gas inside the plasma reactor are verified. It is observed that the electric field increases radially towards the cathode electrode. Moreover, the electron density growth rate at the radial positions closer to the cathode surface is smaller than the one in the anode electrode region. Furthermore, as time progresses, the positive ions density near the anode electrode is higher. In addition, the produced syngas density is mainly concentrated in the proximity of anode dielectric electrode.

  7. Antimicrobial effect of sour pomegranate sauce on Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kışla, Duygu; Karabıyıklı, Şeniz

    2013-05-01

    Pomegranate sauce is one of the most popular pomegranate products produced in Turkey. This study was conducted to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of both traditional and commercial sour pomegranate sauce samples on Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ATCC 43895). The initial microflora of the pomegranate sauce samples was determined by performing the enumerations of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, yeast and mold, S. aureus, E. coli, and the determination of Salmonella spp. MIC tests were applied to the neutralized and the original (unneutralized) sour pomegranate sauce samples in order to put forth the inhibition effect depending on low pH value. It was found that inhibitory effect of the traditional and the commercial samples, except one sample, on pathogens was not only due to the acidity of the products. The results of MIC tests indicated that although both traditional and commercial samples showed a considerable inhibitory effect on test microorganisms, the traditional pomegranate sauce samples were more effective than the commercial ones. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Cross-Linkable Polyimide Membranes for Improved Plasticization Resistance and Permselectivity in Sour Gas Separations

    KAUST Repository

    Kraftschik, Brian

    2013-09-10

    A series of cross-linkable membrane materials based on the 6FDA-DAM:DABA (3:2) polyimide backbone were synthesized for improved sour gas separation performance, in terms of both membrane stability and permselectivity. Short-chain poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) molecules were used as cross-linking agents in an esterification-based cross-linking reaction. Pure and mixed gas permeation and pure gas sorption experiments were performed on dense films of these materials. Compared to unmodified 6FDA-DAM:DABA (3:2), higher sour gas permselectivity and membrane stability were achieved under aggressive feed conditions. H2S-induced plasticization was not evident until pure H2S feed pressures greater than approximately 6-8 bar. Pure CO 2-induced plasticization only occurred at feed pressures greater than about 25 bar. Under mixed gas feed conditions with 20% H2S, 20% CO2, and 60% CH4 at 35 C, attractive selectivities above 22 and 27 for H2S/CH4 and CO2/CH4, respectively, were observed for a feed pressure of 62 bar with both triethylene glycol and tetraethylene glycol cross-linking agents. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  9. Inhibitory effect of sour pomegranate sauces on some green vegetables and kisir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabiyikli, Seniz; Kisla, Duygu

    2012-04-16

    In this study, the antimicrobial effects of both traditional and commercial pomegranate sour sauce samples on some green vegetables and also on "kısır" which is a popular and traditional appetizer in Turkey were investigated. The inhibitory effect of the pomegranate products on the naturally existing bacterial microflora of lettuce, spring onion, parsley and kısır were analyzed. Also, all these food samples were inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC-25923) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ATCC-43895) and antimicrobial effect of the pomegranate products on the inoculated microflora was detected. All the food samples were treated with pomegranate products for different time periods and the effect of treatment time was investigated. pH and titratable acidity values of the traditional and commercial pomegranate sour sauce samples were detected. The results showed that although the pomegranate products had an antimicrobial effect on the natural bacterial microflora of the food samples, the effect on inoculated food samples was more prominent and additionally the application time was found to be a crucial parameter for both cases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of different levels of sugar on qualitative characteristics of lassi prepared from sour dahi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shah Moazzem

    2018-08-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out to develop lassi from sour dahi using different levels of sugar (10, 15, 20 and 25% and 15% water. Lassi quality was assayed through the study of physical, chemical and microbiological parameters. Results revealed that significant difference existed in overall physical score of lassi samples and the highest score was found in 15% sugar lassi whereas, the lowest score was found in 25% sugar lassi. Total solids, carbohydrate, fat, protein and ash contents differed significantly among various levels of sugar added lassi. From chemical test, it appears that, 15% sugar added lassi possess the highest fat and protein values whereas, the highest total solids and carbohydrate values posses in 25% sugar added lassi. No significant difference (p>0.05 revealed in terms of pH value and acidity percentage among lassi types. Lassi made from 10% sugar was most inferior than other levels of sugar added lassi in respect of microbiological quality- total viable count (×104 cfu/mL content was 95.67±2.08 and coliform (×10 cfu/mL content was 1.00±0.00. Considering above mentioned quality aspects, it might be resolved that lassi could be prepared successfully from sour dahi with 15% sugar keeping water level constant at 15%. [Fundam Appl Agric 2018; 3(2.000: 434-439

  11. Cross-Linkable Polyimide Membranes for Improved Plasticization Resistance and Permselectivity in Sour Gas Separations

    KAUST Repository

    Kraftschik, Brian; Koros, William J.

    2013-01-01

    A series of cross-linkable membrane materials based on the 6FDA-DAM:DABA (3:2) polyimide backbone were synthesized for improved sour gas separation performance, in terms of both membrane stability and permselectivity. Short-chain poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) molecules were used as cross-linking agents in an esterification-based cross-linking reaction. Pure and mixed gas permeation and pure gas sorption experiments were performed on dense films of these materials. Compared to unmodified 6FDA-DAM:DABA (3:2), higher sour gas permselectivity and membrane stability were achieved under aggressive feed conditions. H2S-induced plasticization was not evident until pure H2S feed pressures greater than approximately 6-8 bar. Pure CO 2-induced plasticization only occurred at feed pressures greater than about 25 bar. Under mixed gas feed conditions with 20% H2S, 20% CO2, and 60% CH4 at 35 C, attractive selectivities above 22 and 27 for H2S/CH4 and CO2/CH4, respectively, were observed for a feed pressure of 62 bar with both triethylene glycol and tetraethylene glycol cross-linking agents. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  12. Terminal acidic shock inhibits sour beer bottle conditioning by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Cody M; Veatch, Devon; Covey, Adam; Staton, Caleb; Bochman, Matthew L

    2016-08-01

    During beer fermentation, the brewer's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae experiences a variety of shifting growth conditions, culminating in a low-oxygen, low-nutrient, high-ethanol, acidic environment. In beers that are bottle conditioned (i.e., carbonated in the bottle by supplying yeast with a small amount of sugar to metabolize into CO2), the S. cerevisiae cells must overcome these stressors to perform the ultimate act in beer production. However, medium shock caused by any of these variables can slow, stall, or even kill the yeast, resulting in production delays and economic losses. Here, we describe a medium shock caused by high lactic acid levels in an American sour beer, which we refer to as "terminal acidic shock". Yeast exposed to this shock failed to bottle condition the beer, though they remained viable. The effects of low pH/high [lactic acid] conditions on the growth of six different brewing strains of S. cerevisiae were characterized, and we developed a method to adapt the yeast to growth in acidic beer, enabling proper bottle conditioning. Our findings will aid in the production of sour-style beers, a trending category in the American craft beer scene. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of nitrate injection on microbial enhanced oil recovery and oilfield reservoir souring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marcio Luis Busi; Soares, Hugo Moreira; Furigo, Agenor; Schmidell, Willibaldo; Corseuil, Henry Xavier

    2014-11-01

    Column experiments were utilized to investigate the effects of nitrate injection on sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) inhibition and microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). An indigenous microbial consortium collected from the produced water of a Brazilian offshore field was used as inoculum. The presence of 150 mg/L volatile fatty acids (VFA´s) in the injection water contributed to a high biological electron acceptors demand and the establishment of anaerobic sulfate-reducing conditions. Continuous injection of nitrate (up to 25 mg/L) for 90 days did not inhibit souring. Contrariwise, in nitrogen-limiting conditions, the addition of nitrate stimulated the proliferation of δ-Proteobacteria (including SRB) and the associated sulfide concentration. Denitrification-specific nirK or nirS genes were not detected. A sharp decrease in water interfacial tension (from 20.8 to 14.5 mN/m) observed concomitantly with nitrate consumption and increased oil recovery (4.3 % v/v) demonstrated the benefits of nitrate injection on MEOR. Overall, the results support the notion that the addition of nitrate, at this particular oil reservoir, can benefit MEOR by stimulating the proliferation of fortuitous biosurfactant-producing bacteria. Higher nitrate concentrations exceeding the stoichiometric volatile fatty acid (VFA) biodegradation demands and/or the use of alternative biogenic souring control strategies may be necessary to warrant effective SRB inhibition down gradient from the injection wells.

  14. Presynaptic (Type III) cells in mouse taste buds sense sour (acid) taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yijen A; Maruyama, Yutaka; Stimac, Robert; Roper, Stephen D

    2008-06-15

    Taste buds contain two types of cells that directly participate in taste transduction - receptor (Type II) cells and presynaptic (Type III) cells. Receptor cells respond to sweet, bitter and umami taste stimulation but until recently the identity of cells that respond directly to sour (acid) tastants has only been inferred from recordings in situ, from behavioural studies, and from immunostaining for putative sour transduction molecules. Using calcium imaging on single isolated taste cells and with biosensor cells to identify neurotransmitter release, we show that presynaptic (Type III) cells specifically respond to acid taste stimulation and release serotonin. By recording responses in cells isolated from taste buds and in taste cells in lingual slices to acetic acid titrated to different acid levels (pH), we also show that the active stimulus for acid taste is the membrane-permeant, uncharged acetic acid moiety (CH(3)COOH), not free protons (H(+)). That observation is consistent with the proximate stimulus for acid taste being intracellular acidification, not extracellular protons per se. These findings may also have implications for other sensory receptors that respond to acids, such as nociceptors.

  15. Quality of sour cherry juice of different clones and cultivars (Prunus cerasus L.) determined by a combined sensory and NMR spectroscopic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Morten Rahr; Pedersen, Bjarne Hjelmsted; Bertram, Hanne Christine S.

    2011-01-01

    Juice was manufactured from seven different sour cherry clones/cultivars and evaluated by quantitative descriptive sensory analysis and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The sensory evaluation showed a large variation in several sensory attributes between the sour cherry clones/cultivars, which could be divided...... into two groups on the basis of both the sensory data and the NMR spectroscopic data. These groups were closely related to the genetic background of the clones. Kelleris clones were distinctly different from Stevnsberry and Fanal clones. Hence, 1H NMR spectroscopic data seem to correlate with sensory...... quality of different sour cherry clones. In addition, malic acid was the most important metabolite for modeling the two highly correlated sensory attributes sweetness and sourness, whereas the glucose content had a slight effect and the fructose content had no impact on sweetness/sourness. Other...

  16. OPEC's optimal crude oil price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, Manfred

    2004-01-01

    OPEC decided to stabilise oil prices within a range of 22-28 US Dollar/barrel of crude oil. Such an oil-price-level is far beyond the short and long run marginal costs of oil production, beyond even that in regions with particularly high costs. Nevertheless, OPEC may achieve its goal if world demand for oil increases substantially in the future and oil resources outside the OPEC are not big enough to accordingly increase production. In this case OPEC, which controls about 78% of world oil reserves, has to supply a large share of that demand increase. If we assume OPEC will behave as a partial monopolist on the oil market, which takes into consideration the reaction of the other producers to its own sales strategy, it can reach its price target. Lower prices before 2020 are probable only if the OPEC cartel breaks up. Higher prices are possible if production outside OPEC is inelastic as assumed by some geologists, but they would probably stimulate the production of unconventional oil based on oil sand or coal. Crude oil prices above 30 US Dollar/barrel are therefore probably not sustainable for a long period. (Author)

  17. Optimal Physical and Nutrient Parameters for Growth of Trichoderma virens UKMP-1M for Heavy Crude Oil Degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainon Hamzah; Buzarin, M.A.; Aidil Abdul Hamid; Thmanomar, O.; Sahidan Senafi

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the optimal parameters for the production of biomass of Trichoderma virens UKMP-1M, a fungus isolated from oil-polluted wastewater. The isolate showed maximum growth at day six after incubation in Mineral Salt Medium (MSM) in the presence of 3 % (v/ v) heavy Khefji Sour crude oil. Although it grew at pH between 5.0 and 7.0, it grew best at pH 5.5. T. virens UKMP-1M grew at temperatures between 25 and 35 degree Celsius, with its highest growth at 30 degree Celsius. Aeration by agitation at 200 rpm was shown to yield the greatest biomass. Peptone at concentration of 1.5 % (w/ v) was determined to be a better nitrogen source than urea, potassium nitrate (KNO 3 ), yeast extract, ammonium sulphate ((NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 ) and ammonium chloride (NH 4 Cl). Addition of 1 % (v/ v) crude oil to the MSM medium led to higher biomass production than the addition of 3 %, 5 %, 7 % and 10 % (v/ v) crude oil. The result also revealed that 40 % of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), 100 % of pristane and 74 % of phytane compounds were degraded after 9 days of incubation at optimal physical and nutrient parameters. (author)

  18. Comparison of crude oil interfacial behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beetge, J.H.; Panchev, N. [Champion Technologies Inc., Fresno, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The bulk properties of crude oil are used to predict its behaviour with regards to treatment, transport and processing. Surface active components, such as asphaltenes, are often used to study or explain critical interfacial behaviour of crude oil. This study investigated the differences and similarities in the interfacial behaviour of the collective surface active component in various crude oils from different sources. The properties of interfaces between crude oil and water were compared using a Teclis drop shape tensiometer. A portion of a crude oil sample was diluted in toluene and contacted with water in a rising drop configuration. Dynamic surface tension and interfacial rheology was examined as a function of time from the early stages of interface formation. Sinusoidal oscillation of the drop volume allowed for the evaluation of visco-elastic behaviour of the crude oil/water interface as it developed with time. The Gibbs elastic modulus, as well as its elastic and viscose components were calculated from the drop shape. The interfacial behaviour was expressed in terms of concentration, oscillation frequency and interface age. It was concluded that knowledge of crude oil interfacial character could be of value in the treatment, transport and processing of crude oils because the its behaviour may play a significant role in crude oil production and processing.

  19. Formation and Control of Sulfur Oxides in Sour Gas Oxy-Combustion: Prediction Using a Reactor Network Model

    KAUST Repository

    Bongartz, Dominik; Shanbhogue, Santosh J.; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Sour natural gas currently requires expensive gas cleanup before it can be used in power generation because it contains large amounts of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and carbon dioxide (CO2) that entail a low heating

  20. A Multistage Fluidized Bed for the Deep Removal of Sour Gases : Proof of Concept and Tray Efficiencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, Rick T.; Bos, Martin J.; Brilman, Derk W. F.

    2018-01-01

    Currently there are significant amounts of natural gas that cannot be produced and treated to meet pipeline specifications, because that would not be economically viable. This work investigates a bench scale multistage fluidized bed (MSFB) with shallow beds for sour gas removal from natural gas

  1. Inhibitory effect of cyanide on wastewater nitrification determined using SOUR and RNA-based gene-specific assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of CN- (CN-) on nitrification was examined with samples from nitrifying wastewater enrichments using two different approaches: by measuring substrate (ammonia) specific oxygen uptake rates (SOUR), and by using RT-qPCR to quantify the transcripts of functional genes inv...

  2. Microsatellite marker development by partial sequencing of the sour passion fruit genome (Passiflora edulis Sims).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Susan; Martins, Alexandre M; Junqueira, Nilton T V; Costa, Ana Maria; Faleiro, Fábio G; Ferreira, Márcio E

    2017-07-21

    The Passiflora genus comprises hundreds of wild and cultivated species of passion fruit used for food, industrial, ornamental and medicinal purposes. Efforts to develop genomic tools for genetic analysis of P. edulis, the most important commercial Passiflora species, are still incipient. In spite of many recognized applications of microsatellite markers in genetics and breeding, their availability for passion fruit research remains restricted. Microsatellite markers in P. edulis are usually limited in number, show reduced polymorphism, and are mostly based on compound or imperfect repeats. Furthermore, they are confined to only a few Passiflora species. We describe the use of NGS technology to partially assemble the P. edulis genome in order to develop hundreds of new microsatellite markers. A total of 14.11 Gbp of Illumina paired-end sequence reads were analyzed to detect simple sequence repeat sites in the sour passion fruit genome. A sample of 1300 contigs containing perfect repeat microsatellite sequences was selected for PCR primer development. Panels of di- and tri-nucleotide repeat markers were then tested in P. edulis germplasm accessions for validation. DNA polymorphism was detected in 74% of the markers (PIC = 0.16 to 0.77; number of alleles/locus = 2 to 7). A core panel of highly polymorphic markers (PIC = 0.46 to 0.77) was used to cross-amplify PCR products in 79 species of Passiflora (including P. edulis), belonging to four subgenera (Astrophea, Decaloba, Distephana and Passiflora). Approximately 71% of the marker/species combinations resulted in positive amplicons in all species tested. DNA polymorphism was detected in germplasm accessions of six closely related Passiflora species (P. edulis, P. alata, P. maliformis, P. nitida, P. quadrangularis and P. setacea) and the data used for accession discrimination and species assignment. A database of P. edulis DNA sequences obtained by NGS technology was examined to identify microsatellite repeats in

  3. SOUR CHERRY (Prunus cerasus L. GENETIC VARIABILITY AND PHOTOSYNTHETIC EFFICIENCY DURING DROUGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Viljevac

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sour cherry is an important fruit in Croatian orchards. Cultivar Oblačinska is predominant in existing orchards with noted intracultivar phenotypic heterogeneity. In this study, the genetic variability of 22 genotypes of cvs. Oblačinska, Maraska and Cigančica, as well as standard cvs. Kelleris 14, Kelleris 16, Kereška, Rexelle and Heimann conserved were investigated. Two types of molecular markers were used: microsatellite markers (SSR in order to identify intercultivar, and AFLP in order to identify intracultivar variabilities. A set of 12 SSR markers revealed small genetic distance between cvs. Maraska and Oblačinska while cv. Cigančica is affined to cv. Oblačinska. Furthermore, cvs. Oblačinska, Cigančica and Maraska were characterized compared to standard ones. AFLP markers didn`t confirm significant intracultivar variability of cv. Oblačinska although the variability has been approved at the morphological, chemical and pomological level. Significant corelation between SSR and AFLP markers was found. Identification of sour cherry cultivars tolerant to drought will enable the sustainability of fruit production with respect to the climate change in the future. For this purpose, the tolerance of seven sour cherry genotypes (cvs. Kelleris 16, Maraska, Cigančica and Oblačinska represented by 4 genotypes: OS, 18, D6 and BOR to drought conditions was tested in order to isolate genotypes with the desired properties. In the greenhouse experiment, cherry plants were exposed to drought stress. The leaf relative water content, OJIP test parameters which specify efficiency of the photosynthetic system based on measurements of chlorophyll a fluorescence, and concentrations of photo-synthetic pigments during the experiment were measured as markers of drought tolerance. Photosynthetic performance index (PIABS comprises three key events in the reaction centre of photosystem II affecting the photosynthetic activity: the absorption of energy

  4. Effects of aqueous extracts of dried calyx of sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on polygenic dyslipidemia: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Hajifaraji

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Dyslipidemia has been considered as a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. Alternative medicine has a significant role in treatment of dyslipidemia. There are controversial findings regarding the effects of sour tea on dyslipidemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of aqueous extract of dried calyx of sour tea on polygenic dyslipidemia. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was done on 43 adults (30-60 years old with polygenic dyslipidemia that were randomly assigned to the intervention and control groups. The control group was trained in lifestyle modifications at baseline. The intervention group was trained for lifestyle modifications at baseline and received two cups of sour tea daily, and both groups were followed up for 12 weeks. Lipid profile was evaluated at baseline, and six and 12 weeks following the intervention. In addition, dietary and physical activity assessed at baseline for twelve weeks. Results: Mean concentration of total cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C significantly decreased by up to 9.46%, 8.33%, and 9.80%, respectively, after 12 weeks in the intervention group in comparison to their baseline values. However, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio significantly increased  by up to 3.15%, following 12 weeks in the control group in comparison to their baseline values. This study showed no difference in lipid profiles between the two groups, except for HDL-C concentrations. Conclusion: sour tea may have significant positive effects on lipid profile of polygenic dyslipidemia subjects and these effect might be attributed to its anthocyanins and inflation factor content. Therefore, sour tea intake with recommended dietary patterns and physical activity can be useful in regulation of lipid profile in patients with polygenic dyslipidemia.

  5. Radical scavenging activities of Rio Red grapefruits and Sour orange fruit extracts in different in vitro model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakasha, G K; Girennavar, Basavaraj; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2008-07-01

    Antioxidant fractions from two different citrus species such as Rio Red (Citrus paradise Macf.) and Sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.) were extracted with five different polar solvents using Soxhlet type extractor. The total phenolic content of the extracts was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method. Ethyl acetate extract of Rio Red and Sour orange was found to contain maximum phenolics. The dried fractions were screened for their antioxidant activity potential using in vitro model systems such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), phosphomolybdenum method and nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction at different concentrations. The methanol:water (80:20) fraction of Rio Red showed the highest radical scavenging activity 42.5%, 77.8% and 92.1% at 250, 500 and 1000 ppm, respectively, while methanol:water (80:20) fraction of Sour orange showed the lowest radical scavenging activity at all the tested concentrations. All citrus fractions showed good antioxidant capacity by the formation of phosphomolybdenum complex at 200 ppm. In addition, superoxide radical scavenging activity was assayed using non-enzymatic (NADH/phenaxine methosulfate) superoxide generating system. All the extracts showed variable superoxide radical scavenging activity. Moreover, methanol:water (80:20) extract of Rio Red and methanol extract of Sour orange exhibited marked reducing power in potassium ferricyanide reduction method. The data obtained using above in vitro models clearly establish the antioxidant potential of citrus fruit extracts. However, comprehensive studies need to be conducted to ascertain the in vivo bioavailability, safety and efficacy of such extracts in experimental animals. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on antioxidant activity of different polar extracts from Rio Red and Sour oranges.

  6. Evaluation of the glycoside hydrolase activity of a Brettanomyces strain on glycosides from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) used in the production of special fruit beers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daenen, Luk; Sterckx, Femke; Delvaux, Freddy R; Verachtert, Hubert; Derdelinckx, Guy

    2008-11-01

    The glycoside hydrolase activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Brettanomyces custersii was examined on sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) glycosides with bound volatile compounds. Refermentations by the beta-glucosidase-negative S. cerevisiae strains LD25 and LD40 of sour cherry juice-supplemented beer demonstrated only a moderate increase of volatiles. In contrast, the beta-glucosidase-positive B. custersii strain LD72 showed a more pronounced activity towards glycosides with aliphatic alcohols, aromatic compounds and terpenoid alcohols. Important contributors to sour cherry aroma such as benzaldehyde, linalool and eugenol were released during refermentation as shown by analytical tools. A gradually increasing release was observed during refermentations by B. custersii when whole sour cherries, sour cherry pulp or juice were supplemented in the beer. Refermentations with whole sour cherries and with sour cherry stones demonstrated an increased formation of benzyl compounds. Thus, amygdalin was partially hydrolysed, and a large part of the benzaldehyde formed was mainly reduced to benzyl alcohol and some further esterified to benzyl acetate. These findings demonstrate the importance and interesting role of certain Brettanomyces species in the production of fruit lambic beers such as 'Kriek'.

  7. 7 CFR 29.1010 - Crude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1010 Crude. A subdegree of maturity. Crude leaves are usually hard and slick as a result of extreme immaturity. A similar condition may result from fire-kill, sunburn, or sunscald. Any leaf...

  8. 7 CFR 29.3512 - Crude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3512 Crude. A subdegree of maturity. Crude leaves are usually hard and slick as a result of extreme immaturity. A similar condition may result from firekill, sunburn, or sunscald. Any leaf...

  9. 7 CFR 29.2261 - Crude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing.... A subdegree of maturity. Crude leaves are usually hard and slick as a result of extreme immaturity. A similar condition may result from fire-kill, sunburn, or sunscald. Any leaf which is crude to the...

  10. 7 CFR 30.20 - Crude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crude. 30.20 Section 30.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... unfinished as a result of extreme immaturity. Crude tobacco ordinarily has a characteristic green color. ...

  11. Detection and partial molecular characterization of atypical plum pox virus isolates from naturally infected sour cherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirkov, Sergei; Ivanov, Peter; Sheveleva, Anna

    2013-06-01

    Atypical isolates of plum pox virus (PPV) were discovered in naturally infected sour cherry in urban ornamental plantings in Moscow, Russia. The isolates were detected by polyclonal double antibody sandwich ELISA and RT-PCR using universal primers specific for the 3'-non-coding and coat protein (CP) regions of the genome but failed to be recognized by triple antibody sandwich ELISA with the universal monoclonal antibody 5B and by RT-PCR using primers specific to for PPV strains D, M, C and W. Sequence analysis of the CP genes of nine isolates revealed 99.2-100 % within-group identity and 62-85 % identity to conventional PPV strains. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the atypical isolates represent a group that is distinct from the known PPV strains. Alignment of the N-terminal amino acid sequences of CP demonstrated their close similarity to those of a new tentative PPV strain, CR.

  12. Effect of Fermentation and Cooking on Soluble and Bound Phenolic Profiles of Finger Millet Sour Porridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabaza, Molly; Shumoy, Habtu; Muchuweti, Maud; Vandamme, Peter; Raes, Katleen

    2016-10-12

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the soluble and bound phenolic content of finger millet and the impact of process induced changes on phenolic profiles of their sour porridge. Finger millet porridge and intermediate products were collected from four groups of households in the Hwedza communal area, Zimbabwe, after which soluble and bound phenolic compounds (PC) including condensed tannins (CT) were quantified. Bound PC and CT contributed 95% of the total PC and CT. The CT were only detected in the red varieties. Major individual PC identified were catechin occurring in the soluble fraction only, while ferulic, sinapic, and salicylic acid were mainly present in the bound fraction. Fermentation and cooking caused a more than 2-fold increase in soluble PC, CT, and individual PC. Improved traditional processing techniques optimized for improved bioavailability and health benefits of phenolics are highly relevant for the low income populations.

  13. Technique of optimum extraction of pectin from sour orange peels and its chemical evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abid, H.; Hussain, A.; Ali, J.

    2009-01-01

    The extraction of pectin from sour orange peels and effect of pH, temperature, extraction time on the yield and quality of pectin was studied. The extracting reagent was 0.1 N sulphuric acid and variables were pH (1.5, 2.5 and 3.5), extraction time (30, 60 and 120 minutes) and temperature (70 degree C, 80 degree C arid 90 degree C). These variables were significantly affected the extraction of pectin. The best yield (16.10 %) was obtained on soaking the finely ground peels in the sulphuric acid solution of pH, 25 at 80 degree C for 120 minutes. Anhydrogalacturonic acid, methoxyl content were 7310 % and 9.93 %, respectively, while equivalent weight value 945 was obtained by using pH, 2.5 at 80 degree C for 120 minutes. (author)

  14. Control of degreening in postharvest green sour citrus fruit by electrostatic atomized water particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Naoki; Takamura, Kohtaro; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Migita, Catharina Taiko; Masuda, Yukihiro; Maekawa, Tetsuya

    2014-08-01

    The effect of electrostatic atomized water particles (EAWP) on degreening of green sour citrus fruit during storage was determined. Superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals included in EAWP were present on the surface of the fruit peel after the treatment. Hydrogen peroxide was formed from EAWP in an aqueous solution, which could indicate that a hydroxyl radical of EAWP turns to hydrogen peroxide in the fruit flavedo as well as in the aqueous solution. EAWP treatment effectively suppressed the degreening of green yuzu and Nagato-yuzukichi fruits during storage at 20°C. The enhancement in K+ ion leakage of both EAWP-treated fruits reduced in comparison with the control. In spite of EAWP treatment, total peroxide level in both fruits showed almost no changes during storage, suggesting that hydrogen peroxide formed by EAWP treatment could stimulate the activation of hydrogen peroxide scavenging system and control degreening of these fruits during storage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. REPEATED MEASURES ANALYSIS OF CHANGES IN PHOTOSYNTHETIC EFFICIENCY IN SOUR CHERRY DURING WATER DEFICIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Viljevac

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate changes in photosynthetic efficiency applying repeated measures ANOVA using the photosynthetic performance index (PIABS of the JIP-test as a vitality parameter in seven genotypes of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus, L. during 10 days of continuous water deficit. Both univariate and multivariate ANOVA repeated measures revealed highly significant time effect (Days and its subsequent interactions with genotype and water deficit. However, the multivariate Pillai’s trace test detected the interaction Time × Genotype × Water deficit as not significant. According to the Tukey’s Studentized Range (HSD test, differences between the control and genotypes exposed to water stress became significant on the fourth day of the experiment, indicating that the plants on the average, began to lose their photosynthetic efficiency four days after being exposed to water shortage. It corroborates previous findings in other species that PIABS is very sensitive tool for detecting drought stress.

  16. Study on fracture and stress corrosion cracking behavior of casing sour service materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sequera, C.; Gordon, H.

    2003-01-01

    Present work describes sulphide stress corrosion cracking and fracture toughness tests performed to high strength sour service materials of T-95, C-100 and C-110 oil well tubular grades. P-110 was considered as a reference case, since it is one of the high strength materials included in specification 5CT of American Petroleum Institute, API. Sulphide stress corrosion cracking, impact and fracture toughness values obtained in the tests show that there is a correspondence among them. A decreasing classification order was established, namely C-100, T-95, C-110 and P-110. Special grades steels studied demonstrated a better behavior in the evaluated properties than the reference case material grade: P-110. Results obtained indicate that a higher sulphide stress corrosion cracking resistance is related to a higher toughness. The fracture toughness results evidence the hydrogen influence on reducing the toughness values. (author)

  17. Stress corrosion cracking resistance of 22% Cr duplex stainless steel in simulated sour environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, T.; Tsuge, H.; Moroishi, T.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports the effect of nickel and nitrogen contents on stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of 22%Cr - 3%Mo-base duplex stainless steel investigated in simulated sour environments with respect to both the base metal and the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of welding. The threshold stress and the critical chloride concentration for SCC were evaluated as a function of the ferrite content (α-content) in the alloy. The threshold stress is highest at the α-content of 40 to 45%, and is lowered with decreasing and increasing the α-content from its value. The alloy whose α-content exceeds 80% at the HAZ has also high susceptibilities to pitting corrosion and intergranular corrosion (ICG). The critical chloride concentration for cracking increases with the decrease in the α-content. Moreover, the contents of chromium, nickel and molybdenum in the α-phase are considered to be an important factor for determining the critical chloride concentration

  18. [Health effects of sour cherries with unique polyphenolic composition in their fruits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedűs, Attila; Papp, Nóra; Blázovics, Anna; Stefanovitsné Bányai, Éva

    2018-05-01

    Health effects of fruit consumption are confirmed by many studies. Such effects are attributed to the polyphenolic compounds accumulating in fruit skin and mesocarp tissues. They contribute to the regulation on transcriptional, post-transcriptional and epigenetic levels. Since people consume much less fruits than the recommended quantities, a new approach includes the promotion of super fruits that are extremely rich sources of specific health compounds. A comparative analysis of Hungarian stone fruit cultivars detected a huge variability in fruit in vitro antioxidant capacity and total polyphenolic content. Two outstanding sour cherry cultivars ('Pipacs 1' and 'Fanal') were identified to accumulate elevated levels of polyphenolic compounds in their fruits. Sour cherries with different polyphenolic compositions were tested against alimentary induced hyperlipidemia using male Wistar rat model. Consumption of cherry fruit had different consequences for different cultivars: consumption of 'Pipacs 1' and 'Fanal' fruits resulted in 30% lower total cholesterol levels in the sera of hyperlipidemic animals after only 10 days of treatment. However, the consumption of 'Újfehértói fürtös' fruit has not induced significant alterations in the same parameter. Other lipid parameters also reflected the short-term beneficial effects of 'Pipacs 1' and 'Fanal' fruits. We suggest that not only some tropical and berry fruits might be considered as super fruits but certain genotypes of stone fruits as well. These have indeed marked physiological effects. Since 'Pipacs 1' and 'Fanal' are rich sources of colourless polyphenolics (e.g., phenolic acids and isoflavonoids) and anthocyanins, respectively, the protective effects associated with their consumption can be attributed to different polyphenolic compounds. Orv Hetil. 2018; 159(18): 720-725.

  19. Effect of the improved fermentation on physicochemical properties and sensorial acceptability of sour cassava starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Janete Angeloni Marcon

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effect of improved fermentation on sour cassava starch, aiming to reduce its fermentation time and to enhance its expansion capacity as well as its viscoamylographic properties and its sensorial acceptability. Results showed that the improved process of cassava starch production did not harm starch expansion, physicochemical properties or sensorial acceptability; it also produced starches with different viscoamylographic properties, which compared favourably to those of the sour cassava starch produced through current industrial methods.O Polvilho azedo é caracterizado pelas suas propriedades físicas, químicas e reológicas, as quais são diferentes do amido nativo do qual se originou. A propriedade de expansão é uma das mais importantes características do produto, sendo um parâmetro fundamental de avaliação do polvilho azedo. O resultado do perfil viscoamilográfico também é uma importante maneira de avaliação uma vez que cada amido tem um padrão viscoamilográfico definido de acordo com sua organização granular. Este trabalho determinou o efeito da fermentação melhorada pela adição de glicose, sobre o polvilho azedo, apontando para uma redução no tempo de fermentação e avaliando sua capacidade de expansão, suas propriedades viscoamilográficas e aceitabilidade sensorial. O processo de produção de polvilho azedo melhorado não prejudicou a expansão do amido, suas propriedades físico-químicas e sensoriais, mas sim resultou em amidos com diferentes propriedades viscoamilográficas melhores comparativamente ao polvilho azedo produzido pelo processo industrial atual.

  20. Crude oil growth impact on pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devries, O.

    2005-01-01

    This paper provided an outline of crude oil production and supply in Canada. Details of oil sands projects in Athabasca, Cold Lake and Peace River were presented. A chart of oil sands growth by major project was provided. A list of new emerging oil sands crude types was also presented along with details of a synthetic bitumen blending synergy. Maps of Western Canadian crude oil markets were provided, along with details of refinery and market demand by crude type. Various pipeline alternatives to new markets were examined, with reference to Enbridge Pipeline's supply and capacity. Details of the Hardisty to U.S Gulf Coast Pipeline and the Edmonton to Prince Rupert Pipeline and its terminal and dock facilities were presented. It was concluded that pipeline capacity and seasonal factors will influence market demand, while linefill, crude types and the quality of the product will influence operational strategies. tabs., figs

  1. Classification of weathered crude oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, N.B.; Sjoegren, C.E.; Lichtenthaler, G.

    1987-01-01

    The NORDTEST procedure (1) for oil spill identification has been applied successfully at several occasions. The NORDTEST procedure includes analyses of sulfur (XRF), vanadium and nickel (ICP/AAS), GC, HPLC and UV-fluorescence. The NORDTEST procedure does not include GC-MS as an analytical method. As part of a joint Nordic to evaluate the NORDTEST procedure for oil identification, with participants from Denmark, Sweden, Finland and Norway, thirty artificially weathered crude oils from four geographical regions have been analyzed (2). The analytical methods evaluated include sulfur analysis, vanadium and nickel analysis, infrared analysis, UV-fluorescence, gas chromatography, high pressure liquid chromatography and high resolution GC-mass spectrometry. Figure 1 shows the distribution of variables analyzed in each analytical method. The 190 variables from GC-MS were split into 7 groups according to chemical considerations. These were steranes (25 var.), triterpanes (16 var.), di(+)aromatics (63 var.), sulf. aromatics (30 var.), monoaromatics (19 var.), cycloalkanes (15 var.) and n-alkanes (22) variables. The data from these chemical analyses have been evaluated for use in oil spill identification purposes

  2. Biodegradability of northern crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, F D; Westlake, D W.S.

    1976-01-01

    Field studies on the microbiological degradation of crude oils encompassed the placing of oil-soaked plots in two areas in the Northwest Territories and Alberta. Replicate plots received amendments of fertilizer, oil-utilizing bacteria, fertilizer plus bacteria or were untreated except for the oil. Changes in microbial numbers and chemical composition of recovered oil were determined periodically. The initial stimulatory effect on bacterial numbers brought about by the addition of fertilizers to oil-soaked plots diminished two years after the application to a point where the differences were no longer significant. Experiments carried out in the Norman Wells area to determine the effect of the amount of fertilizer applied on oil degradation have yielded inconclusive results. The data suggest that at least 2.7 kg of urea-phosphate fertilizer per kl of oil is required to maintain a reasonable oil degradation rate. Preliminary studies on the use of fertilizer coated with chemicals to increase its hydrophobic character indicate that they could be useful in treating wet-land oil spills. Soils from the McKenzie River drainage basin indicate that bacteria are present which can use oil under mesophilic conditions. However, the ability to use the same oil under psychrophilic conditions is more restricted. At least one bacterial species from each mixed population studied was capable of bringing about chemical changes in oil similar to those observed for the original mixed culture. The potential hazards and uses of the seeding of oil spills is discussed relative to the environmental conditions found in the northern part of Canada. 35 refs., 2 figs., 15 tabs.

  3. Analysis of the structural steels corrosion resistance in sour water from petroleum refineries; Analise da resistencia a corrosao de acos estruturais em aguas acidas de refinarias de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proenca, Marcos B.; Freire, Celia M. de A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica; Santos, Margatita B. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica Aplicada

    1994-07-01

    The presence of H{sub 2} S in refineries FCC sour water provokes the formation of a passive Fe S scale. The cyanides present on sour water remove this scale, raising the corrosion rate in pipping and vessels. In this work it was measured the corrosion rate of structural steels in this water by electrochemical methods. Anodic polarization curves were plotted and the corrosion rates of the steels were determined. (author)

  4. Surface Studies of Ultra Strength Drilling Steel after Corrosion Fatigue in Simulated Sour Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Ziomek-Moroz; J.A. Hawk; R. Thodla; F. Gui

    2012-05-06

    The Unites States predicted 60% growth in energy demand by 2030 makes oil and natural gas primary target fuels for energy generation. The fact that the peak of oil production from shallow wells (< 5000 m) is about to be reached, thereby pushing the oil and natural gas industry into deeper wells. However, drilling to depths greater than 5000 m requires increasing the strength-to weight ratio of the drill pipe materials. Grade UD-165 is one of the ultra- high yield strength carbon steels developed for ultra deep drilling (UDD) activities. Drilling UDD wells exposes the drill pipes to Cl{sup -}, HCO{sub 3}{sup -}/CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, and H{sub 2}S-containig corrosive environments (i.e., sour environments) at higher pressures and temperatures compared to those found in conventional wells. Because of the lack of synergism within the service environment, operational stresses can result in catastrophic brittle failures characteristic for environmentally assisted cracking (EAC). Approximately 75% of all drill string failures are caused by fatigue or corrosion fatigue. Since there is no literature data on the corrosion fatigue performance of UD-165 in sour environments, research was initiated to better clarify the fatigue crack growth (FCGR) behavior of this alloy in UDD environments. The FCGR behavior of ultra-strength carbon steel, grade UD-165, was investigated by monitoring crack growth rate in deaerated 5%NaCl solution buffered with NaHCO{sub 3}/Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and in contact with H{sub 2}S. The partial pressure of H{sub 2}S (p{sub H2S}) was 0.83 kPa and pH of the solution was adjusted by NaOH to 12. The fatigue experiments were performed at 20 and 85 C in an autoclave with surface investigations augmented by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. In this study, research focused on surface analyses supported by the fatigue crack growth rate measurements. Fig. 1 shows an SEM micrograph of the crack that propagated from the

  5. Bacterial consortia for crude oil spill remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chhatre, S.; Purohit, H.; Shanker, R.; Khanna, P.

    1996-01-01

    Oil spills generate enormous public concern and highlight the need for cost effective ad environmentally acceptable mitigation technologies. Physico-chemical methods are not completely effective after a spill. Hence, there is a need for improved and alternative technologies. Bioremediation is the most environmentally sound technology for clean up. This report intends to determine the potential of a bacterial consortium for degradation of Gulf and Bombay High crude oil. A four membered consortium was designed that could degrade 70% of the crude oil. A member of consortium produced a biosurfactant, rhamnolipid, that emulsified crude oil efficiently for effective degradation by the other members of consortium. The wide range of hydrocarbonoclastic capabilities of the selected members of bacterial consortium leads to the degradation of both aromatic and aliphatic fractions of crude oil in 72 hours. (Author)

  6. Degradation of crude oil by marine cyanobacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Vipparty, V.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    The marine cyanobacteria Oscillatoria salina Biswas, Plectonema terebrans Bornet et Flanhault and Aphanocapsa sp. degraded Bombay High crude oil when grown in artificial seawater nutrients as well as in plain natural seawater. Oil removals...

  7. Valorization of crude glycerol from biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinović Sandra S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased production of biodiesel as an alternative fuel involves the simultaneous growth in production of crude glycerol as its main by-product. Therefore, the feasibility and sustainability of biodiesel production requires the effective utilization of crude glycerol. This review describes various uses of crude glycerol as a potential green solvent for chemical reactions, a starting raw material for chemical and biochemical conversions into value-added chemicals, a substrate or co-substrate in microbial fermentations for synthesis of valuable chemicals and production of biogas and biohydrogen as well as a feedstuff for animal feed. A special attention is paid to various uses of crude glycerol in biodiesel production. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 45001

  8. Export crudes for the '90s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper supplies statistical data on the characteristics of Tapais blend (Malaysia), Cold Lake blend (Alta), and Arabian Light (Saudi Arabia) crude oils. Temperature range, API gravity, sulfur percentage, viscosity, nitrogen content, and other data are provided

  9. REVIEW OF PVT CORRELATIONS FOR CRUDE OILS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    win

    approaches that of the fluids used. During the last 50 years, ... applied to crude oils from other regions (Sutton and Farshad,. 1990). ... S. S. Ikiensikimama, Department of Chemistry Engineering, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria. O. Ogboja ...

