WorldWideScience

Sample records for sound spectral analysis

  1. Sound spectral analysis of voice-transmitted sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughman, R P; Loudon, R G

    1986-07-01

    There is a change in voice-generated sound heard over an area of pulmonary consolidation described as the "e" to "a" change. The lung may act as a low pass filter with properties that are changed by consolidation. We studied 5 patients with pneumonia. Using an electronic stethoscope, we recorded the voice-generated sounds "e" and "9-9-9." Sound spectral analysis using the fast Fourier transformation technique was used to characterize the frequency spectrum of the recorded sound. This technique allowed us to evaluate the filter properties of the normal and consolidated lung. We found that the normal lung allowed transmission of sound as high as 250 Hz with a gradual cutoff by 400 Hz. The consolidated lung allowed transmission of sound of a higher frequency; however, there was no significant transmission of sound with a frequency higher than 1,000 Hz.

  2. Spectral modeling, analysis, and synthesis of musical sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Sylvain; Desainte-Catherine, Myriam

    2002-11-01

    Spectral models provide general representations for sound well-suited for expressive musical transformations. These models allow us to extract and modify perceptually-relevant parameters such as amplitude, frequency, and spectrum. Thus, they are of great interest for the classification of musical sounds. A new analysis method was proposed to accurately extract the spectral parameters for the model from existing sounds. This method extends the classic short-time Fourier analysis by also considering the derivatives of the sound signal, and it can work with very short analysis windows. Although originally designed for stationary sounds with no noise, this method shows excellent results in the presence of noise and it is currently being extended in order to handle nonstationary sounds as well. A very efficient synthesis algorithm, based on a recursive description of the sine function, is able to reproduce sound in real time from the model parameters. This algorithm allows an extremely fine control of the partials of the sounds while avoiding signal discontinuities as well as numerical imprecision, and with a nearly optimal number of operations per partial. Psychoacoustic phenomena such as masking are considered in order to reduce on the fly the number of partials to be synthesized.

  3. Spectral analysis of musical sounds with emphasis on the piano

    CERN Document Server

    Koenig, David M

    2014-01-01

    There are three parts to this book which addresses the analysis of musical sounds from the viewpoint of someone at the intersection between physicists, engineers, piano technicians, and musicians. The reader is introduced to a variety of waves and a variety of ways of presenting, visualizing, and analyzing them in the first part. A tutorial on the tools used throughout the book accompanies this introduction. The mathematics behind the tools is left to the appendices. Part 2 is a graphical survey of the classical areas of acoustics that pertain to musical instruments: vibrating strings, bars, membranes, and plates. Part 3 is devoted almost exclusively to the piano. Several two- and three-dimensional graphical tools are introduced to study the following characteristics of pianos: individual notes and interactions among them, the missing fundamental, inharmonicity, tuning visualization, the different distribution of harmonic power for the various zones of the piano keyboard, and potential uses for quality contro...

  4. Applications of Hilbert Spectral Analysis for Speech and Sound Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Norden E.

    2003-01-01

    A new method for analyzing nonlinear and nonstationary data has been developed, and the natural applications are to speech and sound signals. The key part of the method is the Empirical Mode Decomposition method with which any complicated data set can be decomposed into a finite and often small number of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF). An IMF is defined as any function having the same numbers of zero-crossing and extrema, and also having symmetric envelopes defined by the local maxima and minima respectively. The IMF also admits well-behaved Hilbert transform. This decomposition method is adaptive, and, therefore, highly efficient. Since the decomposition is based on the local characteristic time scale of the data, it is applicable to nonlinear and nonstationary processes. With the Hilbert transform, the Intrinsic Mode Functions yield instantaneous frequencies as functions of time, which give sharp identifications of imbedded structures. This method invention can be used to process all acoustic signals. Specifically, it can process the speech signals for Speech synthesis, Speaker identification and verification, Speech recognition, and Sound signal enhancement and filtering. Additionally, as the acoustical signals from machinery are essentially the way the machines are talking to us. Therefore, the acoustical signals, from the machines, either from sound through air or vibration on the machines, can tell us the operating conditions of the machines. Thus, we can use the acoustic signal to diagnosis the problems of machines.

  5. Distinction between voluntary cough sound and speech in volunteers by spectral and complexity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinek, J; Tatar, M; Javorka, M

    2008-12-01

    Objective monitoring of cough sound for extended period is an important step toward a better understanding of this symptom. Because ambulatory cough monitoring systems are not commercially available, we prepared own monitoring system, which is able to distinguish between voluntary cough sound and speech in healthy volunteers. 20-min sound records were obtained using portable digital voice recorder. Characteristics of the sound events have been calculated in time and frequency domains and by a nonlinear analysis. Based on selected parameters, classification tree was constructed for the classification of cough and non-cough sound events. We validated the usefulness of our algorithm developed against manual counts of cough obtained by a trained observer. The median sensitivity value was 100% (the interquartile range was 98-100) and the median specificity was 95% (the interquartile range was 90-97). In conclusion, we developed an algorithm to distinguish between voluntary cough sound and speech with a high degree of accuracy.

  6. Spectral analysis of the sound produced during femoral broaching and implant insertion in uncemented total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitwell, George; Brockett, Claire L; Young, Steve; Stone, Martin; Stewart, Todd D

    2013-02-01

    Preparation of the proximal femur using incremental broaches to create the ideal cancellous bone envelope is an important technique to perfect in uncemented hip arthroplasty. To guide broaching adequacy and final implant position, the surgeon can use audible pitch changes produced by the femoral broach and definitive implant. The aim of this study was to characterise these pitch changes by analysing the sound spectra created by the first broach, last broach and implant using spectral analysis software. The last broach and implant introduction spectra demonstrated low-frequency (400-1200 Hz) spectral peaks that were not detected when using the first broach. These frequencies corresponded to the natural resonant frequency of a standing sound wave within the femoral bone canal (approximately 894 Hz) that was estimated using acoustic physics theory. The remaining spectral peaks were associated with transverse vibration modes produced by striking the metal broach handle and implant introducer and were a function of the constructs geometry and material properties.

  7. [Spectral analysis and LDB based classification of heart sounds with mechanical prosthetic heart valves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Wu, Yuequan; Yao, Jianping; Yang, Song; Du, Minghui

    2011-12-01

    Auscultation, the act of listening for heart sounds to aid in the diagnosis of various heart diseases, is a widely used efficient technique by cardiologists. Since the mechanical prosthetic heart valves are widely used today, it is important to develop a simple and efficient method to detect abnormal mechanical valves. The study on five different mechanical valves showed that only the case of perivalvular leakage could be detected by spectral estimation. Though it is possible to classify different mechanical valves by using time-frequency components of the signal directly, the recognition rate is merely 84%. However, with the improved local discriminant bases (LDB) algorithm to extract features from heart sounds, the recognition rate is 97.3%. Experimental results demonstrated that the improved LDB algorithm could improve classification rate and reduce computational complexity in comparison with original LDB algorithm.

  8. Effect of disorder on bulk sound wave speed : A multiscale spectral analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shrivastava, Rohit Kumar; Luding, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Disorder of size (polydispersity) and mass of discrete elements or particles in randomly structured media (e.g., granular matter such as soil) has numerous effects on the materials' sound propagation characteristics. The influence of disorder on energy and momentum transport, the sound wave speed

  9. Effect of disorder on bulk sound wave speed: a multiscale spectral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Rohit Kumar; Luding, Stefan

    2017-08-01

    Disorder of size (polydispersity) and mass of discrete elements or particles in randomly structured media (e.g., granular matter such as soil) has numerous effects on the materials' sound propagation characteristics. The influence of disorder on energy and momentum transport, the sound wave speed and its low-pass frequency-filtering characteristics is the subject of this study. The goal is understanding the connection between the particle-microscale disorder and dynamics and the system-macroscale wave propagation, which can be applied to nondestructive testing, seismic exploration of buried objects (oil, mineral, etc.) or to study the internal structure of the Earth. To isolate the longitudinal P-wave mode from shear and rotational modes, a one-dimensional system of equally sized elements or particles is used to study the effect of mass disorder alone via (direct and/or ensemble averaged) real time signals, signals in Fourier space, energy and dispersion curves. Increase in mass disorder (where disorder has been defined such that it is independent of the shape of the probability distribution of masses) decreases the sound wave speed along a granular chain. Energies associated with the eigenmodes can be used to obtain better quality dispersion relations for disordered chains; these dispersion relations confirm the decrease in pass frequency and wave speed with increasing disorder acting opposite to the wave acceleration close to the source.

  10. ARMA-based spectral bandwidth for evaluation of bowel motility by the analysis of bowel sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emoto, Takahiro; Shono, Koichi; Abeyratne, Udantha R; Okahisa, Toshiya; Yano, Hiromi; Akutagawa, Masatake; Konaka, Shinsuke; Kinouchi, Yohsuke

    2013-08-01

    Approximately 10%-20% of adults and adolescents suffer from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) worldwide. IBS is characterized by chronic gastrointestinal dysfunction which may reflect in altered motility. Currently, the diagnosis of IBS is made through expensive invasive radiographic and endoscopic examinations. However these are inconvenient and unsuited for community screening. Bowel sounds (BSs) can be easily recorded with non-invasive and low-cost equipment. Recently, several researchers have pointed out changes in features obtained from BS according to the pathological condition of bowel motility. However a widely accepted, simple automatic BS detection algorithm still has to be found, and the appropriate recording period needs to be investigated for further evaluation of bowel motility. In this study we propose a novel simple automatic method to detect the BSs based on the 3 dB bandwidth of the frequency peaks in the autoregressive moving average spectrum. We use the measure, sound-to-sound interval (SSI) obtained by the proposed method, to capture bowel motility. In this paper, we show that the proposed method for automatic detection could achieve a sensitivity of 87.8±5.88%, specificity of 91.7±4.33% and area under the curve of 0.923 when working on 16 healthy volunteers during mosapride administrations. Furthermore, we show that the measured SSI averaged over a period of 30 min can clearly capture bowel motility. Our findings should have the potential to contribute toward developing automated BS-based diagnosis of IBS.

  11. Waveform analysis of sound

    CERN Document Server

    Tohyama, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    What is this sound? What does that sound indicate? These are two questions frequently heard in daily conversation. Sound results from the vibrations of elastic media and in daily life provides informative signals of events happening in the surrounding environment. In interpreting auditory sensations, the human ear seems particularly good at extracting the signal signatures from sound waves. Although exploring auditory processing schemes may be beyond our capabilities, source signature analysis is a very attractive area in which signal-processing schemes can be developed using mathematical expressions. This book is inspired by such processing schemes and is oriented to signature analysis of waveforms. Most of the examples in the book are taken from data of sound and vibrations; however, the methods and theories are mostly formulated using mathematical expressions rather than by acoustical interpretation. This book might therefore be attractive and informative for scientists, engineers, researchers, and graduat...

  12. Vertical-plane sound localization with distorted spectral cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Ewan A.; Sabin, Andrew T.

    2014-01-01

    For human listeners, the primary cues for localization in the vertical plane are provided by the direction-dependent filtering of the pinnae, head, and upper body. Vertical-plane localization generally is accurate for broadband sounds, but when such sounds are presented at near-threshold levels or at high levels with short durations (spectral notches were filled in, peaks were levelled off, or the spectral contrast of the entire profile was reduced or expanded. As notches were filled in progressively or peaks levelled progressively, elevation gain decreased in a graded manner similar to that observed as sensation level is reduced below 30dB or, for brief sounds, increased above 45dB. As spectral contrast was reduced, gain dropped only at the most extreme reduction (25% of normal). Spectral contrast expansion had little effect. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that loss of representation of spectral features contributes to reduced elevation gain at low and high sound levels. The results also suggest that perceived location depends on a correlation-like spectral matching process that is sensitive to the relative, rather than absolute, across-frequency shape of the spectral profile. PMID:24076423

  13. Vertical-plane sound localization with distorted spectral cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Ewan A; Sabin, Andrew T

    2013-12-01

    For human listeners, the primary cues for localization in the vertical plane are provided by the direction-dependent filtering of the pinnae, head, and upper body. Vertical-plane localization generally is accurate for broadband sounds, but when such sounds are presented at near-threshold levels or at high levels with short durations (headphones. Faithfully synthesized targets were interleaved with targets for which the directional transfer function spectral notches were filled in, peaks were leveled off, or the spectral contrast of the entire profile was reduced or expanded. As notches were filled in progressively or peaks leveled progressively, elevation gain decreased in a graded manner similar to that observed as sensation level is reduced below 30 dB or, for brief sounds, increased above 45 dB. As spectral contrast was reduced, gain dropped only at the most extreme reduction (25% of normal). Spectral contrast expansion had little effect. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that loss of representation of spectral features contributes to reduced elevation gain at low and high sound levels. The results also suggest that perceived location depends on a correlation-like spectral matching process that is sensitive to the relative, rather than absolute, across-frequency shape of the spectral profile. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis, Synthesis, and Perception of Musical Sounds The Sound of Music

    CERN Document Server

    Beauchamp, James W

    2007-01-01

    Analysis, Synthesis, and Perception of Musical Sounds contains a detailed treatment of basic methods for analysis and synthesis of musical sounds, including the phase vocoder method, the McAulay-Quatieri frequency-tracking method, the constant-Q transform, and methods for pitch tracking with several examples shown. Various aspects of musical sound spectra such as spectral envelope, spectral centroid, spectral flux, and spectral irregularity are defined and discussed. One chapter is devoted to the control and synthesis of spectral envelopes. Two advanced methods of analysis/synthesis are given: "Sines Plus Transients Plus Noise" and "Spectrotemporal Reassignment" are covered. Methods for timbre morphing are given. The last two chapters discuss the perception of musical sounds based on discrimination and multidimensional scaling timbre models.

  15. Processing of Natural Sounds: Characterization of Multipeak Spectral Tuning in Human Auditory Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Moerel, Michelle; De Martino, Federico; Santoro, Roberta; Ugurbil, Kamil; Goebel, Rainer; Yacoub, Essa; Formisano, Elia

    2013-01-01

    We examine the mechanisms by which the human auditory cortex processes the frequency content of natural sounds. Through mathematical modeling of ultra-high field (7 T) functional magnetic resonance imaging responses to natural sounds, we derive frequency-tuning curves of cortical neuronal populations. With a data-driven analysis, we divide the auditory cortex into five spatially distributed clusters, each characterized by a spectral tuning profile. Beyond neuronal populations with simple sing...

  16. Spectral reconstruction of sound radiated by an organ pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, M.; Ahnert, K.

    The sound radiated by a turbulent jet is not only interesting as a research topic by itself, but also highly relevant for many applications in nature and engineering. In this contribution, we outline a procedure to find a dynamical system from acoustical data. This approach should be considered in the context of reduced order modeling. Basically, we use a differential embedding to find a system of ODEs which recover the basic phase space dynamics of the measured system. Our investigations focus on the radiated sound and thus the spectral properties of the reduced order model are the quantity to be optimized.

  17. Analysis of environmental sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keansub

    Environmental sound archives - casual recordings of people's daily life - are easily collected by MPS players or camcorders with low cost and high reliability, and shared in the web-sites. There are two kinds of user generated recordings we would like to be able to handle in this thesis: Continuous long-duration personal audio and Soundtracks of short consumer video clips. These environmental recordings contain a lot of useful information (semantic concepts) related with activity, location, occasion and content. As a consequence, the environment archives present many new opportunities for the automatic extraction of information that can be used in intelligent browsing systems. This thesis proposes systems for detecting these interesting concepts on a collection of these real-world recordings. The first system is to segment and label personal audio archives - continuous recordings of an individual's everyday experiences - into 'episodes' (relatively consistent acoustic situations lasting a few minutes or more) using the Bayesian Information Criterion and spectral clustering. The second system is for identifying regions of speech or music in the kinds of energetic and highly-variable noise present in this real-world sound. Motivated by psychoacoustic evidence that pitch is crucial in the perception and organization of sound, we develop a noise-robust pitch detection algorithm to locate speech or music-like regions. To avoid false alarms resulting from background noise with strong periodic components (such as air-conditioning), a new scheme is added in order to suppress these noises in the domain of autocorrelogram. In addition, the third system is to automatically detect a large set of interesting semantic concepts; which we chose for being both informative and useful to users, as well as being technically feasible. These 25 concepts are associated with people's activities, locations, occasions, objects, scenes and sounds, and are based on a large collection of

  18. Applications of Sound Spectrum Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Timothy

    2007-02-01

    The physics of sound is often studied in introductory physics class experiments involving a tube of resonating air. In typical setups, pistons control the length of a cylindrical space or a microphone is moved within a tube. While these activities are useful and can be made very quantitative, they don't directly demonstrate the sounds that are most familiar to students, such as human voices and musical instruments. Fortunately, several sound spectrum analysis programs are available that can bridge this gap.2

  19. Processing of natural sounds: characterization of multipeak spectral tuning in human auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerel, Michelle; De Martino, Federico; Santoro, Roberta; Ugurbil, Kamil; Goebel, Rainer; Yacoub, Essa; Formisano, Elia

    2013-07-17

    We examine the mechanisms by which the human auditory cortex processes the frequency content of natural sounds. Through mathematical modeling of ultra-high field (7 T) functional magnetic resonance imaging responses to natural sounds, we derive frequency-tuning curves of cortical neuronal populations. With a data-driven analysis, we divide the auditory cortex into five spatially distributed clusters, each characterized by a spectral tuning profile. Beyond neuronal populations with simple single-peaked spectral tuning (grouped into two clusters), we observe that ∼60% of auditory populations are sensitive to multiple frequency bands. Specifically, we observe sensitivity to multiple frequency bands (1) at exactly one octave distance from each other, (2) at multiple harmonically related frequency intervals, and (3) with no apparent relationship to each other. We propose that beyond the well known cortical tonotopic organization, multipeaked spectral tuning amplifies selected combinations of frequency bands. Such selective amplification might serve to detect behaviorally relevant and complex sound features, aid in segregating auditory scenes, and explain prominent perceptual phenomena such as octave invariance.

  20. A measure for predicting audibility discrimination thresholds for spectral envelope distortions in vowel sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rao, Preeti; van Dinther, R.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Kohlrausch, A.

    2001-01-01

    Both in speech synthesis and in sound coding it is often beneficial to have a measure that predicts whether, and to what extent, two sounds are different. This paper addresses the problem of estimating the perceptual effects of small modifications to the spectral envelope of a harmonic sound. A

  1. Reconstructing spectral cues for sound localization from responses to rippled noise stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vliegen, Joyce; Van Esch, Thamar

    2017-01-01

    Human sound localization in the mid-saggital plane (elevation) relies on an analysis of the idiosyncratic spectral shape cues provided by the head and pinnae. However, because the actual free-field stimulus spectrum is a-priori unknown to the auditory system, the problem of extracting the elevation angle from the sensory spectrum is ill-posed. Here we test different spectral localization models by eliciting head movements toward broad-band noise stimuli with randomly shaped, rippled amplitude spectra emanating from a speaker at a fixed location, while varying the ripple bandwidth between 1.5 and 5.0 cycles/octave. Six listeners participated in the experiments. From the distributions of localization responses toward the individual stimuli, we estimated the listeners’ spectral-shape cues underlying their elevation percepts, by applying maximum-likelihood estimation. The reconstructed spectral cues resulted to be invariant to the considerable variation in ripple bandwidth, and for each listener they had a remarkable resemblance to the idiosyncratic head-related transfer functions (HRTFs). These results are not in line with models that rely on the detection of a single peak or notch in the amplitude spectrum, nor with a local analysis of first- and second-order spectral derivatives. Instead, our data support a model in which the auditory system performs a cross-correlation between the sensory input at the eardrum-auditory nerve, and stored representations of HRTF spectral shapes, to extract the perceived elevation angle. PMID:28333967

  2. Reconstructing spectral cues for sound localization from responses to rippled noise stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A John Van Opstal

    Full Text Available Human sound localization in the mid-saggital plane (elevation relies on an analysis of the idiosyncratic spectral shape cues provided by the head and pinnae. However, because the actual free-field stimulus spectrum is a-priori unknown to the auditory system, the problem of extracting the elevation angle from the sensory spectrum is ill-posed. Here we test different spectral localization models by eliciting head movements toward broad-band noise stimuli with randomly shaped, rippled amplitude spectra emanating from a speaker at a fixed location, while varying the ripple bandwidth between 1.5 and 5.0 cycles/octave. Six listeners participated in the experiments. From the distributions of localization responses toward the individual stimuli, we estimated the listeners' spectral-shape cues underlying their elevation percepts, by applying maximum-likelihood estimation. The reconstructed spectral cues resulted to be invariant to the considerable variation in ripple bandwidth, and for each listener they had a remarkable resemblance to the idiosyncratic head-related transfer functions (HRTFs. These results are not in line with models that rely on the detection of a single peak or notch in the amplitude spectrum, nor with a local analysis of first- and second-order spectral derivatives. Instead, our data support a model in which the auditory system performs a cross-correlation between the sensory input at the eardrum-auditory nerve, and stored representations of HRTF spectral shapes, to extract the perceived elevation angle.

  3. Processing of natural sounds in human auditory cortex: tonotopy, spectral tuning, and relation to voice sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerel, Michelle; De Martino, Federico; Formisano, Elia

    2012-10-10

    Auditory cortical processing of complex meaningful sounds entails the transformation of sensory (tonotopic) representations of incoming acoustic waveforms into higher-level sound representations (e.g., their category). However, the precise neural mechanisms enabling such transformations remain largely unknown. In the present study, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and natural sounds stimulation to examine these two levels of sound representation (and their relation) in the human auditory cortex. In a first experiment, we derive cortical maps of frequency preference (tonotopy) and selectivity (tuning width) by mathematical modeling of fMRI responses to natural sounds. The tuning width maps highlight a region of narrow tuning that follows the main axis of Heschl's gyrus and is flanked by regions of broader tuning. The narrowly tuned portion on Heschl's gyrus contains two mirror-symmetric frequency gradients, presumably defining two distinct primary auditory areas. In addition, our analysis indicates that spectral preference and selectivity (and their topographical organization) extend well beyond the primary regions and also cover higher-order and category-selective auditory regions. In particular, regions with preferential responses to human voice and speech occupy the low-frequency portions of the tonotopic map. We confirm this observation in a second experiment, where we find that speech/voice selective regions exhibit a response bias toward the low frequencies characteristic of human voice and speech, even when responding to simple tones. We propose that this frequency bias reflects the selective amplification of relevant and category-characteristic spectral bands, a useful processing step for transforming a sensory (tonotopic) sound image into higher level neural representations.

  4. SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF EXCHANGE RATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEŠA LOTRIČ DOLINAR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Using spectral analysis is very common in technical areas but rather unusual in economics and finance, where ARIMA and GARCH modeling are much more in use. To show that spectral analysis can be useful in determining hidden periodic components for high-frequency finance data as well, we use the example of foreign exchange rates

  5. A Study of Sound Contents Development based On Analysis and Compare Foley Sound to Actual Sound of Wind

    OpenAIRE

    Ik-Soo Ahn; Seong-Geon Bae; Myung-Jin Bae

    2015-01-01

    Foley sound of wind is often used as a background sound of radio drama in early period of broadcasting. It is one of the tools that has applied the most creative and scientific theory. This research provides scientific proof on similarities and creativity of Foley sound of wind through comparison and analysis of Foley sound and the actual wind sound.

  6. The role of spectral features in sound localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toledo, Daniela; Møller, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    Spectral components of head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) are highly dependent on the anthropometric characteristics of subjects.  In the low frequency range, a common structure is often found in HRTFs from different subjects.  However, individual differences are seen at high frequencies.  I...

  7. Sound Classification in Hearing Aids Inspired by Auditory Scene Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchler, Michael; Allegro, Silvia; Launer, Stefan; Dillier, Norbert

    2005-12-01

    A sound classification system for the automatic recognition of the acoustic environment in a hearing aid is discussed. The system distinguishes the four sound classes "clean speech," "speech in noise," "noise," and "music." A number of features that are inspired by auditory scene analysis are extracted from the sound signal. These features describe amplitude modulations, spectral profile, harmonicity, amplitude onsets, and rhythm. They are evaluated together with different pattern classifiers. Simple classifiers, such as rule-based and minimum-distance classifiers, are compared with more complex approaches, such as Bayes classifier, neural network, and hidden Markov model. Sounds from a large database are employed for both training and testing of the system. The achieved recognition rates are very high except for the class "speech in noise." Problems arise in the classification of compressed pop music, strongly reverberated speech, and tonal or fluctuating noises.

  8. Applications of Sound Spectrum Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    The physics of sound is often studied in introductory physics class experiments involving a tube of resonating air. In typical setups, pistons control the length of a cylindrical space or a microphone is moved within a tube. While these activities are useful and can be made very quantitative, they don't directly demonstrate the sounds that are…

  9. Spectral and temporal cues for perception of material and action categories in impacted sound sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens; McAdams, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments, similarity ratings and categorization performance with recorded impact sounds representing three material categories (wood, metal, glass) being manipulated by three different categories of action (drop, strike, rattle) were examined. Previous research focusing on single impact...... sounds suggests that temporal cues related to damping are essential for material discrimination, but spectral cues are potentially more efficient for discriminating materials manipulated by different actions that include multiple impacts (e.g., dropping, rattling). Perceived similarity between material...... categories across different actions was correlated with the distribution of long-term spectral energy (spectral centroid). Similarity between action categories was described by the temporal distribution of envelope energy (temporal centroid) or by the density of impacts. Moreover, perceptual similarity...

  10. Sound Classification in Hearing Aids Inspired by Auditory Scene Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Allegro Silvia; Launer Stefan; Büchler Michael; Dillier Norbert

    2005-01-01

    A sound classification system for the automatic recognition of the acoustic environment in a hearing aid is discussed. The system distinguishes the four sound classes “clean speech,†“speech in noise,†“noise,†and “music.†A number of features that are inspired by auditory scene analysis are extracted from the sound signal. These features describe amplitude modulations, spectral profile, harmonicity, amplitude onsets, and rhythm. They are evaluated togethe...

  11. Automatic adventitious respiratory sound analysis: A systematic review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Renard Xaviero Adhi Pramono; Stuart Bowyer; Esther Rodriguez-Villegas

    2017-01-01

    .... While computerised respiratory sound analysis, specifically for the detection or classification of adventitious sounds, has recently been the focus of an increasing number of studies, a standardised...

  12. Real time analysis of voiced sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, J. P. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A power spectrum analysis of the harmonic content of a voiced sound signal is conducted in real time by phase-lock-loop tracking of the fundamental frequency, (f sub 0) of the signal and successive harmonics (h sub 1 through h sub n) of the fundamental frequency. The analysis also includes measuring the quadrature power and phase of each frequency tracked, differentiating the power measurements of the harmonics in adjacent pairs, and analyzing successive differentials to determine peak power points in the power spectrum for display or use in analysis of voiced sound, such as for voice recognition.

  13. Machine learning analysis of binaural rowing sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johard, Leonard; Ruffaldi, Emanuele; Hoffmann, Pablo F.

    2011-01-01

    Techniques for machine hearing are increasing their potentiality due to new application domains. In this work we are addressing the analysis of rowing sounds in natural context for the purpose of supporting a training system based on virtual environments. This paper presents the acquisition metho...... methodology and the evaluation of different machine learning techniques for classifying rowing-sound data. We see that a combination of principal component analysis and shallow networks perform equally well as deep architectures, while being much faster to train....

  14. Machine Learning Analysis of Binaural Rowing Sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippeschi Alessandro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Techniques for machine hearing are increasing their potentiality due to new application domains. In this work we are addressing the analysis of rowing sounds in natural context for the purpose of supporting a training system based on virtual environments. This paper presents the acquisition methodology and the evaluation of different machine learning techniques for classifying rowing-sound data. We see that a combination of principal component analysis and shallow networks perform equally well as deep architectures, while being much faster to train.

  15. Discrimination and streaming of speech sounds based on differences in interaural and spectral cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Marion; Lavandier, Mathieu; Grimault, Nicolas; Oxenham, Andrew J

    2017-09-01

    Differences in spatial cues, including interaural time differences (ITDs), interaural level differences (ILDs) and spectral cues, can lead to stream segregation of alternating noise bursts. It is unknown how effective such cues are for streaming sounds with realistic spectro-temporal variations. In particular, it is not known whether the high-frequency spectral cues associated with elevation remain sufficiently robust under such conditions. To answer these questions, sequences of consonant-vowel tokens were generated and filtered by non-individualized head-related transfer functions to simulate the cues associated with different positions in the horizontal and median planes. A discrimination task showed that listeners could discriminate changes in interaural cues both when the stimulus remained constant and when it varied between presentations. However, discrimination of changes in spectral cues was much poorer in the presence of stimulus variability. A streaming task, based on the detection of repeated syllables in the presence of interfering syllables, revealed that listeners can use both interaural and spectral cues to segregate alternating syllable sequences, despite the large spectro-temporal differences between stimuli. However, only the full complement of spatial cues (ILDs, ITDs, and spectral cues) resulted in obligatory streaming in a task that encouraged listeners to integrate the tokens into a single stream.

  16. Basic Functional Analysis Puzzles of Spectral Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booss-Bavnbek, Bernhelm

    2011-01-01

    We explain an array of basic functional analysis puzzles on the way to general spectral flow formulae and indicate a direction of future topological research for dealing with these puzzles.......We explain an array of basic functional analysis puzzles on the way to general spectral flow formulae and indicate a direction of future topological research for dealing with these puzzles....

  17. Sound Classification in Hearing Aids Inspired by Auditory Scene Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Dillier

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A sound classification system for the automatic recognition of the acoustic environment in a hearing aid is discussed. The system distinguishes the four sound classes “clean speech,” “speech in noise,” “noise,” and “music.” A number of features that are inspired by auditory scene analysis are extracted from the sound signal. These features describe amplitude modulations, spectral profile, harmonicity, amplitude onsets, and rhythm. They are evaluated together with different pattern classifiers. Simple classifiers, such as rule-based and minimum-distance classifiers, are compared with more complex approaches, such as Bayes classifier, neural network, and hidden Markov model. Sounds from a large database are employed for both training and testing of the system. The achieved recognition rates are very high except for the class “speech in noise.” Problems arise in the classification of compressed pop music, strongly reverberated speech, and tonal or fluctuating noises.

  18. Monitoring the state of the human airways by analysis of respiratory sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, J. C.; Patterson, J. L. Jr

    1979-01-01

    A mechanism whereby sound is generated by the motion of vortices in the human lung is described. This mechanism is believed to be responsible for most of the sound which is generated both on inspiration and expiration in normal lungs. Mathematical expressions for the frequencies of sound generated, which depend only upon the axial flow velocity and diameters of the bronchi, are derived. This theory allows the location within the bronchial tree from which particular sounds emanate to be determined. Redistribution of pulmonary blood volume following transition from Earth gravity to the weightless state probably alters the caliber of certain airways and doubtless alters sound transmission properties of the lung. We believe that these changes can be monitored effectively and non-invasively by spectral analysis of pulmonary sound.

  19. Left–Right Asymmetry in Spectral Characteristics of Lung Sounds Detected Using a Dual-Channel Auscultation System in Healthy Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang-Zern Tsai

    2017-06-01

    account for the observed differences in the spectral characteristics of lung sounds. The dual-channel auscultation system might be useful for future development of digital stethoscopes and power spectral analysis of lung sounds in patients with various kinds of cardiopulmonary diseases.

  20. Telephonic analysis of the snoring sound spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seren, Erdal; Ilhanlı, Ilker; Bayar Muluk, Nuray; Cingi, Cemal; Hanci, Deniz

    2014-11-01

    Snoring is a sound caused by vibration of collapsed and/or unsteady airway walls of the pharynx and soft palate. We compared stored spectra of snoring sounds recorded via cell phone (CP) and a microphone placed over the head (head phone [HP]). Thirty-four snoring patients were included in this prospective study. Groups were identified by reference to body mass index (BMI) values: group 1, BMI obese patients of group 3, almost all F(max) and SSIL values were higher than those of groups 1 and 2. In particular, the CP F(max) values were elevated in such patients. The advanced technologies used in modern CPs may allow some snoring sounds in susceptible individuals to be defined as oronasal. Cell phone technology allows snoring to be evaluated in patients located in areas remote from a hospital. To explore the intensity of snoring and to postoperatively monitor the efficacy of surgery used to treat snoring, telephonic sound analysis is both new and effective and reduces the need for patient attendance at a hospital. Those experiencing severe snoring and/or who are obese should be told of what can be done to solve such problems. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Acoustic Gaits: Gait Analysis With Footstep Sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaf, M Umair Bin; Butko, Taras; Juang, Biing-Hwang Fred

    2015-08-01

    We describe the acoustic gaits-the natural human gait quantitative characteristics derived from the sound of footsteps as the person walks normally. We introduce the acoustic gait profile, which is obtained from temporal signal analysis of sound of footsteps collected by microphones and illustrate some of the spatio-temporal gait parameters that can be extracted from the acoustic gait profile by using three temporal signal analysis methods-the squared energy estimate, Hilbert transform and Teager-Kaiser energy operator. Based on the statistical analysis of the parameter estimates, we show that the spatio-temporal parameters and gait characteristics obtained using the acoustic gait profile can consistently and reliably estimate a subset of clinical and biometric gait parameters currently in use for standardized gait assessments. We conclude that the Teager-Kaiser energy operator provides the most consistent gait parameter estimates showing the least variation across different sessions and zones. Acoustic gaits use an inexpensive set of microphones with a computing device as an accurate and unintrusive gait analysis system. This is in contrast to the expensive and intrusive systems currently used in laboratory gait analysis such as the force plates, pressure mats and wearable sensors, some of which may change the gait parameters that are being measured.

  2. SPAM- SPECTRAL ANALYSIS MANAGER (UNIX VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    The Spectral Analysis Manager (SPAM) was developed to allow easy qualitative analysis of multi-dimensional imaging spectrometer data. Imaging spectrometers provide sufficient spectral sampling to define unique spectral signatures on a per pixel basis. Thus direct material identification becomes possible for geologic studies. SPAM provides a variety of capabilities for carrying out interactive analysis of the massive and complex datasets associated with multispectral remote sensing observations. In addition to normal image processing functions, SPAM provides multiple levels of on-line help, a flexible command interpretation, graceful error recovery, and a program structure which can be implemented in a variety of environments. SPAM was designed to be visually oriented and user friendly with the liberal employment of graphics for rapid and efficient exploratory analysis of imaging spectrometry data. SPAM provides functions to enable arithmetic manipulations of the data, such as normalization, linear mixing, band ratio discrimination, and low-pass filtering. SPAM can be used to examine the spectra of an individual pixel or the average spectra over a number of pixels. SPAM also supports image segmentation, fast spectral signature matching, spectral library usage, mixture analysis, and feature extraction. High speed spectral signature matching is performed by using a binary spectral encoding algorithm to separate and identify mineral components present in the scene. The same binary encoding allows automatic spectral clustering. Spectral data may be entered from a digitizing tablet, stored in a user library, compared to the master library containing mineral standards, and then displayed as a timesequence spectral movie. The output plots, histograms, and stretched histograms produced by SPAM can be sent to a lineprinter, stored as separate RGB disk files, or sent to a Quick Color Recorder. SPAM is written in C for interactive execution and is available for two different

  3. Improvement of electrophoresis performance by spectral analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes a new design of standard agarose gel electrophoresis procedure for nucleic acids analysis. The electrophoresis was improved by using the real-time spectral analysis of the samples to increase its performance. A laser beam illuminated the analysed sample at wavelength with the highest absorption of ...

  4. Bioacoustic Spectral Whistle Sound And Behaviour Of Male Dolphin Bottle Nose ( Tursiops aduncus At Safari Park Indonesia, Cisarua Bogor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Zainuddin Lubis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Whistle sound is generally used for echolocation purposes, while the sound of the blast-beat and whistles play a major role in internal and inter-group communication.The purpose of this research is to know the power spectral patterns and fluctuations in sound based on frequency and Power Spectral Density (PSD of the sounds produced by dolphins and observing the position of dolphins , Noisy Time Domain (NTD and behavior using underwater camera, and also comparing between time and sound spectrum. Data recording was taken at tha Safari Park of Cisarua Bogor in Indonesia, by taking data in show pool and show pool. The results showed that salinity before feeding time in the show pool with replication 1,2, and 3 has salinity value that is equal to 30 ‰. Data at the show pool before feeding with replications 1,2, and 3 has a salinity of 29 ‰. Power Spectral Density (PSD of the whistle sound before feeding was different from one another, but it has the same frequency range. The highest intensity values is at sound whistle 3 before feeding time at the show pool with an intensity value of 28.03 dB with frequency interval of 14 642 Hz-16000 Hz. F-test at the show pool before meals has heterogeneous value. Treat before meals at the show pool has a value of P <0.001 and P <0.001. Value Noisy Time Domain have differences with each other and have a lot of different sound patterns. In general, there are real differences are evidenced by F test on a range of time at each whistle on physiotherapy and swimming pool show in the time before meals. The position of dolphins in a pool show more dominant and often in the bottom of the pool, the position of the dolphins affect the frequency.

  5. Functional analysis, spectral theory, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Einsiedler, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    This textbook provides a careful treatment of functional analysis and some of its applications in analysis, number theory, and ergodic theory. In addition to discussing core material in functional analysis, the authors cover more recent and advanced topics, including Weyl’s law for eigenfunctions of the Laplace operator, amenability and property (T), the measurable functional calculus, spectral theory for unbounded operators, and an account of Tao’s approach to the prime number theorem using Banach algebras. The book further contains numerous examples and exercises, making it suitable for both lecture courses and self-study. Functional Analysis, Spectral Theory, and Applications is aimed at postgraduate and advanced undergraduate students with some background in analysis and algebra, but will also appeal to everyone with an interest in seeing how functional analysis can be applied to other parts of mathematics.

  6. A Lexical Analysis of Environmental Sound Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houix, Olivier; Lemaitre, Guillaume; Misdariis, Nicolas; Susini, Patrick; Urdapilleta, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    In this article we report on listener categorization of meaningful environmental sounds. A starting point for this study was the phenomenological taxonomy proposed by Gaver (1993b). In the first experimental study, 15 participants classified 60 environmental sounds and indicated the properties shared by the sounds in each class. In a second…

  7. Spectral analysis of bedform dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Christian; Ernstsen, Verner Brandbyge; Noormets, Riko

    Successive multibeam echo sounder surveys in tidal channels off Esbjerg (Denmark) on the North Sea coast reveal the dynamics of subaquatic compound dunes. Mainly driven by tidal currents, dune structures show complex migration patterns in all temporal and spatial scales. Common methods...... for the analysis of bedform migration are based on the description of average characteristics as dune length, height and celerity. Their application to superimposed structures is dissatisfying as the recognition of dunes is subjective and work intensive. The high resolution and accuracy of the bathymetric surveys...... of the single harmonic constituents is assumed to be uniform and stationary, bedform dynamics can be completely assessed by changes in amplitude and phase. Dune migration at several transects were analysed and quantified by taking into account the phase differences of individual harmonic constituents...

  8. Functional Analysis-Spectral Theory1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 4. Functional Analysis - Spectral Theory1. Cherian Varughese. Book Review Volume 6 Issue 4 April 2001 pp 91-92 ... Author Affiliations. Cherian Varughese1. Indian Statistical Institute, 8th Mile, Mysore Road, Bangalore 560 059, India.

  9. SpecViz: Interactive Spectral Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Nicholas Michael; STScI

    2016-06-01

    The astronomical community is about to enter a new generation of scientific enterprise. With next-generation instrumentation and advanced capabilities, the need has arisen to equip astronomers with the necessary tools to deal with large, multi-faceted data. The Space Telescope Science Institute has initiated a data analysis forum for the creation, development, and maintenance of software tools for the interpretation of these new data sets. SpecViz is a spectral 1-D interactive visualization and analysis application built with Python in an open source development environment. A user-friendly GUI allows for a fast, interactive approach to spectral analysis. SpecViz supports handling of unique and instrument-specific data, incorporation of advanced spectral unit handling and conversions in a flexible, high-performance interactive plotting environment. Active spectral feature analysis is possible through interactive measurement and statistical tools. It can be used to build wide-band SEDs, with the capability of combining or overplotting data products from various instruments. SpecViz sports advanced toolsets for filtering and detrending spectral lines; identifying, isolating, and manipulating spectral features; as well as utilizing spectral templates for renormalizing data in an interactive way. SpecViz also includes a flexible model fitting toolset that allows for multi-component models, as well as custom models, to be used with various fitting and decomposition routines. SpecViz also features robust extension via custom data loaders and connection to the central communication system underneath the interface for more advanced control. Incorporation with Jupyter notebooks via connection with the active iPython kernel allows for SpecViz to be used in addition to a user’s normal workflow without demanding the user drastically alter their method of data analysis. In addition, SpecViz allows the interactive analysis of multi-object spectroscopy in the same straight

  10. Contralateral routing of signals disrupts monaural level and spectral cues to sound localisation on the horizontal plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedley, Adam J; Kitterick, Pádraig T

    2017-09-01

    Contra-lateral routing of signals (CROS) devices re-route sound between the deaf and hearing ears of unilaterally-deaf individuals. This rerouting would be expected to disrupt access to monaural level cues that can support monaural localisation in the horizontal plane. However, such a detrimental effect has not been confirmed by clinical studies of CROS use. The present study aimed to exercise strict experimental control over the availability of monaural cues to localisation in the horizontal plane and the fitting of the CROS device to assess whether signal routing can impair the ability to locate sources of sound and, if so, whether CROS selectively disrupts monaural level or spectral cues to horizontal location, or both. Unilateral deafness and CROS device use were simulated in twelve normal hearing participants. Monaural recordings of broadband white noise presented from three spatial locations (-60°, 0°, and +60°) were made in the ear canal of a model listener using a probe microphone with and without a CROS device. The recordings were presented to participants via an insert earphone placed in their right ear. The recordings were processed to disrupt either monaural level or spectral cues to horizontal sound location by roving presentation level or the energy across adjacent frequency bands, respectively. Localisation ability was assessed using a three-alternative forced-choice spatial discrimination task. Participants localised above chance levels in all conditions. Spatial discrimination accuracy was poorer when participants only had access to monaural spectral cues compared to when monaural level cues were available. CROS use impaired localisation significantly regardless of whether level or spectral cues were available. For both cues, signal re-routing had a detrimental effect on the ability to localise sounds originating from the side of the deaf ear (-60°). CROS use also impaired the ability to use level cues to localise sounds originating from

  11. Spectral Analysis of Large Particle Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlbæk, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    the spectral analysis of the Fröhlich polaron model to an equivalent problem in terms of a family of generalized Friedrichs models. This is possible by employ- ing a combination of the Birman-Schwinger principle and the Haynsworth inertia additivity formula. The number of discrete eigenvalues of a general...... is on obtaining a framework which unifies and generalizes frameworks that have appeared previously in the literature. The end result is a calculus for creation/annihilation symbols, where Wick’s theorem provides a formula for the product of finitely many symbols. The framework is then applied to the Fröhlich...... polaron model. The framework is also applied to the spin boson model. The application to the spin boson model is based on the spectral renormalization group. It is shown that the spectral renormalization group scheme can be natu- rally posed as an iterated Grushin problem. While it is already known...

  12. Spectral theory and nonlinear functional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Gomez, Julian

    2001-01-01

    This Research Note addresses several pivotal problems in spectral theory and nonlinear functional analysis in connection with the analysis of the structure of the set of zeroes of a general class of nonlinear operators. It features the construction of an optimal algebraic/analytic invariant for calculating the Leray-Schauder degree, new methods for solving nonlinear equations in Banach spaces, and general properties of components of solutions sets presented with minimal use of topological tools. The author also gives several applications of the abstract theory to reaction diffusion equations and systems.The results presented cover a thirty-year period and include recent, unpublished findings of the author and his coworkers. Appealing to a broad audience, Spectral Theory and Nonlinear Functional Analysis contains many important contributions to linear algebra, linear and nonlinear functional analysis, and topology and opens the door for further advances.

  13. Assessing signal-driven mechanism in neonates: brain responses to temporally and spectrally different sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyo eMinagawa-Kawai

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Past studies have found that in adults that acoustic properties of sound signals (such as fast vs. slow temporal features differentially activate the left and right hemispheres, and some have hypothesized that left-lateralization for speech processing may follow from left-lateralization to rapidly changing signals. Here, we tested whether newborns’ brains show some evidence of signal-specific lateralization responses using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS and auditory stimuli that elicits lateralized responses in adults, composed of segments that vary in duration and spectral diversity. We found significantly greater bilateral responses of oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb in the temporal areas for stimuli with a minimum segment duration of 21 ms, than stimuli with a minimum segment duration of 667 ms. However, we found no evidence for hemispheric asymmetries dependent on the stimulus characteristics. We hypothesize that acoustic-based functional brain asymmetries may develop throughout early infancy, and discuss their possible relationship with brain asymmetries for language.

  14. Sound

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2003-01-01

    Muddled about what makes music? Stuck on the study of harmonics? Dumbfounded by how sound gets around? Now you no longer have to struggle to teach concepts you really don t grasp yourself. Sound takes an intentionally light touch to help out all those adults science teachers, parents wanting to help with homework, home-schoolers seeking necessary scientific background to teach middle school physics with confidence. The book introduces sound waves and uses that model to explain sound-related occurrences. Starting with the basics of what causes sound and how it travels, you'll learn how musical instruments work, how sound waves add and subtract, how the human ear works, and even why you can sound like a Munchkin when you inhale helium. Sound is the fourth book in the award-winning Stop Faking It! Series, published by NSTA Press. Like the other popular volumes, it is written by irreverent educator Bill Robertson, who offers this Sound recommendation: One of the coolest activities is whacking a spinning metal rod...

  15. Encoding of natural sounds at multiple spectral and temporal resolutions in the human auditory cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santoro, Roberta; Moerel, Michelle; De Martino, Federico; Goebel, R.; Ugurbil, Kamil; Yacoub, Essa; Formisano, Elia

    Functional neuroimaging research provides detailed observations of the response patterns that natural sounds (e.g. human voices and speech, animal cries, environmental sounds) evoke in the human brain. The computational and representational mechanisms underlying these observations, however, remain

  16. Sound

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Sound has the power to soothe, excite, warn, protect, and inform. Indeed, the transmission and reception of audio signals pervade our daily lives. Readers will examine the mechanics and properties of sound and provides an overview of the "interdisciplinary science called acoustics." Also covered are functions and diseases of the human ear.

  17. Analysis of simulated engine sounds using a psychoacoustic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvigneau, Fabian; Liefold, Steffen; Höchstetter, Marius; Verhey, Jesko L.; Gabbert, Ulrich

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the paper is the evaluation and the prediction of the perceived quality of engine sounds, which is predicted in the design process by numerical simulations. Periodic combustion sounds of the operating engine are synthesized with the help of an overall numerical simulation approach before a real prototype exists. The perceived quality of the sound is rated in hearing tests using the method of relative comparison and absolute judgment. Results are transferred into an interval scaled ranking of the stimuli. Based on the data, a psychoacoustic model for sound quality is developed using psychoacoustic parameters. Predictions of this model are used to evaluate the sound quality of several technical design modifications, for example, different engine encapsulations. The results are visualized to allow a simple qualitative analysis of the sound perception. This results in an impartial and objective decision regarding the final design of an acoustic encapsulation with a higher perceived sound quality.

  18. A modeling cross-spectral analysis technique based on the Prony Spectral Line Estimator (PSLE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breit, G A; Intaglietta, M

    1994-03-01

    The Cross-Prony Spectral Line Estimator (XPSLE) is proposed for spectral comparison of short data records. Basic theory is discussed. The XPSLE method is tested on pairs of synthetic data records and is shown to be sensitive to disparity of spectral content. Application to analysis of arteriolar vasomotion is discussed.

  19. A New Principle of Sound Frequency Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorsen, Theodore

    1932-01-01

    In connection with the study of aircraft and propeller noises, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics has developed an instrument for sound-frequency analysis which differs fundamentally from previous types, and which, owing to its simplicity of principle, construction, and operation, has proved to be of value in this investigation. The method is based on the well-known fact that the Ohmic loss in an electrical resistance is equal to the sum of the losses of the harmonic components of a complex wave, except for the case in which any two components approach or attain vectorial identity, in which case the Ohmic loss is increased by a definite amount. The principle of frequency analysis has been presented mathematically and a number of distinct advantages relative to previous methods have been pointed out. An automatic recording instrument embodying this principle is described in detail. It employs a beat-frequency oscillator as a source of variable frequency. A large number of experiments have verified the predicted superiority of the method. A number of representative records are presented.

  20. Estimating the diffuseness of sound fields: A wavenumber analysis method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nolan, Melanie; Davy, John L.; Brunskog, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    The concept of a diffuse sound field is widely used in the analysis of sound in enclosures. The diffuse sound field is generally described as composed of plane waves with random phases, which wave number vectors are uniformly distributed over all angles of incidence. In this study...... investigates how the results relate to the modal theory of room acoustics, based on the conception that any mode, also in non-rectangular rooms, can be expanded into a number of propagating waves....

  1. A nonorthogonal spectral analysis of time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anufriev, A.; Bchvarov, I.

    A method of nonorthogonal spectral analysis of time series (applicable in the study of geomagnetism) is developed which can be used to find the true period and to exclude the incorrect maxima which occur in Fourier analysis. The method is based on the reversal of a matrix which connects the oscillation amplitudes with the Fourier images, and the spectrum is determined by a numerical iteration technique. The correctness of the solution is tested by amplitude annulment at frequencies which are absent from the spectrum.

  2. [Analysis of typical mangrove spectral reflectance characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiang; Zhang, Feng-Shou; Liu, Qing; Li, De-Yi; Zhao, Dong-Zhi

    2013-02-01

    Acquisition of mangrove spectrum properties and detecting the sensitive bands provide technology basis for inverse modeling and estimation by remote sensing for various indexes of mangrove. The typical mangroves of Guangxi Shankou Mangrove Reserve were taken for study objects, the standard spectrum curves of Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (Linn.) Savigny, Rhizophora stylosa, Kandelia candel, Avicennia marina, Aegiceras corniculatum, Spartina anglica and mudflat were gained by denoising analysis of field-measured spectrum curves acquired by ASD FieldSpec 2. Analyzing the spectral characteristics and their differences, the authors found that the spectrum curves for various kinds of mangrove are coincident, the bands that appeared with reflection peaks and reflection valleys are basically identical, the within-class differentiated characteristics are comparatively small, the spectrum characteristics of mangroves are obviously different with Spartina anglica and mudflat. In order to gain the quantitative description for within-class differentiated characteristics of mangrove, space distance method, correlation coefficient method and spectral angle mapping method were used to calculate the within-class differentiated characteristics. The division accuracy of correlation coefficient method is higher than spectral angle mapping method which is higher than space distance method, and the result indicates that the spectrum differences of within-class mangrove and Spartina anglica are relatively small with correlation coefficients more than 0.995, and spectrum curve angle cosine values more than 0.95.

  3. Multitaper spectral analysis of atmospheric radar signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Anandan

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Multitaper spectral analysis using sinusoidal taper has been carried out on the backscattered signals received from the troposphere and lower stratosphere by the Gadanki Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere (MST radar under various conditions of the signal-to-noise ratio. Comparison of study is made with sinusoidal taper of the order of three and single tapers of Hanning and rectangular tapers, to understand the relative merits of processing under the scheme. Power spectra plots show that echoes are better identified in the case of multitaper estimation, especially in the region of a weak signal-to-noise ratio. Further analysis is carried out to obtain three lower order moments from three estimation techniques. The results show that multitaper analysis gives a better signal-to-noise ratio or higher detectability. The spectral analysis through multitaper and single tapers is subjected to study of consistency in measurements. Results show that the multitaper estimate is better consistent in Doppler measurements compared to single taper estimates. Doppler width measurements with different approaches were studied and the results show that the estimation was better in the multitaper technique in terms of temporal resolution and estimation accuracy.

  4. Spectral phasor analysis allows rapid and reliable unmixing of fluorescence microscopy spectral images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fereidouni, F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/372641431; Bader, A.N.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/291137334; Gerritsen, H.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071548777

    2012-01-01

    A new global analysis algorithm to analyse (hyper-) spectral images is presented. It is based on the phasor representation that has been demonstrated to be very powerful for the analysis of lifetime imaging data. In spectral phasor analysis the fluorescence spectrum of each pixel in the image is

  5. Full-Band Quasi-Harmonic Analysis and Synthesis of Musical Instrument Sounds with Adaptive Sinusoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Caetano

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sinusoids are widely used to represent the oscillatory modes of musical instrument sounds in both analysis and synthesis. However, musical instrument sounds feature transients and instrumental noise that are poorly modeled with quasi-stationary sinusoids, requiring spectral decomposition and further dedicated modeling. In this work, we propose a full-band representation that fits sinusoids across the entire spectrum. We use the extended adaptive Quasi-Harmonic Model (eaQHM to iteratively estimate amplitude- and frequency-modulated (AM–FM sinusoids able to capture challenging features such as sharp attacks, transients, and instrumental noise. We use the signal-to-reconstruction-error ratio (SRER as the objective measure for the analysis and synthesis of 89 musical instrument sounds from different instrumental families. We compare against quasi-stationary sinusoids and exponentially damped sinusoids. First, we show that the SRER increases with adaptation in eaQHM. Then, we show that full-band modeling with eaQHM captures partials at the higher frequency end of the spectrum that are neglected by spectral decomposition. Finally, we demonstrate that a frame size equal to three periods of the fundamental frequency results in the highest SRER with AM–FM sinusoids from eaQHM. A listening test confirmed that the musical instrument sounds resynthesized from full-band analysis with eaQHM are virtually perceptually indistinguishable from the original recordings.

  6. Real-Time Sound Source Localization for a Mobile Robot Based on the Guided Spectral-Temporal Position Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofei Li

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sound source localization based on a microphone array for mobile robots faces great challenges because of factors such as uncertainty of the robot's movement, noise and reverberation, the requirements of a compact microphone array and so on. This paper studies a method for sound source localization in a dynamic environment using a cross-microphone array plane, which consists of four microphones on an intelligent mobile robot platform. Firstly, the method of spectral subtraction and campestral mean normalization is introduced to de-noise. Then GCC-PHAT-ργ and the guided spectral-temporal (ST position method are proposed to suppress noise and reverberation based on the generalized cross-correlation method to estimate time delay. Finally, the sound source is positioned by adopting the geometric location method. This system is tested by a total of 2,016 sets of experiments. Even in an intensely noisy and reverberating environment, the guided ST position method achieves angle positioning accuracy of more than 95% with a less than 15 degrees localization error. Meanwhile, all the experimental data can be processed in real-time, within 0.4s.

  7. Musical ability and non-native speech-sound processing are linked through sensitivity to pitch and spectral information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempe, Vera; Bublitz, Dennis; Brooks, Patricia J

    2015-05-01

    Is the observed link between musical ability and non-native speech-sound processing due to enhanced sensitivity to acoustic features underlying both musical and linguistic processing? To address this question, native English speakers (N = 118) discriminated Norwegian tonal contrasts and Norwegian vowels. Short tones differing in temporal, pitch, and spectral characteristics were used to measure sensitivity to the various acoustic features implicated in musical and speech processing. Musical ability was measured using Gordon's Advanced Measures of Musical Audiation. Results showed that sensitivity to specific acoustic features played a role in non-native speech-sound processing: Controlling for non-verbal intelligence, prior foreign language-learning experience, and sex, sensitivity to pitch and spectral information partially mediated the link between musical ability and discrimination of non-native vowels and lexical tones. The findings suggest that while sensitivity to certain acoustic features partially mediates the relationship between musical ability and non-native speech-sound processing, complex tests of musical ability also tap into other shared mechanisms. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  8. Spectrogram analysis of animal sound production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elemans, C.P.H.; Heeck, K.; Muller, M.

    2008-01-01

    Spectrograms visualise the time-frequency content of a signal. They are commonly used to analyse animal vocalisations. Here, we analyse how far we can deduce the mechanical origin of sound generation and modulation from the spectrogram. We investigate the relationship between simple mathematical

  9. A Loudness Function for Maintaining Spectral Balance at Changing Sound Pressure Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal

    :00 Open Air Venue) At the 3rd AES International Conference on Sound Reinforcement - Open Air Venue 30th August - 2nd September 2017 in Struer Denmark Different music examples equalized and mixed at a specific mixing level e.g. 85 dBA will be played at different listening levels (75 – 105 d......Our perception of loudness is a function of frequency as well as sound pressure level as described in ISO226:2003: Normal Equal Loudness Level Contours, which describes the needed sound pressure level for pure tones to be perceived equally loud. At a music performance, this is taking care...

  10. Structural Vibration Monitoring Using Cumulative Spectral Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Goto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a resonance decay estimation for structural health monitoring in the presence of nonstationary vibrations. In structural health monitoring, the structure's frequency response and resonant decay characteristics are very important for understanding how the structure changes. Cumulative spectral analysis (CSA estimates the frequency decay by using the impulse response. However, measuring the impulse response of buildings is impractical due to the need to shake the building itself. In a previous study, we reported on system damping monitoring using cumulative harmonic analysis (CHA, which is based on CSA. The current study describes scale model experiments on estimating the hidden resonance decay under non-stationary noise conditions by using CSA for structural condition monitoring.

  11. Spectral Analysis Methods of Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Klyucharev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Online social networks (such as Facebook, Twitter, VKontakte, etc. being an important channel for disseminating information are often used to arrange an impact on the social consciousness for various purposes - from advertising products or services to the full-scale information war thereby making them to be a very relevant object of research. The paper reviewed the analysis methods of social networks (primarily, online, based on the spectral theory of graphs. Such methods use the spectrum of the social graph, i.e. a set of eigenvalues of its adjacency matrix, and also the eigenvectors of the adjacency matrix.Described measures of centrality (in particular, centrality based on the eigenvector and PageRank, which reflect a degree of impact one or another user of the social network has. A very popular PageRank measure uses, as a measure of centrality, the graph vertices, the final probabilities of the Markov chain, whose matrix of transition probabilities is calculated on the basis of the adjacency matrix of the social graph. The vector of final probabilities is an eigenvector of the matrix of transition probabilities.Presented a method of dividing the graph vertices into two groups. It is based on maximizing the network modularity by computing the eigenvector of the modularity matrix.Considered a method for detecting bots based on the non-randomness measure of a graph to be computed using the spectral coordinates of vertices - sets of eigenvector components of the adjacency matrix of a social graph.In general, there are a number of algorithms to analyse social networks based on the spectral theory of graphs. These algorithms show very good results, but their disadvantage is the relatively high (albeit polynomial computational complexity for large graphs.At the same time it is obvious that the practical application capacity of the spectral graph theory methods is still underestimated, and it may be used as a basis to develop new methods.The work

  12. Atmospheric effects on microphone array analysis of aircraft vortex sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-08

    This paper provides the basis of a comprehensive analysis of vortex sound propagation : through the atmosphere in order to assess real atmospheric effects on acoustic array : processing. Such effects may impact vortex localization accuracy and detect...

  13. Automatic adventitious respiratory sound analysis: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, Renard Xaviero Adhi; Bowyer, Stuart; Rodriguez-Villegas, Esther

    2017-01-01

    Automatic detection or classification of adventitious sounds is useful to assist physicians in diagnosing or monitoring diseases such as asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), and pneumonia. While computerised respiratory sound analysis, specifically for the detection or classification of adventitious sounds, has recently been the focus of an increasing number of studies, a standardised approach and comparison has not been well established. To provide a review of existing algorithms for the detection or classification of adventitious respiratory sounds. This systematic review provides a complete summary of methods used in the literature to give a baseline for future works. A systematic review of English articles published between 1938 and 2016, searched using the Scopus (1938-2016) and IEEExplore (1984-2016) databases. Additional articles were further obtained by references listed in the articles found. Search terms included adventitious sound detection, adventitious sound classification, abnormal respiratory sound detection, abnormal respiratory sound classification, wheeze detection, wheeze classification, crackle detection, crackle classification, rhonchi detection, rhonchi classification, stridor detection, stridor classification, pleural rub detection, pleural rub classification, squawk detection, and squawk classification. Only articles were included that focused on adventitious sound detection or classification, based on respiratory sounds, with performance reported and sufficient information provided to be approximately repeated. Investigators extracted data about the adventitious sound type analysed, approach and level of analysis, instrumentation or data source, location of sensor, amount of data obtained, data management, features, methods, and performance achieved. A total of 77 reports from the literature were included in this review. 55 (71.43%) of the studies focused on wheeze, 40 (51.95%) on crackle, 9 (11.69%) on stridor, 9 (11

  14. Cross-spectral and temporal factors in the precedence effect: discrimination suppression of the lag sound in free-field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X; Grantham, D W

    1997-11-01

    In an anechoic chamber, subjects were required to discriminate a 20 degrees azimuthal change in a lag sound's position in the presence of a lead sound coming from a different direction. Delay between lead and lag sounds was adaptively varied in several conditions to track discrimination suppression thresholds. In experiment 1, lead and lag stimuli were 5-ms, 1-octave, A-weighted noise bursts (65 dB), with lead and lag parametrically set to center frequencies of 0.5, 2.0, or 3.0 kHz. Discrimination suppression thresholds were higher when lead and lag center frequencies coincided (mean: 11.3 ms) than when they did not coincide (mean: 2.9 ms). These results support the "spectral overlap hypothesis" of Blauert and Divenyi [Acustica 66, 267-274 (1988)], but not the "localization strength hypothesis" later proposed by Divenyi [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 91, 1078-1084 (1992)]. Spectral overlap and localization strength appear to be two relatively independent factors governing discrimination suppression. It is proposed here that localization strength is weighted more when stimuli are presented via headphones and the only cue to lateral position is the interaural temporal difference, while spectral overlap is weighted more for free-field presented stimuli. In experiment 2, lead and lag stimuli were 8-ms, 1.5-kHz A-weighted tone bursts (65 dB), with lead and lag rise times parametrically set to 0, 2, or 4 ms. In this case the amount of discrimination suppression increased as lead rise time became more abrupt or as lag rise time became more gradual. These results support the localization strength hypothesis: The greater the localization strength of the lead stimulus (independently assessed by measuring its minimum audible angle in isolation), the greater suppression it exerted on discriminability of the lag sound's position. It appears that for stimuli presented in the free-field, spectral overlap is the primary factor affecting discrimination suppression, but when overlap is held

  15. Technical Note: Evolution, current capabilities, and future advance in satellite nadir viewing ultra-spectral IR sounding of the lower atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. L. Smith Sr.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Infrared ultra-spectral spectrometers have brought in a new era in satellite remote atmospheric sounding capability. During the 1970s, after the implementation of the first satellite sounding instruments, it became evident that much higher vertical resolution sounding information was needed to be able to forecast life and property threatening localized severe weather. The demonstration of the ultra-spectral radiance measurement technology required to achieve higher vertical resolution began in 1985, with the aircraft flights of the High resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS instrument. The development of satellite instruments designed to have a HIS-like measurement capability was initiated in the late 1980's. Today, after more than a decade of development time, the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI are now operating successfully from the Aqua and MetOp polar orbiting satellites. The successful development and ground demonstration of the Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS, during this decade, is now paving the way toward the implementation of the ultra-spectral sounding capability on the international system of geostationary environmental satellites. This note reviews the evolution of the satellite ultra-spectral sounding systems, shows examples of current polar satellite sounding capability, and discusses future advances planned for geostationary orbit.

  16. Spectral analysis and filter theory in applied geophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Buttkus, Burkhard

    2000-01-01

    This book is intended to be an introduction to the fundamentals and methods of spectral analysis and filter theory and their appli­ cations in geophysics. The principles and theoretical basis of the various methods are described, their efficiency and effectiveness eval­ uated, and instructions provided for their practical application. Be­ sides the conventional methods, newer methods arediscussed, such as the spectral analysis ofrandom processes by fitting models to the ob­ served data, maximum-entropy spectral analysis and maximum-like­ lihood spectral analysis, the Wiener and Kalman filtering methods, homomorphic deconvolution, and adaptive methods for nonstation­ ary processes. Multidimensional spectral analysis and filtering, as well as multichannel filters, are given extensive treatment. The book provides a survey of the state-of-the-art of spectral analysis and fil­ ter theory. The importance and possibilities ofspectral analysis and filter theory in geophysics for data acquisition, processing an...

  17. Software development for the analysis of heartbeat sounds with LabVIEW in diagnosis of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topal, Taner; Polat, Hüseyin; Güler, Inan

    2008-10-01

    In this paper, a time-frequency spectral analysis software (Heart Sound Analyzer) for the computer-aided analysis of cardiac sounds has been developed with LabVIEW. Software modules reveal important information for cardiovascular disorders, it can also assist to general physicians to come up with more accurate and reliable diagnosis at early stages. Heart sound analyzer (HSA) software can overcome the deficiency of expert doctors and help them in rural as well as urban clinics and hospitals. HSA has two main blocks: data acquisition and preprocessing, time-frequency spectral analyses. The heart sounds are first acquired using a modified stethoscope which has an electret microphone in it. Then, the signals are analysed using the time-frequency/scale spectral analysis techniques such as STFT, Wigner-Ville distribution and wavelet transforms. HSA modules have been tested with real heart sounds from 35 volunteers and proved to be quite efficient and robust while dealing with a large variety of pathological conditions.

  18. The influence of fundamental frequency on perceived duration in spectrally comparable sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin Dawson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The perceived duration of a sound is affected by its fundamental frequency and intensity: higher sounds are judged to be longer, as are sounds with greater intensity. Since increasing intensity lengthens the perceived duration of the auditory object, and increasing the fundamental frequency increases the sound’s perceived loudness (up to ca. 3 kHz, frequency modulation of duration could be potentially explained by a confounding effect where the primary cause of the modulation would be variations in intensity. Here, a series of experiments are described that were designed to disentangle the contributions of fundamental frequency, intensity, and duration to perceived loudness and duration. In two forced-choice tasks, participants judged duration and intensity differences between two sounds varying simultaneously in intensity, fundamental frequency, fundamental frequency gliding range, and duration. The results suggest that fundamental frequency and intensity each have an impact on duration judgments, while frequency gliding range did not influence the present results. We also demonstrate that the modulation of perceived duration by sound fundamental frequency cannot be fully explained by the confounding relationship between frequency and intensity.

  19. Analysis of respiratory sounds: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Sandra; Gass, Raymond; Brandt, Christian; Andrès, Emmanuel

    2008-05-16

    This paper describes state of the art, scientific publications and ongoing research related to the methods of analysis of respiratory sounds. Review of the current medical and technological literature using Pubmed and personal experience. The study includes a description of the various techniques that are being used to collect auscultation sounds, a physical description of known pathologic sounds for which automatic detection tools were developed. Modern tools are based on artificial intelligence and on technics such as artificial neural networks, fuzzy systems, and genetic algorithms… The next step will consist in finding new markers so as to increase the efficiency of decision aid algorithms and tools.

  20. Digital spectral analysis parametric, non-parametric and advanced methods

    CERN Document Server

    Castanié, Francis

    2013-01-01

    Digital Spectral Analysis provides a single source that offers complete coverage of the spectral analysis domain. This self-contained work includes details on advanced topics that are usually presented in scattered sources throughout the literature.The theoretical principles necessary for the understanding of spectral analysis are discussed in the first four chapters: fundamentals, digital signal processing, estimation in spectral analysis, and time-series models.An entire chapter is devoted to the non-parametric methods most widely used in industry.High resolution methods a

  1. Spectral analysis of individual realization LDA data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tummers, M.J.; Passchier, D.M.

    1998-01-01

    The estimation of the autocorrelation function (act) or the spectral density function (sdt) from LDA data poses unique data-processing problems. The random sampling times in LDA preclude the use of the spectral methods for equi-spaced samples. As a consequence, special data-processing algorithms are

  2. Intelligent Systems Approaches to Product Sound Quality Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietila, Glenn M.

    As a product market becomes more competitive, consumers become more discriminating in the way in which they differentiate between engineered products. The consumer often makes a purchasing decision based on the sound emitted from the product during operation by using the sound to judge quality or annoyance. Therefore, in recent years, many sound quality analysis tools have been developed to evaluate the consumer preference as it relates to a product sound and to quantify this preference based on objective measurements. This understanding can be used to direct a product design process in order to help differentiate the product from competitive products or to establish an impression on consumers regarding a product's quality or robustness. The sound quality process is typically a statistical tool that is used to model subjective preference, or merit score, based on objective measurements, or metrics. In this way, new product developments can be evaluated in an objective manner without the laborious process of gathering a sample population of consumers for subjective studies each time. The most common model used today is the Multiple Linear Regression (MLR), although recently non-linear Artificial Neural Network (ANN) approaches are gaining popularity. This dissertation will review publicly available published literature and present additional intelligent systems approaches that can be used to improve on the current sound quality process. The focus of this work is to address shortcomings in the current paired comparison approach to sound quality analysis. This research will propose a framework for an adaptive jury analysis approach as an alternative to the current Bradley-Terry model. The adaptive jury framework uses statistical hypothesis testing to focus on sound pairings that are most interesting and is expected to address some of the restrictions required by the Bradley-Terry model. It will also provide a more amicable framework for an intelligent systems approach

  3. Practical Models of Extinction for Spectral Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Randall

    2013-09-01

    Spectral extinction includes both the effects of absorption and scattering, but while multiple absorption models exist, no useful scattering model exists in standard spectral tools. Nonetheless X-ray halos, created by scattering from dust grains, are detected around even moderately absorbed sources and their impact on an observed source spectrum can be equivalent to direct absorption. By convolving the scattering cross section with dust models we will create a spectral model as a function of energy, type of dust, and extraction region that can be used with models of direct absorption (e.g. XSPEC s phabs ). This will ensure the extinction model is consistant and enable direct connections between a source s X-ray spectral fits and its UV/optical extinction.

  4. Spectral analysis of ground magnetic data in Magadi area, Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A ground magnetic survey was conducted to investigate geothermal potential of the area and a magnetic anomaly contour map prepared. Spectral analysis involving determining power spectrum was applied to magnetic data along selected profiles cutting through discerned anomalies. Spectral analysis results suggest that ...

  5. Spectral signature verification using statistical analysis and text mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCoster, Mallory E.; Firpi, Alexe H.; Jacobs, Samantha K.; Cone, Shelli R.; Tzeng, Nigel H.; Rodriguez, Benjamin M.

    2016-05-01

    In the spectral science community, numerous spectral signatures are stored in databases representative of many sample materials collected from a variety of spectrometers and spectroscopists. Due to the variety and variability of the spectra that comprise many spectral databases, it is necessary to establish a metric for validating the quality of spectral signatures. This has been an area of great discussion and debate in the spectral science community. This paper discusses a method that independently validates two different aspects of a spectral signature to arrive at a final qualitative assessment; the textual meta-data and numerical spectral data. Results associated with the spectral data stored in the Signature Database1 (SigDB) are proposed. The numerical data comprising a sample material's spectrum is validated based on statistical properties derived from an ideal population set. The quality of the test spectrum is ranked based on a spectral angle mapper (SAM) comparison to the mean spectrum derived from the population set. Additionally, the contextual data of a test spectrum is qualitatively analyzed using lexical analysis text mining. This technique analyzes to understand the syntax of the meta-data to provide local learning patterns and trends within the spectral data, indicative of the test spectrum's quality. Text mining applications have successfully been implemented for security2 (text encryption/decryption), biomedical3 , and marketing4 applications. The text mining lexical analysis algorithm is trained on the meta-data patterns of a subset of high and low quality spectra, in order to have a model to apply to the entire SigDB data set. The statistical and textual methods combine to assess the quality of a test spectrum existing in a database without the need of an expert user. This method has been compared to other validation methods accepted by the spectral science community, and has provided promising results when a baseline spectral signature is

  6. A turbulence spectral model for sound propagation in the atmosphere that incorporates shear and buoyancy forcings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson

    2000-11-01

    A three-dimensional model for turbulent velocity fluctuations in the atmospheric boundary layer is developed and used to calculate scattering of sound. The model, which is based on von Karman's spectrum, incorporates separate contributions from shear- and buoyancy-forced turbulence. New equations are derived from the model that predict the strength and diffraction parameters for scattering of sound as a function of height from the ground and atmospheric conditions. The need is demonstrated for retaining two distinct scattering length scales, one associated with scattering strength and the other with diffraction. These length scales are height dependent and vary substantially with the relative proportions of shear and buoyancy forcing. The turbulence model predicts that for forward-scattered waves the phase variance is much larger than the log-amplitude variance, a behavior borne out by experimental data. A new method for synthesizing random fields, based on empirical orthogonal functions, is developed to accommodate the height dependence of the turbulence model. The method is applied to numerical calculations of scattering into an acoustic shadow zone, yielding good agreement with previous measurements.

  7. Automatic adventitious respiratory sound analysis: A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renard Xaviero Adhi Pramono

    Full Text Available Automatic detection or classification of adventitious sounds is useful to assist physicians in diagnosing or monitoring diseases such as asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD, and pneumonia. While computerised respiratory sound analysis, specifically for the detection or classification of adventitious sounds, has recently been the focus of an increasing number of studies, a standardised approach and comparison has not been well established.To provide a review of existing algorithms for the detection or classification of adventitious respiratory sounds. This systematic review provides a complete summary of methods used in the literature to give a baseline for future works.A systematic review of English articles published between 1938 and 2016, searched using the Scopus (1938-2016 and IEEExplore (1984-2016 databases. Additional articles were further obtained by references listed in the articles found. Search terms included adventitious sound detection, adventitious sound classification, abnormal respiratory sound detection, abnormal respiratory sound classification, wheeze detection, wheeze classification, crackle detection, crackle classification, rhonchi detection, rhonchi classification, stridor detection, stridor classification, pleural rub detection, pleural rub classification, squawk detection, and squawk classification.Only articles were included that focused on adventitious sound detection or classification, based on respiratory sounds, with performance reported and sufficient information provided to be approximately repeated.Investigators extracted data about the adventitious sound type analysed, approach and level of analysis, instrumentation or data source, location of sensor, amount of data obtained, data management, features, methods, and performance achieved.A total of 77 reports from the literature were included in this review. 55 (71.43% of the studies focused on wheeze, 40 (51.95% on crackle, 9 (11.69% on stridor, 9

  8. Analysis of a developed analog trilateration system of impulsive sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    López R., Juan Manuel; Marulanda B., Jose Ignacio

    2014-05-01

    A characterization study is made from a trilateration system for impulsive sounds, in which theoretical analysis and experimental results are presented. This system uses an analog trilateration method, avoiding to implement high frequency ADC conversion elements. It also presents the optimization of the chosen array of microphones, thus allowing for a better trilateration algorithm behavior.

  9. Analysis of the drilling sound in maxillo-facial surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Pablo F.; Gosselin, Florian; Taha, Farid

    2009-01-01

    Auditory feedback can have a great potential in surgical simulators that aim at training skills associated to the correct interpretation of acoustic information. Here, we present a preliminary analysis of the sound that is produced by the drilling procedure in a maxillo-facial surgery when...... performed by expert surgeons. The motivation of this work is to find relevant acoustic parameters that allow for an efficient synthesis method of the drilling sound and to set the basis of the audio component in the simulator so that expert surgical drilling can effectively be conveyed to users...

  10. Aeroacoustics. [analysis of properties of sound generated by aerodynamic forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, M., E.

    1974-01-01

    An analysis was conducted to determine the properties of sound generated by aerodynamic forces or motions originating in a flow, such as the unsteady aerodynamic forces on propellers or by turbulent flows around an aircraft. The acoustics of moving media are reviewed and mathematical models are developed. Lighthill's acoustic analogy and the application to turbulent flows are analyzed. The effects of solid boundaries are calculated. Theories based on the solution of linearized vorticity and acoustic field equations are explained. The effects of nonuniform mean flow on the generation of sound are reported.

  11. Spectral Analysis of Rich Network Topology in Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Leting

    2013-01-01

    Social networks have received much attention these days. Researchers have developed different methods to study the structure and characteristics of the network topology. Our focus is on spectral analysis of the adjacency matrix of the underlying network. Recent work showed good properties in the adjacency spectral space but there are few…

  12. Angular Spectral Analysis and Lowpass Filtering of Aeromagnetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total-field aeromagnetic data over the western half of the Bornu basin and its surrounding areas were analyzed using angular spectral analysis, upward continuation and lowpass filtering techniques. Results revealed several angular spectral peaks at various angular orientations. The angular orientations correlated with the ...

  13. Detection and analysis of the stored grain insect creeping sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Senlin; Zhang, Xiuqin; Zhao, Wei

    2017-09-01

    With the random acoustic source model as the theory model of the stored grain insects creeping, the sounds, of 20 Alphitobius diaperinus Panzer in wheat and 20 Tribolium castaneum Herbst adults in corn, are detected, respectively. By using Matlab, the original sound signals are reproduced and the de-noised signals are obtained. The power spectrums characteristics analysis are made. It is shown that the random acoustic source model is effective for the stored grain insect creeping sound detection, and their power spectrums are all discrete, where the highest frequency is 1600 Hz, the main frequency 205 Hz in the former, and the highest frequency is 800 Hz, the main frequency 350 Hz the latter, which may be used to distinguish different types insects in grain.

  14. Theoretical analysis of sound transmission loss through graphene sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natsuki, Toshiaki, E-mail: natsuki@shinshu-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Textile Science and Technology, Shinshu University, 3-15-1 Tokida, Ueda 386-8567 (Japan); Institute of Carbon Science and Technology, Shinshu University, 4-17-1 Wakasato, Nagano 380-8553 (Japan); Ni, Qing-Qing [Faculty of Textile Science and Technology, Shinshu University, 3-15-1 Tokida, Ueda 386-8567 (Japan)

    2014-11-17

    We examine the potential of using graphene sheets (GSs) as sound insulating materials that can be used for nano-devices because of their small size, super electronic, and mechanical properties. In this study, a theoretical analysis is proposed to predict the sound transmission loss through multi-layered GSs, which are formed by stacks of GS and bound together by van der Waals (vdW) forces between individual layers. The result shows that the resonant frequencies of the sound transmission loss occur in the multi-layered GSs and the values are very high. Based on the present analytical solution, we predict the acoustic insulation property for various layers of sheets under both normal incident wave and acoustic field of random incidence source. The scheme could be useful in vibration absorption application of nano devices and materials.

  15. Analysis of Respiratory Sounds: State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Reichert

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective This paper describes state of the art, scientific publications and ongoing research related to the methods of analysis of respiratory sounds. Methods and material Review of the current medical and technological literature using Pubmed and personal experience. Results The study includes a description of the various techniques that are being used to collect auscultation sounds, a physical description of known pathologic sounds for which automatic detection tools were developed. Modern tools are based on artificial intelligence and on technics such as artificial neural networks, fuzzy systems, and genetic algorithms… Conclusion The next step will consist in finding new markers so as to increase the efficiency of decision aid algorithms and tools.

  16. Questionable sound exposure outside of the womb: frequency analysis of environmental noise in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahav, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Recent research raises concerns about the adverse effects of noise exposure on the developing preterm infant. However, current guidelines for NICU noise remain focused on loudness levels, leaving the problem of exposure to potentially harmful sound frequencies largely overlooked. This study examined the frequency spectra present in a level-II NICU. Noise measurements were taken in two level-II open-bay nurseries. Measurements were taken over 5 days for a period of 24 h each. Spectral analysis was focused on comparing sound frequencies in the range of human speech during daytime (7 AM-7 PM) vs. night-time (7 PM-7 AM). On average, daytime noise levels (Leq = 60.05 dBA) were higher than night-time (Leq = 58.67 dBA). Spectral analysis of frequency bands (>50 dB) revealed that infants were exposed to frequencies 500 Hz 57% of the time. During daytime, infants were exposed to nearly 20% more sounds within the speech frequency range compared with night-time (p = 0.018). Measuring the frequency spectra of NICU sounds is necessary to attain a thorough understanding of both the noise levels and the type of sounds that preterm infants are exposed to throughout their hospital stay. The risk of high-frequency noise exposure in the preterm population is still unclear and warrants further investigation. © 2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Nonlinear physical systems spectral analysis, stability and bifurcations

    CERN Document Server

    Kirillov, Oleg N

    2013-01-01

    Bringing together 18 chapters written by leading experts in dynamical systems, operator theory, partial differential equations, and solid and fluid mechanics, this book presents state-of-the-art approaches to a wide spectrum of new and challenging stability problems.Nonlinear Physical Systems: Spectral Analysis, Stability and Bifurcations focuses on problems of spectral analysis, stability and bifurcations arising in the nonlinear partial differential equations of modern physics. Bifurcations and stability of solitary waves, geometrical optics stability analysis in hydro- and magnetohydrodynam

  18. SpectralNET – an application for spectral graph analysis and visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schreiber Stuart L

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Graph theory provides a computational framework for modeling a variety of datasets including those emerging from genomics, proteomics, and chemical genetics. Networks of genes, proteins, small molecules, or other objects of study can be represented as graphs of nodes (vertices and interactions (edges that can carry different weights. SpectralNET is a flexible application for analyzing and visualizing these biological and chemical networks. Results Available both as a standalone .NET executable and as an ASP.NET web application, SpectralNET was designed specifically with the analysis of graph-theoretic metrics in mind, a computational task not easily accessible using currently available applications. Users can choose either to upload a network for analysis using a variety of input formats, or to have SpectralNET generate an idealized random network for comparison to a real-world dataset. Whichever graph-generation method is used, SpectralNET displays detailed information about each connected component of the graph, including graphs of degree distribution, clustering coefficient by degree, and average distance by degree. In addition, extensive information about the selected vertex is shown, including degree, clustering coefficient, various distance metrics, and the corresponding components of the adjacency, Laplacian, and normalized Laplacian eigenvectors. SpectralNET also displays several graph visualizations, including a linear dimensionality reduction for uploaded datasets (Principal Components Analysis and a non-linear dimensionality reduction that provides an elegant view of global graph structure (Laplacian eigenvectors. Conclusion SpectralNET provides an easily accessible means of analyzing graph-theoretic metrics for data modeling and dimensionality reduction. SpectralNET is publicly available as both a .NET application and an ASP.NET web application from http://chembank.broad.harvard.edu/resources/. Source code is

  19. SpectralNET--an application for spectral graph analysis and visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Joshua J; Clemons, Paul A; Schreiber, Stuart L; Haggarty, Stephen J

    2005-10-19

    Graph theory provides a computational framework for modeling a variety of datasets including those emerging from genomics, proteomics, and chemical genetics. Networks of genes, proteins, small molecules, or other objects of study can be represented as graphs of nodes (vertices) and interactions (edges) that can carry different weights. SpectralNET is a flexible application for analyzing and visualizing these biological and chemical networks. Available both as a standalone .NET executable and as an ASP.NET web application, SpectralNET was designed specifically with the analysis of graph-theoretic metrics in mind, a computational task not easily accessible using currently available applications. Users can choose either to upload a network for analysis using a variety of input formats, or to have SpectralNET generate an idealized random network for comparison to a real-world dataset. Whichever graph-generation method is used, SpectralNET displays detailed information about each connected component of the graph, including graphs of degree distribution, clustering coefficient by degree, and average distance by degree. In addition, extensive information about the selected vertex is shown, including degree, clustering coefficient, various distance metrics, and the corresponding components of the adjacency, Laplacian, and normalized Laplacian eigenvectors. SpectralNET also displays several graph visualizations, including a linear dimensionality reduction for uploaded datasets (Principal Components Analysis) and a non-linear dimensionality reduction that provides an elegant view of global graph structure (Laplacian eigenvectors). SpectralNET provides an easily accessible means of analyzing graph-theoretic metrics for data modeling and dimensionality reduction. SpectralNET is publicly available as both a .NET application and an ASP.NET web application from http://chembank.broad.harvard.edu/resources/. Source code is available upon request.

  20. Artifacts Of Spectral Analysis Of Instrument Readings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, James H.

    1995-01-01

    Report presents experimental and theoretical study of some of artifacts introduced by processing outputs of two nominally identical low-frequency-reading instruments; high-sensitivity servo-accelerometers mounted together and operating, in conjunction with signal-conditioning circuits, as seismometers. Processing involved analog-to-digital conversion with anti-aliasing filtering, followed by digital processing including frequency weighting and computation of different measures of power spectral density (PSD).

  1. Improved Atmospheric Soundings and Error Estimates from Analysis of AIRS/AMSU Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel

    2007-01-01

    The AIRS Science Team Version 5.0 retrieval algorithm became operational at the Goddard DAAC in July 2007 generating near real-time products from analysis of AIRS/AMSU sounding data. This algorithm contains many significant theoretical advances over the AIRS Science Team Version 4.0 retrieval algorithm used previously. Three very significant developments of Version 5 are: 1) the development and implementation of an improved Radiative Transfer Algorithm (RTA) which allows for accurate treatment of non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (non-LTE) effects on shortwave sounding channels; 2) the development of methodology to obtain very accurate case by case product error estimates which are in turn used for quality control; and 3) development of an accurate AIRS only cloud clearing and retrieval system. These theoretical improvements taken together enabled a new methodology to be developed which further improves soundings in partially cloudy conditions, without the need for microwave observations in the cloud clearing step as has been done previously. In this methodology, longwave C02 channel observations in the spectral region 700 cm-' to 750 cm-' are used exclusively for cloud clearing purposes, while shortwave C02 channels in the spectral region 2195 cm-' to 2395 cm-' are used for temperature sounding purposes. The new methodology for improved error estimates and their use in quality control is described briefly and results are shown indicative of their accuracy. Results are also shown of forecast impact experiments assimilating AIRS Version 5.0 retrieval products in the Goddard GEOS 5 Data Assimilation System using different quality control thresholds.

  2. EAQUATE: An International Experiment for Hyper-Spectral Atmospheric Sounding Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J. P.; Smith, W.; Cuomo, V.; Larar, A.; Zhou, D.; Serio, C.; Maestri, T.; Rizzi, R.; Newman, S.; Antonelli, P.; hide

    2008-01-01

    The international experiment called EAQUATE (European AQUA Thermodynamic Experiment) was held in September 2004 in Italy and the United Kingdom to demonstrate certain ground-based and airborne systems useful for validating hyperspectral satellite sounding observations. A range of flights over land and marine surfaces were conducted to coincide with overpasses of the AIRS instrument on the EOS Aqua platform. Direct radiance evaluation of AIRS using NAST-I and SHIS has shown excellent agreement. Comparisons of level 2 retrievals of temperature and water vapor from AIRS and NAST-I validated against high quality lidar and drop sonde data show that the 1K/1km and 10%/1km requirements for temperature and water vapor (respectively) are generally being met. The EAQUATE campaign has proven the need for synergistic measurements from a range of observing systems for satellite cal/val and has paved the way for future cal/val activities in support of IASI on the European Metop platform and CrIS on the US NPP/NPOESS platform.

  3. Quantitative Analysis of Spectral Impacts on Silicon Photodiode Radiometers: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, D. R.

    2011-04-01

    Inexpensive broadband pyranometers with silicon photodiode detectors have a non-uniform spectral response over the spectral range of 300-1100 nm. The response region includes only about 70% to 75% of the total energy in the terrestrial solar spectral distribution from 300 nm to 4000 nm. The solar spectrum constantly changes with solar position and atmospheric conditions. Relative spectral distributions of diffuse hemispherical irradiance sky radiation and total global hemispherical irradiance are drastically different. This analysis convolves a typical photodiode response with SMARTS 2.9.5 spectral model spectra for different sites and atmospheric conditions. Differences in solar component spectra lead to differences on the order of 2% in global hemispherical and 5% or more in diffuse hemispherical irradiances from silicon radiometers. The result is that errors of more than 7% can occur in the computation of direct normal irradiance from global hemispherical irradiance and diffuse hemispherical irradiance using these radiometers.

  4. Sound analysis to model weight of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Ilaria; Tullo, Emanuela; Carpentier, Lenn; Berckmans, Dries; Butterworth, Andy; Vranken, Erik; Norton, Tomas; Berckmans, Daniel; Guarino, Marcella

    2017-09-01

    The pattern of body weight gain during the commercial growing of broiler chickens is important to understand growth and feed conversion ratio of each flock.The application of sound analysis techniques has been widely studied to measure and analyze the amplitude and frequency of animal sounds. Previous studies have shown a significant correlation (P ≤ 0.001) between the frequency of vocalization and the age and weight of broilers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify and validate a model that describes the growth rate of broiler chickens based on the peak frequency of their vocalizations and to explore the possibility to develop a tool capable of automatically detecting the growth of the chickens based on the frequency of their vocalizations during the production cycle. It is part of an overall goal to develop a Precision Livestock Farming tool that assists farmers in monitoring the growth of broiler chickens during the production cycle. In the present study, sounds and body weight were continuously recorded in an intensive broiler farm during 5 production cycles. For each cycle the peak frequencies of the chicken vocalizations were used to estimate the weight and then they were compared with the observed weight of the birds automatically measured using on farm automated weighing devices. No significant difference is shown between expected and observed weights along the entire production cycles; this trend was confirmed by the correlation coefficient between expected and observed weights (r = 96%, P value ≤ 0.001).The identified model used to predict the weight as a function of the peak frequency confirmed that bird weight might be predicted by the frequency analysis of the sounds emitted at farm level. Even if the precision of the weighing method based on sounds investigated in this study has to be improved, it gives a reasonable indication regarding the growth of broilers opening a new scenario in monitoring systems in broiler houses. © 2017

  5. Hyper-spectral scanner design and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.; Moses, J.; Smith, R.

    1996-06-01

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). An earlier project produced rough designs for key components of a compact hyper-spectral sensor for environmental and ecological measurements. Such sensors could be deployed on unmanned vehicles, aircraft, or satellites for measurements important to agriculture, the environment, and ecologies. This represents an important advance in remote sensing. Motorola invited us to propose an add-on, proof-of-principle sensor for their Comet satellite, whose primary mission is to demonstrate a channel of the IRIDIUM satellite communications system. Our project converted the preliminary designs from the previous effort into final designs for the telescope, camera, computer and interfaces that constitute the hyper-spectral scanning sensor. The work concentrated on design, fabrication, preliminary integration, and testing of the electronic circuit boards for the computer, data compression board, and interface board for the camera-computer and computer-modulator (transmitter) interfaces.

  6. Spectral analysis and the Riemann hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachaud, Gilles

    2003-11-01

    The explicit formulas of Riemann and Guinand-Weil relate the set of prime numbers with the set of nontrivial zeros of the zeta function of Riemann. We recall Alain Connes' spectral interpretation of the critical zeros of the Riemann zeta function as eigenvalues of the absorption spectrum of an unbounded operator in a suitable Hilbert space. We then give a spectral interpretation of the zeros of the Dedekind zeta function of an algebraic number field K of degree n in an automorphic setting. If K is a complex quadratic field, the torical forms are the functions defined on the modular surface X, such that the sum of this function over the "Gauss set" of K is zero, and Eisenstein series provide such torical forms. In the case of a general number field, one can associate to K a maximal torus T of the general linear group G. The torical forms are the functions defined on the modular variety X associated to G, such that the integral over the subvariety induced by T is zero. Alternately, the torical forms are the functions which are orthogonal to orbital series on X. We show here that the Riemann hypothesis is equivalent to certain conditions bearing on spaces of torical forms, constructed from Eisenstein series, the torical wave packets. Furthermore, we define a Hilbert space and a self-adjoint operator on this space, whose spectrum equals the set of critical zeros of the Dedekind zeta function of K.

  7. Methods for spectral image analysis by exploiting spatial simplicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Michael R.

    2010-11-23

    Several full-spectrum imaging techniques have been introduced in recent years that promise to provide rapid and comprehensive chemical characterization of complex samples. One of the remaining obstacles to adopting these techniques for routine use is the difficulty of reducing the vast quantities of raw spectral data to meaningful chemical information. Multivariate factor analysis techniques, such as Principal Component Analysis and Alternating Least Squares-based Multivariate Curve Resolution, have proven effective for extracting the essential chemical information from high dimensional spectral image data sets into a limited number of components that describe the spectral characteristics and spatial distributions of the chemical species comprising the sample. There are many cases, however, in which those constraints are not effective and where alternative approaches may provide new analytical insights. For many cases of practical importance, imaged samples are "simple" in the sense that they consist of relatively discrete chemical phases. That is, at any given location, only one or a few of the chemical species comprising the entire sample have non-zero concentrations. The methods of spectral image analysis of the present invention exploit this simplicity in the spatial domain to make the resulting factor models more realistic. Therefore, more physically accurate and interpretable spectral and abundance components can be extracted from spectral images that have spatially simple structure.

  8. An analysis of the Infrasound Atmospheric Sounding problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalande, J.; Sebe, O. G.; Landes, M.; Matoza, R. S.; Le Pichon, A.; Blanc, E.; Blanc-Benon, P.

    2011-12-01

    The increasing number of infrasound arrays deployed worldwide have significantly enlarge the scope of infrasound studies. Infrasonic waves are low frequencies sound waves (0.01-20 Hz) which propagate over long range with low attenuation through atmospheric waveguides. Thus, they provide a valuable information for understanding the atmospheric dynamics and improving current atmospheric specifications. Infrasound atmospheric sounding can be objectively treated using inverse methods theory. We develop an iterative linear inversion algorithm to retrieve vertical atmospheric profiles from infrasonic observations. The forward problem is treated in the high-frequency approximation using the Hamiltonian formulation and complete first-order ray perturbation theory is developed in order to construct the Frechet derivatives matrix. We introduce a specific regularization and give a detail analysis of this inverse problem. Our algorithm is compared with results from global optimization methods and validated through realistic experiments.

  9. The Methane Isotopologues by Solar Occultation (MISO Nanosatellite Mission: Spectral Channel Optimization and Early Performance Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Weidmann

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available MISO is an in-orbit demonstration mission that focuses on improving the representation of the methane distribution throughout the upper troposphere and stratosphere, to complement and augment the nadir- and zenith-looking methane observing system for a better understanding of the methane budget. MISO also aims to raise to space mission readiness the concept of laser heterodyne spectro-radiometry (LHR and associated miniaturization technologies, through demonstration of Doppler-limited atmospheric transmittance spectroscopy of methane from a nanosatellite platform suitable for future constellation deployment. The instrumental and engineering approach to MISO is briefly presented to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the mission. LHR operates using narrow spectral coverage (<1 cm−1 focusing on a few carefully chosen individual ro-vibrational transitions. A line-by-line spectral channel selection methodology is developed and used to optimize spectral channel selection relevant to methane isotopologue sounding from co-registered thermal infrared and short-wave infrared LHR. One of the selected windows is then used to carry out a first performance analysis of methane retrievals based on measurement noise propagation. This preliminary analysis of a single observation demonstrates an ideal instrumental precision of <1% for altitudes in the range 8–20 km, <5% for 20–30 km and <10% up to 37 km on a single isotopologue profile, which leaves a significant reserve for real-world error budget degradation and bodes well for the mission feasibility. MISO could realistically demonstrate methane limb sounding at Doppler-limited spectral resolution, even from a cost-effective 6 dm3 nanosatellite.

  10. Antepartum Fetal Monitoring and Spectral Analysis of Preterm Birth Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Păsăricără, Alexandru; Nemescu, Dragoş; Arotăriţei, Dragoş; Rotariu, Cristian

    2017-11-01

    The monitoring and analysis of antepartum fetal and maternal recordings is a research area of notable interest due to the relatively high value of preterm birth. The interest stems from the improvement of devices used for monitoring. The current paper presents the spectral analysis of antepartum heart rate recordings conducted during a study in Romania at the Cuza Voda Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinical Hospital from Iasi between 2010 and 2014. The study focuses on normal and preterm birth risk subjects in order to determine differences between these two types or recordings in terms of spectral analysis.

  11. Spectral Analysis of Burgundy Pinot Noir Grape Harvest Dates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, K.; Thomson, D. J.

    2009-05-01

    We perform an analysis of Burgundy pinot noir grape harvest dates. This annual record reports the annual grape harvest date in days after September 1st, which has been used in summer temperature reconstructions. We perform spectral analysis and dynamic spectral analysis of the data where we find evidence of coherence indicating solar influence. Specifically we find structure in the dynamic spectra indicating solar influence, and there is evidence of the non-stationary structure associated with Seuss cycles as seen in other historical temperature data.

  12. SPAM- SPECTRAL ANALYSIS MANAGER (DEC VAX/VMS VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    The Spectral Analysis Manager (SPAM) was developed to allow easy qualitative analysis of multi-dimensional imaging spectrometer data. Imaging spectrometers provide sufficient spectral sampling to define unique spectral signatures on a per pixel basis. Thus direct material identification becomes possible for geologic studies. SPAM provides a variety of capabilities for carrying out interactive analysis of the massive and complex datasets associated with multispectral remote sensing observations. In addition to normal image processing functions, SPAM provides multiple levels of on-line help, a flexible command interpretation, graceful error recovery, and a program structure which can be implemented in a variety of environments. SPAM was designed to be visually oriented and user friendly with the liberal employment of graphics for rapid and efficient exploratory analysis of imaging spectrometry data. SPAM provides functions to enable arithmetic manipulations of the data, such as normalization, linear mixing, band ratio discrimination, and low-pass filtering. SPAM can be used to examine the spectra of an individual pixel or the average spectra over a number of pixels. SPAM also supports image segmentation, fast spectral signature matching, spectral library usage, mixture analysis, and feature extraction. High speed spectral signature matching is performed by using a binary spectral encoding algorithm to separate and identify mineral components present in the scene. The same binary encoding allows automatic spectral clustering. Spectral data may be entered from a digitizing tablet, stored in a user library, compared to the master library containing mineral standards, and then displayed as a timesequence spectral movie. The output plots, histograms, and stretched histograms produced by SPAM can be sent to a lineprinter, stored as separate RGB disk files, or sent to a Quick Color Recorder. SPAM is written in C for interactive execution and is available for two different

  13. Airway inflammation phenotype prediction in asthma patients using lung sound analysis with fractional exhaled nitric oxide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Terufumi Shimoda; Yasushi Obase; Yukio Nagasaka; Hiroshi Nakano; Reiko Kishikawa; Tomoaki Iwanaga

    2017-01-01

    Background: We previously reported the results of lung sound analysis in patients with bronchial asthma and demonstrated that the exhalation-to-inhalation sound pressure ratio in the low frequency range between 100 and 200 Hz (E/I LF...

  14. Multi-spectral Image Analysis for Astaxanthin Coating Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungqvist, Martin Georg; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    2011-01-01

    Industrial quality inspection using image analysis on astaxanthin coating in aquaculture feed pellets is of great importance for automatic production control. In this study multi-spectral image analysis of pellets was performed using LDA, QDA, SNV and PCA on pixel level and mean value of pixels...

  15. Analysis of spectral methods for the homogeneous Boltzmann equation

    KAUST Repository

    Filbet, Francis

    2011-04-01

    The development of accurate and fast algorithms for the Boltzmann collision integral and their analysis represent a challenging problem in scientific computing and numerical analysis. Recently, several works were devoted to the derivation of spectrally accurate schemes for the Boltzmann equation, but very few of them were concerned with the stability analysis of the method. In particular there was no result of stability except when the method was modified in order to enforce the positivity preservation, which destroys the spectral accuracy. In this paper we propose a new method to study the stability of homogeneous Boltzmann equations perturbed by smoothed balanced operators which do not preserve positivity of the distribution. This method takes advantage of the "spreading" property of the collision, together with estimates on regularity and entropy production. As an application we prove stability and convergence of spectral methods for the Boltzmann equation, when the discretization parameter is large enough (with explicit bound). © 2010 American Mathematical Society.