  10. Reação da laranjeira azêda à tristeza Reaction of the sour orange plant to tristeza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Costa

    1954-01-01

    plantas sadias se desenvolvem mais ou menos satisfatòriamente quando sôbre-enxertadas em galhos de laranjeira doce sobre laranjeira azêda, já em avançado estado de declínio. Uma copa mista de laranjeiras azêda e doce sôbre cavalo de azêda pode causar alguns benefícios à planta afetada pela tristeza sob determinadas condições, mas êsse benefício não é duradouro e o método não oferece possibilidades práticas. A laranjeira azêda em viveiro tem sido utilizada com vantagem na determinação da presença do vírus da tristeza em borbulhas de vários tipos de Citrus, pela observação do crescimento feito a partir dessas borbulhas em comparação com aquêle de borbulhas da mesma variedade garantidamente sadias. Para a determinação da presença de estirpes fracas do vírus o método é mais demorado. Interenxertos de laranjeira azêda entre copas e raízes de laranjeira doce são suficientes para que haja manifestação de sintomas da moléstia. Há aparentemente alguma translocação através do interenxêrto, pois o desenvolvimento do cavalo abaixo e acima dele é aproximadamente igual.Young sour orange seedlings are more easily infected with the tristeza virus by approach-grafts than by means of the aphid vector. Under natural conditions adult plants in the field are highly resistant to infection by the aphid vector. Recovery of the tristeza virus from infected sour orange plants is also more easily accomplished by tissue union than by means of the aphid vector. Sour orange seedlings show yellowing of young leaves followed by stunting and shedding of leaves when infected with the ordinary strain of the tristeza virus in Brazil. These symptoms do not differ from those described for seedling yellows. The symptoms of leaf yellowing are less evident in plants infected with mild strains of the tristeza virus and there is subsequent recovery. New flushes of young leaves may show occasional vein dashes. Sour orange tissues below the bud union of the sweet

  11. Analytical and sensorial characterization of the aroma of wines produced with sour rotten grapes using GC-O and GC-MS: identification of key aroma compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, André; Campo, Eva; Malfeito-Ferreira, Manuel; Loureiro, Virgílio; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente

    2011-03-23

    In the present work, the aroma profiles of wines elaborated from sound and sour rot-infected grapes as raw material have been studied by sensory analysis, gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), with the aim of determining the odor volatiles most likely associated with this disease. The effect of sour rot was tested in monovarietal wines produced with the Portuguese red grape variety Trincadeira and in blends of Cabernet Sauvignon and sour rotten Trincadeira grapes. Wines produced from damaged berries exhibited clear honey-like notes not evoked by healthy samples. Ethyl phenylacetate (EPhA) and phenylacetic acid (PAA), both exhibiting sweet honey-like aromas, emerged as key aroma compounds of sour rotten wines. Their levels were 1 order of magnitude above those found in controls and reached 304 and 1668 μg L(-1) of EPhA and PAA, respectively, well above the corresponding odor thresholds. Levels of γ-nonalactone also increased by a factor 3 in sour rot samples. Results also suggest that sour rot exerts a great effect on the secondary metabolism of yeast, decreasing the levels of volatiles related to fatty acids and amino acid synthesis. The highest levels of γ-decalactone of up to 405 μg L(-1) were also found in all of the samples, suggesting that this could be a relevant aroma compound in Trincadeira wine aroma.

  12. Design of small diameter HT/HP sour service reeled rigid pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Daniel; Gouveia, Joao; Tardelli, Luciano [Tecnitas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: daniel.carneiro@br.bureauveritas.com; Parrilha, Rafael [Bureau Veritas Group, London (United Kingdom); Oazen, Eduardo; Cardoso, Carlos [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    The paper presents an overview of the challenges overcome in the engineering design of two 219 mm diameter, 6 km length oil production pipelines, to be installed by reeling at Espirito Santo Basin, offshore Brazilian coast in 1500 m water depth. The high temperature and high pressure (HT/HP) operating conditions and sour content associated with the small diameter required to single well oil production would usually lead to flexible flow line solution in Brazilian fields. The decision of employing small diameter thick-walled rigid C-Mn steel pipelines with thick thermal insulation made necessary extensive engineering work to achieve a safe and robust thermal expansion control arrangement, including the design of walking mitigation and buckle initiation apparatus; a feasible weld acceptance criterion covering both high cycle fatigue due to pipe lay and vortex induced vibration (VIV) at free spans, and high strain low cycle fatigue and fracture growth induced by reeling installation and in-service lateral buckling. Several studies were performed using highly non-linear three-dimensional finite element models considering: pipe-soil interaction with full 3D seabed bathymetry; load history maintained from pipe lay to operational cycles, including temperature transient effects; high plastic strains (including steel properties de-rating due to high temperature) and section ovalization; mechanical contact between pipe and appurtenances during both installation and operational phases. Pipe-soil interaction comprised embedment considering dynamic effects of pipe lay and full non-linear lateral and axial response curves including break-out and residual resistance. Strain concentration factors due to field joints were evaluated using detailed solid models considering non-linear response of both steel and insulation materials. Susceptibility to VIV at free spans was assessed considering post loaded deformed span natural frequencies, including multi-span interaction effects and

  13. Air emissions from sour-gas processing plants and dairy-cattle reproduction in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, H M; Soskolne, C L; Martin, S W; Shoukri, M M; Lissemore, K D; Coppock, R W; Guidotti, T L

    2003-02-15

    The dispersion of air pollutants from all 231 licensed sour-gas processing plants in Alberta, Canada, was modeled on a monthly basis over a 10-year period (1985-1994). Exposure estimates for sulfur dioxide (SO(2)-used as a surrogate for exposure to combusted emissions) then were assigned to 1382 provincial dairy farms using a geographical-information system. Individual average and peak exposure for periods prior to each of 15 months of age and conception (four exposure-averaging periods for each of two dispersion models) were estimated for 163,988 primiparous female dairy-cattle between 1986 and 1994. Monthly or annual average farm-site exposure estimates likewise were assigned to associated herd-level data sets for the biologically relevant period of interest for each of three additional reproductive outcomes: monthly herd-average calving interval, stillbirth risk, and twinning risk. In one of the main-effects models, the maximum (i.e., peak) monthly sour-gas exposure experienced by individual-animals from birth to conception was associated with an increased time to first-calving in the very-highest exposure category (hazard ratio=0.86, 95% CI=0.80, 0.92). This equates to a decreased hazard (lambda) of calving (in each month subsequent to 22 months of age) for the highest-exposure animals (lambda=0.170) versus the zero-exposure animals (lambda=0.198) in a model with referent values for agro-ecological region and season of birth. The dose-response was not consistent across the full range of exposure categories. There was significant (P=0.003) interaction of emissions with agro-ecological region. After accounting for the interaction, a more-consistent dose-response was evident for some (but not all) agro-ecological regions. This suggests that any effect of emissions on dairy-heifer reproduction is subject to modification by features of soil type, vegetative cover, and/or climate. The increase in monthly herd-average calving interval on farms exposed to the very

  14. A field demonstration of the microbial treatment of sour produced water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sublette, K.L. [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States); Morse, D.; Raterman, K. [Amoco Production Co., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The potential for detoxification and deodorization of sulfide-laden water (sour water) by microbial treatment was evaluated at a petroleum production site under field conditions. A sulfide-tolerant strain of the chemautotroph and facultative anaerobe, Thiobacillus denitrificans, was introduced into an oil-skimming pit of the Amoco Production Company LACT 10 Unit of the Salt Creek Field, Wyoming. Field-produced water enters this pit from the oil/water separation treatment train at an average flowrate of 5,000 bbl/D (795 m{sup 3}/D) with a potential maximum of 98,000 bbl/D (15,580 m{sup 3}/D). Water conditions at the pit inlet are 4,800 mg/l TDS, 100 mg/l sulfide, pH 7.8, and 107{degrees}F. To this water an aqueous solution of ammonium nitrate and diphosphorous pentoxide was added to provide required nutrients for the bacteria. The first 20% of the pit was aerated to a maximum depth of 5 ft (1.5 m) to facilitate the aerobic oxidation of sulfide. No provisions for pH control or biomass recovery and recycle were made. Pilot operations were initiated in October 1992 with the inoculation of the 19,000 bbl (3,020 m{sup 3}) pit with 40 lb (18.1 kg) of dry weight biomass. After a brief acclimation period, a nearly constant mass flux of 175 lb/D (80 kg/D) sulfide was established to the pit. Bio-oxidation of sulfide to elemental sulfur and sulfate was immediate and complete. Subsequent pilot operations focused upon process optimization and process sensitivity to system upsets. The process appeared most sensitive to large variations in sulfide loading due to maximum water discharge events. However, recoveries from such events could be accomplished within hours. This paper details all pertinent aspects of pilot operation, performance, and economics. Based on this body of evidence, it is suggested that the oxidation of inorganic sulfides by T denitrificans represents a viable concept for the treatment of sour water coproduced with oil and gas.

  15. Practices and prospect of petroleum engineering technologies in ultra-deep sour gas reservoirs, Yuanba Gasfield, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Xu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Located in the Sichuan Basin, the Yuanba Gasfield is the deepest marine sour gas field among those developed in China so far. Its biohermal gas reservoir of the Upper Permian Changxing Fm is characterized by ultra depth, high content of hydrogen sulfide, medium–low porosity and permeability, and small reservoir thickness. Economic evaluation on it shows that horizontal well drilling is the only way to develop this gas reservoir efficiently and to reduce the total development investment. At present, the petroleum engineering technology for this type of ultra-deep sour gas reservoir is less applied in the world, so an ultra-deep horizontal well is subject to a series of petroleum engineering technology difficulties, such as safe and fast well drilling and completion, mud logging, well logging, downhole operation, safety and environmental protection. Based on the successful development experience of the Puguang Gasfield, therefore, Sinopec Southwest Petroleum Engineering Co., Ltd. took the advantage of integrated engineering geology method to carry out specific technical research and perform practice diligently for 7 years. As a result, 18 key items of technologies for ultra-deep sour gas reservoirs were developed, including horizontal-well drilling speed increasing technology, horizontal-well mud logging and well logging technology, downhole operation technology, and safety and environmental protection technology. These technologies were applied in 40 wells during the first and second phases of productivity construction of the Yuanba Gasfield. All the 40 wells have been built into commercial gas wells, and the productivity construction goal of 3.4 billion m3 purified gas has also been achieved. These petroleum engineering technologies for ultra-deep sour gas fields play a reference role in exploring and developing similar gas reservoirs at home and abroad.

  16. High-efficiency low LCOE combined cycles for sour gas oxy-combustion with CO[subscript 2] capture

    OpenAIRE

    Chakroun, Nadim Walid; Ghoniem, Ahmed F

    2015-01-01

    The growing concerns over global warming and carbon dioxide emissions have driven extensive research into novel ways of capturing carbon dioxide in power generation plants. In this regard, oxy-fuel combustion has been considered as a promising technology. One unconventional fuel that is considered is sour gas, which is a mixture of methane, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide. In this paper, carbon dioxide is used as the dilution medium in the combustor and different combined cycle configurat...

  17. The dynamics of crude oil price differentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fattouh, Bassam

    2010-01-01

    Crude oil price differentials are modelled as a two-regime threshold autoregressive (TAR) process using the method proposed by Caner and Hansen [Caner, M., Hansen, B.E. Threshold autoregression with a unit root. Econometrica 2001; 69; 1555-1596.]. While standard unit root tests suggest that the prices of crude oil of different varieties move closely together such that their price differential is stationary, the TAR results indicate strong evidence of threshold effects in the adjustment process to the long-run equilibrium. These findings suggest that crude oil prices are linked and thus at the very general level, the oil market is 'one great pool' (Adelman, M.A. International oil agreements. The Energy Journal 1984; 5; 1-9.). However, differences in the dynamics of adjustment suggest that within this one pool, oil markets are not necessarily integrated in every time period and hence the dynamics of crude oil price differentials may not follow a stationary process at all times. Although the development of a liquid futures market around the crude oil benchmarks has helped make some distant markets more unified, arbitrage is not costless or risk-free and temporary breakdowns in the benchmarks can lead to decoupling of crude oil prices. (author)

  18. Effect of ultrasound on some chemical and microbiological properties of sour cherry juice by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türken, Tuğba; Erge, Hande S

    2017-09-01

    In this study, it is aimed to determine effect of ultrasonication on some chemical and microbiological properties of sour cherry juice by response surface methodology, since ultrasound is known as an alternative method for thermal food processing. Sour cherry juice was sonicated at varying amplitude levels (50, 75, 100%); moderate temperatures (20, 30, 40 ℃); and treatment times of 2, 6, 10 min at a constant frequency of 20 kHz. Different ultrasonication amplitudes, temperatures, and times had no significant effect on pH,°Bx, and titratable acidity. A significant increase in total monomeric anthocyanins was observed as the amplitude level and temperature increased (p < 0.01). An increase in the total phenolics was also obtained as the temperature increased (p < 0.05). The effect of amplitude level on antioxidant capacity of sour cherry juice was also found significant (p < 0.05). Color parameters (L*, a*, b*, C, h) generally increased by increasing temperature, amplitude level, and treatment time. It was determined that Escherichia coli O157:H7 significantly affected by temperature and treatment time (p < 0.05).

  19. Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts associated with spontaneous fermentations during the production of sour cassava starch in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, Inayara C A; Miranda, Rose L; Borelli, Beatriz M; Nunes, Alvaro C; Nardi, Regina M D; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2005-11-25

    Sour cassava starch is a traditional fermented food used in the preparation of fried foods and baked goods such as traditional cheese breads in Brazil. Thirty samples of sour cassava starch were collected from two factories in the state of Minas Gerais. The samples were examined for the presence of lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, mesophilic microorganisms, Bacillus cereus and faecal coliforms. Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts isolates were identified by biochemical tests, and the identities were confirmed by molecular methods. Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum were the prevalent lactic acid bacteria in product from both factories, at numbers between 6.0 and 9.0 log cfu g(-)(1). Lactobacillus perolans and Lactobacillus brevis were minor fractions of the population. Galactomyces geothricum and Issatchenkia sp. were the prevalent yeasts at numbers of 5.0 log cfu g(-)(1). A species similar to Candida ethanolica was frequently isolated from one factory. Mesophilic bacteria and amylolytic microorganisms were recovered in high numbers at all stages of the fermentation. B. cereus was found at low numbers in product at both factories. The spontaneous fermentations associated with the production of sour cassava starch involve a few species of lactic acid bacteria at high numbers and a variety of yeasts at relatively low numbers.

  20. Community inflamed: Passionate opposition mounted to sour-gas drilling plan upwind of Canada's energy capital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, A.

    1998-01-01

    Residents of Bearspaw and Glendale, two small communities near Calgary are up in arms in opposition to the plans of Canadian 88 Energy Company to drill a 'level four' sour gas well in the area. The target gas contains 33.9 per cent hydrogen sulfide, a substance rated as lethal in much lower doses. Since the well is slated to be drilled on high ground upwind of Calgary, an accident causing a leak could expose community residents and thousands of Calgarians within half hour distance from the well to hydrogen sulfide concentrations several times higher than the Alberta Energy Board considers safe. Seepage into the water system poses yet another danger. For reasons that are not too well understood the Alberta Energy Board relaxed the size of the area for which the company must provide an emergency response plan from a radius of 18 km to a radius of 4 km, considered by experts to be totally unacceptable in a populated area. The Board granted the relaxation of the area covered by the emergency response plan on the assurances of the Company that it would substantially increase the criteria needed to make the plan manageable. However, the community is not convinced that the emergency response plan comes near to addressing the problem, and is prepared to oppose drilling of the well by all available means

  1. Fast Lemons and Sour Boulders: Testing Crossmodal Correspondences Using an Internet-Based Testing Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy T. Woods

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available According to a popular family of hypotheses, crossmodal matches between distinct features hold because they correspond to the same polarity on several conceptual dimensions (such as active–passive, good–bad, etc. that can be identified using the semantic differential technique. The main problem here resides in turning this hypothesis into testable empirical predictions. In the present study, we outline a series of plausible consequences of the hypothesis and test a variety of well-established and previously untested crossmodal correspondences by means of a novel internet-based testing methodology. The results highlight that the semantic hypothesis cannot easily explain differences in the prevalence of crossmodal associations built on the same semantic pattern (fast lemons, slow prunes, sour boulders, heavy red; furthermore, the semantic hypothesis only minimally predicts what happens when the semantic dimensions and polarities that are supposed to drive such crossmodal associations are made more salient (e.g., by adding emotional cues that ought to make the good/bad dimension more salient; finally, the semantic hypothesis does not explain why reliable matches are no longer observed once intramodal dimensions with congruent connotations are presented (e.g., visually presented shapes and colour do not appear to correspond.

  2. A numerical study of under-deposit pitting corrosion in sour petroleum pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Z.; Sand, K.W.; Teevens, P.J. [Broadsword Corrosion Engineering Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Insufficient fluid velocity in petroleum pipelines can lead to the deposit of sand, corrosion products, and non-corrosion products on the pipe's metal surface, which in turn can lead to pitting corrosion. There is currently no reliable means of detecting and preventing the pitting process. This paper presented a computerized simulation tool that used the finite element method to model mass transfer-governed internal pitting corrosion under solids deposition in sour petroleum pipelines. The computational domain consisted of a hemispherical pit and a thin stagnant solution film under a surface deposit. The moving mesh method was used to track pitting growth. A Poisson equation was used to determine aqueous path migration of ions. Pitting corrosion rates were estimated using the Nernst-Planck equation. The model was used to predict the effects of different operating parameters on pitting corrosion rates. The model can be used to develop pigging and in-line-inspection (ILI) procedures. 35 refs., 2 tabs., 16 figs.

  3. Options for cleaning up subsurface contamination at Alberta sour gas plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardisty, P.; Dabrowski, T.L.

    1992-01-01

    At the conclusion of two major phases of a study on subsurface treatment technologies for Alberta sour gas plants, a candidate site was selected for a remediation technologies demonstration project. The plant has an extensive groundwater monitoring network in place, monitoring records for a period exceeding 10 years, ten recovery wells with aquifer test data and four reinjection wells. Hydrogeological exploration determined the presence and delineated a plume of free phase natural gas condensate. Aquifer remediation efforts at the site began in 1990 with the installation of recovery wells. Recovered groundwater was treated using a pilot scale air stripping system with pretreatment for iron, manganese and hardness. Dual pump system, water depression and free product skimmers were installed in the wells and tested. The nature and extent of contamination, study methodology, technology-dependent criteria, assessment of technology, and conceptual design are discussed for the three demonstration projects selected, which are enhanced soil vapour extraction with off-gas treatment, pump-and-treat with soil vapour extraction, biological treatment and air sparging, and treatment of dissolved process chemicals by advanced oxidation. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  4. Families near proposed sour gas wells wary company can protect them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2005-01-01

    Public objections to the Compton Petroleum Corporation's intentions to add six new sour gas wells to an existing well it now operates near a residential area in the Calgary area, are discussed. Fifty-five families live within 15 km of the proposed wellsite; they are concerned about the safety of the plan, claiming that the company has not done enough to inform them about the potential hazards. Company officials assured residents that those living within the emergency zone (i.e. within four km of the wells) will be evacuated from the area before a blowout occurs. As far as residents outside the emergency zone are concerned, independent risk analysis experts testified that the risk to those residents is negligible. The company claims that Alberta law compels them to maximize the recovery of petroleum resources and by not drilling the proposed wells the company leaves itself open to charges for leaving some reserves in the ground. The Company also claims that by drilling the additional wells, it would be in a position to deplete the gas reserves faster, shut down the existing wells and return the land to the city much sooner than otherwise would be possible. Lawyers for the Coalition of Concerned Communities are challenging the Company's claim that the wells must be drilled so industry can make way for city expansion. 1 fig

  5. a Real-Time GIS Platform for High Sour Gas Leakage Simulation, Evaluation and Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M.; Liu, H.; Yang, C.

    2015-07-01

    The development of high-sulfur gas fields, also known as sour gas field, is faced with a series of safety control and emergency management problems. The GIS-based emergency response system is placed high expectations under the consideration of high pressure, high content, complex terrain and highly density population in Sichuan Basin, southwest China. The most researches on high hydrogen sulphide gas dispersion simulation and evaluation are used for environmental impact assessment (EIA) or emergency preparedness planning. This paper introduces a real-time GIS platform for high-sulfur gas emergency response. Combining with real-time data from the leak detection systems and the meteorological monitoring stations, GIS platform provides the functions of simulating, evaluating and displaying of the different spatial-temporal toxic gas distribution patterns and evaluation results. This paper firstly proposes the architecture of Emergency Response/Management System, secondly explains EPA's Gaussian dispersion model CALPUFF simulation workflow under high complex terrain and real-time data, thirdly explains the emergency workflow and spatial analysis functions of computing the accident influencing areas, population and the optimal evacuation routes. Finally, a well blow scenarios is used for verify the system. The study shows that GIS platform which integrates the real-time data and CALPUFF models will be one of the essential operational platforms for high-sulfur gas fields emergency management.

  6. Aqueous extraction of pectin from sour orange peel and its preliminary physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Saeid; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Yarmand, Mohammad Saeid

    2016-01-01

    Sour orange peel, a by-product of the fruit juice industry, was used as a source of pectin. The effects of temperature (75-95°C), time (30-90 min), and liquid-solid ratio (20-40, v/w) were investigated on yield, methoxylation degree (DE), and galacturonic acid content using a Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology. The highest extraction yield (17.95 ± 0.3%) was obtained at temperature of 95°C, time of 90 min, and liquid-solid ratio of 25 (v/w). The DE values for the pectin ranged from 17% to 30.5%, indicating that the pectin was low in methoxyle. The emulsifying activity of pectin extracted under optimal conditions was 45%. The emulsions were 86.6% stable at 4°C and 71.4% at 23°C after 30 days of storage. The pectin exhibited Newtonian flow at low concentrations (≤ 1.0%, w/v); as the concentration increased, pseudoplastic flow became dominant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Using random event simulation to evaluate the effectiveness of indoor sheltering during a sour gas release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.

    2003-01-01

    In the event of sour gas releases to the atmosphere, there is a strong bias toward evacuation rather than sheltering-in-place. This paper described the critical factors in decision-making for shelter-in-place versus evacuation. These include: delay time expected before release begins; size of potential release, explosion or fire; expected duration; direction to safety for evacuation; the air tightness of the building; and, the number of people in the emergency response zone. A shelter-in-place decision chart developed by the Canadian Association of Fire Chiefs was presented. It shows the usual bias toward evacuation as the default position. It also shows the greatest drawbacks of sheltering-in-place. The main factor in maintaining the effectiveness of the building shelter is the rate of air infiltration into the building. Other issues to consider include: reactive versus passive chemicals in the release; light versus heavy gas releases; building type (houses, high-rise apartments, office buildings, or warehouses); tightness of building construction; whether to turn the house heating and air conditioning on or off during shelter; daytime versus nighttime conditions; and, cost factors. Equations for calculating indoor and outdoor toxic exposure to decide on shelter versus evacuation were also presented. It was concluded that the absence of peak concentrations dramatically reduce the risk of fatality to people sheltering indoors. Keeping people indoors is the best way to assure their safety for the first hour following a toxic release. 8 refs., 6 figs

  8. Selection of autochthonous sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. genotypes in Feketić region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radičević Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Autochthonous genotypes of fruit species are very important source of genetic variability and valuable material for breeding work. Fruit Research Institute-Čačak has a long tradition of studying autochthonous genotypes of temperate fruits sporadically spread and preserved in some localities in Serbia. Over 2005-2006, the following properties of nine autochthonous sour cherry genotypes grown in Feketic region were investigated: flowering and ripening time, pomological properties, biochemical composition of fruits and field resistance to causal agents of cherry diseases - cherry leaf spot (Blumeriella jaapii (Rehm. v. Arx., shot-hole (Clasterosporium carpophilum (Lév. Aderh. and brown rot (Monilinia laxa /Ader et Ruhl./ Honey ex Whetz.. The genotypes were tested for the presence of Prune dwarf virus and Prunus necrotic ring spot virus. In majority of genotypes fruits were large, with exceptional organoleptical properties, whereas ripening time was in the first ten or twenty days of June. The highest fruit weight was observed in F-1 genotype (8.1 g. The highest soluble solids and total sugars content were found in F- 4 genotype (17.60% and 14.25%, respectively. As for field resistance to causal agents of diseases and good pomo-technological properties, F-1, F-2, F-3, F-7 and F-8 genotypes were singled out. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31064

  9. Pengaruh Penambahan Kosubstrat pada Biodegradasi Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Any Juliani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Kegiatan penambangan minyak bumi tidak hanya dilakukan oleh perusahaan-perusahaan besar, tetapi juga oleh masyarakat secara tradisional. Potensi pencemaran lingkungan yang ditimbulkan oleh kegiatan penambangan rakyat ini menjadi lebih tinggi karena pengelolaannya yang tradisional. Salah satu jenis pencemaran yang ditimbulkannya misalnya adalah tanah atau perairan yang tercemar oleh minyak bumi (crude oil pada saat berlangsungnya kegiatan penambangan. Salah satu upaya untuk dapat mengatasinya adalah dengan bioremediasi. Bioremediasi merupakan teknologi pengolahan pencemar dengan memanfaatkan aktivitas mikroba, terutama dari golongan bakteri. Bioremediasi tersebut harus melibatkan bakteri yang memiliki kapasitas metabolic untuk melakukan biodegradasi terhadap crude oil tersebut. Crude oil sendiri pada dasarnya merupakan senyawa hidrokarbon yang merupakan sumber karbon yang kaya bagi mikroba. Namun demikian, biodegradasi crude oil relative lebih sulit dilakukan karena karakteristiknya yang merupakan senyawa dengan berat molekul dan ukuran yang besar. Oleh karena itu penambahan kosubstrat yang lebih sederhana dapat dilakukan untuk membantu biodegradasi terutama pada tahap awal proses. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh penambahan kosubstrat dalam hal ini glukosa terhadap biodegradasi crude oil. Penelitian dilakukan dalam media cair dengan bioaugmentasi melalui penambahan inoculum bakteri yang diisolasi dari tanah yang dikondisikan terhadap crude oil dalam beberapa variasi reactor. Indikasi terjadinya biodegradasi diperiksa melalui pengukuran terhadap parameter Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH dan Total Plate Count (TPC. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penambahan kosubstrat glukosa memberikan pengaruh positif terhadap penurunan TPH. Penurunan TPH tertinggi setelah 28 hari adalah sebesar 25,3 % yang diberikan oleh reactor dengan penambahan kosubstrat serta konsentrasi crude oil awal sebesar 8.1 %. Sementara itu reactor tanpa

  10. Rate of biodegradation of crude oil by microorganisms isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rate of biodegradation of crude oil by micro-organisms isolated from crude oil sludge environment in Eket, Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria was studied. Mineral salt medium supplemented with crude oil was used and three most abundant species isolated from a crude oil sludged soil - Micrococcus varians, Bacillus subtilis ...

  11. Crude oil spot market pricing: Pearsonian analysis of crude oil spot market prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akinnusi, Ayo

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of crude oil pricing before describing a study of sets of 1991 spot market prices, and examining Pearson's model. Empirical distribution characteristics for 14 crude oils are tabulated, and skewness-kurtosis relationship and implication are considered. (UK)

  12. When Will Occur the Crude Oil Bubbles?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Chi-Wei; Li, Zheng-Zheng; Chang, Hsu-Ling; Lobonţ, Oana-Ramona

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we apply a recursive unit root test to investigate whether there exist multiple bubbles in crude oil price. The method is best suited for a practical implementation of a time series and delivers a consistent date-stamping strategy for the origination and termination of multiple bubbles. The empirical result indicates that there exist six bubbles during 1986–2016 when the oil price deviate from its intrinsic value based on market fundamentals. Specifically, oil price contains the fundamentals and bubble components. The dates of the bubbles correspond to specific events in the politics and financial markets. The authorities should actively fight speculative bubbles or just observe their evolutions and speculation activities may decrease, which is favour of the stabilisation of the staple commodities including crude oil price. These findings have important economic and policy implications to recognise the cause of bubbles and take corresponding measures to reduce the impact on the real economy cause of the fluctuation of crude oil price. - Highlights: • Investigate multiple bubbles in crude oil price. • Indicate six bubbles deviate from its intrinsic value based on market fundamentals. • The bubbles correspond to specific events in the politics and financial markets. • Reduce the impact on the real economy cause of the fluctuation of crude oil price.

  13. A comparative study of the effect of green tea and sour tea on blood pressure and lipid profile in healthy adult men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Kafeshani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD are a set of metabolic disorders affecting heart and blood vessels. Green tea and sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. have attracted significant attention recently due to their high popularity, nutrient profile and therapeutic effects. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of green tea and sour tea supplementation on blood pressure and lipid profile in healthy adult men. METHODS: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial included 54 healthy adult men. The participants were randomly assigned to two intervention groups receiving 450 mg green tea or sour tea and one placebo group which consumed 450 mg placebo (maltodextrin for 6 weeks. Blood pressure, lipid profile, dietary intake and physical activity were measured pre- and post-intervention and compared. RESULTS: After 6 weeks of intervention, sour tea supplementation led to a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP compared with the placebo group. However, we faild to find any significant difference in SBP between green tea and control groups. Also, no significant changes were observed in diastolic blood pressure (DBP and lipid profile between the three groups. In comparison with baseline, there was a significant increase in the mean level of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C in green tea and sour tea groups. Also, the interventions resulted in significant decrease in the mean levels of serum total cholesterol (TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and DBP in the sour tea group compared with the pre-intervention value. CONCLUSION: On the basis of our findings, sour tea supplementation led to decreased SBP in healthy men compared with the placebo, but there was no significant difference between their effects on DBP and lipid profile. 

  14. Comparative toxicology of four crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, L.M.; Hodson, P.V. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology; Brown, R.S. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry

    2003-07-01

    Fish that are chronically exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exhibit dioxin-like toxicity characterized by blue sac disease and the induction of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A). This study compared the relative toxicity of four crude oils (Scotian Shelf, MESA, the synthetic Alberta Sweet Mixed Blend, and Alaskan North Slope Crude Oil), in causing the disease in rainbow trout embryos living in simulated spawning beds with hydrocarbon-contaminated gravel. Each oil had different chemical characteristics and PAH concentrations. The study confirmed the assumption that the Alberta Sweet Mixed Blend would be the most toxic due to its high PAH concentration. The results suggest that the main cause of toxicity in crude oil is due to the presence, concentration, and conformation of specific PAHs.

  15. Forecasting volatility of crude oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sang Hoon; Kang, Sang-Mok; Yoon, Seong-Min

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the efficacy of a volatility model for three crude oil markets - Brent, Dubai, and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) - with regard to its ability to forecast and identify volatility stylized facts, in particular volatility persistence or long memory. In this context, we assess persistence in the volatility of the three crude oil prices using conditional volatility models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models are better equipped to capture persistence than are the GARCH and IGARCH models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models also provide superior performance in out-of-sample volatility forecasts. We conclude that the CGARCH and FIGARCH models are useful for modeling and forecasting persistence in the volatility of crude oil prices. (author)

  16. Forecasting volatility of crude oil markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sang Hoon [Department of Business Administration, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, 660-701 (Korea); Kang, Sang-Mok; Yoon, Seong-Min [Department of Economics, Pusan National University, Busan, 609-735 (Korea)

    2009-01-15

    This article investigates the efficacy of a volatility model for three crude oil markets - Brent, Dubai, and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) - with regard to its ability to forecast and identify volatility stylized facts, in particular volatility persistence or long memory. In this context, we assess persistence in the volatility of the three crude oil prices using conditional volatility models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models are better equipped to capture persistence than are the GARCH and IGARCH models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models also provide superior performance in out-of-sample volatility forecasts. We conclude that the CGARCH and FIGARCH models are useful for modeling and forecasting persistence in the volatility of crude oil prices. (author)

  17. The allelopathic effects of crude water extracts of Annona muricata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annona muricata (sour sop) belongs to the family Annonaceae. This plant inhibits the growth of other plants growing around it, a phenomenon called “allelopathic effect”. Allelopathy is the production of specific biomolecules by plant species mostly secondary metabolites that can induce suffering or give benefit to other plant ...

  18. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity Of Crude Extracts From Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts from the leaves of Bryophyllum pinnatum and Kalanchoe crenata were screened for their antimicrobial activities. Solvents used included water, methanol, and local solvents such as palmwine, local gin (Seaman's Schnapps 40% alcoholic drink,) and “omi ekan-ogi” (Sour water from 3 days fermented milled maize).

  19. Evaluation of thiosulfate as a substitute for hydrogen sulfide in sour corrosion fatigue studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappes, Mariano Alberto

    This work evaluates the possibility of replacing hydrogen sulfide (H 2S) with thiosulfate anion (S2O32- ) in sour corrosion fatigue studies. H2S increases the corrosion fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) and can be present in carbon steel risers and flowlines used in off-shore oil production. Corrosion tests with gaseous H2S require special facilities with safety features, because H2S is a toxic and flammable gas. The possibility of replacing H2S with S2O32-, a non-toxic anion, for studying stress corrosion cracking of stainless and carbon steels in H2S solutions was first proposed by Tsujikawa et al. ( Tsujikawa et al., Corrosion, 1993. 49(5): p. 409-419). In this dissertation, Tsujikawa work will be extended to sour corrosion fatigue of carbon steels. H2S testing is often conducted in deareated condition to avoid oxygen reaction with sulfide that yields sulfur and to mimic oil production conditions. Nitrogen deareation was also adopted in S2O3 2- testing, and gas exiting the cell was forced through a sodium hydroxide trap. Measurements of the sulfide content of this trap were used to estimate the partial pressure of H2S in nitrogen, and Henry's law was used to estimate the content of H2S in the solution in the cell. H2S was produced by a redox reaction of S2O 32-, which required electrons from carbon steel corrosion. This reaction is spontaneous at the open circuit potential of steel. Therefore, H2S concentration was expected to be maximum at the steel surface, and this concentration was estimated by a mass balance analysis. Carbon steel specimens exposed to S2O32- containing solutions developed a film on their surface, composed by iron sulfide and cementite. The film was not passivating and a good conductor of electrons. Hydrogen permeation experiments proved that this film controls the rate of hydrogen absorption of steels exposed to thiosulfate containing solutions. The absorption of hydrogen in S2O3 2- solutions was compared with the absorption of hydrogen in

  20. Crude oil hedging: benchmarking price protection strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krapels, Edward N.; Pratt, Michael

    1998-01-01

    This report presents a review of hedging (protection against a loss) strategies in the crude oil futures and options markets. The introductory section of the report gives details of hedging instruments, and the purposes of hedging crude oil. Hedging strategies including pure futures strategies, pure options strategies, options combination strategies, exotic (Asian) options strategies, and insurance instruments are described. The West Texas intermediate (WTI) market depth, liquidity and hedging effectiveness are examined, and winners and losers, and energy consumers are considered. The appendix gives tables and charts summarising the outcomes of futures and options strategies under different market conditions and expectations. (UK)

  1. The effects of the lodgepole sour gas well blowout on coniferous tree growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    A dendrochronological study was used to evaluate growth impacts on White Spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) resulting from the 1982 Lodgepole sour gas well blowout. Stem analysis was evaluated from four ecologically similar monitoring sites located on a 10 kilometre downwind gradient and compared to a control site. Incremental volume was calculated, standardized using running mean filters and analyzed using one-way ANOVA. Pre and post-blowout growth trends were analyzed between sites and were also evaluated over a height profile in order to assess growth impact variability within individual trees. Growth reductions at the two sites closest the wellhead were statistically significant for five post-blowout years. Growth at these condensate impacted sites was reduced to 9.8% and 38.1% in 1983. Differences in growth reductions reflect a gradient of effects and a dose-response relationship. Recovery of surviving trees has been rapid but is leveling off at approximately 80% of pre-blowout growth. growth reductions were greater and recovery rates slower than those previously predicted by other authors. Statistically significant differences in height profile growth responses were limited to the upper portions of the trees. Growth rates over a tree height profile ranged from 10% less to 50% more than growth rates observed at a 1.3 metres. Analytical methodologies detected and described growth differences over a height profile but a larger sample size was desirable. As is always the case in catastrophic events, obtaining pre-event baseline data is often difficult. Dendrochronological methods described in this paper offer techniques for determining pre-blowout growth and monitoring impacts and recovery in forested areas

  2. High hydrostatic pressure inactivation of total aerobic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts in sour Chinese cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Feng, Lun; Yi, Junjie; Hua, Cheng; Chen, Fang; Liao, Xiaojun; Wang, Zhengfu; Hu, Xiaosong

    2010-08-15

    This study investigated the inactivation of total aerobic bacteria (TAB), lactic acid bacteria (LAB), yeasts in sour Chinese cabbage (SCC) treated by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP). The pressure level ranged from 200 to 600 MPa and the treatment time were 10-30 min. All samples were stored at 4, 27 and 37 degrees C for 90 days. The pressure level of 200 MPa had no significant impact on these microorganisms. The counts of TAB were significantly reduced by 2.7-4.0 log(10)CFU/g at 400 MPa and 4.2-4.5 log(10)CFU/g at 600 MPa from 6.2 log(10)CFU/g; the counts of LAB were also reduced by 2.4-4.3 log(10)CFU/g at 400 MPa from 7.0 log(10)CFU/g and LAB was completely inactivated at 600 MPa; the counts of yeasts were reduced by 1.5-2.0 log(10)CFU/g at 400 and 600 MPa from 4.2 log(10)CFU/g. Storage temperatures significantly influenced the microbial proliferation in HHP-treated SCC depending on the pressure levels. The surviving TAB and LAB at 400 MPa equaled initial counts after 15-day storage at 27 and 37 degrees C, whereas they were inhibited at 4 degrees C up to 60 days. The surviving TAB at 600 MPa did not grow. Yeasts at 400 and 600 MPa decreased below detectable level after 2 days at all the three storage temperatures. From the microbial safety point of view, the result indicated that HHP at 600 MPa could be used as an alternative preservation method for SCC. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. New progress in wastewater treatment technology for standard-reaching discharge in sour gas fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Gas field water is generally characterized by complex contaminant components and high salinity. Its proper treatment has always been the great concern in the field of environmental protection of oil & gas fields. In this paper, the wastewater from a gas field in the Sichuan Basin with high salinity and more contaminants (e.g. sulfides was treated as a case study for the standard-reaching discharge. Lab experiments were carried out to analyze the adaptability and effectiveness of coagulation–desulfurization composite treatment technology, chemical oxidation based ammonia nitrogen removal technology and cryogenic multi-efficacy distillation technology in the treatment of wastewater in this field. The results show that the removal rate of sulfides and oils is over 90% if polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS is taken as the coagulant combined with TS-1 desulfurization agent. Besides, the removal rate of ammonia nitrogen is over 96% if CA-1 is taken as the oxidant. Finally, after the gas field water is treated by means of cryogenic three-efficacy distillation technology, chloride concentration of distilled water is below 150 mg/L and CODcr concentration is less than 60 mg/L. It is concluded that after the whole process treatment, the main contaminant indicators of wastewater in this case study can satisfy the grade one standard specified in the Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB 8978–1996 and the chloride concentration can meet the requirement of the Standards for Irrigation Water Quality (GB 5084–2005. To sum up, the above mentioned composite technologies are efficient to the wastewater treatment in sour gas fields. Keywords: Sulfide-bearing gas field water, Coagulation, Desulfurization, Chemical oxidation, Standard discharge, Ammonia nitrogen, Chloride, Cryogenic multi-efficacy distillation, Sichuan Basin

  4. Carbohydrate production, balance and translocation in leaves, shoots and fruits of Montmorency sour cherry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappes, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    Carbohydrate production, export and use were studied for different organs of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. Montmorency). Gross carbohydrate ( 14 CO 2 ) export started between 27.2 and 77.6% of full leaf expansion. The 10th leaf developing started export later than the 7th leaf, suggesting that higher carbohydrate availability during leaf expansion delays export initiation. In support of this, gross export started earlier (44.4-52.4% full expansion) after source leaf removal, than in the control (77.6%). Translocation was primarily vertical (following orthostichies). Most leaves of fruiting shoots exported bidirectionally to the apex and fruits, only leaves closest to fruits exported exclusively to fruits during rapid cell division (Stage I) and rapid cell expansion (Stage III). Net export, determined from carbohydrate balance models started at 17 and 51% expansion for the 7th and terminal leaf, and at 26.5% of shoot elongation. Cumulative carbohydrate production of the 7th and terminal leaves during the first 9 and 11 days after emergence, exceeded carbohydrate accumulated at final size, 464.2 and 148.9 mg. A fruit carbohydrate balance was developed to determine contributions by fruit photosynthesis and fruit respiration, and to identify periods of greatest carbohydrate import. Fruit photosynthesis during development was characterized under different environmental conditions. Gross photosynthesis and chlorophyll content per fruit increased to a maximum during stage II and decreased thereafter. Gross photosynthesis approached a maximum at 40 0 C. Since dark respiration increased exponentially over the same temperature range, net photosynthesis reached a maximum at 18 0 C. Photorespiration was not detected

  5. TEXTURAL, FLOW AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF FIVE “FRUZELINA” WITH SOUR CHERRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Bojdo Tomasiak

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Gel with sour cherries called “Fruzelina” is a new product in the Polish market widely used in food industry as a decorative element or filling for pastries, as an ingredient in fruit desserts, as an additive to ice creams, whipped cream and waffles. The cherry gels are the product prepared using different types of chemically modified starches. Starch is an additive used to ensure rich and short texture and high viscosity of “Fruzelina”. Food texture and viscosity may be measured by senses and instrumentally. Because of fact that sensory analysis is time consuming and very costly, it is easier and cheaper to determine food properties, especially their texture and flow behaviour by appropriate mechanical tests. The aim of this work was to study the rheological behavior of five cherry gels and evaluate the correlation between textural, flow and sensory properties of these gels measured instrumentally and by human senses. The back extrusion test has been found to be applicable to study the textural properties of cherry gels. There was high positive correlation between gel texture measured by senses and texture parameters measured in back extrusion test. Similar high correlation was identified for consistency coefficient K obtained in Ostwald de Waele model and gel texture assessed by sensory panel. It was found that values of sensory parameters such as taste and odour decreased as the rheological parameters increased. High negative correlations were observed in these cases. Therefore, instrumental measurements can be alternative for more expensive sensory methods. doi:10.5219/53

  6. Acid stimulation (sour taste elicits GABA and serotonin release from mouse taste cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijen A Huang

    Full Text Available Several transmitter candidates including serotonin (5-HT, ATP, and norepinephrine (NE have been identified in taste buds. Recently, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA as well as the associated synthetic enzymes and receptors have also been identified in taste cells. GABA reduces taste-evoked ATP secretion from Receptor cells and is considered to be an inhibitory transmitter in taste buds. However, to date, the identity of GABAergic taste cells and the specific stimulus for GABA release are not well understood. In the present study, we used genetically-engineered Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells stably co-expressing GABA(B receptors and Gαqo5 proteins to measure GABA release from isolated taste buds. We recorded robust responses from GABA biosensors when they were positioned against taste buds isolated from mouse circumvallate papillae and the buds were depolarized with KCl or a stimulated with an acid (sour taste. In contrast, a mixture of sweet and bitter taste stimuli did not trigger GABA release. KCl- or acid-evoked GABA secretion from taste buds was Ca(2+-dependent; removing Ca(2+ from the bathing medium eliminated GABA secretion. Finally, we isolated individual taste cells to identify the origin of GABA secretion. GABA was released only from Presynaptic (Type III cells and not from Receptor (Type II cells. Previously, we reported that 5-HT released from Presynaptic cells inhibits taste-evoked ATP secretion. Combined with the recent findings that GABA depresses taste-evoked ATP secretion, the present results indicate that GABA and 5-HT are inhibitory transmitters in mouse taste buds and both likely play an important role in modulating taste responses.