  16. Mass Defect from Nuclear Physics to Mass Spectral Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourshahian, Soheil

    2017-09-01

    Mass defect is associated with the binding energy of the nucleus. It is a fundamental property of the nucleus and the principle behind nuclear energy. Mass defect has also entered into the mass spectrometry terminology with the availability of high resolution mass spectrometry and has found application in mass spectral analysis. In this application, isobaric masses are differentiated and identified by their mass defect. What is the relationship between nuclear mass defect and mass defect used in mass spectral analysis, and are they the same? Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  17. Spectral theory and nonlinear analysis with applications to spatial ecology

    CERN Document Server

    Cano-Casanova, S; Mora-Corral , C

    2005-01-01

    This volume details some of the latest advances in spectral theory and nonlinear analysis through various cutting-edge theories on algebraic multiplicities, global bifurcation theory, non-linear Schrödinger equations, non-linear boundary value problems, large solutions, metasolutions, dynamical systems, and applications to spatial ecology. The main scope of the book is bringing together a series of topics that have evolved separately during the last decades around the common denominator of spectral theory and nonlinear analysis - from the most abstract developments up to the most concrete applications to population dynamics and socio-biology - in an effort to fill the existing gaps between these fields.

  18. Spectral Analysis of Moderately Charged Rare-Gas Atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Reyna Almandos

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a review concerning the spectral analysis of several ions of neon, argon, krypton and xenon, with impact on laser studies and astrophysics that were mainly carried out in our collaborative groups between Argentina and Brazil during many years. The spectra were recorded from the vacuum ultraviolet to infrared regions using pulsed discharges. Semi-empirical approaches with relativistic Hartree–Fock and Dirac-Fock calculations were also included in these investigations. The spectral analysis produced new classified lines and energy levels. Lifetimes and oscillator strengths were also calculated.

  19. Sensitivity analysis of a sound absorption model with correlated inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, W.; Christen, J.-L.; Zine, A.-M.; Ichchou, M.

    2017-04-01

    Sound absorption in porous media is a complex phenomenon, which is usually addressed with homogenized models, depending on macroscopic parameters. Since these parameters emerge from the structure at microscopic scale, they may be correlated. This paper deals with sensitivity analysis methods of a sound absorption model with correlated inputs. Specifically, the Johnson-Champoux-Allard model (JCA) is chosen as the objective model with correlation effects generated by a secondary micro-macro semi-empirical model. To deal with this case, a relatively new sensitivity analysis method Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test with Correlation design (FASTC), based on Iman's transform, is taken into application. This method requires a priori information such as variables' marginal distribution functions and their correlation matrix. The results are compared to the Correlation Ratio Method (CRM) for reference and validation. The distribution of the macroscopic variables arising from the microstructure, as well as their correlation matrix are studied. Finally the results of tests shows that the correlation has a very important impact on the results of sensitivity analysis. Assessment of correlation strength among input variables on the sensitivity analysis is also achieved.

  20. Spectral analysis of the Chandra comet survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodewits, D.; Christian, D. J.; Torney, M.; Dryer, M.; Lisse, C. M.; Dennerl, K.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Wolk, S. J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Hoekstra, R.

    Aims. We present results of the analysis of cometary X-ray spectra with an extended version of our charge exchange emission model (Bodewits et al. 2006). We have applied this model to the sample of 8 comets thus far observed with the Chandra X-ray observatory and acis spectrometer in the 300 - 1000

  1. HYPERSPECTRAL HYPERION IMAGERY ANALYSIS AND ITS APPLICATION USING SPECTRAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Pervez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rapid advancement in remote sensing open new avenues to explore the hyperspectral Hyperion imagery pre-processing techniques, analysis and application for land use mapping. The hyperspectral data consists of 242 bands out of which 196 calibrated/useful bands are available for hyperspectral applications. Atmospheric correction applied to the hyperspectral calibrated bands make the data more useful for its further processing/ application. Principal component (PC analysis applied to the hyperspectral calibrated bands reduced the dimensionality of the data and it is found that 99% of the data is held in first 10 PCs. Feature extraction is one of the important application by using vegetation delineation and normalized difference vegetation index. The machine learning classifiers uses the technique to identify the pixels having significant difference in the spectral signature which is very useful for classification of an image. Supervised machine learning classifier technique has been used for classification of hyperspectral image which resulted in overall efficiency of 86.6703 and Kappa co-efficient of 0.7998.

  2. [Cough sound detection bases on EMD analysis and HMM recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weiping; Lai, Kefang; Du, Minghui; Chen, Ruchong; Zhong, Shijung; Chen, Rongchang; Zhong, Nanshan

    2009-04-01

    Cough is one of the most common symptoms of many respiratory diseases; the characteristics of intensity and frequency of cough sound offer important clinical messages. When using these messages, we have need to differentiate the cough sound from the other sounds such as speech voice, throat clearing sound and nose clearing sound. In this paper, based on Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) and Hidden Markov Model (HMM), we proposed a novel method to analyze and detect cough sound. Employing the property of adaptive dyadic filter banks of EMD, we gained the mean energy distribution in the frequency domain of the signals in order to analyze the statistical characteristics of cough sound and of other sounds not accompanied by cough, and then we found the optimal characteristics for the recognition using HMM. The experiments on clinical date showed that this optimal characteristic method effectively improved the detective rate of cough sound.

  3. Statistical Analysis for Subjective and Objective Evaluations of Dental Drill Sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomi Yamada

    Full Text Available The sound produced by a dental air turbine handpiece (dental drill can markedly influence the sound environment in a dental clinic. Indeed, many patients report that the sound of a dental drill elicits an unpleasant feeling. Although several manufacturers have attempted to reduce the sound pressure levels produced by dental drills during idling based on ISO 14457, the sound emitted by such drills under active drilling conditions may negatively influence the dental clinic sound environment. The physical metrics related to the unpleasant impressions associated with dental drill sounds have not been determined. In the present study, psychological measurements of dental drill sounds were conducted with the aim of facilitating improvement of the sound environment at dental clinics. Specifically, we examined the impressions elicited by the sounds of 12 types of dental drills in idling and drilling conditions using a semantic differential. The analysis revealed that the impressions of dental drill sounds varied considerably between idling and drilling conditions and among the examined drills. This finding suggests that measuring the sound of a dental drill in idling conditions alone may be insufficient for evaluating the effects of the sound. We related the results of the psychological evaluations to those of measurements of the physical metrics of equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure levels (LAeq and sharpness. Factor analysis indicated that impressions of the dental drill sounds consisted of two factors: "metallic and unpleasant" and "powerful". LAeq had a strong relationship with "powerful impression", calculated sharpness was positively related to "metallic impression", and "unpleasant impression" was predicted by the combination of both LAeq and calculated sharpness. The present analyses indicate that, in addition to a reduction in sound pressure level, refining the frequency components of dental drill sounds is important for creating a

  4. Curie depth and geothermal gradient from spectral analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The resent (2009) aeromagnetic data covering lower part of Benue and upper part of Anambra basins was subjected to one dimensional spectral analysis with the aim of estimating the curie depth and subsequently evaluating both the geothermal gradient and heat flow for the area. Curie point depth estimate obtained were ...

  5. Sensing motion using spectral and spatial analysis of WLAN RSSI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavitha Muthukrishnan, K.; Lijding, M.E.M.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present how motion sensing can be obtained just by observing the WLAN radio signal strength and its fluctuations. The temporal, spectral and spatial characteristics of WLAN signal are analyzed. Our analysis confirms our claim that ’signal strength from access points appear to jump

  6. Spectral analysis of Cu and Mn ions doped borofluorophosphate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    2+ ions doped borofluorophosphate glasses. B SUDHAKAR REDDY and S BUDDHUDU*. Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517 502, India. MS received 29 January 2007; revised 16 August 2007. Abstract. We report here on the development and spectral analysis of Cu. 2+. (0⋅5 mol%) and Mn.

  7. Tomato sorting using independent component analysis on spectral images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, G.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Young, I.T.

    2003-01-01

    Independent Component Analysis is one of the most widely used methods for blind source separation. In this paper we use this technique to estimate the most important compounds which play a role in the ripening of tomatoes. Spectral images of tomatoes were analyzed. Two main independent components

  8. Spatial-spectral analysis of a laser scanning video system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapustin, A. A.; Razumovskii, V. N.; Iatsevich, G. B.

    1980-06-01

    A spatial-spectral analysis method is considered for a laser scanning video system with the phase processing of a received signal, on a modulation frequency. Distortions caused by the system are analyzed, and a general problem is reduced for the case of a cylindrical surface. The approach suggested can also be used for scanning microwave systems.

  9. Empirical Mode Decomposition and Hilbert Spectral Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Norden E.

    1998-01-01

    The difficult facing data analysis is the lack of method to handle nonlinear and nonstationary time series. Traditional Fourier-based analyses simply could not be applied here. A new method for analyzing nonlinear and nonstationary data has been developed. The key part is the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) method with which any complicated data set can be decomposed into a finite and often small number of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) that serve as the basis of the representation of the data. This decomposition method is adaptive, and, therefore, highly efficient. The IMFs admit well-behaved Hilbert transforms, and yield instantaneous energy and frequency as functions of time that give sharp identifications of imbedded structures. The final presentation of the results is an energy-frequency-time distribution, designated as the Hilbert Spectrum. Among the main conceptual innovations is the introduction of the instantaneous frequencies for complicated data sets, which eliminate the need of spurious harmonics to represent nonlinear and nonstationary signals. Examples from the numerical results of the classical nonlinear equation systems and data representing natural phenomena are given to demonstrate the power of this new method. The classical nonlinear system data are especially interesting, for they serve to illustrate the roles played by the nonlinear and nonstationary effects in the energy-frequency-time distribution.

  10. Puget Sound steelhead life cycle model analyses - Population Viability Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This research was initiated by the Puget Sound Steelhead Technical Recovery Team to develop viability criteria for threatened Puget Sound steelhead and to support...

  11. Automated analysis of blood pressure measurements (Korotkov sound)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, D. P.; Hoffler, G. W.; Wolthuis, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    Automatic system for noninvasive measurements of arterial blood pressure is described. System uses Korotkov sound processor logic ratios to identify Korotkov sounds. Schematic diagram of system is provided to show components and method of operation.

  12. Fractal analysis of sound signals in SAMPO 3065 combine harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Mahdiyeh Broujeni

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Nowadays, many studies were performed about noise source and its type and effects related to duration of sound emission. Most of these researches just report sound pressure level in frequency or time domain. These researches should be continued in order to find better absorber material in noise pollution. Use of fractal geometry is a new method in this filed. Wave fractal dimension value is a strong tool for diagnosis of signal instability and fractal analysis is a good method to finding sound signal characteristics. Therefore the aim of this study is on the fractal geometry of SAMPO 3065 combine harvester signals and determine the fractal dimension value of these signals in different operational conditions by Katz, Sevcik, Higuchi and MRBC methods. Materials and Methods In this research, sound signals of SAMPO 3065 harvester combine that were recorded by Maleki and Lashgari (2014, were analyzed. Engine speed (high and low, gear ratio (neutral, 1st, 2nd, 3rd gear, type of operation (traveling and harvesting and microphone position (in and out of the cabin were the main factors of this research. For determining signal fractal dimension value in time domain, wave shape supposed as a geometrical shape and for calculation of fractal dimension value of these signals, total area of wave shape was divided into boxes in 50, 100, 200 milliseconds with an interval 25 millisecond box. Then Fractal dimension value of these boxes was calculated by Katz, Sevcik, Higuchi and MRBC methods using MATLAB (2010a software. SPSS (Ver.20 software was used for further analysis. Results and Discussion Results showed mean effects of engine speed, microphone position, gear ratio, type of operation, box length, calculation method and all of two way interaction effects were significant. Means of Fractal Dimension in the road and field position were 1.4 and 1.28 respectively. The Maximum growth ratio of fractal dimension value during engine speed levels was

  13. Effects of prosodic factors on spectral dynamics. I. Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Johan; Macon, Michael W.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of prosodic factors on the spectral rate of change of vowel transitions are investigated. Thirty two-syllable English words are placed in carrier phrases and read by a single speaker. Liquid-vowel, diphthong, and vowel-liquid transitions are extracted from different prosodic contexts, corresponding to different levels of stress, pitch accent, word position, and speaking style, following a balanced experimental design. The spectral rate of change in these transitions is measured by fitting linear regression lines to the first three formants and computing the root-mean-square of the slopes. Analysis shows that the spectral rate of change increases with linguistic prominence, i.e., in stressed syllables, in accented words, in sentence-medial words, and in hyperarticulated speech. The results are consistent with a contextual view of vowel reduction, where the extent of reduction depends both on the spectral rate of change and on vowel duration. A numerical model of spectral rate of change is proposed, which can be integrated in a system for concatenative speech synthesis, as discussed in Paper II [J. Wouters and M. Macon, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 111, 428-438 (2002)].

  14. MEM spectral analysis for predicting influenza epidemics in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, Ayako; Kamo, Ken-ichi

    2012-03-01

    The prediction of influenza epidemics has long been the focus of attention in epidemiology and mathematical biology. In this study, we tested whether time series analysis was useful for predicting the incidence of influenza in Japan. The method of time series analysis we used consists of spectral analysis based on the maximum entropy method (MEM) in the frequency domain and the nonlinear least squares method in the time domain. Using this time series analysis, we analyzed the incidence data of influenza in Japan from January 1948 to December 1998; these data are unique in that they covered the periods of pandemics in Japan in 1957, 1968, and 1977. On the basis of the MEM spectral analysis, we identified the periodic modes explaining the underlying variations of the incidence data. The optimum least squares fitting (LSF) curve calculated with the periodic modes reproduced the underlying variation of the incidence data. An extension of the LSF curve could be used to predict the incidence of influenza quantitatively. Our study suggested that MEM spectral analysis would allow us to model temporal variations of influenza epidemics with multiple periodic modes much more effectively than by using the method of conventional time series analysis, which has been used previously to investigate the behavior of temporal variations in influenza data.

  15. Lung Sound Analysis and Airway Inflammation in Bronchial Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Terufumi; Obase, Yasushi; Nagasaka, Yukio; Nakano, Hiroshi; Kishikawa, Reiko; Iwanaga, Tomoaki

    2016-01-01

    Our previous study on lung sound analysis (LSA) revealed that the expiration-to-inspiration sound power ratio in a low-frequency range (E/I LF) was increased in patients with bronchial asthma, even when they have no wheezes. We also monitored the expiration-to-inspiration sound power ratio in a mid-frequency range (E/I MF) and the mid- to low-frequency sound power ratio for inspiration and expiration (ie, I MF/LF and E MF/LF, respectively) using a new software program to examine which parameter is most suitable as an index of airway inflammation in patients with asthma. A study was conducted in 31 patients with mild-to-moderate bronchial asthma to examine potential correlations of LSA parameters (E/I LF, E/I MF, I MF/LF, and E MF/LF) with spirogram parameters, airway hyperresponsiveness (PC20), fractional exhaled nitric oxide (NO), and sputum eosinophils. E/I LF was significantly correlated with airway narrowing (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1.0]/forced vital capacity [FVC]%: r = -0.50, maximal expiratory flow at 50% [V50],%pred: r = -0.50) and peripheral airway inflammation (alveolar NO: r = 0.36, eosinophils in peripheral sputum: r = 0.41). E/I MF was significantly correlated with airway narrowing (FEV1.0/FVC%: r = -0.46, V50,%pred: r = -0.49), airway inflammation (bronchial NO: r = 0.43, alveolar NO: r = 0.47, eosinophils in peripheral sputum: r = 0.50), and airway hyperresponsiveness (logPC20: r = -0.49). E MF/LF was significantly correlated with airway inflammation (NO: r = 0.36, eosinophils in sputum: r = 0.40) and airway hyperresponsiveness (logPC20: r = -0.40). I MF/LF was not significantly correlated with any parameters. Among the 4 LSA parameters investigated, E/I MF demonstrated the highest correlation with airway inflammation, and also with bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. An introduction to random vibrations, spectral & wavelet analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Newland, D E

    2005-01-01

    One of the first engineering books to cover wavelet analysis, this classic text describes and illustrates basic theory, with a detailed explanation of the workings of discrete wavelet transforms. Computer algorithms are explained and supported by examples and a set of problems, and an appendix lists ten computer programs for calculating and displaying wavelet transforms.Starting with an introduction to probability distributions and averages, the text examines joint probability distributions, ensemble averages, and correlation; Fourier analysis; spectral density and excitation response relation

  17. High Resolution Spectral Analysis for Irregularly Sampled Helioseismic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghouani, N.

    2006-11-01

    Astronomical ground based data are very often irregularly sampled due to many factors such as: diurnal effect, weather conditions, etc. The analysis of such data cannot be performed with classical tools (such as periodigram) and new adapted methods are required. After presenting some of these techniques, we will focus on a regularized approach of the spectral analysis problem, which gives very good results in the case of band limited and narrow peaks spectrum. We will also show that with this approach we can achieve high-resolution spectra. Indeed, in classical Fourier analysis, spectral resolution is inversely proportional to the observation time T. Considering the spectral analysis problem as an inverse problem and introducing the “a priori” knowledge of band limited and narrow peak spectrum, this limit (1/T) can be exceeded and thus we can achieve highly resolved spectra, even with irregularly sampled data. This technique will be first applied to relevant simulated data, then to helioseismic data. Additional talk: “Brief description of solar projects in Algiers Observatory” A brief description of all projects developed in our department and that are related to the sun: helioseismology, solar data analysis (pipelines description), solar activity, VLF project, solar astrolabe (for solar diameter measurement), site testing for day-time observations, and the project of solar observatory in the Tamanrasset area.

  18. Magnetotelluric (MT) data smoothing based on B-Spline algorithm and qualitative spectral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handyarso, Accep; Grandis, Hendra

    2017-07-01

    Data processing is one of the essential steps to obtain optimum response function of the Earth's subsurface. The MT Data processing is based on the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm which converts the time series data into its frequency domain counterpart. The FFT combined with statistical algorithm constitute the Robust Processing algorithm which is widely implemented in MT data processing software. The Robust Processing has three variants, i.e. No Weight (NW), Rho Variance (RV), and Ordinary Coherency (OC). The RV and OC options allow for denoising the data but in many cases the Robust Processing still results in not so smooth sounding curve due to strong noise presence during measurement, such that the Crosspower (XPR) analysis must be conducted in the data processing. The XPR analysis is very time consuming step within the data processing. The collaboration of B-Spline algorithm and Qualitative Spectral Analysis in the frequency domain could be of advantages as an alternative for these steps. The technique is started by using the best coherency from the Robust Processing results. In the Qualitative Spectral Analysis one can determine which part of the data based on frequency that is more or less reliable, then the next process invokes B-Spline algorithm for data smoothing. This algorithm would select the best fit of the data trend in the frequency domain. The smooth apparent resistivity and phase sounding curves can be considered as more appropriate to represent the subsurface. This algorithm has been applied to the real MT data from several survey and give satisfactory results.

  19. Effective approach to spectroscopy and spectral analysis techniques using Matlab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Lv, Yong

    2017-08-01

    With the development of electronic information, computer and network, modern education technology has entered new era, which would give a great impact on teaching process. Spectroscopy and spectral analysis is an elective course for Optoelectronic Information Science and engineering. The teaching objective of this course is to master the basic concepts and principles of spectroscopy, spectral analysis and testing of basic technical means. Then, let the students learn the principle and technology of the spectrum to study the structure and state of the material and the developing process of the technology. MATLAB (matrix laboratory) is a multi-paradigm numerical computing environment and fourth-generation programming language. A proprietary programming language developed by MathWorks, MATLAB allows matrix manipulations, plotting of functions and data, Based on the teaching practice, this paper summarizes the new situation of applying Matlab to the teaching of spectroscopy. This would be suitable for most of the current school multimedia assisted teaching

  20. Analysis of spectral projectors in one-dimensional domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maday, Y.

    1990-01-01

    A class of projection operators with values in a subspace of polynomials is analyzed. These projection operators are related to the Hilbert spaces involved in the numerical analysis of spectral methods. They are, in the first part of the paper, the standard Sobolev spaces and, in the second part, some weighted Sobolev spaces, the weight of which is related to the orthoronality relation satisfied by the Chebyshev polynomials. These results are used to study the approximation of a model fourth-order problem.

  1. Outlier Detection with Space Transformation and Spectral Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dang, Xuan-Hong; Micenková, Barbora; Assent, Ira

    2013-01-01

    Detecting a small number of outliers from a set of data observations is always challenging. In this paper, we present an approach that exploits space transformation and uses spectral analysis in the newly transformed space for outlier detection. Unlike most existing techniques in the literature...... the data distribution, making it particularly suitable for identification of outliers from irregular, non-convex shaped distributions and from data with diverse, varying densities....

  2. Wheeze sound analysis using computer-based techniques: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghulam Nabi, Fizza; Sundaraj, Kenneth; Chee Kiang, Lam; Palaniappan, Rajkumar; Sundaraj, Sebastian

    2017-10-31

    Wheezes are high pitched continuous respiratory acoustic sounds which are produced as a result of airway obstruction. Computer-based analyses of wheeze signals have been extensively used for parametric analysis, spectral analysis, identification of airway obstruction, feature extraction and diseases or pathology classification. While this area is currently an active field of research, the available literature has not yet been reviewed. This systematic review identified articles describing wheeze analyses using computer-based techniques on the SCOPUS, IEEE Xplore, ACM, PubMed and Springer and Elsevier electronic databases. After a set of selection criteria was applied, 41 articles were selected for detailed analysis. The findings reveal that 1) computerized wheeze analysis can be used for the identification of disease severity level or pathology, 2) further research is required to achieve acceptable rates of identification on the degree of airway obstruction with normal breathing, 3) analysis using combinations of features and on subgroups of the respiratory cycle has provided a pathway to classify various diseases or pathology that stem from airway obstruction.

  3. [An adaptive ultrasound sound speed optimization based on image contrast analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoying; Liu, Dongquan

    2011-12-01

    In order to get real time ultrasound images with clear structure and improved contrast, an adaptive ultrasound sound speed optimization method based on image contrast analysis was investigated. It firstly introduced the dynamic beamforming of ultrasound system, as well as the definition of assumed system's sound speed and the true sound speed propagated in tissues the degrade image quality due to their mismatch was also discussed. After given the pixel gray level value based ultrasound image contrast ratio, the basic idea to precisely estimate the true sound speed for real time system sound speed was proposed. Algorithms have been verified both in tissue-mimicking phantoms with known sound speeds and in vivo ultrasound images, compared with other existing method. The testing results showed that this new method not only produced accurate sound speed for ultrasound image optimization, but also finely met the critical computation requirement for real time applications.

  4. Tidal frequencies in the spectral analysis of time series muon flux measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Catherine; Takai, Helio

    2016-03-01

    Tidal frequencies are observed in the spectral analysis of time series muon flux measurements performed by the MARIACHI experiment over a period of seven years. The prominent peaks from the frequency spectrum correspond to tidal frequencies S1,S2,S3,K1,P1 and Ψ1 . We will present these results and compare them to the regular density oscillations from balloon sounding data. We interpret the observed data as being the effect of regular atmospheric density oscillations induced by the thermal heating of layers in Earth's atmosphere. As the density of the atmosphere varies, the altitude where particles are produced varies accordingly. As a consequence, the muon decay path elongates or contracts, modulating the number of muons detected at ground level. The role of other tidal effects, including geomagnetic tides, will also be discussed.

  5. Spectral analysis of hearing protector impulsive insertion loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fackler, Cameron J; Berger, Elliott H; Murphy, William J; Stergar, Michael E

    2017-01-01

    To characterise the performance of hearing protection devices (HPDs) in impulsive-noise conditions and to compare various protection metrics between impulsive and steady-state noise sources with different characteristics. HPDs were measured per the impulsive test methods of ANSI/ASA S12.42- 2010 . Protectors were measured with impulses generated by both an acoustic shock tube and an AR-15 rifle. The measured data were analysed for impulse peak insertion loss (IPIL) and impulsive spectral insertion loss (ISIL). These impulsive measurements were compared to insertion loss measured with steady-state noise and with real-ear attenuation at threshold (REAT). Tested HPDs included a foam earplug, a level-dependent earplug and an electronic sound-restoration earmuff. IPIL for a given protector varied between measurements with the two impulse noise sources, but ISIL agreed between the two sources. The level-dependent earplug demonstrated level-dependent effects both in IPIL and ISIL. Steady-state insertion loss and REAT measurements tended to provide a conservative estimate of the impulsively-measured attenuation. Measurements of IPIL depend strongly on the source used to measure them, especially for HPDs with less attenuation at low frequencies. ISIL provides an alternative measurement of impulse protection and appears to be a more complete description of an HPD's performance.

  6. An Analysis of Sound Exposure in a University Music Rehearsal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joe; Thrasher, Michael; Fumo, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to high sound levels may lead to a variety of hearing abnormalities, including Noise-Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL). Pre-professional university music majors may experience frequent exposure to elevated sound levels, and this may have implications on their future career prospects (Jansen, Helleman, Dreschler & de Laat, 2009). Studies…

  7. Analysis and control of multi-zone sound field reproduction using modal-domain approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Abhayapala, Thushara D; Betlehem, Terence; Fazi, Filippo Maria

    2016-09-01

    Multi-zone sound control aims to reproduce multiple sound fields independently and simultaneously over different spatial regions within the same space. This paper investigates the multi-zone sound control problem formulated in the modal domain using the Lagrange cost function and provides a modal-domain analysis of the problem. The Lagrange cost function is formulated to represent a quadratic objective of reproducing a desired sound field within the bright zone and with constraints on sound energy in the dark zone and global region. A fundamental problem in multi-zone reproduction is interzone sound interference, where based on the geometry of the sound zones and the desired sound field within the bright zone the achievable reproduction performance is limited. The modal-domain Lagrangian solution demonstrates the intrinsic ill-posedness of the problem, based on which a parameter, the coefficient of realisability, is developed to evaluate the reproduction limitation. The proposed reproduction method is based on controlling the interference between sound zones and sound leakage outside the sound zones, resulting in a suitable compromise between good bright zone performance and satisfactory dark zone performance. The performance of the proposed design is demonstrated through numerical simulations of two-zone reproduction in free-field and in reverberant environments.

  8. Advanced spectral analysis of ionospheric waves observed with sparse arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Helmboldt, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a case study from a single, six-hour observing period to illustrate the application of techniques developed for interferometric radio telescopes to the spectral analysis of observations of ionospheric fluctuations with sparse arrays. We have adapted the deconvolution methods used for making high dynamic range images of cosmic sources with radio arrays to making comparably high dynamic range maps of spectral power of wavelike ionospheric phenomena. In the example presented here, we have used observations of the total electron content (TEC) gradient derived from Very Large Array (VLA) observations of synchrotron emission from two galaxy clusters at 330 MHz as well as GPS-based TEC measurements from a sparse array of 33 receivers located within New Mexico near the VLA. We show that these techniques provide a significant improvement in signal to noise (S/N) of detected wavelike structures by correcting for both measurement inaccuracies and wavefront distortions. This is especially true for the...

  9. Spectral decomposition of asteroid Itokawa based on principal component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Sumire C.; Sugita, Seiji; Kamata, Shunichi; Ishiguro, Masateru; Hiroi, Takahiro; Tatsumi, Eri; Sasaki, Sho

    2018-01-01

    The heliocentric stratification of asteroid spectral types may hold important information on the early evolution of the Solar System. Asteroid spectral taxonomy is based largely on principal component analysis. However, how the surface properties of asteroids, such as the composition and age, are projected in the principal-component (PC) space is not understood well. We decompose multi-band disk-resolved visible spectra of the Itokawa surface with principal component analysis (PCA) in comparison with main-belt asteroids. The obtained distribution of Itokawa spectra projected in the PC space of main-belt asteroids follows a linear trend linking the Q-type and S-type regions and is consistent with the results of space-weathering experiments on ordinary chondrites and olivine, suggesting that this trend may be a space-weathering-induced spectral evolution track for S-type asteroids. Comparison with space-weathering experiments also yield a short average surface age (track, strongly suggesting that space weathering has begun saturated on this young asteroid. The freshest spectrum found on Itokawa exhibits a clear sign for space weathering, indicating again that space weathering occurs very rapidly on this body. We also conducted PCA on Itokawa spectra alone and compared the results with space-weathering experiments. The obtained results indicate that the first principal component of Itokawa surface spectra is consistent with spectral change due to space weathering and that the spatial variation in the degree of space weathering is very large (a factor of three in surface age), which would strongly suggest the presence of strong regional/local resurfacing process(es) on this small asteroid.

  10. Maximizing Return From Sound Analysis and Design Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bramlette, Judith Lynn

    2002-06-01

    With today's tightening budgets computer applications must provide "true" long-term benefit to the company. Businesses are spending large portions of their budgets "Re- Engineering" old systems to take advantage of "new" technology. But what they are really getting is simply a new interface implementing the same incomplete or poor defined requirements as before. "True" benefit can only be gained if sound analysis and design practices are used. WHAT data and processes are required of a system is not the same as HOW the system will be implemented within a company. It is the System Analyst's responsibility to understand the difference between these two concepts. The paper discusses some simple techniques to be used during the Analysis and Design phases of projects, as well as the information gathered and recorded in each phase and how it is transformed between these phases. The paper also covers production application generated using Oracle Designer. Applying these techniques to "real world" problems, the applications will meet the needs for today's business and adapt easily to ever-changing business environments.

  11. Maximizing Return From Sound Analysis and Design Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bramlette, J.D.

    2002-04-22

    With today's tightening budgets computer applications must provide ''true'' long-term benefit to the company. Businesses are spending large portions of their budgets ''Re-Engineering'' old systems to take advantage of ''new'' technology. But what they are really getting is simply a new interface implementing the same incomplete or poor defined requirements as before. ''True'' benefit can only be gained if sound analysis and design practices are used. WHAT data and processes are required of a system is not the same as HOW the system will be implemented within a company. It is the System Analyst's responsibility to understand the difference between these two concepts. The paper discusses some simple techniques to be used during the Analysis and Design phases of projects, as well as the information gathered and recorded in each phase and how it is transformed between these phases. The paper also covers production application generated using Oracle Designer. Applying these techniques to ''real world'' problems, the applications will meet the needs for today's business and adapt easily to ever-changing business environments.

  12. Analysis of sound pressure levels emitted by children's toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleifer, Pricila; Gonçalves, Maiara Santos; Tomasi, Marinês; Gomes, Erissandra

    2013-06-01

    To verify the levels of sound pressure emitted by non-certified children's toys. Cross-sectional study of sound toys available at popular retail stores of the so-called informal sector. Electronic, mechanical, and musical toys were analyzed. The measurement of each product was carried out by an acoustic engineer in an acoustically isolated booth, by a decibel meter. To obtain the sound parameters of intensity and frequency, the toys were set to produce sounds at a distance of 10 and 50cm from the researcher's ear. The intensity of sound pressure [dB(A)] and the frequency in hertz (Hz) were measured. 48 toys were evaluated. The mean sound pressure 10cm from the ear was 102±10 dB(A), and at 50cm, 94±8 dB(A), with psound pressure emitted by the majority of toys was above 85dB(A). The frequency ranged from 413 to 6,635Hz, with 56.3% of toys emitting frequency higher than 2,000Hz. The majority of toys assessed in this research emitted a high level of sound pressure.

  13. Enhanced Compositional Mapping through Integrated Full-Range Spectral Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryl L. McDowell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We developed a method to enhance compositional mapping from spectral remote sensing through the integration of visible to near infrared (VNIR, ~0.4–1 µm, shortwave infrared (SWIR, ~1–2.5 µm, and longwave infrared (LWIR, ~8–13 µm data. Spectral information from the individual ranges was first analyzed independently and then the resulting compositional information in the form of image endmembers and apparent abundances was integrated using ISODATA cluster analysis. Independent VNIR, SWIR, and LWIR analyses of a study area near Mountain Pass, California identified image endmembers representing vegetation, manmade materials (e.g., metal, plastic, specific minerals (e.g., calcite, dolomite, hematite, muscovite, gypsum, and general lithology (e.g., sulfate-bearing, carbonate-bearing, and silica-rich units. Integration of these endmembers and their abundances produced a final full-range classification map incorporating much of the variation from all three spectral ranges. The integrated map and its 54 classes provide additional compositional information that is not evident in the VNIR, SWIR, or LWIR data alone, which allows for more complete and accurate compositional mapping. A supplemental examination of hyperspectral LWIR data and comparison with the multispectral LWIR data used in the integration illustrates its potential to further improve this approach.

  14. Effective dielectric constants and spectral density analysis of plasmonic nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jin You; Raza, Aikifa; Fang, Nicholas X.; Chen, Gang; Zhang, TieJun

    2016-10-01

    Cermet or ceramic-metal composite coatings promise great potentials in light harvesting, but the complicated composite structure at the nanoscale induces a design challenge to predict their optical properties. We find that the effective dielectric constants of nanocomposites predicted by finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) simulation results match those of different classical effective medium theories in their respective validity range. However, a precise prediction of the fabricated nanocomposite properties for different filling factors is very challenging. In this work, we extract the spectral density functions in the Bergman representation from the analytical models, numerical simulations, and experimental data of plasmonic nanocomposites. The spectral density functions, which only depend on geometry of the nanocomposite material, provide a unique measure on the contribution of individual and percolated particles inside the nanocomposite. According to the spectral density analysis of measured dielectric constants, the material properties of nanocomposites fabricated by the co-sputtering approach are dominated by electromagnetic interaction among individual metallic particles. While in the case of the nanocomposites fabricated by the multilayer thin film approach, the material properties are dominated by percolated metallic particles inside the dielectric host, as indicated by our FDTD simulation results. This understanding provides new physical insight into the interaction between light and plasmonic nanocomposites.

  15. Sound graphs: a numerical data analysis method for the blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, D L; Blattner, M M; Joy, K I

    1985-06-01

    A system for the creation of computer-generated sound patterns of two-dimensional line graphs is described. The objectives of the system are to provide the blind with a means of understanding line graphs in the holistic manner used by those with sight. A continuously varying pitch is used to represent motion in the x direction. To test the feasibility of using sound to represent graphs, a prototype system was developed and human factors experimenters were performed. Fourteen subjects were used to compare the tactile-graph methods normally used by the blind to these new sound graphs. It was discovered that mathematical concepts such as symmetry, monotonicity, and the slopes of lines could be determined quickly using sound. Even better performance may be expected with additional training. The flexibility, speed, cost-effectiveness, and greater measure of independence provided the blind or sight-impaired using these methods was demonstrated.

  16. Stress detection and classification of laying hens by sound analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Jonguk; Noh, Byeongjoon; Jang, Suin; Park, Daihee; Chung, Yongwha; Chang, Hong-Hee

    2015-01-01

    .... In this paper, we first develop an inexpensive and non-invasive, automatic online-monitoring prototype that uses sound data to notify producers of a stressful situation in a commercial poultry facility...

  17. Spectral analysis in thin tubes with axial heterogeneities

    KAUST Repository

    Ferreira, Rita

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present the 3D-1D asymptotic analysis of the Dirichlet spectral problem associated with an elliptic operator with axial periodic heterogeneities. We extend to the 3D-1D case previous 3D-2D results (see [10]) and we analyze the special case where the scale of thickness is much smaller than the scale of the heterogeneities and the planar coefficient has a unique global minimum in the periodic cell. These results are of great relevance in the comprehension of the wave propagation in nanowires showing axial heterogeneities (see [17]).

  18. Spectral analysis of crater central peak material (ccp)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiano, A.; Palomba, E.; Longobardo, A.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Carrozzo, F. G.; Tosi, F.

    2017-09-01

    The dwarf planet Ceres, the largest and most massive object in the main asteroid belt, is dark and heavily cratered by impacts. The detection of bright spots, especially in the Occator crater, suggested a vertical gradient in Ceres mineralogical composition. Geologic mapping of Ceres enabled the identification of various surface features of interest. Here we focus our attention on the geologic units known as crater central peak material (ccp). Ccp composes the central peak of several complex craters, probably representative of fresher material coming from the subsurface as a consequence of the impact. We carried out a spectral analysis of ccps found on Ceres to investigate the mineralogical properties of the subsurface material.

  19. Multiphoton autofluorescence spectral analysis for fungus imaging and identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sung-Jan; Tan, Hsin-Yuan; Kuo, Chien-Jui; Wu, Ruei-Jr; Wang, Shiou-Han; Chen, Wei-Liang; Jee, Shiou-Hwa; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2009-07-01

    We performed multiphoton imaging on fungi of medical significance. Fungal hyphae and spores of Aspergillus flavus, Micosporum gypseum, Micosoprum canis, Trichophyton rubrum, and Trichophyton tonsurans were found to be strongly autofluorescent but generate less prominent second harmonic signal. The cell wall and septum of fungal hyphae can be easily identified by autofluorescence imaging. We found that fungi of various species have distinct autofluorescence characteristics. Our result shows that the combination of multiphoton imaging and spectral analysis can be used to visualize and identify fungal species. This approach may be developed into an effective diagnostic tool for fungal identification.

  20. Sound Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Bo; Olsen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Sound zones, i.e. spatially confined regions of individual audio content, can be created by appropriate filtering of the desired audio signals reproduced by an array of loudspeakers. The challenge of designing filters for sound zones is twofold: First, the filtered responses should generate...... an acoustic separation between the control regions. Secondly, the pre- and post-ringing as well as spectral deterioration introduced by the filters should be minimized. The tradeoff between acoustic separation and filter ringing is the focus of this paper. A weighted L2-norm penalty is introduced in the sound...

  1. Understanding Boswellia papyrifera tree secondary metabolites through bark spectral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girma, Atkilt; Skidmore, Andrew K.; de Bie, C. A. J. M.; Bongers, Frans

    2015-07-01

    Decision makers are concerned whether to tap or rest Boswellia Papyrifera trees. Tapping for the production of frankincense is known to deplete carbon reserves from the tree leading to production of less viable seeds, tree carbon starvation and ultimately tree mortality. Decision makers use traditional experience without considering the amount of metabolites stored or depleted from the stem-bark of the tree. This research was designed to come up with a non-destructive B. papyrifera tree metabolite estimation technique relevant for management using spectroscopy. The concentration of biochemicals (metabolites) found in the tree bark was estimated through spectral analysis. Initially, a random sample of 33 trees was selected, the spectra of bark measured with an Analytical Spectral Device (ASD) spectrometer. Bark samples were air dried and ground. Then, 10 g of sample was soaked in Petroleum ether to extract crude metabolites. Further chemical analysis was conducted to quantify and isolate pure metabolite compounds such as incensole acetate and boswellic acid. The crude metabolites, which relate to frankincense produce, were compared to plant properties (such as diameter and crown area) and reflectance spectra of the bark. Moreover, the extract was compared to the ASD spectra using partial least square regression technique (PLSR) and continuum removed spectral analysis. The continuum removed spectral analysis were performed, on two wavelength regions (1275-1663 and 1836-2217) identified through PLSR, using absorption features such as band depth, area, position, asymmetry and the width to characterize and find relationship with the bark extracts. The results show that tree properties such as diameter at breast height (DBH) and the crown area of untapped and healthy trees were strongly correlated to the amount of stored crude metabolites. In addition, the PLSR technique applied to the first derivative transformation of the reflectance spectrum was found to estimate the

  2. The effects of experimentally induced conductive hearing loss on spectral and temporal aspects of sound transmission through the ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric Lupo, J; Koka, Kanthaiah; Thornton, Jennifer L; Tollin, Daniel J

    2011-02-01

    Conductive hearing loss (CHL) is known to produce hearing deficits, including deficits in sound localization ability. The differences in sound intensities and timing experienced between the two tympanic membranes are important cues to sound localization (ILD and ITD, respectively). Although much is known about the effect of CHL on hearing levels, little investigation has been conducted into the actual impact of CHL on sound location cues. This study investigated effects of CHL induced by earplugs on cochlear microphonic (CM) amplitude and timing and their corresponding effect on the ILD and ITD location cues. Acoustic and CM measurements were made in 5 chinchillas before and after earplug insertion, and again after earplug removal using pure tones (500 Hz to 24 kHz). ILDs in the unoccluded condition demonstrated position and frequency dependence where peak far-lateral ILDs approached 30 dB for high frequencies. Unoccluded ear ITD cues demonstrated positional and frequency dependence with increased ITD cue for both decreasing frequency (±420 μs at 500 Hz, ±310 μs for 1-4 kHz) and increasingly lateral sound source locations. Occlusion of the ear canal with foam plugs resulted in a mild, frequency-dependent conductive hearing loss of 10-38 dB (mean 31 ± 3.9 dB) leading to a concomitant frequency dependent increase in ILDs at all source locations. The effective ITDs increased in a frequency dependent manner with ear occlusion as a direct result of the acoustic properties of the plugging material, the latter confirmed via acoustical measurements using a model ear canal with varying volumes of acoustic foam. Upon ear plugging with acoustic foam, a mild CHL is induced. Furthermore, the CHL induced by acoustic foam results in substantial changes in the magnitudes of both the ITD and ILD cues to sound location. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Average sound speed estimation using speckle analysis of medical ultrasound data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiaolei; Azuma, Takashi; Liang, Jack T; Nakajima, Yoshikazu

    2012-11-01

    Most ultrasound imaging systems assume a pre-determined sound propagation speed for imaging. However, a mismatch between assumed and real sound speeds can lead to spatial shift and defocus of ultrasound image, which may limit the applicability of ultrasound imaging. The estimation of real sound speed is important for improving positioning accuracy and focus quality of ultrasound image. A novel method using speckle analysis of ultrasound image is proposed for average sound speed estimation. Firstly, dynamic receive beam forming technology is employed to form ultrasound images. These ultrasound images are formed by same pre-beam formed radio frequency data but using different assumed sound speeds. Secondly, an improved speckle analysis method is proposed to evaluate focus quality of these ultrasound images. Thirdly, an iteration strategy is employed to locate the desired sound speed that corresponds to the best focus quality image. For quantitative evaluation, a group of ultrasound data with 20 different structure patterns is simulated. The comparison of estimated and simulated sound speeds shows speed estimation errors to be -0.7 ± 2.54 m/s and -1.30 ± 5.15 m/s for ultrasound data obtained by 128- and 64-active individual elements linear arrays, respectively. Furthermore, we validate our method via phantom experiments. The sound speed estimation error is -1.52 ± 8.81 m/s. Quantitative evaluation proves that proposed method can estimate average sound speed accurately using single transducer with single scan.

  4. Joint Spectral Analysis for Early Bright X-ray Flares of -Ray Bursts ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A joint spectral analysis for early bright X-ray flares that were simultaneously observed with Swift BAT and XRT are present. Both BAT and XRT lightcurves of these flares are correlated. Our joint spectral analysis shows that the radiations in the two energy bands are from the same spectral component, which can be well ...

  5. Effect of a progressive sound wave on the profiles of spectral lines. 2: Asymmetry of faint Fraunhofer lines. [absorption spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyk, R. I.

    1974-01-01

    The absorption coefficient profile was calculated for lines of different chemical elements in a medium with progressive sound waves. Calculations show that (1) the degree and direction of asymmetry depend on the atomic ionization potential and the potential of lower level excitation of the individual line; (2) the degree of asymmetry of a line decreases from the center toward the limb of the solar disc; and (3) turbulent motions 'suppress' the asymmetry.

  6. Open-box spectral clustering: applications to medical image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Thomas; Kindlmann, Gordon L

    2013-12-01

    Spectral clustering is a powerful and versatile technique, whose broad range of applications includes 3D image analysis. However, its practical use often involves a tedious and time-consuming process of tuning parameters and making application-specific choices. In the absence of training data with labeled clusters, help from a human analyst is required to decide the number of clusters, to determine whether hierarchical clustering is needed, and to define the appropriate distance measures, parameters of the underlying graph, and type of graph Laplacian. We propose to simplify this process via an open-box approach, in which an interactive system visualizes the involved mathematical quantities, suggests parameter values, and provides immediate feedback to support the required decisions. Our framework focuses on applications in 3D image analysis, and links the abstract high-dimensional feature space used in spectral clustering to the three-dimensional data space. This provides a better understanding of the technique, and helps the analyst predict how well specific parameter settings will generalize to similar tasks. In addition, our system supports filtering outliers and labeling the final clusters in such a way that user actions can be recorded and transferred to different data in which the same structures are to be found. Our system supports a wide range of inputs, including triangular meshes, regular grids, and point clouds. We use our system to develop segmentation protocols in chest CT and brain MRI that are then successfully applied to other datasets in an automated manner.

  7. Spectral analysis and slow spreading dynamics on complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ódor, Géza

    2013-09-01

    The susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) model is one of the simplest memoryless systems for describing information or epidemic spreading phenomena with competing creation and spontaneous annihilation reactions. The effect of quenched disorder on the dynamical behavior has recently been compared to quenched mean-field (QMF) approximations in scale-free networks. QMF can take into account topological heterogeneity and clustering effects of the activity in the steady state by spectral decomposition analysis of the adjacency matrix. Therefore, it can provide predictions on possible rare-region effects, thus on the occurrence of slow dynamics. I compare QMF results of SIS with simulations on various large dimensional graphs. In particular, I show that for Erdős-Rényi graphs this method predicts correctly the occurrence of rare-region effects. It also provides a good estimate for the epidemic threshold in case of percolating graphs. Griffiths Phases emerge if the graph is fragmented or if we apply a strong, exponentially suppressing weighting scheme on the edges. The latter model describes the connection time distributions in the face-to-face experiments. In case of a generalized Barabási-Albert type of network with aging connections, strong rare-region effects and numerical evidence for Griffiths Phase dynamics are shown. The dynamical simulation results agree well with the predictions of the spectral analysis applied for the weighted adjacency matrices.

  8. Efficient geometric rectification techniques for spectral analysis algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C. Y.; Pang, S. S.; Curlander, J. C.

    1992-01-01

    The spectral analysis algorithm is a viable technique for processing synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data in near real time throughput rates by trading the image resolution. One major challenge of the spectral analysis algorithm is that the output image, often referred to as the range-Doppler image, is represented in the iso-range and iso-Doppler lines, a curved grid format. This phenomenon is known to be the fanshape effect. Therefore, resampling is required to convert the range-Doppler image into a rectangular grid format before the individual images can be overlaid together to form seamless multi-look strip imagery. An efficient algorithm for geometric rectification of the range-Doppler image is presented. The proposed algorithm, realized in two one-dimensional resampling steps, takes into consideration the fanshape phenomenon of the range-Doppler image as well as the high squint angle and updates of the cross-track and along-track Doppler parameters. No ground reference points are required.

  9. Optimization design of spectral discriminator for high-spectral-resolution lidar based on error analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Huige; Zhang, Zhanfei; Hua, Hangbo; Zhang, Jiaqi; Hua, Dengxin; Wang, Yufeng; He, Tingyao

    2017-03-06

    Accurate aerosol optical properties could be obtained via the high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) technique, which employs a narrow spectral filter to suppress the Rayleigh or Mie scattering in lidar return signals. The ability of the filter to suppress Rayleigh or Mie scattering is critical for HSRL. Meanwhile, it is impossible to increase the rejection of the filter without limitation. How to optimize the spectral discriminator and select the appropriate suppression rate of the signal is important to us. The HSRL technology was thoroughly studied based on error propagation. Error analyses and sensitivity studies were carried out on the transmittance characteristics of the spectral discriminator. Moreover, ratwo different spectroscopic methods for HSRL were described and compared: one is to suppress the Mie scattering; the other is to suppress the Rayleigh scattering. The corresponding HSRLs were simulated and analyzed. The results show that excessive suppression of Rayleigh scattering or Mie scattering in a high-spectral channel is not necessary if the transmittance of the spectral filter for molecular and aerosol scattering signals can be well characterized. When the ratio of transmittance of the spectral filter for aerosol scattering and molecular scattering is less than 0.1 or greater than 10, the detection error does not change much with its value. This conclusion implies that we have more choices for the high-spectral discriminator in HSRL. Moreover, the detection errors of HSRL regarding the two spectroscopic methods vary greatly with the atmospheric backscattering ratio. To reduce the detection error, it is necessary to choose a reasonable spectroscopic method. The detection method of suppressing the Rayleigh signal and extracting the Mie signal can achieve less error in a clear atmosphere, while the method of suppressing the Mie signal and extracting the Rayleigh signal can achieve less error in a polluted atmosphere.

  10. Spectral analysis of mammographic images using a multitaper method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Gang; Mainprize, James G.; Yaffe, Martin J. [Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto (Canada); Imaging Research, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, S636, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: Power spectral analysis in radiographic images is conventionally performed using a windowed overlapping averaging periodogram. This study describes an alternative approach using a multitaper technique and compares its performance with that of the standard method. This tool will be valuable in power spectrum estimation of images, whose content deviates significantly from uniform white noise. The performance of the multitaper approach will be evaluated in terms of spectral stability, variance reduction, bias, and frequency precision. The ultimate goal is the development of a useful tool for image quality assurance. Methods: A multitaper approach uses successive data windows of increasing order. This mitigates spectral leakage allowing one to calculate a reduced-variance power spectrum. The multitaper approach will be compared with the conventional power spectrum method in several typical situations, including the noise power spectra (NPS) measurements of simulated projection images of a uniform phantom, NPS measurement of real detector images of a uniform phantom for two clinical digital mammography systems, and the estimation of the anatomic noise in mammographic images (simulated images and clinical mammograms). Results: Examination of spectrum variance versus frequency resolution and bias indicates that the multitaper approach is superior to the conventional single taper methods in the prevention of spectrum leakage and variance reduction. More than four times finer frequency precision can be achieved with equivalent or less variance and bias. Conclusions: Without any shortening of the image data length, the bias is smaller and the frequency resolution is higher with the multitaper method, and the need to compromise in the choice of regions of interest size to balance between the reduction of variance and the loss of frequency resolution is largely eliminated.