  7. Shell Canada Limited application for increased throughput sour gas plant - Caroline Field : decision 97-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    The Alberta Energy and Utilities Board considered an application by Shell Canada Limited to amend its existing Caroline Gas plant approval. Shell desires to add additional cooling equipment to enhance gas processing during the warmer months. Interveners raised several concerns, including the impact of the existing operation on the environment, and the health and safety of the community. Shell stated that the proposed increased throughput of sour gas would result in a 21 per cent increase in sulphur inlet, but that the emissions of SO 2 would still remain below the currently-approved daily maximum level of 45 t/d. Shell also stated that the proposed project would have no impact on flaring duration or frequency. The Board reviewed the evidence filed, and considered the comments of the participants made at a pre-hearing on June 11, 1996. The Board's assessment was that a public hearing was necessary to address Shell's application. The Board also expressed the belief that the scope of the public hearing should be limited to the possible impacts that may occur from the processing of incremental raw inlet gas and sulphur. A hearing date of July 22, 1996 was set. Having regard to the evidence which the Board received and considered, the Board declared itself satisfied that the technical changes to the plant were satisfactory and that the applied-for plant modifications would meet regulatory standards. The Board also believed that the approval of the application to increase throughput at the plant would be in the public interest. Accordingly, the Board declared its readiness to approve the application provided that Shell agreed to meet certain specified conditions. tab., 1 fig

  8. Reducing the cadmium content of crude phosphates and mineral fertilizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plessen, H von; Schimmel, G

    1987-10-01

    Crude sedimentary phosphates generally contain cadmium together with traces of other heavy metals. These Cd traces generally end up in fertilizers produced from the crude phosphates. Processes have therefore been developed to separate the Cd from the crude phosphate or from the crude phosphoric acids arising therefrom as intermediates. In this way, the Cd content of the crude phosphate can be reduced to less the 10% of its original value, and to 50% thereof by extractive treatment with acidic calcium nitrate solution. Older calcination processes for crude phosphate have been improved to give residual Cd contents of 10 to 50% at temperatures of 800 to 1000/sup 0/C. Cadmium can be removed almost quantitatively from crude phosphate by means of dialkyl dithiophosphoric acid esters by extraction, binding to adsorbents, or ion flotation. Cadmium can be extracted from crude acids in high yield by long-chained amines. After partial neutralization of the crude acids, precipitation as cadmium sulphide is also possible.

  9. The Effect of Green Tea and Sour Tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) Supplementation on Oxidative Stress and Muscle Damage in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Amir; Pourmasoumi, Makan; Kafeshani, Marzieh; Karimian, Jahangir; Maracy, Mohammad Reza; Entezari, Mohammad Hasan

    2017-05-04

    Additional oxygen consumption during intense exercises may lead to oxidative stress and contribute to muscular fatigue. Green tea and sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.), which contain various flavonoids and polyphenols, have many healthful properties such as anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, and heart protecting effects. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of green tea and sour tea supplementation on oxidative stress and muscle damage in soccer athletes. This randomized, double-blind control trial was conducted on 54 male soccer players. Participants were randomly assigned to three groups to receive: 450 mg/d green tea extract (GTE) in the first group (n = 18), 450 mg/d sour tea extract (STE) in the second group (n = 18) and 450 mg/d maltodextrin in the control group (n = 18). Fasting whole blood samples were taken under resting conditions at the beginning and the end of the study to quantify the serum levels of muscle damage indices, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and oxidative stress biomarkers, malondialdehyde (MDA), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). After six weeks intervention, athletes who received GTE and STE supplements compared with the placebo had a significantly decreased MDA level (P = 0.008). Furthermore, STE supplementation resulted in a significant increase in TAC level compared with GTE and placebo groups (P = 0.01). However, supplementation with GTE and STE had no significant effects on muscle damage indices. GTE and STE supplementation have beneficial effects on oxidative stress status in male athletes. However, both kinds of tea extract did not affect muscle damage status.

  10. In Vivo Fast Induction of Homogeneous Autopolyploids via Callus in Sour Jujube (Ziziphus acidojujuba Cheng et Liu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Shi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Polyploidization has been demonstrated as a very effective approach in fruit tree improvement. Sour jujube (Ziziphus acidojujuba Cheng et Liu is a promising diploid wild, traditional fruit species (2n = 2x = 24 that is rich in vitamin C, which is the main rootstock of Chinese jujube (Z. jujuba Mill.. The novel method we developed for rapid in vivo induction of homogeneous autopolyploids (IVIHA via callus in Chinese jujube was first applied and further optimized in sour jujube. Under optimized conditions, an average of one pure autotetraploid shoot could be regenerated from one treated branch, thereby indicating a relatively high efficiency rate. A total of 9 pure autotetraploid genotypes were created, and one of these was released as a new cultivar named ‘Zhuguang’ in 2015. Moreover, unexpected octoploids and hexaploids were also simultaneously created and detected. The leaves of tetraploids were thicker, broader, and darker in color than those of the original diploids, whereas the leaf sizes of octoploids were much smaller compared to that of diploids. However, stoma size increased with the occurrence of ploidy, mainly from diploid to octoploid. The well grown ploidies of jujube included diploids, triploids, and tetraploids. Anatomical observation indicated that adventitious buds/shoots emerged from the callus that formed on the cut, which was then followed by the development of connective vascular tissues between the adventitious bud and the stock plant tissue. This study demonstrates the universality of the IVIHA method that was initially developed in Chinese jujube, as well as provides a foundation for high-efficiency pure polyploid induction in sour jujube.

  11. Phytochemical and antimicrobial screening of crude extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bark and wood parts of the root of Terminalia mollis was investigated for its phytochemical and antimicrobial properties. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of tannins and resins as the major secondary metabolites. Test for antimicrobial activity of the plant crude extracts using the agar diffusion method ...

  12. Biogeochemistry of anaerobic crude oil biodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Ian; Gray, Neil; Aitken, Caroline; Sherry, Angela; Jones, Martin; Larter, Stephen

    2010-05-01

    Anaerobic degradation of crude oil and petroleum hydrocarbons is widely recognized as a globally significant process both in the formation of the world's vast heavy oil deposits and for the dissipation of hydrocarbon pollution in anoxic contaminated environments. Comparative analysis of crude oil biodegradation under methanogenic and sulfate-reducing conditions has revealed differences not only in the patterns of compound class removal but also in the microbial communities responsible. Under methanogenic conditions syntrophic associations dominated by bacteria from the Syntropheaceae are prevalent and these are likely key players in the initial anaerobic degradation of crude oil alkanes to intermediates such as hydrogen and acetate. Syntrophic acetate oxidation plays an important role in these systems and often results in methanogenesis dominated by CO2 reduction by members of the Methanomicrobiales. By contrast the bacterial communities from sulfate-reducing crude oil-degrading systems were more diverse and no single taxon dominated the oil-degrading sulfate-reducing systems. All five proteobacterial subdivisions were represented with Delta- and Gammaproteobacteria being detected most consistently. In sediments which were pasteurized hydrocarbon degradation continued at a relatively low rate. Nevertheless, alkylsuccinates characteristic of anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation accumulated to high concentrations. This suggested that the sediments harbour heat resistant, possibly spore-forming alkane degrading sulfate-reducers. This is particularly interesting since it has been proposed recently, that spore-forming sulfate-reducing bacteria found in cold arctic sediments may have originated from seepage of geofluids from deep subsurface hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  13. Refining crude oils and gasolines, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-11-23

    A process of refining crude oils and gasolines distilled from shale and the like is described, consisting of submitting them to a prewash with soda, an oxidation preferably with hypochlorite solution, a hydrogenation with nascent hydrogen, and finally rectification and neutralization.

  14. ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS AND CRUDE PROTEIN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UNICORN

    to quantify heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd) and crude protein content of these species that are sold in ... in protein, omega 3 and low fat content. Furthermore ... high levels of cadmium can cause kidney and liver damage in man [6]. Motivation .... analysis. Determination of heavy metals in the edible tissues of the organisms.

  15. 7 CFR 29.2511 - Crude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crude. 29.2511 Section 29.2511 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... leaves are usually hard and slick as a result of extreme immaturity. A similar condition may result from...

  16. Heavy oils processing materials requirements crude processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloley, Andrew W. [CH2M Hill, Englewood, CO (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Over time, recommended best practices for crude unit materials selection have evolved to accommodate new operating requirements, feed qualities, and product qualities. The shift to heavier oil processing is one of the major changes in crude feed quality occurring over the last 20 years. The three major types of crude unit corrosion include sulfidation attack, naphthenic acid attack, and corrosion resulting from hydrolyzable chlorides. Heavy oils processing makes all three areas worse. Heavy oils have higher sulfur content; higher naphthenic acid content; and are more difficult to desalt, leading to higher chloride corrosion rates. Materials selection involves two major criteria, meeting required safety standards, and optimizing economics of the overall plant. Proper materials selection is only one component of a plant integrity approach. Materials selection cannot eliminate all corrosion. Proper materials selection requires appropriate support from other elements of an integrity protection program. The elements of integrity preservation include: materials selection (type and corrosion allowance); management limits on operating conditions allowed; feed quality control; chemical additives for corrosion reduction; and preventive maintenance and inspection (PMI). The following discussion must be taken in the context of the application of required supporting work in all the other areas. Within that context, specific materials recommendations are made to minimize corrosion due to the most common causes in the crude unit. (author)

  17. Waxy crude oil flow restart ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra, Andre Gaona; Varges, Priscilla Ribeiro; Mendes, Paulo Roberto de Souza [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mails: prvarges@puc-rio.br, pmendes@puc-rio.br; Ziglio, Claudio [PETROBRAS S.A, R.J., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: ziglio@petrobras.com.br

    2010-07-01

    Under the hot reservoir conditions, waxy crudes behave like Newtonian fluids but once they experience very cold temperatures on the sea floor, the heavy paraffin's begin to precipitate from the solution impacting non- Newtonian flow behavior to the crude (Chang 2000, Lee 2009, Davidson 2004) and begin to deposit on the pipe wall leave blocked of pipeline. This gel cannot be broken with the original steady state flow operating pressure applied before gelation (Chang 1998). Restarting waxy crude oil flows in pipelines is a difficult issue because of the complex rheological behavior of the gelled oil. Indeed, below the WAT, the gelled oil exhibits viscoplastic, thixotropic, temperature-dependent, and compressible properties due to the interlocking gel-like structure formed by the crystallized paraffin compounds and the thermal shrinkage of the oil. The main objective of this work is to determine the minimal pressure to restart the flow, and the relationship between the fluid rheology , pipe geometry and the restart pressure of the flow. Experiments will be performed to investigate the displacement of carbopol aqueous solutions (viscoplastic fluid without thixotropic effects) by Newtonian oil flowing through a strait pipe to validate the experimental apparatus. Therefore, tests will be made with different fluids, like Laponite and waxy crude oils. (author)

  18. Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial screening of crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leaves, stem bark and root bark of Ekebergia senegalensis, which has some traditional medicinal applications were investigated. Phytochemical analysis gave positive results for carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, tannins and alkaloids. The crude methanol extracts showed growth inhibitory effects on Salmonella ...

  19. Formation and Control of Sulfur Oxides in Sour Gas Oxy-Combustion: Prediction Using a Reactor Network Model

    KAUST Repository

    Bongartz, Dominik

    2015-11-19

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Sour natural gas currently requires expensive gas cleanup before it can be used in power generation because it contains large amounts of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and carbon dioxide (CO2) that entail a low heating value and highly corrosive combustion products. A potential alternative is to use the gas directly in a gas turbine process employing oxy-fuel combustion, which could eliminate the need for gas cleanup while also enabling the application of carbon capture and sequestration, possibly combined with enhanced oil recovery (EOR). However, the exact influence of an oxy-fuel environment on the combustion products of sour gas has not been quantified yet. In this work, we used a reactor network model for the combustor and the gas turbine together with our recently assembled and validated detailed chemical reaction mechanism for sour gas combustion to investigate the influence of some basic design parameters on the combustion products of natural gas and sour gas in CO2 or H2O diluted oxy-fuel combustion as well as in conventional air combustion. Our calculations show that oxy-fuel combustion produces up to 2 orders of magnitude less of the highly corrosive product sulfur trioxide (SO3) than air combustion, which clearly demonstrates its potential in handling sulfur containing fuels. Unlike in air combustion, in oxy-fuel combustion, SO3 is mainly formed in the flame zone of the combustor and is then consumed as the combustion products are cooled in the dilution zone of the combustor and the turbine. In oxy-fuel combustion, H2O dilution leads to a higher combustion efficiency than CO2 dilution. However, if the process is to be combined with EOR, CO2 dilution makes it easier to comply with the very low levels of oxygen (O2) required in the EOR stream. Our calculations also show that it might even be beneficial to operate slightly fuel-rich because this simultaneously decreases the O2 and SO3 concentration further. The flame zone

  20. Volatility persistence in crude oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, Amélie; Darné, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Financial market participants and policy-makers can benefit from a better understanding of how shocks can affect volatility over time. This study assesses the impact of structural changes and outliers on volatility persistence of three crude oil markets – Brent, West Texas Intermediate (WTI) and Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) – between January 2, 1985 and June 17, 2011. We identify outliers using a new semi-parametric test based on conditional heteroscedasticity models. These large shocks can be associated with particular event patterns, such as the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq, the Operation Desert Storm, the Operation Desert Fox, and the Global Financial Crisis as well as OPEC announcements on production reduction or US announcements on crude inventories. We show that outliers can bias (i) the estimates of the parameters of the equation governing volatility dynamics; (ii) the regularity and non-negativity conditions of GARCH-type models (GARCH, IGARCH, FIGARCH and HYGARCH); and (iii) the detection of structural breaks in volatility, and thus the estimation of the persistence of the volatility. Therefore, taking into account the outliers on the volatility modelling process may improve the understanding of volatility in crude oil markets. - Highlights: • We study the impact of outliers on volatility persistence of crude oil markets. • We identify outliers and patches of outliers due to specific events. • We show that outliers can bias (i) the estimates of the parameters of GARCH models, (ii) the regularity and non-negativity conditions of GARCH-type models, (iii) the detection of structural breaks in volatility of crude oil markets

  1. Systemic toxicity of dermally applied crude oils in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feuston, M.H.; Mackerer, C.R.; Schreiner, C.A.; Hamilton, C.E. [Stonybrook Labs., Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Two crude oils, differing in viscosity (V) and nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) content, were evaluated for systemic toxicity, In the Crude I (low V, low N, low S) study, the material was applied to the clipped backs of rats at dose levels of 0, 30, 125, and 500 mg/kg. In the Crude II (high V, high N, moderate S) study, the oil was applied similarly at the same dose levels. The crude oils were applied for 13 wk, 5 d/wk. Exposure sites were not occluded. Mean body weight gain (wk 1-14) was significantly reduced in male rats exposed to Crude II; body weight gain of all other animals was not adversely affected by treatment. An increase in absolute (A) and relative (R) liver weights and a decrease in A and R thymus weights were observed in male and female rats exposed to Crude II at 500 mg/kg; only liver weights (A and R) were adversely affected in male and female rats exposed to Crude I. In general, there was no consistent pattern of toxicity for serum chemistry endpoints; however, more parameters were adversely affected in Crude II-exposed female rats than in the other exposed groups. A consistent pattern of toxicity for hematology endpoints was observed among male rats exposed to Crude I and male and female rats exposed to Crude II. Parameters affected included: Crudes I and II, red blood cell count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, Crude II, platelet count. Microscopic evaluation of tissues revealed the following treatment-related findings: Crude I, treated skin, thymus, and thyroid; Crude II, bone marrow, treated skin, thymus, and thyroid. The LOEL (lowest observable effect level) for skin irritation and systemic toxicity (based on marginal effects on the thyroid) for both crude oils was 30 mg/kg; effects were more numerous and more pronounced in animals exposed to Crude II. Systemic effects are probably related to concentrations of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) found in crude oil.

  2. Microbially-Enhanced Redox Solution Reoxidation for Sour Natural Gas Sweetening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth Brezinsky

    2008-01-15

    The specific objective of this project are to advance the technology and improve the economics of the commercial iron-based chelate processes such as LO-CAT II and SulFerox process utilizing biologically enhanced reoxidation of the redox solutions used in these processes. The project is based on the use of chelated ferric iron as the catalyst for the production of elemental sulfur, and then oxidizing bacteria, such as Thiobacillus Ferrooxidans (ATCC 23270) as an oxidizer. The regeneration of Fe{sup 3+} - chelate is accomplished by the use of these same microbes under mild conditions at 25-30 C and at atmospheric pressure to minimize the chelate degradation process. The pH of the redox solution was observed to be a key process parameter. Other parameters such as temperature, total iron concentration, gas to liquid ratio and bacterial cell densities also influence the overall process. The second part of this project includes experimental data and a kinetic model of microbial H{sub 2}S removal from sour natural gas using thiobacillus species. In the experimental part, a series of experiments were conducted with a commercial chelated iron catalyst at pH ranges from 8.7 to 9.2 using a total iron concentration range from 925 ppm to 1050 ppm in the solution. Regeneration of the solution was carried out by passing air through the solution. Iron oxidizing bacteria were used at cell densities of 2.3 x 10{sup 7}cells/ml for optimum effective performance. In the modeling part, oxidation of Fe{sup 2+} ions by the iron oxidizing bacteria - Thiobacillus Ferrooxidans was studied for application to a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The factors that can directly affect the oxidation rate such as dilution rate, temperature, and pH were analyzed. The growth of the microorganism was assumed to follow Monod type of growth kinetics. Dilution rate had influence on the rate of oxidation of ferrous iron. Higher dilution rates caused washout of the biomass. The oxidation rate was

  3. Carbon economy of sour orange in response to different Glomus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, J. H.; Drouillard, D. L.; Hodge, N. C.

    1996-01-01

    Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (M) fungal colonization, growth, and nonstructural carbohydrate status of sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.) seedlings were compared at low- and high-phosphorus (P) supply following inoculation with four Glomus isolates: G. intraradices (Gi, FL208), G. etunicatum (Ge, UT316), G. claroideum (Gc, SC186), and Glomus sp. (G329, FL906). Nonmycorrhizal (NM) seedlings served as controls. At low-P supply, increases in incidence of M colonization, vesicles and accumulation of fungal fatty acid 16:1omega(5)C in roots were most rapid for G329-inoculated seedlings, followed closely by Gi- and Gc-inoculated seedlings. Glomus etunicatum was a less aggressive colonizer and produced lower rates of fungal fatty acid accumulation in seedling roots than the other Glomus species. Nonmycorrhizal and Ge-inoculated seedlings had lower P status and growth rates than seedlings inoculated with Gi or G329. Glomus claroideum increased seedling P status, but growth rate was lower than for seedlings colonized by Gi or G329, suggesting higher belowground costs for Gc colonization. In P-sufficient roots colonized by Gi, Gc, or G329, starch and ketone sugar concentrations were lower than in P-deficient NM and Ge-inoculated plants. Under conditions of high-P supply where mycorrhizae provided no P benefit to the seedlings, colonization by Gc, Gi, and G329 was delayed and reduced compared to that at low-P supply; however, the relative colonization rates among Glomus spp. were similar. Colonization by Ge was not detected in roots until 64 days after inoculation. Compared to NM seedlings, growth rates of mycorrhizal seedlings were reduced by the three aggressive fungi but not by the less aggressive Ge. After 64 days, starch and ketone sugar concentrations were lower in fibrous roots colonized by Gc, Gi, and G329 than in NM roots, indicating greater utilization of nonstructural carbohydrates in roots colonized by the aggressive fungi. After 49 days, colonization by the

  4. Effectiveness of managed populations of wild and honey bees as supplemental pollinators of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) under different climatic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansted, Lise; Grout, Brian William Wilson; Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo

    2015-01-01

    Managed populations of Apis mellifera, Bombus terrestris and Osmia have been investigated rufa as sour cherry pollinators in two flowering seasons with different weather patterns. Flight activity of the three bee species during the pollination-receptive period of the cultivar ‘Stevnsbaer’ was rec......Managed populations of Apis mellifera, Bombus terrestris and Osmia have been investigated rufa as sour cherry pollinators in two flowering seasons with different weather patterns. Flight activity of the three bee species during the pollination-receptive period of the cultivar ‘Stevnsbaer...

  5. Influence of the date of cut of rootstocks to the stub on growth of maider sour cherry trees cv. 'Łutówka'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Wociór

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Over a three-year period (1997-1999 investigations were conducted on the effect of 6 date of cut to the stub on tree trunk diameter, height and branching of sour cherry maidens in the nursery.On the Prunus mahaleb seedling rootstock were found no significant influen ce of the date between January, 15 - March, 30 of cut to the stub on growth of sour cherry maidens cv. ´Łutówka' (tree trunk diameter and branching and efficiency of nursery. The date of cutting in 15 April decreased trunk diameter and percent of the first quality trees.

  6. Application of Markov Model in Crude Oil Price Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuhu Isah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil is an important energy commodity to mankind. Several causes have made crude oil prices to be volatile. The fluctuation of crude oil prices has affected many related sectors and stock market indices. Hence, forecasting the crude oil prices is essential to avoid the future prices of the non-renewable natural resources to rise. In this study, daily crude oil prices data was obtained from WTI dated 2 January to 29 May 2015. We used Markov Model (MM approach in forecasting the crude oil prices. In this study, the analyses were done using EViews and Maple software where the potential of this software in forecasting daily crude oil prices time series data was explored. Based on the study, we concluded that MM model is able to produce accurate forecast based on a description of history patterns in crude oil prices.

  7. Assessment of Antioxidant Indices after incorporating Crude Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Exposure to crude oil pollution leads to the formation ... vitamin/mineral mixture (5 %). The food ..... hepatic antioxidant enzymes against cadmium induced liver ... Interaction of crude oil with alpha-tocopherol: ... Essential oil from Monodora.

  8. A MODEL FOR DIFFUSION CONTROLLED BIOAVAILABILITY OF CRUDE OIL COMPONENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crude oil is a complex mixture of several different structural classes of compounds including alkanes, aromatics, heterocyclic polar compounds, and asphaltenes. The rate and extent of microbial degradation of crude oil depends on the interaction between the physical and biochemi...

  9. Characterization of CRUDE OILS and petroleum products: (i) elution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of CRUDE OILS and petroleum products: (i) elution liquid chromatographic separation and gas chromatographic analysis of crude oils and petroleum products. E.O. Odebunmi, E.A. Ogunsakin, P.E.P. Ilukhor ...

  10. Antifungal modes of action of Saccharomyces and other biocontrol yeasts against fungi isolated from sour and grey rots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nally, M C; Pesce, V M; Maturano, Y P; Rodriguez Assaf, L A; Toro, M E; Castellanos de Figueroa, L I; Vazquez, F

    2015-07-02

    The aim of this study was to determine the putative modes of action of 59 viticultural yeasts (31 Saccharomyces and 28 non-Saccharomyces) that inhibited fungi isolated from sour and grey rot in grapes. Inhibition of fungal mycelial growth by metabolites, enzyme activities (laminarinases, chitinases), antifungal volatiles, competition for nutrients (siderophores, Niche Overlap Index (NOI)), inhibition of fungal spore germination and decreased germinal tube length and induction of resistance were assayed. Biofungicide yeasts were classified into "antifungal patterns", according to their mechanisms of action. Thirty isolates presented at least two of the mechanisms assayed. We propose that inhibition of fungal mycelial growth by metabolites, laminarinases, competition for nutrients, inhibition of fungal spore germination and decreased germinal tube length, and antifungal volatiles by Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces viticultural yeasts is used as putative biocontrol mechanisms against phytopathogenic fungi. Twenty-four different antifungal patterns were identified. Siderophore production (N)and a combination of siderophore production and NOI>0.92 (M)were the most frequent antifungal patterns observed in the biofungicide yeasts assayed. Elucidation of these mechanisms could be useful for optimization of an inoculum formulation, resulting in a more consistent control of grey and sour rot with Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces biocontrol yeasts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of Sugar and Polyphenolic Diversity in Floral Nectar of Different 'Oblačinska' Sour Cherry Clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffa, Basem; Nedić, Nebojša M; Dabić Zagorac, Dragana Č; Tosti, Tomislav B; Gašić, Uroš M; Natić, Maja M; Fotirić Akšić, Milica M

    2017-09-01

    'Oblačinska' sour cherry, an autochthonous cultivar, is the most planted cultivar in Serbian orchards. Since fruit trees in temperate zone reward insects by producing nectar which 'quality' affects the efficiency of insect pollination, the aim of this study was analyzing of sugars and polyphenolics in floral nectar of 16 'Oblačinska' sour cherry clones with different yielding potential. The contents of sugars and sugar alcohols were analyzed by ion chromatography, while polyphenolic profile was established using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry technique. Fourteen sugars and six sugar alcohols were detected in nectar samples and the most abundant were fructose, glucose, and sucrose. Eleven polyphenols were quantified using available standards, while another 17 were identified according to their exact masses and characteristic fragmentations. Among quantified polyphenols, rutin, naringenin, and chrysin were the most abundant in nectar. Principal component analysis showed that some polyphenol components (naringin, naringenin, and rutin) together with sugars had high impact of spatial distribution of nectar samples on score plot. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  12. Fruit Set of Several Sour Cherry Cultivars in Latvia Influenced by Weather Conditions Before and During Flowering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feldmane Daina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fruit set is a crucial stage in the process of yield formation, which is influenced by environmental factors, growing technologies and peculiarities of genotype. The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of pollen (viability and germination capacity and the effect of weather before and during flowering on fruit set in sour cherry cultivars ‘Latvijas Zemais’, ‘Zentenes’, ‘Bulatnikovskaya’, and ‘Orlica’. The research was carried out in Institute of Horticulture (Latvia University of Agriculture in 2009-2016. Good pollen viability and germination was found for cultivars ‘Latvijas Zemais’ and ‘Bulatnikovskaya’. Negative effects of increasing air temperature (in the range of 7.7 to 17.5 °C and relative humidity (in the range of 51.4 to 88.5% was observed for all cultivars during flowering. The effects of diurnal temperature fluctuations, wind and the amount of days with precipitation differed depending on sour cherry cultivar.

  13. Problems Caused by Microbes and Treatment Strategies Monitoring and Preventing Reservoir Souring Using Molecular Microbiological Methods (MMM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittel, Antje

    The injection of seawater during the process of secondary oil recovery in offshore oilfields supplies huge amounts of sulphate to the prokaryotic reservoir communities. Together with the presence of oil organics and their degradation products as electron donors, this facilitates the enrichment and growth of sulphate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP) in the reservoir, as well as in pipings and top-side installations (Sunde and Torsvik, 2005; Vance and Thrasher, 2005). The activity of SRP causes severe economic problems due to the reactivity and toxicity of the produced hydrogen sulphide (H2S), one of the major problems being reservoir souring. Besides the use of broad-spectrum biocides or inhibitors for sulphate reduction, the addition of nitrate effectively decreased the net production of H2S in model column studies (Myhr et al., 2002; Hubert et al., 2005; Dunsmore et al., 2006) and field trials (Telang et al., 1997; Bødtker et al., 2008). The mechanisms by which nitrate addition might affect souring control are (i) the stimulation of heterotrophic nitrate-reducing bacteria (hNRB) that outcompete SRP for electron donors, (ii) the activity of nitrate-reducing, sulphide-oxidising bacteria (NR-SOB), and (iii) the inhibition of SRP by the production of nitrite and nitrous oxides (Sunde and Torsvik, 2005; Hubert and Voordouw, 2007).

  14. Molluscicidal activity of crude water leaf extracts of Alternanthera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mortality figures by the use of probit gave LC50 of 40.42 (35.15 – 46.47) for the unevaporated crude water while the evaporated crude water extract had LC50 of 48.07 (42.81 – 54.28) for the dried leaf extract. For the fresh leaves the unevaporated crude water extract had LC50 of 32.57 (27.15 – 39.08) and evaporated crude ...

  15. Lactic acid fermentation of crude sorghum extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel, W.A.; Lee, Y.Y.; Anthony, W.B.

    1980-04-01

    Crude extract from sweet sorghum supplemented with vetch juice was utilized as the carbohydrate source for fermentative production of lactic acid. Fermentation of media containing 7% (w/v) total sugar was completed in 60-80 hours by Lactobacillus plantarum, product yield averaging 85%. Maximum acid production rates were dependent on pH, initial substrate distribution, and concentration, the rates varying from 2 to 5 g/liter per hour. Under limited medium supplementation the lactic acid yield was lowered to 67%. The fermented ammoniated product contained over eight times as much equivalent crude protein (N x 6.25) as the original medium. Unstructured kinetic models were developed for cell growth, lactic acid formation, and substrate consumption in batch fermentation. With the provision of experimentally determined kinetic parameters, the proposed models accurately described the fermentation process. 15 references.

  16. Tanker spills Norwegian crude oil off Shetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports that crude oil was spilling last week from the U.S. owned Braer tanker after the 89,000 dwt vessel ran aground on the south end of Scotland's Shetland Islands. Workers were trying to assess the extent of damage to the tanker, shoreline, and wildlife after the January 5 accident. Braer's cargo amounted to 607,000 bbl of Norwegian oil bound for Canada. Braer loaded its cargo and sailed January 3 from Den norske stats oljeselskap AS's Mongstad, Norway, terminal with crude from Gullfaks field in the Norwegian North Sea. The $11 million shipment was destined for Ultramar Canada Inc.'s 125,000 b/d refinery at St. Romuald, Que

  17. Electrical desalting - preparing of the crude oil for further processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asadi, Nadija; Minovski, Mino; Sokolovski, Aleksandar

    1999-01-01

    Desalting as well as dewatering of the crude oil is important preparing process, which takes place in crude units on the refinery plants. One of the most efficient ways of desalting is use of high voltage electricity. In this work attention is paid on the principals of this process, illustrated with practically gained results from the OKTA Crude Oil Refinery in Macedonia. (Original)

  18. Bioremediation of crude oil contaminated tea plantation soil using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crude oil contamination of soil is a major concern for tea industry in Assam, India. Crude oil is a persistent organic contaminant which alters soil physical and biochemical characteristics and makes tea plants more susceptible against crude oil contamination. Therefore, two native bacterial strains designated as AS 03 and ...

  19. 10 CFR 212.78 - Tertiary incentive crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tertiary incentive crude oil. 212.78 Section 212.78 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL MANDATORY PETROLEUM PRICE REGULATIONS Producers of Crude Oil § 212.78 Tertiary incentive crude oil. Annual prepaid expenses report. By January 31 of each year after 1980, the project...

  20. Wax deposition in crude oil pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assuncao, Pablo Morelato; Rodrigues, Lorennzo Marrochi Nolding [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Sao Mateus, ES (Brazil). Centro Universitario Norte do Espirito Santo. Engenharia de Petroleo; Romero, Mao Ilich [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Enhanced Oil Recovery Institute], e-mail: mromerov@uwyo.edu

    2010-07-01

    Crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons which consists of aromatics, paraffins, naphthenics, resins asphaltenes, etc. When the temperature of crude oil is reduced, the heavy components, like paraffin, will precipitate and deposit on the pipe internal wall in the form of a wax-oil gel. The gel deposit consists of wax crystals that trap some amount of oil. As the temperature gets cooler, more wax will precipitate and the thickness of the wax gel will increase, causing gradual solidification of the crude and eventually the oil stop moving inside the offshore pipeline. Crude oil may not be able to be re-mobilized during re-startup. The effective diameter will be reduced with wax deposition, resulting in several problems, for example, higher pressure drop which means additional pumping energy costs, poor oil quality, use of chemical components like precipitation inhibitors or flowing facilitators, equipment failure, risk of leakage, clogging of the ducts and process equipment. Wax deposition problems can become so sever that the whole pipeline can be completely blocked. It would cost millions of dollars to remediate an offshore pipeline that is blocked by wax. Wax solubility decreases drastically with decreasing temperature. At low temperatures, as encountered in deep water production, is easy to wax precipitate. The highest temperature below which the paraffins begins to precipitate as wax crystals is defined as wax appearance temperature (WAT). Deposition process is a complex free surface problem involving thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, mass and heat transfer. In this work, a numerical analysis of wax deposition by molecular diffusion and shear dispersion mechanisms in crude oil pipeline is studied. Diffusion flux of wax toward the wall is estimated by Fick's law of diffusion, in similar way the shear dispersion; wax concentration gradient at the solid-liquid interface is obtained by the volume fraction conservation equation; and since the wax deposition

  1. DOE/DOT Crude Oil Characterization Research Study, Task 2 Test Report on Evaluating Crude Oil Sampling and Analysis Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Allen, Ray [Allen Energy Services, Inc., Longview, TX (United States); Rudeen, David [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    The Crude Oil Characterization Research Study is designed to evaluate whether crude oils currently transported in North America, including those produced from "tight" formations, exhibit physical or chemical properties that are distinct from conventional crudes, and how these properties associate with combustion hazards with may be realized during transportation and handling.

  2. How much crude oil can zooplankton ingest? Estimating the quantity of dispersed crude oil defecated by planktonic copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Connelly, Tara L.; Buskey, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    % of the analyzed fecal pellets from three species of copepods and a natural copepod assemblage exposed for 48 h to physically or chemically dispersed light crude oil contained crude oil droplets. Crude oil droplets inside fecal pellets were smaller (median diameter: 2.4-3.5 mu m) than droplets in the physically...

  3. Implications of globalization on pricing for Canadian crudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, R. [Canadian Occidental Petroleum Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1998-05-01

    The effects of globalization on Canadian crude oil prices was discussed. Since deregulation in October 1985, Canadian crude oil has competed directly against international crude oil through the use of the NYMEX contract price for light sweet crude oil as the base for establishing the price for Canadian crudes. Prior to that date, Alberta crude was marketed by the Alberta Petroleum Marketing Commission using the old block matrix which was loosely tied to the world market price. In addition to world crude oil prices other factors that affect the price of Canadian crude oil include technology impacts and global integration. Also, when the Sarnia to Montreal pipeline (Line 9) is reversed to bring offshore crude oil into the Ontario refining community, Canadian producers can expect some adverse effects on the price they are paid for their products leading up to the reversal as refiners start to swing over to their alternate suppliers. The offshore supply is expected to be about 140,000 barrels/day of light sweet crude oil, but all grades of Canadian crude oil will be affected.

  4. Dispersed catalysts for transforming extra heavy crude oil into transportable upgraded crude: phase identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, S.; Canizales, E.; Machin, I. [Gerencia Depttal de Investigacion Estrategica en Refinacion PDVSA Intevep (Venezuela); Segovia, X.; Rivas, A.; Lopez, E.; Pena, J.P.; Rojas, J.D.; Sardella, R. [Gerencia Depttal de Infraestructura y Mejoramiento en Faja Petrolifera PDVSA Intevep (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    A new technology to convert extra heavy crude oil into transportable upgraded crude has been developed. A water/oil emulsion composed of steam and catalyst precursors is introduced in the feed which then generates unsupported dispersed catalyst in situ under thermal decomposition. The aim of this paper is to characterize the particles. The study was conducted in a laboratory and on a pilot scale on three different vacuum residues using high resolution transmission electron microscopy and a transmission electron microscope. Results showed that the particles were formed by oxides and inorganic sulphur based in transition metals and their sizes ranged between 5 and 120 nm; in addition, good dispersion was observed. This study demonstrated that the process involved in the generation of dispersed catalyst is extremely complex and showed that further work with heavy crude oils and its residua is required to understand the mechanisms involved.

  5. The Effect of Green Tea versus Sour Tea on Insulin Resistance, Lipids Profiles and Oxidative Stress in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Mozaffari-Khosravi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: By decreasing oxidative stress and whereby decreasing insulin resistance, it may be possible to decrease complications of Diabetes Mellitus (DM. Green tea and sour tea contain phytochemicals which have anti-oxidative function. The aim of this study is to compare the effect of sour and green tea consumption on insulin resistance and oxidative stress in DM. Methods: This study is a randomized clinical trial in which 100 type 2 diabetes patients were randomly assigned into sour tea group (ST and green tea group (GT. The patients were instructed to drink 150ml sour tea and green tea infusion, respectively, three times a day for 4 weeks. Fasting blood sugar (FBS, fructosamine, lipid profiles, fasting blood insulin (FBI, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; beta cell function (b%, insulin sensitivity (S% and malondialdehyde (MDA were monitored. Results: HDL-c significantly increased in both groups. The median of FBI in GT showed significant decrease (8.5 to 6.6 μIU/mL unlike the ST which showed significant increase (8.2 to 16.3 μIU/mL. The median of HOMA-IR after the intervention in GT showed lower levels than the ST (1.1 vs. 1.6, P=0.004. The median of b% only in ST showed significant increase from 38.2% at the baseline to 47.7% after the intervention. The mean of S% only in ST showed significant decrease after the intervention. Conclusion: This study shows that the use of 150 ml infusion of green tea or sour tea, three times a day for four weeks, has positive effect on insulin resistance and certain lipoproteins in type 2 DM. Trial Registration Number: IRCT201107317161N1

  6. Transient leak detection in crude oil pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beushausen, R.; Tornow, S.; Borchers, H. [Nord-West Oelleitung, Wilhelmshaven (Germany); Murphy, K.; Zhang, J. [Atmos International Ltd., Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Nord-West Oelleitung (NWO) operates 2 crude oil pipelines from Wilhemshaven to Koln and Hamburg respectively. German regulations for transporting flammable substances stipulate that 2 independent continuously working procedures be used to detect leaks. Leak detection pigs are used routinely to complement the surveillance system. This paper described the specific issues of transient leak detection in crude oil pipelines. It was noted that traditional methods have failed to detect leaks that occur immediately after pumps are turned on or off because the pressure wave generated by the transient dominates the pressure wave that results from the leak. Frequent operational changes in a pipeline are often accompanied by an increased number of false alarms and failure to detect leaks due to unsteady operations. NWO therefore decided to have the Atmos statistical pipeline leak detection (SPLD) system installed on their pipelines. The key to the SPLD system is the sequential probability ratio test. Comprehensive data validation is performed following reception of pipeline data from the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system. The validated data is then used to calculate the corrected flow imbalance, which is fed into the SPRT to determine if there is an increase in the flow imbalance. Pattern recognition is then used to distinguish a leak from operational changes. The SPLD is unique because it uses 3 computational pipeline monitoring methods simultaneously, namely modified volume balance, statistical analysis, and pressure and flow monitoring. The successful installation and testing of the SPLD in 2 crude oil pipelines was described along with the main difficulties associated with transient leaks. Field results were presented for both steady-state and transient conditions. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 16 figs.

  7. A crude scaling law for lasertrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, J.

    1987-11-01

    The lasertron is under consideration in several laboratories as a promising new source of high-power microwaves that is competitive with conventional klystrons in its properties - particularly in efficiency. In this note, a crude scaling law for high-power lasertrons is derived based on the observation that the main limiting phenomenon, the phenomenon that curtails the tube's efficiency, is debunching due to longitudinal space-charge forces acting in the electron gun. The scaling law indicates that lasertrons are quite restricted in the power they can generate at high frequencies

  8. Vulnerability maps for Druzba crude oil pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hladik, P.; Hosnedl, P.; Buresova, H.; Corbet, J.

    2012-01-01

    Maps of risk for individual environmental aspects within the protection zone of the Czech part of the Druzba crude oil pipeline (505.7 km) were developed based on a modified 'H and V index' method. Risk data were added into a GIS of the Druzba pipeline so that the system could be used as conceptual material in the field of environmental protection (a base for the new SCADA system). Considered environmental aspects were assessed in terms of their vulnerability. The criteria were defined as the vulnerability of the aquatic environment (surface waters and ground waters), the vulnerability of soil environment and the vulnerability of biotic components of the environment. (authors)

  9. Design of ultrasonic probe and evaluation of ultrasonic waves on E.coli in Sour Cherry Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Hosseinzadeh Samani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The common method used for juice pasteurization is the thermal method since thermal methods contribute highly to inactivating microbes. However, applying high temperatures would lead to inefficient effects on nutrition and food value. Such effects may include vitamin loss, nutritional flavor loss, non-enzyme browning, and protein reshaping (Kuldiloke, 2002. In order to decrease the adverse effects of the thermal pasteurization method, other methods capable of inactivation of microorganisms can be applied. In doing so, non-thermal methods including pasteurization using high hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP, electrical fields, and ultrasound waves are of interest (Chen and Tseng, 1996. The reason for diminishing microbial count in the presence of ultrasonic waves could be due to the burst of very tiny bubbles developed by ultrasounds which expand quickly and burst in a short time. Due to this burst, special temperature and pressure conditions are developed which could initiate or intensify several physical and/or chemical reactions. The aim of this study is to evaluate the non-thermal ultrasonic method and its effective factors on the E.coli bacteria of sour cherry. Materials and methods: In order to supply uniform ultrasonic waves, a 1000 W electric generator (Model MPI, Switzerland working at 20±1 kHz frequency was used. The aim of this study is to evaluate the non-thermal ultrasonic method and its effective factors on the E.coli bacteria of sour cherry. For this purpose, a certain amount of sour cherry fruit was purchased from local markets. First, the fruits were washed, cleaned and cored. The prepared fruits were then dewatered using an electric juicer. In order to separate pulp suspensions and tissue components, the extracted juice was poured into a centrifuge with the speed of 6000 rpm for 20 min. For complete separation of the remaining suspended particles, the transparent portion of the extract was passed through a

  10. Effects of Ultrasound Assistance on Dehydration Processes and Bioactive Component Retention of Osmo-Dried Sour Cherries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siucińska, Karolina; Mieszczakowska-Frąc, Monika; Połubok, Aleksandra; Konopacka, Dorota

    2016-07-01

    Despite having numerous health benefits, dried sour cherries have proven to be more acceptable to consumers when infused with sugar or other sweeteners to enhance their flavor, which, in turn, leads to serious anthocyanin losses. For this reason, a consideration was made for the application of ultrasound to accelerate solid gain and shorten drying time, thus favoring bioactive component retention. To determine the usefulness of ultrasound as a tool for sour cherry osmotic infusion enhancement, the effect of sonication time on dehydration effectiveness, as well as the stability of bioactive components during osmotic treatment and consecutive convective drying, was investigated. Fruits were osmo-dehydrated using a 60% sucrose solution for 120 min (40 °C), during which, ultrasound of 25 kHz (0.4 W/cm(2) ), was applied for 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min, after which, the fruits were convectively dried. In the range of the applied ultrasound energy no significant effect of sonication on mass transfer intensification was observed; moreover, longer acoustic treatment seemed to retard moisture removal during subsequent convective drying, which can be related to the breakdown of the parenchyma cell walls caused by the prolonged ultrasound (US) action. It was concluded that although US assistance could be considered neutral for bioactive component retention, excessive sonication time can lead to some anthocyanin deterioration. According to high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, the particular anthocyanin alterations, both during dehydration and final drying, occurred in a similar way. Sonication time prolongation caused approximately 10% more bioactive compound deterioration, than earlier, shorter trials. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Cloning, Expression, and Characterization of Sorbitol Transporters from Developing Sour Cherry Fruit and Leaf Sink Tissues1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhifang; Maurousset, Laurence; Lemoine, Remi; Yoo, Sang-Dong; van Nocker, Steven; Loescher, Wayne

    2003-01-01

    The acyclic polyol sorbitol is a primary photosynthetic product and the principal photosynthetic transport substance in many economically important members of the family Rosaceace (e.g. almond [Prunus dulcis (P. Mill.) D.A. Webber], apple [Malus pumila P. Mill.], cherry [Prunus spp.], peach [Prunus persica L. Batsch], and pear [Pyrus communis]). To understand key steps in long-distance transport and particularly partitioning and accumulation of sorbitol in sink tissues, we have cloned two sorbitol transporter genes (PcSOT1 and PcSOT2) from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) fruit tissues that accumulate large quantities of sorbitol. Sorbitol uptake activities and other characteristics were measured by heterologous expression of PcSOT1 and PcSOT2 in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Both genes encode proton-dependent, sorbitol-specific transporters with similar affinities (Km sorbitol of 0.81 mm for PcSOT1 and 0.64 mm for PcSOT2). Analyses of gene expression of these transporters, however, suggest different roles during leaf and fruit development. PcSOT1 is expressed throughout fruit development, but especially when growth and sorbitol accumulation rates are highest. In leaves, PcSOT1 expression is highest in young, expanding tissues, but substantially less in mature leaves. In contrast, PcSOT2 is mainly expressed only early in fruit development and not in leaves. Compositional analyses suggest that transport mediated by PcSOT1 and PcSOT2 plays a major role in sorbitol and dry matter accumulation in sour cherry fruits. Presence of these transporters and the high fruit sorbitol concentrations suggest that there is an apoplastic step during phloem unloading and accumulation in these sink tissues. Expression of PcSOT1 in young leaves before completion of the transition from sink to source is further evidence for a role in determining sink activity. PMID:12692316

  12. Key technologies for well drilling and completion in ultra-deep sour gas reservoirs, Yuanba Gasfield, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxiang Xia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Yuanba Gasfield is a large gas field discovered by Sinopec in the Sichuan Basin in recent years, and another main exploration area for natural gas reserves and production increase after the Puguang Gasfield. The ultra-deep sour gas reservoir in the Yuanba Gasfield is characterized by complicated geologic structure, deep reservoirs and complex drilled formation, especially in the continental deep strata which are highly abrasive with low ROP (rate of penetration and long drilling period. After many years of drilling practice and technical research, the following six key drilling and completion technologies for this type reservoir are established by introducing new tools and technologies, developing specialized drill bits and optimizing drilling design. They are: casing program optimization technology for ROP increasing and safe well completion; gas drilling technology for shallow continental strata and high-efficiency drilling technology for deep high-abrasion continental strata; drilling fluid support technologies of gas–liquid conversion, ultra-deep highly-deviated wells and horizontal-well lubrication and drag reduction, hole stability control and sour gas contamination prevention; well cementing technologies for gas medium, deep-well long cementing intervals and ultra-high pressure small space; horizontal-well trajectory control technologies for measuring instrument, downhole motor optimization and bottom hole assembly design; and liner completion modes and completion string optimization technologies suitable for this gas reservoir. Field application shows that these key technologies are contributive to ROP increase and efficiency improvement of 7000 m deep horizontal wells and to significant operational cycle shortening.

  13. The future for heavy crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horsnell, P.

    1995-01-01

    The expectation, still held in 1993, that the light oil-heavy crude oil differential would go on increasing in favour of light oil has not been fulfilled. Current perceptions are that heavy oil will continue to be relatively strong and there is no inevitable upward trend in light-heavy crude differentials. Non-OPEC production has grown significantly lighter overall in recent years and is likely to continue so for several more years. This is due to expanded light oil production in the North Sea, Latin America and the Far East, and contractions in heavy oil production in Russia and the USA. OPEC production has also become lighter with, in particular, an expansion in light oil and contraction in heavy grades from Saudi Arabia. At the same time, the nature of the demand from refineries has changed with the introduction of new units designed to process the residium from heavy oil distillation. Thus the supply of light oil has expanded while demand for it has contracted with the reverse being true for heavy oil. (2 figures, 1 table) (UK)

  14. DOE turns down all bids for Elk Hills crude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the U.S. Department of Energy has rejected all bids submitted in the Mar. 5 semiannual sale of crude oil from Elk Hills Naval Petroleum Reserve (NPR-1) in California. DOE the all 19 bids for the 53,740 b/d of crude were too low. The bids ranged from $11.71 to $14.06/bbl, with the top bids for the highest quality Stevens zone crude averaging $13.25/bbl. California oil companies the they bid what the market would bear, explaining a surplus of Alaskan crude on the West Coast has driven down the price of local crudes, notably heavy crudes. DOE will extend the current oil purchase contracts through April while it issues a new request for bids. It planned to issue the solicitation Mar. 23 and receive bids Apr. 15

  15. Influence of the type of crude oil to platforming effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafedzhiski, Branko; Crvenkova, Suzana; Zikovski, Toni

    1999-01-01

    Platforming in one of the most subtleties processing in refinery industry and it is permanent source for research and finding out the higher optimum degree. Optimum of the last effects of platforming directly depends on many parameters. One of more important parameters is the type of crude. The purpose of this work is presenting positive and negative effect to the platforming parameters caused by different types of crude in OCTA-Crude Oil Refinery -Skopje, Macedonia. (Original)

  16. Influence of the crude oil type to platforming effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafedzhiski, Branko; Crvenkova, Suzana; Zikovski, Toni

    1999-01-01

    Platforming is one of the most subtleties processing in refinery industry and it is permanent source for research and finding out the higher optimum degree. Optimum of the last effects of platforming directly depends on many parameters. One of the more important parameters is the type of the crude. The purpose of this work is presenting positive and negative effect to the platforming parameters caused by different types of crude in OCTA Crude Oil Refinery - Skopje (Macedonia). (Author)

  17. Crude oil options market found to be efficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the U.S. crude oil options market operates efficiently and does not overreact. The authors, with the JFK School of Government, studied the crude oil options market under a Department of Energy grant. The current market was created in November 1986 when the New York Mercantile Exchange introduced an options contract for delivery of West Texas intermediate crude futures. it has grown greatly since then

  18. Crude oil pricing report, issue 89, December 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report is prepared by the Canadian Oil Markets and Emergency Planning Division (COMEP), Energy, Mines and Resources Canada. It provides a reference for domestic and imported crude oil prices in Canadian markets and illustrates the competitive position of Canadian crude in the U.S. market. The information in this report is in part based on the Crude Oil Pricing Survey (COPS), conducted by COMEP, of Canadian refiners' domestic crude oil purchases, refinery receipts, imports and data from trade publications as well as industry pricing bulletins. 8 tabs

  19. Geotechnical properties of crude oil contaminated sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, V.K.; Das, B.M.; Cook, E.E.; Shin, E.C.

    1994-01-01

    Contamination of soil due to an oil spill influences its subsequent engineering behavior. An investigation was conducted to study the effect of crude oil contamination on compaction characteristics, shear strength, one-dimensional compression, and coefficient of permeability. Water permeability was also determined by using commercial grade motor oils as contaminants. The test results indicate that the compaction characteristics are influenced by oil contamination. The angle of internal friction of sand (based on total stress condition) decreases due to presence of oil within the pore spaces in sand. One dimensional compression characteristics of sand are significantly influenced by oil contamination resulting in a decrease in the value of constrained modulus with increase in the degree of oil contamination compared to the case of dry sand. Water permeability was observed to be a function of the initial viscosity and the degree of saturation due to the contaminating oil

  20. Impact of Expanded North Slope of Alaska Crude Oil Production on Crude Oil Flows in the Contiguous United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRosa, Sean E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flanagan, Tatiana Paz [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The National Transportation Fuels Model was used to simulate a hypothetical increase in North Slope of Alaska crude oil production. The results show that the magnitude of production utilized depends in part on the ability of crude oil and refined products infrastructure in the contiguous United States to absorb and adjust to the additional supply. Decisions about expanding North Slope production can use the National Transportation Fuels Model take into account the effects on crude oil flows in the contiguous United States.

  1. Chemical composition of Pechora Sea crude oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derkach S. R.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical properties of the Pechora Sea shelf oil and its chemical composition have been studied using the methods of refractometry, titrimetry, viscometry, rheometry and standard methods for the analysis of oil and petroleum products. The fractionation of oil is held at atmospheric pressure, some fractions boiling at the temperature below and above 211 °C have been received. Chemical structural-group composition of oil and its components has been investigated using a Fourier infrared (IR spectroscopy method. The density of oil has been obtained, it is equal to 24.2 API. The chemical composition analysis shows that water content in the investigated oil sample is about 0.03 % (by weight. The oil sample contains hydrocarbons (including alkanes, naphthenes, arenes and asphaltenes with resins; their content is equal to 89 and 10 % (by weight respectively. Alkane content is about 66 %, including alkanes of normal structure – about 37 %. The solidification temperature of oil sample is equal to –43 °C. This low temperature testifies obliquely low content of solid alkanes (paraffin. Bearing in mind the content of asphaltenes with resins we can refer the investigated oil sample to resinous oils. On the other hand spectral coefficient values (aromaticity quotient and aliphaticity quotient show that oil sample belongs to naphthenic oils. According to the data of Fourier IR spectroscopy contents of naphthenes and arenes are 5.9 and 17.8 % respectively. Thus, the obtained data of chemical structural-group composition of crude oil and its fractions indicate that this oil belongs to the heavy resinous naphthenic oils. The rheological parameters obtained at the shear deformation conditions characterize the crude oil as a visco-plastic medium.

  2. Fungitoxic properties of four crude plant extacts on fusarium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fungitoxic properties of four crude plant extacts on fusarium oxysporum schl. F. sp phaseoli. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... Crude plant extracts from Azadirachta indica, Tagetes minuta, Nicotiana tobacum and Vinca rosea were tested against Fusarium oxysporum Schl. F. sp. phaseoli.

  3. Comparative ovulation in clariidae using crude HCG from early ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper used purified crude HCG from early pregnancy urine to assay ovulation in three species of Clariidae. Purification and extraction of crude HCG was carried out by the techniques involving alcohol precipitation, ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. Biological activity of the purified homogenate was tested ...

  4. Comparative study of biodegradation of crude oil in soil amended ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of soil samples treated with 10% (v/w) Escravos light crude oil and amended with chicken droppings and NPK fertilizer revealed that the aerobic heterotrophic bacterial counts were depressed while the proliferation of crude oil degrading bacteria (CDB) in the soil was encouraged. The counts of CDB in oil free ...

  5. Crude oil degradation by Bacillus and Micrococcus species isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microorganisms capable of degrading crude oil were isolated from soil compost in Kano, northwestern Nigeria. The work was carried out with the aim of determining crude-oil biodegradation potentials of Bacillus and Micrococcus species isolated from the soil compost as well as the assessment of the applicability of ...

  6. Pilot scale refinning of crude soybean oil | Mensah | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pilot scale refinning of crude soybean oil. ... Abstract. A laboratory process for refining soybean has been scaled up to a 145 tonne per annum pilot plant to refine crude soybean oil. ... The quality of the refined oil was found to be within national and codex standard specifications for edible oil from vegetable sources.

  7. Expanding U.S. markets for Canadian crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, M.; Angevine, G.; Chan, K.; Renne, G.; Stariha, J.; MacKay, E.

    1993-01-01

    The quantities and types of Canadian, U.S. and competing foreign crudes flowing into U.S. market regions and the potential to retain and/or expand Canadian crude oil sales in each of those markets, was studied. The various pipeline system expansion/construction proposals were reviewed. Findings of the study with respect to prospects for crude oil sales into each of the U.S. market regions were presented. Opportunities and constraints with regard to the potential for incremental crude oil sales into each of the U.S. market regions were detailed. The study concluded that there was a substantial market in the U.S. for incremental sales of Canadian crudes. Most of the refineries in the U.S. market regions were more flexible in terms of their crude diet than they were before the rationalization and restructuring of the industry began. The market for crude oil in the U.S. was shown to be one of the most competitive in the world and the most volatile. The study also revealed that there were risks associated with large additions to the capacity to ship crude oil by pipeline from Western Canada, given the uncertainties surrounding future supply. 4 refs., figs., tabs

  8. Phytochemical and anti-fungal activity of crude extracts, fractions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) of the crude extracts, fractions and isolated compound were determined by agardilution. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude extracts was carried out using column chromatography. Results: The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, cardenolides, ...

  9. Remediation trials of crude oil contaminated soil using different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 3 month remediation trial of the use of detergent and sawdust in different combination forms in the restoration of a crude oil contaminated tropical soil was investigated. 8 remediation treatments labeled A – H in addition to the control (I) were used in 10 kg soil artificially polluted with 300 ml crude oil each. Remediation ...

  10. Toxicity of crude oil products and detergent on serum alkaline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The comparative effect of exposing Clarias gariepinus juveniles (100.20 + 0.8g) to diferent concentrations of crude oil products and detergent were studied. Bonny Light Crude oil (BLCO), Premium motor spirit (PMS), Dual purpose kerosene (DPK) and Ariel Enzymax Detergent (AED) were respectively applied at three ...

  11. Biodegradability Of The Major Components Of Bonny Light Crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of the known 92 potential hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria and fungi isolated from crude oil polluted soil and water samples, only one soil bacterial isolate (SB17), identified as Bacillus subtilis, was found to efficiently degrade 72.23% of the Bonny light crude oil sample after 25 days of incubation, and thus was used for further ...

  12. Assessment of the hydrolytic performance of locally sourced crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    amylases increased with increase in substrate concentration up to a maximum substrate concentration of 10%. The crude alpha amylase exhibited a dextrinization time of 2.5h, 2.75h and 3.0h for maize, cassava and potato starches and produced 13%, 12% and 11.8% glucose respectively. The crude gluco-amylase had ...

  13. Manihot esculenta crantz in crude oil contaminated soil amended ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the performance of Manihot esculenta, Crantz (TMS 30572) in a crude oil polluted soil was investigated in the Botanic Garden of University of Port Harcourt. The soil samples were polluted at four different levels (0%, 2%, 4% and 6%) with crude oil and amended with organic supplement (decomposed Centrosem ...

  14. Some Neuropharmacological Effects of the Crude Venom Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study reports some neuropharmacological effects of the crude venom extract of Conus musicus (family Conidae) in mice using various experimental models. The crude venom was found to significantly increase tail flick reaction time in mice. The effects of the venom on the central nervous system were studied by ...

  15. Effect of mushroom ( Pleurotus tuber-regium ) inoculums on crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pollution of soils by crude oil in Niger-Delta of Nigeria has brought untold hardship to the inhabitants of the region. This study was carried out in 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 to determine the effect of Pleurotus tuber-regium (mushroom) inoculums on crude oil polluted soil on stover and grain yields and as well as cob length ...

  16. Influence of crude extract of root of Telfairia occidentalis (fluted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of crude extract of root of Telfairia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin) was investigated on the kidney of adult wistar rats. The crude extract of pumpkin root were given both intraperitoneally and orally to rats respectively. The control group received distilled water throughout the duration of experiment. The administration ...

  17. Improving Aspergillus carbonarius crude enzymes for lignocellulose hydrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gustav Hammerich

    and single enzyme supplementation. Fungal strains were screened in order to determine crude enzyme extracts that could be supplemented as boosters of A. carbonarius own crude enzyme extract, when applied in lignocellulose hydrolysis. The fungi originated from different environmental niches, which all had...... for their potential in hydrolysis of wheat straw both by application of monocultures and by supplementing to crude enzymes of A. carbonarius. For the crude enzymes from solid cultivations there were eight isolates that showed synergistic interaction resulting in doubling and tripling of the glucose release in wheat...... straw hydrolysis. A completely different profile of synergy was observed for crude enzymes from liquid cultivations, as there were only three isolates that enhanced glucose release. Only one of these three isolates had shown synergistic effects when cultivated in a solid medium. The screening...

  18. Lyondell plans to hike heavy crude runs at Houston

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land, R.

    1992-01-01

    Lyondell Petrochemical Co. has outlined a venture that would allow increased runs of heavy crude oil at its 265,000 b/cd Houston refiner. Preliminary plans call for Lyondell, Houston, to ally with subsidiaries of Venezuela's Petroleos de Venezuela SA to upgrade heavy crude processing capabilities of the refiner and obtain supplies of heavy crude feedstock. Lyondell proposes to form a jointly owned company with Pdvsa's Citgo Petroleum Corp. subsidiary to take over ownership of the Houston plant. This paper reports that upgrades would not significantly change the plant's crude capacity but would allow the refiner to process as much as 200,000 b/d of heavy crude feedstock, up from 120,000 b/d at present. Following completion of the upgrade, Citgo could increase its interest to 50% with Lyondell retaining remaining venture interest. Upgrade design and engineering are to begin immediately, with regulatory permitting and construction expected to be complete in 3-4 years

  19. Reservoir souring: Problems, uncertainties and modelling. Part I: Problems and uncertainty involved in prediction. Part II: Preliminary investigations of a computational model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulsen, J.E.; Read, P.A.; Thompson, C.P.; Jelley, C.; Lezeau, P.

    1996-01-01

    The paper relates to improved oil recovery (IOR) techniques by mathematical modelling. The uncertainty involved in modelling of reservoir souring is discussed. IOR processes are speculated to influence a souring process in a positive direction. Most models do not take into account pH in reservoir fluids, and thus do not account for partitioning behaviour of sulfide. Also, sulfide is antagonistic to bacterial metabolism and impedes to bacterial metabolism and impedes the sulfate reduction rate, this may be an important factor in modelling. Biofilms are thought to play a crucial role in a reservoir souring process. Biofilm in a reservoir matrix is different from biofilm in open systems. This has major impact on microbial impact on microbial transport and behaviour. Studies on microbial activity in reservoir matrices must be carried out with model cores, in order to mimic a realistic situation. Sufficient data do not exist today. The main conclusion is that a model does not reflect a true situation before the nature of these elements is understood. A simplified version of an Norwegian developed biofilm model is discussed. The model incorporates all the important physical phenomena studied in the above references such as bacteria growth limited by nutrients and/or energy sources and hydrogen sulfide adsorption. 18 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  20. Reservoir souring: Problems, uncertainties and modelling. Part I: Problems and uncertainty involved in prediction. Part II: Preliminary investigations of a computational model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsen, J.E. [Rogalandsforskning, Stavanger (Norway); Read, P.A.; Thompson, C.P.; Jelley, C.; Lezeau, P.

    1996-12-31

    The paper relates to improved oil recovery (IOR) techniques by mathematical modelling. The uncertainty involved in modelling of reservoir souring is discussed. IOR processes are speculated to influence a souring process in a positive direction. Most models do not take into account pH in reservoir fluids, and thus do not account for partitioning behaviour of sulfide. Also, sulfide is antagonistic to bacterial metabolism and impedes to bacterial metabolism and impedes the sulfate reduction rate, this may be an important factor in modelling. Biofilms are thought to play a crucial role in a reservoir souring process. Biofilm in a reservoir matrix is different from biofilm in open systems. This has major impact on microbial impact on microbial transport and behaviour. Studies on microbial activity in reservoir matrices must be carried out with model cores, in order to mimic a realistic situation. Sufficient data do not exist today. The main conclusion is that a model does not reflect a true situation before the nature of these elements is understood. A simplified version of an Norwegian developed biofilm model is discussed. The model incorporates all the important physical phenomena studied in the above references such as bacteria growth limited by nutrients and/or energy sources and hydrogen sulfide adsorption. 18 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Strategic conservation of orchard germplasm based on indigenous knowledge and genetic diversity: a case study of sour orange populations in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Feng; Liu, Qi-Kun; Shi, Jin-Lei; Wang, Wei; Lu, Bao-Rong

    2009-01-01

    To effectively conserve sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.) germplasm on two islands at the estuary of the Yangtze River in China, we estimated genetic variation and relationships of the known parental trees and their proposed descendents (young trees) using the fingerprints of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Results based on RAPD analyses showed considerable genetic diversity in the parental populations (H(e)=0.202). The overall populations including the parental and young trees showed slightly higher genetic diversity (H(e)=0.298) than the parents, with about 10% variation between populations. An unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean analysis dendrogram based on cluster analysis of the Jaccard similarity among individuals demonstrated a more complicated relationship of the parental and young trees from the two islands, although the young trees showed a clear association with parental trees. This indicates a significant contribution of parental trees in establishing the sour orange populations on the two islands. According to farmers' knowledge, conservation of only one or two parental trees would be sufficient because they believed that the whole populations were generated from a single mother tree. However, this study suggests that preserving most parental trees and some selected young trees with distant genetic relationships should be an effective conservation strategy for sour orange germplasm on the two islands.

  2. Crude oil prices: Speculation versus fundamentals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziej, Marek Krzysztof

    Beginning in 2004, the price of crude oil fluctuates rapidly over a wide range. Large and rapid price increases have recessionary consequences and dampen long-term infrastructural investment. I investigate whether price changes are driven by market fundamentals or speculation. With regard to market fundamentals, I revisit econometric evidence for the importance of demand shocks, as proxied by dry maritime cargo rates, on oil prices. When I eliminate transportation costs from both sides of the equation, disaggregate OPEC and non-OPEC production, and allow for more than one cointegrating relation, I find that previous specifications are inconsistent with arguments that demand shocks play an important role. Instead, results confirm the importance of OPEC supply shocks. I investigate two channels by which speculation may affect oil prices; the direct effect of trader behavior and changes in oil from a commodity to a financial asset. With regard to trader behavior, I find evidence that trader positions are required to explain the spread between spot and futures prices of crude oil on the New York Mercantile Exchange. The inclusion of trader positions clarifies the process of equilibrium error correction, such that there is bidirectional causality between prices and trader positions. This creates the possibility of speculative bubbles. With regard to oil as a commodity and/or financial asset, I use a Kalman Filter model to estimate the time-varying partial correlation between returns to investments in equity and oil markets. This correlation changes from negative to positive at the onset of the 2008 financial crisis. The low interest rates used to rescue the economy depress convenience yields, which reduces the benefits of holding oil as a commodity. Instead, oil becomes a financial asset (on net) as the oil market changed from contango to backwardation. Contradicting simple political narratives, my research suggests that both market fundamentals and speculation drive

  3. Efficient way of importing crude oil from oil producing countries - A review on diversification policy of crude oil import

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dal Sok [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    Since the second oil crisis, the government has operated the import diversification support program to reduce the risk of crude oil import from Middle-East region and to raise the ability of dealing with the risk. This study tried to seek policy trends in future through reviewing the market environment related to the crude oil import diversification policy and the goal, instrument and effect of the policy. The supply and demand of crude oil and the price are influenced by market system in the world oil market and there are various types of crude oil trading available to both sellers and buyers. There is a probability that the suspension of supply in a certain area could be led to the price issue rather than the physical use of crude oil. In addition, the advantage of price with long-term contract of crude oil was abolished since the price of crude oil imported by term contract has been linked to spot prices. As a result, it is shown that the potential benefit from crude oil import diversification policy is reduced although political and social insecurity still exists in Middle-East region. Therefore, it is desirable to maintain the existing support program until the amount of stored oil reaches the optimum level and to help private enterprises determine the import considering economical efficiency and risk. (author). 36 refs., 5 figs., 23 tabs.

  4. Conversion of yellow crude sugar into alcohol. Conversion of yellow crude sugar in a mixture with sugar beet molasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishtul, F B; Malchenko, A L; Poluyanova, M T; Gromovich, V F; Maskimova, E A; Golodovskaya, A I; Pal' gova, L S

    1963-01-01

    Crude sugar (96.5 to 98.4% sucrose) in a mixture with molasses can be converted into alcohol by either batchwise or continuous fermentation processes with good process characteristics. Best yields are obtained when the amount of crude sugar is not more than 50% of the total weight of fermenting material. The bakers' yeast and alcohol produced are of good quality.

  5. Morphometry, floral resources and efficiency of natural and artificial pollination in fruit quality in cultivars of sour passion fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laís Alves Lage

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to provide information on the biology and floral resources, stigmatic receptivity and viability of pollen grains during rainy season and dry season, and to evaluate the efficiency of natural and artificial pollination on quality of fruits of eight passion fruit cultivars sourced in Tangará da Serra - MT. Five commercial cultivars and three populations of the genetic improvement program of the sour passion fruit from the Universidade do Estado de Mato Grosso were evaluated. The climatic conditions of the rainy season favored the greater development of the floral pieces. The sugar concentration in the nectar presented higher averages in the rainy season, in all cultivars, except for FB 200. The climatic conditions of the dry season favored the replacement of the nectar volume. All cultivars evaluated presented pollen viability and stigmatic receptivity higher than 79% and 90%, respectively. The characteristics of fruit mass and percentage of pulp were better in artificial pollination, and the fruits obtained from natural and artificial pollination in all cultivars evaluated presented physical and chemical characteristics that are within the quality standards desired in the commercialization.

  6. Developing remediation criteria on the basis of health and ecological risks at a former sour gas plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G. L.; Wilson, R. M.; Clyde, G. A.; Chollak, D. F.

    1997-01-01

    A human health and ecological risk assessment was completed for the Okotoks sour gas processing gas plant, based on the existing environmental sampling and toxicity testing that has been collected at the site since 1987. For the human health risk assessment, two potential scenarios were considered, including industrial use and parkland use. The ecological risk assessment involved synthesis of existing sampling and toxicity testing results as well as the assessment of potential risk to ecological receptors such as the meadow vole, red-tailed hawk and cattle. The assessment included chemical screening, receptor and exposure pathway selection, toxicity assessment of chemicals of concern, estimation of exposures, risk characterization and generation of soil and groundwater remediation criteria. Results of the assessments to date indicate that limited subsurface remediation is required for the protection of human health under industrial/parkland use. In contrast, ecological considerations will require remediation or reclamation of surface soil and the imposition of certain risk management controls, such as e. g. encumbrances on land title. 2 figs

  7. The importance of bee pollination of the sour cherry (Prunus cerasus Cultivar ‘Stevnsbaer’ in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Hansted

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Low fruit set, despite normally-developed flowers, is often a significant contributor to poor yield of the self-fertile sour cherry (Prunus cerasus cultivar ‘Stevnsbaer’ in Denmark. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of insect, and particularly, bee pollination on the fruit set of this cultivar, in order to provide orchard management information for both Danish ‘Stevnsbaer’ growers and beekeepers. Visits to cherry flowers by honey bees (Apis mellifera, Bombus species and solitary bees, were recorded during the flowering of ‘Stevnsbaer’ in five separate Danish orchards. The results indicate that there is a significantly higher fruit set on open pollinated branches when compared to caged branches, where bees and other pollinating insects where excluded. The results were qualitatively consistent over three different seasons (2007, 2009 and 2010. A period of prolonged cold, humid weather before and during early flowering probably reduced fruit set significantly in 2010 compared to 2009. Regarding the apparent benefits of bee pollination on fruit set and subsequent implications for yield, we recommend placing honeybees in ‘Stevnsbaer’ orchards during flowering to sustain commercially viable production. Another valuable management strategy would be to improve foraging and nesting conditions to support both honey and wild bees in and around the orchards.

  8. Alberta oil sands crudes : upgrading and marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashar, M.

    2008-01-01

    Open pit mining and in situ techniques, such as steam stimulation, are used to recover Alberta's bitumen and heavy oil resources, which have higher viscosities than conventional hydrocarbons. The bitumen is typically upgraded to synthetic crude oil (SCO). In the simplest processing scheme, the bitumen is blended with diluent for ease in pipeline transport and then processed at refineries with upgrading facilities. The bitumen is also upgraded to light SCO at world-scale upgraders in Alberta. The SCO is then processed at refineries in downstream markets. The 2 categories of upgrading, notably primary and secondary upgrading, were described in this article along with technology options for both categories. Slurry hydrocracking is regarded as the most interesting emerging residual fuel upgrading technology. It combines special catalyst mixes with the latest slurry reactor designs as well as innovative catalyst capture and recycle schemes to produce very high conversions and potentially superior upgrading economics. The increase in volume and rate of SCO from Alberta provides refiners in the oil sands marketing sector an unprecedented choice of opportunities to improve profitability. Key trends indicate that production will increase substantially from 2008 to 2030. 5 figs

  9. Recovery of uranium from crude uranium tetrafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, S.K.; Bellary, M.P.; Keni, V.S.

    1994-01-01

    An innovative process has been developed for recovery of uranium from crude uranium tetrafluoride cake. The process is based on direct dissolution of uranium tetrafluoride in nitric acid in presence of aluminium hydroxide and use of solvent extraction for removal of fluorides and other bulk impurities to make uranium amenable for refining. It is a simple process requiring minimum process step and has advantage of lesser plant corrosion. This process can be applied for processing of uranium tetrafluoride generated from various sources like uranium by-product during thorium recovery from thorium concentrate, first stage product of uranium recovery from phosphoric acid by OPPA process and off grade uranium tetrafluoride material. The paper describes the details of the process developed and demonstrated on bench and pilot scale and its subsequent modification arising out of bulky solid waste generation. The modified process uses a lower quantity of aluminium hydroxide by allowing a lower dissolution of uranium per cycle and recycles the undissolved material to the next cycle, maintaining the overall recovery at high level. This innovation has reduced the solid waste generated by a factor of four at the cost of a slightly larger dissolution vessel and its increased corrosion rate. (author)

  10. Alberta oil sands crudes : upgrading and marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashar, M. [Suncor Energy, Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2008-05-15

    Open pit mining and in situ techniques, such as steam stimulation, are used to recover Alberta's bitumen and heavy oil resources, which have higher viscosities than conventional hydrocarbons. The bitumen is typically upgraded to synthetic crude oil (SCO). In the simplest processing scheme, the bitumen is blended with diluent for ease in pipeline transport and then processed at refineries with upgrading facilities. The bitumen is also upgraded to light SCO at world-scale upgraders in Alberta. The SCO is then processed at refineries in downstream markets. The 2 categories of upgrading, notably primary and secondary upgrading, were described in this article along with technology options for both categories. Slurry hydrocracking is regarded as the most interesting emerging residual fuel upgrading technology. It combines special catalyst mixes with the latest slurry reactor designs as well as innovative catalyst capture and recycle schemes to produce very high conversions and potentially superior upgrading economics. The increase in volume and rate of SCO from Alberta provides refiners in the oil sands marketing sector an unprecedented choice of opportunities to improve profitability. Key trends indicate that production will increase substantially from 2008 to 2030. 5 figs.

  11. Crude oil prices: It's not like '86

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, M.R.

    1994-01-01

    In 1981, daily crude oil productive capacity exceeded demand by more than 25%, leading to a 4-yr price decline from near $40 per barrel levels, and a sharp drop in 1986 to near $12. But, in 1994, the fundamentals are reversed, worldwide demand is growing, conservation movements are not active, and certain geographic areas, like Asia, are set to tax the system as they modernize. Meanwhile, US and Former Soviet Union production is off, without prospects for near-term turnaround. And there is reason to believe OPEC leaders may not feel compelled to cut their output, when combined small cuts of the magnitude of 5% by the rest of the world's producers could accomplish the same objective of raising oil prices. As with any forecast, only time and hindsight will tell the real story, but 1994 could end up being one of the periodic turning points for what has always been a long-term cyclical industry. This paper summarizes the predictions and causes of predicted price changes

  12. Recovery of uranium from crude uranium tetrafluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, S K; Bellary, M P; Keni, V S [Chemical Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    An innovative process has been developed for recovery of uranium from crude uranium tetrafluoride cake. The process is based on direct dissolution of uranium tetrafluoride in nitric acid in presence of aluminium hydroxide and use of solvent extraction for removal of fluorides and other bulk impurities to make uranium amenable for refining. It is a simple process requiring minimum process step and has advantage of lesser plant corrosion. This process can be applied for processing of uranium tetrafluoride generated from various sources like uranium by-product during thorium recovery from thorium concentrate, first stage product of uranium recovery from phosphoric acid by OPPA process and off grade uranium tetrafluoride material. The paper describes the details of the process developed and demonstrated on bench and pilot scale and its subsequent modification arising out of bulky solid waste generation. The modified process uses a lower quantity of aluminium hydroxide by allowing a lower dissolution of uranium per cycle and recycles the undissolved material to the next cycle, maintaining the overall recovery at high level. This innovation has reduced the solid waste generated by a factor of four at the cost of a slightly larger dissolution vessel and its increased corrosion rate. (author). 4 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  13. Bioavailability of chemically-dispersed crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, B.C.; Bonner, J.S.; McDonald, T.J.; Fuller, C.B.; Page, C.A.; Dimitriou-Christidis, P.; Sterling, M.C.; Autenrieth, R.L.

    2002-01-01

    Oil spills can be treated with surfactant compounds to disperse them. This method enables the hydrophobic compounds to overcome their repulsion for water, enter the water phase and be diluted. Once in the water, the biodegradation fraction of the oil biodegrades over time and the residual fraction is deposited over a large area. One major issue which is not fully understood is whether oil compounds pass through the water phase to free floating cells or directly enter oil-attached microbial cells from the oil particle. In this study, crude oil was placed in a swirling flask with Corpus Christi Bay water and was then chemically dispersed with Corexit 9500. The biodegradation was then monitored and assessed. First order rate coefficients were determined based on the disappearance of specific compounds. The rate coefficients for total target PAHs were consistent for all tests. Napthalene, phenanthrene, dibenzothiophene and their alkylated homologs were among the target compounds. The trend was also observed for total target analytes and for total target saturates. The results indicate that the biodegradation rate coefficient was not dependent on the bulk concentration of oil in the water column. It was concluded that biodegradation rates was controlled by partitioning of the compounds between the two phases, and other factors such as particle size distribution and the capability of the microbial culture, temperature and nutrients. 13 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs

  14. An investigation of microbial diversity in crude oil & seawater injection systems and microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) of linepipe steels under different exposure conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlAbbas, Faisal Mohammed

    During oil and gas operations, pipeline networks are subjected to different corrosion deterioration mechanisms that result from the interaction between the fluid process and the linepipe steel. Among these mechanisms is microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) that results from accelerated deterioration caused by different indigenous microorganisms that naturally reside in the hydrocarbon and associated seawater injection systems. The focus of this research is to obtain comprehensive understanding of MIC. This work has explored the most essential elements (identifications, implications and mitigations) required to fully understand MIC. Advanced molecular-based techniques, including sequencing of 16S rRNA genes via 454 pyrosequencing methodologies, were deployed to provide in-depth understanding of the microbial diversity associated with crude oil and seawater injection systems and their relevant impact on MIC. Key microbes including sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and iron reducing bacteria (IRB) were cultivated from sour oil well field samples. The microbes' phylotypes were identified in the laboratory to gain more thorough understanding of how they impact microbial corrosion. Electrochemical and advanced surface analytical techniques were used for corrosion evaluations of linepipe carbon steels (API 5L X52 and X80) under different exposure conditions. On the identification front, 454 pyrosequencing of both 16S rRNA genes indicated that the microbial communities in the corrosion products obtained from the sour oil pipeline, sweet crude pipeline and seawater pipeline were dominated by bacteria, though archaeal sequences (predominately Methanobacteriaceae and Methanomicrobiaceae) were also identified in the sweet and sour crude oil samples, respectively. The dominant bacterial phylotypes in the sour crude sample included members of the Thermoanaerobacterales, Synergistales, and Syntrophobacterales. In the sweet crude sample, the dominant phylotypes included

  15. Efficiency of crude oil markets: Evidences from informational entropy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz-Cruz, Alejandro; Rodriguez, Eduardo; Ibarra-Valdez, Carlos; Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose

    2012-01-01

    The role of crude oil as the main energy source for the global economic activity has motivated the discussion about the dynamics and causes of crude oil price changes. An accurate understanding of the issue should provide important guidelines for the design of optimal policies and government budget planning. Using daily data for WTI over the period January 1986–March 2011, we analyze the evolution of the informational complexity and efficiency for the crude oil market through multiscale entropy analysis. The results indicated that the crude oil market is informationally efficient over the scrutinized period except for two periods that correspond to the early 1990s and late 2000s US recessions. Overall, the results showed that deregulation has improved the operation of the market in the sense of making returns less predictable. On the other hand, there is some evidence that the probability of having a severe US economic recession increases as the informational efficiency decreases, which indicates that returns from crude oil markets are less uncertain during economic downturns. - Highlights: ► Entropy concepts are used to characterize crude oil prices. ► An index of market efficiency is introduced. ► Except for periods of economic recession, the crude oil market is informationally efficient.

  16. Crude glycerin in diets for feedlot Nellore cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Haydt Castello Branco van Cleef

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of crude glycerin on feed intake, performance, carcass characteristics, and total digestibility of Nellore bulls. In experiment 1, cattle (n = 30 were fed a control diet without crude glycerin and diets containing 7.5, 15, 22.5, and 30% crude glycerin, for 103 d. Animals were harvested and data of carcass characteristics were collected. In experiment 2, a digestibility trial was performed using indigestible acid detergent fiber (iADF as internal marker, and five rumen-cannulated steers. Both experiments were conducted as a randomized complete block design and data were analyzed using mixed procedures. In experiment 1 no differences were observed among treatments on dry matter intake, and performance variables. Regarding carcass characteristics, no effect was observed, except for carcass fat estimates, which were greater in treatments with crude glycerin. In experiment 2, crude glycerin promoted a decrease in digestibility of fibrous fractions NDF and HEM, and increased digestibility of crude protein by 6%. Although it caused negative effect on digestibility of fibrous fraction of diets, crude glycerin can be a good energy source for Nellore bulls, since no losses are observed on performance and carcass characteristics when animals are fed up to 30% of this by-product.

  17. Crude oil–corn–ethanol – nexus: A contextual approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natanelov, Valeri; McKenzie, Andrew M.; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido

    2013-01-01

    This paper offers a holistic study on the complex relationships between crude oil, corn and ethanol during a turbulent period between 2006 and end of 2011. Through a holistic mapping of the current market situation and a contextual analytical design we show that there exists a strong relationship between crude oil and corn markets on one side, and crude oil and ethanol on the other. However, the price relationship between corn and ethanol was revealed to be less straightforward, and is driven by the US government fuel policy. Furthermore the study indicates that corn markets have became more prone to volatility due to ethanol production, especially when the demand for corn is high and/or the crude oil prices are high enough to create a competitive market for ethanol. - Highlights: • Strong relationship between crude oil–corn and crude oil–ethanol. • Corn–ethanol connected through a by-pass of crude oil markets. • Ethanol market has no direct impact on the price levels of corn. • Corn markets became more prone to volatility due to ethanol production

  18. Boom times : Canada's crude petroleum industry : analysis in brief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowat, M.R.

    2006-01-01

    This document examined the trends in crude oil prices, the production and exports of Canada's crude petroleum industry, and Canada's imports of crude petroleum. As an exporter and importer of crude oil, Canada's petroleum industry is currently experiencing economic prosperity as a result of high oil prices combined with high global demand for oil. This document reviewed industry activity for 2005 and addressed the reasons for the first decline in Canadian crude oil production in 6 years. A quick review of soaring crude oil prices, supply and shortages was also presented. A review of exports revealed that since 1995, the United States has received 99 per cent of Canadian exports. Although production activity is occurring in 7 provinces, the biggest participant is Alberta, followed by Saskatchewan. In 2005, Canada produced 136.4 million cubic metres of crude petroleum, of which two-thirds came from Alberta. Saskatchewan contributed 18 per cent of total Canadian crude oil production, while offshore oil rigs in Newfoundland and Labrador contributed 13 per cent. The vast oil sands resource accounted for 42 per cent of the province's total production. Alberta oil export is piped entirely into the United States. In 2005, even with a slight drop in exports, Canadian oil exporters received $30 billion for their products, up from $25 billion the year before. Canada also supplied nearly 10 per cent of the American crude oil needs. According to the National Energy Board, Canadian refineries are approaching capacity. Canada's 19 refineries, which have a capacity of 320,000 cubic metres per day, operated at 92 per cent of capacity in 2005 to meet the needs of the domestic market. More imported petroleum was refined than Canadian sourced petroleum. In 2005, the gas and oil industry saw historically high profits, taxes paid and investments. 6 refs., 5 figs

  19. Procedures in field systems for collecting and demulsifying crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vakhitov, G G; Graifer, V I; Tronov, V P; Zakirov, I G

    1969-01-01

    This microscopic study of crude oil emulsification and demulsification showed that the sooner an emulsion is chemically treated, the less its stability. This finding led to the practice of adding demulsifiers to the crude oil in pipelines. This method of demulsification is now used in Romashkino, Bablinsk, and Elkhovs fields. By this early addition of a chemical, the tendency of the pipeline to form stable, highly viscous emulsions is reduced. This treatment also facilitates separation of water from oil in storage tanks. Repeated tests have shown that pipeline demulsification is a highly effective and economic process. This method reduces crude oil dewatering costs by several hundred percent.

  20. Tweens demulsification effects on heavy crude oil/water emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastaran Hayati Roodbari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The demulsification role of Tweens (nonionic polymers was determined in the separation of water from heavy crude oil emulsion. According to the previous researches, these nonionic polymers, having hydrophilic and lipophilic groups, are appropriate for making oil in water emulsion. In this research their effects in certain concentrations on demulsifying of water in crude oil emulsion were proved. High molecular weight, alkenes’ chains and groups of ketone and ester in these polymers can improve their performance for the demulsification of water in crude oil emulsion. Their efficiencies are improved with electronegative groups such as oxygen. They leave no corrosion effect because they are neutral and do not leave counter ions.

  1. Carcass characteristics of feedlot lambs fed crude glycerin contaminated with high concentrations of crude fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, J F; Paulino, P V R; Pereira, L G R; Duarte, M S; Valadares Filho, S C; Oliveira, A S; Souza, N K P; Lima, J C M

    2014-01-01

    Thirty non-castrated male lambs with 20±2.3 kg average body weight (BW) were randomly assigned to five treatments consisted of different dietary concentrations of crude glycerin (CG; 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12% on DM basis) to evaluate the effects on performance, carcass and meat quality traits. A quadratic effect was observed for performance (P=0.04), final BW (P0.05) on carcass pH neither on shear-force, cooking loss and ether extract content in longissimus. The inclusion of CG tended to reduce the Zn content in meat (P=0.09). The data suggests that CG (36.2% of glycerol and 46.5% of crude fat) may be used in diets of finishing lambs with concentrations up to 3% without negative effects on performance and main carcass traits. Moreover, inclusion of CG seems to not affect quality and safety of meat for human consumption. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The relationship between SARA fractions and crude oil stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Ashoori

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Asphaltene precipitation and deposition are drastic issues in the petroleum industry. Monitoring the asphaltene stability in crude oil is still a serious problem and has been subject of many studies. To investigate crude oil stability by saturate, aromatic, resin and asphaltene (SARA analysis seven types of crudes with different components were used. The applied methods for SARA quantification are IP-143 and ASTM D893-69 and the colloidal instability index (CII is computed from the SARA values as well. In comparison between CII results, the values of oil compositions demonstrated that the stability of asphaltenes in crude oils is a phenomenon that is related to all these components and it cannot be associated only with one of them, individually.

  3. How is the international price of a particular crude determined?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, Ronald

    1994-01-01

    If crude oil or oil products are not the final item of consumption, then oil is not bought or sold on any basis other than its contribution to the final product. The markets of oil products are thus 'derived' from more basic demands, and prices are determined by what they contribute to the costs of producing final products or commodities. Similarly, the value of a crude oil is derived from the value of the petroleum products it yields. This paper attempts to show how differences in crude oil prices seem to occur. The results should be of interest to producers of crude oil, since they will demonstrate how the marketability of their products might vary. (author)

  4. Dynamic Relationship between Crude Oil Price, Exchange Rate and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    Second, since Hamilton (1983) documented the impact of crude oil price volatility .... Hariri,2013) sourced from the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). .... is explained by identifying the relative importance of a variable in generating.

  5. Evaluation of Crude Oil Biodegradation Efficiency and Peroxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Increase in biomass enhanced degradation efficiency above 80 % after 10 days for all concentration of crude oil studied. Peroxidase ... compounds by various bacteria and fungi (Gianfreda et al, 1999) ... into a clean plastic container. Microbial.

  6. Investigating Asphaltenes Composition in Crude Oil Samples using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2015-12-22

    Dec 22, 2015 ... composition of asphaltenes by Iatroscan TLC-FID method was compared with the weight% of asphaltenes precipitated. ... SARA in the crude oil samples were determined in this work ..... Fractionation and characterization of.

  7. Toxity of Gedunin, Piperine and Crude Extracts of their Natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxity of Gedunin, Piperine and Crude Extracts of their Natural Products on Growth and Development of Ostrinia Nubilalis Hbner (Lepidoptera: Pyrarlidae). F K Ewete, J T Arnason, T Durst, S Mackinnon ...