  11. Spectral analysis of mammographic images using a multitaper method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gang; Mainprize, James G; Yaffe, Martin J

    2012-02-01

    Power spectral analysis in radiographic images is conventionally performed using a windowed overlapping averaging periodogram. This study describes an alternative approach using a multitaper technique and compares its performance with that of the standard method. This tool will be valuable in power spectrum estimation of images, whose content deviates significantly from uniform white noise. The performance of the multitaper approach will be evaluated in terms of spectral stability, variance reduction, bias, and frequency precision. The ultimate goal is the development of a useful tool for image quality assurance. A multitaper approach uses successive data windows of increasing order. This mitigates spectral leakage allowing one to calculate a reduced-variance power spectrum. The multitaper approach will be compared with the conventional power spectrum method in several typical situations, including the noise power spectra (NPS) measurements of simulated projection images of a uniform phantom, NPS measurement of real detector images of a uniform phantom for two clinical digital mammography systems, and the estimation of the anatomic noise in mammographic images (simulated images and clinical mammograms). Examination of spectrum variance versus frequency resolution and bias indicates that the multitaper approach is superior to the conventional single taper methods in the prevention of spectrum leakage and variance reduction. More than four times finer frequency precision can be achieved with equivalent or less variance and bias. Without any shortening of the image data length, the bias is smaller and the frequency resolution is higher with the multitaper method, and the need to compromise in the choice of regions of interest size to balance between the reduction of variance and the loss of frequency resolution is largely eliminated.

  12. Time dependent wave envelope finite difference analysis of sound propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, K. J.

    1984-01-01

    A transient finite difference wave envelope formulation is presented for sound propagation, without steady flow. Before the finite difference equations are formulated, the governing wave equation is first transformed to a form whose solution tends not to oscillate along the propagation direction. This transformation reduces the required number of grid points by an order of magnitude. Physically, the transformed pressure represents the amplitude of the conventional sound wave. The derivation for the wave envelope transient wave equation and appropriate boundary conditions are presented as well as the difference equations and stability requirements. To illustrate the method, example solutions are presented for sound propagation in a straight hard wall duct and in a two dimensional straight soft wall duct. The numerical results are in good agreement with exact analytical results.

  13. Accuracy Enhancement of Inertial Sensors Utilizing High Resolution Spectral Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Korenberg

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In both military and civilian applications, the inertial navigation system (INS and the global positioning system (GPS are two complementary technologies that can be integrated to provide reliable positioning and navigation information for land vehicles. The accuracy enhancement of INS sensors and the integration of INS with GPS are the subjects of widespread research. Wavelet de-noising of INS sensors has had limited success in removing the long-term (low-frequency inertial sensor errors. The primary objective of this research is to develop a novel inertial sensor accuracy enhancement technique that can remove both short-term and long-term error components from inertial sensor measurements prior to INS mechanization and INS/GPS integration. A high resolution spectral analysis technique called the fast orthogonal search (FOS algorithm is used to accurately model the low frequency range of the spectrum, which includes the vehicle motion dynamics and inertial sensor errors. FOS models the spectral components with the most energy first and uses an adaptive threshold to stop adding frequency terms when fitting a term does not reduce the mean squared error more than fitting white noise. The proposed method was developed, tested and validated through road test experiments involving both low-end tactical grade and low cost MEMS-based inertial systems. The results demonstrate that in most cases the position accuracy during GPS outages using FOS de-noised data is superior to the position accuracy using wavelet de-noising.

  14. Spatially explicit spectral analysis of point clouds and geospatial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscombe, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The increasing use of spatially explicit analyses of high-resolution spatially distributed data (imagery and point clouds) for the purposes of characterising spatial heterogeneity in geophysical phenomena necessitates the development of custom analytical and computational tools. In recent years, such analyses have become the basis of, for example, automated texture characterisation and segmentation, roughness and grain size calculation, and feature detection and classification, from a variety of data types. In this work, much use has been made of statistical descriptors of localised spatial variations in amplitude variance (roughness), however the horizontal scale (wavelength) and spacing of roughness elements is rarely considered. This is despite the fact that the ratio of characteristic vertical to horizontal scales is not constant and can yield important information about physical scaling relationships. Spectral analysis is a hitherto under-utilised but powerful means to acquire statistical information about relevant amplitude and wavelength scales, simultaneously and with computational efficiency. Further, quantifying spatially distributed data in the frequency domain lends itself to the development of stochastic models for probing the underlying mechanisms which govern the spatial distribution of geological and geophysical phenomena. The software package PySESA (Python program for Spatially Explicit Spectral Analysis) has been developed for generic analyses of spatially distributed data in both the spatial and frequency domains. Developed predominantly in Python, it accesses libraries written in Cython and C++ for efficiency. It is open source and modular, therefore readily incorporated into, and combined with, other data analysis tools and frameworks with particular utility for supporting research in the fields of geomorphology, geophysics, hydrography, photogrammetry and remote sensing. The analytical and computational structure of the toolbox is described

  15. Spatially explicit spectral analysis of point clouds and geospatial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscombe, Daniel D.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of spatially explicit analyses of high-resolution spatially distributed data (imagery and point clouds) for the purposes of characterising spatial heterogeneity in geophysical phenomena necessitates the development of custom analytical and computational tools. In recent years, such analyses have become the basis of, for example, automated texture characterisation and segmentation, roughness and grain size calculation, and feature detection and classification, from a variety of data types. In this work, much use has been made of statistical descriptors of localised spatial variations in amplitude variance (roughness), however the horizontal scale (wavelength) and spacing of roughness elements is rarely considered. This is despite the fact that the ratio of characteristic vertical to horizontal scales is not constant and can yield important information about physical scaling relationships. Spectral analysis is a hitherto under-utilised but powerful means to acquire statistical information about relevant amplitude and wavelength scales, simultaneously and with computational efficiency. Further, quantifying spatially distributed data in the frequency domain lends itself to the development of stochastic models for probing the underlying mechanisms which govern the spatial distribution of geological and geophysical phenomena. The software packagePySESA (Python program for Spatially Explicit Spectral Analysis) has been developed for generic analyses of spatially distributed data in both the spatial and frequency domains. Developed predominantly in Python, it accesses libraries written in Cython and C++ for efficiency. It is open source and modular, therefore readily incorporated into, and combined with, other data analysis tools and frameworks with particular utility for supporting research in the fields of geomorphology, geophysics, hydrography, photogrammetry and remote sensing. The analytical and computational structure of the toolbox is

  16. Numerical analysis of dipole sound source around high speed trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaishi, Takehisa; Sagawa, Akio; Nagakura, Kiyoshi; Maeda, Tatsuo

    2002-06-01

    As the maximum speed of high speed trains increases, the effect of aeroacoustic noise on the sound level on the ground becomes increasingly important. In this paper, the distribution of dipole sound sources at the bogie section of high speed trains is predicted numerically. The three-dimensional unsteady flow around a train is solved by the large eddy simulation technique. The time history of vortices shows that unstable shear layer separation at the leading edge of the bogie section sheds vortices periodically. These vortices travel downstream while growing to finally impinge upon the trailing edge of the section. The wavelength of sound produced by these vortices is large compared to the representative length of the bogie section, so that the source region can be regarded as acoustically compact. Thus a compact Green's function adapted to the shape can be used to determine the sound. By coupling the instantaneous flow properties with the compact Green's function, the distribution of dipole sources is obtained. The results reveal a strong dipole source at the trailing edge of the bogie section where the shape changes greatly and the variation of flow with time is also great. On the other hand, the bottom of the bogie section where the shape does not change, or the leading edge and boundary layer where the variation of flow with time is small, cannot generate a strong dipole source.

  17. Analysis of humpback whale sounds in shallow waters of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The primary objective of this work was to present the acoustical identification of humpback whales, detected by using an autonomous ambient noise measurement system, deployed in the shallow waters of the Southeastern Arabian Sea (SEAS) during the period January to May 2011. Seven types of sounds were detected.

  18. Error Consistency Analysis Scheme for Infrared Ultraspectral Sounding Retrieval Error Budget Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu; Smith, William L.; Strow, Larry, L.

    2013-01-01

    Great effort has been devoted towards validating geophysical parameters retrieved from ultraspectral infrared radiances obtained from satellite remote sensors. An error consistency analysis scheme (ECAS), utilizing fast radiative transfer model (RTM) forward and inverse calculations, has been developed to estimate the error budget in terms of mean difference and standard deviation of error in both spectral radiance and retrieval domains. The retrieval error is assessed through ECAS without relying on other independent measurements such as radiosonde data. ECAS establishes a link between the accuracies of radiances and retrieved geophysical parameters. ECAS can be applied to measurements from any ultraspectral instrument and any retrieval scheme with its associated RTM. In this manuscript, ECAS is described and demonstrated with measurements from the MetOp-A satellite Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI). This scheme can be used together with other validation methodologies to give a more definitive characterization of the error and/or uncertainty of geophysical parameters retrieved from ultraspectral radiances observed from current and future satellite remote sensors such as IASI, the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), and the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS).

  19. Least-squares Spectral Analysis of GRACE SST Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, M.; Nikkhoo, M.; Sharifi, M.

    2008-05-01

    Since March 2002, GRACE mission is clearly showing the time variable components of the long and medium wave lengths of the earth gravity field, mostly related to the hydrological processes in the earth system. Up to now, several works have been done to increase the spatial resolution of GRACE solutions using different mathematical methods and constraining geophysical models. In this paper we performed the least squares spectral analysis on GRACE level1B data to illustrate the exact capability of GRACE observations in detecting the time dependent changes of the earth gravity field. The derived spectra explicitly reveal the existence of a strong seasonal cycle as well as some other significant periodicities present in the data. Such methodology could be used effectively in classifying different geophysical phenomena which bring gravity changes about.

  20. IR spectral analysis for the diagnostics of crust earthquake precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Umarkhodgaev

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Some possible physical processes are analysed that cause, under the condition of additional ionisation in a pre-breakdown electric field, emissions in the infrared (IR interval. The atmospheric transparency region of the IR spectrum at wavelengths of 7–15 μm is taken into account. This transparency region corresponds to spectral lines of small atmospheric constituents like CH4, CO2, N2O, NO2, NO, and O3. The possible intensities of the IR emissions observable in laboratories and in nature are estimated. The acceleration process of the electrons in the pre-breakdown electrical field before its adhesion to the molecules is analyzed. For daytime conditions, modifications of the adsorption spectra of the scattered solar emissions are studied; for nighttime, variations of emission spectra may be used for the analysis.

  1. Spectral analysis of magnetohydrodynamic fluctuations near interplanetary shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinas, A. F.; Goldstein, M. L.; Acuna, M. H.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary results of an investigation of magnetic fluctuations seen upstream of two interplanetary shocks are presented. The spectral analysis includes calculation of the normalized reduced magnetic helicity spectrum, the normalized reduced cross-helicity spectrum, and the Alfven ratio as discussed by Matthaeus and Goldstein (1982). Minimum variance methods are used to compute wave polarization as a function of frequency. The Taylor 'frozen in flow' hypothesis is assumed to convert frequencies to wave vectors. Some of the basic properties of the waves, including the probable mode of propagation in association with both quasi-parallel forward and reverse shocks, are described. A comparison with previous results on the generation of waves at interplanetary and planetary shocks is presented.

  2. Analysis of homodimeric protein interfaces by graph-spectral methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinda, K V; Kannan, N; Vishveshwara, S

    2002-04-01

    The quaternary structures impart structural and functional credibility to proteins. In a multi-subunit protein, it is important to understand the factors that drive the association or dissociation of the subunits. It is a well known fact that both hydrophobic and charged interactions contribute to the stability of the protein interface. The interface residues are also known to be highly conserved. Though they are buried in the oligomer, these residues are either exposed or partially exposed in the monomer. It is felt that a systematic and objective method of identifying interface clusters and their analysis can significantly contribute to the identification of a residue or a collection of residues important for oligomerization. Recently, we have applied the techniques of graph-spectral methods to a variety of problems related to protein structure and folding. A major advantage of this methodology is that the problem is viewed from a global protein topology point of view rather than localized regions of the protein structure. In the present investigation, we have applied the methods of graph-spectral analysis to identify side chain clusters at the interface and the centers of these clusters in a set of homodimeric proteins. These clusters are analyzed in terms of properties such as amino acid composition, accessibility to solvent and conservation of residues. Interesting results such as participation of charged and aromatic residues like arginine, glutamic acid, histidine, phenylalanine and tyrosine, consistent with earlier investigations, have emerged from these analyses. Important additional information is that the residues involved are a part of a cluster(s) and that they are sequentially distant residues which have come closer to each other in the three-dimensional structure of the protein. These residues can easily be detected using our graph-spectral algorithm. This method has also been used to identify important residues ('hot spots') in dimerization and also

  3. Isogeometric analysis of sound propagation through laminar flow in 2-dimensional ducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørtoft, Peter; Gravesen, Jens; Willatzen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    We consider the propagation of sound through a slowly moving fluid in a 2-dimensional duct. A detailed description of a flow-acoustic model of the problem using B-spline based isogeometric analysis is given. The model couples the non-linear, steady-state, incompressible Navier-Stokes equation...... in the laminar regime for the flow field, to a linear, time-harmonic acoustic equation in the low Mach number regime for the sound signal. B-splines are used both to represent the duct geometry and to approximate the flow and sound fields. This facilitates an exact representation of complex duct geometries...... are found when the acoustic pressure is approximated by higher order polynomials. Based on the model, we examine how the acoustic signal varies with sound frequency, flow speed and duct geometry. A combination of duct geometry and sound frequency is identified for which the acoustic signal is particularly...

  4. Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface Utility for Underwater Sound Monitoring and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. Carlson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Fishes and marine mammals may suffer a range of potential effects from exposure to intense underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities such as pile driving, shipping, sonars, and underwater blasting. Several underwater sound recording (USR devices have been built to acquire samples of the underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities. Software becomes indispensable for processing and analyzing the audio files recorded by these USRs. In this paper, we provide a detailed description of a new software package, the Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface (AAMI, specifically designed for analysis of underwater sound recordings to provide data in metrics that facilitate evaluation of the potential impacts of the sound on aquatic animals. In addition to the basic functions, such as loading and editing audio files recorded by USRs and batch processing of sound files, the software utilizes recording system calibration data to compute important parameters in physical units. The software also facilitates comparison of the noise sound sample metrics with biological measures such as audiograms of the sensitivity of aquatic animals to the sound, integrating various components into a single analytical frame. The features of the AAMI software are discussed, and several case studies are presented to illustrate its functionality.

  5. Aquatic acoustic metrics interface utility for underwater sound monitoring and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Huiying; Halvorsen, Michele B; Deng, Zhiqun Daniel; Carlson, Thomas J

    2012-01-01

    Fishes and marine mammals may suffer a range of potential effects from exposure to intense underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities such as pile driving, shipping, sonars, and underwater blasting. Several underwater sound recording (USR) devices have been built to acquire samples of the underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities. Software becomes indispensable for processing and analyzing the audio files recorded by these USRs. In this paper, we provide a detailed description of a new software package, the Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface (AAMI), specifically designed for analysis of underwater sound recordings to provide data in metrics that facilitate evaluation of the potential impacts of the sound on aquatic animals. In addition to the basic functions, such as loading and editing audio files recorded by USRs and batch processing of sound files, the software utilizes recording system calibration data to compute important parameters in physical units. The software also facilitates comparison of the noise sound sample metrics with biological measures such as audiograms of the sensitivity of aquatic animals to the sound, integrating various components into a single analytical frame. The features of the AAMI software are discussed, and several case studies are presented to illustrate its functionality.

  6. Chebyshev super spectral viscosity method for water hammer analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Chen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new fast and efficient algorithm, Chebyshev super spectral viscosity (SSV method, is introduced to solve the water hammer equations. Compared with standard spectral method, the method's advantage essentially consists in adding a super spectral viscosity to the equations for the high wave numbers of the numerical solution. It can stabilize the numerical oscillation (Gibbs phenomenon and improve the computational efficiency while discontinuities appear in the solution. Results obtained from the Chebyshev super spectral viscosity method exhibit greater consistency with conventional water hammer calculations. It shows that this new numerical method offers an alternative way to investigate the behavior of the water hammer in propellant pipelines.

  7. Clinical potential of retrospective on-demand spectral analysis using dual-layer spectral detector-computed tomography in ischemia complicating small-bowel obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Seitaro; Nakaura, Takeshi; Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Funama, Yoshinori; Taguchi, Narumi; Imuta, Masanori; Nagayama, Yasunori; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2017-08-01

    We describe a case of ischemia complicating acute small-bowel obstruction in which retrospective on-demand spectral analysis using dual-layer spectral detector computed tomography (CT) provided a higher degree of confidence pertaining to the diagnosis. Dual-layer spectral detector CT enables retrospective on-demand spectral analysis, including virtual monochromatic imaging, iodine mapping, and determining the effective atomic number Z, without the need of a pre-scan setting requiring a special protocol, particularly facilitating emergency situations. Retrospective on-demand spectral analysis could improve the accuracy and diagnostic confidence in cases with ischemia complicating small-bowel obstruction.

  8. Sound transmission analysis of MR fluid based-circular sandwich panels: Experimental and finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmatian, Masoud; Sedaghati, Ramin

    2017-11-01

    Magnetorheological Fluids (MR) have been recently utilized in sandwich panels to provide variable stiffness and damping to effectively control vibrations. In this study, the sound transmission behavior of MR based-sandwich panels is investigated through development of an efficient finite element model. A clamped circular sandwich panel with elastic face sheets and MR Fluid as the core layer has been considered. A finite element model utilizing circular and annular elements has been developed to derive the governing equations of motion in the finite element form. The transverse velocity is then calculated and utilized to obtain the sound radiated from the panel and subsequently the sound transmission loss. In order to validate the simulated results, a test setup including two anechoic spaces and an electro-magnet has been designed and fabricated. The magnetic flux density generated inside the electromagnet is simulated using magneto-static finite element analysis and validated with the measured magnetic flux density using Gaussmeter. The results from magneto-static analysis is used to derive an approximate polynomial function to evaluate the magnetic flux density as a function of the plate's radius and applied current. The STL and first axisymmetric natural frequency of the MR sandwich panels with aluminum face sheets are simulated and compared with those obtained experimentally. Finally, a parametric study on the effect of applied magnetic field, the thickness of the core layer and the thickness of face sheets on the STL and natural frequency of the adaptive sandwich panel are presented.

  9. Analysis of just Noticeable Difference in Spectrum of Church Bell Sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Samolov

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Bells are specific sound sources. They have distinct, but, unlike musical instruments, inharmonious partials. These partials arise from modes of vibration of the bell and depend on dimensions and potential irregularities of the bell. Therefore, the question of a just noticeable difference in the church bell sound is of great importance. Analysis of subjective tests with synthetic sounds of two bells, different in size, is described in this paper. We report results for a just noticeable difference of partial frequency in the range 10-15 cents. Frequency dependence, is also, noticed.

  10. Quantitative method to assess caries via fluorescence imaging from the perspective of autofluorescence spectral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q. G.; Zhu, H. H.; Xu, Y.; Lin, B.; Chen, H.

    2015-08-01

    A quantitative method to discriminate caries lesions for a fluorescence imaging system is proposed in this paper. The autofluorescence spectral investigation of 39 teeth samples classified by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System levels was performed at 405 nm excitation. The major differences in the different caries lesions focused on the relative spectral intensity range of 565-750 nm. The spectral parameter, defined as the ratio of wavebands at 565-750 nm to the whole spectral range, was calculated. The image component ratio R/(G + B) of color components was statistically computed by considering the spectral parameters (e.g. autofluorescence, optical filter, and spectral sensitivity) in our fluorescence color imaging system. Results showed that the spectral parameter and image component ratio presented a linear relation. Therefore, the image component ratio was graded as 1.62 to quantitatively classify sound, early decay, established decay, and severe decay tissues, respectively. Finally, the fluorescence images of caries were experimentally obtained, and the corresponding image component ratio distribution was compared with the classification result. A method to determine the numerical grades of caries using a fluorescence imaging system was proposed. This method can be applied to similar imaging systems.

  11. Radio echo sounding data analysis of the Shackleton Ice Shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Baskaradas

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, our initial results are presented for the interpretation of the radio echo sounding data collected over the Shackleton Ice Shelf and adjacent ice sheet (East Antarctica during the 2003/2004 Australian-Italian expedition. The Shackleton Ice Shelf is one of the larger ice shelves of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. The radar survey provided data relating to ice thickness and bed morphology of the outlet glaciers, and thickness of their floating portions. The glacier grounding lines were determined by assessment of the basal echo characters. The information derived is compared with data from the BEDMAP database and from other sources.

  12. Effect of method and parameters of spectral analysis on selected indices of simulated Doppler spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluzynski, K; Palko, T

    1993-05-01

    The sensitivity of Doppler spectral indices (mean frequency, maximum frequency, spectral broadening index and turbulence intensity) to the conditions of spectral analysis (estimation method, data window, smoothing window or model order) increases with decreasing signal bandwidth and growing index complexity. The bias of spectral estimate has a more important effect on these indices than its variance. A too low order, in the case of autoregressive modeling and minimum variance methods, and excessive smoothing, in the case of the FFT method, result in increased errors of Doppler spectral indices. There is a trade-off between the errors resulting from a short data window and those due to insufficient temporal resolution.

  13. Spectral fluctuation analysis of ionospheric inhomogeneities over Brazilian territory. Part I: Equatorial F-region plasma bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornari, G.; Rosa, R. R.; de Meneses, F. C.; Muralikrishna, P.

    2016-11-01

    In this Part I of a more general paper on the analysis of ionospheric irregularities over Brazilian territory, we apply the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) method to evaluate in situ equatorial F-region plasma bubbles events carried out with a sounding rocket over equatorial region in Brazil. The range of scaling exponents derived from the DFA technique are compared to previous results obtained using Power Spectral Density (PSD) technique (which is widely used in this area despite its recognized inaccuracy to analyze short series). The results obtained in this first part of our investigation, using DFA, also show a wide range of spectral index variation with standard deviation of the same order found from the previous application using PSD (σm ≫ 10 %). Therefore, since the dependence of the technique are disregarded, our findings also supports that the observed lack of a universality class characterized by the nonexistence of a single spectral index (with σm ≈ 2 %) may be due to non-homogeneity energy cascades that can appear in the incoherent ionospheric turbulent process.

  14. A parametric study based on spectral fatigue analysis for 170k LNGC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Yoon Park

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Spectral Fatigue Analysis is representative fatigue life assessment method for vessels. This Analysis is performed generally for the whole vessel and many assessment sites. The spectral fatigue analysis is performed through the process of hydrodynamic response analysis, global structural analysis, local structural analysis and calculation of fatigue damage. In these processes, fatigue damage is affected by many variables. The representative variables are S-N curve data, wave scatter data, wave spectrum, bandwidth effect and etc. In this paper, the effects of these variables to the fatigue damage are analyzed through the spectral fatigue analysis for 170k LNGC.

  15. [A New HAC Unsupervised Classifier Based on Spectral Harmonic Analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ke-ming; Wei, Hua-feng; Shi, Gang-qiang; Sun, Yang-yang; Liu, Fei

    2015-07-01

    Hyperspectral images classification is one of the important methods to identify image information, which has great significance for feature identification, dynamic monitoring and thematic information extraction, etc. Unsupervised classification without prior knowledge is widely used in hyperspectral image classification. This article proposes a new hyperspectral images unsupervised classification algorithm based on harmonic analysis(HA), which is called the harmonic analysis classifer (HAC). First, the HAC algorithm counts the first harmonic component and draws the histogram, so it can determine the initial feature categories and the pixel of cluster centers according to the number and location of the peak. Then, the algorithm is to map the waveform information of pixels to be classified spectrum into the feature space made up of harmonic decomposition times, amplitude and phase, and the similar features can be gotten together in the feature space, these pixels will be classified according to the principle of minimum distance. Finally, the algorithm computes the Euclidean distance of these pixels between cluster center, and merges the initial classification by setting the distance threshold. so the HAC can achieve the purpose of hyperspectral images classification. The paper collects spectral curves of two feature categories, and obtains harmonic decomposition times, amplitude and phase after harmonic analysis, the distribution of HA components in the feature space verified the correctness of the HAC. While the HAC algorithm is applied to EO-1 satellite Hyperion hyperspectral image and obtains the results of classification. Comparing with the hyperspectral image classifying results of K-MEANS, ISODATA and HAC classifiers, the HAC, as a unsupervised classification method, is confirmed to have better application on hyperspectral image classification.

  16. A New Study of Mountain Snowpack through Graph Spectral Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongora, J. A.; Marshall, H. P.

    2016-12-01

    The ability to accurately quantify snowpack variability has major impacts on estimations of snow depth and snow water equivalent (SWE). Complex physics based models have attempted to constrain the physical mechanisms that most affect snowpack properties and have been successful in producing results that are comparable to the average changes seasonal snowpack undergoes during the accumulation and melt periods. However they fail to accurately model any abrupt changes, especially in mountainous terrain; in part, due to the lack of in-situ measurements that contain the detailed forcing data required by such models. This study approaches the problem using a merger of Graph Theory, Spectral and K-means Cluster Analysis, as well as Radial Basis Function Neural Network to partition a complete data set of SNODAS product in addition to LiDAR datasets at the 1 km scale. These partitions are used to implement machine learning techniques to make predictions about current and future snowpack conditions. This system leverages the ability of Graphs, collections of nodes and edges, to represent nonlinear systems, such as the continuous spatiotemporal changes in seasonal snowpack and has unique properties that allow optimal sampling design for monitoring and studying snowpack patterns.

  17. Analysis of speech sounds is left-hemisphere predominant at 100-150ms after sound onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinne, T; Alho, K; Alku, P; Holi, M; Sinkkonen, J; Virtanen, J; Bertrand, O; Näätänen, R

    1999-04-06

    Hemispheric specialization of human speech processing has been found in brain imaging studies using fMRI and PET. Due to the restricted time resolution, these methods cannot, however, determine the stage of auditory processing at which this specialization first emerges. We used a dense electrode array covering the whole scalp to record the mismatch negativity (MMN), an event-related brain potential (ERP) automatically elicited by occasional changes in sounds, which ranged from non-phonetic (tones) to phonetic (vowels). MMN can be used to probe auditory central processing on a millisecond scale with no attention-dependent task requirements. Our results indicate that speech processing occurs predominantly in the left hemisphere at the early, pre-attentive level of auditory analysis.

  18. The spectral analysis of syllables in patients using dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindra, Petr; Eber, Miroslav; Pesák, Josef

    2002-12-01

    Changes in the oral cavity resulting from the loss of teeth and the ensuing reconstruction of a set of teeth by dentures (partial or complete) may cause changes in the speech and voice of the patient. The aim of the present investigation was to study the changes in speech and voice in patients suffering from teeth loss and the degree of speech improvement using dentures. Voice and speech parameters of a set of tested syllables were analysed in 10 patients at the 2nd Clinic of Stomatology. The analysis was carried out by means of an FFT, SoundForge 5.0 programme. Differently expressed acoustic changes in both consonants and vowels were ascertained in a percentage of the patients under examination. These concerned especially the sibilant ("s", "(see text)"), labiodental ("f", "v") and vibrating ("r", "(see text)") consonants. Changes in the FFT spectrum and air leakage in constrictive consonants were also found. In some patients the vowels, especially the closed ones ("i", "u"), may change their fundamental frequency and show noise admixture manifested as a blurred delimitation of the formants. A denture should, inter alia, render it possible for the patient to produce the same articulation to which he/she had been accustomed before the loss of teeth. For the construction of dentures the most important factors from a phonetic point of view appear to be the following: overbite, overjet, the height of the plate, the thickness of the palatal material, the incisor position, and the modelling of the ruga palatina on the hard palate. In case of wrong denture construction the acoustic changes may continue, resulting in the patient's stress load dependent upon sex, age, psychic condition and seriousness of the problem.

  19. Exploring science with sound: sonification and the use of sonograms as data analysis tool

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Williams, Genevieve

    2017-01-01

    Resonances, periodicity, patterns and spectra are well-known notions that play crucial roles in particle physics, and that have always been at the junction between sound/music analysis and scientific exploration. Detecting the shape of a particular energy spectrum, studying the stability of a particle beam in a synchrotron, and separating signals from a noisy background are just a few examples where the connection with sound can be very strong, all sharing the same concepts of oscillations, cycles and frequency. This seminar will focus on analysing data and their relations by translating measurements into audible signals and using the natural capability of the ear to distinguish, characterise and analyse waveform shapes, amplitudes and relations. This process is called data sonification, and one of the main tools to investigate the structure of the sound is the sonogram (sometimes also called a spectrogram). A sonogram is a visual representation of how the spectrum of a certain sound signal changes with time...

  20. Bistable flow spectral analysis. Repercussions on jet pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavilan Moreno, C.J., E-mail: cgavilan@iies.es [Cofrentes NPP, Engineering Dept., Iberdrola (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: > The most important thing in this paper, is the spectral characterization of the bistable flow in a Nuclear Power Plant. > This paper goes deeper in the effect of the bistable flow over the jet pump and the induced vibrations. > The jet pump frequencies are very close to natural jet pump frequencies, in the 3rd and 6th mode. - Abstract: There have been many attempts at characterizing and predicting bistable flow in boiling water reactors (BWRs). Nevertheless, in most cases the results have only managed to develop models that analytically reproduce the phenomenon (). Modeling has been forensic in all cases, while the capacity of the model focus on determining the exclusion areas on the recirculation flow map. The bistability process is known by its effects given there is no clear definition of its causal process. In the 1980s, Hitachi technicians () managed to reproduce bistable flow in the laboratory by means of pipe geometry, similar to that which is found in recirculation loops. The result was that the low flow pattern is formed by the appearance of a quasi stationary, helicoidal vortex in the recirculation collector's branches. This vortex creates greater frictional losses than regions without vortices, at the same discharge pressure. Neither the behavior nor the dynamics of these vortices were characterized in this paper. The aim of this paper is to characterize these vortices in such a way as to enable them to provide their own frequencies and their later effect on the jet pumps. The methodology used in this study is similar to the one used previously when analyzing the bistable flow in tube arrays with cross flow (). The method employed makes use of the power spectral density function. What differs is the field of application. We will analyze a Loop B with a bistable flow and compare the high and low flow situations. The same analysis will also be carried out on the loop that has not developed the bistable flow (Loop A) at the same moments

  1. Auditory spectral versus spatial temporal order judgment: Threshold distribution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fostick, Leah; Babkoff, Harvey

    2017-05-01

    Some researchers suggested that one central mechanism is responsible for temporal order judgments (TOJ), within and across sensory channels. This suggestion is supported by findings of similar TOJ thresholds in same modality and cross-modality TOJ tasks. In the present study, we challenge this idea by analyzing and comparing the threshold distributions of the spectral and spatial TOJ tasks. In spectral TOJ, the tones differ in their frequency ("high" and "low") and are delivered either binaurally or monaurally. In spatial (or dichotic) TOJ, the two tones are identical but are presented asynchronously to the two ears and thus differ with respect to which ear received the first tone and which ear received the second tone ("left"/"left"). Although both tasks are regarded as measures of auditory temporal processing, a review of data published in the literature suggests that they trigger different patterns of response. The aim of the current study was to systematically examine spectral and spatial TOJ threshold distributions across a large number of studies. Data are based on 388 participants in 13 spectral TOJ experiments, and 222 participants in 9 spatial TOJ experiments. None of the spatial TOJ distributions deviated significantly from the Gaussian; while all of the spectral TOJ threshold distributions were skewed to the right, with more than half of the participants accurately judging temporal order at very short interstimulus intervals (ISI). The data do not support the hypothesis that 1 central mechanism is responsible for all temporal order judgments. We suggest that different perceptual strategies are employed when performing spectral TOJ than when performing spatial TOJ. We posit that the spectral TOJ paradigm may provide the opportunity for two-tone masking or temporal integration, which is sensitive to the order of the tones and thus provides perceptual cues that may be used to judge temporal order. This possibility should be considered when interpreting

  2. Bayesian Spectral Analysis of Chorus Sub-Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, C. E.; Tejero, E. M.; Ganguli, G.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Kletzing, C.

    2016-12-01

    We develop a Bayesian spectral analysis technique that calculates the probability distribution functions of a superposition of wave-modes each described by a linear growth rate, a frequency and a chirp rate. The Bayesian framework has a number of advantages, including 1) reducing the parameter space by integrating over the amplitude and phase of the wave, 2) incorporating the data from each channel to determine the model parameters such as frequency which leads to high resolution results in frequency and time, 3) the ability to consider the superposition of waves where the wave-parameters are closely spaced, 4) the ability to directly calculate the expectation value of wave parameters without resorting to ensemble averages, 5) the ability to calculate error bars on model parameters. We examine one rising-tone chorus element in detail from a disturbed time on November 14, 2012 using burst mode waveform data of the three components of the electric and magnetic field from the EMFISIS instrument on board NASA's Van Allen Probes. The results of the analysis demonstrate that whistler mode chorus sub-elements are composed of almost linear waves that are nearly parallel propagating with continuously changing wave parameters such as frequency and wave-vector. The change of wave-vector as a function of time is a three-dimensional phenomenon suggesting that 2D simulations may not accurately represent chorus. The initial parts of the sub-elements are in good agreement with the analytical theory of Omura et al. 2008. However, between sub-elements the wave parameters of the dominant mode undergo discrete changes in frequency and wave-vector. Near the boundary of sub-elements multiple waves are observed such that the evolution of the waves is reminiscent of wave-wave processes such as parametric decay or induced scattering by particles. These nonlinear processes are signatures of weak turbulence and may affect the saturation of the whistler-mode chorus instability.

  3. Hammering sound frequency analysis and prevention of intraoperative periprosthetic fractures during total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Rina; Kikuchi, Aki; Morita, Towa; Takahira, Naonobu; Uchiyama, Katsufumi; Yamamoto, Takeaki; Moriya, Mistutoshi; Uchida, Kentaro; Fukushima, Kensuke; Tanaka, Kensei; Takaso, Masashi; Itoman, Moritoshi; Mabuchi, Kiyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Adequate fixation at the time of cementless stem implantation depends on the operator's experience. An objective evaluation method to determine whether the stem has been appropriately implanted may be helpful. We studied the relationship between the hammering sound frequency during stem implantation and internal stress in a femoral model, and evaluated the possible usefulness of hammering sound frequency analysis for preventing intraoperative fracture. Three types of cementless stem (BiCONTACT®, SL-PLUS®, and AI-Hip®) were used. Surgeons performed stem insertion using a procedure similar to that employed in a routine operation. Stress was estimated by finite element analysis, the hammering force was measured, and frequency analysis of hammering sound data obtained using a microphone. Finite element analysis showed a decrease in the hammering sound frequency with an increase in the estimated maximum stress. When a decrease in frequency was observed, adequate hammering had occurred, and the continuation of hammering risked fracture. Based on the relationship between stress and frequency, the evaluation of changes in frequency may be useful for preventing the development of intraoperative fractures. Using our method, when a decrease in frequency is observed, the hammering force should be reduced. Hammering sound frequency analysis may allow the prediction of bone fractures that can be visually confirmed, and may be a useful objective evaluation method for the prevention of intraoperative periprosthetic fractures during stem insertion.

  4. Analysis of sound data streamed over the network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Fejfar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we inspect a difference between original sound recording and signal captured after streaming this original recording over a network loaded with a heavy traffic. There are several kinds of failures occurring in the captured recording caused by network congestion. We try to find a method how to evaluate correctness of streamed audio. Usually there are metrics based on a human perception of a signal such as “signal is clear, without audible failures”, “signal is having some failures but it is understandable”, or “signal is inarticulate”. These approaches need to be statistically evaluated on a broad set of respondents, which is time and resource consuming. We try to propose some metrics based on signal properties allowing us to compare the original and captured recording. We use algorithm called Dynamic Time Warping (Müller, 2007 commonly used for time series comparison in this paper. Some other time series exploration approaches can be found in (Fejfar, 2011 and (Fejfar, 2012. The data was acquired in our network laboratory simulating network traffic by downloading files, streaming audio and video simultaneously. Our former experiment inspected Quality of Service (QoS and its impact on failures of received audio data stream. This experiment is focused on the comparison of sound recordings rather than network mechanism.We focus, in this paper, on a real time audio stream such as a telephone call, where it is not possible to stream audio in advance to a “pool”. Instead it is necessary to achieve as small delay as possible (between speaker voice recording and listener voice replay. We are using RTP protocol for streaming audio.

  5. Relationship between sound radiation from sound-induced and force-excited vibration: Analysis using an infinite elastic plate model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yairi, Motoki; Sakagami, Kimihiro; Nishibara, Kosuke; Okuzono, Takeshi

    2016-07-01

    Although sound radiation from sound-induced vibration and from force-excited vibration of solid structures are similar phenomena in terms of radiating from vibrating structures, the general relationship between them has not been explicitly studied to date. In particular, airborne sound transmission through walls and sound radiation from structurally vibrating surfaces in buildings are treated as different issues in architectural acoustics. In this paper, a fundamental relationship is elucidated through the use of a simple model. The transmission coefficient for random-incidence sound and the radiated sound power under point force excitation of an infinite elastic plate are both analyzed. Exact and approximate solutions are derived for the two problems, and the relationship between them is theoretically discussed. A conversion function that relates the transmission coefficient and radiated sound power is obtained in a simple closed form through the approximate solutions. The exact solutions are also related by the same conversion function. It is composed of the specific impedance and the wavenumber, and is independent of any elastic plate parameters. The sound radiation due to random-incidence sound and point force excitation are similar phenomena, and the only difference is the gradient of those characteristics with respect to the frequency.

  6. [Application of the computer-based respiratory sound analysis system based on Mel-frequency cepstral coefficient and dynamic time warping in healthy children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, W Y; Li, L; Yang, Y G; Lin, X L; Wu, J Z

    2016-08-01

    We designed a computer-based respiratory sound analysis system to identify pediatric normal lung sound. To verify the validity of the computer-based respiratory sound analysis system. First we downloaded the standard lung sounds from the network database (website: http: //www.easyauscultation.com/lung-sounds-reference-guide) and recorded 3 samples of abnormal loud sound (rhonchi, wheeze and crackles) from three patients of The Department of Pediatrics, the First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University. We regarded such lung sounds as"reference lung sounds". The"test lung sounds"were recorded from 29 children form Kindergarten of Xiamen University. we recorded lung sound by portable electronic stethoscope and valid lung sounds were selected by manual identification. We introduced Mel-frequency cepstral coefficient (MFCC) to extract lung sound features and dynamic time warping (DTW) for signal classification. We had 39 standard lung sounds, recorded 58 test lung sounds. This computer-based respiratory sound analysis system was carried out in 58 lung sound recognition, correct identification of 52 times, error identification 6 times. Accuracy was 89.7%. Based on MFCC and DTW, our computer-based respiratory sound analysis system can effectively identify healthy lung sounds of children (accuracy can reach 89.7%), fully embodies the reliability of the lung sounds analysis system.

  7. Evaluation of atmospheric correction procedures for ocean color data processing using hyper- and multi-spectral radiometric measurements from the Long Island Sound Coastal Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, S.; Gilerson, A.; Harmel, T.; Hlaing, S.; Tonizzo, A.; Weidemann, A.; Arnone, R.

    2012-06-01

    In Ocean Color (OC) data processing one of the most critical steps is the atmospheric correction procedure used to separate the water leaving radiance, which contains information on water constituents, from the total radiance measured by space borne sensors, which contains atmospheric contributions. To ensure reliability of retrieved water leaving radiance values, and OC information derived from them, the quality of the atmospheric correction procedures applied needs to be assessed and validated. In this regard, the Long Island Sound Coastal Observatory (LISCO), jointly established by the City College of New York and the Naval Research Laboratory is becoming one of the key elements for OC sensors validation efforts, in part because of its capabilities for co-located hyper and multi-spectral measurements using HyperSAS and SeaPRISM radiometers respectively, with the latter being part of the NASA AERONET - OC network. Accordingly, the impact of the procedures used for atmospheric correction on the retrieval of remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) data can then be evaluated based on satellite OC data acquired from the LISCO site over the last two years. From this, the qualities of atmospheric correction procedures are assessed by performing matchup comparisons between the satellites retrieved atmospheric data and that of LISCO.

  8. Hurricane coastal flood analysis using multispectral spectral images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogashawara, I.; Ferreira, C.; Curtarelli, M. P.

    2013-12-01

    Flooding is one of the main hazards caused by extreme events such as hurricanes and tropical storms. Therefore, flood maps are a crucial tool to support policy makers, environmental managers and other government agencies for emergency management, disaster recovery and risk reduction planning. However traditional flood mapping methods rely heavily on the interpolation of hydrodynamic models results, and most recently, the extensive collection of field data. These methods are time-consuming, labor intensive, and costly. Efficient and fast response alternative methods should be developed in order to improve flood mapping, and remote sensing has been proved as a valuable tool for this application. Our goal in this paper is to introduce a novel technique based on spectral analysis in order to aggregate knowledge and information to map coastal flood areas. For this purpose we used the Normalized Diference Water Index (NDWI) which was derived from two the medium resolution LANDSAT/TM 5 surface reflectance product from the LANDSAT climate data record (CDR). This product is generated from specialized software called Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS). We used the surface reflectance products acquired before and after the passage of Hurricane Ike for East Texas in September of 2008. We used as end member a classification of estimated flooded area based on the United States Geological Survey (USGS) mobile storm surge network that was deployed for Hurricane Ike. We used a dataset which consisted of 59 water levels recording stations. The estimated flooded area was delineated interpolating the maximum surge in each location using a spline with barriers method with high tension and a 30 meter Digital Elevation Model (DEM) from the National Elevation Dataset (NED). Our results showed that, in the flooded area, the NDWI values decreased after the hurricane landfall on average from 0.38 to 0.18 and the median value decreased from 0.36 to 0.2. However

  9. Dichotomous classification of black-colored metal using spectral analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramovich A.O.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The task of detecting metal objects in different environments has always been important. To solve it metal detectors are used. They are designed to detect and identify objects that in their electric or magnetic properties different from the environment in which they are located. The most common among them are the metal detectors of the «detection of very low frequency» type (Very Low Frequency (VLF detectors. They use eddy current testing for detecting metal targets, which solves the problem of dichotomous distinction, that is a problem of splitting (or set into two parts (subsets: black or colored target. The target distinction is performed by a threshold level of the received signal. However, this approach does not allow to identify the type of target, if two samples of different metals are nearby. To overcome the above described limitations we propose another way of distinction based on the use of spectral analysis, which occurs in the metal detector antenna by Foucault current. We show that the problem of dichotomous distinction can be solved in just a measurement of width and area by the envelope of amplitude spectrum (hereinafter spectrum of the received signal. In this regard the laboratory model using eddy current metal detector will combat withdrawal from two samples – steel and copper, located along and calculate its range. The task of distinguishing between metal targets reduced to determining the hit spectra of reference samples obtained spectrum. The ratio between the areas is measured and reference spectra indicates the percentage of specific metals (e.g. two identical samples of different metals lying side by side. Signal processing is performed by specially designed program that compares two spectra along posted samples of black and colored metals with base.

  10. Atmospheric Optical Properties and Spectral Analysis of Desert Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yvgeni, D.; Karnieli, A.; Kaufman, Y. J.; Andreae, M. O.; Holben, B. N.; Maenhaut, W.

    2002-05-01

    Scientific background Aerosols can interact directly with solar and terrestrial radiation by scattering as well as absorption. In addition, they can indirectly alter the planetary albedo by modifying the properties of clouds. Objectives Investigations have been devoted to two main areas: (1) Aerosol climatology situation in the Negev desert, investigations of physical and chemical characteristics of aerosols, and study of the local and long-range transport trajectory of polluted air masses over the Negev desert; and (2) An estimation of the optical properties throughout the atmospheric column by surface measurements via performance of spectral and statistical analysis of the data received from two measurement systems. Results and conclusions Analyzed data from the Sede Boker site, in the Negev Desert of Israel, shows an increase in aerosol optical depth during the summer seasons and a decrease during winter. One of the possible reasons for this characteristic is an increase of the precipitable water (reaches 3.0-3.5 cm) due to a constant wind stream from the Mediterranean Sea in same time. The highest probability distribution of the aerosol optical depth is in the range of 0.15-0.20; and of the Angstrom parameter is in range of 0.83 - 1.07. During dust storm events, the scattering coefficient range at 670 nm and 440 nm wavelengths were inverted. It was discovered that the dust particles in this case had non-spherical character. Comparison between optical depth, measured through all atmospheric column, and scattering coefficient from surface measurements provides correlation coefficient (r) equal to 0.64. The Angstrom parameter, calculated via optical depth and via scattering coefficient, provides a correlation coefficient of 0.66. Thus we can obtain an estimate of the influence of the surface aerosol situation on column optical properties. The combined analysis of dust cloud altitude and optical depth as a function of the time indicates long-term transport and

  11. An Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface Utility for Underwater Sound Monitoring and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Huiying; Halvorsen, Michele B.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-05-31

    Fishes and other marine mammals suffer a range of potential effects from intense sound sources generated by anthropogenic underwater processes such as pile driving, shipping, sonars, and underwater blasting. Several underwater sound recording devices (USR) were built to monitor the acoustic sound pressure waves generated by those anthropogenic underwater activities, so the relevant processing software becomes indispensable for analyzing the audio files recorded by these USRs. However, existing software packages did not meet performance and flexibility requirements. In this paper, we provide a detailed description of a new software package, named Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface (AAMI), which is a Graphical User Interface (GUI) designed for underwater sound monitoring and analysis. In addition to the general functions, such as loading and editing audio files recorded by USRs, the software can compute a series of acoustic metrics in physical units, monitor the sound's influence on fish hearing according to audiograms from different species of fishes and marine mammals, and batch process the sound files. The detailed applications of the software AAMI will be discussed along with several test case scenarios to illustrate its functionality.

  12. Lung sound analysis helps localize airway inflammation in patients with bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Terufumi; Obase, Yasushi; Nagasaka, Yukio; Nakano, Hiroshi; Ishimatsu, Akiko; Kishikawa, Reiko; Iwanaga, Tomoaki

    2017-01-01

    Airway inflammation can be detected by lung sound analysis (LSA) at a single point in the posterior lower lung field. We performed LSA at 7 points to examine whether the technique could identify the location of airway inflammation in patients with asthma. Breath sounds were recorded at 7 points on the body surface of 22 asthmatic subjects. Inspiration sound pressure level (ISPL), expiration sound pressure level (ESPL), and the expiration-to-inspiration sound pressure ratio (E/I) were calculated in 6 frequency bands. The data were analyzed for potential correlation with spirometry, airway hyperresponsiveness (PC20), and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO). The E/I data in the frequency range of 100-400 Hz (E/I low frequency [LF], E/I mid frequency [MF]) were better correlated with the spirometry, PC20, and FeNO values than were the ISPL or ESPL data. The left anterior chest and left posterior lower recording positions were associated with the best correlations (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity: r=-0.55 and r=-0.58; logPC20: r=-0.46 and r=-0.45; and FeNO: r=0.42 and r=0.46, respectively). The majority of asthmatic subjects with FeNO ≥70 ppb exhibited high E/I MF levels in all lung fields (excluding the trachea) and V50%pred sound recordings could be used to identify sites of local airway inflammation.

  13. Analysis of the sources of error in the determination of sound power based on sound intensity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santillan, Arturo Orozco; Jacobsen, Finn

    2010-01-01

    the resulting measurement uncertainty. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effect of the most common sources of error in sound power determination based on sound intensity measurements. In particular the influence of the scanning procedure used in approximating the surface integral of the intensity...

  14. [Plasma spectral analysis of laser cleaning process in air].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yan-Qun; Zhang, Yong-Kang; Yao, Hong-Bing; Meng, Chun-Mei; Guan, Hai-Bing

    2011-09-01

    It is quick and accurate to on-line monitor the sample condition of laser cleaning by means of laser-induced plasma spectrum in air. In the present article, the echelle grating spectrometer was used to detect the plasma spectral lines induced by pulsed laser interaction with copper coin samples with or without contamination. The spectrogram showed that there were clear Cu I spectrum lines and air atom spectrum lines of N I and O I. In order to eliminate the uncertainty of single measurement, the statistical regularity of N I and O I spectrum lines was analyzed. Their intensity distribution laws were consistent and their relative standard deviations were the same basically. So a single measurement spectrum could be used to monitor cleaning process. The spectra of copper samples with contamination consisted of many elements atomic spectral lines and continuous spectral lines. But there are Cu I spectral lines in the spectra of clean copper samples. As a result, the authors could detect the change of spectral lines to judge whether the laser cleaning samples were clean.