  8. Some effects of simultaneous administration of crude aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result shows that the crude aqueous extract of mango levels has adverse effect on the morphology and some hepatic enzyme ... Keywords: Mango leaves, Tetracycline, Liver histology, Liver enzymes (AST and ALT) ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  9. Enhancement of Crude Oil Polluted Soil by Applying Single and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    bioline.org.br/ja ... 5 kg of soil each was polluted with 200 ml of crude oil ... organic matter, phosphate, nitrate, total hydrocarbon content, potassium and microbial population were analyzed before ... arise mainly from the processing and distribution of.

  10. Microwave-gamma ray water in crude monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paap, H.J.

    1984-01-01

    A microwave-gamma ray water-in-crude monitoring system measures the percent quantity of fresh water or salt water in crude oil flowing in a pipe line. The system includes a measuring cell arranged with the pipe line so that the crude oil flows through the measuring cell. A microwave transmitter subsystem and a gamma ray source are arranged with the measuring cell so that microwave energy and gamma rays are transmitted through the measuring cell. A microwave receiving subsystem and a gamma ray detector provide signals corresponding to received microwave energy and to the received gamma rays, respectively. Apparatus connected to the microwave receiver and to the gamma ray detector provides an indication of the percentage of water in the crude oil

  11. The crude petroleum and natural gas industry, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    A compilation of data regarding the crude petroleum and natural gas industry was presented. This industry includes establishments engaged in exploration for, or production of petroleum or natural gas from wells or tar sands. Data presented in this publication include: the supply and disposition of crude oil and natural gas, operating and capital expenditures of approximately 500 companies of the oil and natural gas industry, drilling completions, and crude oil and natural gas reserves. Data about the oil sands industry is reported in another volume. Much of the data was obtained from the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers. Overall, in 1995 Canadian natural gas production rose 6.7%; exports of crude oil rose 7.7%. 8 tabs., 2 figs

  12. crude methanolic extracts of ageratum conyzoides and cutaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anatomy

    wound in the experimental group was dressed with crude methanolic extract of Ageratum conyzoides at a five daily interval while the animals in the control group were dressed with normal saline at ... in Africa (Almagboul et al, 1985), Asia, and.

  13. Some Effects Of Simultaneous Administration Of Crude Aqueous

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-12

    Jun 12, 2017 ... This study was designed to determine the simultaneous effect of Mangifera indica crude aqueous extract and the ... reproductive system (Farombi et al, 2008). Liver is the ... leaves were obtained, then air-dried for six weeks.

  14. An isolated bacterial consortium for crude oil biodegradation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 10(81), pp. ... The removal of crude oil by bioremediation was achieved in less time as compared to natural attenuation ... Environmental pollution, especially with hydrocarbons is a major ...

  15. The crude petroleum and natural gas industry : 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Statistics regarding Canada's crude oil and natural gas industry for 1996 were presented. Data presentation was in tabular form, the topics being exploration and development, synthetic crude oil reserves, crude oil production and movements by source, natural gas production, drilling completions, net cash expenditures of the petroleum industry, and total sales of natural gas by province. Some of the noteworthy highlights for 1996 were: (1) 14,600 new wells were drilled, the highest number ever recorded, (2) capital investment was over $13 billion, (3) 148 companies were involved in mergers and acquisitions, (4) value of marketable production of oil, natural gas and natural gas by-products topped $30 billion, (5) Empress pipelines began operations of the first new major oil pipeline from Western Canada in 45 years, (6) the Hibernia offshore crude oil facility was completed, (7) Sable Island offshore energy projects applications were filed, and (8) the development of the Terra Nova, Whitehorse and Hebron fields was announced. 8 tabs

  16. Experimental study on yield behavior of Daqing crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Lei [China University of Petroleum, College of Mechanical and Transportation Engineering, Beijing (China)

    2012-07-15

    The yield behavior of Daqing crude oil was studied by means of multi-mode controlled-stress tests with a high-precision stress controlled rheometer. Two experiments of creep and constant stress loading rate were performed. The yield stress of gelled crude oil was dependent on the test conditions such as the stress loading time and the stress loading rate, but the yield strain did not change with test conditions. The yield strain did exist objectively and it can be used as the criterion for the yielding of the structure of gelled crude oil. The yield strain of gelled oil was studied through experiments of creep, constant stress loading rate, oscillatory shear stress increase, and constant shear rate. The yield strain of gelled crude oil decreased with the increasing gel strength. The experiment of constant speed increase of stress showed the strain softening phenomena for low gel strength oil. (orig.)

  17. Uptake of crude petroleum hydrocarbons by mudflat bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-08-06

    Aug 6, 2007 ... bacteria exposed to nitrogenous fertilizer plant ... accompanied by a rapid decline in the level of crude petroleum in the amended .... conductivity, turbidity, salinity, dissolved oxygen (fresh sample only) ... Nutrient uptake was.

  18. Mineral, vitamin C and crude protein contents in kale (Brassica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-10-27

    Oct 27, 2011 ... Key words: Kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala), harvesting stage, vitamin C, crude protein, mineral content. .... L-ascorbic acid (or vitamin C) in plant tissues. .... Cooking methods of Brassica rapa affect the preservation of.

  19. Influence of feeding varying crude protein and digestible energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of feeding varying crude protein and digestible energy levels on the development of individual muscles, rate of lean and fat deposition in pigs reared from 9 to 60kg liveweight in a humid tropical environment.

  20. High temperature corrosion control and monitoring for processing acidic crudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, C. [Betz/GE Water and Process Technologies, Woodlands, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The challenge of processing heavy crudes and bitumen in a reliable and economical way was discussed. Many refiners use a conservative approach regarding the rate at which they use discounted crudes or depend upon capital-intensive upgrades to equipment. New strategies based on data-driven decisions are needed in order to obtain the greatest benefit from heavy feedstock. The feasibility of successfully processing more challenging feed can be estimated more accurately by better understanding the interactions between a particular feed and a particular crude unit. This presentation reviewed newly developed techniques that refiners can use to determine the feeds corrosion potential and the probability for this potential to manifest itself in a given crude unit. tabs., figs.

  1. Decision 99-16: Canadian 88 Energy Corp. application to drill a level 4 critical sour gas well, Lochend Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-07-01

    Canadian 88 Energy Corp. applied, pursuant to section 2.020 of the Oil and Gas Conservation Regulations, for a licence to drill a level 4 critical sour gas well to be located at Legal Subdivision 10 of Section 35, Township 26, Range 3, West of the fifth Meridian. The level 4 designation is used to determine the minimum separation distance between the well and land-use surface developments during the suspended or producing stage. This 10-35 well would require a minimum separation distance of 100 m from any individual dwelling development up to eight dwellings per quarter section, 500 m from an unrestricted county development, and 1500 m from an urban centre or public facility. The application and interventions were considered at a hearing in Calgary, Alberta commencing on 4 May 1998. The issues respecting the application were: the need for the well, the proposed well location, the potential hydrogen sulfide release rate, the drilling and completion considerations, the public safety risk assessment, emergency preparedness, the land use impacts, and public consultation. The Board believes that the public safety risks associated with the proposed well are representative of normal industrial risks accepted by society and that the well can be safely drilled. Also, the Board believes that these risks are similar to existing facilities and are acceptable if managed through strict adherence to the risk control measures required in the existing regulations. Given this, and having considered all the evidence, the Board is prepared to issue the well licence after Canadian 88 has undertaken, committed to, and submitted a number of requirements for review

  2. Decision 99-13: Crestar Energy Inc. applications to construct and operate sour gas batteries and pipelines, Vulcan Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    On 1 December 1998, the applicant applied pursuant to Part 4 of the Pipeline Act and Section 7.001 of the Oil and Gas Conservation Regulations for approval to construct and operate a sour gas pipeline and various surface facilities to tie in three wells. These are located at Legal Subdivision 12 of Section 36, Township 16, Range 24, West of the fourth Meridian (12-36 facility), Lsd 10-35-16-24 WM4 (10-35 facility), and Lsd 7-26-16-24 WM4 (7-26 facility), to an existing pipeline and proposed surface facility at Lsd 16-16-16-24 WM4. The 10-35, 7-26 and 16-16 facilities would each have a separator, a flare knockout drum, and a flare stack. The 12-36 facility would have two separators, one for each of the two producing zones at the 12-36 facility, a flare knockout drum, and flare stack. A compressor would be installed at the 16-16 facility. All fluids would be measured and re-injected into the pipeline for removal at the 16-16 facility. All proposed flare stacks would consists of a continuously burning sweet gas pilot and would be used for emergencies, routine well servicing, and pigging operations only. The pipeline would be designated as a Level 1 facility, and would transport up to 18 moles of hydrogen sulfide per kilomole of natural gas. Although the Board approved Application No. 1037084 after carefully considering the evidence, subject to meeting all the regulatory requirements and conditions set out in Attachment 1, it rejected Application No. 1033453

  3. HPLC and MS/MS study of polar contaminants in a wetland adjoining a sour-gas plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, L.C.; Headley, J.V.; Peru, K.; Spiegel, K.; Gandrass, J.

    1995-01-01

    An analytical methodology was developed for target analyses and broad spectrum characterization of polar contaminants such as nitrogenous and organosulfur compounds in wetlands using the complementary techniques of HPLC with electrochemical (EC) detection and tandem MS with probe and electrospray ionization. Tandem MS was well suited for the identification and quantification of mixtures of polar compounds in water samples and soil extracts, while HPLC-EC provided sensitive detection of compounds transparent to MS detection and conventional methods. The usefulness of the methodology is demonstrated by studying the removal of polar contaminants from a wetland in western Canada affected by releases of hydrocarbon-rich condensate and free product from an adjoining sour-gas plant. The concern is that the mobile water-soluble polar contaminants may not be as efficiently attenuated by volatilization or adsorption processes as the more hydrophobic hydrocarbons and that some of the polar toxic compounds may break through to contaminate groundwater and surface waters. Samples of groundwater, surface water, and aqueous soil extracts were analyzed to quantify levels of polar contaminants in the presence of high concentrations of hydrocarbons. The use of water extracts reduced the background interference from hydrocarbons and other non-polar compounds that were present in the soil samples. HPLC-EC was used to quantify the target compounds that included monoethanolamine, diethanolamine and methyldiethanolamine and sulfolane-derived compounds while tandem MS was used to identify related compounds and degradation products. Influent concentrations were in the ppm range and discharge concentrations were in the ppb range

  4. Promising sour cherry hybrids (Prunus cerasus L. developed at Fruit Research Institute Čačak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radičević Sanja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available At Fruit Research Institute in Čačak, major objectives of the work on breeding new sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. cultivars are high cropping, large, high-quality fruits and resistance to causal agents of diseases and pests. As a result of the planned hybridization, more than 10,000 hybrid seedlings have been developed from about 40 cultivars within more than 110 parental combinations, among which are 'Čačanski rubin' ('Shasse Morello' x 'Köröser Weichsel' and 'Šumadinka' ('Köröser Weichsel' x 'Heimanns Konserven Weichsel' which have been named and released. Ten-year study of 11 hybrids, selected from the population of about 3,000 hybrid seedlings, gave four hybrids which have been singled out as elite (III/23, III/31, II/40 i XII/57. These hybrids are currently under procedure of being released as new cultivars. The paper presents two-year results of the study of ripening time, pomological properties, biochemical composition of fruits, and field resistance to causal agents of diseases and pests attacking the above named genotypes which were compared to standard cultivar 'Heimanns Konserven Weichsel'. In the studied hybrids, fruit weight, soluble solids content and sugars content were higher than in standard cultivar. In addition, they exhibit substantial field resistance to causal agents of brown rot (Monilinia laxa /Ader et Ruhl./ Honey ex Whetz., cherry leaf spot (Blumeriella jaapii (Rehm. v. Arx., shot-hole (Clasterosporium carpophilum (Lév. Aderh. and cherry fruit fly (Rhagoletis cerasi L. attack.

  5. Isolation and identification of an ester from a crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, H.F.; Breger, I.A.

    1958-01-01

    A dioctylphthalate has been isolated from a crude oil by means of adsorption column chromatography. The ester was identified by means of elemental analysis, refractive index, and its infra-red absorption spectrum. Saponification of the isolate and examination of the resultant alcohol by means of infrared absorption spectra led to the conclusion that the ester is a branched chain dioctylphthalate. This is the first reported occurrence of an ester in crude petroleum. ?? 1958.

  6. Feasibility Process for Remediation of the Crude Oil Contaminated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, H.; Choi, H.; Heo, H.; Lee, S.; Kang, G.

    2015-12-01

    More than 600 oil wells were destroyed in Kuwait by Iraqi in 1991. During the war, over 300 oil lakes with depth of up to 2m at more than 500 different locations which has been over 49km2. Therefore, approximately 22 million m3was crude oil contaminated. As exposure of more than 20 years under atmospheric conditions of Kuwait, the crude oil has volatile hydrocarbons and covered heavy oily sludge under the crude oil lake. One of crude oil contaminated soil which located Burgan Oilfield area was collected by Kuwait Oil Company and got by H-plus Company. This contaminated soil has about 42% crude oil and could not biodegraded itself due to the extremely high toxicity. This contaminated soil was separated by 2mm sieve for removal oil sludge ball. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was analysis by GC FID and initial TPH concentration was average 48,783 mg/kg. Ten grams of the contaminated soil replaced in two micro reactors with 20mL of bio surfactant produce microorganism. Reactor 1 was added 0.1g powder hemoglobin and other reactor was not added hemoglobin at time 0 day. Those reactors shake 120 rpm on the shaker for 7 days and CO2 produced about 150mg/L per day. After 7 days under the slurry systems, the rest days operated by hemoglobin as primary carbon source for enhanced biodegradation. The crude oil contaminated soil was degraded from 48,783mg/kg to 20,234mg/kg by slurry process and final TPH concentration degraded 11,324mg/kg for 21days. Therefore, highly contaminated soil by crude oil will be combined bio slurry process and biodegradation process with hemoglobin as bio catalytic source. Keywords: crude-oil contaminated soil, bio slurry, biodegradation, hemoglobin ACKOWLEDGEMENTS This project was supported by the Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE) GAIA Program

  7. Subordinated Levy Processes and Applications to Crude Oil Options

    OpenAIRE

    Noureddine Krichene

    2005-01-01

    One approach to oil markets is to treat oil as an asset, besides its role as a commodity. Speculative and nonspeculative activity by investors in the derivatives markets could be responsible for a sizable increase in oil prices. This paper recognizes both the consumption and investment aspects of crude oil and proposes Levy processes for modeling uncertainty and options pricing. Calibration to crude oil futures' options shows high volatility of oil futures prices, fat-tailed, and right-skewed...

  8. Crude glycerin in the supplement for beef cattle on pasture

    OpenAIRE

    San Vito, Elias [UNESP

    2015-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted during the dry and rainy season, in order to assess the increasing concentrations of crude glycerin (80% glycerol) in the supplement of young Nellore grazing tropical grass, on intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation, rumen microorganism profile, performance, methane emission, and carcass and meat quality traits. The treatment consist of supplements with increasing concentrations (0, 70, 140, 210, and 280 g/kg DM basis of supplement) of crude glycerin, fed ...

  9. Bioremediation of crude oil spills in marine and terrestrial environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    Bioremediation can be a safe and effective tool for dealing with crude oil spills, as demonstrated during the cleanup following the Exxon Valdez spill in Alaska. Crude oil has also been spilled on land, and bioremediation is a promising option for land spills too. Nevertheless, there are still areas where understanding of the phenomenon is rather incomplete. Research groups around the world are addressing these problems, and this symposium provides an excellent overview of some of this work

  10. OPEC announcements and their effects on crude oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Sharon Xiaowen; Tamvakis, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We investigate evidence on the effects of OPEC announcements on world oil prices by examining announcements from both official conferences and ministerial meetings on major international crudes, including the key benchmarks and several other heavy and light grades. With data from 1982 to 2008, we use event study methodology and find differentiation in the magnitude and significance of market responses to OPEC quota decisions under different price bands. We also find some (weak) evidence of differentiation between light and heavy crude grades. (author)

  11. Investigation of Heavy Organics Precipitation from Nigerian Crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: The effects of mixing two n-alkane solvents on the precipitation of heavy organics in crude oil were carried out. The crude oil sample sourced from a major operative in Nigeria was distilled at 240oC and used for the precipitation experiment. The binary mixture of n-alkane solvents (C6: C10, C6: C16, C10: C14, ...

  12. New heavy crude oil flow improver increases delivery : application scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, J.; Johnston, R.; Lauzon, P. [ConocoPhillips Specialty Products Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Flow improvers or drag reducing agents have been used for over 25 years as a method to increase fluid flow in hydrocarbon pipelines. The technology is effective in refined projects, light and medium crude oils. This paper presented a new development in flow improver technology that allows treatment of heavy crude oil slates. It discussed case studies of flow improver treatment of heavy oils in various pipeline system as well as factors that affect commercial success. tabs., figs.

  13. Kurdistan crude oils as feedstock for production of aromatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulsalam R. Karim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Crude oils from various locations in Iraqi Kurdistan were fully evaluated, so that enables refiners to improve their operation by selecting the best crude oil that yields high naphtha content to be used as a catalytic reforming feedstock after determination of total sulfur content and then de sulfurizing them, then cyclizing or reforming these sweet naphtha cuts to produce aromatic fractions which can be split into benzene, toluene, and xylenes.

  14. Pricing and crude oil self-sufficiency. [Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    How Canada should go about achieving crude oil self-sufficiency and who should develop Canada's petroleum resources are discussed. The degree of urgency and the level of commitment required by government, industry, and consumers are evaluated. What the price should be of Canadian crude oil and who should establish this price are also discussed. The economic aspects of investment, return, and taxation are also included. (DC)

  15. Process for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Chang Y.; Boysen, John E.; Branthaver, Jan F.

    1991-01-01

    A process is provided for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil by mixing the heavy crude oil with tar sand; preheating the mixture to a temperature of about 650.degree. F.; heating said mixture to up to 800.degree. F.; and separating tar sand from the light oils formed during said heating. The heavy metals removed from the heavy oils can be recovered from the spent sand for other uses.

  16. Evaluating the US government's crude oil price projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.D.

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) 1991 official long run crude oil price projections are evaluated by comparing parameter averages for the forecast period (1991-2010) to parameter averages from crude oil price history (1859-1990). The parameters used in the evaluation are average price, average annual price changes, and average cycle duration (in years). All prices used in the analysis are annual prices in constant 1990 dollars per barrel. 13 figs

  17. Beyond the crude oil and gas reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sote, K.

    1993-01-01

    Petroleum remains the greatest jewel of inestimable value in both the local and international treasure hunts for cheap energy source and viable investment options the world over. The diverse business potentials and favourable government policies in Nigeria aimed specifically at stimulating investments in the up streams, midstream and downstream industries need to be tapped by both indigenous and foreign investors alike. Beyond the crude oil and gas reserves' is therefore our modest effort to support such policies, sensitise the Nigerian petroleum industry and promote more dynamic awareness for the varied business opportunities abound in this sector of the economy. The main objective or this publication is to bring to a wider audience within and outside the oil industry a spectrum of such salient opportunities therein. The publication further presents in a lucid and consize form the hidden potentials yet to be harnessed, captures the essence of such investments, identifies the inherent problems in Nigeria peculiar circumstance and thus provides a detailed guide to address such short-coming, viz. Inadequate and poor knowledge of petroleum industry, its operation, by products and their correct applications. - Lack of understanding of the intricacies, realities and technicalities of petroleum business in general. - Poor financial resources, management style, operational and marketing strategies man power and human resources development.- Dirge of information, lack of professional advice and technical service support on the varied business opportunities for diversification. Apathy on the part of the investors themselves to seek for professional support from competent oil consultants, technocrats, institutionalised authorities on petroleum and related matters, amongst others. In summary, the book is divided into ten chapters with illustrations, graphics, drawings, sketches and incorporating figures, statistics, business reports, marketing results, feasibility studies

  18. The impact of energy derivatives on the crude oil market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, J.; Ostdiek, B. [Jones Graduate School of Management, Rice University, MS 531, P.O. Box 1892 Houston, TX (United States)

    1999-04-01

    We examine the effects of energy derivatives trading on the crude oil market. There is a common public and regulatory perception that derivative securities increase volatility and can have a destabilizing effect on the underlying market. Consistent with this view, we find an abnormal increase in volatility for three consecutive weeks following the introduction of NYMEX crude oil futures. While there is also evidence of a longer-term volatility increase, this is likely due to exogenous factors, such as the continuing deregulation of the energy markets. Subsequent introductions of crude oil options and derivatives on other energy commodities have no effect on crude oil volatility. We also examine the effects of derivatives trading on the depth and liquidity of the crude oil market. This analysis reveals a strong inverse relation between the open interest in crude oil futures and spot market volatility. Specifically, when open interest is greater, the volatility shock associated with a given unexpected increase in volume is much smaller. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  19. Microbial degradation of resins fractionated from Arabian light crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkateswaran, K.; Hoaki, T.; Kato, M.; Maruyama, T.

    1995-01-01

    Sediment samples from the Japanese coasts were screened for microorganisms able to degrade resin components of crude oil. A mixed population that could degrade 35% of 5000 ppm resin in 15 days was obtained. This population also metabolized 50% of saturates and aromatics present in crude oil (5000 ppm) in 7 days. A Pseudomonas sp., isolated from the mixed population, emulsified and degraded 30% of resins. It also degraded saturates and aromatics (30%) present in crude oil (5000 ppm). These results were obtained from Iatroscan analysis. Degradation of crude oil was also analyzed by gas chromatography (GC). The peaks corresponding to known aliphatic hydrocarbons in crude oil greatly decreased within the first two days of incubation in the cultures of the RY-mixed population and of Pseudomonas strain UN3. Aromatic compounds detected as a broad peak by GC were significantly degraded at day 7 by Pseudomonas strain UN3, and at day 15 by the RY-mixed population. Investigations are ongoing to determine the genetic basis for the ability of these organisms to grow on the resin fractions of crude oil as a sole source of carbon and energy. 28 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  20. A refined approach: Saudi Arabia moves beyond crude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krane, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Saudi Arabia's role in global energy markets is changing. The kingdom is reshaping itself as a supplier of refined petroleum products while moving beyond its long-held role as a simple exporter of crude oil. This change is commensurate with the typical development trajectory of a state progressing to a more advanced stage of global economic integration. Gains from increased refining include reducing fuel imports and capturing margins now bequeathed to competitors. Refining also allows the kingdom to export its heavy crude oil to a wider array of customers, beyond select importers configured to handle heavy crudes. However, the move also presents strategic complications. The world's 'swing supplier' of oil may grow less willing or able to adjust supply to suit market demands. In the process, Saudi Arabia may have to update the old “oil for security” relationship that links it with Washington, augmenting it with a more diverse set of economic and investment ties with individual companies and countries, including China. -- Highlights: •Saudi Arabia is diverting crude oil into an expanding refining sector. •In doing so, the kingdom is moving beyond its role as global “swing supplier” of crude oil. •The kingdom will benefit from increased refining, including enhanced demand for heavy crude. •Strategic complications may force it to seek security partners beyond Washington

  1. Modeling of well drilling heating on crude oil using microwave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muntini, Melania Suweni, E-mail: melania@physics.its.ac.id; Pramono, Yono Hadi; Yustiana [Physics Department, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya Kampus ITS, Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111 (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    As the world’s oil reserves are dwindling, some researchers have been prompted to make a breakthrough to further improve the efficiency of exploration and production. One of the technologies used is heating the crude oil. This paper presents the modeling results of heat treatment on crude oil using microwave energy. Modeling is conducted by assuming that the diameter of the well is 11,16 cm, the heat source is applied on the surface of the well, and the cut-off frequency in the air and on crude oil are 1,56 GHz. and 0.91 GHz, respectively. The energy generated by the microwave radiation is converted into heat energy which is absorbed by the crude oil. Consequently, this energy increases the temperature of crude oil through a heat transfer mechanism. The results obtained showed that the temperature of crude oil is about 200°C at a depth of 62.5cm, and at a distance of 3 cm from the center of the well. Temperature along the well follows an exponential function, which is from the center of the well in the direction radially outward from the cylinder axis. It has been observed that the temperature decreases as measured from the well surface along the cylinder.

  2. Contents of lecithin and choline in crude drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, K; Kikuoka, M; Nishi, H; Kokusenya, Y; Miyamoto, T; Matsuo, M; Sato, T

    1994-01-01

    The determination of lecithin and choline in crude drugs was established by a combination of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detector (ECD) and enzyme reaction. Lecithin in crude drugs extracted with a mixture of chloroform-methanol (2:1) at room temperature was hydrolyzed by phospholipase D. The hydrolyzate was injected to HPLC, and choline was separated from impurities by reverse phase column. The choline was converted to betaine and hydrogen peroxide by passing through column packed with immobilized choline oxidase. This hydrogen peroxide was detected by ECD. The peak area of hydrogen peroxide derived from lecithin was proportional to the concentration of lecithin from 0.10 to 1.52 microgram/ml. Choline in crude drugs was extracted with ethanol under reflux and determined under the same HPLC conditions as lecithin. The peak area of hydrogen peroxide derived from choline was proportional to the concentration of choline from 0.01 to 0.45 microgram/ml. The contents of lecithin and choline in 31 kinds of crude drugs were determined by these established methods. The results showed that Cervi Parvum Cornu, Kokurozin, Foenigraeci Semen and Psoraleae Semen contained more lecithin than other crude drugs, while Angelicae Radix, Foenigraeci Semen, Psoraleae Semen, and especially Hippocampus were found to contain more choline than other crude drugs.

  3. The impact of energy derivatives on the crude oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, J.; Ostdiek, B.

    1999-01-01

    We examine the effects of energy derivatives trading on the crude oil market. There is a common public and regulatory perception that derivative securities increase volatility and can have a destabilizing effect on the underlying market. Consistent with this view, we find an abnormal increase in volatility for three consecutive weeks following the introduction of NYMEX crude oil futures. While there is also evidence of a longer-term volatility increase, this is likely due to exogenous factors, such as the continuing deregulation of the energy markets. Subsequent introductions of crude oil options and derivatives on other energy commodities have no effect on crude oil volatility. We also examine the effects of derivatives trading on the depth and liquidity of the crude oil market. This analysis reveals a strong inverse relation between the open interest in crude oil futures and spot market volatility. Specifically, when open interest is greater, the volatility shock associated with a given unexpected increase in volume is much smaller. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  4. Changes in taste sensation of sour, salty, sweet, bitter, umami, and spicy, as well as levels of malondialdehyde serum in radiographers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agniz Nur Aulia

    2016-06-01

    on the effects of radiation on cancer patients show that radiation can cause an increase in bitterness and metal taste [in cancer patients] leading to discomfort in the oral cavity. In body, free radicals then can cause lipid peroxidation process. Lipid peroxidation is an oxidative destruction of polyunsaturated fatty acid producing malondialdehyde (MDA. Purpose: This study aimed to determine the effects of radiation on changes in the taste sensation of sour, salty, sweet, bitter, umami, and spicy as well as the levels of MDA serum in radiographers. Method: This study was an observational laboratory research using post- test control design. Samples were selected using simple random sampling technique. The samples were seven radiographers who have been working for five years in the laboratory and radiographic units in Surabaya. Result: Based on the results of statistical tests, it showed that there were no differences in the sensitivity of all tastes between the groups tested. Moreover, the results also depicted considerable value for the sour taste was 0.550, the saltiness was 0.775, the sweetness was 0.294, the bitter taste was 0.065, the umami taste was 0.705, and the spicy taste was 0.319 (p>0.05. However, the dramatic increase was higlighted in levels of MDA serum with a significant value of 0.065 (p>0.005. Conclusion. There were no changes in the sensitivity of sour, salty, sweet, bitter, umami, and spicy tastes, but there was a significant increased in level of MDA serum in the radiographers compared to the control group.

  5. Findings of a retrospective survey conducted after the Lodgepole sour gas well blowout to determine if the natural occurrence of bovine abortions and fetal anomalies increased

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klavano, G.G.; Christian, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    A survey was conducted after the Lodgepole sour gas well blowout of October 1982 to determine if the incident changed the number and type of bovine abortions and abnormal bovine feti submitted to the diagnostic laboratory from the blowout area. The records of the total number of bovine feti submitted were compared between three areas to determine if there was a significant difference between the areas closer to the well site and the larger total area. No changes or trends could be ascribed to the well blowout. 2 refs., 5 tabs

  6. 77 FR 55817 - Delek Crude Logistics, LLC; Notice of Petition for Waiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. OR12-19-000] Delek Crude Logistics, LLC; Notice of Petition for Waiver Take notice that on June 11, 2012, Delek Crude Logistics, LLC... East Texas Crude Logistics crude oil pipeline system. Any person desiring to intervene or to protest in...

  7. Un établissement du début du premier âge du Fer en Eure-et-Loir : Sours, Les Ouches A settlement from the first Iron Age in Eure-et-Loir: Sours, Les Ouches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Dupont

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La fouille du site des Ouches à Sours (28 a permis la mise au jour d’une importante occupation du Néolithique ancien et la découverte, dans la partie nord de l’emprise, de plusieurs structures datables du début de l’âge du Fer (Hallstatt C. Elles correspondent à des structures domestiques (un bâtiment et des fosses et à une entité “ cultuelle ”: un double enclos en “ U ”.L’habitation et ses annexes sont représentées par un bâtiment de plan quadrangulaire sur poteaux et une grande fosse riche en mobilier (céramiques, ossements et silex taillés. Cette structure peut être associée au fonctionnement d’un four de type “ polynésien ” et avoir servi de fosse de rejet.Le double enclos, ouvert vers le nord, est localisé au nord-est du site.Même si trois céramiques entières ont été trouvées dans son fossé externe, l’essentiel du mobilier céramique (177 individus sur 192 est issu de la grande fosse. Il s’agit principalement de coupes, de jattes parfois incisées, de petits gobelets à panse globulaire typiques du Hallstatt C ou de vases servant au stockage. Ils sont dotés de manière régulière de cordons digités.Ce petit établissement du début de l’âge du Fer a livré un bon échantillon des céramiques en usage en Eure-et-Loir à cette époque ainsi que des vestiges archéozoologiques et lithiques en quantité intéressante. Ces découvertes donnent de nouvelles informations sur les affinités culturelles à la transition entre l’âge du Bronze et l’âge du Fer, période peu documentée dans le Nord de la région Centre.The excavation of the site of Ouches at Sours (28 has enabled the updating of an important settlement from the early Neolithic and the discovery, in the northern part of the site, of several structures datable to the beginning of the Iron Age (Hallstatt C. They correspond to domestic structures (a building and some ditches and a “worship” entity: a double

  8. Standard guide for determining corrosivity of crude oils

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This guide presents some generally accepted laboratory methodologies that are used for determining the corrosivity of crude oil. 1.2 This guide does not cover detailed calculations and methods, but rather a range of approaches that have found application in evaluating the corrosivity of crude oil. 1.3 Only those methodologies that have found wide acceptance in crude oil corrosivity evaluation are considered in this guide. 1.4 This guide does not address the change in oil/water ratio caused by accumulation of water at low points in a pipeline system. 1.5 This guide is intended to assist in the selection of methodologies that can be used for determining the corrosivity of crude oil under conditions in which water is present in the liquid state (typically up to 100°C). These conditions normally occur during oil and gas production, storage, and transportation in the pipelines. 1.6 This guide does not cover the evaluation of corrosivity of crude oil at higher temperatures (typically above 300°C) that oc...

  9. E3 analysis for crude and vacuum distillation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, V; Zhang, J; Yang, X; Xu, Q [Dan F. Smith Department of Chemical Engineering, Lamar University, Beaumont, Texas (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Crude oil blending is a very common practice in petroleum refineries, where the main focus is to minimize the total purchase cost of crude oils under specified blending oil properties. Crude oil blending actually has significant impacts on energy consumption from heating furnaces during crude oil processing. Conceivably, furnace energy consumption from burning fuels such as natural gas, fuel oil, or propane causes huge amounts of CO{sub 2} emissions. In this paper, a methodology framework for crude oil blending and processing with simultaneous consideration of energy, emission, and economic profit (E3) is developed. It includes four stages of work: steady-state modeling, heating energy consumption calculation, emission model development, and economic evaluation. With Aspen HYSYS simulation, the developed methodology provides a quantitative support for refinery to identify an optimal E3 operating strategy. A case study is implemented to demonstrate the efficacy of this methodology. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Effect of temperature on biodegradation of crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zekri, A.; Chaalal, O.

    2005-01-01

    An active strain of anaerobic thermophilic bacteria was isolated from the environment of the United Arab Emirates. This project studied the effect of temperature, salinity and oil concentration on biodegradation of crude oil. Oil weight loss, microbial growth and the changes of the crude oil asphaltene concentration are used to evaluate the oil degradation by this strain. A series of batch experiments was performed to study the effects of bacteria on the degradation of crude oil. The effects of oil concentration, bacteria concentration, temperature and salinity on the biodegradation were investigated. The temperatures of the studied systems were varied between 35 and 75 o C and the salt concentrations were varied between 0 and 10%. Oil concentrations were ranged from 5 to 50% by volume. Experimental work showed the bacteria employed in this project were capable of surviving the harsh environment and degrading the crude oil at various conditions. Increasing the temperature increases the rate of oil degradation by bacteria. Increasing the oil concentration in general decreases the rate of bacteria oil degradation. Salinity plays a major role on the acceleration of biodegradation process of crude oil. An optimum salinity should be determined for every studied system. The finding of this project could be used in either the treatment of oil spill or in-situ stimulation of heavy oil wells. (author)

  11. Enhanced crude oil biodegradation in soil via biostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Esmaeil; Hassan, Ali

    2016-08-02

    Research on feasible methods for the enhancement of bioremediation in soil contaminated by crude oil is vital in oil-exporting countries such as Kuwait, where crude oil is a major pollutant and the environment is hostile to biodegradation. This study investigated the possibility of enhancing crude oil bioremediation by supplementing soil with cost-effective organic materials derived from two widespread locally grown trees, Conocarpus and Tamarix. Amendments in soils increased the counts of soil microbiota by up to 98% and enhanced their activity by up to 95.5%. The increase in the biodegradation of crude oil (75%) and high levels of alkB expression substantiated the efficiency of the proposed amendment technology for the bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. The identification of crude-oil-degrading bacteria revealed the dominance of the genus Microbacterium (39.6%), Sphingopyxis soli (19.3%), and Bordetella petrii (19.6%) in unamended, Conocarpus-amended, and Tamarix-amended contaminated soils, respectively. Although soil amendments favored the growth of Gram-negative bacteria and reduced bacterial diversity, the structures of bacterial communities were not significantly altered.

  12. An Improved CO2-Crude Oil Minimum Miscibility Pressure Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimum miscibility pressure (MMP, which plays an important role in miscible flooding, is a key parameter in determining whether crude oil and gas are completely miscible. On the basis of 210 groups of CO2-crude oil system minimum miscibility pressure data, an improved CO2-crude oil system minimum miscibility pressure correlation was built by modified conjugate gradient method and global optimizing method. The new correlation is a uniform empirical correlation to calculate the MMP for both thin oil and heavy oil and is expressed as a function of reservoir temperature, C7+ molecular weight of crude oil, and mole fractions of volatile components (CH4 and N2 and intermediate components (CO2, H2S, and C2~C6 of crude oil. Compared to the eleven most popular and relatively high-accuracy CO2-oil system MMP correlations in the previous literature by other nine groups of CO2-oil MMP experimental data, which have not been used to develop the new correlation, it is found that the new empirical correlation provides the best reproduction of the nine groups of CO2-oil MMP experimental data with a percentage average absolute relative error (%AARE of 8% and a percentage maximum absolute relative error (%MARE of 21%, respectively.

  13. Applications of UT results to confirm defects findings by utilization of relevant metallurgical investigations techniques on gas/condensate pipeline working in wet sour gas environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Azhari, O. A.; Gajam, S. Y.

    2015-03-01

    The gas/condensate pipe line under investigation is a 12 inch diameter, 48 km ASTM, A106 steel pipeline, carrying hydrocarbons containing wet CO2 and H2S.The pipe line had exploded in a region 100m distance from its terminal; after 24 years of service. Hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) and sour gas corrosion were expected due to the presence of wet H2S in the gas analysis. In other areas of pipe line ultrasonic testing was performed to determine whether the pipeline can be re-operated. The results have shown presence of internal planner defects, this was attributed to the existence of either laminations, type II inclusions or some service defects such as HIC and step wise cracking (SWC).Metallurgical investigations were conducted on fractured samples as per NACE standard (TM-0284-84). The obtained results had shown macroscopic cracks in the form of SWC, microstructure of steel had MnS inclusions. Crack sensitivity analyses were calculated and the microhardness testing was conducted. These results had confirmed that the line material was suffering from sour gas deteriorations. This paper correlates the field UT inspection findings with those methods investigated in the laboratory. Based on the results obtained a new HIC resistance material pipeline needs to be selected.

  14. Sulfide stress corrosion study of a super martensitic stainless steel in H2S sour environments: Metallic sulfides formation and hydrogen embrittlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnot, Martin; Nogueira, Ricardo P.; Roche, Virginie; Berthomé, Grégory; Chauveau, Eric; Estevez, Rafael; Mantel, Marc

    2017-02-01

    Thanks to their high corrosion resistance, super martensitic stainless steels are commonly used in the oil and gas industry, particularly in sour environments. Some grades are however susceptible to undergo hydrogen and mechanically-assisted corrosion processes in the presence of H2S, depending on the pH. The martensitic stainless steel EN 1.4418 grade exhibits a clear protective passive behavior with no sulfide stress corrosion cracking when exposed to sour environments of pH ≥ 4, but undergoes a steep decrease in its corrosion resistance at lower pH conditions. The present paper investigated this abrupt loss of corrosion resistance with electrochemical measurements as well as different physicochemical characterization techniques. Results indicated that below pH 4.0 the metal surface is covered by a thick (ca 40 μm) porous and defect-full sulfide-rich corrosion products layer shown to be straightforwardly related to the onset of hydrogen and sulfide mechanically-assisted corrosion phenomena.

  15. Advanced oxidation processes for treatment of petroleum refinery sour waters; Processos oxidativos avancados para tratamento de aguas acidas de refinaria de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Antonio V.; Coelho, Alessandra D.; Sant' Anna Junior, Geraldo L.; Dezotti, Marcia [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Engenharia Quimica

    2004-07-01

    The characteristics of the waste water generated by the petroleum refineries are related to the type and amount of processed oil, to the nature and the efficiency of the refining operation. The effluents are composed basically of oily waters, originating from of the contact with the oil. Among them, the current of sour water is one of the most preoccupying due to its composition: sulfide, ammonia, mercaptans, phenol, dissolved oil, basic pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) high. The aim of this work was to evaluate the advanced oxidation processes to degrade sour water (UV radiation, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV, photocatalysis, Fenton and photo-Fenton). All process, except Fenton and photo-Fenton, did not supply satisfactory results, reducing 25% of initial DOC, which it is of 450 mg/L. The results using the Fenton process reached removal of 50% of the initial COD, and when photo- Fenton process obtaining removal of 90%. The processes Fenton and photo-Fenton were shown capable to degrade this kind of waste water, minimizing the environmental problems and corrosion, operating as a pre-treatment for the biological system, or acting alone to degrade the organic matter contained, seeking the water reuse. The effluent used in this work came from Duque de Caxias Refinery (Reduc)/PETROBRAS. (author)

  16. Ghrelin is produced in taste cells and ghrelin receptor null mice show reduced taste responsivity to salty (NaCl and sour (citric acid tastants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Kyong Shin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The gustatory system plays a critical role in determining food preferences, food intake and energy balance. The exact mechanisms that fine tune taste sensitivity are currently poorly defined, but it is clear that numerous factors such as efferent input and specific signal transduction cascades are involved.Using immunohistochemical analyses, we show that ghrelin, a hormone classically considered to be an appetite-regulating hormone, is present within the taste buds of the tongue. Prepro-ghrelin, prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC 1/3, ghrelin, its cognate receptor (GHSR, and ghrelin-O-acyltransferase (GOAT , the enzyme that activates ghrelin are expressed in Type I, II, III and IV taste cells of mouse taste buds. In addition, ghrelin and GHSR co-localize in the same taste cells, suggesting that ghrelin works in an autocrine manner in taste cells. To determine a role for ghrelin in modifying taste perception, we performed taste behavioral tests using GHSR null mice. GHSR null mice exhibited significantly reduced taste responsivity to sour (citric acid and salty (sodium chloride tastants.These findings suggest that ghrelin plays a local modulatory role in determining taste bud signaling and function and could be a novel mechanism for the modulation of salty and sour taste responsivity.

  17. Preliminary Valuation of “Y” and “V”-Trellised Canopies for Mechanical Harvesting of Plums, Sweet Cherries and Sour Cherries for the Fresh Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabcewicz Jacek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Plums, sweet cherry, and sour cherry trees were spaced 4.5 m × 1.5 m to be trained to “Y” and “V”-trellising systems for mechanical harvesting, with a canopy contact harvester, attending to obtain fruits meeting the requirements of the fresh fruit market. The applied trellising systems were compared with the standard central leader system at the same spacing. The most of trellised trees grew less vigorously than the standard trees, and after 3 years of training, the trees were suitable for mechanical harvesting with the harvester designed at the Research Institute of Horticulture in Skierniewice. The trellised trees were able to set as many fruitlets as those grown in the form of central leader and gave a comparable yield, but differences between cultivars were significant. Light interception in the third year after planting was lower for trees of sour cherry and plum growing in the “Y”-20° and “V” in comparison to the trees with central leader. Illumination of trellised canopies at the level of 0.7 and 1.5 m was the most favorable in “V” system when compared to control and “Y” training systems. Cost of construction for the trellising systems of stone fruits calculated per 1 ha was two times higher when compared with the standard system.

  18. How much crude oil can zooplankton ingest? Estimating the quantity of dispersed crude oil defecated by planktonic copepods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Connelly, Tara L.; Buskey, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated and quantified defecation rates of crude oil by 3 species of marine planktonic copepods (Temora turbinata, Acartia tonsa, and Parvocalanus crassirostris) and a natural copepod assemblage after exposure to mechanically or chemically dispersed crude oil. Between 88 and 100% of the analyzed fecal pellets from three species of copepods and a natural copepod assemblage exposed for 48 h to physically or chemically dispersed light crude oil contained crude oil droplets. Crude oil droplets inside fecal pellets were smaller (median diameter: 2.4–3.5 μm) than droplets in the physically and chemically dispersed oil emulsions (median diameter: 6.6 and 8.0 μm, respectively). This suggests that copepods can reject large crude oil droplets or that crude oil droplets are broken into smaller oil droplets before or during ingestion. Depending on the species and experimental treatments, crude oil defecation rates ranged from 5.3 to 245 ng-oil copepod"−"1 d"−"1, which represent a mean weight-specific defecation rate of 0.026 μg-oil μg-C_c_o_p_e_p_o_d"1 d"−"1. Considering a dispersed crude oil concentration commonly found in the water column after oil spills (1 μl L"−"1) and copepod abundances in high productive coastal areas, copepods may defecate ∼1.3–2.6 mg-oil m"−"3 d"−"1, which would represent ∼0.15%–0.30% of the total dispersed oil per day. Our results indicate that ingestion and subsequent defecation of crude oil by planktonic copepods has a small influence on the overall mass of oil spills in the short term, but may be quantitatively important in the flux of oil from surface water to sediments and in the transfer of low-solubility, toxic petroleum hydrocarbons into food webs after crude oil spills in the sea. - Highlights: • Copepods exposed to dispersed crude oil produced fecal pellets contained numerous small oil droplets (2.4 to 3.5 µm). • Copepods could reject large oil droplets or oil droplets are broken into

  19. The strategic and economic value of exploiting heavy crude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saniere, A.

    2003-01-01

    Non-conventional oil, and particularly heavy crude varieties, will play an increasingly important role in meeting growing global energy requirements by 2030 and beyond. These heavy oils currently account for high volumes in certain areas but their proportion of global oil production remains modest for the moment, This should significantly change with the completion of several projects currently underway in Canada and Venezuela. Indeed, the technological innovations occurring over recent years have allowed for a considerable reduction in exploitation costs for these crude varieties and improved economic profitability conditions for the projects. The geographical location of resources (which are independent of the Middle East) and the fact that they are not subject to OPEC quotas also make these crude varieties particularly attractive. (authors)

  20. Purification of crude biodiesel using dry washing and membrane technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Atadashi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purification of crude biodiesel is mandatory for the fuel to meet the strict international standard specifications for biodiesel. Therefore, this paper carefully analyzed recently published literatures which deal with the purification of biodiesel. As such, dry washing technologies and the most recent membrane biodiesel purification process have been thoroughly examined. Although purification of biodiesel using dry washing process involving magnesol and ion exchange resins provides high-quality biodiesel fuel, considerable amount of spent absorbents is recorded, besides the skeletal knowledge on its operating process. Further, recent findings have shown that biodiesel purification using membrane technique could offer high-quality biodiesel fuel with less wastewater discharges. Thus, both researchers and industries are expected to benefit from the development of membrane technique in purifying crude biodiesel. As well biodiesel purification via membranes has been shown to be environmentally friendly. For these reasons, it is important to explore and exploit membrane technology to purify crude biodiesel.

  1. Factors affecting future crude oil production in South East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baugh, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    In the face of booming regional demand, crude oil production in the South East Asian region will decline from a 1996 peak of 5.7 million barrels a day to 3.5 million barrels a day in 2005 unless major new exploration investments are undertaken. The current fiscal terms for such investment will not attract continued significant funds to the region given the low crude price outlook, tough competitive global environment for the upstream industry, and the emergence of more attractive fiscal terms in politically and commercially stable countries with proven prospectivity. There is evidence from the emerging trend toward fiscal terms softening and differentiation around risk in some countries, that the commercial reality is becoming accepted. It remains to be seen if the various national political, bureaucratic and industry constituencies guiding these decisions within the region can respond decisively to mitigate the growing crude import dependency. (author). 2 tabs

  2. Global economic activity and crude oil prices. A cointegration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Yanan; Wang, Shouyang; Lai, Kin Keung

    2010-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates the cointegrating relationship between crude oil prices and global economic activity. The Kilian economic index is used as an indicator of global economic activity. Based on a supply-demand framework and the cointegration theory, we find that real futures prices of crude oil are cointegrated with the Kilian economic index and a trade weighted US dollar index, and crude oil prices are influenced significantly by fluctuations in the Kilian economic index through both long-run equilibrium conditions and short-run impacts. We also develop an empirically stable, data-coherent and single-equation error-correction model (ECM) which has sensible economic properties. Empirical results based on the ECM show that the adjustment implied by a permanent change in the Kilian economic index is a relatively drawn-out process. (author)

  3. Two refineries running crude; third to restart by September

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tippee, B.

    1993-01-01

    Kuwait's downstream oil and gas industry, which sustained less damage than the country's oil field infrastructure during the Iraqi occupation of the 1990-91, has nearly completed reconstruction. Two of three refineries have resumed operations, one of them at reduced crude distillation rates. And state-owned Kuwait National Petroleum Co. hopes to put the other refinery, Shuaiba, back on stream in September, although not at preinvasion throughput rates. Major reconstruction will be complete by year end, with crude oil distillation capacity at 650,000 b/sd. Preinvasion crude capacities of Kuwait's refineries totaled 840,000 b/d. The article describes an overview of the recovery; the status of the Mina Abdulla processing plant, the Mina Al-Ahmadi refinery, and the Shuaiba refinery; modernization plans, and plans for petrochemicals

  4. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1991, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1991. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1991 is also presented

  5. Biodegradation of crude oil in different types of marine sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hii, Y.S.; Law, A.T.

    1999-01-01

    An active oil-oxidizing bacterium, named Nap C was isolated from the sediment sample of Port Dickson coastal area for this study. Nap C is a gram negative, rod shape marine bacterium. It forms spore when the condition is not favorable. Three different types of treated marine sediment; sand, silt and clay were used in this study. The degradation of Malaysian Tapis A crude oil in the different types of marine sediment were assessed. Silt type of marine sediment was found to sustain highest biodegradation compared to clay type and sand type. 8.6.67% of the Malaysian Tapis A crude oil was degraded in silt type of marine sediment within 10 days of incubation. Where as there were only 60% and 73% of the Malaysian Tapis A crude oil was degraded in sand and clay type of marine sediment respectively. Microbial biomass estimation in the sediment was estimated by indirect phospholipid enumeration technique. (author)

  6. Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and sour gas effects on the eye. A historical perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, Timothy William [Environmental Health, Calgary Health Region, 1509 Centre St SW, Calgary Alberta, T2G 2E6 (Canada)]. E-mail: tim.lambert@calgaryheathregion.ca; Goodwin, Verona Marie [VM Goodwin Research and Consulting Ltd. (Canada); Stefani, Dennis [Environmental Health, Calgary Health Region, 1509 Centre St SW, Calgary Alberta, T2G 2E6 (Canada); Strosher, Lisa [Environmental Health, Calgary Health Region, 1509 Centre St SW, Calgary Alberta, T2G 2E6 (Canada)

    2006-08-15

    The toxicology of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and sour gas on the eye has a long history beginning at least with Ramazzini's observations [Ramazzini B. Diseases of Workers-De Morbis Artificum Diatriba-1713. Wright WC (trans). New York, C. Hafner Publishing Co Inc.; 1964. 98-99 pp.]. In contrast, a recent review by Alberta Health and Wellness (AHW Report) concluded that there is little evidence of eye irritation following short-term exposures to H{sub 2}S at concentrations up to 100 ppm and that the H{sub 2}S literature on the eye is a series of unsubstantiated claims reproduced in review articles dating back to the 1930s [Alberta Health and Wellness (AHW report). Health effects associated with short-term exposure to low levels of hydrogen sulfide: a technical review, Alberta Health and Wellness, October 2002, 81pp.]. In this paper, we evaluated this claim through a historical review of the toxicology of the eye. Ramazzini noted the effects of sewer gas on the eye [Ramazzini B. Diseases of Workers-De Morbis Artificum Diatriba-1713. Wright WC (trans). New York, C. Hafner Publishing Co Inc. 1964. 98-99 pp.]. Lehmann experimentally showed eye effects in men at 70-90 ppm H{sub 2}S and also in animals [Lehmann K. Experimentalle Studien uber den Einfluss technisch und hygienisch wichtiger Gase und Dampfe auf den Organismus. Arch Hyg 1892;14:135-189]. In 1923, Sayers, Mitchell and Yant reported eye effects in animals and men at 50 ppm H{sub 2}S. Barthelemy showed eye effects in animals and men at 20 ppm H{sub 2}S [Barthelemy HL. Ten years' experience with industrial hygiene in connection with the manufacture of viscose rayon. J Ind Hyg Toxicol 1939;21:141-51]. Masure experimentally showed that H{sub 2}S is the causative agent of eye impacts in animals and men [Masure R. La Keratoconjunctivite des filatures de viscose; etude clinique and experiementale. Rev Belge Pathol 1950;20:297-341]. Michal upon microscopic examination of the rat's cornea, found nuclear

  7. Measuring efficiency of international crude oil markets: A multifractality approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niere, H. M.

    2015-01-01

    The three major international crude oil markets are treated as complex systems and their multifractal properties are explored. The study covers daily prices of Brent crude, OPEC reference basket and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude from January 2, 2003 to January 2, 2014. A multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) is employed to extract the generalized Hurst exponents in each of the time series. The generalized Hurst exponent is used to measure the degree of multifractality which in turn is used to quantify the efficiency of the three international crude oil markets. To identify whether the source of multifractality is long-range correlations or broad fat-tail distributions, shuffled data and surrogated data corresponding to each of the time series are generated. Shuffled data are obtained by randomizing the order of the price returns data. This will destroy any long-range correlation of the time series. Surrogated data is produced using the Fourier-Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (F-DFA). This is done by randomizing the phases of the price returns data in Fourier space. This will normalize the distribution of the time series. The study found that for the three crude oil markets, there is a strong dependence of the generalized Hurst exponents with respect to the order of fluctuations. This shows that the daily price time series of the markets under study have signs of multifractality. Using the degree of multifractality as a measure of efficiency, the results show that WTI is the most efficient while OPEC is the least efficient market. This implies that OPEC has the highest likelihood to be manipulated among the three markets. This reflects the fact that Brent and WTI is a very competitive market hence, it has a higher level of complexity compared against OPEC, which has a large monopoly power. Comparing with shuffled data and surrogated data, the findings suggest that for all the three crude oil markets, the multifractality is mainly due to long

  8. Liquid ultrasonic flow meters for crude oil measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalivoda, Raymond J.; Lunde, Per

    2005-07-01

    Liquid ultrasonic flow meters (LUFMs) are gaining popularity for the accurate measurement of petroleum products. In North America the first edition of the API standard ''Measurement of liquid hydrocarbons by ultrasonic flow meters using transit time technology'' was issued in February 2005. It addresses both refined petroleum products and crude oil applications. Its field of application is mainly custody transfer applications but it does provide general guidelines for the installation and operation of LUFM's other applications such as allocation, check meters and leak detection. As with all new technologies performance claims are at times exaggerated or misunderstood and application knowledge is limited. Since ultrasonic meters have no moving parts they appear to have fewer limitations than other liquid flow meters. Liquids ultrasonic flow meters, like turbine meters, are sensitive to fluid properties. It is increasingly more difficult to apply on high viscosity products then on lighter hydrocarbon products. Therefore application data or experience on the measurement of refined or light crude oil may not necessarily be transferred to measuring medium to heavy crude oils. Before better and more quantitative knowledge is available on how LUFMs react on different fluids, the arguments advocating reduced need for in-situ proving and increased dependency on laboratory flow calibration (e.g. using water instead of hydrocarbons) may be questionable. The present paper explores the accurate measurement of crude oil with liquid ultrasonic meters. It defines the unique characteristics of the different API grades of crude oils and how they can affect the accuracy of the liquid ultrasonic measurement. Flow testing results using a new LUFM design are discussed. The paper is intended to provide increased insight into the potentials and limitations of crude oil measurement using ultrasonic flow meters. (author) (tk)

  9. EVALUATION OF CORROSION COST OF CRUDE OIL PROCESSING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADESANYA A.O.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil production industry as the hub of Nigeria Economy is not immune to the global financial meltdown being experienced world over which have resulted in a continual fall of oil price. This has necessitated the need to reduce cost of production. One of the major costs of production is corrosion cost, hence, its evaluation. This research work outlined the basic principles of corrosion prevention, monitoring and inspection and attempted to describe ways in which these measures may be adopted in the context of oil production. A wide range of facilities are used in crude oil production making it difficult to evaluate precisely the extent of corrosion and its cost implication. In this study, cost of corrosion per barrel was determined and the annualized value of corrosion cost was also determined using the principles of engineering economy and results analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results showed that among the corrosion prevention methods identified, the use of chemical treatment gave the highest cost contribution (81% of the total cost of prevention while coating added 19%. Cleaning pigging and cathodic protection gave no cost. The contribution of corrosion maintenance methods are 60% for repairs and 40% for replacement. Also among the corrosion monitoring and inspection identified, NDT gave the highest cost contribution of 41% of the total cost, followed by coating survey (34%. Cathodic protection survey and crude analysis gives the lowest cost contribution of 19% and 6% respectively. Corrosion control cost per barrel was found to be 77 cent/barrel. The significance of this cost was not much due to high price of crude oil in the international market. But the effect of corrosion in crude oil processing takes its toll on crude oil production (i.e. deferment.

  10. The influence of magnetic fields on crude oils viscosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Jose L.; Bombard, Antonio J. F. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), Itajuba, MG (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Exatas. Lab. de Reologia

    2009-07-01

    The crystallization of paraffin causes serious problems in the process of transportation of petroleum. This phenomenon increases the crude oil viscosity and implies an organic resin accumulation on pipeline wall, resulting in a reduced flux area or totally blocked pipes. One of the most challenging tasks for pipeline maintenance is solving this problem at low cost. Therefore, a method that inhibits the crystallization of paraffin and reduces the viscosity of crude oil could have many useful applications within the petroleum industry. Recent studies showed that magnetic fields reduce the Wax Appearance Temperature (WAT) and the viscosity of paraffin-based crude oil. For better understanding of this discovery, a series of tests was performed. This paper will show the influence of a DC magnetic field on rheological proprieties of three crude oils with different paraffin concentrations: a crude oil sample with 11 % p/p of paraffin concentration (sample 1); a crude oil sample with 6 % p/p of paraffin concentration (sample 2); a mixture of paraffin plus light crude oil with a total of 11 % p/p of paraffin concentration. These samples were placed in an electromagnet that generates a magnetic field of 1.3 Tesla. The samples' temperatures were conditioned around their Wax Appearance Temperature (WAT), and they were exposed to the field. As the viscosity of crude oil is very sensitive to the changes in temperature, it was ensured that the temperature has remained constant throughout the process. The sample 1 revealed a considerable reduction of viscosity: its original viscosity was 66 cP before magnetic field exposure, after that its viscosity was reduced to 39 cP. The other samples showed the same viscosity, before and after the magnetic field exposure. Since the samples 1 and 3 have the same paraffin concentrations, the viscosity reduction is not due only to the presence of paraffin; there must be other factors responsible for the interaction of sample 1 with the

  11. Digestible energy of crude glycerol for pacu and silver catfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ernesto Balen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in global biodiesel production is originating a glycerol surplus, which has no defined destination. An alternative to overcome this problem is its use as energy source in animal feeding. In Brazil, Pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus is one of the most farmed native fish species, whereas Silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen is suitable for production in subtropical region. Considering little knowledge about crude glycerol utilization in feeds for Neotropical fish species, it was evaluated the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs for energy of crude glycerol for P. mesopotamicus and R. quelen. The digestibility and digestible energy content of crude glycerol can be considered excellent even when compared to energy of common ingredients such as maize and wheat, presenting 0.97 and 0.89 of energy ADCs, and 15.2 and 13.95MJ kg-1 of digestible energy for Pacu and Silver catfish, respectively. In conclusion, crude glycerol is an energetic ingredient with good potential in Brazilian native fish diets.

  12. Release of Crude Oil from Silica and Calcium Carbonate Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Yan, Wei; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2016-01-01

    Adsorption and desorption of a North Sea crude oil to silica and calcium carbonate surfaces were studied by a quartz crystal microbalance, while the bare surfaces and adsorbed oil layers were characterized by atomic force microscopy and contact angle measurements. Water contact angles were measured...

  13. Crude protein changes on grassland along a degradation gradient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim with this investigation was to quantify the impact of different veld condition classes, viz. poor, moderate and good on soil-water utilization (SWU: crude protein produced per unit of evapotranspiration), during four growing seasons (2000/01 – 2003/2004). Evapotranspiration was determined by quantifying the ...

  14. Breakthrough Adsorption Study of Crude Oil Removal Using Buffing Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyaningsih, L. W. N.; Yuliansyah, A. T.; Prasetyo, A.; Arimanintan, S. K.; Putri, D. R.

    2018-05-01

    The utilization of leather industry solid waste as adsorbent to separate oil from water emulsions of surfactant flooding process is a solution that is relatively inexpensive. This study was conducted aiming to obtain a mathematical model that is appropriate for the adsorption process of crude oil by buffing dust in emulsion phase with a continuous adsorption method. Variations in the column adsorption experiments were carried out, such as: flow rate of feed of water-crude oil-surfactant, the concentration of crude oil in the feed, and mass of adsorbent used. Data were evaluated using three models: Adams Bohart, Thomas and Yan. Best results are obtained on the following conditions, the feed flow rate of 60 mL/minute, the crude oil concentration in feed is 1.5% volume and the mass of adsorbent used was 10 g. The values of kinetic constant and adsorption capacity obtained from Yan Model was 21.7774 mL/mg/minute and 220.9581 mg/g with the relative error obtained is 5.4424%.

  15. Assessment of antioxidant indices after incorporating crude oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They were divided into six groups of five rats each as follows: group 1: control, group 2: rats fed crude petroleum oil contaminated catfish diet (CPO-CCD) only, group 3: ... Administration of MWE, MEE and MDEE to the rats fed CPO-CCD significantly (p<0.05) increased the level of blood GSH, blood GSSG, SOD, CAT and ...

  16. Crude protein changes on grassland along a degradation gradient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evapotranspiration was determined by quantifying the soil-water balance equation with the aid of runoff plots and soil-water content measurements. Crude protein ... The study shows that it is important to keep grassland in optimal condition to utilize limited soil water for sustainable plant and therefore animal production.

  17. Acute Toxicological Effects of Crude Oil On Haematological And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The acute toxicological effects of Brass blend of crude oil on the haemoglobin concentration, and Liver functions in the Guinea pig were studied. 25 Guinea pigs divided into five animals per group were used for the study. They were divided into 5 groups. One group served as a control group, while the others received ...

  18. Evaluation of soil microbial communities as influenced by crude oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of petroleum pollution in a vulnerable Niger Delta ecosystem was investigated to assess interactions in a first-generation phytoremediation site of a crude oil freshly-spilled agricultural soil. Community-level approach for assessing patterns of sole carbon-source utilization by mixed microbial samples was employed to ...

  19. Effects of crude humin and compost produced from selected waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Waste from oil palm plantations, paddy fields, sawn timber and poultries are substantial. Inappropriate disposal of these wastes can cause environmental problems such as air and land pollutions. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of crude humin and compost produced from rice straw, rice husk, sawdust, ...

  20. Crude oil metabolites in groundwater at two spill sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekins, Barbara A.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Erickson, Melinda L.; Steenson, Ross; Thorn, Kevin A.

    2016-01-01

    Two groundwater plumes in north central Minnesota with residual crude oil sources have 20 to 50 mg/L of nonvolatile dissolved organic carbon (NVDOC). These values are over 10 times higher than benzene and two to three times higher than Diesel Range Organics in the same wells. On the basis of previous work, most of the NVDOC consists of partial transformation products from the crude oil. Monitoring data from 1988 to 2015 at one of the sites located near Bemidji, MN show that the plume of metabolites is expanding toward a lakeshore located 335 m from the source zone. Other mass balance studies of the site have demonstrated that the plume expansion is driven by the combined effect of continued presence of the residual crude oil source and depletion of the electron accepting capacity of solid phase iron oxide and hydroxides on the aquifer sediments. These plumes of metabolites are not covered by regulatory monitoring and reporting requirements in Minnesota and other states. Yet, a review of toxicology studies indicates that polar metabolites of crude oil may pose a risk to aquatic and mammalian species. Together the results suggest that at sites where residual sources are present, monitoring of NVDOC may be warranted to evaluate the fates of plumes of hydrocarbon transformation products.

  1. Crude glycerol combustion: particulate, acrolein, and other volatile organic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crude glycerol is an abundant by-product of biodiesel production. As volumes of this potential waste grow, there is increasing interest in developing new value added uses. One possible use, as a boiler fuel for process heating, offers added advantages of energy integration and ...

  2. influence of treatment of seed potato tubers with plant crude

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    essential oil extracts, on the growth and yield of the potato crop. Treatments consisted of .... Seed potato tuber treatment with plant crude essential oil extracts. 297 were pipetted on to ..... and clove essential oils on sprout suppression in potato ...

  3. Characteristics and dyes biodegradation potential of crude lignolytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lignocellulosic enzymes from Crepidotus variabilis collected from mangrove forests of coastal Tanzania were investigated by using standard methods, and their ability to degrade aromatic compounds were elucidated. The fungal crude enzyme filtrates had maximum laccase (Lac), lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese ...

  4. Assessment and bioremediation of heavy metals from crude oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The assessment of the levels of heavy metals present in crude oil contaminated soil and the application of the earthworm - Hyperiodrilus africanus with interest on the bioremediation of metals from the contaminated soil was investigated within a 90-days period under laboratory conditions. Selected heavy metals such as ...

  5. In vitro antibacterial activity of crude methanol extracts of various ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parthenium hysterophorus is an aggressive and exotic weed plant traditionally reported to be used as remedy for various diseases. In the present study in vitro antibacterial activities of P. hysterophorus leaf, flower, bark and root crude methanol extracts were evaluated against five reference strains of pathogenic bacterial ...

  6. Mineral, vitamin C and crude protein contents in kale ( Brassica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study compares mineral, vitamin C and crude protein contents at different harvesting stages in kale (Brassica oleraceae var. acephala). Three different harvest periods as first harvest stage (at the rosette stage), second harvest stage (at the budding stage) and third harvest stage (at the flowering/blooming stage) were ...

  7. Bioremediation of a crude oil polluted tropical rain forest soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These results suggest that Biostimulation with tilling (nutrient enhanced in-situ bioremediation) and or the combination ofBiostimulation and Bioaugumentation with indigenous hydrocarbon utilizers would be effective in the remediation of crude oil polluted tropical soils. Key Words: Bioremediation, Bioaugumentation, ...

  8. Bioremediation potential of crude oil spilled on soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMillen, S.J.; Young, G.N.; Davis, P.S.; Cook, P.D.; Kerr, J.M.; Gray, N.R.; Requejo, A.G.

    1995-01-01

    Spills sometimes occur during routine operations associated with exploration and production (E and P) of crude oil. These spills at E and P sites typically are small, less than 1 acre (0.4 ha), and the spill may be in remote locations. As a result, bioremediation often represents a cost-effective alternative to other cleanup technologies. The goal of this study was to determine the potential for biodegrading a range of crude oil types and determining the effect of process variables such as soil texture and soil salinity. Crude oils evaluated ranged in American Petroleum institute (API) gravity from 14 degree to 45 degree. The extent of biodegradation was calculated from oxygen uptake data and the total extractable material (TEM) concentration. Based on the data collected, a simple model was developed for predicting the bioremediation potential of a range of crude oil types. Biodegradation rates were significantly lower in sandy soils. Soil salinities greater than approximately 40 mmhos/cm adversely impacted soil microbial activity and biodegradation rate

  9. Rate and extent of ruminal degradation of crude protein from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predicted crude protein degradation was calculated at rate constants for outflow of 0.04 and 0.06/h respect- ively. ... as buffers, an ionophore and an antibiotic according to general .... the non-bird resistant ('sweet') varieties. Ruminal .... have been affected by both the particle type and the math- ematical model we used.

  10. Test methods for determining asphaltene stability in crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asomaning, S. [Baker Petrolite, Sugar Land, TX (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The development of test methods for the determination of the stability of asphaltenes in crude oils was rendered necessary, due to the high cost of remediating asphaltene deposition in harsh production environments, namely the underwater systems in offshore deepwater. The Oliensis Spot Test, two saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes (SARA)-based screens (the Colloidal Instability Index and Asphaltene-Resin ratio), a solvent titration method with near infrared radiation (NIR) solids detection, and live oil depressurization were used for the purposes of this study, to predict the stability of asphaltenes in crude oils with different API gravity. A complete description of the test methods was provided, and the experimental data obtained as a result was presented. Correlation with data on the deposition histories of the oils was used to validate the experimental stability data. The author discussed the effectiveness of the different tests for the prediction of the stability of asphaltenes in crude oils. The prediction of a crude oil's propensity towards asphaltene precipitation was more accurate with the Colloidal Instability Index and the solvent titration method. Live oil depressurization proved to be very effective for the prediction of the stability of asphaltenes for light oils, where most stability tests fail. tabs., 31 figs.

  11. Characterization of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Post-Burn Crude Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the Niger delta, crude oil spilled soils are burned as a means of decontaminating the impacted soils. Gas chromatography - flame ionization detector (GCFID) analyses were performed on oil residues extracted from burnt spilled oil soil samples to facilitate detailed chemical composition and characterization of petroleum ...

  12. New contact system in crude oil desalting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forero, J; Duque; Diaz, J; Nunez, A; Guarin, F; Carvajal, F

    2001-01-01

    The effect of the ICP contactor and the mixture valve on the desalting process was evaluated as a contact system in the crude oil washing process. The evaluation was carried out in the two desalters at the Cartagena refinery (GRC) and a desalter at the Barrancabermeja refinery (GCB) of ECOPETROL. The pressure drop was measured and the efficiency of the desalting processes, dehydration and hydrocarbon crude intake in the water was calculated based on the BS and W measurement, salt content and hydrocarbon concentration in the water. Results showed that the contactor improved desalting, water in the crude oil was reduced and crude carry-over in the wastewater was reduced between 50 and 92% at the Barrancabermeja refinery, and between 40 and 95% at the Cartagena refinery, which mean savings of approximately us$ 373.000 dollars per year at both refineries, due to the fact that less water is loaded into the process. Furthermore, hydrocarbon 1055 in wastewater was reduced by about 3650 barrels per year. The pressure drop was reduced between 88 and 94 % in relation to the mixing valve

  13. Antiviral activity of the crude extracts and phytochemical fractions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crude extract of Aloe secundiflora (Aloeaceae), and three phytochemical (HPLC) fractions containing the major phenolic compounds were investigated for their effects on Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) in embryonated specific pathogen free (SPF) chicken eggs. The three fractions used contained the major peaks within ...

  14. Identification of CYP1A inducing compounds in crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, C.W.; Hodson, P.V. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology; Hollebone, B.P.; Wang, Z. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Environmental Technology Advancement Directorate; Brown, R.S. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry

    2004-07-01

    One of the major sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aquatic ecosystems is crude oil. PAHs are responsible for developmental malformations in the early life stages of fish. The induction of CYP1A enzyme is characteristic of developmental toxicity caused by crude oil. As such, it is an effective biomarker of PAH uptake. It is not known which PAHs cause toxicity because of the complex chemical composition of crude oil. In this study, an approach called Toxicity Identification and Evaluation (TIE) was used with different crude oils to separate bioavailable PAHs into petroleum sub-fractions. The extent of CYP1A induction in rainbow trout was measured after 48 hour exposures to each fraction. Low temperature vacuum distillation was used to create white gas, kerosene, coal tar/bitumen and wax fractions. Hepatic CYP1A activity was induced by whole oil and some fractions. The highest PAH concentration was found in the coal tar/bitumen fraction which accounted for most CYP1A induction in whole oil. The wax fraction also caused moderate CYP1A induction, but the white gas fraction did not cause any CYP1A induction. The hypothesis that alkyl PAH may be the most significant source of CYP1A inducers in the coal tar/bitumen fraction was supported by chemical analysis of CYP1A induction potency. Results showed that benzo[a]pyrene accounts for nearly all of the CYP1A induction caused by the wax fraction.

  15. Bioremediation of a Crude Oil Polluted Tropical Mangrove ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A combination of bioaugumentation with hydrocarbon utilizing indigenous bacteria, biostimulation with agricultural fertilizer (NPK 15:15:15) and tilling were employed as remedial options for 20 weeks in a crude oil polluted tidal plain dominated by mangrove (Rhizophora, Laguncularia and Avicenia) vegetation. Soil ...

  16. Socio–economic and environmental impact of crude oil exploration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio–economic and environmental impact of crude oil exploration and production on agricultural production: a case study of Edjeba and Kokori communities in Delta State of ... The results also showed an increase in the occurrence of health hazard, air/noise pollution and heightened deforestation in these communities.

  17. The phytoremediation of crude oil-polluted aquatic environment by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A phytoremediation experiment was carried out in the Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Management, University of Ibadan, Nigeria to examine the ability of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) to detoxify crude oil-polluted aquatic environments. There were fifteen (15) experimental units; twelve (12) had water hyacinth ...

  18. Antibacterial activities of the crude ethanol extracts of medicinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibacterial activities of the crude ethanol extracts of medicinal plants against Listeria monocytogenes and some other pathogenic strains. ... The major components of extracts tested were identified by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. The obtained results revealed in vitro anti-Listeria ...

  19. Effect of asphaltenes on crude oil wax crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriz, Pavel; Andersen, Simon Ivar

    2005-01-01

    The paper summarizes the experimental work done on asphaltene influenced wax crystallization. Three different asphaltenes (from stable oil, instable oil, and deposit) were mixed at several concentrations or dispersions into the waxy crude oil. These blends were evaluated by viscometry and yield s...

  20. Antibacterial activity of the crude extract of Chinese green tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibacterial activity of the crude extract of Chinese green tea (Camellia sinensis) on Listeria monocytogenes. TI Mbata, LU Debiao, A Saikia. Abstract. The antibacterial activity of the methanol and aqueous extract of Camellia sinensis on Listeria monocytogenes were investigated using agar-gel diffusion, paper disk ...

  1. Forecasting Value-at-Risk for Crude-Oil Exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høg, Esben; Tsiaras, Leonidas

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to forecast and evaluate Value-At-Risk for crude-oil exposures. We examine the performance of a GARCH-type based model with lagged implied volatility entering the variance equation as explanatory variable for the predicted variance. The forecasted Values-at...

  2. Impact of Crude-Oil Spillage Pollution and Chemical Remediation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    significantly (p≤0.01) higher than the level of degradation, except in infiltration rate. Soil pH increased by 26% .... volumes of water were added into the containers on day six. As the days ... crude oil spillage reduced soil moisture availability or.

  3. Seahorse (Hippocampus reidi) as a bioindicator of crude oil exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delunardo, Frederico Augusto Cariello; de Carvalho, Luciano Rodrigues; da Silva, Bruno Ferreira; Galão, Michel; Val, Adalberto Luís; Chippari-Gomes, Adriana R

    2015-07-01

    This study explored the suitability of the seahorse Hippocampus reidi (Ginsburg, 1933) for assessing biomarkers of genotoxic effects and its use as a sentinel organism to detect the effects of acute exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons. Fish were exposed to three concentrations of crude oil (10, 20 and 30 g/kg) for 96 h, and the activity of phase II biotransformation enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST) was measured. In addition, we performed genotoxicity assays, such as comet assay, micronucleus (MN) test and nuclear abnormalities (NA) induction, on the erythrocytes of the fish species. Our results revealed that the inhibition of hepatic GST activity in H. reidi was dependent on increasing crude oil concentrations. In contrast, an increase in the damage index (DI) and MN frequency were observed with increased crude oil concentrations. These results indicate that the alkaline comet assay and micronucleus test were suitable and useful in the evaluation of the genotoxicity of crude oil, which could improve determinations of the impact of oil spills on fish populations. In addition, H. reidi is a promising "sentinel organism" to detect the genotoxic impact of petroleum hydrocarbons. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. World resources of crude oil and natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masters, C.D.; Root, D.H.; Attanasi, E.D. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    An abstract is given of a paper presented at the World Petroleum Congress 1991 on the world estimates of identified reserves and undiscovered resources for crude oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids. Data are presented for Canada, Mexico, USA, South America, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, USSR, Africa, Middle East, Asia/Oceania and Antartica. (UK).

  5. Clean technology for the crude palm oil industry in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chavalparit, O.

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the potential contribution of clean(er) technology to improve the environmental performance of the crude palm oil industry inThailand, to analyse implementation barriers for

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF CRUDE SHEABUTTER LEAF-EXTRACTS ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGROSEARCH UIL

    INTRODUCTION ... Sheabutter tree, Vitellaria paradoxa is a tropical plant of numerous domestic and ... adoptable by rural farmers for increased productivity. ... crude protein requirements (NRC, 1981) for maintenance and weight gain in the goat. ... Total faeces and urine produced daily by each goat were collected and ...

  7. In vitro antimicrobial and phytochemical properties of crude extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, South Africa. 2Department of Microbiology, Obafemi Awolowo .... Thus improvement on such extract by pharmaceutical industry to produce antimicrobial drug of ... Table 1. Antimicrobial activity profile of the crude extract of stem bark of A. africana. Zones of inhibition (mm)*.

  8. (maize) to a crude oil polluted agricultural soil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-06-04

    Jun 4, 2007 ... aiding the activities of the large numbers of microbes ... math of crude oil pollution of agricultural soils to forestall the adverse effects induced .... International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (I.I.T.A) manual series. No. 1, Ibadan ...

  9. Molecular Identification of Bacteria Involved in Degradation of Crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN: 0189 1731. Available online at http://www.ajol.info/index.php/njb/index ... activities is a main cause of water and soil pollution. One of the ... 60% reduction in household food security and were capable of .... isolates to degrade crude oil, mineral salt media was .... to help maintain the cold chain and prevent the DNA ...

  10. Improving oil biodegradability of aliphatic crude oil fraction by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The percentage of biodegrading ability of B. subtilis and the mixture of these bacteria to n-alkanes and isoprenoids (pristine, phytane) were measured and compared with control. Crude oil is used as a sole source of energy and the incubation period was 24 days, the hydrocarbons loss are detected each 6 day interval using ...

  11. Antioxidant effects and phytochemical analysis of crude and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus globulus is extremely used in traditional medicine in Algeria and its leaf extract is included as one of the antioxidant in the list of existing food additives in Japan. In the present study, the crude extract from bark of this plant and its fractions obtained by Sephadex LH-20 column were studied to quantify their levels ...

  12. Antibacterial activities and toxicological potentials of crude ethanolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-07-04

    Jul 4, 2007 ... crude ethanolic extracts of Euphorbia hirta. J. N. Ogbulie1*, C. C. Ogueke2, I. C. Okoli3 and B. N Anyanwu1. 1Department of Industrial Microbiology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri. P. M. B. 1526 Owerri, Nigeria. 2Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, ...

  13. Immunological studies on albino rats against crude endotoxins of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genus Aeromonas comprises a group of organisms widely distributed in the environment, isolated from water, shallow tube wells, dug wells, piped water supply from sewage, children and adults with diarrhoea, and associated with disease in animals and man. The present work studied the effect of crude endotoxin ...

  14. The potential of crude okara for isoflavone production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jankowiak, L.; Trifunovic, O.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the extraction of isoflavones from crude okara, a by-product from soymilk production, using industrially relevant conditions. Ethanol and water were chosen as environmentally friendly and non-toxic solvents. A wide range of ethanol concentrations was tested (0–90% ethanol) for

  15. Removal of crude petroleum hydrocarbons by heterotrophic bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nitrogenous fertilizer (NPK) plant effluents from NAFCON were used in amending plots of land experimentally polluted with crude oil. Counts of heterotrophic bacteria (THBC) and fungi (TF), and of petroleum utilizing bacteria (PUB) and fungi (PUF) were monitored during an 8 weeks period. Counts obtained showed that ...

  16. CFD modeling of fouling in crude oil pre-heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayat, Mahmoud; Aminian, Javad; Bazmi, Mansour; Shahhosseini, Shahrokh; Sharifi, Khashayar

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A conceptual CFD-based model to predict fouling in industrial crude oil pre-heaters. ► Tracing fouling formation in the induction and developing continuation periods. ► Effect of chemical components, shell-side HTC and turbulent flow on the fouling rate. - Abstract: In this study, a conceptual procedure based on the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) technique has been developed to predict fouling rate in an industrial crude oil pre-heater. According to the developed CFD concept crude oil was assumed to be composed of three pseudo-components comprising of petroleum, asphaltene and salt. The binary diffusion coefficients were appropriately categorized into five different groups. The species transport model was applied to simulate the mixing and transport of chemical species. The possibility of adherence of reaction products to the wall was taken into account by applying a high viscosity for the products in competition with the shear stress on the wall. Results showed a reasonable agreement between the model predictions and the plant data. The CFD model could be applied to new operating conditions to investigate the details of the crude oil fouling in the industrial pre-heaters.

  17. (A. Chev.) Stevels) Exposed to Crude Oil Contaminated Soil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six accessions of cultivated Okra (Abelmoschuscaillei (A. Chev.) Stevels) and Abelmoschusesculentus (L.) Moench) were evaluated using growth parameters in crude oil contaminated soil. Seeds were collected from collected from Nigerian Institute of Horticulture (NIHORT), Ibadan and from home gardens in Benin City.

  18. EFFECT OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT (CRUDE) OF LEAVES OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of crude aqueous extract of leaves of Vernonia amygdalina on blood glucose, serum albumin and cholesterol levels on alloxan induced diabetic albino rats was investigated. Blood glucose, serum albumin and cholesterol levels were significantly reduced. From 296.75 ± 9.0mg/dl to 179.0 ± 7.3mg/dl for blood glucose; ...

  19. Efficacy of intervention strategies for bioremediation of crude oil in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The search for the solution to ameliorate the seemingly unending pollution and its side effects necessitated the evaluation on the effect of bioaugmentation, biostimulation and natural attenuation of crude oil pollution in soil microcosms. The bacterial species selected for this study (Bacillus thuringensis strain LG32 and ...

  20. Degradation of Crude Protein in Groundnut Cake, Guinea Grass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three West African dwarf rams fitted with rumen cannula, were used in a completely randomized design for degradation of crude protein (CP) of groundnut cake (GNC), Panicum maximum, rumen epithelial scraping (RES), and diets containing increasing levels of RES. Concentrate diets were formulated such that 0% (A), ...

  1. Turbidity removal from surface water using Tamarindus indica crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant-based coagulants are potential alternatives to chemical coagulants used in drinking water treatment. This paper examined the turbidity removal efficiency of Tamarindus indica fruit crude pulp extract (CPE) towards evaluating a low-cost option for drinking-water treatment. Laboratory analysis was carried out on high ...

  2. Effect Of Crude Protein Levels And Follicle Stimulation On Egg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two groups received 16% crude protein (CP) level diets and the other two groups, 32%. One each of the two groups received follicle stimulation, induced by administration of Clomifene citrate (1.5mg/kg) via cathetered 5ml syringe through the 10week experimental period, with feed and water offered ad libitum.

  3. Effects of reducing dietary crude protein and metabolic energy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of a pure reduction in the dietary crude protein (CP) and metabolic energy (ME) contents on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profile, faecal microflora and odour gas emission in weaned pigs. A total of 80 weaned piglets ((Landrace × Yorkshire) ...

  4. Effects of dietary crude protein and calcium/ phosphorus content on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was conducted to examine the effect of three levels of crude protein (CP) (NRC, 15% more than NRC and 15% less than NRC) and three levels of Ca and available P (Av. P) (NRC, 15% more than NRC and 15% less than NRC) on performance of broilers from hatching until 21 days of age. The experimental ...

  5. Effect of dietary crude protein level on the performance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ویرایه

    2013-06-26

    Jun 26, 2013 ... The effects of increasing dietary levels of crude protein (CP) on growth, feed intake, feed efficiency and nutrient apparent ... matter intake (DMI) than the kids fed with 10.5, 12.8, .... Food and Agriculture Organization. Database ...

  6. Distribution and geochemical application of aromatic hydrocarbons in crude oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asif, M.; Tahira, F.

    2007-01-01

    Distribution of aromatic hydrocarbons was studied in a set of crude oils, five from northern Indus basin of potwar area and two from southern Indus basin. Diaromatic and triaromatic hydrocarbons were separated from highly complex mixture of sedimentary organic matter by using liquid chromatography techniques such as column chromatography, TLC and GC-FID. These classes of compounds were identified to alkylated isomers of naphthalenes and phenanthrenes by using reference chromatograms and literature data. High concentration of di-,tri- and tetra-methyl naphthalenes was observed in all crude oils except Kal. The relative increase in concentration of alkyl naphthalenes was found as moved to higher methyl substituted isomers. This suggests that they are the product of sedimentary alkylation reactions during catagensis and metagensis. The significant concentration of methyl phenanthrenes indicated source of organic matter. High levels of both 1-MP and 9-MP showed marine and terrestrial source of organic matter except Umer crude oil which is most likely to have terrestrial origin. The ratios of beta-substituted to the alpha-substituted isomers of both alkyl naphthalenes and alkyl phenanthrene were used to assess the thermal maturity of sedimentary organic matter, which revealed high maturity level of Dhurnal, Pindori, Badin and Toot crude oils. (author)

  7. In vitro time kill assessment of crude methanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The in vitro antibacterial activities and time kill regimes of crude methanol extract of Helichrysum pedunculatum was assessed using standard microbiological procedures. The experiment was conducted against a panel of bacterial species made up of clinical, environmental and reference strains. The extract was active ...

  8. In vitro antimicrobial and phytochemical properties of crude extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The crude extract of the stem bark of the plant exhibited antimicrobial activities at a concentration of 25 mg/ml against twenty-one of the bacterial isolates, (i.e. 72.41% of the tested isolates) comprising both Gram positive and Gram negative strains. The zones of inhibition exhibited by the extract against the test bacterial ...

  9. Determination of amylase activity of crude extract from partially ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amylase activity of crude extract from partially germinated mango seeds ( Mangifera oraphila) was determined using Caraway-Somogyi iodine/potassium iodide (IKI) method. The effects of varied pH and temperature were also investigated. The amylase was extracted with 0.1 M acetate buffer (pH 4.2). Amylase activity of the ...

  10. Cardiovascular effects of the crude extract of Manihot esculenta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cardiovascular effects of the crude extract of Manihot esculenta crantz (Cassava) in animal models. P.M Emeka, A Akintonwa, O.O Adeyemi, C Nwaigwe, B.J Adegunloye. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  11. Comparative Study on the Effects of Crude Extracts of Pterocarpus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study on the effects of crude extracts of pterocarpus soyauxii and Telfairia occidentalis on haematological parameters of albino wistar rats was carried out. Forty nine albino rats of both sexes, weighing between 150 and 250 g were used for the study. The rats were divided into seven groups of seven rats each.

  12. In-vitro antimicrobial activity of crude extracts of Diospyros ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diospyros species in folklore medicine are used as anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant, anticancer and antiviral agents. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of crude extracts of the leaves of Diospyros monbuttensis were evaluated against three bacterial species (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and ...

  13. Toxicity and antipyretic studies of the crude extract of Tephrosia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxicity and antipyretic studies of the crude extract of Tephrosia bractiolata leaves. MOA Onaolapo, HC Nzelibe, AO Aduadi, JO Ayo. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jopat.v9i1.48589.

  14. Antifeedant Activty Of Different Organic Solvent Crude Extracts Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antifeedant activity of different organic solvents (acetone, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, diethyl ether and ethyl alcohol) crude extracts of latex of Euphorbia hirta (family Euphobiaceae) against Limicolaria aurora was investigated, and compared with a control, using pawpaw, (Carica papaya) as bait, at a concentration ...