  15. Estimation of sub-pixel water area on Tibet plateau using multiple endmembers spectral mixture spectral analysis from MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Qian; Shi, Jiancheng; Xu, Yuanliu

    2011-12-01

    Water is the basic needs for human society, and the determining factor of stability of ecosystem as well. There are lots of lakes on Tibet Plateau, which will lead to flood and mudslide when the water expands sharply. At present, water area is extracted from TM or SPOT data for their high spatial resolution; however, their temporal resolution is insufficient. MODIS data have high temporal resolution and broad coverage. So it is valuable resource for detecting the change of water area. Because of its low spatial resolution, mixed-pixels are common. In this paper, four spectral libraries are built using MOD09A1 product, based on that, water body is extracted in sub-pixels utilizing Multiple Endmembers Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) using MODIS daily reflectance data MOD09GA. The unmixed result is comparing with contemporaneous TM data and it is proved that this method has high accuracy.

  16. Rotating shadowband radiometer development and analysis of spectral shortwave data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalsky, J.; Harrison, L.; Min, Q. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    Our goals in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program are improved measurements of spectral shortwave radiation and improved techniques for the retrieval of climatologically sensitive parameters. The multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) that was developed during the first years of the ARM program has become a workhorse at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site, and it is widely deployed in other climate programs. We have spent most of our effort this year developing techniques to retrieve column aerosol, water vapor, and ozone from direct beam spectral measurements of the MFRSR. Additionally, we have had some success in calculating shortwave surface diffuse spectral irradiance. Using the surface albedo and the global irradiance, we have calculated cloud optical depths. From cloud optical depth and liquid water measured with the microwave radiometer, we have calculated effective liquid cloud particle radii. The rest of the text will provide some detail regarding each of these efforts.

  17. Spectral analysis of the turbulent mixing of two fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinkamp, M.J.

    1996-02-01

    The authors describe a spectral approach to the investigation of fluid instability, generalized turbulence, and the interpenetration of fluids across an interface. The technique also applies to a single fluid with large variations in density. Departures of fluctuating velocity components from the local mean are far subsonic, but the mean Mach number can be large. Validity of the description is demonstrated by comparisons with experiments on turbulent mixing due to the late stages of Rayleigh-Taylor instability, when the dynamics become approximately self-similar in response to a constant body force. Generic forms for anisotropic spectral structure are described and used as a basis for deriving spectrally integrated moment equations that can be incorporated into computer codes for scientific and engineering analyses.

  18. Systematic Spectral Lag Analysis of Swift Known-z GRBs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta Kawakubo

    2015-01-01

    arrive earlier than soft photons. The lag-luminosity relation is the empirical relationship between the isotropic peak luminosity and the spectral lag. We calculated the spectral lags for 40 known redshift GRBs observed by Swift addition to the previous 31 GRB samples. We confirmed that most of our samples follow the lag-luminosity relation. However, we noticed that there are some GRBs which show a significant scatter from the relation. We also confirm that the relationship between the break time and the luminosity of the X-ray afterglow (so-called Dainotti relation extends up to the lag-luminosity relation.

  19. Towards a method for loudness-based analysis of the sound of one's own voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Manuj; Cabrera, Densil; Kenny, Dianna T

    2014-10-01

    This paper outlines the steps in objectively estimating the time-varying loudness of one's own voice in a room (i.e. autophonic loudness). Voice recordings, made with a near-mouth microphone, are converted to the sound that reaches the two eardrums of the talking (or singing)-listener by convolving them with the impulse responses from the mouth to the respective ears of an anthropomorphic head and torso. The influences of bone-conducted sound and room reflections are taken into account. These convolved recordings are then processed with a computational time-varying loudness model. The method is demonstrated by a short case study, and the results illustrate something of the benefit of loudness analysis over sound pressure level analysis for representing autophonic loudness.

  20. Field support, data analysis and associated research for the acoustic grenade sounding program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, T. G.; Bullard, E. R.

    1976-01-01

    Temperature and horizontal winds in the 30 to 90 km altitude range of the upper atmosphere, were determined by acoustic grenade soundings conducted at Wallops Island, Virginia and Kourou, French Guiana. Field support provided at these locations included deployment of the large area microphone system, supervision, maintenance and operation of sound ranging stations; and coordination of activities. Data analysis efforts included the analysis of field data to determine upper atmospheric meteorological parameters. Profiles for upper atmospheric temperature, wind and density are provided in plots and tables for each of the acoustic grenade soundings conducted during the contract period. Research efforts were directed toward a systematic comparison of temperature data from acoustic grenade with other meteorological sensor probes in the upper atmosphere.

  1. Source-domain spectral EEG analysis of sports-related concussion via Measure Projection Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkan, Ozgur; Virji-Babul, Naznin; Miyakoshi, Makoto; Makeig, Scott; Garudadri, Harinath

    2015-01-01

    Here, we investigated EEG-based source-level spectral differences between adolescents with sports-related concussions and healthy age matched controls. We transformed resting state EEG collected in both groups to the source domain using Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and computed the component process power spectra. For group-level analysis in the source domain, we used a probabilistic framework, Measure Projection Analysis (MPA), that has advantages over parametric k-means clustering of brain sources. MPA revealed that some frontal brain sources in the concussed group had significantly more power in the beta band (p<;0.005) and significantly less delta (p<;0.01) and theta band power (p<;0.05) than the healthy control group. These results suggest that a shift in spectral profile toward higher frequencies in some frontal brain regions might distinguish individuals with concussion from healthy controls.

  2. Ultra-wideband spectral analysis using S2 technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna Mohan, R. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)]. E-mail: krishna@spectrum.montana.edu; Chang, T. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Tian, M. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Bekker, S. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Olson, A. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Ostrander, C. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Khallaayoun, A. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Dollinger, C. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Babbitt, W.R. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Cole, Z. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); S2 Corporation, Bozeman, MT 59718 (United States); Reibel, R.R. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); S2 Corporation, Bozeman, MT 59718 (United States); Merkel, K.D. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); S2 Corporation, Bozeman, MT 59718 (United States); Sun, Y. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Cone, R. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Schlottau, F. [University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Wagner, K.H. [University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2007-11-15

    This paper outlines the efforts to develop an ultra-wideband spectrum analyzer that takes advantage of the broad spectral response and fine spectral resolution ({approx}25 kHz) of spatial-spectral (S2) materials. The S2 material can process the full spectrum of broadband microwave transmissions, with adjustable time apertures (down to 100 {mu}s) and fast update rates (up to 1 kHz). A cryogenically cooled Tm:YAG crystal that operates on microwave signals modulated onto a stabilized optical carrier at 793 nm is used as the core for the spectrum analyzer. Efforts to develop novel component technologies that enhance the performance of the system and meet the application requirements are discussed, including an end-to-end device model for parameter optimization. We discuss the characterization of new ultra-wide bandwidth S2 materials. Detection and post-processing module development including the implementation of a novel spectral recovery algorithm using field programmable gate array technology (FPGA) is also discussed.

  3. Detecting gallbladders in chicken livers using spectral analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders; Mølvig Jensen, Eigil; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method for detecting gallbladders attached to chicken livers using spectral imaging. Gallbladders can contaminate good livers, making them unfit for human consumption. A data set consisting of chicken livers with and without gallbladders, has been captured using 33 wavelengt...

  4. Analysis of spectral operators in one-dimensional domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maday, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Results are proven concerning certain projection operators on the space of all polynomials of degree less than or equal to N with respect to a class of one-dimensional weighted Sobolev spaces. The results are useful in the theory of the approximation of partial differential equations with spectral methods.

  5. Assessment of cardiovascular reactivity by means of spectral analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Lambertus Johannes Maria

    1988-01-01

    The present study on the one hand deals with the spectral methods required for exploring the backgrounds of Íluctuations in heart rate (HRV) and other cardiovascular time series. At the other, some applications of the proposed methods in the field of mental workload and stress are discussed. ...

  6. Spectral and Temporal Laser Fluorescence Analysis Such as for Natural Aquatic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekalyuk, Alexander (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An Advanced Laser Fluorometer (ALF) can combine spectrally and temporally resolved measurements of laser-stimulated emission (LSE) for characterization of dissolved and particulate matter, including fluorescence constituents, in liquids. Spectral deconvolution (SDC) analysis of LSE spectral measurements can accurately retrieve information about individual fluorescent bands, such as can be attributed to chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), phycobiliprotein (PBP) pigments, or chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), among others. Improved physiological assessments of photosynthesizing organisms can use SDC analysis and temporal LSE measurements to assess variable fluorescence corrected for SDC-retrieved background fluorescence. Fluorescence assessments of Chl-a concentration based on LSE spectral measurements can be improved using photo-physiological information from temporal measurements. Quantitative assessments of PBP pigments, CDOM, and other fluorescent constituents, as well as basic structural characterizations of photosynthesizing populations, can be performed using SDC analysis of LSE spectral measurements.

  7. Accelerometer and gyroscope based gait analysis using spectral analysis of patients with osteoarthritis of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staab, Wieland; Hottowitz, Ralf; Sohns, Christian; Sohns, Jan Martin; Gilbert, Fabian; Menke, Jan; Niklas, Andree; Lotz, Joachim

    2014-07-01

    [Purpose] A wide variety of accelerometer tools are used to estimate human movement, but there are no adequate data relating to gait symmetry parameters in the context of knee osteoarthritis. This study's purpose was to evaluate a 3D-kinematic system using body-mounted sensors (gyroscopes and accelerometers) on the trunk and limbs. This is the first study to use spectral analysis for data post processing. [Subjects] Twelve patients with unilateral knee osteoarthritis (OA) (10 male) and seven age-matched controls (6 male) were studied. [Methods] Measurements with 3-D accelerometers and gyroscopes were compared to video analysis with marker positions tracked by a six-camera optoelectronic system (VICON 460, Oxford Metrics). Data were recorded using the 3D-kinematic system. [Results] The results of both gait analysis systems were significantly correlated. Five parameters were significantly different between the knee OA and control groups. To overcome time spent in expensive post-processing routines, spectral analysis was performed for fast differentiation between normal gait and pathological gait signals using the 3D-kinematic system. [Conclusions] The 3D-kinematic system is objective, inexpensive, accurate and portable, and allows long-term recordings in clinical, sport as well as ergonomic or functional capacity evaluation (FCE) settings. For fast post-processing, spectral analysis of the recorded data is recommended.

  8. Sound and sound sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Wahlberg, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    There is no difference in principle between the infrasonic and ultrasonic sounds, which are inaudible to humans (or other animals) and the sounds that we can hear. In all cases, sound is a wave of pressure and particle oscillations propagating through an elastic medium, such as air. This chapter...... of these properties are dictated by simple physical relationships between the size of the sound emitter and the wavelength of emitted sound. The wavelengths of the signals need to be sufficiently short in relation to the size of the emitter to allow for the efficient production of propagating sound pressure waves...... is about the physical laws that govern how animals produce sound signals and how physical principles determine the signals’ frequency content and sound level, the nature of the sound field (sound pressure versus particle vibrations) as well as directional properties of the emitted signal. Many...

  9. Spectral compression algorithms for the analysis of very large multivariate images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Michael R.

    2007-10-16

    A method for spectrally compressing data sets enables the efficient analysis of very large multivariate images. The spectral compression algorithm uses a factored representation of the data that can be obtained from Principal Components Analysis or other factorization technique. Furthermore, a block algorithm can be used for performing common operations more efficiently. An image analysis can be performed on the factored representation of the data, using only the most significant factors. The spectral compression algorithm can be combined with a spatial compression algorithm to provide further computational efficiencies.

  10. Lung sound analysis helps localize airway inflammation in patients with bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimoda T

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Terufumi Shimoda,1 Yasushi Obase,2 Yukio Nagasaka,3 Hiroshi Nakano,1 Akiko Ishimatsu,1 Reiko Kishikawa,1 Tomoaki Iwanaga1 1Clinical Research Center, Fukuoka National Hospital, Fukuoka, 2Second Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, 3Kyoto Respiratory Center, Otowa Hospital, Kyoto, Japan Purpose: Airway inflammation can be detected by lung sound analysis (LSA at a single point in the posterior lower lung field. We performed LSA at 7 points to examine whether the technique could identify the location of airway inflammation in patients with asthma. Patients and methods: Breath sounds were recorded at 7 points on the body surface of 22 asthmatic subjects. Inspiration sound pressure level (ISPL, expiration sound pressure level (ESPL, and the expiration-to-inspiration sound pressure ratio (E/I were calculated in 6 frequency bands. The data were analyzed for potential correlation with spirometry, airway hyperresponsiveness (PC20, and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO. Results: The E/I data in the frequency range of 100–400 Hz (E/I low frequency [LF], E/I mid frequency [MF] were better correlated with the spirometry, PC20, and FeNO values than were the ISPL or ESPL data. The left anterior chest and left posterior lower recording positions were associated with the best correlations (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity: r=–0.55 and r=–0.58; logPC20: r=–0.46 and r=–0.45; and FeNO: r=0.42 and r=0.46, respectively. The majority of asthmatic subjects with FeNO ≥70 ppb exhibited high E/I MF levels in all lung fields (excluding the trachea and V50%pred <80%, suggesting inflammation throughout the airway. Asthmatic subjects with FeNO <70 ppb showed high or low E/I MF levels depending on the recording position, indicating uneven airway inflammation. Conclusion: E/I LF and E/I MF are more useful LSA parameters for evaluating airway inflammation in bronchial asthma; 7-point lung

  11. Review of "How Sound an Investment? An Analysis of Federal Prekindergarten Proposals"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, W. Steven

    2008-01-01

    This new report from the Lexington Institute, "How sound an investment? An analysis of federal prekindergarten proposals," considers current proposals for federal involvement in prekindergarten (pre-K). It is misleading, however, with respect to both the provisions and likely consequences of those proposals. The report attempts to disparage the…

  12. Spectral-domain analysis of single and coupled cylindrical striplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Manohar D.; Reddy, C. Jagadeswara

    1987-01-01

    A spectral-domain technique for finding the characteristic impedances of a single cylindrical stripline and a coupled pair of cylindrical striplines is presented. Assuming a charge distribution on the strip, the variational expression for the line capacitance for single cylindrical stripline is derived. Good agreement with published results is obtained. The cylindrical coupled strip and microstrip lines are also analyzed and a comparison with their planar counterparts is made.

  13. Analysis of spectral shape in the barn owl auditory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langemann, U; Zokoll, M A; Klump, G M

    2005-10-01

    In a behavioral experiment, we investigated how efficiently barn owls (Tyto alba) could detect changes in the spectral profile of multi-component auditory signals with stochastic envelope patterns. Signals consisted of one or five bands of noise (bandwidth 4, 16, or 64 Hz each; center frequencies 1.02, 1.43, 2.0, 2.8, 3.92 kHz). We determined increment thresholds for the 2 kHz component for three conditions: single-band condition (only the 2 kHz component), all five noise bands with the envelope fluctuations of the bands being either correlated or uncorrelated. Noise bandwidth had no significant effect on increment detection. Increment thresholds for the different conditions, however, differed significantly. Thresholds in correlated conditions were generally the lowest of all conditions, whereas, thresholds in uncorrelated conditions mostly resulted in the highest thresholds. This can be interpreted as evidence for comodulation masking release in barn owls. If the increment in the 2 kHz component is balanced by decrementing the four flanking bands in amplitude, increment detection thresholds are not affected. The data suggest that the barn owls used information from simultaneous spectral comparison across different frequency channels to detect spectral changes in multi-component noise signals rather than sequential comparison of overall stimulus levels.

  14. Analysis of marine issues: Lancaster Sound Regional Study : draft

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mills, H

    1981-01-01

    ...s. As such it is not intended to be an analysis of all the marine issues identified at the Workshops, but rather to provide a focus for the Department of Fisheries and Oceans on important marine issues...

  15. A review of intelligent systems for heart sound signal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabih-Ali, Mohammed; El-Dahshan, El-Sayed A; Yahia, Ashraf S

    2017-10-01

    Intelligent computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems can enhance the diagnostic capabilities of physicians and reduce the time required for accurate diagnosis. CAD systems could provide physicians with a suggestion about the diagnostic of heart diseases. The objective of this paper is to review the recent published preprocessing, feature extraction and classification techniques and their state of the art of phonocardiogram (PCG) signal analysis. Published literature reviewed in this paper shows the potential of machine learning techniques as a design tool in PCG CAD systems and reveals that the CAD systems for PCG signal analysis are still an open problem. Related studies are compared to their datasets, feature extraction techniques and the classifiers they used. Current achievements and limitations in developing CAD systems for PCG signal analysis using machine learning techniques are presented and discussed. In the light of this review, a number of future research directions for PCG signal analysis are provided.

  16. Detecting Unknown Artificial Urban Surface Materials Based on Spectral Dissimilarity Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilge, Marianne; Heiden, Uta; Habermeyer, Martin; Mende, André; Juergens, Carsten

    2017-08-08

    High resolution imaging spectroscopy data have been recognised as a valuable data resource for augmenting detailed material inventories that serve as input for various urban applications. Image-specific urban spectral libraries are successfully used in urban imaging spectroscopy studies. However, the regional- and sensor-specific transferability of such libraries is limited due to the wide range of different surface materials. With the developed methodology, incomplete urban spectral libraries can be utilised by assuming that unknown surface material spectra are dissimilar to the known spectra in a basic spectral library (BSL). The similarity measure SID-SCA (Spectral Information Divergence-Spectral Correlation Angle) is applied to detect image-specific unknown urban surfaces while avoiding spectral mixtures. These detected unknown materials are categorised into distinct and identifiable material classes based on their spectral and spatial metrics. Experimental results demonstrate a successful redetection of material classes that had been previously erased in order to simulate an incomplete BSL. Additionally, completely new materials e.g., solar panels were identified in the data. It is further shown that the level of incompleteness of the BSL and the defined dissimilarity threshold are decisive for the detection of unknown material classes and the degree of spectral intra-class variability. A detailed accuracy assessment of the pre-classification results, aiming to separate natural and artificial materials, demonstrates spectral confusions between spectrally similar materials utilizing SID-SCA. However, most spectral confusions occur between natural or artificial materials which are not affecting the overall aim. The dissimilarity analysis overcomes the limitations of working with incomplete urban spectral libraries and enables the generation of image-specific training databases.

  17. Analysis and Optimal Condition of the Rear-Sound-Aided Control Source in Active Noise Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Kreuter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An active noise control scenario of simple ducts is considered. The previously suggested technique of using an single loudspeaker and its rear sound to cancel the upstream sound is further examined and compared to the bidirectional solution in order to give theoretical proof of its advantage. Firstly, a model with a new approach for taking damping effects into account is derived based on the electrical transmission line theory. By comparison with the old model, the new approach is validated, and occurring differences are discussed. Moreover, a numerical application with the consideration of damping is implemented for confirmation. The influence of the rear sound strength on the feedback-path system is investigated, and the optimal condition is determined. Finally, it is proven that the proposed source has an advantage of an extended phase lag and a time delay in the feedback-path system by both frequency-response analysis and numerical calculation of the time response.

  18. [The acquisition and analysis of heart sound signals based on DSP].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Suxia; Chen, Tianhua

    2011-04-01

    Heart sound signals acquisition is the primary basis for achieving non-invasive diagnosis of coronary heart disease. In this paper, a digital signal processor (DSP)-based on miniaturized circuit of heart sound signals acquisition and analysis platform was designed to achieve the functions of filtering, collecting, processing, displaying and the communicating with PC. With the self-developed experimental platform, we collected 228 cases of heart sounds of clinical data, and processed the signals using de-noising method with wavelet transform. These experimental results indicated that the db6 wavelet has the most obvious de-noising effect among the four most commonly used wavelets, i.e., haar, db6, sym8, and coif5. One wavelet at different levels possessed different de-noising effects, with level-5 db6 decomposition obtaining the most desirable result.

  19. Computerized lung sound analysis following clinical improvement of pulmonary edema due to congestive heart failure exacerbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Xiong, Ying-xia

    2010-05-05

    Although acute congestive heart failure (CHF) patients typically present with abnormal auscultatory findings on lung examination, lung sounds are not normally subjected to rigorous analysis. The goals of this study were to use a computerized analytic acoustic tool to evaluate lung sound patterns in CHF patients during acute exacerbation and after clinical improvement and to compare CHF profiles with those of normal individuals. Lung sounds throughout the respiratory cycle was captured using a computerized acoustic-based imaging technique. Thirty-two consecutive CHF patients were imaged at the time of presentation to the emergency department and after clinical improvement. Digital images were created, geographical area of the images and lung sound patterns were quantitatively analyzed. The geographical areas of the vibration energy image of acute CHF patients without and with radiographically evident pulmonary edema were (67.9 +/- 4.7) and (60.3 +/- 3.5) kilo-pixels, respectively (P < 0.05). In CHF patients without and with radiographically evident pulmonary edema (REPE), after clinical improvement the geographical area of vibration energy image of lung sound increased to (74.5 +/- 4.4) and (73.9 +/- 3.9) kilo-pixels (P < 0.05), respectively. Vibration energy decreased in CHF patients with REPE following clinical improvement by an average of (85 +/- 19)% (P < 0.01). With clinical improvement of acute CHF exacerbations, there was more homogenous distribution of lung vibration energy, as demonstrated by the increased geographical area of the vibration energy image. Lung sound analysis may be useful to track in acute CHF exacerbations.

  20. Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimal Design: As Easy as it Sounds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Greg; Chainyk, Mike; Schiermeier, John

    2004-01-01

    The viewgraph presentation examines optimal design for precision, large aperture structures. Discussion focuses on aspects of design optimization, code architecture and current capabilities, and planned activities and collaborative area suggestions. The discussion of design optimization examines design sensitivity analysis; practical considerations; and new analytical environments including finite element-based capability for high-fidelity multidisciplinary analysis, design sensitivity, and optimization. The discussion of code architecture and current capabilities includes basic thermal and structural elements, nonlinear heat transfer solutions and process, and optical modes generation.

  1. Spectral analysis for GNSS coordinate time series using chirp Fourier transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shengtao; Bo, Wanju; Ma, Qingzun; Wang, Zifan

    2017-10-01

    Spectral analysis for global navigation satellite system (GNSS) coordinate time series provides a principal tool to understand the intrinsic mechanism that affects tectonic movements. Spectral analysis methods such as the fast Fourier transform, Lomb-Scargle spectrum, evolutionary power spectrum, wavelet power spectrum, etc. are used to find periodic characteristics in time series. Among spectral analysis methods, the chirp Fourier transform (CFT) with less stringent requirements is tested with synthetic and actual GNSS coordinate time series, which proves the accuracy and efficiency of the method. With the length of series only limited to even numbers, CFT provides a convenient tool for windowed spectral analysis. The results of ideal synthetic data prove CFT accurate and efficient, while the results of actual data show that CFT is usable to derive periodic information from GNSS coordinate time series.

  2. Spectral analysis and anti-bacterial activity of methanolic fruit extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spectral analysis and anti-bacterial activity of methanolic fruit extract of Citrullus colocynthis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Salah Ali Idan, Ali Hussein Al-Marzoqi, Imad Hadi Hameed ...

  3. Rise in accuracy of gas stream spectral analysis in mechanical engineering technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhametzyanova, G. F.; Karikh, F. G.; Mukhametzyanov, I. R.

    2017-09-01

    The submitted method of rise in accuracy of gas stream spectral analysis in mechanical engineering technology by controlling the chemical composition of the exhaust gas streams by means of a six-jet electric-arc plasmatron is available.

  4. Spectral Electroencephalogram Analysis for the Evaluation of Encephalopathy Grade in Children With Acute Liver Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, Craig A; Morgan, Lindsey; Mills, Michele; Stack, Cynthia V; Goldstein, Joshua L; Alonso, Estella M; Wainwright, Mark S

    2017-01-01

    Spectral electroencephalogram analysis is a method for automated analysis of electroencephalogram patterns, which can be performed at the bedside. We sought to determine the utility of spectral electroencephalogram for grading hepatic encephalopathy in children with acute liver failure. Retrospective cohort study. Tertiary care pediatric hospital. Patients between 0 and 18 years old who presented with acute liver failure and were admitted to the PICU. None. Electroencephalograms were analyzed by spectral analysis including total power, relative δ, relative θ, relative α, relative β, θ-to-Δ ratio, and α-to-Δ ratio. Normal values and ranges were first derived using normal electroencephalograms from 70 children of 0-18 years old. Age had a significant effect on each variable measured (p spectral analysis. The median age was 4.3 years, 14 of 33 were male, and the majority had an indeterminate etiology of acute liver failure. Neuroimaging was performed in 26 cases and was normal in 20 cases (77%). The majority (64%) survived, and 82% had a good outcome with a score of 1-3 on the Pediatric Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended at the time of discharge. Hepatic encephalopathy grade correlated with the qualitative visual electroencephalogram scores assigned by blinded neurophysiologists (rs = 0.493; p Spectral electroencephalogram characteristics varied significantly with the qualitative electroencephalogram classification (p Spectral electroencephalogram variables including relative Δ, relative θ, relative α, θ-to-Δ ratio, and α-to-Δ ratio all significantly varied with the qualitative electroencephalogram (p 0.05). Spectral electroencephalogram classification correlated with outcome (p Spectral electroencephalogram analysis can be used to evaluate even young patients for hepatic encephalopathy and correlates with outcome. Spectral electroencephalogram may allow improved quantitative and reproducible assessment of hepatic encephalopathy grade in children with acute

  5. High-speed Vibrational Imaging and Spectral Analysis of Lipid Bodies by Compound Raman Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Slipchenko, Mikhail N.; Le, Thuc T.; Chen, Hongtao; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2009-01-01

    Cells store excess energy in the form of cytoplasmic lipid droplets. At present, it is unclear how different types of fatty acids contribute to the formation of lipid-droplets. We describe a compound Raman microscope capable of both high-speed chemical imaging and quantitative spectral analysis on the same platform. We use a picosecond laser source to perform coherent Raman scattering imaging of a biological sample and confocal Raman spectral analysis at points of interest. The potential of t...

  6. Optimization of CAR Sound Package with Statistical Energy Analysis Model Using Grey Relational Analysis and Taguchi Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuming; Wang, Dengfeng; Chen, Jing; Liu, Bo; Li, Chuanbing

    Optimization design of the structures and thicknesses of the sound packages is performed for automotive interior acoustic performance and lightweight characteristics. A SEA model of the car was created, and its interior noise of the automobile was predicted and validated at speed of 120 km/h. The contributions of some major subsystems to interior noise were calculated at 120 km/h. Both of major characteristic indices including interior SPL and total weight of sound packages are selected to evaluate automotive interior acoustic performance and lightweight characteristics, and four selected optimization parameters are structures and thicknesses of the sound package of firewall and front floor. The problem of multiple performance indices is simplified into single performance index by using grey relational grade. The optimal combination of sound package parameters is determined by employing grey relational analysis method. Furthermore, the validation tests show that the values of interior SPL and overall weight of sound packages decrease by 1.31% and 60.36%, respectively. Also, the comparison of the overall SPL for automotive interior noise experiments between original and optimized structures and thicknesses of the sound packages shows that automotive interior acoustic performance is obviously improved from 200 Hz to 10,000 Hz. Therefore, it is demonstrated that it is an effective way to deal with optimization problems by using the presented approach in this research.

  7. [Electrographic correlates of real and imaginary movements: spectral analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiroĭ, V N; Vladimirskiĭ, B M; Aslanian, E V; Bakhtin, O M; Miniaeva, N R

    2010-01-01

    The research carried out with eight virtually healthy volunteers showed that movements were associated with the increased level of activation, primarily, in the central areas of the brain cortex, which was expressed in a reduction of the spectral power of alpha end beta frequencies and increase in the power of the gamma oscillations more expressed in the parietooccipital derivations of the left hemisphere. Mental reproduction of similar movements was accompanied by additional activation in the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipitals regions and more pronounced increase in the power of the gamma oscillations. A number of electrographic phenomena associated with specific features of the movements were revealed.

  8. Efficiency analysis of voluntary control of human's EEG spectral characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiroy, Valery N; Aslanyan, Elena V; Lazurenko, Dmitry M; Minyaeva, Nadezhda R; Bakhtin, Oleg M

    2016-03-01

    Spectral power (SP) of EEG alpha and beta-2 frequencies in different cortical areas has been used for neurofeedback training to control a graphic interface in different scenarios. The results show that frequency range and brain cortical areas are associated with high or low efficiency of voluntary control. Overall, EEG phenomena observed in the course of training are largely general changes involving extensive brain areas and frequency bands. Finally, we have demonstrated EEG patterns that dynamically switch with a specific feature in different tasks within one training, after a relatively short period of training.

  9. Effective numerical method of spectral analysis of quantum graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera-Figueroa, Víctor; Rabinovich, Vladimir S.

    2017-05-01

    We present in the paper an effective numerical method for the determination of the spectra of periodic metric graphs equipped by Schrödinger operators with real-valued periodic electric potentials as Hamiltonians and with Kirchhoff and Neumann conditions at the vertices. Our method is based on the spectral parameter power series method, which leads to a series representation of the dispersion equation, which is suitable for both analytical and numerical calculations. Several important examples demonstrate the effectiveness of our method for some periodic graphs of interest that possess potentials usually found in quantum mechanics.

  10. Spectral analysis for the exceptional Xm-Jacobi equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanze Liaw

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We provide the mathematical foundation for the $X_m$-Jacobi spectral theory. Namely, we present a self-adjoint operator associated to the differential expression with the exceptional $X_m$-Jacobi orthogonal polynomials as eigenfunctions. This proves that those polynomials are indeed eigenfunctions of the self-adjoint operator (rather than just formal eigenfunctions. Further, we prove the completeness of the exceptional $X_m$-Jacobi orthogonal polynomials (of degrees $m, m+1, m+2, \\dots$ in the Lebesgue-Hilbert space with the appropriate weight. In particular, the self-adjoint operator has no other spectrum.

  11. Spectral Analysis of Certain Schrödinger Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad E.H. Ismail

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The J-matrix method is extended to difference and q-difference operators and is applied to several explicit differential, difference, q-difference and second order Askey-Wilson type operators. The spectrum and the spectral measures are discussed in each case and the corresponding eigenfunction expansion is written down explicitly in most cases. In some cases we encounter new orthogonal polynomials with explicit three term recurrence relations where nothing is known about their explicit representations or orthogonality measures. Each model we analyze is a discrete quantum mechanical model in the sense of Odake and Sasaki [J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 44 (2011, 353001, 47 pages].

  12. A clinical method for detecting bronchial reversibility using a breath sound spectrum analysis in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enseki, Mayumi; Nukaga, Mariko; Tabata, Hideyuki; Hirai, Kota; Matsuda, Shinichi; Mochizuki, Hiroyuki

    2017-05-01

    Using a breath sound analyzer, we investigated clinical parameters for detecting bronchial reversibility in infants. A total of 59 infants (4-39 months, mean age 7.8 months) were included. In Study 1, the intra- and inter-observer variability was measured in 23 of 59 infants. Breath sound parameters, the frequency at 99% of the maximum frequency (F99), frequency at 25%, 50%, and 75% of the power spectrum (Q25, Q50, and Q75), and highest frequency of inspiratory breath sounds (HFI), and parameters obtained using the ratio of parameters, i.e. spectrum curve indices, the ratio of the third and fourth area to total area (A3/AT and B4/AT, respectively) and ratio of power and frequency at F75 and F50 (RPF75 and RPF50), were calculated. In Study 2, the relationship between parameters of breath sounds and age and stature were studied. In Study 3, breath sounds were studied before and after β2 agonist inhalation. In Study 1, the data showed statistical intra- and inter-observer reliability in A3/AT (p=0.042 and 0.034, respectively) and RPF50 (p=0.001 and 0.001, respectively). In Study 2, there were no significant relationships between age, height, weight, and BMI. In Study 3, A3/AT and RPF50 significantly changed after β2 agonist inhalation (p=0.001 and psound analysis can be performed in infants, as in older children, and the spectrum curve indices are not significantly affected by age-related factors. These sound parameters may play a role in the assessment of bronchial reversibility in infants. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Sweet Spot Size in Virtual Sound Reproduction: A Temporal Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacouture Parodi, Yesenia; Rubak, Per

    2009-01-01

    The influence of head misalignments on the performance of binaural reproduction systems through loudspeakers is often evaluated in the frequency domain. The changes in magnitude give us an idea of how much of the crosstalk is leaked into the direct signal and therefore a sweet spot performance can...... be estimated. However, as we move our heads, the time information of the binaural signals is also affected. This can result in ambiguous cues that can destroy the virtual experience. In this paper, we present an analysis in the time domain of the influence of head misalignments. Using the interaural cross...

  14. Spectral Analysis of Chinese Medicinal Herbs Based on Delayed Luminescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxiang Pang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM plays a critical role in healthcare; however, it lacks scientific evidence to support the multidimensional therapeutic effects. These effects are based on experience, and, to date, there is no advanced tool to evaluate these experience based effects. In the current study, Chinese herbal materials classified with different cold and heat therapeutic properties, based on Chinese medicine principles, were investigated using spectral distribution, as well as the decay probability distribution based on delayed luminescence (DL. A detection system based on ultraweak biophoton emission was developed to determine the DL decay kinetics of the cold and heat properties of Chinese herbal materials. We constructed a mathematical model to fit the experimental data and characterize the properties of Chinese medicinal herbs with different parameters. The results demonstrated that this method has good reproducibility. Moreover, there is a significant difference (p<0.05 in the spectral distribution and the decay probability distribution of Chinese herbal materials with cold and heat properties. This approach takes advantage of the comprehensive nature of DL compared with more reductionist approaches and is more consistent with TCM principles, in which the core comprises holistic views.

  15. Stellar and wind parameters of massive stars from spectral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Ignacio; Curé, Michel

    2017-11-01

    The only way to deduce information from stars is to decode the radiation it emits in an appropriate way. Spectroscopy can solve this and derive many properties of stars. In this work we seek to derive simultaneously the stellar and wind characteristics of a wide range of massive stars. Our stellar properties encompass the effective temperature, the surface gravity, the stellar radius, the micro-turbulence velocity, the rotational velocity and the Si abundance. For wind properties we consider the mass-loss rate, the terminal velocity and the line-force parameters α, k and δ (from the line-driven wind theory). To model the data we use the radiative transport code Fastwind considering the newest hydrodynamical solutions derived with Hydwind code, which needs stellar and line-force parameters to obtain a wind solution. A grid of spectral models of massive stars is created and together with the observed spectra their physical properties are determined through spectral line fittings. These fittings provide an estimation about the line-force parameters, whose theoretical calculations are extremely complex. Furthermore, we expect to confirm that the hydrodynamical solutions obtained with a value of δ slightly larger than ~ 0.25, called δ-slow solutions, describe quite reliable the radiation line-driven winds of A and late B supergiant stars and at the same time explain disagreements between observational data and theoretical models for the Wind-Momentum Luminosity Relationship (WLR).

  16. Spectral Analysis of Chinese Medicinal Herbs Based on Delayed Luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Yanli; Fu, Jialei; Zhao, Xiaolei; van Wijk, Eduard; Wang, Mei; Nie, Xiaoyan

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) plays a critical role in healthcare; however, it lacks scientific evidence to support the multidimensional therapeutic effects. These effects are based on experience, and, to date, there is no advanced tool to evaluate these experience based effects. In the current study, Chinese herbal materials classified with different cold and heat therapeutic properties, based on Chinese medicine principles, were investigated using spectral distribution, as well as the decay probability distribution based on delayed luminescence (DL). A detection system based on ultraweak biophoton emission was developed to determine the DL decay kinetics of the cold and heat properties of Chinese herbal materials. We constructed a mathematical model to fit the experimental data and characterize the properties of Chinese medicinal herbs with different parameters. The results demonstrated that this method has good reproducibility. Moreover, there is a significant difference (p < 0.05) in the spectral distribution and the decay probability distribution of Chinese herbal materials with cold and heat properties. This approach takes advantage of the comprehensive nature of DL compared with more reductionist approaches and is more consistent with TCM principles, in which the core comprises holistic views. PMID:27478482

  17. Solar spectral irradiance datasets: analysis and comparison with proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretzschmar, M.; Schoell, M.; Dudok de Wit, T.

    2013-12-01

    Solar spectral irradiance (SSI) measurements have been acquired in space since the late 1960's. These data are of extreme importance to assess the variability of the Sun in the last decades as well as to understand how its magnetic activity affects its radiative output, and therefore to constrain the solar variability further in time. However, these data sometimes disagree between themselves or with our expectations deduced from well known observed proxies, and it is hard to disentangle instrumental effects from possible solar behavior. In the context of the european project SOLID (First European comprehensive SOlar Irradiance Data Exploitation) project, which aims at building an SSI composite with time dependent error-bars over the space age, we will show our first results towards the construction of a carefully assessed homogeneous solar spectral irradiance datasets, focussing on the ultraviolet wavelength range, for which more data are available. We will first present the data used, together with methods for gap-filling and outlier removal. Then we will show some results obtained by comparing a single dataset at different times of the mission, as well as results obtained from the comparison of simultaneous datasets and proxies. Finally, we will discuss how these analyses can help us to estimate errors on the solar variability at a particular wavelength.

  18. Stellar and wind parameters of massive stars from spectral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, I.; Curé, M.

    2017-07-01

    The only way to deduce information from stars is to decode the radiation it emits in an appropriate way. Spectroscopy can solve this and derive many properties of stars. In this work we seek to derive simultaneously the stellar and wind characteristics of A and B supergiant stars. Our stellar properties encompass the effective temperature, the surface gravity, the stellar radius, the micro-turbulence velocity, the rotational velocity and, finally, the chemical composition. For wind properties we consider the mass-loss rate, the terminal velocity and the line-force parameters (α, k and δ) obtained from the standard line-driven wind theory. To model the data we use the radiative transport code Fastwind considering the newest hydrodynamical solutions derived with Hydwind code, which needs stellar and line-force parameters to obtain a wind solution. A grid of spectral models of massive stars is created and together with the observed spectra their physical properties are determined through spectral line fittings. These fittings provide an estimation about the line-force parameters, whose theoretical calculations are extremely complex. Furthermore, we expect to confirm that the hydrodynamical solutions obtained with a value of δ slightly larger than ˜ 0.25, called δ-slow solutions, describe quite reliable the radiation line-driven winds of A and late B supergiant stars and at the same time explain disagreements between observational data and theoretical models for the Wind-Momentum Luminosity Relationship (WLR).

  19. Spectral BEM for the Analysis of Wave Propagation and Fracture Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Khodaei, Zahra Sharif; Aliabadi, M. H.

    This paper presents a spectral boundary element formulation for analysis of structures subjected to dynamic loading. Two types of spectral elements based on Lobatto polynomials and Legendre polynomials are used. Two-dimensional analyses of elastic wave propagation in solids with and without cracks are carried out in the Laplace frequency domain with both conventional BEM and the spectral BEM. By imposing the requirement of the same level of accuracy, it was found that the use of spectral elements, compared with conventional quadratic elements, reduced the total number of nodes required for modeling high-frequency wave propagation. Benchmark examples included a simple one-dimensional bar for which analytical solution is available and a more complex crack problem where stress intensity factors were evaluated. Special crack tip elements are developed for the first time for the spectral elements to accurately model the crack tip fields. Although more integration points were used for the integrals associated with spectral elements than the conventional quadratic elements, shorter computation times were achieved through the application of the spectral BEM. This indicates that the spectral BEM is a more efficient method for the numerical modeling of structural health monitoring (SHM) processes, in which high-frequency waves are commonly used to detect damage, such as cracks, in structures.

  20. Searching Sound with Sound

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Martin; Chapman, A.

    2010-01-01

    A sound installation developed to accompany Anna Chapman's sound installtion "Subjects for Melancholy Retrospection" that was presented t the Edinburgh Art Festrival in August 2010 at the National Trust for Scotland's Newhailes estate.

  1. Boundary element analysis of sound scattered by a moving surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, M. K.; Hausmann, J. S.

    1990-01-01

    A solution for the acoustic field scattered from a uniformly moving rigid body in the presence of a harmonic incident source has been obtained using a boundary integral method. A derivation of the Kirchhoff formula given by Farassat and Myers (1988) for moving surfaces forms the basis for the analysis, and the development of a boundary integral method for the solution of scattering problems from moving rigid bodies is described. Finite elements are used in conjunction with the Galerkin method in order to solve the integral equation that results from the Kirchhoff formula when the observer point is placed on the moving body surface. Once appropriate surface field values are known they are inserted back into the formula in order to predict the field scattered off the body. Tests, including the so called superposition method, are carried out in order to validate the technique and to establish some confidence in its accuracy. Application of the superposition method to moving bodies is presented, and results of the two approaches are discussed. Sample calculations of scattering from a simple body are presented to illustrate the effects of variations in relevant parameters.

  2. THE SOUNDS OF ENGLISH AND ITALIAN, A SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS OF THE CONTRASTS BETWEEN THE SOUND SYSTEMS. CONTRASTIVE STRUCTURE SERIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AGARD, FREDERICK B.; DI PIETRO, ROBERT J.

    DESIGNED AS A SOURCE OF INFORMATION FOR PROFESSIONALS PREPARING INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS, PLANNING COURSES, OR DEVELOPING CLASSROOM TECHNIQUES FOR FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAMS, A SERIES OF STUDIES HAS BEEN PREPARED THAT CONTRASTS, IN TWO VOLUMES FOR EACH OF THE FIVE MOST COMMONLY TAUGHT FOREIGN LANGUAGES IN THE UNITED STATES, THE SOUND AND GRAMMATICAL…

  3. Studies on spectral analysis of randomly sampled signals: Application to laser velocimetry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sree, David

    1992-01-01

    Spectral analysis is very useful in determining the frequency characteristics of many turbulent flows, for example, vortex flows, tail buffeting, and other pulsating flows. It is also used for obtaining turbulence spectra from which the time and length scales associated with the turbulence structure can be estimated. These estimates, in turn, can be helpful for validation of theoretical/numerical flow turbulence models. Laser velocimetry (LV) is being extensively used in the experimental investigation of different types of flows, because of its inherent advantages; nonintrusive probing, high frequency response, no calibration requirements, etc. Typically, the output of an individual realization laser velocimeter is a set of randomly sampled velocity data. Spectral analysis of such data requires special techniques to obtain reliable estimates of correlation and power spectral density functions that describe the flow characteristics. FORTRAN codes for obtaining the autocorrelation and power spectral density estimates using the correlation-based slotting technique were developed. Extensive studies have been conducted on simulated first-order spectrum and sine signals to improve the spectral estimates. A first-order spectrum was chosen because it represents the characteristics of a typical one-dimensional turbulence spectrum. Digital prefiltering techniques, to improve the spectral estimates from randomly sampled data were applied. Studies show that the spectral estimates can be increased up to about five times the mean sampling rate.

  4. Spectral analysis of two-signed microarray expression data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, Desmond J; Kalna, Gabriela; Vass, J Keith

    2007-06-01

    We give a simple and informative derivation of a spectral algorithm for clustering and reordering complementary DNA microarray expression data. Here, expression levels of a set of genes are recorded simultaneously across a number of samples, with a positive weight reflecting up-regulation and a negative weight reflecting down-regulation. We give theoretical support for the algorithm based on a biologically justified hypothesis about the structure of the data, and illustrate its use on public domain data in the context of unsupervised tumour classification. The algorithm is derived by considering a discrete optimization problem and then relaxing to the continuous realm. We prove that in the case where the data have an inherent 'checkerboard' sign pattern, the algorithm will automatically reveal that pattern. Further, our derivation shows that the algorithm may be regarded as imposing a random graph model on the expression levels and then clustering from a maximum likelihood perspective. This indicates that the output will be tolerant to perturbations and will reveal 'near-checkerboard' patterns when these are present in the data. It is interesting to note that the checkerboard structure is revealed by the first (dominant) singular vectors--previous work on spectral methods has focussed on the case of nonnegative edge weights, where only the second and higher singular vectors are relevant. We illustrate the algorithm on real and synthetic data, and then use it in a tumour classification context on three different cancer data sets. Our results show that respecting the two-signed nature of the data (thereby distinguishing between up-regulation and down-regulation) reveals structures that cannot be gleaned from the absolute value data (where up- and down-regulation are both regarded as 'changes').

  5. Spectral variability analysis of an XMM-Newton observation of Ark 564

    OpenAIRE

    Brinkmann, W.; Papadakis, I. E.; Raeth, C.

    2007-01-01

    We present a spectral variability analysis of the X-ray emission of the Narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxy Ark 564 using the data from a ~100 ks XMM-Newton observation. Taking advantage of the high sensitivity of this long observation and the simple spectral shape of Ark 564, we determine accurately the spectral variability patterns in the source. We use standard cross-correlation methods to investigate the correlations between the soft and hard energy band light curves. We also generated 200 energ...

  6. Wavelets in Recognition of Bird Sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha T. Tanttu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method to recognize inharmonic and transient bird sounds efficiently. The recognition algorithm consists of feature extraction using wavelet decomposition and recognition using either supervised or unsupervised classifier. The proposed method was tested on sounds of eight bird species of which five species have inharmonic sounds and three reference species have harmonic sounds. Inharmonic sounds are not well matched to the conventional spectral analysis methods, because the spectral domain does not include any visible trajectories that computer can track and identify. Thus, the wavelet analysis was selected due to its ability to preserve both frequency and temporal information, and its ability to analyze signals which contain discontinuities and sharp spikes. The shift invariant feature vectors calculated from the wavelet coefficients were used as inputs of two neural networks: the unsupervised self-organizing map (SOM and the supervised multilayer perceptron (MLP. The results were encouraging: the SOM network recognized 78% and the MLP network 96% of the test sounds correctly.

  7. Scene and character: interdisciplinary analysis of musical and sound symbols for higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Gustems Carnicer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze interdisciplinary and educationally the descriptive aspects of the characters in literature in the world of music (opera, ballet, musical theater, program music, audiovisual, etc. through a wide range of resources and creative processes in various skills that include or encompass the sound. Because of that a literature review and multidisciplinary documentary is done from the most relevant texts and principal authors of the dynamic and stable personality models, from the analysis of vocal features in the scene and in the audiovisuals, from the leitmotiv as a symbol and sound representation of the character, from the the conflicts faced by the characters and how they can overcome them and how we could translated into music those transitions. The subject of myths brought to the world of music scene, character stereotypes and sound symbols that may characterize these scenic and literary content is also addressed. Notably, there is a broad consensus on the use of sound resources to characterize the different characters throughout the history of Western music in its various styles and genres. Furthermore, indications for their use are given and suggestions for activities to higher education suggest.

  8. Spectral analysis of growing graphs a quantum probability point of view

    CERN Document Server

    Obata, Nobuaki

    2017-01-01

    This book is designed as a concise introduction to the recent achievements on spectral analysis of graphs or networks from the point of view of quantum (or non-commutative) probability theory. The main topics are spectral distributions of the adjacency matrices of finite or infinite graphs and their limit distributions for growing graphs. The main vehicle is quantum probability, an algebraic extension of the traditional probability theory, which provides a new framework for the analysis of adjacency matrices revealing their non-commutative nature. For example, the method of quantum decomposition makes it possible to study spectral distributions by means of interacting Fock spaces or equivalently by orthogonal polynomials. Various concepts of independence in quantum probability and corresponding central limit theorems are used for the asymptotic study of spectral distributions for product graphs. This book is written for researchers, teachers, and students interested in graph spectra, their (asymptotic) spectr...

  9. Analysis of in-situ spectral absorption meter data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaneveld, J. Ronald V.; Kitchen, James C.; Bricaud, Annick; Moore, Casey C.

    1992-12-01

    In situ absorption data collected with a reflective-tube absorption meter are presented. Various procedures for correcting the data for scattering error and for extracting chlorophyll absorption from the raw signal are explored. Based on our knowledge of the distribution of particle types and on measured backscattering, the scattering correction as a function of total scattering is found to vary significantly with depth. However, absorption in the near infrared is shown to be highly correlated with backscattering. We thus postulate that this signal is mainly due to the scattering error and possibly to absorption by dissolved substances and particles of a detrital nature. Thus, the infrared signal seems to provide a good correction for the measured a(676) to obtain chloropigment absorption. Indeed, a(676) - a(750) (corrected for water absorption and 750 temperature dependence) was found to correlate strongly with fluorescence. However, a(750) was found to be highly temperature dependent, so a(712) was chosen for this purpose in future measurements. An examination of optical microstructure in East Sound, Orcas Island, Washington showed numerous peaks with vertical dimensions of the order of tens of centimeters. These peaks may contain the majority of the biomass in the system. The relative magnitude of the a(676) - a(712) and the a(712) signals varied greatly from one peak to another and systematically with depth, presumably reflecting the nature and physiological states of the populations in the various peaks.

  10. Technical Training on High-Order Spectral Analysis and Thermal Anemometry Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslov, A. A.; Shiplyuk, A. N.; Sidirenko, A. A.; Bountin, D. A.

    2003-01-01

    The topics of thermal anemometry and high-order spectral analyses were the subject of the technical training. Specifically, the objective of the technical training was to study: (i) the recently introduced constant voltage anemometer (CVA) for high-speed boundary layer; and (ii) newly developed high-order spectral analysis techniques (HOSA). Both CVA and HOSA are relevant tools for studies of boundary layer transition and stability.

  11. Near-Infrared Hyper-spectral Image Analysis of Astaxanthin Concentration in Fish Feed Coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungqvist, Martin Georg; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Kobayashi, K.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of predicting concentration levels of synthetic astaxanthin coating of aquaculture feed pellets by hyper-spectral image analysis in the near infra-red (NIR) range and optical filter design. The imaging devices used were a VideometerLab with...... for prediction of the concentration level. The results show that it is possible to predict the level of synthetic astaxanthin coating using either hyper-spectral imaging or three bandpass filters (BPF)....