  15. Crude Oil Corrosion Fatigue of L485MB Pipeline Steel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gajdoš, Lubomír; Šperl, Martin; Bystrianský, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 137, č. 5 (2015), 051401 ISSN 0094-9930 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE02000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : corrosion fatigue * crude oil * pipeline steel * S–N curve * separated water Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 0.476, year: 2015 http://pressurevesseltech.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/article.aspx?articleID=2107675

  16. Russian crude-oil production and export still increasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purho, P.

    2001-01-01

    Russian crude-oil production is still increasing. In 2000 the annual production 6.48 mb/d was about 6% higher than a year before. In 2001 the production is expected to rise near the level 7 mb/d, so the increase in production volume is fast. However, the production is still far away from the maximum level of the former Soviet Union, 12 mb/d. At the moment Russia is the second largest oil producer right after Saudi Arabia. The increase in production is based on intensified use of old oil fields caused by improved technology. The oil export of Russia far abroad in 2000 was 2.5 mb/d and near abroad into FSU countries only about 180 000 b/d. The recent export of crude-oil has been near the maximum export capacity corresponding to 2.7 mb/d. About 61 million tons of oil products were exported in 2000, and even the export of oil products is increasing. Most of this was gas oil and heavy fuel oil, but also the export of gasoline was significant. The export of oil and oil products is mainly based on shipments, but also the share of train transport is high. Nearly all the crude oil is transported west either by ships or via pipelines. The share of railway transport is only few percents. Russia will continue its own oil pumping policy despite of the appeals of OPEC for reduction of oil production. Opinion in Russia is that if the increase of production and export serves the interests of Russia, it will also be carried out. The target value for crude oil for 2002 is 22 USD per barrel. The Russian crude oil production is estimated to grow up to 7.4 - 8.4 mb/d by the year 2010

  17. Carotenoid-cleavage activities of crude enzymes from Pandanous amryllifolius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ningrum, Andriati; Schreiner, Matthias

    2014-11-01

    Carotenoid degradation products, known as norisoprenoids, are aroma-impact compounds in several plants. Pandan wangi is a common name of the shrub Pandanus amaryllifolius. The genus name 'Pandanus' is derived from the Indonesian name of the tree, pandan. In Indonesia, the leaves from the plant are used for several purposes, e.g., as natural colorants and flavor, and as traditional treatments. The aim of this study was to determine the cleavage of β-carotene and β-apo-8'-carotenal by carotenoid-cleavage enzymes isolated from pandan leaves, to investigate dependencies of the enzymatic activities on temperature and pH, to determine the enzymatic reaction products by using Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrophotometry (HS-SPME GC/MS), and to investigate the influence of heat treatment and addition of crude enzyme on formation of norisoprenoids. Crude enzymes from pandan leaves showed higher activity against β-carotene than β-apo-8'-carotenal. The optimum temperature of crude enzymes was 70°, while the optimum pH value was 6. We identified β-ionone as the major volatile reaction product from the incubations of two different carotenoid substrates, β-carotene and β-apo-8'-carotenal. Several treatments, e.g., heat treatment and addition of crude enzymes in pandan leaves contributed to the norisoprenoid content. Our findings revealed that the crude enzymes from pandan leaves with carotenoid-cleavage activity might provide a potential application, especially for biocatalysis, in natural-flavor industry. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  18. Phytochemical and toxicological investigations of crude methanolic extracts, subsequent fractions and crude saponins of Isodon rugosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Zeb Abdul Sadiq

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Isodon rugosus is used traditionally in the management of hypertension, rheumatism, tooth-ache and pyrexia. Present study was arranged to investigate I. rugosus for phytoconstituents, phytotoxic and cytotoxic activities to explore its toxicological, pharmacological potentials and to rationalize its ethnomedicinal uses. Briefly, qualitative phytochemical analysis of the plant extracts were carried out for the existence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, oils, glycosides, anthraquinones, terpenoids, sterols and tannins. Plant crude methanolic extract (Ir.Cr, its subsequent fractions; n-hexane (Ir.Hex, chloroform (Ir.Chf, ethyl acetate (Ir.EtAc, aqueous (Ir.Aq and saponins (Ir.Sp in different concentrations were tested for phytotoxic and cytotoxic activities using radish seeds and brine shrimps (Artemia salina respectively. The phytotoxic activity was determined by percent root length inhibition (RLI and percent seeds germination inhibition (SGI while the cytotoxicity was obtained with percent lethality of the brine shrimps. RESULTS: Ir.Cr was tested positive for the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, oils, terpenoids, saponins, tannins and anthraquinones. Among different fractions Ir.Sp, Ir.Chf, Ir.EtAc, and Ir.Cr were most effective causing 93.55, 89.32, 81.32 and 58.68% inhibition of seeds in phytotoxicity assay, with IC50 values of 0.1, 0.1, 0.1 and 52 μg/ml respectively. Similarly, among all the tested samples, Ir.Sp exhibited the highest phytotoxic effect causing 91.33% root length inhibition with IC50 of 0.1 μg/ml. Ir.Sp and Ir.Chf were most effective against brine shrimps showing 92.23 and 76.67% lethality with LC50 values of 10 and 12 μg/ml respectively. CONCLUSIONS: It may be inferred from the current investigations that I. rugosus contains different secondary metabolites and is a potential source for the isolation of natural anticancer and herbicidal drug molecules. Different fractions exhibited phytotoxic and

  19. The survey reasarch about groundwater in a mine making use of the sour method to immerse at originl place in Xinjiang province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yiqun; Yang Yihan

    2014-01-01

    Basing on a mine making use of a sour method to immerse at original place in Xiniang province, building up a monitor network of mine and its Surroundings groundwater, by the mispreads experiment at the spot and the Earth physical method to mointer Pollute scope and imitate the flow of groundwater and the movement of dissolve quality. Making use of the method speaking of to investigate groundwater in mineral layer completely. According to the investigating result, Comparing the original date of groundwater in mineral layer and the national Quality standard of groundwater to evaluate the present Pollute condition of groundwater existmg in the A # , B # mine ore aquifer. This studies Proves that Pollution mainly exists in the A # , B # mine ore aquifer and its surrounding limited area, groundwater upper or lower the ore aquifer is not affected by pollution. (authors)

  20. Characterization of sour cherry isolates of plum pox virus from the Volga Basin in Russia reveals a new cherry strain of the virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasa, Miroslav; Prikhodko, Yuri; Predajňa, Lukáš; Nagyová, Alžbeta; Shneyder, Yuri; Zhivaeva, Tatiana; Subr, Zdeno; Cambra, Mariano; Candresse, Thierry

    2013-09-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) is the causal agent of sharka, the most detrimental virus disease of stone fruit trees worldwide. PPV isolates have been assigned into seven distinct strains, of which PPV-C regroups the genetically distinct isolates detected in several European countries on cherry hosts. Here, three complete and several partial genomic sequences of PPV isolates from sour cherry trees in the Volga River basin of Russia have been determined. The comparison of complete genome sequences has shown that the nucleotide identity values with other PPV isolates reached only 77.5 to 83.5%. Phylogenetic analyses clearly assigned the RU-17sc, RU-18sc, and RU-30sc isolates from cherry to a distinct cluster, most closely related to PPV-C and, to a lesser extent, PPV-W. Based on their natural infection of sour cherry trees and genomic characterization, the PPV isolates reported here represent a new strain of PPV, for which the name PPV-CR (Cherry Russia) is proposed. The unique amino acids conserved among PPV-CR and PPV-C cherry-infecting isolates (75 in total) are mostly distributed within the central part of P1, NIa, and the N terminus of the coat protein (CP), making them potential candidates for genetic determinants of the ability to infect cherry species or of adaptation to these hosts. The variability observed within 14 PPV-CR isolates analyzed in this study (0 to 2.6% nucleotide divergence in partial CP sequences) and the identification of these isolates in different localities and cultivation conditions suggest the efficient establishment and competitiveness of the PPV-CR in the environment. A specific primer pair has been developed, allowing the specific reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction detection of PPV-CR isolates.

  1. Islamic versus conventional stock market and its co-movement with crude oil: a wavelet analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kamarudin, Eka Azrin; Masih, Mansur

    2015-01-01

    Crude oil market plays an important role in economic development and its price changes give huge impact to the financial markets. In this paper, the relationships between crude oil and stock markets are examined. This study has selected Malaysian Islamic and conventional stock markets as a case study. Financialisation of crude oil and its frequent inclusion into investment portfolios warrant an analysis of the relationship between crude oil and stock market indices at various time scales or i...

  2. Cracking of crude oil in the molten metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marat A. Glikin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is investigated the process of crude oil and its individual fractions cracking in the molten metals medium to produce light petroleum products. Thermodynamic calculations demonstrate the possibility of using lead and tin including alloys thereof as the melt. The cracking of West Siberian crude oil is studied at temperatures 400-600 °C. It is detected that as the temperature increases there is increase of aromatic hydrocarbons and olefins content in gasoline while naphthenes, n- and i-paraffins content reduces. Optimal temperature for cracking in molten metals is ~500 °C. The use of a submerged nozzle increases the yield of light petroleum products by ~2%. The research octane number of gasoline produced is 82-87 points. It is determined that the yield of light petroleum products depending on the experimental conditions is increased from 46.9 to 55.1-61.3% wt.   

  3. The US gasoline situation and crude oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    Before and during the United States' summer driving season, concern over the country's gasoline supply can potentially influence the direction of the petroleum market. There are three causes of concern: a persistent lack of gasoline-producing capacity; a patchwork of as many as 18 different kinds of gasoline specifications; and the introduction of stringent new specifications for reformulated gasoline. However, gasoline stocks should be able to meet the needs of this year's driving season, at a time of ample crude oil availability, with strong imports. But, unplanned outages in the US logistics system and refining centres, or major disruptions in external gasoline supplies, could trigger price spikes that would, in turn, lead to frequently stronger crude oil prices, especially with the observed robust oil demand growth in China. (Author)

  4. Crude oil prices: Are our oil markets too tight?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, M.R.

    1997-01-01

    The answer to the question posed in the title is that tightness in the market will surely prevail through 1997. And as discussed herein, with worldwide demand expected to continue to grow, there will be a strong call on extra oil supply. Meeting those demands, however, will not be straightforward--as many observers wrongly believe--considering the industry's practice of maintaining crude stocks at ''Just in time'' inventory levels. Further, impact will be felt from the growing rig shortage, particularly for deepwater units, and down-stream capacity limits. While these factors indicate 1997 should be another good year for the service industry, it is difficult to get any kind of consensus view from the oil price market. With most observers' information dominated by the rarely optimistic futures price of crude, as reflected by the NYMEX, the important fact is that oil prices have remained stable for three years and increased steadily through 1996

  5. Wavelet regression model in forecasting crude oil price

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Mohd Helmie; Shabri, Ani

    2017-05-01

    This study presents the performance of wavelet multiple linear regression (WMLR) technique in daily crude oil forecasting. WMLR model was developed by integrating the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and multiple linear regression (MLR) model. The original time series was decomposed to sub-time series with different scales by wavelet theory. Correlation analysis was conducted to assist in the selection of optimal decomposed components as inputs for the WMLR model. The daily WTI crude oil price series has been used in this study to test the prediction capability of the proposed model. The forecasting performance of WMLR model were also compared with regular multiple linear regression (MLR), Autoregressive Moving Average (ARIMA) and Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (GARCH) using root mean square errors (RMSE) and mean absolute errors (MAE). Based on the experimental results, it appears that the WMLR model performs better than the other forecasting technique tested in this study.

  6. Compositional modification of crude oil during oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yangming; Weng, Huanxin [Department of Earth Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Chen, Zulin; Chen, Qi [Petroleum Geochemistry Research Center, Jianghan Petroleum University, Jingzhou, Hubei (China)

    2003-05-01

    Ten crude oils from two recovery stages spanning 5-10-year interval of five productive wells in the Tarim Basin, northwest China were analyzed for their compositional modification during production process. Significant compositional changes in polar and nonpolar fractions between the previous oil samples and the latter ones were noted at both bulk and molecular level. The latter oil samples appear to contain more aromatic fraction and less asphaltenes and resin, and their gas chromatography (GC) data for whole oil show reduced alkanes with low molecular weight and enhanced high homologue relative to the previous oil samples. Compared with the oils collected from the previous recovery stage, the concentration of basic type of nitrogen-containing compounds and organic acids in oils from the latter recovery stage have a reducing trend, suggesting the occurrence of interaction between crude oil and reservoir rock.

  7. Microbial ecology of a crude oil contaminated aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekins, B.A.; Cozzarelli, I.M.; Warren, E.; Godsy, E.M.

    2002-01-01

    Detailed microbial analyses of a glacial outwash aquifer contaminated by crude oil provide insights into the pattern of microbial succession from iron reducing to methanogenic in the anaerobic portion of the contaminant plume. We analysed sediments from this area for populations of aerobes, iron reducers, fermenters and methanogens, using the most probable number method. On the basis of the microbial data the anaerobic area can be divided into distinct physiological zones dominated by either iron-reducers or a consortium of fermenters and methanogens. Chemistry and permeability data show that methanogenic conditions develop first in areas of high hydrocarbon flux. Thus, we find methanogens both in high permeability horizons and also where separate-phase crude oil is present in either the saturated or unsaturated zone. Microbial numbers peak at the top of the separate-phase oil suggesting that growth is most rapid in locations with access to both hydrocarbons and nutrients infiltrating from the surface.

  8. Bioconversion of crude glycerol feedstocks into ethanol by Pachysolen tannophilus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoying; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Workman, Mhairi

    2012-01-01

    Glycerol, the by-product of biodiesel production, is considered as a waste by biodiesel producers. This study demonstrated the potential of utilising the glycerol surplus through conversion to ethanol by the yeast Pachysolen tannophilus (CBS4044). This study demonstrates a robust bioprocess which...... was not sensitive to the batch variability in crude glycerol dependent on raw materials used for biodiesel production. The oxygen transfer rate (OTR) was a key factor for ethanol production, with lower OTR having a positive effect on ethanol production. The highest ethanol production was 17.5 g/L on 5% (v/v) crude...... glycerol, corresponding to 56% of the theoretical yield. A staged batch process achieved 28.1 g/L ethanol, the maximum achieved so far for conversion of glycerol to ethanol in a microbial bioprocess. The fermentation physiology has been investigated as a means to designing a competitive bioethanol...

  9. CRUDE OIL TRANSPORT FROM THE CASPIAN SEA REGION TO EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Przybyłowski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary world, despite the growing importance and scale of the use of renewable energy , conventional energy resources still play a huge role. The European Union countries are dependent on the oil imports and the their main supplier of crude oil and natural gas has been the Russian Federation. After the collapse of the Soviet Union , the Caspian Sea region has become an alternative to Russian energy resources. The Unit-ed States , European Union, China and many other countries have shown their interest about this region. Despite a relatively large oil and natural gas reserves, the export of the-se commodities to the West is still problematic. Based on the available data and infor-mation, the publication explores the issue of energy resources transport directions with a particular emphasis on the crude oil from the Caspian Sea region to Europe.

  10. Coalescence kinetics of dispersed crude oil in a laboratory reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterling, M.C. Jr.; Ojo, T.; Autenrieth, R.L.; Bonner, J.S.; Page, C.A.; Ernst, A.N.S.

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the effects of salinity and mixing energy on the resurfacing and coalescence rates of chemically dispersed crude oil droplets. This kinetic study involved the use of mean shear rates to characterize the mixing energy in a laboratory reactor. Coagulation kinetics of dispersed crude oil were determined within a range of mean shear rates of 5, 10, 15, and 20 per second, and with salinity values of 10 and 30 per cent. Observed droplet distributions were fit to a transport-reaction model to estimate collision efficiency values and their dependence on salinity and mixing energy. Dispersant efficiencies were compared with those derived from other laboratory testing methods. Experimentally determined dispersant efficiencies were found to be 10 to 50 per cent lower than predicted using a non-interacting droplet model, but dispersant efficiencies were higher than those predicted using other testing methods. 24 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  11. In-Situ Burning of Crude Oil on Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens

    in the small scale water basin. Boilovers were also observed during the burning of a heavy crude oil with a substantial light fraction without a water layer, however, which suggests that water is not essential for boilover occurrence. Further studies are required to determine the conditions under which......The fire dynamics and fire chemistry of in-situ burning of crude oil on water was studied in order to improve predictions on the suitability of this oil spill response method. For this purpose, several operational parameters were studied to determine the factors that control the burning efficiency...... of in-situ burning, i.e. the amount of oil (in wt%) removed from the water surface by the burning process. The burning efficiency is the main parameter for expressing the oil removal effectiveness of in-situ burning as response method and is thus relevant for suitability predictions of in-situ burning...

  12. Design of crude oil storage tank for acoustic emission testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukri Mohd; Masrul Nizam Salleh; Abd Razak Hamzah; Norasiah Abd Kasim

    2005-01-01

    The integrity of crude oil storage tank needs to be well managed because they can contain a large inventory of hazardous material and because of the high cost such as cleaning and waste disposal prior to disposal and maintenance. Costs involved in cleaning and inspection can be up to several hundreds thousand Malaysian Ranting. If the floor then proves to be in good condition, these costs have been wasted. Acoustic Emission (AE) is proposed to be use for monitoring the floor of the storage tank on line without doing cleaning and waste disposal. A storage tank will be fabricated for storing the crude oil and then the corrosion process will be monitor using AE method. This paper will discuss the background, material and is technical specification, design and also the difficulties faced during design and fabrication process. (Author)

  13. Crude oil and finished fuel storage stability: An annotated review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whisman, M.L.; Anderson, R.P.; Woodward, P.W.; Giles, H.N.

    1991-01-01

    A state-of-the-art review and assessment of storage effects on crude oil and product quality was undertaken through a literature search by computer accessing several data base sources. Pertinent citations from that literature search are tabulated for the years 1980 to the present. This 1990 revision supplements earlier reviews by Brinkman and others which covered stability publications through 1979 and an update in 1983 by Goetzinger and others that covered the period 1952--1982. For purposes of organization, citations are listed in the current revision chronologically starting with the earliest 1980 publications. The citations have also been divided according to primary subject matter. Consequently 11 sections appear including: alternate fuels, gasoline, distillate fuel, jet fuel, residual fuel, crude oil, biodegradation, analyses, reaction mechanisms, containment, and handling and storage. Each section contains a brief narrative followed by all the citations for that category.

  14. Crude oil and natural gas supplies and demands for Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackay, R.M.; Probert, S.D.

    1995-01-01

    A novel technique for forecasting the supply and extraction life-cycle of a depleting fossil fuel resource has been developed. The supply side utilises a 'skewed-normal production-profile' model that yields a better representation than earlier approaches. A simple model for extrapolating crude oil and natural gas demands has also been devised, based on the so called 'modified logit function'. The predicted crude oil and natural gas balances for the period up to AD 2010 indicate the disparity between indigenous production and future consumption for Denmark. These forecasts depend on current estimates of remaining oil and gas reserves. It will consequently be necessary to revise periodically the present projections as more reliable reserve estimates become available. (author)

  15. Detection of genetically modified soybean in crude soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Zorica; Vasiljević, Ivana; Zdjelar, Gordana; Ðorđević, Vuk; Ignjatov, Maja; Jovičić, Dušica; Milošević, Dragana

    2014-02-15

    In order to detect presence and quantity of Roundup Ready (RR) soybean in crude oil extracted from soybean seed with a different percentage of GMO seed two extraction methods were used, CTAB and DNeasy Plant Mini Kit. The amplifications of lectin gene, used to check the presence of soybean DNA, were not achieved in all CTAB extracts of DNA, while commercial kit gave satisfactory results. Comparing actual and estimated GMO content between two extraction methods, root mean square deviation for kit is 0.208 and for CTAB is 2.127, clearly demonstrated superiority of kit over CTAB extraction. The results of quantification evidently showed that if the oil samples originate from soybean seed with varying percentage of RR, it is possible to monitor the GMO content at the first stage of processing crude oil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 15 CFR 754.3 - Petroleum products not including crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Petroleum products not including crude... SUPPLY CONTROLS § 754.3 Petroleum products not including crude oil. (a) License requirement. As indicated... required to all destinations, including Canada, for the export of petroleum products, excluding crude oil...

  17. Exporting Alaskan North Slope crude oil: Benefits and costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy study examines the effects of lifting the current prohibitions against the export of Alaskan North Slope (ANS) crude. The study concludes that permitting exports would benefit the US economy. First, lifting the ban would expand the markets in which ANS oil can be sold, thereby increasing its value. ANS oil producers, the States of California and Alaska, and some of their local governments all would benefit from increased revenues. Permitting exports also would generate new economic activity and employment in California and Alaska. The study concludes that these economic benefits would be achieved without increasing gasoline prices (either in California or in the nation as a whole). Lifting the export ban could have important implications for US maritime interests. The Merchant Marine Act of 1970 (known as the Jones Act) requires all inter-coastal shipments to be carried on vessels that are US-owned, US-crewed, and US-built. By limiting the shipment of ANS crude to US ports only, the export ban creates jobs for the seafarers and the builders of Jones Act vessels. Because the Jones Act does not apply to exports, however, lifting the ban without also changing US maritime law would jeopardize the jobs associated with the current fleet of Jones Act tankers. Therefore the report analyzes selected economic impacts of several maritime policy alternatives, including: Maintaining current law, which allows foreign tankers to carry oil where export is allowed; requiring exports of ANS crude to be carried on Jones Act vessels; and requiring exports of ANS crude to be carried on vessels that are US-owned and US-crewed, but not necessarily US-built. Under each of these options, lifting the export ban would generate economic benefits.

  18. Effects of fractionation on antibacterial activity of crude extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Column chromatographic fractionation of the crude ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Tamarindus indica yielded six fractions (TiA - TiF). Among these, TiB showed about five tracks: TiC, TiD and TiE, two tracks each, on thin layer chromatography (TLC). Fractions TiC, TiD and TiE were re-eluted with different solvent ...

  19. Extra heavy crudes and bitumens in the new EST technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montanari, R.

    2001-01-01

    Strategic and market reasons dictate for the diversification of the supply sources. The huge reserves of extra heavy crudes and oil sands bitumen will provide the answer in this direction, but it is mandatory the availability of a suitable technology to process these poor quality feedstocks. EST Technology, developed by Snamprogetti and EniTecnologie, allows to get full conversion to produce high quality distillates [it

  20. Crude glycerol combustion: Particulate, acrolein, and other volatile organic emissions

    KAUST Repository

    Steinmetz, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Crude glycerol is an abundant by-product of biodiesel production. As volumes of this potential waste grow, there is increasing interest in developing new value added uses. One possible use, as a boiler fuel for process heating, offers added advantages of energy integration and fossil fuel substitution. However, challenges to the use of crude glycerol as a boiler fuel include its low energy density, high viscosity, and high autoignition temperature. We have previously shown that a refractory-lined, high swirl burner can overcome challenges related to flame ignition and stability. However, critical issues related to ash behavior and the possible formation of acrolein remained. The work presented here indicates that the presence of dissolved catalysts used during the esterification and transesterification processes results in extremely large amounts of inorganic species in the crude glycerol. For the fuels examined here, the result is a submicron fly ash comprised primarily of sodium carbonates, phosphates, and sulfates. These particles report to a well-developed accumulation mode (0.3-0.7 μm diameter), indicating extensive ash vaporization and particle formation via nucleation, condensation, and coagulation. Particle mass emissions were between 2 and 4 g/m3. These results indicate that glycerol containing soluble catalyst is not suitable as a boiler fuel. Fortunately, process improvements are currently addressing this issue. Additionally, acrolein is of concern due to its toxicity, and is known to be formed from the low temperature thermal decomposition of glycerol. Currently, there is no known reliable method for measuring acrolein in sources. Acrolein and emissions of other volatile organic compounds were characterized through the use of a SUMMA canister-based sampling method followed by GC-MS analysis designed for ambient measurements. Results indicate crude glycerol combustion produces relatively small amounts of acrolein (∼15 ppbv) and other volatile organic

  1. Characteristics of bicyclic sesquiterpanes in crude oils and petroleum products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun; Wang, Zhendi; Hollebone, Bruce P; Brown, Carl E; Landriault, Mike

    2009-05-15

    This study presents a quantitative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of bicyclic sesquiterpanes (BSs) in numerous crude oils and refined petroleum products including light and mid-range distillate fuels, residual fuels, and lubricating oils collected from various sources. Ten commonly recognized bicyclic sesquiterpanes were determined in all the studied crude oils and diesel range fuels with principal dominance of BS3 (C(15)H(28)), BS5 (C(15)H(28)) and BS10 (C(16)H(30)), while they were generally not detected or in trace in light fuel oils like gasoline and kerosene and most lubricating oils. Laboratory distillation of crude oils demonstrated that sesquiterpanes were highly enriched in the medium distillation fractions of approximately 180 to 481 degrees C and were generally absent or very low in the light distillation fraction (boiling point to approximately 180 degrees C) and the heavy residual fraction (>481 degrees C). The effect of evaporative weathering on a series of diagnostic ratios of sesquiterpanes, n-alkanes, and biomarkers was evaluated with two suites of weathered oil samples. The change of abundance of sesquiterpanes was used to determine the extent of weathering of artificially evaporated crude oils and diesel. In addition to the pentacyclic biomarker C(29) and C(30) alphabeta-hopane, C(15) and C(16) sesquiterpanes might be alternative internal marker compounds to provide a direct way to estimate the depletion of oils, particularly diesels, in oil spill investigations. These findings may offer potential applications for both oil identification and oil-source correlation in cases where the tri- to pentacyclic biomarkers are absent due to refining or environmental weathering of oils.

  2. Bitumen still seen as potential anchor on crude prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaremko, G.

    2001-01-01

    Researchers at the Canadian Energy Research Institute have released a 225-page technical report on downstream oil-refining markets entitled 'Markets for Canadian bitumen-based feedstock'. The report claims that 22 of 27 refineries that buy western Canadian production are not planning to improve their ability to process heavy grades of oil any time soon. Instead, investments will focus on complying with environmental requirements for reformulated refined products, particularly to eliminate sulphur impurities in gasoline and diesel fuel. Another focus will be to upgrade raw bitumen output into synthetic crude. It was shown that over the next 7 years, Canadian and U.S. oil markets have the potential to increase growth in bitumen production from 244,000 barrels per day (bpd) to 555,000 bpd. The potential for additional, upgraded synthetic crude oil is even greater, from 450,000 bpd to 806,000 bpd. Increasing the output of synthetic crude oil is considered to be an effective way to reduce North America's reliance on imported oil. Untreated, discount-priced bitumen can replace diminishing Canadian and U.S. production of refinery-ready light oil. The report projects that a US$1-per-barrel discount for Canadian heavy oil would generate sales of 140,000 barrels daily. The effect of a $1 discount would be almost twice as great for synthetic crude oil. Heavy oil sales rely greatly on maintaining a discount off prices for light grades. A $1-per-barrel premium could destroy demand for bitumen-based blends. Moody's Investors Service claims that deep discounting reflects global market conditions, risking Canadian production of heavy oil grades and seasonal lows in demand for bitumen as a raw material for asphalt

  3. Exporting Alaskan North Slope crude oil: Benefits and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy study examines the effects of lifting the current prohibitions against the export of Alaskan North Slope (ANS) crude. The study concludes that permitting exports would benefit the US economy. First, lifting the ban would expand the markets in which ANS oil can be sold, thereby increasing its value. ANS oil producers, the States of California and Alaska, and some of their local governments all would benefit from increased revenues. Permitting exports also would generate new economic activity and employment in California and Alaska. The study concludes that these economic benefits would be achieved without increasing gasoline prices (either in California or in the nation as a whole). Lifting the export ban could have important implications for US maritime interests. The Merchant Marine Act of 1970 (known as the Jones Act) requires all inter-coastal shipments to be carried on vessels that are US-owned, US-crewed, and US-built. By limiting the shipment of ANS crude to US ports only, the export ban creates jobs for the seafarers and the builders of Jones Act vessels. Because the Jones Act does not apply to exports, however, lifting the ban without also changing US maritime law would jeopardize the jobs associated with the current fleet of Jones Act tankers. Therefore the report analyzes selected economic impacts of several maritime policy alternatives, including: Maintaining current law, which allows foreign tankers to carry oil where export is allowed; requiring exports of ANS crude to be carried on Jones Act vessels; and requiring exports of ANS crude to be carried on vessels that are US-owned and US-crewed, but not necessarily US-built. Under each of these options, lifting the export ban would generate economic benefits

  4. Purification of crude biodiesel using dry washing and membrane technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Atadashi, I.M.

    2015-01-01

    Purification of crude biodiesel is mandatory for the fuel to meet the strict international standard specifications for biodiesel. Therefore, this paper carefully analyzed recently published literatures which deal with the purification of biodiesel. As such, dry washing technologies and the most recent membrane biodiesel purification process have been thoroughly examined. Although purification of biodiesel using dry washing process involving magnesol and ion exchange resins provides high-quali...

  5. Fatigue behaviour of X70 steel in crude oil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gajdoš, Lubomír; Šperl, Martin; Bystrianský, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 2 (2015), s. 243-246 ISSN 1580-2949 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP105/10/2052; GA TA ČR(CZ) TE02000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : corrosion fatigue * S-N curve * X70 steel * crude oil * separated water Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 0.439, year: 2015 http://mit.imt.si/Revija/izvodi/mit152/gajdos.pdf

  6. Application of alkaline waterflooding to a high acidity crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayyouh, M.H. (King Sand Univ., Riyadh (SA). Petroleum Engineering Dept.); Abdel-Waly, A.; Osman, A. (Cairo Univ. (EG). Petroleum Engineering Dept.); Awara, A.Z. (Geisum Oil Company, Cairo (EG))

    The enhanced recovery of a high acidity crude oil (South Geisum crude) by alkaline solutions is studied. Acidity, interfacial tension, and contact angle, were investigated. Displacement tests were carried out to study the effect of alkaline slug concentration, slug size, oil alkali type, temperature and viscosity on recovery. The interfacial tension between crude oil and formation water decreases with increasing alkaline concentration until a minimum, after which it increases again. Contact angle measurements indicated oil-wetting conditions that increase by the addition of alkaline solutions. At the early stages of displacement, oil recovery increases with increasing alkaline concentration until a maximum at 4% by weight NaOH concentration. Also, at such early stages, an excessive increase in alkaline concentration results in lower oil recovery. On the other hand, after the injection of many pore volumes of water, oil recovery is almost the same regardless of the alkaline concentration. Oil recovery increases with increasing alkaline slug size until a maximum at 15% PV. Sodium hydroxide slugs produce more oil recovery than sodium carbonate slugs. Oil recovery increases with increasing temperature (from 25 to 55{sup 0}C) and decreasing oil viscosity.

  7. Response surface analysis to improve dispersed crude oil biodegradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahed, Mohammad A.; Aziz, Hamidi A.; Mohajeri, Leila [School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Isa, Mohamed H. [Civil Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2012-03-15

    In this research, the bioremediation of dispersed crude oil, based on the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus supplementation in the closed system, was optimized by the application of response surface methodology and central composite design. Correlation analysis of the mathematical-regression model demonstrated that a quadratic polynomial model could be used to optimize the hydrocarbon bioremediation (R{sup 2} = 0.9256). Statistical significance was checked by analysis of variance and residual analysis. Natural attenuation was removed by 22.1% of crude oil in 28 days. The highest removal on un-optimized condition of 68.1% were observed by using nitrogen of 20.00 mg/L and phosphorus of 2.00 mg/L in 28 days while optimization process exhibited a crude oil removal of 69.5% via nitrogen of 16.05 mg/L and phosphorus 1.34 mg/L in 27 days therefore optimization can improve biodegradation in shorter time with less nutrient consumption. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Price dynamics of crude oil and the regional ethylene markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masih, Mansur; Algahtani, Ibrahim; De Mello, Lurion

    2010-01-01

    This paper is the first attempt to investigate: (1) is the crude oil (WTI) price significantly related to the regional ethylene prices in the Naphtha intensive ethylene markets of the Far East, North West Europe, and the Mediterranean? (2) What drives the regional ethylene prices? The paper is motivated by the recent and growing debate on the lead-lag relationship between crude oil and ethylene prices. Our findings, based on the long-run structural modelling approach of Pesaran and Shin, and subject to the limitations of the study, tend to suggest: (1) crude oil (WTI) price is cointegrated with the regional ethylene prices (2) our within-sample error-correction model results tend to indicate that although the ethylene prices in North West Europe and the Mediterranean were weakly endogenous, the Far East ethylene price was weakly exogenous both in the short and long term. These results are consistent, during most of the period under review (2000.1-2006.4) with the surge in demand for ethylene throughout the Far East, particularly in China and South Korea. However, during the post-sample forecast period as evidenced in our variance decompositions analysis, the emergence of WTI as a leading player as well, is consistent with the recent surge in WTI price (fuelled mainly, among others, by the strong hedging activities in the WTI futures/options and refining tightness) reflecting the growing importance of input cost in determining the dynamic interactions of input and product prices. (author)

  9. Rheological Behaviour of Water-in-Light Crude Oil Emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husin, H.; Taju Ariffin, T. S.; Yahya, E.

    2018-05-01

    Basically, emulsions consist of two immiscible liquids which have different density. In petroleum industry, emulsions are undesirable due to their various costly problems in term of transportation difficulties and production loss. A study of the rheological behaviour of light crude oil and its mixture from Terengganu were carried out using Antoon Paar MCR 301 rheometer operated at pressure of 2.5 bar at temperature C. Water in oil emulsions were prepared by mixing light crude oil with different water volume fractions (20%, 30% and 40%). The objectives of present paper are to study the rheological behaviour of emulsion as a fuction of shear rate and model analysis that fitted with the experimental data. The rheological models of Ostwald-De-Waele and Herschel-Bulkley were fitted to the experimental results. All models represented well the rheological data, with high values for the correlation coefficients. The result indicated that variation of water content influenced shear rate-shear stress rheogram of the prepared emulsions. In the case of 100% light crude oil, the study demonstrated non-Newtonian shear thickening behavior. However, for emulsion with different volume water ratios, the rheological behaviour could be well described by Herschel-Bulkley models due to the present of yield stress parameter (R2 = 0.99807). As a conclusion, rheological studies showed that volume water ratio have a great impact on the shear stress and viscosity of water in oil emulsion and it is important to understand these factors to avoid various costly problems.

  10. Performance of Diesel Engine Using Blended Crude Jatropha Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, Kamarul Azhar; Mohd Sazali, Nor Shahida Akma; Mohd Ali, Mas Fauzi; Alimin, Ahmad Jais; Khir, Saffiah Abdullah

    2010-06-01

    Vegetable oil presents a very promising alternative to diesel oil since it is renewable and has similar properties to the diesel. In view of this, crude jatropha oil is selected and its viscosity is reduced by blending it with diesel. Since jatropha oil has properties which are similar to mineral diesel, it can be used in compression ignition engines without any engine modification. This paper presents the results of investigation carried out on a four-cylinder, four strokes and indirect-injection diesel engine. The engine, operated using composition blends of crude jatropha oil and diesel, were compared with mineral diesel. An experimental investigation has been carried out to analyze the performance characteristics of a compression ignition engine from the blended fuel (5%, 10%, 20% and 30%). A naturally aspirated four-stroke indirect injection diesel engine was tested at full load conditions, speeds between 1000 and 3500 rpm with intervals of 500 rpm. Results obtained from the measures of torque, power, specific fuel consumptions, thermal efficiency and brake mean effective pressure are nearly the same between blended and diesel fuel. An overall graph shows that the performance of relevant parameters from blended fuel is most likely similar to the performance produced from diesel. The experimental results proved that the use of crude jatropha oil in compression ignition engines is a viable alternative to diesel.

  11. Does Portuguese economy support crude oil conservation hypothesis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashiri Behmiri, Niaz; Pires Manso, José R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines cointegration relationships and Granger causality nexus in a trivariate framework among oil consumption, economic growth and international oil price in Portugal. For this purpose, we employ two Granger causality approaches: the Johansen cointegration test and vector error correction model (VECM) and the Toda–Yamamoto approaches. Cointegration test proves the existence of a long run equilibrium relationship among these variables and VECM and Toda–Yamamoto Granger causality tests indicate that there is bidirectional causality between crude oil consumption and economic growth (feed back hypothesis). Therefore, the Portuguese economy does not support crude oil conservation hypothesis. Consequently, policymakers should consider that implementing oil conservation and environmental policies may negatively impact on the Portuguese economic growth. - Highlights: ► We examine Granger causality among oil consumption, GDP and oil price in Portugal. ► VECM and Toda–Yamamoto tests found bidirectional causality among oil and GDP. ► Portuguese economy does not support the crude oil conservation hypothesis.

  12. Canadian crude oil production and supply forecast 2006-2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-05-01

    In order to enable members to plan for pipeline capacity requirements for transporting Canadian crude oil to markets, the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) 2006-2020 crude oil production and supply forecast provides a long-range outlook of Canadian crude oil production. It provides a forecast of supply and demand for both western and eastern Canada. Because offshore eastern oil production does not rely on pipeline access to reach markets, the analysis primarily focuses on western Canadian production and supply. Over the next fifteen years, Alberta's oil sands provides the main source of growth in the western Canadian production forecast. A survey of CAPP members encompassing all oil sands projects was conducted. Survey responses reflect both planned and envisioned projects over a fifteen year period, although some of the envisioned projects have been risk adjusted by modifying the potential completion schedules for projects which are deemed more uncertain. Detailed tables are provided on forecast data. Three sets of tables are included to show production, two supply scenarios and a high level assessment of the need for incremental pipeline capacity. The report also discusses delays and risk factors that could slow the pace of oil sands development and the corresponding increase in production being forecast in the base case. 16 tabs

  13. Investigation of wax precipitation in crude oil: Experimental and modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taraneh Jafari Behbahani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a series of experiments were carried to investigation of rheological behavior of crude oil using waxy crude oil sample in the absence/presence of flow improver such as ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer. The rheological data covered the temperature range of 5–30 °C. The results indicated that the performance of flow improver was dependent on its molecular weight. Addition of small quantities of flow improver, can improve viscosity and pour point of crude oil. Also, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN model using Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP topology has been developed to account wax appearance temperature and the amount of precipitated wax and the model was verified using experimental data given in this work and reported in the literature. In order to compare the performance of the proposed model based on Artificial Neural Network, the wax precipitation experimental data at different temperatures were predicted using solid solution model and multi-solid phase model. The results showed that the developed model based on Artificial Neural Network can predict more accurately the wax precipitation experimental data in comparison to the previous models such as solid solution and multi-solid phase model with AADs less than 0.5%. Furthermore, the number of parameters required for the Artificial Neural Network (ANN model is less than the studied thermodynamic models.

  14. Extraction and characterization of crude oil asphaltenes sub fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Silas R.; Calado, Lucas S.; Honse, Siller O.; Mansur, Claudia R.E.; Lucas, Elizabete F.

    2011-01-01

    Asphaltenes from crude oil have been studied for a long time. However, until today their chemical structures and physical-chemical properties are not well established. Nowadays, it is accepted that asphaltenes are dispersed in the crude oil as macro structures, which are mainly constituted of some condensed aromatic rings (about 6-20), containing aliphatic or naphthenic groups. The asphaltenes are also defined as the crude oil fraction that is insoluble in low molar mass n-alkanes and soluble in aromatic solvents, like benzene and toluene In order to investigate the molecular structure, in this work the asphaltenes were separated by using a different procedure as that normally described in the literature and characterized by infrared spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, x-ray fluorescence, elemental analyses and particle size and size distribution. The difference in subfractions polarity can be attributed not only to the aromaticity changes but also to the content of elements, such as N, O, Fe, V, Si e Ni. (author)

  15. The dynamic linkages between crude oil and natural gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batten, Jonathan A.; Ciner, Cetin; Lucey, Brian M.

    2017-01-01

    The time varying price spillovers between natural gas and crude oil markets for the period 1994 to 2014 are investigated. Contrary to earlier research, we show that in a large part of our sample the natural gas price leads the price of crude oil with price spillover effects lasting up to two weeks. This result is robust to a battery of tests including out-of-sample forecasting exercises. However, after 2006, we detect little price dependencies between these two energy commodities. These findings arise due to a conjunction of both demand and supply-side shocks arising from both natural and economic events, including Hurricane Katrina, the Tohoku earthquake and the Global Financial Crisis, as well as infrastructure and technological improvements. The increased use of new technologies such as hydraulic fracking for the extraction of gas and oil in particular affected supply in the latter part of the study. We conclude that the long term relation present in the early part of the sample has decoupled, such that price determination of these two energy sources is now independent. - Highlights: • Contrary to earlier research we find natural gas may lead crude oil prices over a long sample. • This finding holds in forecasting out of sample. • There may be a break in the relationship between oil and gas in 2006. • We suggest that new technologies and financial conditions have led to a decoupling of these markets. • Oil and natural gas prices may now be determined independently.

  16. World market of crude oil - review of possible scenarios of forecasting for the crude oil price movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janevski, Risto

    2003-01-01

    Throughout most of 2002, crude oil prices were solidly within the range preferred by producers in the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), $22 to $28 per barrel for the OPEC 'basket price' (Fig. 1). OPEC producers have been demonstrating disciplined adherence to announced cutbacks in production. Early in 2003, a dramatic upward turn in crude oil prices was brought about by a combination of two factors. First, a general strike against the Chavez regime resulted in a sudden drop in Venezuela's oil exports. Although other OPEC producers agreed to increase production to make up for the lost Venezuelan output, the obvious strain on worldwide spare capacity kept prices high. Second, price volatility was exacerbated by fears of war in Iraq. (Original)

  17. Heavy crude oils - From Geology to Upgrading - An Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huc, A.Y.

    2010-01-01

    Heavy oils, extra-heavy oils and tar sands are major players for the future of energy. They represent a massive world resource, at least the size of conventional oils. They are found all over the world but Canada and Venezuela together account, by themselves, for more than half of world deposits. They share the same origin as the lighter conventional oils, but their geological fate drove them into thick, viscous tar-like crude oils. Most of them result from alteration processes mediated by microbial degradation. They are characterized by a low content of lighter cuts and a high content of impurities such as sulfur and nitrogen compounds and metals; so, their production is difficult and deployment of specific processes is required in order to enhance their transportability and to upgrade them into valuable products meeting market needs, and honouring environmental requirements. Although these resources are increasingly becoming commercially producible, less than 1% of total heavy crude oil deposits worldwide are under active development. The voluntarily wide scope of this volume encompasses geology, production, transportation, upgrading, economics and environmental issues of heavy oils. It does not pretend to be exhaustive, but to provide an authoritative view of this very important energy resource. Besides presenting the current status of knowledge and technology involved in exploiting heavy oils, the purpose is to provide an insight into technical, economic and environmental challenges that should be taken up in order to increase the efficiency of production and processing, and finally to give a prospective view of the emerging technologies which will contribute to releasing the immense potential reserves of heavy oil and tar deposits. Contents: Part 1. Heavy Crude Oils.1. Heavy Crude Oils in the Perspective of World Oil Demand. 2. Definitions and Specificities. 3. Geological Origin of Heavy Crude Oils. 4. Properties and composition. Part 2. Reservoir Engineering

  18. Molecular processes in the biodegradation of crude oils and crude oil products in the natural reservoir and in laboratory experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schalenbach, S.S.

    1993-10-01

    Two ains were pursued in the present study; first, to find positive indicators of the onset of biodegradation of reservoir oil wherever other parameters fail to give a clear picture; second, to establish a basic understanding of the molecular processes underlying the biodegradation of hydrocarbons and thus create a starting point for finding better criteria for valuating biological restoration methods for crude oil contaminated soils. (orig./HS) [de

  19. An empirical analysis of the risk of crude oil imports in China using improved portfolio approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Gang; Wei, Yi-Ming; Fan, Ying; Liu, Lan-Cui

    2007-01-01

    This paper quantifies the diversification index of China's crude oil imports during the period 1996-2004, and explores the relationship between the monthly prices and Brent crude oil cash prices. Accordingly, we calculate the systematic and specific risks using portfolio theory of China's crude oil import over the period 1996-2004. Because China's crude oil import increased rapidly since 1996, we improve upon the traditional portfolio theory and develop a risk index model of portfolio theory for crude oil imports in order to explore objectively the changes in China's crude oil import risks. The results show that China's crude oil import risk is affected extensively by the fluctuation of international oil prices. So the traditional portfolio theory is insufficient to measure China's crude oil import risk. The improved portfolio theory risks index model reflects the effect of international oil prices, diversification, imports, and geopolitics factors etc., on crude oil import risk, and changes in crude oil import risk. Therefore, the risk index model of portfolio theory provides greater theoretical and methodological robustness as an indicator of China's crude oil import security than that offered from the application of traditional measures of dependence. (author)

  20. California demand and supply of crude oil: An econometric analysis with projections to 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibegbulam, B.N.