  12. Determination of the mechanical thermostat electrical contacts switching quality with sound and vibration analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rejc, Jure; Munih, Marko [University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2017-05-15

    A mechanical thermostat is a device that switches heating or cooling appliances on or off based on temperature. For this kind of use, electronic or mechanical switching concepts are applied. During the production of electrical contacts, several irregularities can occur leading to improper switching events of the thermostat electrical contacts. This paper presents a non-obstructive method based on the fact that when the switching event occurs it can be heard and felt by human senses. We performed several laboratory tests with two different methods. The first method includes thermostat switch sound signal analysis during the switching event. The second method is based on sampling of the accelerometer signal during the switching event. The results show that the sound analysis approach has great potential. The approach enables an accurate determination of the switching event even if the sampled signal carries also the switching event of the neighbour thermostat.

  13. Analysis of the drilling sound component from expert performance in a maxillo-facial surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Pablo F.; Gosselin, Florian; Taha, Farid

    2009-01-01

    Auditory displays can have a great potential in surgical simulators that aim at training skills associated to the correct interpretation of auditory information. Here, we present preliminary results in the analysis of the sound produced by the drilling procedure in a maxillo-facial surgery when...... performed by expert surgeons. The motivation of this work is to find relevant acoustic parameters that allow for an efficient synthesis method of auditory displays so that they can effectively convey information on expert surgical drilling....

  14. Local spectral adaptive multitaper method with bilateral filtering for spectrum analysis of mammographic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gang; Mainprize, James G.; Yaffe, Martin J.

    2012-03-01

    Estimation of the image power spectrum is fundamental to the development of a figure of merit for image performance analysis. We are investigating a new multitaper approach to determine power spectra, which provides a combination of low variance and high spectral resolution in the frequency range of interest. To further reduce the variance, the spectrum estimated by the proposed Local Spectral Adaptive Multitaper Method (LSAMTM) is subsequently smoothed in the frequency domain by bilateral filtering, while keeping the spectral resolution intact. This tool will be especially valuable in power spectrum estimation of images that deviate significantly from uniform white noise. The performance of this approach was evaluated in terms of spectral stability, variance reduction, bias and frequency precision. It was also compared to the conventional power spectrum method in several typical situations, including the noise power spectra (NPS) measurements of simulated projection images of a uniform phantom and NPS measurement of real detector images of a uniform phantom for two clinical digital mammography systems. Examination of variance reduction versus spectral resolution and bias indicates that the LSAMTM with bilateral filtering technique is superior to the conventional estimation methods in variance reduction, spectral resolution and in the prevention of spectrum leakage. It has the ability to keep both low variance and narrow spectral linewidth in the frequency range of interest. Up to 87% more variance reduction can be achieved with proper filtration and no sacrifice of frequency precision has been observed.

  15. Hemispheric lateralization in an analysis of speech sounds. Left hemisphere dominance replicated in Japanese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, S; Gunji, A; Yabe, H; Oiwa, S; Akahane-Yamada, R; Kakigi, R; Näätänen, R

    2000-09-01

    Evoked magnetic responses to speech sounds [R. Näätänen, A. Lehtokoski, M. Lennes, M. Cheour, M. Huotilainen, A. Iivonen, M. Vainio, P. Alku, R.J. Ilmoniemi, A. Luuk, J. Allik, J. Sinkkonen and K. Alho, Language-specific phoneme representations revealed by electric and magnetic brain responses. Nature, 385 (1997) 432-434.] were recorded from 13 Japanese subjects (right-handed). Infrequently presented vowels ([o]) among repetitive vowels ([e]) elicited the magnetic counterpart of mismatch negativity, MMNm (Bilateral, nine subjects; Left hemisphere alone, three subjects; Right hemisphere alone, one subject). The estimated source of the MMNm was stronger in the left than in the right auditory cortex. The sources were located posteriorly in the left than in the right auditory cortex. These findings are consistent with the results obtained in Finnish [R. Näätänen, A. Lehtokoski, M. Lennes, M. Cheour, M. Huotilainen, A. Iivonen, M.Vainio, P.Alku, R.J. Ilmoniemi, A. Luuk, J. Allik, J. Sinkkonen and K. Alho, Language-specific phoneme representations revealed by electric and magnetic brain responses. Nature, 385 (1997) 432-434.][T. Rinne, K. Alho, P. Alku, M. Holi, J. Sinkkonen, J. Virtanen, O. Bertrand and R. Näätänen, Analysis of speech sounds is left-hemisphere predominant at 100-150 ms after sound onset. Neuroreport, 10 (1999) 1113-1117.] and English [K. Alho, J.F. Connolly, M. Cheour, A. Lehtokoski, M. Huotilainen, J. Virtanen, R. Aulanko and R.J. Ilmoniemi, Hemispheric lateralization in preattentive processing of speech sounds. Neurosci. Lett., 258 (1998) 9-12.] subjects. Instead of the P1m observed in Finnish [M. Tervaniemi, A. Kujala, K. Alho, J. Virtanen, R.J. Ilmoniemi and R. Näätänen, Functional specialization of the human auditory cortex in processing phonetic and musical sounds: A magnetoencephalographic (MEG) study. Neuroimage, 9 (1999) 330-336.] and English [K. Alho, J. F. Connolly, M. Cheour, A. Lehtokoski, M. Huotilainen, J. Virtanen, R. Aulanko

  16. Quantitative characterization of surface topography using spectral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Tevis D. B.; Junge, Till; Pastewka, Lars

    2017-03-01

    Roughness determines many functional properties of surfaces, such as adhesion, friction, and (thermal and electrical) contact conductance. Recent analytical models and simulations enable quantitative prediction of these properties from knowledge of the power spectral density (PSD) of the surface topography. The utility of the PSD is that it contains statistical information that is unbiased by the particular scan size and pixel resolution chosen by the researcher. In this article, we first review the mathematical definition of the PSD, including the one- and two-dimensional cases, and common variations of each. We then discuss strategies for reconstructing an accurate PSD of a surface using topography measurements at different size scales. Finally, we discuss detecting and mitigating artifacts at the smallest scales, and computing upper/lower bounds on functional properties obtained from models. We accompany our discussion with virtual measurements on computer-generated surfaces. This discussion summarizes how to analyze topography measurements to reconstruct a reliable PSD. Analytical models demonstrate the potential for tuning functional properties by rationally tailoring surface topography—however, this potential can only be achieved through the accurate, quantitative reconstruction of the PSDs of real-world surfaces.

  17. Koopmans' Analysis of Chemical Hardness with Spectral-Like Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai V. Putz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Three approximation levels of Koopmans' theorem are explored and applied: the first referring to the inner quantum behavior of the orbitalic energies that depart from the genuine ones in Fock space when the wave-functions' Hilbert-Banach basis set is specified to solve the many-electronic spectra of spin-orbitals' eigenstates; it is the most subtle issue regarding Koopmans' theorem as it brings many critics and refutation in the last decades, yet it is shown here as an irrefutable “observational” effect through computation, specific to any in silico spectra of an eigenproblem; the second level assumes the “frozen spin-orbitals” approximation during the extracting or adding of electrons to the frontier of the chemical system through the ionization and affinity processes, respectively; this approximation is nevertheless workable for great deal of chemical compounds, especially organic systems, and is justified for chemical reactivity and aromaticity hierarchies in an homologue series; the third and the most severe approximation regards the extension of the second one to superior orders of ionization and affinities, here studied at the level of chemical hardness compact-finite expressions up to spectral-like resolution for a paradigmatic set of aromatic carbohydrates.

  18. Effect of data gaps: comparison of different spectral analysis methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Munteanu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate quantitatively the effect of data gaps for four methods of estimating the amplitude spectrum of a time series: fast Fourier transform (FFT, discrete Fourier transform (DFT, Z transform (ZTR and the Lomb–Scargle algorithm (LST. We devise two tests: the single-large-gap test, which can probe the effect of a single data gap of varying size and the multiple-small-gaps test, used to study the effect of numerous small gaps of variable size distributed within the time series. The tests are applied on two data sets: a synthetic data set composed of a superposition of four sinusoidal modes, and one component of the magnetic field measured by the Venus Express (VEX spacecraft in orbit around the planet Venus. For single data gaps, FFT and DFT give an amplitude monotonically decreasing with gap size. However, the shape of their amplitude spectrum remains unmodified even for a large data gap. On the other hand, ZTR and LST preserve the absolute level of amplitude but lead to greatly increased spectral noise for increasing gap size. For multiple small data gaps, DFT, ZTR and LST can, unlike FFT, find the correct amplitude of sinusoidal modes even for large data gap percentage. However, for in-situ data collected in a turbulent plasma environment, these three methods overestimate the high frequency part of the amplitude spectrum above a threshold depending on the maximum gap size, while FFT slightly underestimates it.

  19. Surface plasmon resonance sensor based on spectral interferometry: numerical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunfang; Li, Hui; Duan, Jingyuan; Shi, Ancun; Liu, Yuliang

    2013-05-10

    In this paper, we introduce a numerical simulation of a phase detecting surface plasmon resonance (SPR) scheme based on spectral interference. Based on the simulation, we propose a method to optimize various aspects of SPR sensors, which enables better performance in both measurement range (MR) and sensitivity. In the simulation, four parameters including the spectrum of the broadband light source, incident angle, Au film thickness, and refractive index of the prism coupler are analyzed. The results show that it is a good solution for better performance to use a warm white broadband (625-800 nm) light source, a divergence angle of the collimated incident light less than 0.02°, and an optimized 48 nm thick Au film when a visible broadband light source is used. If a near-IR light source is used, however, the Au film thickness should be somewhat thinner according the specific spectrum. In addition, a wider MR could be obtained if a prism coupler with higher refractive index is used. With all the parameters appropriately set, the SPR MR could be extended to 0.55 refractive index units while keeping the sensitivity at a level of 10(-8).

  20. An integrated analysis-synthesis array system for spatial sound fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Mingsian R; Hua, Yi-Hsin; Kuo, Chia-Hao; Hsieh, Yu-Hao

    2015-03-01

    An integrated recording and reproduction array system for spatial audio is presented within a generic framework akin to the analysis-synthesis filterbanks in discrete time signal processing. In the analysis stage, a microphone array "encodes" the sound field by using the plane-wave decomposition. Direction of arrival of plane-wave components that comprise the sound field of interest are estimated by multiple signal classification. Next, the source signals are extracted by using a deconvolution procedure. In the synthesis stage, a loudspeaker array "decodes" the sound field by reconstructing the plane-wave components obtained in the analysis stage. This synthesis stage is carried out by pressure matching in the interior domain of the loudspeaker array. The deconvolution problem is solved by truncated singular value decomposition or convex optimization algorithms. For high-frequency reproduction that suffers from the spatial aliasing problem, vector panning is utilized. Listening tests are undertaken to evaluate the deconvolution method, vector panning, and a hybrid approach that combines both methods to cover frequency ranges below and above the spatial aliasing frequency. Localization and timbral attributes are considered in the subjective evaluation. The results show that the hybrid approach performs the best in overall preference. In addition, there is a trade-off between reproduction performance and the external radiation.

  1. VIBRATIONS DETECTION IN INDUSTRIAL PUMPS BASED ON SPECTRAL ANALYSIS TO INCREASE THEIR EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belhadef RACHID

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectral analysis is the key tool for the study of vibration signals in rotating machinery. In this work, the vibration analy-sis applied for conditional preventive maintenance of such machines is proposed, as part of resolved problems related to vibration detection on the organs of these machines. The vibration signal of a centrifugal pump was treated to mount the benefits of the approach proposed. The obtained results present the signal estimation of a pump vibration using Fourier transform technique compared by the spectral analysis methods based on Prony approach.

  2. [Algae identification research based on fluorescence spectral imaging technology combined with cluster analysis and principal component analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Man; Huang, Fu-rong; He, Xue-jia; Chen, Xing-dan

    2014-08-01

    In order to explore rapid real-time algae detection methods, in the present study experiments were carried out to use fluorescence spectral imaging technology combined with a pattern recognition method for identification research of different types of algae. The fluorescence effect of algae samples is obvious during the detection. The fluorescence spectral imaging system was adopted to collect spectral images of 40 algal samples. Through image denoising, binarization processing and making sure the effective pixels, the spectral curves of each sample were drawn according to the spectral cube. The spectra in the 400-720 nm wavelength range were obtained. Then, two pattern recognition methods, i.e., hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis, were used to process the spectral data. The hierarchical cluster analysis results showed that the Euclidean distance method and average weighted method were used to calculate the cluster distance between samples, and the samples could be correctly classified at a level of the distance L=2.452 or above, with an accuracy of 100%. The principal component analysis results showed that first-order derivative, second-order derivative, multiplicative scatter correction, standard normal variate and other pretreatments were carried out on raw spectral data, then principal component analysis was conducted, among which the identification effect after the second-order derivative pretreatment was shown to be the most effective, and eight types of algae samples were independently distributed in the principal component eigenspace. It was thus shown that it was feasible to use fluorescence spectral imaging technology combined with cluster analysis and principal component analysis for algae identification. The method had the characteristics of being easy to operate, fast and nondestructive.

  3. Fluid Sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Explorations and analysis of soundscapes have, since Canadian R. Murray Schafer's work during the early 1970's, developed into various established research - and artistic disciplines. The interest in sonic environments is today present within a broad range of contemporary art projects and in arch......Explorations and analysis of soundscapes have, since Canadian R. Murray Schafer's work during the early 1970's, developed into various established research - and artistic disciplines. The interest in sonic environments is today present within a broad range of contemporary art projects...... and in architectural design. Aesthetics, psychoacoustics, perception, and cognition are all present in this expanding field embracing such categories as soundscape composition, sound art, sonic art, sound design, sound studies and auditory culture. Of greatest significance to the overall field is the investigation...

  4. Time Series Analysis of Sound Data on Interactive Calling Behavior of Japanese Tree Frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horai, Shunsuke; Aihara, Ikkyu; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    We have analyzed time series data of sound on interactive calling behavior of two male Japanese tree frogs (Hyla japonica Nihon-Ama-Gaeru). First, we have extracted two time series data mainly corresponding to respective frogs from the single time series data of calls of two frogs by the free and cross-platform sound editor Audacity. Then, we have quantitatively analyzed timing and inter-call intervals of respective frogs. Finally, we have characterized nonstationarily temporal change of the interactive calling behavior of two frogs by analysis of the cross recurrence plot. The results have shown that a pair of male frogs called in almost anti-phase synchronization after a short-term period of nearly in-phase synchronization, which implies existence of complex interactive calling behavior of two male frogs.

  5. Generalized Matrix Learning Vector Quantizer for the Analysis of Spectral Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, Petra; Schleif, Frank-Michael; Villmann, Thomas; Biehl, Michael; Verleysen, Michel

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of spectral data constitutes new challenges for machine learning algorithms due to the functional nature of the data. Special attention is paid to the metric used in the analysis. Recently, a prototype based algorithm has been proposed which allows the integration of a full adaptive

  6. Automics: an integrated platform for NMR-based metabonomics spectral processing and data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu Lijia

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spectral processing and post-experimental data analysis are the major tasks in NMR-based metabonomics studies. While there are commercial and free licensed software tools available to assist these tasks, researchers usually have to use multiple software packages for their studies because software packages generally focus on specific tasks. It would be beneficial to have a highly integrated platform, in which these tasks can be completed within one package. Moreover, with open source architecture, newly proposed algorithms or methods for spectral processing and data analysis can be implemented much more easily and accessed freely by the public. Results In this paper, we report an open source software tool, Automics, which is specifically designed for NMR-based metabonomics studies. Automics is a highly integrated platform that provides functions covering almost all the stages of NMR-based metabonomics studies. Automics provides high throughput automatic modules with most recently proposed algorithms and powerful manual modules for 1D NMR spectral processing. In addition to spectral processing functions, powerful features for data organization, data pre-processing, and data analysis have been implemented. Nine statistical methods can be applied to analyses including: feature selection (Fisher's criterion, data reduction (PCA, LDA, ULDA, unsupervised clustering (K-Mean and supervised regression and classification (PLS/PLS-DA, KNN, SIMCA, SVM. Moreover, Automics has a user-friendly graphical interface for visualizing NMR spectra and data analysis results. The functional ability of Automics is demonstrated with an analysis of a type 2 diabetes metabolic profile. Conclusion Automics facilitates high throughput 1D NMR spectral processing and high dimensional data analysis for NMR-based metabonomics applications. Using Automics, users can complete spectral processing and data analysis within one software package in most cases

  7. IR spectral analysis for the diagnostics of crust earthquake precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umarkhodgaev, R. M.; Liperovsky, V. A.; Mikhailin, V. V.; Meister, C.-V.; Naumov, D. Ju

    2012-04-01

    In regions of future earthquakes, a few days before the seismic shock, the emanation of radon and hydrogen is being observed, which causes clouds of increased ionisation in the atmosphere. In the present work the possible diagnostics of these clouds using infrared (IR) spectroscopy is considered, which may be important and useful for the general geophysical system of earthquake prediction and the observation of industrial emissions of radioactive materials into the atmosphere. Some possible physical processes are analysed, which cause, under the condition of additional ionisation in a pre-breakdown electrical field, emissions in the IR interval. In doing so, the transparency region of the IR spectrum at wavelengths of 7-15 μm is taken into account. This transparency region corresponds to spectral lines of small atmospheric constituents like CH4, CO2, N2O, NO2, NO, and O3. The possible intensities of the IR emissions observable in laboratories and in nature are estimated. The acceleration process of the electrons in the pre-breakdown electrical field before its adhesion to the molecules is analysed. The laboratory equipment for the investigation of the IR absorption spectrum is constructed for the cases of normal and decreased atmospheric pressures. The syntheses of ozone and nitrous oxides are performed in the barrier discharge. It is studied if the products of the syntheses may be used to model atmospheric processes where these components take part. Spectra of products of the syntheses in the wavelength region of 2-10 μm are observed and analysed. A device is created for the syntheses and accumulation of nitrous oxides. Experiments to observe the IR-spectra of ozone and nitrous oxides during the syntheses and during the further evolution of these molecules are performed. For the earthquake prediction, practically, the investigation of emission spectra is most important, but during the laboratory experiments, the radiation of the excited molecules is shifted by a

  8. Spectral Analysis of Sampled Signals in the Linear Canonical Transform Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Zhao Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The spectral analysis of uniform or nonuniform sampling signal is one of the hot topics in digital signal processing community. Theories and applications of uniformly and nonuniformly sampled one-dimensional or two-dimensional signals in the traditional Fourier domain have been well studied. But so far, none of the research papers focusing on the spectral analysis of sampled signals in the linear canonical transform domain have been published. In this paper, we investigate the spectrum of sampled signals in the linear canonical transform domain. Firstly, based on the properties of the spectrum of uniformly sampled signals, the uniform sampling theorem of two dimensional signals has been derived. Secondly, the general spectral representation of periodic nonuniformly sampled one and two dimensional signals has been obtained. Thirdly, detailed analysis of periodic nonuniformly sampled chirp signals in the linear canonical transform domain has been performed.

  9. Measuring the 'complexity'of sound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We categorize sounds with slowly varying spectral dynamics as simple and those with rapidly changing spectral dynamics as complex. We propose rate of spectral dynamics as a possible scheme to categorize sounds in the environment. ... National Brain Research Centre, NH-8, Nainwal Mode, Manesar 122 050, India ...

  10. Photoplethysmographic imaging via spectrally demultiplexed erythema fluctuation analysis for remote heart rate monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deglint, Jason; Chung, Audrey G.; Chwyl, Brendan; Amelard, Robert; Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Wang, Xiao Yu; Clausi, David A.; Wong, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    Traditional photoplethysmographic imaging (PPGI) systems use the red, green, and blue (RGB) broadband measurements of a consumer digital camera to remotely estimate a patients heart rate; however, these broadband RGB signals are often corrupted by ambient noise, making the extraction of subtle fluctuations indicative of heart rate difficult. Therefore, the use of narrow-band spectral measurements can significantly improve the accuracy. We propose a novel digital spectral demultiplexing (DSD) method to infer narrow-band spectral information from acquired broadband RGB measurements in order to estimate heart rate via the computation of motion- compensated skin erythema fluctuation. Using high-resolution video recordings of human participants, multiple measurement locations are automatically identified on the cheeks of an individual, and motion-compensated broadband reflectance measurements are acquired at each measurement location over time via measurement location tracking. The motion-compensated broadband reflectance measurements are spectrally demultiplexed using a non-linear inverse model based on the spectral sensitivity of the camera's detector. A PPG signal is then computed from the demultiplexed narrow-band spectral information via skin erythema fluctuation analysis, with improved signal-to-noise ratio allowing for reliable remote heart rate measurements. To assess the effectiveness of the proposed system, a set of experiments involving human motion in a front-facing position were performed under ambient lighting conditions. Experimental results indicate that the proposed system achieves robust and accurate heart rate measurements and can provide additional information about the participant beyond the capabilities of traditional PPGI methods.

  11. Spectral Cytometry Has Unique Properties Allowing Multicolor Analysis of Cell Suspensions Isolated from Solid Tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine Schmutz

    Full Text Available Flow cytometry, initially developed to analyze surface protein expression in hematopoietic cells, has increased in analytical complexity and is now widely used to identify cells from different tissues and organisms. As a consequence, data analysis became increasingly difficult due the need of large multi-parametric compensation matrices and to the eventual auto-fluorescence frequently found in cell suspensions obtained from solid organs. In contrast with conventional flow cytometry that detects the emission peak of fluorochromes, spectral flow cytometry distinguishes the shapes of emission spectra along a large range of continuous wave lengths. The data is analyzed with an algorithm that replaces compensation matrices and treats auto-fluorescence as an independent parameter. Thus, spectral flow cytometry should be capable to discriminate fluorochromes with similar emission peaks and provide multi-parametric analysis without compensation requirements. Here we show that spectral flow cytometry achieves a 21-parametric (19 fluorescent probes characterization and deals with auto-fluorescent cells, providing high resolution of specifically fluorescence-labeled populations. Our results showed that spectral flow cytometry has advantages in the analysis of cell populations of tissues difficult to characterize in conventional flow cytometry, such as heart and intestine. Spectral flow cytometry thus combines the multi-parametric analytical capacity of the highest performing conventional flow cytometry without the requirement for compensation and enabling auto-fluorescence management.

  12. Spectral analysis of intraocular pressure pulse wave in ocular hypertensive and primary open angle glaucoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija M Bozic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: In attempt to find an alternative way to determine conversion from ocular hypertension to primary open angle glaucoma (POAG (besides visual field and optic disc changes, we analyzed intraocular pressure (IOP pulse wave in spectral domain. Aims: The aim of this study was to test the potential differences in spectral content of IOP pulse wave between ocular hypertension and POAG patients, which could indicate conversion. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study designed to test the differences in the spectral content of pressure pulse wave between nontreated ocular hypertensive and nontreated, freshly diagnosed POAG patients. Methods: The total of 40 eyes of 40 subjects was included: 20 previously untreated ocular hypertensive patients, and 20 previously untreated POAG patients. Continuous IOP measuring gained by dynamic contour tonometry was submitted to fast Fourier transform signal analysis and further statistical data processing. Statistics Analysis Used: Ocular and systemic characteristics of the tested subjects were compared by analysis of variance appropriate for this study design. A P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Higher spectral components of the IOP pulse wave was discerned up to the fifth harmonic in both of the tested groups. No statistically significant differences were found in any of the tested harmonic amplitudes. Conclusions: There are no differences in the spectral content of IOP pulse wave between ocular hypertensive and primary open angle glaucoma patients which could be indicative for conversion.

  13. Auditory evoked fields elicited by spectral, temporal, and spectral-temporal changes in human cerebral cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidehiko eOkamoto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural sounds contain complex spectral components, which are temporally modulated as time-varying signals. Recent studies have suggested that the auditory system encodes spectral and temporal sound information differently. However, it remains unresolved how the human brain processes sounds containing both spectral and temporal changes. In the present study, we investigated human auditory evoked responses elicited by spectral, temporal, and spectral-temporal sound changes by means of magnetoencephalography (MEG. The auditory evoked responses elicited by the spectral-temporal change were very similar to those elicited by the spectral change, but those elicited by the temporal change were delayed by 30 – 50 ms and differed from the others in morphology. The results suggest that human brain responses corresponding to spectral sound changes precede those corresponding to temporal sound changes, even when the spectral and temporal changes occur simultaneously.

  14. Neural Representation of Concurrent Harmonic Sounds in Monkey Primary Auditory Cortex: Implications for Models of Auditory Scene Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinschneider, Mitchell; Micheyl, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The ability to attend to a particular sound in a noisy environment is an essential aspect of hearing. To accomplish this feat, the auditory system must segregate sounds that overlap in frequency and time. Many natural sounds, such as human voices, consist of harmonics of a common fundamental frequency (F0). Such harmonic complex tones (HCTs) evoke a pitch corresponding to their F0. A difference in pitch between simultaneous HCTs provides a powerful cue for their segregation. The neural mechanisms underlying concurrent sound segregation based on pitch differences are poorly understood. Here, we examined neural responses in monkey primary auditory cortex (A1) to two concurrent HCTs that differed in F0 such that they are heard as two separate “auditory objects” with distinct pitches. We found that A1 can resolve, via a rate-place code, the lower harmonics of both HCTs, a prerequisite for deriving their pitches and for their perceptual segregation. Onset asynchrony between the HCTs enhanced the neural representation of their harmonics, paralleling their improved perceptual segregation in humans. Pitches of the concurrent HCTs could also be temporally represented by neuronal phase-locking at their respective F0s. Furthermore, a model of A1 responses using harmonic templates could qualitatively reproduce psychophysical data on concurrent sound segregation in humans. Finally, we identified a possible intracortical homolog of the “object-related negativity” recorded noninvasively in humans, which correlates with the perceptual segregation of concurrent sounds. Findings indicate that A1 contains sufficient spectral and temporal information for segregating concurrent sounds based on differences in pitch. PMID:25209282

  15. Maximum Entropy Spectral Analysis of Multiple Sinusoids in Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-04-02

    transformed equations arc a ~ naIler DD , ~~~~~~~ 1473 EDITION OF I NOV 63 IS OBSOLETE UNCLASSIFIEDS/N 0102 LF 014 6601...L., 1976, Conventional Fourier, autoregressive, and special ABMA methods of spectrum analysis: Engineer thesis, Dept. of Electrical Engineering

  16. A Molecular Iodine Spectral Data Set for Rovibronic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, J. Charles; Kuntzleman, Thomas S.; Kafader, Rachael A.

    2013-01-01

    A data set of 7,381 molecular iodine vapor rovibronic transitions between the X and B electronic states has been prepared for an advanced undergraduate spectroscopic analysis project. Students apply standard theoretical techniques to these data and determine the values of three X-state constants (image omitted) and four B-state constants (image…

  17. Multi spectral imaging analysis for meat spoilage discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Asger Nyman; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Papadopoulou, Olga

    In the present study, fresh beef fillets were purchased from a local butcher shop and stored aerobically and in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP, CO2 40%/O2 30%/N2 30%) at six different temperatures (0, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20°C). Microbiological analysis in terms of total viable counts (TVC...

  18. Sleep EEG spectral analysis in a diurnal rodent : Eutamias sibiricus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DIJK, DJ; DAAN, S

    1989-01-01

    1. Sleep was studied in the diurnal rodent Eutamias sibiricus, chronically implanted with EEG and EMG electrodes. Analysis of the distribution of wakefulness, nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep over the 24 h period (LD 12:12) showed that total sleep time was 27.5%

  19. Processing of spectral X-ray data with principal components analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, A P H; Cook, N J; Butzer, J; Schleich, N; Tlustos, L; Scott, N; Grasset, R; de Ruiter, N; Anderson, N G

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the work was to develop a general method for processing spectral x-ray image data. Principle component analysis (PCA) is a well understood technique for multivariate data analysis and so was investigated. To assess this method, spectral (multi-energy) computed tomography (CT) data was obtained using a Medipix2 detector in a MARS-CT (Medipix All Resolution System). PCA was able to separate bone (calcium) from two elements with k-edges in the X-ray spectrum used (iodine and barium) within a mouse. This has potential clinical application in dual-energy CT systems and future Medipix3 based spectral imaging where up to eight energies can be recorded simultaneously with excellent energy resolution. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Adapting Spectral Co-clustering to Documents and Terms Using Latent Semantic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Laurence A. F.; Leckie, Christopher A.; Ramamohanarao, Kotagiri; Bezdek, James C.

    Spectral co-clustering is a generic method of computing co-clusters of relational data, such as sets of documents and their terms. Latent semantic analysis is a method of document and term smoothing that can assist in the information retrieval process. In this article we examine the process behind spectral clustering for documents and terms, and compare it to Latent Semantic Analysis. We show that both spectral co-clustering and LSA follow the same process, using different normalisation schemes and metrics. By combining the properties of the two co-clustering methods, we obtain an improved co-clustering method for document-term relational data that provides an increase in the cluster quality of 33.0%.

  1. Power spectral analysis of the heart rate variability of goat fetuses during extrauterine incubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonemoto, Hisashi; Nishina, Hidenori; Yoshida, Koyo; Kinoshita, Katsuyuki; Ehara, Yoshiro

    2004-08-01

    Our aim is to determine the relationship between heart rate and behavioral states of a fetal goat using power spectral analysis. Electrocardiograms, electrocortical activity, and fetal breathing movements are recorded from 7 goat fetuses during extrauterine incubation. The heart rate power spectrum is classified into very low, low, and high frequency bands, and behavioral states are classified into low-voltage electrocortical activity with fetal breathing movements (LVB), low-voltage electrocortical activity without fetal breathing movements (LVN), and high-voltage electrocortical activity (HVN). There is a significant difference in total power spectral density in the high frequency band between LVN and HVN, and LVN and LVB. The relationship between each fetal behavioral state is assessed by power spectral analysis.

  2. Spectral analysis of optical emission of microplasma in sea water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamaleev, Vladislav; Morita, Hayato; Oh, Jun-Seok; Furuta, Hiroshi; Hatta, Akimitsu

    2016-09-01

    This work presents an analysis of optical emission spectra from microplasma in three types of liquid, namely artificial sea water composed of 10 typical agents (10ASW), reference solutions each containing a single agent (NaCl, MgCl2 + H2O, Na2SO4, CaCl2, KCl, NaHCO3, KBr, NaHCO3, H3BO3, SrCl2 + H2O, NaF) and naturally sampled deep sea water (DSW). Microplasma was operated using a needle(Pd)-to-plate(Pt) electrode system sunk into each liquid in a quartz cuvette. The radius of the tip of the needle was 50 μm and the gap between the electrodes was set at 20 μm. An inpulse generator circuit, consisting of a MOSFET switch, a capacitor, an inductor and the resistance of the liquid between the electrodes, was used as a pulse current source for operation of discharges. In the spectra, the emission peaks for the main components of sea water and contaminants from the electrodes were detected. Spectra for reference solutions were examined to enable the identification of unassigned peaks in the spectra for sea water. Analysis of the Stark broadening of H α peak was carried out to estimate the electron density of the plasma under various conditions. The characteristics of microplasma discharge in sea water and the analysis of the optical emission spectra will be presented. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 26600129.

  3. Spectral analysis of the Crab Nebula and GRB 160530A with the Compton Spectrometer and Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleator, Clio; Boggs, Steven E.; Chiu, Jeng-Lun; Kierans, Carolyn; Lowell, Alexander; Tomsick, John; Zoglauer, Andreas; Amman, Mark; Chang, Hsiang-Kuang; Tseng, Chao-Hsiung; Yang, Chien-Ying; Lin, Chih H.; Jean, Pierre; von Ballmoos, Peter

    2017-08-01

    The Compton Spectrometer and Imager (COSI) is a balloon-borne soft gamma-ray (0.2-5 MeV) telescope designed to study astrophysical sources including gamma-ray bursts and compact objects. As a compact Compton telescope, COSI has inherent sensitivity to polarization. COSI utilizes 12 germanium detectors to provide excellent spectral resolution. On May 17, 2016, COSI was launched from Wanaka, New Zealand and completed a successful 46-day flight on NASA’s new Superpressure balloon. To perform spectral analysis with COSI, we have developed an accurate instrument model as required for the response matrix. With carefully chosen background regions, we are able to fit the background-subtracted spectra in XSPEC. We have developed a model of the atmosphere above COSI based on the NRLMSISE-00 Atmosphere Model to include in our spectral fits. The Crab and GRB 160530A are among the sources detected during the 2016 flight. We present spectral analysis of these two point sources. Our GRB 160530A results are consistent with those from other instruments, confirming COSI’s spectral abilities. Furthermore, we discuss prospects for measuring the Crab polarization with COSI.

  4. Site Characterization in the Urban Area of Tijuana, B. C., Mexico by Means of: H/V Spectral Ratios, Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves, and Random Decrement Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia-Herrera, R.; Huerta-Lopez, C. I.; Martinez-Cruzado, J. A.

    2009-05-01

    Results of site characterization for an experimental site in the metropolitan area of Tijuana, B. C., Mexico are presented as part of the on-going research in which time series of earthquakes, ambient noise, and induced vibrations were processed with three different methods: H/V spectral ratios, Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves (SASW), and the Random Decrement Method, (RDM). Forward modeling using the wave propagation stiffness matrix method (Roësset and Kausel, 1981) was used to compute the theoretical SH/P, SV/P spectral ratios, and the experimental H/V spectral ratios were computed following the conventional concepts of Fourier analysis. The modeling/comparison between the theoretical and experimental H/V spectral ratios was carried out. For the SASW method the theoretical dispersion curves were also computed and compared with the experimental one, and finally the theoretical free vibration decay curve was compared with the experimental one obtained with the RDM. All three methods were tested with ambient noise, induced vibrations, and earthquake signals. Both experimental spectral ratios obtained with ambient noise as well as earthquake signals agree quite well with the theoretical spectral ratios, particularly at the fundamental vibration frequency of the recording site. Differences between the fundamental vibration frequencies are evident for sites located at alluvial fill (~0.6 Hz) and at sites located at conglomerate/sandstones fill (0.75 Hz). Shear wave velocities for the soft soil layers of the 4-layer discrete soil model ranges as low as 100 m/s and up to 280 m/s. The results with the SASW provided information that allows to identify low velocity layers, not seen before with the traditional seismic methods. The damping estimations obtained with the RDM are within the expected values, and the dominant frequency of the system also obtained with the RDM correlates within the range of plus-minus 20 % with the one obtained by means of the H/V spectral

  5. Factor Analysis for Spectral Reconnaissance and Situational Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-11

    ANALYSIS IN TEMPORAL CORRELATION-DOMAIN One may notice that (8) is a slice/ slab representation of a three-way tensor [20], [21]. Specifically, let us...curacy. In the next section, we will propose a new PARAFAC algorithm that is robust to corrupt data slabs , which can be con- sidered as an extension of...Wideband power spectrum sensing from few bits,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process., vol. 61, no. 10, pp. 2693–2703, May 2013. [8] ——, “Channel tracking and

  6. SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF POLYMER MODIFIED BITUMEN USED IN WATERPROOFING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria RATAJCZAK

    Full Text Available Asphalt is one of the most commonly used building material. The first attempts at modifying asphalt were made at the beginning of the twentieth century. Nowadays the most popular asphalt modifier is the styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS. This thermoplastic elastomer increases the thermal resistance of bitumen, widens the range of plasticity and amends rheological properties. IR spectroscopy is by far the most common instrumental method used in analytical chemistry. The popularity of this method results from its simple measurement technique, universality and high precision. That is why IR spectroscopy applies to the analysis of polymer modified binder (PMB used in waterproofing.

  7. Micro-Raman Imaging for Biology with Multivariate Spectral Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Malvaso, Federica

    2015-05-05

    Raman spectroscopy is a noninvasive technique that can provide complex information on the vibrational state of the molecules. It defines the unique fingerprint that allow the identification of the various chemical components within a given sample. The aim of the following thesis work is to analyze Raman maps related to three pairs of different cells, highlighting differences and similarities through multivariate algorithms. The first pair of analyzed cells are human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), while the other two pairs are induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from T lymphocytes and keratinocytes, respectively. Although two different multivariate techniques were employed, ie Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis, the same results were achieved: the iPSCs derived from T-lymphocytes show a higher content of genetic material both compared with the iPSCs derived from keratinocytes and the hESCs . On the other side, equally evident, was that iPS cells derived from keratinocytes assume a molecular distribution very similar to hESCs.

  8. Sound level analysis in endotracheal tube obstruction in spontaneous breathing and mechanical ventilation-an animal model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoodi, Behzad; Sabetian, Golnar; Azimi, Aram; Tanideh, Nader; Mehdizade, Alireza

    2017-12-01

    Endotracheal tube (ETT) obstruction, either complete or partial, is a serious life threatening complication in intubated patients. Therefore, implementing a practical method to diagnose this condition is vital. Alteration in respiratory sound signals caused by ETT occlusion can be used for early detection of obstruction. This study is aimed to assess changes in respiratory sound signals after creation of different types of tubal obstruction in an animal model experiment. Artificial internal obstructions were created in three different sizes and three different locations by stitching pieces of smaller tubes in ETTs with internal diameter of 8 mm. A microphone was used to record respiratory sounds during both spontaneous breathing and mechanical ventilation in seven anesthetized dogs. The sound intensity levels produced by different grades and degrees of obstructions were measured and compared with those in non-obstructed tubes. During spontaneous breathing, significant decrease in sound intensity level was detected even with the lowest grades of obstruction (p = 0.003, 0.001, and 0.002, proximal, middle and distal obstructions, respectively). However, in mechanical ventilation, significant decrease in sound intensity was observed only in distal tubal obstruction (p = 0.037). The difference among levels of sound intensity produced by different obstruction locations of occlusion was not statistically significant (p ≥ 0.090). Data analysis revealed that sound intensity level decreased significantly when the degree of obstruction increased. In addition, this change in sound level was not related to the location of obstruction. The decrease in sound intensity changes can be used to detect ETT obstruction. However, further studies are needed for clinical application.

  9. Audio-visual interactions in product sound design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özcan, E.; Van Egmond, R.

    2010-01-01

    Consistent product experience requires congruity between product properties such as visual appearance and sound. Therefore, for designing appropriate product sounds by manipulating their spectral-temporal structure, product sounds should preferably not be considered in isolation but as an integral

  10. Structural, spectral analysis of ambroxol using DFT methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, P.; Gunasekaran, S.; Manikandan, A.

    2017-09-01

    The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of Ambroxol are recorded in the region 4000-450 cm-1 and 4000-50 cm-1 respectively. Theoretical calculations were performed by density functional theory (DFT) method using 6-31G(2d,3p) basis set. The complete vibrational assignments of wavenumbers were made on the basis of potential energy distribution (PED). The results of the calculations were applied to the simulated spectra of the title compound, which show excellent agreement with the observed spectra. The frontier orbital energy gap and dipole moment, illustrates the high reactivity of the title molecule. Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions and charge delocalization has been analysed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. Molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), the electronic properties were performed by time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approach, and HOMO-LUMO energy levels are also constructed.

  11. Eigenvalue Analysis of sound propagation characteristics in a circular duct lined with poroelastic foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Myung Seob; Lee, Seung Yeop; Kang, Yeon June

    2014-03-01

    An effective method for eigenvalue analysis of a circular duct lined with poroelastic foams is presented using axisymmetric finite element models based on Biot's theory and Helmholtz equation. Complex dispersion relations in a cylindrical foam-lined duct are successfully identified using an iterative Prony series method. It is shown that the numerical results obtained by the proposed method agree well with those obtained by measurements and direct forced response simulations. The influences of thickness and boundary conditions of the poroelastic foam on the sound propagation characteristics in a duct are also investigated. Furthermore, the damping effect due to viscosity of the foam on dispersion curves is discussed at a theoretical level.

  12. Optimum Resolution Bandwidth for Spectral Analysis of Stationary Random Vibration Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan G. Piersol

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a methodology for selecting the frequency resolution bandwidth for the spectral analysis of stationary random vibration signals in an optimum manner. Specifically, the resolution bandwidth that will produce power spectral density estimates with a minimum mean square error is determined for any given measurement duration (averaging time, and methods of approximating the optimum bandwidth using practical spectral analysis procedures are detailed. The determination of the optimum resolution bandwidth requires an estimate for the damping ratio of the vibrating structure that produced the measured vibration signal and the analysis averaging time. It is shown that the optimum resolution bandwidth varies approximately with the 0.8 power of the damping ratio and the bandwidth center frequency, and the −0.2 power of the averaging time. Also, any resolution bandwidth within ±50% of the optimum bandwidth will produce power spectral density (PSD estimates with an error that is no more than 25% above the minimum achievable error. If a damping ratio of about 5% for structural resonances is assumed, a constant percentage resolution bandwidth of 1/12 octave, but no less than 2.5 Hz, will provide a near optimum PSD analysis for an averaging time of 2 seconds over the frequency range from 20 to 2000 Hz. A simple scaling formula allows the determination of appropriate bandwidths for other damping ratios and averaging times.

  13. WINDOWS: a program for the analysis of spectral data foil activation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stallmann, F.W.; Eastham, J.F.; Kam, F.B.K.

    1978-12-01

    The computer program WINDOWS together with its subroutines is described for the analysis of neutron spectral data foil activation measurements. In particular, the unfolding of the neutron differential spectrum, estimated windows and detector contributions, upper and lower bounds for an integral response, and group fluxes obtained from neutron transport calculations. 116 references. (JFP)

  14. The Prony spectral line estimation (PSLE) method for the analysis of vascular oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J U; Burkhard, P M; Secomb, T W; Intaglietta, M

    1989-09-01

    The Prony spectral line estimation (PSLE) technique is implemented and tested on data consisting of sinusoids mixed with Gaussian noise and on recordings of oscillatory diameter changes (vasomotion) of arterioles. It is concluded that the PSLE method is well suited for the spectrum analysis of short oscillatory diameter records.

  15. Estimation of compound distribution in spectral images of tomatoes using independent component analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, G.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Independent Component Analysis (ICA) is one of the most widely used methods for blind source separation. In this paper we use this technique to estimate the important compounds which play a role in the ripening of tomatoes. Spectral images of tomatoes were analyzed. Two main independent components

  16. Analysis and applications of spectral properties of grounded Laplacian matrices for directed networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, Weiguo; Cao, Ming

    In-depth understanding of the spectral properties of grounded Laplacian matrices is critical for the analysis of convergence speeds of dynamical processes over complex networks, such as opinion dynamics in social networks with stubborn agents. We focus on grounded Laplacian matrices for directed

  17. All Night Spectral Analysis of EEG Sleep in Young Adult and Middle-Aged Male Subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Derk Jan; Beersma, Domien G.M.; Hoofdakker, Rutger H. van den

    1989-01-01

    The sleep EEGs of 9 young adult males (age 20-28 years) and 8 middle-aged males (42-56 years) were analyzed by visual scoring and spectral analysis. In the middle-aged subjects power density in the delta, theta and sigma frequencies were attenuated as compared to the young subjects. In both age

  18. Spectral analysis and anti-bacterial activity of methanolic fruit extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    Spectral analysis and anti-bacterial activity of methanolic fruit extract of Citrullus colocynthis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Salah Ali Idan, Ali Hussein Al-Marzoqi and Imad Hadi Hameed*. Department of Biology, Babylon University, Hilla City, Iraq. Received 1 September, 2015; Accepted 5 November, 2015.

  19. Spectral analysis of K-shell X-ray emission of magnesium plasma ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-06

    Feb 6, 2014 ... Spectral analysis of K-shell X-ray emission of magnesium plasma, produced by laser pulses of 45 fs duration, focussed up to an intensity of ∼1018 W cm-2, is carried out. The plasma conditions prevalent during the emission of X-ray spectrum were identified by comparing the experimental spectra with the ...

  20. Analysis of Cell Suspensions Isolated from Solid Tissues by Spectral Flow Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, Sandrine; Valente, Mariana; Cumano, Ana; Novault, Sophie

    2017-05-05

    Flow cytometry has been used for the past 40 years to define and analyze the phenotype of lymphoid and other hematopoietic cells. Initially restricted to the analysis of a few fluorochromes, currently there are dozens of different fluorescent dyes, and up to 14-18 different dyes can be combined at a time. However, several limitations still impair the analytical capabilities. Because of the multiplicity of fluorescent probes, data analysis has become increasingly complex due to the need of large, multi-parametric compensation matrices. Moreover, mutant mouse models carrying fluorescent proteins to detect and trace specific cell types in different tissues have become available, so the analysis (by flow cytometry) of auto-fluorescent cell suspensions obtained from solid organs is required. Spectral flow cytometry, which distinguishes the shapes of emission spectra along a wide range of continuous wavelengths, addresses some of these problems. The data is analyzed with an algorithm that replaces compensation matrices and treats auto-fluorescence as an independent parameter. Thus, spectral flow cytometry should be capable of discriminating fluorochromes with similar emission peaks and can provide a multi-parametric analysis without compensation requirements. This protocol describes the spectral flow cytometry analysis, allowing for a 21-parameter (19 fluorescent probes) characterization and the management of an auto-fluorescent signal, providing high resolution in minor population detection. The results presented here show that spectral flow cytometry presents advantages in the analysis of cell populations from tissues difficult to characterize in conventional flow cytometry, such as the heart and the intestine. Spectral flow cytometry thus demonstrates the multi-parametric analytical capacity of high-performing conventional flow cytometry without the requirement for compensation and enables auto-fluorescence management.

  1. Quantitative analysis of the dual-energy CT virtual spectral curve for focal liver lesions characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qi, E-mail: wq20@hotmail.com; Shi, Gaofeng, E-mail: gaofengs62@sina.com; Qi, Xiaohui, E-mail: qixiaohui1984@163.com; Fan, Xueli, E-mail: 407849960@qq.com; Wang, Lijia, E-mail: 893197597@qq.com

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We establish a feasible method using the virtual spectral curves (VSC) to differentiate focal liver lesions using DECT. • Our study shows the slope of the VSC can be used to differentiate between hemangioma, HCC, metastasis and cyst. • Importantly, the diagnostic specificities associated with using the slope to diagnose both hemangioma and cysts were 100%. - Abstract: Objective: To assess the usefulness of the spectral curve slope of dual-energy CT (DECT) for differentiating between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), hepatic metastasis, hemangioma (HH) and cysts. Methods: In total, 121 patients were imaged in the portal venous phase using dual-energy mode. Of these patients, 23 patients had HH, 28 patients had HCC, 40 patients had metastases and 30 patients had simple cysts. The spectral curves of the hepatic lesions were derived from the 40–190 keV levels of virtual monochromatic spectral imaging. The spectral curve slopes were calculated from 40 to 110 keV. The slopes were compared using the Kruskal–Wallis test. Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) were used to determine the optimal cut-off value of the slope of the spectral curve to differentiate between the lesions. Results: The spectral curves of the four lesion types had different baseline levels. The HH baseline level was the highest followed by HCC, metastases and cysts. The slopes of the spectral curves of HH, HCC, metastases and cysts were 3.81 ± 1.19, 1.49 ± 0.57, 1.06 ± 0.76 and 0.13 ± 0.17, respectively. These values were significantly different (P < 0.008). Based on ROC analysis, the respective diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 87% and 100% for hemangioma (cut-off value ≥ 2.988), 82.1% and 65.9% for HCC (cut-off value 1.167–2.998), 65.9% and 59% for metastasis (cut-off value 0.133–1.167) and 44.4% and 100% for cysts (cut-off value ≤ 0.133). Conclusion: Quantitative analysis of the DECT spectral curve in the portal venous phase can be used to

  2. Application of spectral analysis in radiometric measurements of twophase liquid-gas flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zych Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents use of the classical spectral analysis to identify a type of flow in investigation of gas transportation by liquid with a measurement of gamma radiation absorption. During numerous experiments it was found that a magnitude of the cross-spectral density distribution of recording signals reveals type of air-water mixture flow in a horizontal pipeline. As an example, some results of laboratory measurements equipped in 241Am radiation source and scintillation probes with of NaI(Tl crystals are presented. Moreover attached figures facilitate interpretation of observed results and in details illustrating the proposed method.

  3. The analysis of toxic connections content in water by spectral methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, I. V.; Chaikovskaya, O. N.; Sokolova, I. V.; Artyushin, V. R.

    2017-08-01

    The current state of ecology means the strict observance of measures for the utilization of household and industrial wastes that is connected with very essential expenses of means and time. Thanks to spectroscopic devices usage the spectral methods allow to carry out the express quantitative and qualitative analysis in a workplace and field conditions. In a work the application of spectral methods by studying the degradation of toxic organic compounds after preliminary radiation of various sources is shown. Experimental data of optical density of water at various influences are given.

  4. Monitoring PSR B1509–58 with RXTE: Spectral analysis 1996–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Litzinger

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis of the X-ray spectra of the young, Crab-like pulsar PSR B1509–58 (pulse period P ~ 151ms observed by RXTE over 14 years since the beginning of the mission in 1996. The uniform dataset is especially well suited for studying the stability of the spectral parameters over time as well as for determining pulse phase resolved spectral parameters with high significance. The phase averaged spectra as well as the resolved spectra can be well described by an absorbed power law.

  5. Multiple endmember spectral-angle-mapper (SAM) analysis improves discrimination of Savanna tree species

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cho, Moses A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available ). The measurements were made on sunlit leaves. 2.2. Data analysis First, the spectral data for each species were randomly split into the training (1/3) and test (2/3) data. A resampling procedure was adopted in the splitting the data. Ten replicates were...). The overall, users and producers classification accuracies were determined as the mean values for the ten replicates from the confusion matrices between the observed and predicted data. The effect of within species spectral similarity or dissimilarity...