    1991-01-01

    Forecast of California domestic crude oil supply requires the forecasts of California crude oil production and supply from Alaska. Future California crude oil production is forecast with an econometric model that postulates production as a function of reserves and reserves as a function of crude oil prices and exploration and development costs. Future supplies from Alaska are obtained by subtracting forecasts of Alaskan crude oil demand and shipments to the States of Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington from Alaskan North Slope crude oil production forecasts. A two-stage process was used to forecast future California crude oil demand. In the first stage, the demand for refined crude oil products was predicted with a single-equation double logarithmic rational-expectations dynamic model. In the second stage, the total demands obtained in the first stage were converted into a crude oil equivalent. It was found that the current surplus of domestic crude oil in California will end in 1994. Thereafter, California crude oil imports will sharply increase

  1. The impacts of the export ban on Alaskan crude oil trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farah, P.G.; Bausell, C.W.; Vogelsang, A.

    1990-01-01

    The authors investigated the petroleum markets impacts of lifting the ban on Alaska North Slope (ANS) crude oil exports. This paper reports on some aspects of this investigation. The economic analysis relied heavily on the modeling of the ANS crude trade conducted on behalf of GAO by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) using the Transportation and Refining of International Petroleum model (TRIP). In contrast to previous studies, this one suggests that transportation costs may not be the only major factor in the realignment of ANS crude trade in response to lifting the ban. The differences in the yields of ANS crude and various crudes used by refiners in Pacific Rim countries on the one hand, and the product demand slates of the US West Coast and the potential buyers of ANS crude in Pacific Rim may also figure prominently in determining the reallocation of ANS crude if exports are permitted

  2. Co-processing potential of HTL bio-crude at petroleum refineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Jessica; Jensen, Claus Uhrenholt; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup

    2016-01-01

    assays, adapted from conventional crude oil assays, have been obtained, including fractionation of the bio-crude through 15:5 vacuum distillation. The bio-crude and its fractions have been analyzed with respect to heating value, elemental composition, density and oxygen-containing functional groups....... Results show a highly promising bio-crude quality, with a higher heating value of 40.4 MJ/kg, elemental oxygen content of 5.3 wt.%, a specific gravity of 0.97 and a distillation recovery of ∼53.4 wt.% at an atmospheric equivalent temperature (AET) of 375 °C, . Results show that only minor upgrading......This study presents detailed chemical and thermophysical analysis of bio-crude from a continuous hydrothermal liquefaction research plant. Current research on bio-crude focuses mainly on specific biomass feedstocks and conversion process conditions and resulting yields rather than on bio-crude...

  3. Daily Crude Oil Price Forecasting Using Hybridizing Wavelet and Artificial Neural Network Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Shabri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method based on integrating discrete wavelet transform and artificial neural networks (WANN model for daily crude oil price forecasting is proposed. The discrete Mallat wavelet transform is used to decompose the crude price series into one approximation series and some details series (DS. The new series obtained by adding the effective one approximation series and DS component is then used as input into the ANN model to forecast crude oil price. The relative performance of WANN model was compared to regular ANN model for crude oil forecasting at lead times of 1 day for two main crude oil price series, West Texas Intermediate (WTI and Brent crude oil spot prices. In both cases, WANN model was found to provide more accurate crude oil prices forecasts than individual ANN model.

  4. Comparative toxicity of four crude oils to the early life stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, L.M.J.; Khan, C.W.; Akhtar, P.; Hodson, P.V.; Short, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Crude oil is a source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in aquatic ecosystems. Fish that are chronically exposed to alkyl PAHs show dioxin-like toxicity characterized by the presence of blue sac disease (BSD) and the induction of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A). This study compared the relative toxicity of four crude oils (Scotian Light Crude, MESA, the synthetic Federated Crude, and Alaska North Slope Crude) to early life stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The study examined the influence of the four crudes in causing the disease in rainbow trout embryos living in simulated spawning beds with hydrocarbon-contaminated gravel. Each oil had different chemical characteristics and PAH concentrations. Mortality in the direct exposure experiment increased as the oil concentration increased. The same trend was observed for the BSD prevalence. The study showed that Scotian Light Crude was the least toxic, with BSD increasing only at the highest concentration. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  5. Linkages between the markets for crude oil and the markets for refined products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didziulis, V.S.

    1990-01-01

    To understand the crude oil price determination process it is necessary to extend the analysis beyond the markets for petroleum. Crude oil prices are determined in two closely related markets: the markets for crude oil and the markets for refined products. An econometric-linear programming model was developed to capture the linkages between the markets for crude oil and refined products. In the LP refiners maximize profits given crude oil supplies, refining capacities, and prices of refined products. The objective function is profit maximization net of crude oil prices. The shadow price on crude oil gives the netback price. Refined product prices are obtained from the econometric models. The model covers the free world divided in five regions. The model is used to analyze the impacts on the markets of policies that affect crude oil supplies, the demands for refined products, and the refining industry. For each scenario analyzed the demand for crude oil is derived from the equilibrium conditions in the markets for products. The demand curve is confronted with a supply curve which maximizes revenues providing an equilibrium solution for both crude oil and product markets. The model also captures crude oil price differentials by quality. The results show that the demands for crude oil are different across regions due to the structure of the refining industries and the characteristics of the demands for refined products. Changes in the demands for products have a larger impact on the markets than changes in the refining industry. Since markets for refined products and crude oil are interrelated they can't be analyzed individually if an accurate and complete assessment of a policy is to be made. Changes in only one product market in one region affect the other product markets and the prices of crude oil

  6. Does China factor matter? An econometric analysis of international crude oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Gang; Zhang, Yue-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Whether China’s crude oil imports are the culprit of oil price volatility these years has not been quantitatively confirmed. Therefore, this paper empirically investigates the role of China’s crude oil net imports in Brent price changes from October 2005 to November 2013 based on an econometric analysis. The results indicate that, during the sample period, China’s crude oil imports do not significantly affect Brent price changes, no matter in the long run or short run. Therefore, the blame for China’s crude oil imports to cause the dramatic fluctuations of international oil price has no solid evidence. Also, there exists significant uni-directional causality running from the Brent price to China's crude oil imports at the 5% level. Besides, the response of the Brent price to China's crude oil imports is found positive but slight, and the Brent price responds more significantly to US dollar exchange rate and OECD commercial inventory than to China’s crude oil imports in the short run. Finally, the contribution of China's crude oil imports to Brent price movement is about 10%, which is less than that of US dollar exchange rate but larger than that of Indian crude oil imports or OECD commercial inventory. - Highlights: • The paper detects the role of China’s crude oil imports in Brent oil price changes. • China’s crude imports do not matter for oil prices in the long run or short run. • The blame for China’s crude imports on oil price changes has no solid evidence. • Significant causality runs from Brent prices to China's crude oil net imports. • China's crude imports contribute less to Brent prices than US dollar exchange rate

  7. Effect of incubation time of sago (metroxylon sago) waste by local microorganism ″ginta″ on ph, crude protein, and crude fiber content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginting, Nurzainah; Pase, E.

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to examine the effect of incubation times of sago waste by local microorganism (MOL) “Ginta” to the crude protein and crude fiber content in relation to finding a cheap and good quality ruminants feed alternative. Incubation times were 0 hours to 144 hours. The data obtained were analyzed using Completely Randomize Design consisting of seven treatments and three replications. The result showed that the duration of incubation of sago waste by local microorganism (MOL) “Ginta” caused pH reduction, improved crude protein and crude fiber content. pH reduction was from 7.03 at 0 hour to 4.05 at 144 hours incubation. The highest increased in crude protein was H6U3 (5.58%) : 144 hours incubation and the lowest was H0U2 (3.22%) : 0 hour incubation while the highest crude fiber was H0U1 (19.99%) : 0 hour incubation and the lowest was H6U3 (18.23%) : 144 hours incubation. It can be concluded that incubation of sago waste triggered lower pH, higher crude protein and lower crude fiber than uninoculated. A recommendation could be given on using MOL ‘Ginta” in order to produce a cheap and good quality ruminans feed alternative.

  8. Technical Proposal for Loading 3000 Gallon Crude Oil Samples from Field Terminal to Sandia Pressurized Tanker to Support US DOE/DOT Crude Oil Characterization Research Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, David; Allen, Raymond

    2016-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is seeking access to crude oil samples for a research project evaluating crude oil combustion properties in large-scale tests at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, NM. Samples must be collected from a source location and transported to Albuquerque in a tanker that complies with all applicable regulations for transportation of crude oil over public roadways. Moreover, the samples must not gain or lose any components, to include dissolved gases, from the point of loading through the time of combustion at the Sandia testing facility. In order to achieve this, Sandia designed and is currently procuring a custom tanker that utilizes water displacement in order to achieve these performance requirements. The water displacement procedure is modeled after the GPA 2174 standard “Obtaining Liquid Hydrocarbons Samples for Analysis by Gas Chromatography” (GPA 2014) that is used routinely by crude oil analytical laboratories for capturing and testing condensates and “live” crude oils, though it is practiced at the liter scale in most applications. The Sandia testing requires 3,000 gallons of crude. As such, the water displacement method will be upscaled and implemented in a custom tanker. This report describes the loading process for acquiring a ~3,000 gallon crude oil sample from commercial process piping containing single phase liquid crude oil at nominally 50-100 psig. This document contains a general description of the process (Section 2), detailed loading procedure (Section 3) and associated oil testing protocols (Section 4).

  9. EVALUATING THE SHORT RUN EFFECTS OF U.S. CRUDE OIL INVENTORY LEVELS ON WTI CRUDE OIL PRICE FROM 1993 - 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobi Olasojiand

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this research was to investigate the short-term influence of U.S. crude oil inventories on WTI crude oil prices from 1993 to 2013. This study is important for policy makers who wish to reduce the persistent and growing price volatility of crude oil and its related products as well as businesses such as airline companies who wish to make annual budgetary sales decisions. Using OLS multiple regression, cointegration, VECM and Ex-post forecast techniques; we provide evidence of an inelastic relationship in which a 1% increase in U.S. crude oil inventories is associated with 0.46% decrease in WTI crude oil prices; however this was only valid for 22% of WTI crude oil price variation. We also find that past data on U.S. crude oil inventories could be used to predict future WTI crude oil prices movement. Contrary to literature, the results of the VECM analysis indicate there is no short-run relationship between both variables over the trajectory.

  10. Electrochemical removal of metals from crude oil samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welter, K.; Salazar, E.; Balladores, Y.; Marquez, O.P.; Marquez, J.; Martinez, Y. (Laboratorio de Electroquimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida 5101-Venezuela)

    2009-02-15

    Removal of vanadium from vanadyl (IV) meso-tetra-phenylporphyrin (VO-MTPP) and vanadyl (IV) octa-ethylporphyrin (VO-OEP) and metals removal from Ayacucho Venezuelan crude oil samples were performed using electrochemical techniques. According to cyclic voltammograms, a potential of - 2.3 V vs. Ag/AgNO{sub 3} (0.1 M), LiClO{sub 4} (0.1 M) in acetonitrile, was chosen for running electrolysis at platinum (Pt), graphite (G) and glassy carbon (GC) electrodes. Qualitative analysis was done by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) while quantification was performed by AAS and inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectrometry (ICP/AES). Three stages (best results) of the study are reported: (a) when using commercial porphyrins; the best conditions for electrolysis were: tetrahydrofuran (THF)/20% methanol (MeOH)/1% perchloric acid (HClO{sub 4}) on GC, producing 84% hydro-demetalation (HDM) for VO-MTPP, and 78% HDM for VO-OEP; (b) when using extracts of crude oil; demetalation percentages, after 90 min of electrolysis, on graphite, and after 120 min of electrolysis on platinum, were 66.44% and 64.10% HDM respectively, no discrimination of metals under these conditions (c) from electrolysis in whole crude oil, quantitative analysis gave: vanadium (V) 31.2 mg/kg, iron (Fe) 65, 0 mg/kg and nickel (Ni) 6, 3 mg/kg, with charge efficiencies of V (7.5%), Fe (79.6%) and Ni (8.2%). (author)

  11. Combustion of crude oil sludge containing naturally occurring radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Puad Abu; Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus; Shamsuddin, A.H.; Sopian, K.

    2000-01-01

    The characteristics of crude oil sludge fi-om the crude oil terminal are very unique because it contains both heavy metals and also Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM). As a result, the Department of Environmental (DOE) and the Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB) considered it as Scheduled Wastes and Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) respectively. As a Scheduled Wastes, there is no problem in dealing with the disposal of it since there already exist a National Center in Bukit Nanas to deal with this type of waste. However, the Center could not manage this waste due to the presence of NORM by which the policy regarding the disposal of this kind of waste has not been well established. This situation is unclear to certain parties, especially with respect to the relevant authorities having final jurisdiction over the issue as well as the best practical method of disposal of this kind of waste. Existing methods of treatment viewed both from literature and current practice include that of land farming, storing in plastic drum, re-injection into abandoned oil well, recovery, etc., found some problems. Due to its organic nature, very low level in radioactivity and the existence of a Scheduled Waste incineration facility in Bukit Nanas, there is a potential to treat this sludge by using thermal treatment technology. However, prior to having this suggestion to be put into practice, there are issues that need to be addressed. This paper attempts to discuss the potentials and the related issues of combusting crude oil sludge based on existing experimental data as well as mathematical modeling

  12. Down-hole catalytic upgrading of heavy crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissman, J.G.; Kessler, R.V.; Sawicki, R.A.; Belgrave, J.D.M.; Laureshen, C.J.; Mehta, S.A.; Moore, R.G.; Ursenbach, M.G. [University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

    1996-07-01

    Several processing options have been developed to accomplish near-well bore in-situ upgrading of heavy crude oils. These processes are designed to pass oil over a fixed bed of catalyst prior to entering the production well, the catalyst being placed by conventional gravel pack methods. The presence of brine and the need to provide heat and reactant gases in a down-hole environment provide challenges not present in conventional processing. These issues were addressed and the processes demonstrated by use of a modified combustion tube apparatus. Middle-Eastern heavy crude oil and the corresponding brine were used at the appropriate reservoir conditions. In-situ combustion was used to generate reactive gases and to drive fluids over a heated sand or catalysts bed, simulating the catalyst contacting portion of the proposed processes. The heavy crude oil was found to be amenable to in-situ combustion at anticipated reservoir conditions, with a relatively low air requirement. Forcing the oil to flow over a heated zone prior to production results in some upgrading of the oil, as compared to the original oil, due to thermal effects. Passing the oil over a hydroprocessing catalyst located in the heated zone results in a product that is significantly upgraded as compared to either the original oil or thermally processed oil. Catalytic upgrading is due to hydrogenation and the results in about a 50% sulfur removal and an 8{degree} API gravity increase. Additionally, the heated catalyst was found to be efficient at converting CO to additional H{sub 2}. While all of the technologies needed for a successful field trial of in-situ catalytic upgrading exist, a demonstration has yet to be undertaken. 27 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Coals to Newcastle: Will Alberta become a crude oil importer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haessel, W.; Foley, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    The security of markets for Canadian heavy crude oil (HCO) under different conditions is examined. The emphasis of the study is on the conditions under which bitumen blend from Alberta could penetrate certain markets that have generally been identified as potential prospects. A secondary question concerns the cost reductions in bitumen production and upgrading that would be needed for bitumen blend and synthetic crude oil (SCO) to penetrate these same markets if long-term oil prices settle at US$18/bbl for Saudi light delivered to the USA Gulf Coast in 2010. A brief overview is first presented of some of the world and US factors that will affect the demand for Canadian HCO, with specific reference to the demand in the northern USA in 2010. The determination of the volume of HCO that can or will be processed at a refinery or a combination of refineries in a given market is then discussed. The cost and volume numbers for 2010 as provided in the National Energy Board's latest Canadian energy supply and demand forecast are used in the analysis. It is concluded that all traditional markets outside of the Canadian prairies could be lost if world oil prices stay below US$18/bbl for extended periods. At prices below US$17/bbl, bitumen producers would have trouble competing with imported crude oils in Edmonton unless bitumen production costs decline from current levels. The potential for bitumen production costs to decline enough for diluted bitumen to compete with US$18/bbl oil is better than the prospect for SCO costs to decrease enough to compete in eastern Canada or the northern USA at those price levels. 9 figs., 8 tabs

  14. Study of the gelation behaviour of Brazilian waxy crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziglio, C.M.; Sant' Ana, D.F. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A., Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The precipitation of wax from crude oil results in the formation of a paraffin network which evolves into a gel structure, causing a major operating issue for the petroleum industry. A gelled oil in a pipeline may need a very high re-start pressure that is beyond the capacity of the pump. The gelation of the oil can also develop into a wax deposit on the pipeline wall that restricts the flow of crude oil. Rheometry tests were used in this study to determine the yielding process of wax gels formed by the cooling of Brazilian crude oils. The effect of selected chemical additives on the gel strength was also examined. Dynamic rheology was used to study the oil-gel transition under quiescent conditions. Two rheological methods were used to study the gel yield stress, which is related to the gel strength. In the Creep and Recovery method, a stress was applied to the sample for a short period while the resulting deformation was measured. The stress was then removed to allow the sample to recover the gel structure. The steps of creep and recovery were repeated with an increasing stress value. The yield stress was identified as the minimum stress to cause an irreversible deformation in the sample. The yield stress of the gelled oil was estimated through dynamic measurements. Gel breakdown occurred when the sample was submitted to a critical strain, which is related to the yield stress value. This study showed that the gelation temperature can be reduced considerably by adding small amounts of readily available additives. These additives have an influence on yield stress values. In a cold re-start situation, they can reduce the pump pressure.

  15. A risk assessment for crude oil in residential surface soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, M.J.; Miller, C.J.; Custance, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the discovery of crude oil residues in residential soils is occurring with increasing frequency as property previously owned by the petroleum industry is sold and developed for housing. Many states have adopted action levels for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in soil for the purpose of discerning those sites requiring remediation and/or monitoring. Many states are known to have action levels consisting of a single concentration value which may carry from 10 to 100 ppm TPH. Other states incorporate a range of action levels for addressing site-specific needs; values range from 10 to 1000 ppm TPH for gasoline in soils

  16. Economic repercussions of OPEC's crude oil price increases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merklein, H A

    1980-05-01

    Accusations that the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) created the world energy crisis and destroyed the economies of oil-importing nations are challenged by Dr. Merklein. He shows that the economic impact of OPEC price increases have only accelerated an already-developing energy shortage and only reflect the existing problems of inflation, unemployment, and declining currency exchange rates. The real problem is argued to be a US energy policy that is incapable of responding appropriately to what should be a manageable crude oil tax. When the arguments against OPEC policies are examined in an historical context, they are shown to be essentially neutral. 4 tables. (DCK)

  17. Radical scavenging activity of crude polysaccharides from Camellia sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Fan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A preparation of crude polysaccharides (TPS was isolated from Camellia sinensis by precipitation and ultrafiltration. TPS1, TPS2, and TPS3 had molecular weights of 240, 21.4, and 2.46 kDa, respectively. The radical scavenging activities of TPS were evaluated by DPPH free radical, hydroxyl radical and superoxide radical scavenging. These results revealed that TPS exhibited strong radical scavenging activity in a concentration-dependent manner. TPS3 with lowest molecular weight showed a higher radical scavenging activity.

  18. On Boiling of Crude Oil under Elevated Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenova, Anastasiya V.; Goldobin, Denis S.

    2016-02-01

    We construct a thermodynamic model for theoretical calculation of the boiling process of multicomponent mixtures of hydrocarbons (e.g., crude oil). The model governs kinetics of the mixture composition in the course of the distillation process along with the boiling temperature increase. The model heavily relies on the theory of dilute solutions of gases in liquids. Importantly, our results are applicable for modelling the process under elevated pressure (while the empiric models for oil cracking are not scalable to the case of extreme pressure), such as in an oil field heated by lava intrusions.

  19. Deep hydrotreating of middle distillates from crude and shale oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landau, M.V. [The Blechner Center for Industrial Catalysis and Process Development, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel)

    1997-06-20

    The potential scientific and technological solutions to the problems that appear as a result of shifting the hydrotreating of crude oil middle distillates and shale oils from the `normal` to the `deep` mode are considered on the basis of the reactivities and transformation routes of the least-reactive sulfur-, nitrogen-, and oxygen-containing compounds. The efficiency of selecting the optimal feedstock, increasing the process severity, improving the catalysts activity, and using alternative catalytic routes are compared, taking into account the specific issues related to deep hydrodesulfurization/hydrodenitrogenation/hydrodeoxygenation, i.e., chemical aspects, kinetics and catalysts

  20. Assessment center energy collector system of crude Puerto Escondido

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez Sosa, Yadier; Morón Álvarez, Carlos J.; Gozá León, Osvaldo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the results of the evaluation of the energy system Collector Crude Center of Puerto Escondido in the first half of 2014. By implementing the overall strategy presented Process Analysis developed and implemented an energy assessment procedure allowed characterize current plant conditions, and raise a number of measures and recommendations that lead to improved energy use and reduced environmental impact. It also presents the computational tools used for both process simulation (Hysys v 3.2) as for technical analysis - economic and environmental (Microsoft Excel). (full text)

  1. Exergy analysis of a crude oil atmospheric distillation unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivero, R.; Gonzalez, G.V.; Garcia, V.H.; Pulido, R.; Escarcega, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper deals with the application of an exergy analysis to an existing and operating crude oil atmospheric distillation unit. The objective of such an analysis is to fully understand where energy inefficiencies and real energy losses are located and where modifications should be implemented to improve the overall utilization of energy in the plant. First, the description of the process and the block diagram are presented. After that, the calculating procedure to obtain the exergy balance, the exergy losses, the effectiveness and the improvement potential for each plant component is described and the corresponding results are shown. Finally, the component and overall evaluations are discussed

  2. Crude oil prices : how high, how much harm?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levesque, M.; Alexander, C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discussed the issue of crude oil prices and the economy. Crude oil prices are on the rise due to the recent events in the Middle East. In early April, West Texas Intermediate crude oil climbed to nearly US$28 a barrel. Most of the increase reflects the expectation of stronger world oil demand combined with supply constraints on the part of OPEC. Although there has been some concern expressed that rising oil prices may hinder economic recovery, the authors of this report do not see evidence that rising oil prices would throw economic recovery off course, arguing that the current spike will be short-lived. They stated that even under a worse-case scenario where prices remain inflated, there is little reason to fear for the health of the Canadian economy. OPEC is expected to increase its low production quotas in June. In addition, non-OPEC nations (Russia in particular) are expected to increase oil production in the coming months. The authors also indicated that it is unlikely that conflict in the West Bank will disrupt oil supply because Israel is not an oil-exporting nation. However, oil supply could be affected if other Arab nations were drawn into the issue. It was also noted that military action against Iraq would increase oil prices, possibly as high as US$40 a barrel, but the full extent of this hike in price will probably be unsustainable. In addition, the authors emphasized that the increase in energy costs would not be enough to seriously jeopardize the economic recovery in the United States. As for Canada, it is estimated that a US$10 per barrel increase in crude oil prices would have a small, but positive impact on Canadian GDP because in contrast to the United States, Canada produces much more energy than it consumers. In 2001, Canada ran a trade surplus of $2.8 billion. The report ended by stating that although higher oil prices could add a full percentage point to headline inflation by the end of the year, core inflation is likely to remain

  3. Highly cost-effective and sulfur/coking resistant VOx-grafted TiO2 nanoparticles as an efficient anode catalyst for direct conversion of dry sour methane in solid oxide fuel cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia, A.; Yan, N.; Vincent, A.; Singh, A.; Hill, J.M.; Chuang, K. T.; Luo, J.L.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we show that grafted metal oxide can be a highly cost-effective and active anode for solid oxide fuel cells for sour methane conversion. The developed electro-catalyst was composed of vanadium oxide grafted TiO2 nanoparticles (VOx/TiO2) infiltrated into a porous La0.4Sr0.5Ba0.1TiO3+δ

  4. Increasing of the processing capacity of an alkanoamine in aqueous solution mixed sour gas treatment unit; Incremento de la capacidad de procesamiento de una planta de tratamiento de gas amargo con mezclas de alcanolaminas en solucion acuosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernal, J. Manuel; Valtierra, Victor H.; Cabrales, Alberto [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico City (Mexico)

    1998-07-01

    The necessity of increasing the process capacity of the existing sour gas treating units, has been a factor that has driven the investigation centers to develop new solvent formulations that could been capable of removing the sour gases without majors changes in the equipment that conforms those units. In this sense, the Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo has carried out the study in order to increase the processing capacity of a sour gas treatment plant of Petroleos Mexicanos. In this work, the use of solvents or alternative formulations, based on the use of methyl-diethanolamine (MDEA), as single solvent, or in mixture with others are considered. Our experimental data indicates that the use of MDEA in a formulation, in mixture with another amines, carry out to combination of attributes such as high absorption capacity and a high speed of absorption of the preferred acid gas (H{sub 2}S), besides it reduces the degradation index of the solvent and minimizes the equipment corrosion situation that is transformed in considerable improvement in the processing capacity and/or in the energy process savings, finally the operative problems are minimized. (author)

  5. Crude oil price analysis and forecasting based on variational mode decomposition and independent component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    E, Jianwei; Bao, Yanling; Ye, Jimin

    2017-10-01

    As one of the most vital energy resources in the world, crude oil plays a significant role in international economic market. The fluctuation of crude oil price has attracted academic and commercial attention. There exist many methods in forecasting the trend of crude oil price. However, traditional models failed in predicting accurately. Based on this, a hybrid method will be proposed in this paper, which combines variational mode decomposition (VMD), independent component analysis (ICA) and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA), called VMD-ICA-ARIMA. The purpose of this study is to analyze the influence factors of crude oil price and predict the future crude oil price. Major steps can be concluded as follows: Firstly, applying the VMD model on the original signal (crude oil price), the modes function can be decomposed adaptively. Secondly, independent components are separated by the ICA, and how the independent components affect the crude oil price is analyzed. Finally, forecasting the price of crude oil price by the ARIMA model, the forecasting trend demonstrates that crude oil price declines periodically. Comparing with benchmark ARIMA and EEMD-ICA-ARIMA, VMD-ICA-ARIMA can forecast the crude oil price more accurately.

  6. Crude oil pricing in Asia and future problems; Asia no gen`yu pricing to kongo no kadai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, T. [The Institute of Energy Economics, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-01-30

    This paper describes pricing factors of crude oil for Asia and future problems. Price of the Middle East crude oil for Asia is determined by linking the spot price of Dubayy crude oil using as a marker. Factors affecting the pricing of marker crude oil include the information dispatching functions for prices of spot market and paper market of marker crude oil, the presence of competitive crude oil, and the correlation between market of oil products and price of crude oil. The paper market of Dubayy crude oil with a small scale of trading provides poor impact and transparency. In Asia, there is no strong competitive crude oil except the Middle East crude oil. There is only a weak price linking between crude oil and products. These are the background that the price of Middle East crude oil stays at the high level and the price adjusting functions are hard to work. The marker crude oil should be changed to another except Dubayy crude oil, and information should be dispatched from purchasers based on the stable standard crude oil. The real paper market should be created, and the force of speaking to oil producing countries should be enhanced by concentrating forces of major oil consuming countries in Asia. It is necessary to find out competitive crude oils. 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. SCHISTOSOMICIDAL ACTIVITY OF THE CRUDE EXTRACT OF ARTOCARPUS LAKOOCHA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preyavichyapugdee, Narin; Sangfuang, Manaw; Chaiyapum, Saowapark; Sriburin, Suwatcharaporn; Pootaeng-on, Yupa; Chusongsang, Phiraphol; Jiraungkoorskul, Wannee; Preyavichyapugdee, Mananya; Sobhon, Prasert

    2016-01-01

    Puag-Haad is a traditional anthelmintic drug used to treat taeniasis in Thailand and Lao PDR. It is derived from the aqueous extract of the plant Artocarpus lakoocha. We investigated the in vitro anthelmintic properties of Puag-Haad against Schistosoma mansoni. Adult worms were incubated in M-199 medium containing 250, 500 and 750 μg/ml of Puag-Haad or praziquantel (PZQ) at a concentration of 175 μg/ml for 3, 6, 12 and 24 hours. The relative motility (RM value), survival index (SI) and tegument alterations seen under scanning electron microscope were assessed at each incubation time. The results showed the crude extract of A. lakoocha at a concentration of 250 μg/ml was more effective in causing damage than PZQ at a concentration of 175 μg/ml using RM and SI values. The major target organ affected by Puag-Haad was the tegument. The damage was greater at higher concentrations of the crude extract. It is likely tetrahydroxystilbene (THS), the main compound in Puag-Haad, caused the damage. THS could be a future candidate as a schistosomal drug. Further studies are needed to explore its mechanism, efficiency and safety in vivo.

  8. The response of Scirpus pungens to crude oil contaminated sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longpre, D.; Jaouich, A.; Jarry, V.; Venosa, A.D.; Lee, K.; Suidan, M.T.

    1999-01-01

    An exposure study was conducted to determine the impacts of an oil spill on the plant Scirpus pungens and to determine potential recovery rates of the species in the event of an accidental spill within the St. Lawrence River. Scirpus pungens is an important wetland plant which is essential for control of coastal erosion and which provides a unique habitat for a variety of biota. Sediments contaminated with medium-light crude oil were used in this study. Transplants in oiled and unoiled sediments were maintained in greenhouses to monitor changes in plant height, growth and mortality over a 63 day period. Results showed that plants exposed to high concentrations of oiled sediment were much smaller than those exposed to lightly contaminated sediments. Elevated oil concentrations greatly decreased plant biomass. Mortality was highly correlated with oil concentration. Transplants were able to survive, grow and produce new shoots in sediments contaminated with crude oil in a range of concentrations comparable to those associated with oil spills

  9. DOE to accept bids for Elk Hills crude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the Department of Energy will accept bids in a reoffering sale covering 53,400 b/d of Elk Hills field oil but later may exercise an option to cut sales volumes and ship 20,000 b/d to Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites in Texas. DOE rejected all 19 bids submitted in an earlier semiannual sale of crude oil from the California naval petroleum reserve, saying they were too low. DOE the, The unique combination of federal and state government policies affecting the movement of oil into and out of the California market has contributed to a situation in which it apparently is very difficult for the government to receive a price for Elk Hills oil that satisfies the minimum price tests that govern the sale of Elk Hills oil. The 12 winning bids in the reoffering sale averaged $13.58/bbl, with bids for the higher quality Stevens zone crude averaging $13.92/bbl, about 67 cents/bbl higher than bids rejected last month. DOE the 20,000 b/d is all local pipelines can ship to the interstate All-American pipeline for transfer to Texas beginning in June

  10. Problems in waterflooding fields containing paraffinic crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalev, A G; Lyutin, L V; Perevalov, V G

    1968-11-01

    When Caspian seawater is injected into the Uzen field reservoir, the temperature of the reservoir oil can be lowered 10/sup 0/ to 20/sup 0/C below initial reservoir temperature. Because Uzen crude oil is saturated with paraffin, the cold injection water can deposit paraffin in the formation and reduce oil recovery. In a related study, it was shown that the lower temperature should not adversely affect capillary and wettability behavior of the crude oil in the reservoir. Oil recovery was found to be essentially independent of water composition. However, fresh water is easier to handle in injection systems than brines. Several studies have shown that oil recovery from Uzen field should be increased by use of hot injection water. Various methods of heating the water are discussed. To reduce corrosivity and scaling of hot brine, sodium hexametaphosphate is added in concentrations of 2 to 15 mg/liter. It is concluded that it would be practical to use hot injection water in this field.

  11. The response of Scirpus pungens to crude oil contaminated sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longpre, D; Jaouich, A [Quebec Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Jarry, V [Environment Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Venosa, A D [US Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States). National Risk Management Research Lab.; Lee, K [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Mont Joli, PQ (Canada). Inst. Maurice Lamontagne; Suidan, M T [Cincinnati Univ., Cincinnati, OH (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    1999-01-01

    An exposure study was conducted to determine the impacts of an oil spill on the plant Scirpus pungens and to determine potential recovery rates of the species in the event of an accidental spill within the St. Lawrence River. Scirpus pungens is an important wetland plant which is essential for control of coastal erosion and which provides a unique habitat for a variety of biota. Sediments contaminated with medium-light crude oil were used in this study. Transplants in oiled and unoiled sediments were maintained in greenhouses to monitor changes in plant height, growth and mortality over a 63 day period. Results showed that plants exposed to high concentrations of oiled sediment were much smaller than those exposed to lightly contaminated sediments. Elevated oil concentrations greatly decreased plant biomass. Mortality was highly correlated with oil concentration. Transplants were able to survive, grow and produce new shoots in sediments contaminated with crude oil in a range of concentrations comparable to those associated with oil spills.

  12. Jump dynamics with structural breaks for crude oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yen-Hsien; Hu, Hsu-Ning; Chiou, Jer-Shiou

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the joint phenomena of permanent and transitory components in conditional variance and jump intensity along with verification of structural breaks for crude oil prices. We adopt a Component-ARJI model with structural break analysis, utilizing daily data on West Texas Intermediate crude oil spot and futures contracts. The analytical results verify the existence of permanent and transitory components in conditional variance, with the permanent component of conditional variance increasing with the occurrence of a sudden major event (such as the Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait, Operation Desert Storm and the war between the US and Iraq), and a relatively greater increase in the transitory component over the same period. Notably, jump intensity fluctuates with an increase in the transitory component of conditional variance in response to abnormal events. It is the transitory component which serves as the primary influential factor for jumps in returns; therefore, speculators are willing to take large risks, particularly with respect to anticipating future price movements, or gambling, in the hopes of rapidly making substantial gains; thus, speculators prefer the temporary volatility component and engage in trade activities. However, investors prefer the permanent volatility component, because they may well be better off relocating their assets into more stable portfolios to outperform the market portfolio over the long run. (author)

  13. Study on radiosterilization of crude drug pill involving bezoar bovis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Syojiro; Sasaki, Masahiro; Kondo, Yuichi; Jo, Hisanobu; Kanbashi, Toshitaka.

    1981-01-01

    Radiolysis of bilirubin and cholic acids (cholic acid, desoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid) in hydrous pellet have been investigated with following parameters, which were hydrous content, radiation dose and the dose rate, to discuss the application of gamma -irradiation for sterilization of crude drug pill involving bezoar bovis. At 774 C/kg(3.0MR) irradiation for 5% and 10% hydrous contents pellets, the radiolysis percent of those components were less than 5%. However, the higher hydrous pellet, the radiolysis percents of those are more increase. At the same irradiated condition for 20% hydrous contents pellets, the radiolysis percents of those were 15--22%. The hydrous percent of commercial crude drug pill involving bezoar bovis are about 9%, so that the radiolysis of those components will be less than 5% on the sterilization. The radiolysis percent of bilirubin are constant to variation of radiation dose rate between 51.6--722.5C/kg.hr(0.2--2.8MR/hr). But, the values of cholic acids don't definite such as that of bilirubin, because of larger analitycal error. (author)

  14. A novel apparatus for long term weathering of crude oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, D.; Lun, R.; Skogen, E.; Ooijen, H. Van; Mackay, D.

    1993-01-01

    A novel apparatus is under development for exposing oil in the laboratory to prolonged weathering. The apparatus is mechanically simple and robust and involves contacting oil with water and air, and possibly with solar radiation, under controlled conditions of salinity and turbulence. The principle of operation is that the oil rests on the concave surface of water, which is held in a cylindrical glass vessel and rotated at 33 rpm. The oil is agitated by a fixed stirrer which has a variable pitch. Three oils were studied: Canadian Environmenal Protection Service standard, Kuwait crude, and Prudhoe Bay crude. Gas chromatographic analysis of the oil revealed the expected changes in composition due to evaporation, and purge and trap analysis of the water in contact with the oil determined the nature and concentration of the dissolved hydrocarbons. The apparatus also proved successful for testing the formation of water-in-oil emulsions. It is hoped that the system will contribute to an improved understanding of the mechanisms involved in the long term weathering processes which occur when oil is spilled at sea. 11 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  15. New insights into oxidation behaviours of crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J.; Mehta, S.A.; Moore, R.G. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Innovative technologies will be needed to develop many of the world's oil reservoirs in an economically sustainable manner. In recent years, air injection for light oil reservoirs has gained recognition as an Improved Oil Recovery (IOR) process. In this process, the oxygen from the injected air reacts with a small fraction of the reservoir oil at high temperature to produce a mixture of carbon dioxide and nitrogen. The produced gas generated by the reaction mobilizes the oil downstream, thereby sweeping oil towards the production wells. High pressure air injection used in light oil reservoirs differs from the process used in heavy oil reservoirs, despite the fact that various oxidation reaction schemes exist. The key challenge facing the air injection process is the complexity of the oxidation reaction for crude oil and the lack of understanding of the oxidation behavior of light oils. This study identified a range of oxidation behaviors between light oil and heavy oil. The relationship between crude oil composition and its oxidation behaviors was also examined with reference to 3 different oils and their SARA (saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes) fractions. This study was carried out at various pressures and temperatures using thermogravimetry and pressurized differential scanning calorimetry (PDSC) as the thermal analysis techniques.

  16. Jump dynamics with structural breaks for crude oil prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yen-Hsien [Department of Finance, Chung Yuan Christian University (China); Hu, Hsu-Ning [Department of Money, Banking and Finance, TamKang University (China); Chiou, Jer-Shiou [Department of Finance and Banking, Shih Chien University, 70 Ta-Chih Street, Taipei 104 (China)

    2010-03-15

    This study investigates the joint phenomena of permanent and transitory components in conditional variance and jump intensity along with verification of structural breaks for crude oil prices. We adopt a Component-ARJI model with structural break analysis, utilizing daily data on West Texas Intermediate crude oil spot and futures contracts. The analytical results verify the existence of permanent and transitory components in conditional variance, with the permanent component of conditional variance increasing with the occurrence of a sudden major event (such as the Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait, Operation Desert Storm and the war between the US and Iraq), and a relatively greater increase in the transitory component over the same period. Notably, jump intensity fluctuates with an increase in the transitory component of conditional variance in response to abnormal events. It is the transitory component which serves as the primary influential factor for jumps in returns; therefore, speculators are willing to take large risks, particularly with respect to anticipating future price movements, or gambling, in the hopes of rapidly making substantial gains; thus, speculators prefer the temporary volatility component and engage in trade activities. However, investors prefer the permanent volatility component, because they may well be better off relocating their assets into more stable portfolios to outperform the market portfolio over the long run. (author)

  17. Performance Optimization of Centrifugal Pump for Crude Oil Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A.I. Bellary

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil transport is an essential task in oil and gas industries, where centrifugal pumps are extensively used. The design of a centrifugal pump involves a number of independent parameters which affect the pump performance. Altering some of the parameters within a realistic range improves pump performance and saves a significant amount of energy. The present research investigated the pump characteristics by modifying the number of blades and the exit blade-angles. Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations with standard k-ε two-equation turbulence closure were used for steady and incompressible flow of crude oil through the pump. The experimental set-up was installed and the pump performance calculated numerically  was compared with the experiments.   The investigations showed that the number of blades and the exit blade-angles have a significant influence on the head, shaft power, and efficiency. The vortical flow structures, recirculation and reverse flow characteristics around the impeller were investigated to explain the flow dynamics of impeller and casing. A larger number of blades on the rotor showed dominant streamlined flow without any wake phenomena. The combined effect of the number of blades and exit blade angle has led to an increase in head and efficiency through the parametric optimization.

  18. Crude and intrinsic birth rates for Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rele, J R

    1978-01-01

    An attempt to estimate birth rates for Asian countries. The main sources of information in developing countries has been census age-sex distribution, although inaccuracies in the basic data have made it difficult to reach a high degree of accuracy. Different methods bring widely varying results. The methodology presented here is based on the use of the conventional child-woman ratio from the census age-sex distribution, with a rough estimate of the expectation of life at birth. From the established relationships between child-woman ratio and the intrinsic birth rate of the nature y = a + bx + cx(2) at each level of life expectation, the intrinsic birth rate is first computed using coefficients already computed. The crude birth rate is obtained using the adjustment based on the census age-sex distribution. An advantage to this methodology is that the intrinsic birth rate, normally an involved computation, can be obtained relatively easily as a biproduct of the crude birth rates and the bases for the calculations for each of 33 Asian countries, in some cases over several time periods.

  19. Development of high-strength heavy-wall sour-service seamless line pipe for deep water by applying inline heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, Y.; Kondo, K.; Hamada, M.; Hisamune, N.; Murao, N.; Murase, T.; Osako, H. [Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    This paper provided details of a new high-strength heavy-wall sour service seamless line pipe developed for use in deep water applications. Pig iron was processed in a blast furnace and refined. Molten steel was degassed to reduce impurities and poured into a continuous caster with a round mold. Billets were then heated in a walking-beam furnace and then pierced to form a hollow shell. The shell was then rolled to a specific thickness in a compact mandrel mill and rolled to a specified outer diameter by an extracting sizer. A heating furnace was used to improve the uniformity of the pipes. The heated pipes were then moved to a cooling zone, then rotated quickly while a high-pressured jet flow was injected inside the pipe at the same time as a slit laminar flow was applied to the outside of the pipe. Higher strength was achieved by using the high performance quenching device. It was noted that while pipes manufactured using the inline heat treatment process were able to achieve higher strengths, toughness was reduced. Metallurgical tests were conducted to improve the toughness value of the seamless pipe. Both the microstructure and the fracture surface of test specimens were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Results of the tests showed that lowering sulphur (S) and titanium (Ti) content improved the toughness properties of the pipes. It was concluded that control of microalloys is important to secure improved toughness for pipes manufactured using inline heat treatments. 5 tabs., 12 figs.

  20. ERCB investigation report : Daylight Energy Amalgamation Co Ltd. sour gas release surface location 06-23-047-10W5M December 16, 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temple, B.; Schlager, J.; Wilkes, J.; Saulnier, P.; Mayall, J.; Duben, A.; Ravensdale, C.

    2010-07-21

    This report discussed a sour gas release that occurred at a well located near the town of Lodgepole. The well had a hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) concentration of 29.19 per cent, with an emergency planning zone (EPZ) of 570 m. The owner of the well contacted stakeholders in the region, and road blocks were set up north of the well. Three mobile air monitoring units were dispatched to the site, and service contractors were hired to kill the well. The road blocks were removed after a review of the air monitoring data. Prior to the release, a heat tape assembly had been installed in the well as a result of ongoing hydrate formation problems. An investigation of the well after the release showed damage to the connectors in the heat tape assembly. A failure analysis showed that the damage was caused by excessive temperatures created by a short circuit in the wires located in each connector. The heat allowed downhole gas pressure to push the wire to the surface. Gas was released from the damaged assembly seal. An outline of all steps taken to address the emergency was provided. 4 figs.