  6. Sound speed in the Mediterranean Sea: an analysis from a climatological data set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Salon

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of sound speed distribution in the Mediterranean Sea based on climatological temperature and salinity data. In the upper layers, propagation is characterised by upward refraction in winter and an acoustic channel in summer. The seasonal cycle of the Mediterranean and the presence of gyres and fronts create a wide range of spatial and temporal variabilities, with relevant differences between the western and eastern basins. It is shown that the analysis of a climatological data set can help in defining regions suitable for successful monitoring by means of acoustic tomography. Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF decomposition on the profiles, performed on the seasonal cycle for some selected areas, demonstrates that two modes account for more than 98% of the variability of the climatological distribution. Reduced order EOF analysis is able to correctly represent sound speed profiles within each zone, thus providing the a priori knowledge for Matched Field Tomography. It is also demonstrated that salinity can affect the tomographic inversion, creating a higher degree of complexity than in the open oceans.Key words. Oceanography: general (marginal and semi-enclosed seas; ocean acoustics

  7. Spectral Analysis of Geomagnetic Activity Indices and Solar Wind Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Hee Kim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar variability is widely known to affect the interplanetary space and in turn the Earth’s electromagnetical environment on the basis of common periodicities in the solar and geomagnetic activity indices. The goal of this study is twofold. Firstly, we attempt to associate modes by comparing a temporal behavior of the power of geomagnetic activity parameters since it is barely sufficient searching for common peaks with a similar periodicity in order to causally correlate geomagnetic activity parameters. As a result of the wavelet transform analysis we are able to obtain information on the temporal behavior of the power in the velocity of the solar wind, the number density of protons in the solar wind, the AE index, the Dst index, the interplanetary magnetic field, B and its three components of the GSM coordinate system, BX, BY, BZ. Secondly, we also attempt to search for any signatures of influence on the space environment near the Earth by inner planets orbiting around the Sun. Our main findings are as follows: (1 Parameters we have investigated show periodicities of ~ 27 days, ~ 13.5 days, ~ 9 days. (2 The peaks in the power spectrum of BZ appear to be split due to an unknown agent. (3 For some modes powers are not present all the time and intervals showing high powers do not always coincide. (4 Noticeable peaks do not emerge at those frequencies corresponding to the synodic and/or sidereal periods of Mercury and Venus, which leads us to conclude that the Earth’s space environment is not subject to the shadow of the inner planets as suggested earlier.

  8. Analysis of daily river flow fluctuations using empirical mode decomposition and arbitrary order Hilbert spectral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongxiang; Schmitt, François G.; Lu, Zhiming.; Liu, Yulu

    2009-06-01

    SummaryIn this paper we presented the analysis of two long time series of daily river flow data, 32 years recorded in the Seine river (France), and 25 years recorded in the Wimereux river (Wimereux, France). We applied a scale based decomposition method, namely Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD), on these time series. The data were decomposed into several Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF). The mean frequency of each IMF mode indicated that the EMD method acts as a filter bank. Furthermore, the cross-correlation between these IMF modes from the Seine river and Wimereux river demonstrated correlation among the large scale IMF modes, which indicates that both rivers are likely to be influenced by the same maritime climate event of Northern France. As a confirmation we found that the large scale parts have the same evolution trend. We finally applied arbitrary order Hilbert spectral analysis, a new technique coming from turbulence studies and time series analysis, on the flow discharge of the Seine river. This new method provides an amplitude-frequency representation of the original time series, giving a joint pdf p(ω,A). When marginal moments of the amplitude are computed, one obtains an intermittency study in the frequency space. Applied to river flow discharge data from the Seine river, this shows the scaling range and characterizes the intermittent fluctuations over the range of scales from 4.5 to 60 days, between synoptic and intraseasonal scales.

  9. Isomer Specific Microwave Spectrum of - and - Phenylvinylnitrile. Implementing a New Multi-Resonant Spectral Analysis Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Castillo, Alicia O.; Hays, Brian M.; Abeysekera, Chamara; Zwier, Timothy S.

    2016-06-01

    There are many circumstances in modern microwave spectroscopy where the observed spectra contain contributions from many distinct sub-populations, creating a complicated spectrum with interleaved transitions due to its components making spectral assignment challenging. A new method, exploiting multi resonance effects with broadband CP-FTMW was developed and implemented to differentiate the structural isomers: (E)- and (Z)-phenylvinylnitrile. This method will output an exclusive set of isomer-specific transitions reducing the spectral assignment time. Details of the method implementation and structural analysis of the two-isomer mixture will be discussed. The application of the method to other circumstances where selective modulation of the transitions due to a single set of connected transitions is vital for complex spectral assignment, will also be considered.

  10. The Textile Form of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Cecilie

    of sound. This issue is a part of a Ph.D. study at The Danish Design School in Copenhagen. Sound diffusion in architecture is a complex phenomenon. From the sound source the sound spreads in all directions as a sphere of wave fronts. When the sound is reflected from room boundaries or furniture, complex...... goemetry by analysing the sound pattern at a specific spot. This analysis is done theoretically with algorithmic systems and practical with waves in water. The paper describes the experiments and the findings, and explains how an analysis of sound can be catched in a textile form.......Sound is a part of architecture, and sound is complex. Upon this, sound is invisible. How is it then possible to design visual objects that interact with the sound? This paper addresses the problem of how to get access to the complexity of sound and how to make textile material revealing the form...

  11. Learning from weakly representative data and applications in spectral image analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinh, C.

    2013-01-01

    Spectral imaging has been extensively applied in many fields, including agriculture, environmental monitoring, biomedical diagnostics, etc. Thanks to the advances in sensor technology, spectral imaging systems nowadays provide finer and finer spectral resolution needed to characterize the spectral

  12. A Study on Spectral Signature Analysis of Wetland Vegetation Based on Ground Imaging Spectrum Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Chengxing; Liu, Hua; Ju, Hongbo; Zhang, Huaiqing; You, Jia; Li, Weina

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to verify the application of imaging spectrometer in wetland vegetation remote sensing monitoring, based on analysis of wetland vegetation spectral features. Spectral information of Carex vegetation spectral data under different water environment was collected bySOC710VP and ASD FieldSpec 3; Meanwhile, the chlorophyll contents of wheat leaves were tested in the lab. A total 9 typical vegetation indices were calculated by using two instruments’ data which were spectral values from 400nm to 1000 nm. Then features between the same vegetation indices and soil water contents for two applications were analyzed and compared. The results showed that there were same spectrum curve trends of Carex vegetation (soil moisture content of 51%, 32%, 14% and three regional comparative analysis)reflectance between SOC710VP and ASD FieldSpec 3, including the two reflectance peak of 550nm and 730 nm, two reflectance valley of 690 nm and 970nm, and continuous near infrared reflectance platform. However, The two also have a very clear distinction: (1) The reflection spectra of SOC710VP leaves of Carex Carex leaf spectra in the three soil moisture environment values are greater than ASD FieldSpec 3 collected value; (2) The SOC710VP reflectivity curve does not have the smooth curve of the original spectrum measured by the ASD FieldSpec 3, the amplitude of fluctuation is bigger, and it is more obvious in the near infrared band. It is concluded that SOC710VP spectral data are reliable, with the image features, spectral curve features reliable. It has great potential in the research of hyperspectral remote sensing technology in the development of wetland near earth, remote sensing monitoring of wetland resources.

  13. Spectral Analysis of Acceleration Data for Detection of Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Hyo Sung; Han, Su-Hyun; Lee, Jongshill; Jang, Dong Pyo; Kang, Joong Koo; Woo, Jihwan

    2017-02-28

    Generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCSs) can be underestimated and can also increase mortality rates. The monitoring devices used to detect GTCS events in daily life are very helpful for early intervention and precise estimation of seizure events. Several studies have introduced methods for GTCS detection using an accelerometer (ACM), electromyography, or electroencephalography. However, these studies need to be improved with respect to accuracy and user convenience. This study proposes the use of an ACM banded to the wrist and spectral analysis of ACM data to detect GTCS in daily life. The spectral weight function dependent on GTCS was used to compute a GTCS-correlated score that can effectively discriminate between GTCS and normal movement. Compared to the performance of the previous temporal method, which used a standard deviation method, the spectral analysis method resulted in better sensitivity and fewer false positive alerts. Finally, the spectral analysis method can be implemented in a GTCS monitoring device using an ACM and can provide early alerts to caregivers to prevent risks associated with GTCS.

  14. Voyager 2 solar plasma and magnetic field spectral analysis for intermediate data sparsity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallana, Luca; Fraternale, Federico; Iovieno, Michele; Fosson, Sophie M.; Magli, Enrico; Opher, Merav; Richardson, John D.; Tordella, Daniela

    2016-05-01

    The Voyager probes are the furthest, still active, spacecraft ever launched from Earth. During their 38 year trip, they have collected data regarding solar wind properties (such as the plasma velocity and magnetic field intensity). Unfortunately, a complete time evolution of the measured physical quantities is not available. The time series contains many gaps which increase in frequency and duration at larger distances. The aim of this work is to perform a spectral and statistical analysis of the solar wind plasma velocity and magnetic field using Voyager 2 data measured in 1979, when the gap density is between the 30% and 50%. For these gap densities, we show the spectra of gapped signals inherit the characteristics of the data gaps. In particular, the algebraic decay of the intermediate frequency range is underestimated and discrete peaks result not from the underlaying data but from the gap sequence. This analysis is achieved using five different data treatment techniques coming from the multidisciplinary context: averages on linearly interpolated subsets, correlation without data interpolation, correlation of linearly interpolated data, maximum likelihood data reconstruction, and compressed sensing spectral estimation. With five frequency decades, the spectra we obtained have the largest frequency range ever computed at five astronomical units from the Sun; spectral exponents have been determined for all the components of the velocity and magnetic field fluctuations. Void analysis is also useful in recovering other spectral properties such as micro and integral scales.

  15. Spectral Analysis of Acceleration Data for Detection of Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Sung Joo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCSs can be underestimated and can also increase mortality rates. The monitoring devices used to detect GTCS events in daily life are very helpful for early intervention and precise estimation of seizure events. Several studies have introduced methods for GTCS detection using an accelerometer (ACM, electromyography, or electroencephalography. However, these studies need to be improved with respect to accuracy and user convenience. This study proposes the use of an ACM banded to the wrist and spectral analysis of ACM data to detect GTCS in daily life. The spectral weight function dependent on GTCS was used to compute a GTCS-correlated score that can effectively discriminate between GTCS and normal movement. Compared to the performance of the previous temporal method, which used a standard deviation method, the spectral analysis method resulted in better sensitivity and fewer false positive alerts. Finally, the spectral analysis method can be implemented in a GTCS monitoring device using an ACM and can provide early alerts to caregivers to prevent risks associated with GTCS.

  16. Determining Sleep Quality in Children with Sleep Disordered Breathing: EEG Spectral Analysis Compared with Conventional Polysomnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Joel S.C.; Nicholas, Christian L.; Nixon, Gillian M.; Davey, Margot J.; Anderson, Vicki; Walker, Adrian M.; Trinder, John A.; Horne, Rosemary S.C.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: To identify the extent of sleep disruption in children with various severities of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) using both conventional visually scored assessment of sleep stages and arousal indices together with EEG power spectral analysis. Design: Sleep stages and power spectral analysis of the sleep EEG in children with varying severities of SDB with matched control subjects with no history of snoring were compared across the whole night, across sequential hours from sleep onset, and across sleep stages. Measurements: Overnight polysomnography was performed on 90 children (49M/41F) aged 7-12 y with SDB and 30 age-matched healthy controls (13M/17F). Sleep stages were visually scored and the EEG spectra were analyzed in 5-s epochs. Results: Conventional visual scoring indicated that, although sleep duration was reduced in severely affected children, sleep quality during the essential stages of SWS and REM was preserved, as evidenced by the lack of any significant decrease in their duration in SDB severity groups. This finding was supported by the lack of substantial differences in EEG spectral power between the groups over the whole night, within specific hours, and in individual sleep stages. Conclusions: Both conventional scoring and EEG spectral analysis indicated only minor disruptions to sleep quality in children with SDB when assessed across the night, in any specific hour of the night, or in any specific sleep stage. These results suggest that reduced daytime functioning previously reported in children with SDB may not be due to sleep disruption. We speculate that in children, in contrast to adults, a stronger sleep drive may preserve sleep quality even in severe SDB. Citation: Yang JSC; Nicholas CL; Nixon GM; Davey MJ; Anderson V; Walker AM; Trinder JA; Horne RSC. Determining sleep quality in children with sleep disordered breathing: EEG spectral analysis compared with conventional polysomnography. SLEEP 2010;33(9):1165-1172. PMID

  17. Jupiter Systems Data Analysis Program Galileo Multi-Spectral Analysis of the Galilean Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Amanda; Carlson, Robert; Smythe, William

    2002-01-01

    Progress was made on this project at the University of Colorado, particularly concerning analysis of data of the galilean moons Io and Europa. The goal of the Io portion of this study is to incorporate Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) measured sulfur dioxide (SO2) frost amounts into models used with Ultraviolet spectrometer (UVS) spectra, in order to better constrain SO2 gas amounts determined by the UVS. The overall goal of this portion of the study is to better understand the thickness and distribution of Io's SO2 atmosphere. The goal of the analysis of the Europa data is to better understand the source of the UV absorption feature centered near 280 rim which has been noted in disk-integrated spectra primarily on the trailing hemisphere. The NIMS data indicate asymmetric water ice bands on Europa, particularly over the trailing hemisphere, and especially concentrated in the visibly dark regions associated with chaotic terrain and lines. The UPS data, the first-ever disk-resolved UV spectra of Europa, shown that the UV absorber is likely concentrated in regions where the NIMS data show asymmetric water ice bands. The material that produces both spectral features is likely the same, and we use data from both wavelength regions to better understand this material, and whether it is endogenically or exogenically produced. This work is still in progress at JPL.

  18. Propagation of sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Magnus; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2017-01-01

    As an acoustic signal travels from the source to a receiver, it is affected by a variety of physical processes, all dictated by properties of the signal and the environment. The signal energy is weakened by geometric attenuation as well as absorption by the medium. The temporal and spectral prope...... communication sounds for airborne acoustics and bottom and surface effects for underwater sounds. Refraction becomes very important close to shadow zones. For echolocation signals, geometric attenuation and sound absorption have the largest effects on the signals....

  19. Nonlinear behavior of the tarka flute's distinctive sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, Arnaud; Yapu-Quispe, Luis; Sakuma, Sachiko; Ghezzi, Flavio; Ramírez-Ávila, Gonzalo Marcelo

    2016-09-01

    The Andean tarka flute generates multiphonic sounds. Using spectral techniques, we verify two distinctive musical behaviors and the nonlinear nature of the tarka. Through nonlinear time series analysis, we determine chaotic and hyperchaotic behavior. Experimentally, we observe that by increasing the blow pressure on different fingerings, peculiar changes from linear to nonlinear patterns are produced, leading ultimately to quenching.

  20. Quantitative analysis of the mineral content of sound and carious primary dentine using BSE imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angker, Linny; Nockolds, Clive; Swain, Michael V; Kilpatrick, Nicky

    2004-02-01

    Backscattered electron-scanning electron microscope (BSE-SEM) imaging has been recommended as a reliable tool to quantify the mineralisation state of calcified tissues and is commonly used in bone studies. The aim of this study is to investigate the use of BSE imaging to quantitatively analyse the mineral content of sound and carious dentine. Eight primary molars with untreated carious dentine were embedded in resin, axially sectioned and fine polished for this study. The BSE images were from a solid-state detector in an SEM operating at 1.5Torr gas pressure. BSE images of a number of different elements and compounds with atomic number ranged from 4 to 26 were analysed prior to the test to calibrate the experimental conditions and an enamel-carbon block. The mineral analysis was based on the change in BSE intensity (measured in graylevels). The results showed that variation in graylevels accurately represented difference in the atomic number and BSE coefficient of the test materials. The mineral content of sound primary dentine in the most regions was 59.3+/-5.5 wt.%, but it decreased gradually to be just 41.82+/-6.74 wt.% adjacent to the pulp. The carious dentine showed a marked reduction in mineral content which proceeded progressively toward the cavity floor, in which the minimum value of less than 10 wt.% was normally found in the outer layer of the lesion. The results show that BSE imaging is a simple and reliable technique that can be used to quantify the mineral content of sound and carious dentine. More importantly the variable pressure SEM offers an approach to minimize the impact of dehydration on carious dentine specimens.

  1. Sound's Use in Instructional Software to Enhance Learning: A Theory-to-Practice Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, M. J.; Amankwatia, Tonya B.; Cates, Ward Mitchell

    2008-01-01

    Sound may hold great promise for instructional software by supporting learning in a variety of ways. Conceptual and preconceptual barriers, however, still appear to prevent software designers from using sound more effectively in their instructional products. Interface books seldom discuss the use of sound and when they do, it is most often simple…

  2. Clues to Coral Reef Ecosystem Health: Spectral Analysis Coupled with Radiative Transfer Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guild, L.; Ganapol, B.; Kramer, P.; Armstrong, R.; Gleason, A.; Torres, J.; Johnson, L.; Garfield, N.

    2003-12-01

    Coral reefs are among the world's most productive and biologically rich ecosystems and are some of the oldest ecosystems on Earth. Coralline structures protect coastlines from storms, maintain high diversity of marine life, and provide nurseries for marine species. Coral reefs play a role in carbon cycling through high rates of organic carbon metabolism and calcification. Coral reefs provide fisheries habitat that are the sole protein source for humans on remote islands. Reefs respond immediately to environmental change and therefore are considered "canaries" of the oceans. However, the world's reefs are in peril: they have shrunk 10-50% from their historical extent due to climate change and anthropogenic activity. An important contribution to coral reef research is improved spectral distinction of reef species' health where anthropogenic activity and climate change impacts are high. Relatively little is known concerning the spectral properties of coral or how coral structures reflect and transmit light. New insights into optical processes of corals under stressed conditions can lead to improved interpretation of airborne and satellite data and forecasting of immediate or long-term impacts of events such as bleaching and disease in coral. We are investigating the spatial and spectral resolution required to detect remotely changes in reef health by coupling spectral analysis of in situ spectra and airborne spectral data with a new radiative transfer model called CorMOD2. Challenges include light attenuation by the water column, atmospheric scattering, and scattering caused by the coral themselves that confound the spectral signal. In CorMOD2, input coral reflectance measurements produce modeled absorption through an inversion at each visible wavelength. The first model development phase of CorMOD2 imposes a scattering baseline that is constant regardless of coral condition, and further specifies that coral is optically thick. Evolution of CorMOD2 is towards a coral

  3. Parallel implementation of the multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis algorithm for hyperspectral unmixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabe, Sergio; Igual, Francisco D.; Botella, Guillermo; Prieto-Matias, Manuel; Plaza, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    In the last decade, the issue of endmember variability has received considerable attention, particularly when each pixel is modeled as a linear combination of endmembers or pure materials. As a result, several models and algorithms have been developed for considering the effect of endmember variability in spectral unmixing and possibly include multiple endmembers in the spectral unmixing stage. One of the most popular approach for this purpose is the multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis (MESMA) algorithm. The procedure executed by MESMA can be summarized as follows: (i) First, a standard linear spectral unmixing (LSU) or fully constrained linear spectral unmixing (FCLSU) algorithm is run in an iterative fashion; (ii) Then, we use different endmember combinations, randomly selected from a spectral library, to decompose each mixed pixel; (iii) Finally, the model with the best fit, i.e., with the lowest root mean square error (RMSE) in the reconstruction of the original pixel, is adopted. However, this procedure can be computationally very expensive due to the fact that several endmember combinations need to be tested and several abundance estimation steps need to be conducted, a fact that compromises the use of MESMA in applications under real-time constraints. In this paper we develop (for the first time in the literature) an efficient implementation of MESMA on different platforms using OpenCL, an open standard for parallel programing on heterogeneous systems. Our experiments have been conducted using a simulated data set and the clMAGMA mathematical library. This kind of implementations with the same descriptive language on different architectures are very important in order to actually calibrate the possibility of using heterogeneous platforms for efficient hyperspectral imaging processing in real remote sensing missions.

  4. EEG Resolutions in Detecting and Decoding Finger Movements from Spectral Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran eXiao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mu/beta rhythms are well-studied brain activities that originate from sensorimotor cortices. These rhythms reveal spectral changes in alpha and beta bands induced by movements of different body parts, e.g. hands and limbs, in electroencephalography (EEG signals. However, less can be revealed in them about movements of different fine body parts that activate adjacent brain regions, such as individual fingers from one hand. Several studies have reported spatial and temporal couplings of rhythmic activities at different frequency bands, suggesting the existence of well-defined spectral structures across multiple frequency bands. In the present study, spectral principal component analysis (PCA was applied on EEG data, obtained from a finger movement task, to identify cross-frequency spectral structures. Features from identified spectral structures were examined in their spatial patterns, cross-condition pattern changes, detection capability of finger movements from resting, and decoding performance of individual finger movements in comparison to classic mu/beta rhythms. These new features reveal some similar, but more different spatial and spectral patterns as compared with classic mu/beta rhythms. Decoding results further indicate that these new features (91% can detect finger movements much better than classic mu/beta rhythms (75.6%. More importantly, these new features reveal discriminative information about movements of different fingers (fine body-part movements, which is not available in classic mu/beta rhythms. The capability in decoding fingers (and hand gestures in the future from EEG will contribute significantly to the development of noninvasive brain computer interface (BCI and neuroprosthesis with intuitive and flexible controls.

  5. EEG resolutions in detecting and decoding finger movements from spectral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ran; Ding, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Mu/beta rhythms are well-studied brain activities that originate from sensorimotor cortices. These rhythms reveal spectral changes in alpha and beta bands induced by movements of different body parts, e.g., hands and limbs, in electroencephalography (EEG) signals. However, less can be revealed in them about movements of different fine body parts that activate adjacent brain regions, such as individual fingers from one hand. Several studies have reported spatial and temporal couplings of rhythmic activities at different frequency bands, suggesting the existence of well-defined spectral structures across multiple frequency bands. In the present study, spectral principal component analysis (PCA) was applied on EEG data, obtained from a finger movement task, to identify cross-frequency spectral structures. Features from identified spectral structures were examined in their spatial patterns, cross-condition pattern changes, detection capability of finger movements from resting, and decoding performance of individual finger movements in comparison to classic mu/beta rhythms. These new features reveal some similar, but more different spatial and spectral patterns as compared with classic mu/beta rhythms. Decoding results further indicate that these new features (91%) can detect finger movements much better than classic mu/beta rhythms (75.6%). More importantly, these new features reveal discriminative information about movements of different fingers (fine body-part movements), which is not available in classic mu/beta rhythms. The capability in decoding fingers (and hand gestures in the future) from EEG will contribute significantly to the development of non-invasive BCI and neuroprosthesis with intuitive and flexible controls. PMID:26388720

  6. Following the traces of spectral music: genetic analysis of compositional models in Périodes, by Gérard Grisey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François-Xavier Féron

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available First developed in the mid-1970s, spectral music represents one of the main genres of contemporary French music. In Périodes (1974 for 7 instruments, Gérard Grisey (1946-1998 sets the foundation of this new approach to music composition, which explores both the acoustical properties of sound and specific features of the auditory system. Gérard Grisey’s archives at the Paul Sacher Foundation in Basel contain, among other things, musical manuscripts (drafts, autograph notes, drawings, etc. of each of the composer’s works, as well as manuscripts of his writings, lesson notes, and books from his library. An examination of these documents, in addition to information gained from interviews with some of the composer’s close friends, allow us to understand better how Grisey imagined, developed, and brought to fruition his spectral approach to composition. In this paper, we begin by describing the composer’s education and explore his particular investigation of musical acoustics between 1972 and 1974 by studying the work of Émile Leipp and Fritz Winckel. We then look closely at two models (the respiratory cycle and the harmonic spectrum built on an E1 fundamental that lie at the heart of the piece and underscore both their structural and auditory influence. Finally, after conducting a detailed analysis of the last section of the piece where Grisey uses instruments to recreate a sound spectrum, we question the existence of a trombone’s spectrogram that the composer himself claims to have used as a model. Through this genetic study of Périodes, we seek, in general, to document the construction of the cycle entitled Les espaces acoustiques (1974-1985 considered emblematic of the spectral aesthetic.

  7. 2D Prony-Huang Transform: A New Tool for 2D Spectral Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Jeremy; Pustelnik, Nelly; Borgnat, Pierre; Flandrin, Patrick; Condat, Laurent

    2014-12-01

    This work proposes an extension of the 1-D Hilbert Huang transform for the analysis of images. The proposed method consists in (i) adaptively decomposing an image into oscillating parts called intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) using a mode decomposition procedure, and (ii) providing a local spectral analysis of the obtained IMFs in order to get the local amplitudes, frequencies, and orientations. For the decomposition step, we propose two robust 2-D mode decompositions based on non-smooth convex optimization: a "Genuine 2-D" approach, that constrains the local extrema of the IMFs, and a "Pseudo 2-D" approach, which constrains separately the extrema of lines, columns, and diagonals. The spectral analysis step is based on Prony annihilation property that is applied on small square patches of the IMFs. The resulting 2-D Prony-Huang transform is validated on simulated and real data.

  8. Making fictions sound real

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Birger

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the role that sound plays in making fictions perceptually real to film audiences, whether these fictions are realist or non-realist in content and narrative form. I will argue that some aspects of film sound practices and the kind of experiences they trigger are related...... to basic rules of human perception, whereas others are more properly explained in relation to how aesthetic devices, including sound, are used to characterise the fiction and thereby make it perceptually real to its audience. Finally, I will argue that not all genres can be defined by a simple taxonomy...... of sounds. Apart from an account of the kinds of sounds that typically appear in a specific genre, a genre analysis of sound may also benefit from a functionalist approach that focuses on how sounds can make both realist and non-realist aspects of genres sound real to audiences....

  9. Computerised Analysis of Telemonitored Respiratory Sounds for Predicting Acute Exacerbations of COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Fernandez-Granero

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is one of the commonest causes of death in the world and poses a substantial burden on healthcare systems and patients’ quality of life. The largest component of the related healthcare costs is attributable to admissions due to acute exacerbation (AECOPD. The evidence that might support the effectiveness of the telemonitoring interventions in COPD is limited partially due to the lack of useful predictors for the early detection of AECOPD. Electronic stethoscopes and computerised analyses of respiratory sounds (CARS techniques provide an opportunity for substantial improvement in the management of respiratory diseases. This exploratory study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using: (a a respiratory sensor embedded in a self-tailored housing for ageing users; (b a telehealth framework; (c CARS and (d machine learning techniques for the remote early detection of the AECOPD. In a 6-month pilot study, 16 patients with COPD were equipped with a home base-station and a sensor to daily record their respiratory sounds. Principal component analysis (PCA and a support vector machine (SVM classifier was designed to predict AECOPD. 75.8% exacerbations were early detected with an average of 5 ± 1.9 days in advance at medical attention. The proposed method could provide support to patients, physicians and healthcare systems.

  10. The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) sounding network: operations, processing and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, M. P.; Toto, T.; Troyan, D.; Ciesielski, P. E.; Holdridge, D.; Kyrouac, J.; Schatz, J.; Zhang, Y.; Xie, S.

    2015-01-01

    The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) took place during the spring of 2011 centered in north-central Oklahoma, USA. The main goal of this field campaign was to capture the dynamical and microphysical characteristics of precipitating convective systems in the US Central Plains. A major component of the campaign was a six-site radiosonde array designed to capture the large-scale variability of the atmospheric state with the intent of deriving model forcing data sets. Over the course of the 46-day MC3E campaign, a total of 1362 radiosondes were launched from the enhanced sonde network. This manuscript provides details on the instrumentation used as part of the sounding array, the data processing activities including quality checks and humidity bias corrections and an analysis of the impacts of bias correction and algorithm assumptions on the determination of convective levels and indices. It is found that corrections for known radiosonde humidity biases and assumptions regarding the characteristics of the surface convective parcel result in significant differences in the derived values of convective levels and indices in many soundings. In addition, the impact of including the humidity corrections and quality controls on the thermodynamic profiles that are used in the derivation of a large-scale model forcing data set are investigated. The results show a significant impact on the derived large-scale vertical velocity field illustrating the importance of addressing these humidity biases.

  11. Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan : Appendix E, Transmission Reinforcement Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-04-01

    The purpose of this appendix to the draft environmental impact statement (EIS) report is to provide an update of the latest study work done on transmission system options for the Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan. Also included in the attachments to the EIS are 2 reports analyzing the voltage stability of the Puget Sound transmission system and a review by Power Technologies, Inc. of the BPA voltage stability analysis and reactive options. Five transmission line options and several reactive options are presently being considered as possible solutions to the PSAFRP by the Transmission Team. The first two line options would be built on new rights-of way adjacent (as much as possible) to existing corridors. The reactive options would optimize the existing transmission system capability by adding new stations for series capacitors and/or switchgear. The other three line options are rebuilds or upgrades of existing cross mountain transmission lines. These options are listed below and include a preliminary assessment of the additional transmission system reinforcement required to integrate the new facilities into the existing transmission system. Plans were designed to provide at least 500 MVAR reactive margin.

  12. Lung sound analysis can be an index of the control of bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Terufumi; Obase, Yasushi; Nagasaka, Yukio; Nakano, Hiroshi; Kishikawa, Reiko; Iwanaga, Tomoaki

    2017-01-01

    We assessed whether lung sound analysis (LSA) is a valid measure of airway obstruction and inflammation in patients with bronchial asthma during treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs). 63 good adherence patients with bronchial asthma and 18 poor adherence patients were examined by LSA, spirometry, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), and induced sputum. The expiration-to-inspiration lung sound power ratio at low frequencies between 100 and 200 Hz (E/I LF) obtained by LSA was compared between healthy volunteers and bronchial asthma patients. Next, post-ICS treatment changes were compared in bronchial asthma patients between the good adherence patients and the poor adherence patients. E/I LF was significantly higher in bronchial asthma patients (0.62 ± 0.21) than in healthy volunteers (0.44 ± 0.12, p bronchial asthma patients. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Novel Spectral Representations and Sparsity-Driven Algorithms for Shape Modeling and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ming

    In this dissertation, we focus on extending classical spectral shape analysis by incorporating spectral graph wavelets and sparsity-seeking algorithms. Defined with the graph Laplacian eigenbasis, the spectral graph wavelets are localized both in the vertex domain and graph spectral domain, and thus are very effective in describing local geometry. With a rich dictionary of elementary vectors and forcing certain sparsity constraints, a real life signal can often be well approximated by a very sparse coefficient representation. The many successful applications of sparse signal representation in computer vision and image processing inspire us to explore the idea of employing sparse modeling techniques with dictionary of spectral basis to solve various shape modeling problems. Conventional spectral mesh compression uses the eigenfunctions of mesh Laplacian as shape bases, which are highly inefficient in representing local geometry. To ameliorate, we advocate an innovative approach to 3D mesh compression using spectral graph wavelets as dictionary to encode mesh geometry. The spectral graph wavelets are locally defined at individual vertices and can better capture local shape information than Laplacian eigenbasis. The multi-scale SGWs form a redundant dictionary as shape basis, so we formulate the compression of 3D shape as a sparse approximation problem that can be readily handled by greedy pursuit algorithms. Surface inpainting refers to the completion or recovery of missing shape geometry based on the shape information that is currently available. We devise a new surface inpainting algorithm founded upon the theory and techniques of sparse signal recovery. Instead of estimating the missing geometry directly, our novel method is to find this low-dimensional representation which describes the entire original shape. More specifically, we find that, for many shapes, the vertex coordinate function can be well approximated by a very sparse coefficient representation with

  14. [Analysis of software for identifying spectral line of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy based on LabVIEW].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhi-yu; Zhang, Lei; Ma, Wei-guang; Yan, Xiao-juan; Li, Zhi-xin; Zhang, Yong-zhi; Wang, Le; Dong, Lei; Yin, Wang-bao; Jia, Suo-tang

    2012-03-01

    Self-designed identifying software for LIBS spectral line was introduced. Being integrated with LabVIEW, the soft ware can smooth spectral lines and pick peaks. The second difference and threshold methods were employed. Characteristic spectrum of several elements matches the NIST database, and realizes automatic spectral line identification and qualitative analysis of the basic composition of sample. This software can analyze spectrum handily and rapidly. It will be a useful tool for LIBS.

  15. Detector level ABI spectral response function: FM4 analysis and comparison for different ABI modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremova, Boryana; Pearlman, Aaron J.; Padula, Frank; Wu, Xiangqian

    2016-09-01

    A new generation of imaging instruments Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) is to be launched aboard the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites - R Series (GOES-R). Four ABI flight modules (FM) are planned to be launched on GOES-R,S,T,U, the first one in the fall of 2016. Pre-launch testing is on-going for FM3 and FM4. ABI has 16 spectral channels, six in the visible/near infrared (VNIR 0.47 - 2.25 μm), and ten in the thermal infrared (TIR 3.9 - 13.3 μm) spectral regions, to be calibrated on-orbit by observing respectively a solar diffuser and a blackbody. Each channel has hundreds of detectors arranged in columns. Operationally one Analytic Generation of Spectral Response (ANGEN) function will be used to represent the spectral response function (SRF) of all detectors in a band. The Vendor conducted prelaunch end-to-end SRF testing to compare to ANGEN; detector specific SRF data was taken for: i) best detector selected (BDS) mode - for FM 2,3, and 4; and ii) all detectors (column mode) - for four spectral bands in FM3 and FM4. The GOES-R calibration working group (CWG) has independently used the SRF test data for FM2 and FM3 to study the potential impact of detector-to-detector SRF differences on the ABI detected Earth view radiances. In this paper we expand the CWG analysis to include the FM4 SRF test data - the results are in agreement with the Vendor analysis, and show excellent instrument performance and compare the detector-to-detector SRF differences and their potential impact on the detected Earth view radiances for all of the tested ABI modules.

  16. Uncertainty analysis of in-flight spectral calibration for hyperspectral imaging spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huijie; Geng, Ruonan; Jia, Guorui; Wang, Daming

    2017-10-01

    Hyperspectral imaging instrument performance, especially spectral response parameters, may change when the sensors work in-flight due to vibrations, temperature and pressure changes compared with the laboratory status. In order to derive valid information from imaging data, accurate spectral calibration accompanied by uncertainty analysis to the data must be made. The purpose of this work is to present a process to estimate the uncertainties of in-flight spectral calibration parameters by analyzing the sources of uncertainty and calculating their sensitivity coefficients. In the in-flight spectral calibration method, the band-center and bandwidth determinations are made by correlating the in-flight sensor measured radiance with reference radiance. In this procedure, the uncertainty analysis is conducted separately for three factors: (a) the radiance calculated from imaging data; (b) the reference data; (c) the matching process between the above two items. To obtain the final uncertainty, contributions due to every impact factor must be propagated through this process. Analyses have been made using above process for the Hyperion data. The results show that the shift of band-center in the oxygen absorption (about 762nm), compared with the value measured in the lab, is less than 0.9nm with uncertainties ranging from 0.063nm to 0.183nm related to spatial distribution along the across-track direction of the image, the change of bandwidth is less than 1nm with uncertainties ranging from 0.066nm to 0.166nm. This results verify the validity of the in-flight spectral calibration process.

  17. Discriminant Analysis of Time Series in the Presence of Within-Group Spectral Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krafty, Robert T

    2016-07-01

    Many studies record replicated time series epochs from different groups with the goal of using frequency domain properties to discriminate between the groups. In many applications, there exists variation in cyclical patterns from time series in the same group. Although a number of frequency domain methods for the discriminant analysis of time series have been explored, there is a dearth of models and methods that account for within-group spectral variability. This article proposes a model for groups of time series in which transfer functions are modeled as stochastic variables that can account for both between-group and within-group differences in spectra that are identified from individual replicates. An ensuing discriminant analysis of stochastic cepstra under this model is developed to obtain parsimonious measures of relative power that optimally separate groups in the presence of within-group spectral variability. The approach possess favorable properties in classifying new observations and can be consistently estimated through a simple discriminant analysis of a finite number of estimated cepstral coefficients. Benefits in accounting for within-group spectral variability are empirically illustrated in a simulation study and through an analysis of gait variability.

  18. Spectral analysis of bacanora (agave-derived liquor) by using FT-Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega Clavero, Valentin; Weber, Andreas; Schröder, Werner; Curticapean, Dan

    2016-04-01

    The industry of the agave-derived bacanora, in the northern Mexican state of Sonora, has been growing substantially in recent years. However, this higher demand still lies under the influences of a variety of social, legal, cultural, ecological and economic elements. The governmental institutions of the state have tried to encourage a sustainable development and certain levels of standardization in the production of bacanora by applying different economical and legal strategies. However, a large portion of this alcoholic beverage is still produced in a traditional and rudimentary fashion. Beyond the quality of the beverage, the lack of proper control, by using adequate instrumental methods, might represent a health risk, as in several cases traditional-distilled beverages can contain elevated levels of harmful materials. The present article describes the qualitative spectral analysis of samples of the traditional-produced distilled beverage bacanora in the range from 0 cm-1 to 3500 cm-1 by using a Fourier Transform Raman spectrometer. This particular technique has not been previously explored for the analysis of bacanora, as in the case of other beverages, including tequila. The proposed instrumental arrangement for the spectral analysis has been built by combining conventional hardware parts (Michelson interferometer, photo-diodes, visible laser, etc.) and a set of self-developed evaluation algorithms. The resulting spectral information has been compared to those of pure samples of ethanol and to the spectra from different samples of the alcoholic beverage tequila. The proposed instrumental arrangement can be used the analysis of bacanora.

  19. Hyperspectral imaging of polymer banknotes for building and analysis of spectral library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hoong-Ta; Murukeshan, Vadakke Matham

    2017-11-01

    The use of counterfeit banknotes increases crime rates and cripples the economy. New countermeasures are required to stop counterfeiters who use advancing technologies with criminal intent. Many countries started adopting polymer banknotes to replace paper notes, as polymer notes are more durable and have better quality. The research on authenticating such banknotes is of much interest to the forensic investigators. Hyperspectral imaging can be employed to build a spectral library of polymer notes, which can then be used for classification to authenticate these notes. This is however not widely reported and has become a research interest in forensic identification. This paper focuses on the use of hyperspectral imaging on polymer notes to build spectral libraries, using a pushbroom hyperspectral imager which has been previously reported. As an initial study, a spectral library will be built from three arbitrarily chosen regions of interest of five circulated genuine polymer notes. Principal component analysis is used for dimension reduction and to convert the information in the spectral library to principal components. A 99% confidence ellipse is formed around the cluster of principal component scores of each class and then used as classification criteria. The potential of the adopted methodology is demonstrated by the classification of the imaged regions as training samples.

  20. Image de-noising via spectral distribution similarity analysis for ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, B.; Li, M.; Gongzhang, R.; O'Leary, R. L.; Gachagan, A.

    2014-02-01

    Ultrasonic detection and characterization of flaws in coarse-grained materials exhibiting heterogeneous and scattering microstructure is of particular importance across many industries, but remains challenging. Most spectral based denoising methods in the literature are sensitive to material properties, which necessitate a troublesome parameter optimization process and consequently impede their application into ultrasonic image processing. In order to improve flaw visibility in an image, we propose a novel and robust clutter suppression method through spectral distribution similarity analysis (SDSA). This method isometrically segments all the time-series data in a dataset acquired by the Full-Matrix-Capture technique and then censuses the spectral distribution of global segments and of local segments for every focusing point in the Total-Focusing- Method image. The coefficient computed by measuring the similarity between the two spectral distributions reveals the possibility of a legitimate flaw indication. Experiments on two highly scattering samples were conducted to validate this method. By applying SDSA, crack visibility is greatly enhanced with an average >20 dB target-to-noise ratio enhancement for a stainless steel weld sample, whilst ˜30dB improvement for an austenitic steel sample. The proposed technique retains excellent performance for both samples when the selected segment length is varied, proving its robustness and highlighting its potential for application across various materials.

  1. Spectral stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Harold R.

    1991-01-01

    A new approach to stratigraphic analysis is described which uses photogeologic and spectral interpretation of multispectral remote sensing data combined with topographic information to determine the attitude, thickness, and lithology of strata exposed at the surface. The new stratigraphic procedure is illustrated by examples in the literature. The published results demonstrate the potential of spectral stratigraphy for mapping strata, determining dip and strike, measuring and correlating stratigraphic sequences, defining lithofacies, mapping biofacies, and interpreting geological structures.

  2. Voyager 2 solar plasma and magnetic field spectral analysis for intermediate data sparsity

    CERN Document Server

    Gallana, Luca; Iovieno, Michele; Fosson, Sophie M; Magli, Enrico; Opher, Merav; Richardson, John D; Tordella, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    The Voyager probes are the furthest, still active, spacecraft ever launched from Earth. During their 38-year trip, they have collected data regarding solar wind properties (such as the plasma velocity and magnetic field intensity). Unfortunately, a complete time evolution of the measured physical quantities is not available. The time series contains many gaps which increase in frequency and duration at larger distances. The aim of this work is to perform a spectral and statistical analysis of the solar wind plasma velocity and magnetic field using Voyager 2 data measured in 1979, when the gaps/signal ratio is of order of unity. This analysis is achieved using four different data reconstruction techniques: averages on linearly interpolated subsets, correlation of linearly interpolated data, compressed sensing spectral estimation, and maximum likelihood data reconstruction. With five frequency decades, the spectra we obtained have the largest frequency range ever computed at 5 astronomical units from the Sun; s...

  3. SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF EEG SIGNALS BY USING WAVELET AND HARMONIC TRANSFORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. SIDDIQI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, wavelet transforms and FFT methods, which transform method is better for spectral analysis of the brain signals are investigated. Statistical and Fourier methods are traditional techniques and tools to analyze time series signals in general, including biomedical data. In this paper as spectral analysis tools, wavelet transform and harmonic transform are used. Both transform methods are applied to electroencephalogram (EEG of a possibly epilepsy patient and are compared. For this purpose in the harmonic transform case, the variations of first-sixth-order harmonic amplitudes and phases provide a useful tool of understanding the large- and local-scale effects on the parameters. Moreover, temporal and frequency variations of variables are also detected by wavelet transforms. The results of this study are compared with previous studies. The comparison of results show that the wavelet transform method has more advantage in detecting brain diseases.

  4. Spectral analysis of semiconductor-based surface plasmon resonance sensors for infrared-gas sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S.; Ray, M.

    2015-06-01

    In present analysis a semiconductor-based surface plasmon resonance structure using Gr-IV materials (Silicon and Germanium) has been analyzed in spectral interrogation mode which can be used for efficient environmental monitoring and Infrared (IR) gas-sensing purposes. The Silicon-Germanium (Si-Ge) combination structure is able to confine an extremely high evanescent field in the sensing region due to their extraordinary high refractive indices (RI). Higher concentration of optical field in the sensing area provides enhanced spectral sensitivity for infrared gas-sensing. Better detection accuracy and adequate dynamic range are other additional advantages offered by such semiconductor-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) configurations. Analysis of the SPR structure has also been carried out in terms of detection accuracy, figure of merit and Q-factor of the gas-sensor.

  5. Technical progress report: Completion of spectral rotating shadowband radiometers and analysis of atmospheric radiation measurement spectral shortwave data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalsky, J.; Harrison, L. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Our goal in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the improvement of radiation models used in general circulation models (GCMs), especially in the shortwave, (1) by providing improved shortwave radiometric measurements for the testing of models and (2) by developing methods for retrieving climatologically sensitive parameters that serve as input to shortwave and longwave models. At the Atmospheric Sciences Research Center (ASRC) in Albany, New York, we are acquiring downwelling direct and diffuse spectral irradiance, at six wavelengths, plus downwelling broadband longwave, and upwelling and downwelling broadband shortwave irradiances that we combine with National Weather Service surface and upper air data from the Albany airport as a test data set for ARM modelers. We have also developed algorithms to improve shortwave measurements made at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) ARM site by standard thermopile instruments and by the multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) based on these Albany data sets. Much time has been spent developing techniques to retrieve column aerosol, water vapor, and ozone from the direct beam spectral measurements of the MFRSR. Additionally, we have had success in calculating shortwave surface albedo and aerosol optical depth from the ratio of direct to diffuse spectral reflectance.

  6. Respiratory Sound Analysis for Flow Estimation During Wakefulness and Sleep, and its Applications for Sleep Apnea Detection and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadollahi, Azadeh

    Tracheal respiratory sounds analysis has been investigated as a non--invasive method to estimate respiratory flow and upper airway obstruction. However, the flow--sound relationship is highly variable among subjects which makes it challenging to estimate flow in general applications. Therefore, a robust model for acoustical flow estimation in a large group of individuals did not exist before. On the other hand, a major application of acoustical flow estimation is to detect flow limitations in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) during sleep. However, previously the flow--sound relationship was only investigated during wakefulness among healthy individuals. Therefore, it was necessary to examine the flow--sound relationship during sleep in OSA patients. This thesis takes the above challenges and offers innovative solutions. First, a modified linear flow--sound model was proposed to estimate respiratory flow from tracheal sounds. To remove the individual based calibration process, the statistical correlation between the model parameters and anthropometric features of 93 healthy volunteers was investigated. The results show that gender, height and smoking are the most significant factors that affect the model parameters. Hence, a general acoustical flow estimation model was proposed for people with similar height and gender. Second, flow--sound relationship during sleep and wakefulness was studied among 13 OSA patients. The results show that during sleep and wakefulness, flow--sound relation- ship follows a power law, but with different parameters. Therefore, for acoustical flow estimation during sleep, the model parameters should be extracted from sleep data to have small errors. The results confirm reliability of the acoustical flow estimation for investigating flow variations during both sleep and wakefulness. Finally, a new method for sleep apnea detection and monitoring was developed, which only requires recording the tracheal sounds and the blood

  7. Influence of ultrasound contrast agents on spectral Doppler analysis in recipients of liver transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Young Seo Cho; Kyoung Won Kim; Hye Young Jang; Bo Hyun Kim; Jeongjin Lee; Gi Won Song; Sung Gyu Lee; Dagvasumberel Munkhbaatar

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Clinical validation is required to determine whether Doppler measurements are comparable before and after administering ultrasound contrast agent (USCA). The purpose of this study is to explore whether the use of USCA affects spectral Doppler analysis in recipients of liver transplantation (LT). Methods For this study, 36 patients were examined using Doppler ultrasonography (US) along with a contrast-enhanced US for surveillance of vascular complications after LT. The followin...

  8. Multi-spectral imaging analysis of pigmented and vascular skin lesions: results of a clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmina, Ilona; Diebele, Ilze; Valeine, Lauma; Jakovels, Dainis; Kempele, Anna; Kapostinsh, Janis; Spigulis, Janis

    2011-03-01

    A clinical trial comprising 266 pigmented lesions and 49 vascular lesions has been performed in three Riga clinics by means of multi-spectral imaging analysis. The imaging system Nuance 2.4 (CRI) and self-developed software for mapping of the main skin chromophores were used. The obtained results confirm clinical potential of this technology for non-contact quantitative assessment of skin pathologies.

  9. The 2D Spectral Intrinsic Decomposition Method Applied to Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samba Sidibe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new method for autoadaptive image decomposition and recomposition based on the two-dimensional version of the Spectral Intrinsic Decomposition (SID. We introduce a faster diffusivity function for the computation of the mean envelope operator which provides the components of the SID algorithm for any signal. The 2D version of SID algorithm is implemented and applied to some very known images test. We extracted relevant components and obtained promising results in images analysis applications.

  10. Spectral Analysis Related to Bare-Metal and Drug-Eluting Coronary Stent Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Mary Ferreira Lisboa da Silva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The autonomic nervous system plays a central role in cardiovascular regulation; sympathetic activation occurs during myocardial ischemia. Objective: To assess the spectral analysis of heart rate variability during stent implantation, comparing the types of stent. Methods: This study assessed 61 patients (mean age, 64.0 years; 35 men with ischemic heart disease and indication for stenting. Stent implantation was performed under Holter monitoring to record the spectral analysis of heart rate variability (Fourier transform, measuring the low-frequency (LF and high-frequency (HF components, and the LF/HF ratio before and during the procedure. Results: Bare-metal stent was implanted in 34 patients, while the others received drug-eluting stents. The right coronary artery was approached in 21 patients, the left anterior descending, in 28, and the circumflex, in 9. As compared with the pre-stenting period, all patients showed an increase in LF and HF during stent implantation (658 versus 185 ms2, p = 0.00; 322 versus 121, p = 0.00, respectively, with no change in LF/HF. During stent implantation, LF was 864 ms2 in patients with bare-metal stents, and 398 ms2 in those with drug-eluting stents (p = 0.00. The spectral analysis of heart rate variability showed no association with diabetes mellitus, family history, clinical presentation, beta-blockers, age, and vessel or its segment. Conclusions: Stent implantation resulted in concomitant sympathetic and vagal activations. Diabetes mellitus, use of beta-blockers, and the vessel approached showed no influence on the spectral analysis of heart rate variability. Sympathetic activation was lower during the implantation of drug-eluting stents.

  11. Spectral Analysis Related to Bare-Metal and Drug-Eluting Coronary Stent Implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Rose Mary Ferreira Lisboa da, E-mail: roselisboa@cardiol.br [Faculdade de Medicina da UFMG, Divinópolis, MG (Brazil); Silva, Carlos Augusto Bueno [Faculdade de Medicina da UFMG, Divinópolis, MG (Brazil); Belo Horizonte, Hospital São João de Deus, Divinópolis, MG (Brazil); Greco, Otaviano José [Belo Horizonte, Hospital São João de Deus, Divinópolis, MG (Brazil); Moreira, Maria da Consolação Vieira [Faculdade de Medicina da UFMG, Divinópolis, MG (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    The autonomic nervous system plays a central role in cardiovascular regulation; sympathetic activation occurs during myocardial ischemia. To assess the spectral analysis of heart rate variability during stent implantation, comparing the types of stent. This study assessed 61 patients (mean age, 64.0 years; 35 men) with ischemic heart disease and indication for stenting. Stent implantation was performed under Holter monitoring to record the spectral analysis of heart rate variability (Fourier transform), measuring the low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) components, and the LF/HF ratio before and during the procedure. Bare-metal stent was implanted in 34 patients, while the others received drug-eluting stents. The right coronary artery was approached in 21 patients, the left anterior descending, in 28, and the circumflex, in 9. As compared with the pre-stenting period, all patients showed an increase in LF and HF during stent implantation (658 versus 185 ms2, p = 0.00; 322 versus 121, p = 0.00, respectively), with no change in LF/HF. During stent implantation, LF was 864 ms2 in patients with bare-metal stents, and 398 ms2 in those with drug-eluting stents (p = 0.00). The spectral analysis of heart rate variability showed no association with diabetes mellitus, family history, clinical presentation, beta-blockers, age, and vessel or its segment. Stent implantation resulted in concomitant sympathetic and vagal activations. Diabetes mellitus, use of beta-blockers, and the vessel approached showed no influence on the spectral analysis of heart rate variability. Sympathetic activation was lower during the implantation of drug-eluting stents.

  12. Spectral-domain moment-method analysis of coplanar microstrip parasitic subarrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Lee, Kai-Fong; Lee, R. Q.

    1993-01-01

    Basic characteristics of several configurations of coplanar microstrip parasitic subarrays consisting of one fed patch and two or more parasitic patches were investigated by means of a spectral-domain full-wave analysis and the moment method analysis. Results are presented for radiating- and nonradiating edge-coupled three-element linear subarrays and for a five-patch cross. A comparison of the theoretical input impedance results obtained by the analysis of a three-element linear array showed a reasonable agreement between computed and measured R and X values.

  13. Spectral analysis and multigrid preconditioners for two-dimensional space-fractional diffusion equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaderi, Hamid; Dehghan, Mehdi; Donatelli, Marco; Mazza, Mariarosa

    2017-12-01

    Fractional diffusion equations (FDEs) are a mathematical tool used for describing some special diffusion phenomena arising in many different applications like porous media and computational finance. In this paper, we focus on a two-dimensional space-FDE problem discretized by means of a second order finite difference scheme obtained as combination of the Crank-Nicolson scheme and the so-called weighted and shifted Grünwald formula. By fully exploiting the Toeplitz-like structure of the resulting linear system, we provide a detailed spectral analysis of the coefficient matrix at each time step, both in the case of constant and variable diffusion coefficients. Such a spectral analysis has a very crucial role, since it can be used for designing fast and robust iterative solvers. In particular, we employ the obtained spectral information to define a Galerkin multigrid method based on the classical linear interpolation as grid transfer operator and damped-Jacobi as smoother, and to prove the linear convergence rate of the corresponding two-grid method. The theoretical analysis suggests that the proposed grid transfer operator is strong enough for working also with the V-cycle method and the geometric multigrid. On this basis, we introduce two computationally favourable variants of the proposed multigrid method and we use them as preconditioners for Krylov methods. Several numerical results confirm that the resulting preconditioning strategies still keep a linear convergence rate.

  14. Spectral Quantitative Analysis Model with Combining Wavelength Selection and Topology Structure Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectroscopy is an efficient and widely used quantitative analysis method. In this paper, a spectral quantitative analysis model with combining wavelength selection and topology structure optimization is proposed. For the proposed method, backpropagation neural network is adopted for building the component prediction model, and the simultaneousness optimization of the wavelength selection and the topology structure of neural network is realized by nonlinear adaptive evolutionary programming (NAEP. The hybrid chromosome in binary scheme of NAEP has three parts. The first part represents the topology structure of neural network, the second part represents the selection of wavelengths in the spectral data, and the third part represents the parameters of mutation of NAEP. Two real flue gas datasets are used in the experiments. In order to present the effectiveness of the methods, the partial least squares with full spectrum, the partial least squares combined with genetic algorithm, the uninformative variable elimination method, the backpropagation neural network with full spectrum, the backpropagation neural network combined with genetic algorithm, and the proposed method are performed for building the component prediction model. Experimental results verify that the proposed method has the ability to predict more accurately and robustly as a practical spectral analysis tool.

  15. The propagation of sound in nonuniform and unsteady flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, L. M. B. C.

    Spectral broadening and directivity are studied in sound propagation across turbulent regions and irregular interfaces. The random acoustical field and spectral directivity are calculated. The spectral forms, which depend on the attenuation factor of each acoustic wave component and on the effects of interference, have either a maximum at the frequency source and a continuous band at lower frequencies and ultrasound, or a maximum with side bands in the range of audible frequencies. Based on this analysis, which follows in principle the theory of Campos (1978), it is possible to predict the noise levels of hot high-speed jets, subsonic aircraft, and the supersonic aircraft (e.g., the Concorde).

  16. Sound propagation in a turbulent atmosphere near the ground: an approach based on the spectral representation of refractive-index fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomons, E M; Ostashev, V E; Clifford, S F; Lataitis, R J

    2001-05-01

    A new, rigorous approach is presented for the computation of the fluctuating field of a monopole source in a nonrefracting, turbulent atmosphere above a ground surface. The time-averaged sound pressure level is considered, as well as statistical distributions of the sound pressure level. The computation is based on the Rytov solution of the wave equation for a turbulent medium, evaluated for the half-space above the ground surface. The solution takes into account the ground reflection of scattered waves, which has been neglected in previous work on this subject. The present approach is based on a Fourier-Stieltjes representation of refractive-index fluctuations, and makes use of a turbulent image atmosphere to account for the ground reflection of scattered waves. This approach is rigorous only for a rigid ground surface, but it is shown that it also yields a good approximation for a finite-impedance ground surface. The accuracy of the solution is demonstrated by comparison with results of numerical computations with the parabolic equation method for a turbulent atmosphere. The assumption of a nonrefracting atmosphere implies that direct application of the solution is limited to propagation over relatively small distances. However, this study can also be considered as a basis for a generalized solution for a downward refracting atmosphere, which can be applied for larger propagation distances.

  17. Two dimensional nonlinear analysis of sound transmission through a near-sonic throat flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, M. K.; Uenishi, K.

    1984-01-01

    A two-dimensional nonlinear theory of sound transmission through a nonuniform duct carrying a near-sonic throat flow is described. The mean flow in the duct is treated according to a generalized quasi-one dimensional model, and the analysis of the unsteady perturbations is carried out using the Method of Matched Asymptotic Expansions. The linearized acoustic field in the subsonic regions of the duct is approximated by a Wave Envelope model which is matched asymptotically with a nonlinear inner solution valid in the near-sonic throat region. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the predictions of the theory. It is found that, in general, shock waves develop in the acoustic field during transmission through the near-sonic flow. Unlike previous one-dimensional theories, the current study shows that dispersion can play a major role in the propagation process.

  18. Real-time analysis of mechanical and electrical resonances with open-source sound card software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makan, G.; Kopasz, K.; Gingl, Z.

    2014-01-01

    We present an easily reproducible, open-source, sound card based experimental set-up to support transfer function measurement. Our system is able to visualize the signals of mechanical and electrical resonances and their spectra in real time. We give a brief description of the system, and show some examples of electrical and mechanical resonance experiments that are supported by the system. The theoretical background, experimental set-up, component selection and digital signal processing are all discussed, and more detailed information (building instructions, software download) is provided on a dedicated web page (www.noise.inf.u-szeged.hu/edudev/RealTimeAnalysisOfResonances/). The experimental set-up can support the undergraduate and graduate education of students of physics, physics education and engineering by means of experimental demonstrations and laboratory exercises. The very low cost, high efficiency and transparent system provides a scalable experimental environment that can be easily built in several instances.

  19. A Spectral Analysis of Mars as a Grade 9-12 Outreach Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright-Eaton, S.; Vaillancourt, M.; Rock, B.; Smith, C. W.

    2006-12-01

    The Martian landscape was studied by two high-school students as part of the University of New Hampshire's Project SMART (Science and Mathematics Achievement through Research Training) outreach effort. They used infrared data provided by the OMEGA sensor on Mars Express for a portion of Terra Meridiani (orbit 485). The OMEGA infrared (IR) spectral properties of surface mineral composition were compared to lab IR spectral data of rocks and minerals believed to be found on Mars. Spectral plots (Selection Graphs), cluster analysis, and false-color images were analyzed using NASA's freeware software MultiSpec to process the OMEGA data. By examining and comparing the two sets of IR spectral data from OMEGA (MultiSpec) and the lab samples using VIRIS (Visible Infrared Intelligent Spectroradiometer) data, and by reviewing the literature, conclusions were drawn regarding the types of minerals present on this part of Mars. Some minerals (e.g. calcites and sulfates) found on Mars are known to exhibit IR spectral properties indicative of water (absorptions at 1.43 and 1.90μm). Our analysis of the OMEGA data identified such water-absorption features, a strong indication of the presence of hydrated minerals and possibly clays. Some mineral spectral properties identified by the VIRIS are inconclusive when compared with the OMEGA data and their presence on Mars is not verified. After performing a 10-class clustering/unsupervised classification, different areas of Terra Meridiani were identified, such as cratered terrain covered with Basalt (and some associated minerals) and low-lying plains bearing hydrated or poly-hydrated minerals. This research supports the view that liquid water was once present on Mars. We present these results as an example of what can be done with this data set and publicly available analysis tool. While we recognize that the above results do not constitute new information, they were obtained using only a single interval of OMEGA data. We present this as

  20. Lung Sound Analysis Is Useful for Monitoring Therapy in Patients With Bronchial Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, T; Obase, Y; Nagasaka, Y; Nakano, H; Kishikawa, R; Iwanaga, T

    Lung sound analysis (LSA) has been reported to be useful for predicting airway obstruction and inflammation in patients with bronchial asthma. Objectives: We examined whether the exhalation-to-inhalation sound pressure ratio in the middle frequency range (200-400 Hz) (E/I MF) is useful for monitoring therapy in patients with asthma. The study population comprised 84 patients with mild to moderate asthma whose LSA data were available before and after 1 year of daily treatment with (budesonide 800 μg). We analyzed whether the E/I MF before and after treatment was associated with the fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) level, sputum eosinophil percentage, respiratory function, and airway hyperresponsiveness. Prior to treatment with budesonide, the E/I MF was significantly correlated with respiratory function, airway hyperresponsiveness, FeNO, and sputum eosinophil percentage. The cutoff values for the E/I MF to detect the abnormalities of respiratory function, FeNO, and sputum eosinophil percentage were 0.367, 0.358, and 0.363, respectively. With respect to the reference value, the E/I MF improved significantly in patients whose respiratory function and FeNO benefited from therapy with budesonide compared with patients whose respiratory function did not benefit from budesonide (odds ratios of 6.39 and 4.78, respectively). According to the multivariate analysis, patients whose E/I MF did not improve had a longer history of smoking (P=.038), poorer posttreatment respiratory function (P=.028), and higher posttreatment FeNO (P=.0095). Similar to respiratory function and FeNO, E/I MF based on LSA is a useful indicator for monitoring the efficacy of therapy in asthmatic patients.

  1. [The possibilities for the use of the spectral analysis to overcome the incompatibility of the speech materials for the purpose of medical criminalistic identification of the speaker].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kir'yanov, P A; Kaganov, A Sh

    The objective of the present study was the formulation of the theoretical premises on which to base the approaches to the overcoming of the limitations not infrequently imposed on the sound records of the speech material of interest. The secondary objective was the development of the methods for this purpose. We analyzed the literature sources, the methodological instructive regulations, and the results of medical criminalistics investigations. The study has demonstrated that the spectral analysis of the speech materials provides a reliable tool for overcoming the incomplete (by force of different causes) compatibility between the initial phonograms and those under consideration for the purpose of forensic medical expertise with a view to the identification of personality of the speaker.

  2. Time-frequency analysis with temporal and spectral resolution as the human auditory system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn T.

    1992-01-01

    The human perception of sound is a suitable area for the application of a simultaneous time-frequency analysis, since the ear is selective in both domains. A perfect reconstruction filter bank with bandwidths approximating the critical bands is presented. The orthogonality of the filter makes it ...... it possible to examine the masking effect with realistic signals. The tree structure of the filter bank makes it difficult to obtain well-attenuated stop-bands. The use of filters of different length solves this problem...

  3. An Excel‐based implementation of the spectral method of action potential alternans analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearman, Charles M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Action potential (AP) alternans has been well established as a mechanism of arrhythmogenesis and sudden cardiac death. Proper interpretation of AP alternans requires a robust method of alternans quantification. Traditional methods of alternans analysis neglect higher order periodicities that may have greater pro‐arrhythmic potential than classical 2:1 alternans. The spectral method of alternans analysis, already widely used in the related study of microvolt T‐wave alternans, has also been used to study AP alternans. Software to meet the specific needs of AP alternans analysis is not currently available in the public domain. An AP analysis tool is implemented here, written in Visual Basic for Applications and using Microsoft Excel as a shell. This performs a sophisticated analysis of alternans behavior allowing reliable distinction of alternans from random fluctuations, quantification of alternans magnitude, and identification of which phases of the AP are most affected. In addition, the spectral method has been adapted to allow detection and quantification of higher order regular oscillations. Analysis of action potential morphology is also performed. A simple user interface enables easy import, analysis, and export of collated results. PMID:25501439

  4. An Excel-based implementation of the spectral method of action potential alternans analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearman, Charles M

    2014-12-01

    Action potential (AP) alternans has been well established as a mechanism of arrhythmogenesis and sudden cardiac death. Proper interpretation of AP alternans requires a robust method of alternans quantification. Traditional methods of alternans analysis neglect higher order periodicities that may have greater pro-arrhythmic potential than classical 2:1 alternans. The spectral method of alternans analysis, already widely used in the related study of microvolt T-wave alternans, has also been used to study AP alternans. Software to meet the specific needs of AP alternans analysis is not currently available in the public domain. An AP analysis tool is implemented here, written in Visual Basic for Applications and using Microsoft Excel as a shell. This performs a sophisticated analysis of alternans behavior allowing reliable distinction of alternans from random fluctuations, quantification of alternans magnitude, and identification of which phases of the AP are most affected. In addition, the spectral method has been adapted to allow detection and quantification of higher order regular oscillations. Analysis of action potential morphology is also performed. A simple user interface enables easy import, analysis, and export of collated results. © 2014 The Author. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  5. Analysis of the surface load and radiated sound of a vibrating airfoil with application to the experiment of Brooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    A method is developed for calculating the surface load and radiated sound from a vibrating surface in a compressible viscous fluid. The method is applied to a thin two-dimensional elliptic cross-section. For large values of the viscous diffusion parameter, the surface load tends to an elliptic distribution in agreement with the results of inviscid theory when edge pressure continuity is enforced. For thin surfaces, the surface load is insensitive to variations in the thickness ratio. A three-dimensional spectral technique is developed to calculate the inviscid surface load and radiated sound from a thin vibrating airfoil. The inviscid theory predicts the correct form of the far field sound pressure and its phase. The actual levels are somewhat sensitive to the choice of theoretical spanwise surface pressure mode but are in better agreement with the experiment than the surface pressure. The comparison of theoretical and experimental surface pressure indicates that the viscous theory, used to validate the inviscid theory, is either inadequate or there is a source of experimental error.

  6. Aurally-adequate time-frequency analysis for scattered sound in auditoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Molly K.; Xiang, Ning; Kleiner, Mendel

    2005-04-01

    The goal of this work was to apply an aurally-adequate time-frequency analysis technique to the analysis of sound scattering effects in auditoria. Time-frequency representations were developed as a motivated effort that takes into account binaural hearing, with a specific implementation of interaural cross-correlation process. A model of the human auditory system was implemented in the MATLAB platform based on two previous models [A. Härmä and K. Palomäki, HUTear, Espoo, Finland; and M. A. Akeroyd, A. Binaural Cross-correlogram Toolbox for MATLAB (2001), University of Sussex, Brighton]. These stages include proper frequency selectivity, the conversion of the mechanical motion of the basilar membrane to neural impulses, and binaural hearing effects. The model was then used in the analysis of room impulse responses with varying scattering characteristics. This paper discusses the analysis results using simulated and measured room impulse responses. [Work supported by the Frank H. and Eva B. Buck Foundation.

  7. Sound extinction by fish schools: forward scattering theory and data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveau, M; Feuillade, C

    2015-02-01

    A model used previously to study collective back scattering from fish schools [Feuillade et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 99(1), 196-208 (1996)], is used to analyze the forward scattering properties of these objects. There is an essential physical difference between back and forward scattering from fish schools. Strong frequency dependent interference effects, which affect the back scattered field amplitude, are absent in the forward scattering case. This is critically important for data analysis. There is interest in using back scattering and transmission data from fish schools to study their size, the species and abundance of fish, and fish behavior. Transmission data can be processed to determine the extinction of the field by a school. The extinction of sound depends on the forward scattering characteristics of the school, and data inversion to provide information about the fish should be based upon a forward scattering paradigm. Results are presented of an analysis of transmission data obtained in September 1995 during an experiment performed in the Gulf of Lion in the Mediterranean Sea [Diachok, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 105(4), 2107-2128 (1999)]. The analysis shows that using forward scattering leads to significantly larger estimates of fish abundance than previous analysis based upon back scattering approaches.

  8. Development and evaluation of spectral transformation algorithms for analysis and characterization of forest vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guang

    1998-11-01

    This research reviewed and evaluated some of the most important statistically based spectral transformation algorithms. Two spectral transformation algorithms, canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) and multiple logistic regression (MLR) transformations were developed and evaluated in two independent studies. The objectives were to investigate if the methods are capable of solving the two fundamental questions raised in the beginning: separating spectral overlap and quantifying spatial variability under forest conditions. It was generalized from previous research that spectral transformations are usually performed to complete one or more tasks, with ultimate goal of optimizing data structure for improving visual interpretation, analysis, and classification performance. PCA is the most widely used spectral transformation techniques. Kauth-Thomas Tasseled Cap transformed components are important vegetation indices, and they are developed using sensor and scene physical characteristics and Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization process. A theoretical comparison was conducted to identify major differences among Tasseled Cap, PCA, and CDA transformations in their objectives, prior knowledge requirements, limitations, processes, and variance-covariance usage. CDA was a better "separation" algorithm than PCA in improving overall classification accuracy. CDA was used as a transformation technique to not only increase class separation, but also reduce data dimension and noise. The last two canonical components usually contain largely noise variances, which hold less than 1 percent of the variance found in source variables. A sub-dimension (the first four components) is preferable for final classifications than the whole derived canonical component data sets, as the noise variances associated with the last two components were removed. Comparison of CDA and PCA eigenstructure matrices revealed that there is no distinct pattern in terms of source variable contribution and load signs

  9. Towards tests of quark-hadron duality with functional analysis and spectral function data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boito, Diogo; Caprini, Irinel

    2017-04-01

    The presence of terms that violate quark-hadron duality in the expansion of QCD Green's functions is a generally accepted fact. Recently, a new approach was proposed for the study of duality violations (DVs), which exploits the existence of a rigorous lower bound on the functional distance, measured in a certain norm, between a "true" correlator and its approximant calculated theoretically along a contour in the complex energy plane. In the present paper, we pursue the investigation of functional-analysis-based tests towards their application to real spectral function data. We derive a closed analytic expression for the minimal functional distance based on the general weighted L2 norm and discuss its relation with the distance measured in the L∞ norm. Using fake data sets obtained from a realistic toy model in which we allow for covariances inspired from the publicly available ALEPH spectral functions, we obtain, by Monte Carlo simulations, the statistical distribution of the strength parameter that measures the magnitude of the DV term added to the usual operator product expansion. The results show that, if the region with large errors near the end point of the spectrum in τ decays is excluded, the functional-analysis-based tests using either L2 or L∞ norms are able to detect, in a statistically significant way, the presence of DVs in realistic spectral function pseudodata.

  10. Passive microrheology of soft materials with atomic force microscopy: A wavelet-based spectral analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Torres, C.; Streppa, L. [CNRS, UMR5672, Laboratoire de Physique, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 46 Allée d' Italie, Université de Lyon, 69007 Lyon (France); Arneodo, A.; Argoul, F. [CNRS, UMR5672, Laboratoire de Physique, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 46 Allée d' Italie, Université de Lyon, 69007 Lyon (France); CNRS, UMR5798, Laboratoire Ondes et Matière d' Aquitaine, Université de Bordeaux, 351 Cours de la Libération, 33405 Talence (France); Argoul, P. [Université Paris-Est, Ecole des Ponts ParisTech, SDOA, MAST, IFSTTAR, 14-20 Bd Newton, Cité Descartes, 77420 Champs sur Marne (France)

    2016-01-18

    Compared to active microrheology where a known force or modulation is periodically imposed to a soft material, passive microrheology relies on the spectral analysis of the spontaneous motion of tracers inherent or external to the material. Passive microrheology studies of soft or living materials with atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilever tips are rather rare because, in the spectral densities, the rheological response of the materials is hardly distinguishable from other sources of random or periodic perturbations. To circumvent this difficulty, we propose here a wavelet-based decomposition of AFM cantilever tip fluctuations and we show that when applying this multi-scale method to soft polymer layers and to living myoblasts, the structural damping exponents of these soft materials can be retrieved.

  11. TOF plotter—a program to perform routine analysis time-of-flight mass spectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knippel, Brad C.; Padgett, Clifford W.; Marcus, R. Kenneth

    2004-03-01

    The main article discusses the operation and application of the program to mass spectral data files. This laboratory has recently reported the construction and characterization of a linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ToF-MS) utilizing a radio frequency glow discharge ionization source. Data acquisition and analysis was performed using a digital oscilloscope and Microsoft Excel, respectively. Presently, no software package is available that is specifically designed for time-of-flight mass spectral analysis that is not instrument dependent. While spreadsheet applications such as Excel offer tremendous utility, they can be cumbersome when repeatedly performing tasks which are too complex or too user intensive for macros to be viable. To address this situation and make data analysis a faster, simpler task, our laboratory has developed a Microsoft Windows-based software program coded in Microsoft Visual Basic. This program enables the user to rapidly perform routine data analysis tasks such as mass calibration, plotting and smoothing on x- y data sets. In addition to a suite of tools for data analysis, a number of calculators are built into the software to simplify routine calculations pertaining to linear ToF-MS. These include mass resolution, ion kinetic energy and single peak identification calculators. A detailed description of the software and its associated functions is presented followed by a characterization of its performance in the analysis of several representative ToF-MS spectra obtained from different GD-ToF-MS systems.

  12. Mass spectral analysis of synthones of nerve agents for verification of the Chemical Weapons Convention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arvind K; Shakya, Purushottam D; Pardasani, Deepak; Palit, Meehir; Dubey, Devendra K

    2005-01-01

    This communication describes the synthesis and gas chromatography/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) analysis of N,N-dialkylphosphoramidic dihalides and alkylphosphonic difluorides, which are synthones of nerve agents. The study was undertaken with a view to developing a spectral database of these compounds for verification purposes of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). The modified synthetic approach reported here has advantages over traditional syntheses in terms of time and yield. GC/MS analysis of these synthones yielded electron ionization (EI) mass spectra and, based on these spectra, generalized fragmentation routes are proposed that rationalize most of the characteristic ions. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Influence of a discontinuity on the spectral and fractal analysis of one-dimensional data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. H. Berton

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of a data area or segment containing steep transitions between regions with different textures (for example a cloud and its background leads to addressing the problem of discontinuities and their impact on texture analysis. In that purpose, an original one-dimensional analytical model of spectrum and roughness function has been worked out, with a discontinuity between two fractal regions, each one specified by its average µ, standard deviation σ, spectral index β and Hurst exponent H. This has the advantage of not needing the generation of a fractal structure with a particular algorithm or random functions and clearly puts into evidence the role played by the average in generating spectral poles and side lobes. After validation of the model calibration, a parametric study is carried out in order to understand the influence of this discontinuity on the estimation of the spectral index β and the Hurst parameter H. It shows that for a pure µ-gap, H is well estimated everywhere, though overestimated, and β is overestimated in the anti-correlation range and saturates in the correlation range. For a pure σ-gap the retrieval of H is excellent everywhere and the behaviour of β is better than for a µ-gap, leading to less overestimation in the anti-correlation range. For a pure β-gap, saturation degrades measurements in the case of raw data and the medium with smaller spectral index is predominant in the case of trend-corrected data. For a pure H-gap, there is also dominance of the medium with smaller fractal exponent.

  14. Spectral-Timing Analysis of the Nearby QSO PG1211+143

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobban, A.; Pounds, K.; Reeves, J.; Vaughan, S.

    2017-10-01

    I will present the results of a broad-band spectral-timing analysis of PG1211+143; the archetypal source for ultra-fast outflows in AGN. Through the detection of highly-ionized blueshifted absorption lines from Fe K, an ultra-fast outflow is revealed with velocities exceeding 0.1c. A deep 630ks XMM-Newton plus contemporaneous NuSTAR observation has revealed additional complex, multiple-velocity structure in both the soft and hard X-ray bands. The broad-band spectral properties are explored in detail, testing relativistic reflection models and showing that the imprints of physically-realistic wind absorption models are strongly required to match the data in both the soft X-ray and Fe K spectral regions, providing further demonstration of the power of combining the high throughput and resolution of long-look XMM-Newton observations with the unprecedented spectral coverage of NuSTAR. Additionally, I will present complementary timing analysis - in particular, frequency-/energy-dependent X-ray time delays, with well-correlated variations across the XMM-Newton bandpass, with the first detection of a low-frequency hard lag in this source, consistent with the propagating fluctuations model. However, the low-frequency lag behaviour becomes more complex on an inter-orbit basis, suggestive of additional modes of variability. We also detect a high-frequency soft lag peaking at -0.8ks which I discuss in terms of small-scale reverberation.

  15. Spectral analysis of nonequilibrium molecular dynamics: Spectral phonon temperature and local nonequilibrium in thin films and across interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tianli; Yao, Wenjun; Wang, Zuyuan; Shi, Jingjing; Li, Chuang; Cao, Bingyang; Ruan, Xiulin

    2017-05-01

    Although extensive experimental and theoretical works have been conducted to understand the ballistic and diffusive phonon transport in nanomaterials recently, direct observation of temperature and thermal nonequilibrium of different phonon modes has not been realized. Herein, we have developed a method within the framework of molecular dynamics to calculate the temperatures of phonons in both real and phase spaces. Taking silicon thin film and graphene as examples, we directly obtained the spectral phonon temperature (SPT) and observed the local thermal nonequilibrium between the ballistic and diffusive phonons. Such nonequilibrium also generally exists across interfaces and is surprisingly large, and it provides a significant additional thermal interfacial resistance mechanism besides phonon reflection. Our SPT results directly show that the vertical thermal transport across the dimensionally mismatched graphene-substrate interface is through the coupling between flexural acoustic phonons of graphene and the longitudinal phonons in the substrate with mode conversion. In the dimensionally matched interfaces, e.g., graphene-graphene junction and graphene-boron nitride planar interfaces, strong coupling occurs between the acoustic phonon modes on both sides, and the coupling decreases with interfacial mixing. The SPT method together with the spectral heat flux can eliminate the size effect of the thermal conductivity prediction induced from ballistic transport.

  16. Is the jet-drive flute model able to produce modulated sounds like Flautas de Chinos ?

    CERN Document Server

    Terrien, Soizic; De La Cuadra, Patricio; Fabre, Benoît

    2014-01-01

    Flautas de chinos - prehispanic chilean flutes played during ritual celebrations in central Chile - are known to produce very particular beating sounds, the so-called sonido rajado. Some previous works have focused on the spectral analysis of these sounds, and on the input impedance of the complex resonator. However, the beating sounds origin remains to be investigated. Throughout this paper, a comparison is provided between the characteristics of both the sound produced by flautas de chinos and a synthesis sound obtained through time-domain simulation of the jet-drive model for flute-like instruments. Jet-drive model appears to be able to produce quasiperiodic sounds similar to sonido rajado. Finally, the analysis of the system dynamics through numerical continuation methods allows to explore the production mechanism of these quasiperiodic regimes.

  17. Binaural sound localizer for azimuthal movement detection based on diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Keonwook; Choi, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Sound localization can be realized by utilizing the physics of acoustics in various methods. This paper investigates a novel detection architecture for the azimuthal movement of sound source based on the interaural level difference (ILD) between two receivers. One of the microphones in the system is surrounded by barriers of various heights in order to cast the direction dependent diffraction of the incoming signal. The gradient analysis of the ILD between the structured and unstructured microphone demonstrates the rotation directions as clockwise, counter clockwise, and no rotation of the sound source. Acoustic experiments with different types of sound source over a wide range of target movements show that the average true positive and false positive rates are 67% and 16%, respectively. Spectral analysis demonstrates that the low frequency delivers decreased true and false positive rates and the high frequency presents increases of both rates, overall.

  18. Lung function interpolation by analysis of means of neural-network-supported respiration sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oud, M

    Respiration sounds of individual asthmatic patients were analysed in the scope of the development of a method for computerised recognition of the degree of airways obstruction. Respiration sounds were recorded during laboratory sessions of allergen provoked airways obstruction, during several stages

  19. Surface return direction-of-arrival analysis for radar ice sounding surface clutter suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik; Dall, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    Airborne radar ice sounding is challenged by surface clutter masking the depth signal of interest. Surface clutter may even be prohibitive for potential space-based ice sounding radars. To some extent the radar antenna suppresses the surface clutter, and a multi-phase-center antenna in combination...

  20. Verification of an acoustic transmission matrix analysis of sound propagation in a variable area duct without flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    A predicted standing wave pressure and phase angle profile for a hard wall rectangular duct with a region of converging-diverging area variation is compared to published experimental measurements in a study of sound propagation without flow. The factor of 1/2 area variation used is sufficient magnitude to produce large reflections. The prediction is based on a transmission matrix approach developed for the analysis of sound propagation in a variable area duct with and without flow. The agreement between the measured and predicted results is shown to be excellent.

  1. Breeding soundness evaluation of bulls by semen analysis, testicular fine needle aspiration cytology and trans-scrotal ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapwanya A

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of trans-scrotal ultrasonography and testicular fine needle aspiration cytology in assessing bulls for breeding suitability. These two techniques were also compared with semen analysis. Bulls presented for breeding soundness evaluation were assessed using all three techniques. The findings of each technique were compared. There was agreement in classification of fertile bulls using all three techniques, suggesting that the combined use of these techniques enhances routine breeding soundness examination. Use of the three techniques also enhances detailed investigation of suspected sub-fertile bulls while accurately identifying testicular cause(s of sire sub-fertility.

  2. Foley Sounds vs Real Sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trento, Stefano; Götzen, Amalia De

    2011-01-01

    This paper is an initial attempt to study the world of sound effects for motion pictures, also known as Foley sounds. Throughout several audio and audio-video tests we have compared both Foley and real sounds originated by an identical action. The main purpose was to evaluate if sound effects...

  3. Power spectral analysis of blood pressure fluctuations during sleep in normal and decerebrate cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, N; Sakai, K; Sei, H; Salvert, D; Vanni-Mercier, G; Yamamoto, M; Jouvet, M

    1994-03-01

    Arterial blood pressure fluctuations during sleep were investigated with power analysis technique in both normal and decerebrate cats. In the initial postoperative stage lasting about 3 to 4 days, intact cats displayed, during paradoxical sleep, phasic increases in arterial blood pressure which were superimposed on a tonic hypotension. In the later chronic stage, however, the animals showed the phasic hypertension being superimposed on the background of a tonic hypertension. Regardless of these stages, the blood pressure during paradoxical sleep exhibited a 1/f-like spectrum, expressed by the power spectral density which is inversely proportional to the Fourier frequency f. On the other hand, a power spectral profile of the blood pressure during slow wave sleep presented a white noise-like pattern within the same frequency range of 0.1-0.01 Hz. After brainstem transections at the pontomesencephalic border, the cats exhibited consistently a sustained fall in blood pressure during paradoxical sleep and the power spectral density of the blood pressure displayed a white noise-like pattern throughout the survival periods of one month or more. These observations indicate that the blood pressure fluctuations in the 1/f spectrum during paradoxical sleep originate in rostral brain structures.

  4. [Diagnosis and analysis of high power YAG laser and MAG arc hybrid source with spectral information].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-yong; Wang, Wei; Wang, Xu-you; Li, Huan

    2010-11-01

    High power YAG laser and MAG are hybrid source is a promising material processing heat source for future industry application Diagnosis of the plasma state is critical for better understanding of the coupling effect, application of the source and optimization of the hybrid parameters. Through establishing a hollow probe spectral collecting system, Avaspec-Ft-2 high speed digital spectrometer was applied for collecting the spectral information of hybrid are plasma. The hollow probe scans the plasma body to acquire the spatial distribution of the YAG laser-MAG hybrid are spectrum. The radiation intensity in specific spectral zone was acquired for analysis of the radiation variation when the laser beam was hybrid with the MAG arc. High speed photo was also applied for comparison of the plasma with and without laser beam coupling. Furthermore, line spectra of Fe I were selected for calculating the electronic temperature of the hybrid plasma with Boltzmann plot method. The results show that energy of the hybrid plasma focused on the weld plate with high intensity and wider acting zone. The electronic temperature increased in the center of the hybrid plasma.

  5. Introducing Spectral Structure Activity Relationship (S-SAR Analysis. Application to Ecotoxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Lacrămă

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel quantitative structure-activity (property relationship model, namelySpectral-SAR, is presented in an exclusive algebraic way replacing the old-fashionedmulti-regression one. The actual S-SAR method interprets structural descriptors as vectorsin a generic data space that is further mapped into a full orthogonal space by means of theGram-Schmidt algorithm. Then, by coordinated transformation between the data andorthogonal spaces, the S-SAR equation is given under simple determinant form for anychemical-biological interactions under study. While proving to give the same analyticalequation and correlation results with standard multivariate statistics, the actual S-SARframe allows the introduction of the spectral norm as a valid substitute for the correlationfactor, while also having the advantage to design the various related SAR models throughthe introduced “minimal spectral path” rule. An application is given performing a completeS-SAR analysis upon the Tetrahymena pyriformis ciliate species employing its reportedeco-toxicity activities among relevant classes of xenobiotics. By representing the spectralnorm of the endpoint models against the concerned structural coordinates, the obtainedS-SAR endpoints hierarchy scheme opens the perspective to further design the eco-toxicological test batteries with organisms from different species.

  6. Atropine unmasks bed-rest effect - A spectral analysis of cardiac interbeat intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberger, Ary L.; Goldwater, Danielle; Bhargava, Valmik

    1986-01-01

    Heart rate spectral data obtained for 10 male subjects between 35-49 years following orthostatic tolerance testing with lower body negative pressure prebed rest and after 7-10 days of bed rest, while on placebo and after intravenous atropine are analyzed. Comparison of the spectral atropine rms for subjects prebed rest and after bed rest reveal a decrease from 63 + or - 24 ms to 40 + or - 23 ms. It is observed that heart rate interval variability for subjects after bed rest and with atropine is reduced; the heart rate at bed rest with atropine is increased from 70.4 + or - 12.4 beats/min prebed rest to 83.7 + or - 18.9 beats/min; and the exercise tolerance time for subjects in the atropine prebed-rest phase (658 + or - 352 s) is higher than the bed-rest phase (505 + or - 252 s). It is noted that bed rest impairs the cardiovascular capacity to adaptively modulate physiological responses, atropine exposes bed-rest deconditioning effects, and spectral analysis is useful for studying the effects of bed-rest deconditioning on cardiac dynamics.

  7. Spectacle and SpecViz: New Spectral Analysis and Visualization Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Nicholas; Peeples, Molly; JDADF Developers

    2018-01-01

    A new era of spectroscopic exploration of our universe is being ushered in with advances in instrumentation and next-generation space telescopes. The advent of new spectroscopic instruments has highlighted a pressing need for tools scientists can use to analyze and explore these new data. We have developed Spectacle, a software package for analyzing both synthetic spectra from hydrodynamic simulations as well as real COS data with an aim of characterizing the behavior of the circumgalactic medium. It allows easy reduction of spectral data and analytic line generation capabilities. Currently, the package is focused on automatic determination of absorption regions and line identification with custom line list support, simultaneous line fitting using Voigt profiles via least-squares or MCMC methods, and multi-component modeling of blended features. Non-parametric measurements, such as equivalent widths, delta v90, and full-width half-max are available. Spectacle also provides the ability to compose compound models used to generate synthetic spectra allowing the user to define various LSF kernels, uncertainties, and to specify sampling.We also present updates to the visualization tool SpecViz, developed in conjunction with the JWST data analysis tools development team, to aid in the exploration of spectral data. SpecViz is an open source, Python-based spectral 1-D interactive visualization and analysis application built around high-performance interactive plotting. It supports handling general and instrument-specific data and includes advanced tool-sets for filtering and detrending one-dimensional data, along with the ability to isolate absorption regions using slicing and manipulate spectral features via spectral arithmetic. Multi-component modeling is also possible using a flexible model fitting tool-set that supports custom models to be used with various fitting routines. It also features robust user extensions such as custom data loaders and support for user

  8. Spectral and morphological analysis of the remnant of supernova 1987A with ALMA and ATCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanardo, Giovanna; Staveley-Smith, Lister [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), M468, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Indebetouw, Remy; Chevalier, Roger A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Matsuura, Mikako; Barlow, Michael J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Gaensler, Bryan M. [Australian Research Council, Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO) (Australia); Fransson, Claes; Lundqvist, Peter [Department of Astronomy, Oskar Klein Center, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Manchester, Richard N. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Baes, Maarten [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Kamenetzky, Julia R. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Lakićević, Maša [Institute for the Environment, Physical Sciences and Applied Mathematics, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Marcaide, Jon M. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Valencia, C/Dr. Moliner 50, E-46100 Burjassot (Spain); Martí-Vidal, Ivan [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, SE-439 92 Onsala (Sweden); Meixner, Margaret [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Ng, C.-Y. [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Park, Sangwook, E-mail: giovanna.zanardo@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, 108 Science Hall, Box 19059, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); and others

    2014-12-01

    We present a comprehensive spectral and morphological analysis of the remnant of supernova (SN) 1987A with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The non-thermal and thermal components of the radio emission are investigated in images from 94 to 672 GHz (λ 3.2 mm to 450 μm), with the assistance of a high-resolution 44 GHz synchrotron template from the ATCA, and a dust template from ALMA observations at 672 GHz. An analysis of the emission distribution over the equatorial ring in images from 44 to 345 GHz highlights a gradual decrease of the east-to-west asymmetry ratio with frequency. We attribute this to the shorter synchrotron lifetime at high frequencies. Across the transition from radio to far infrared, both the synchrotron/dust-subtracted images and the spectral energy distribution (SED) suggest additional emission beside the main synchrotron component (S {sub ν}∝ν{sup –0.73}) and the thermal component originating from dust grains at T ∼ 22 K. This excess could be due to free-free flux or emission from grains of colder dust. However, a second flat-spectrum synchrotron component appears to better fit the SED, implying that the emission could be attributed to a pulsar wind nebula (PWN). The residual emission is mainly localized west of the SN site, as the spectral analysis yields –0.4 ≲ α ≲ –0.1 across the western regions, with α ∼ 0 around the central region. If there is a PWN in the remnant interior, these data suggest that the pulsar may be offset westward from the SN position.

  9. Cloud cover analysis with Arctic Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer data. II - Classification with spectral and textural measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, J.

    1990-01-01

    The spectral and textural characteristics of polar clouds and surfaces for a 7-day summer series of AVHRR data in two Arctic locations are examined, and the results used in the development of a cloud classification procedure for polar satellite data. Since spatial coherence and texture sensitivity tests indicate that a joint spectral-textural analysis based on the same cell size is inappropriate, cloud detection with AVHRR data and surface identification with passive microwave data are first done on the pixel level as described by Key and Barry (1989). Next, cloud patterns within 250-sq-km regions are described, then the spectral and local textural characteristics of cloud patterns in the image are determined and each cloud pixel is classified by statistical methods. Results indicate that both spectral and textural features can be utilized in the classification of cloudy pixels, although spectral features are most useful for the discrimination between cloud classes.

  10. Numerical Analysis of Indoor Sound Quality Evaluation Using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tuan Chou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Indoors sound field distribution is important to Room Acoustics, but the field suffers numerous problems, for example, multipath propagation and scattering owing to sound absorption by furniture and other aspects of décor. Generally, an ideal interior space must have a sound field with clear quality. This provides both the speaker and the listener with a pleasant conversational environment. This investigation uses the Finite Element Method to assess the acoustic distribution based on the indoor space and chamber volume. In this situation, a fixed sound source at different frequencies is used to simulate the acoustic characteristics of the indoor space. This method considers the furniture and decoration sound absorbing material and thus different sound absorption coefficients and configurations. The preliminary numerical simulation provides a method that can forecast the distribution of sound in an indoor room in complex situations. Consequently, it is possible to arrange interior furnishings and appliances to optimize acoustic distribution and environmental friendliness. Additionally, the analytical results can also be used to calculate the Reverberation Time and speech intelligibility for specified indoor space.

  11. EZ and GOSSIP, two new VO compliant tools for spectral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzetti, P.; Garill, B.; Fumana, M.; Paioro, L.; Scodeggio, M.; Paltani, S.; Scaramella, R.

    2008-10-01

    We present EZ and GOSSIP, two new VO compliant tools dedicated to spectral analysis. EZ is a tool to perform automatic redshift measurement; GOSSIP is a tool created to perform the SED fitting procedure in a simple, user friendly and efficient way. These two tools have been developed by the PANDORA Group at INAF-IASF (Milano); EZ has been developed in collaboration with Osservatorio Monte Porzio (Roma) and Integral Science Data Center (Geneve). EZ is released to the astronomical community; GOSSIP is currently in beta-testing.

  12. Method and system for calibrating acquired spectra for use in spectral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reber, Edward L.; Rohde, Kenneth W.; Blackwood, Larry G.

    2010-09-14

    A method for calibrating acquired spectra for use in spectral analysis includes performing Gaussian peak fitting to spectra acquired by a plurality of NaI detectors to define peak regions. A Na and annihilation doublet may be located among the peak regions. A predetermined energy level may be applied to one of the peaks in the doublet and a location of a hydrogen peak may be predicted based on the location of at least one of the peaks of the doublet. Control systems for calibrating spectra are also disclosed.

  13. Improvement of the Spectral Subtraction Method by High-resolution Frequency Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirobayashi, Shigeki; Shibano, Yohei; Yamabuchi, Tatsuo

    The Nonharmonic Analysis, recently proposed by the authors, is able to obtain voice and noise spectra independent of each other as a result of high frequency resolution. Therefore, NHA may even enable voices in a noisy environment to be extracted from spectra without distortion. For preprocessing by the spectral subtraction method of effective noise suppression, we used NHA instead of the discrete Fourier transform and the effects on noise suppression were quantitatively verified. In an environment of SNR from -10 dB to +10 dB, the proposed technique showed an improvement of about 4 dB on average.

  14. The comparative metrological estimation of methods of emission spectral analysis for wear products in aviation oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alchimov, A.B.; Drobot, S.I.; Drokov, V.G.; Zarubin, V.P.; Kazmirov, A.D.; Skodaev, Y.D.; Podrezov, A.M. [Applied Physics Institute of Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The comparison of different spectral methods of analysis for wear diagnostics of aircraft engines has been carried out. It is shown that known techniques of determination of metals content in aviation oils with the use the spectrometers MFS (Russia) and MOA (USA) give a low accuracy of measurements. As an alternative the method of wear diagnostics on the base of a scintillation spectrometer is suggested. This method possess far better metrological properties in comparison with those on the base of the spectrometer MFS and MOA. (orig.) 6 refs.

  15. Classification of Error-Diffused Halftone Images Based on Spectral Regression Kernel Discriminant Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigao Zeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel algorithm to solve the challenging problem of classifying error-diffused halftone images. We firstly design the class feature matrices, after extracting the image patches according to their statistics characteristics, to classify the error-diffused halftone images. Then, the spectral regression kernel discriminant analysis is used for feature dimension reduction. The error-diffused halftone images are finally classified using an idea similar to the nearest centroids classifier. As demonstrated by the experimental results, our method is fast and can achieve a high classification accuracy rate with an added benefit of robustness in tackling noise.

  16. Cross-spectral analysis of physiological tremor and muscle activity; 2, Application to synchronized EMG

    CERN Document Server

    Timmer, J; Pfleger, W; Deuschl, G

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between synchronized muscle activity and tremor time series in (enhanced) physiological tremor by cross-spectral analysis. Special attention is directed to the phase spectrum and its possibilities to clarify the contribution of reflex mechanisms to physiological tremor. The phase spectra are investigated under the assumptions that the EMG synchronization was caused by a reflex, respectively a central oscillator. In comparison of these results to phase spectra of measured data we found a significant contribution of reflexes. But reflexes only modify existing peaks in the power spectrum. The main agents of physiological tremor are an efferent pace and the resonant behavior of the biomechanical system.

  17. Spectral analysis of surface waves method to assess shear wave velocity within centrifuge models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Carol Andrea; Thorel, Luc; Caicedo, Bernardo

    2009-06-01

    The method of the spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) is tested out on reduced scale centrifuge models, with a specific device, called the mini Falling Weight, developed for this purpose. Tests are performed on layered materials made of a mixture of sand and clay. The shear wave velocity VS determined within the models using the SASW is compared with the laboratory measurements carried out using the bender element test. The results show that the SASW technique applied to centrifuge testing is a relevant method to characterize VS near the surface.

  18. Application of Arbitrary-Order Hilbert Spectral Analysis to Passive Scalar Turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Y X; Lu, Z M; Liu, Y L [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Mechanics in Energy and Environment Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Schmitt, F G [CNRS, Laboratory of Oceanology and Geosciences, UMR 8187, F-62930 Wimereux (France); Gagne, Y, E-mail: yongxianghuang@gmail.com [LEGI, CNRS/UJF/INPG, UMR 5519, 38041 Grenoble (France)

    2011-12-22

    In previous work [Huang et al., PRE 82, 26319, 2010], we found that the passive scalar turbulence field maybe less intermittent than what we believed before. Here we apply the same method, namely arbitrary-order Hilbert spectral analysis, to a passive scalar (temperature) time series with a Taylor's microscale Reynolds number Re{sub {lambda}} {approx_equal} 3000. We find that with increasing Reynolds number, the discrepancy of scaling exponents between Hilbert {xi}{sub {theta}}(q) and Kolmogorov-Obukhov-Corrsin (KOC) theory is increasing, and consequently the discrepancy between Hilbert and structure function could disappear at infinite Reynolds number.

  19. Identification of Mobile Phone and Analysis of Original Version of Videos through a Delay Time Analysis of Sound Signals from Mobile Phone Videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Min Gu; Har, Dong Hwan

    2017-11-01

    This study designs a method of identifying the camera model used to take videos that are distributed through mobile phones and determines the original version of the mobile phone video for use as legal evidence. For this analysis, an experiment was conducted to find the unique characteristics of each mobile phone. The videos recorded by mobile phones were analyzed to establish the delay time of sound signals, and the differences between the delay times of sound signals for different mobile phones were traced by classifying their characteristics. Furthermore, the sound input signals for mobile phone videos used as legal evidence were analyzed to ascertain whether they have the unique characteristics of the original version. The objective of this study was to find a method for validating the use of mobile phone videos as legal evidence using mobile phones through differences in the delay times of sound input signals. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  20. Assessment of the cardiovascular regulation during robotic assisted locomotion in normal subjects: autoregressive spectral analysis vs empirical mode decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magagnin, V; Caiani, E G; Fusini, L; Turiel, M; Licari, V; Bo, I; Cerutti, S; Porta, A

    2008-01-01

    Robotic assisted locomotion systems are recently gaining appreciation as methods to rehabilitate individuals with lost sensory motor function. In the present study we compare autoregressive power spectral analysis and empirical mode decomposition (EMD) applied to the analysis of short-term heart period variability regarding their ability to typify autonomic response during a robotic assisted locomotion session consisting in the following phases: 1) sitting position; 2) standing position; 3) suspension during subject instrumentation; 4) robotic assisted treadmill locomotion with partial body weight support; 5) standing recovery after exercise. Results showed a significant tachycardia during the suspension phase, but no significant changes of spectral indexes. On the contrary, when spectral indexes were derived according to EMD, changes were evidenced during the suspension and walking phases. The EMD method is more powerful than autoregressive spectral analysis in detecting variations of parasympathetic and sympathetic modulations elicited by a robotic-assisted locomotion protocol.

  1. [Spectral characteristics analysis and remote sensing inversion of water quality parameters in Han Shiqiao wetland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei-Jing; Li, Shu-Min; Li, Hong; Sun, Dan-Feng; Zhou, Lian-Di

    2010-03-01

    The research object of the present paper is the water quality of Han Shiqiao wetland water. Water spectrum and quality parameters were measured on the site and in the lab. The authors simulated the relationships between water quality parameters and the best bands or combination, and built the multiple linear regression equation to obtain characteristic spectrum of the key water quality parameters. Besides, several key issues involved in applying ASTER satellite imagery to water quality include atmospheric correction, discussing methods for ASTER data bands analysis, and choosing the best bands and band combination. Results indicated that although the simulation model is not universal, the analysis of spectral characteristics based on ground spectrometer could provide foundations for the choice of remote sensing characteristics bands. The band ratio of water quality parameters simulated from ASTER spectral characteristics moves to relatively long-wave band. Finally, based on the analysis of ASTER remote sensing characteristics bands, the authors built water quality parameters regression model. The models for water quality parameters were recommended, and the accuracies of these models were analyzed. Making use of regression model, we executed spatial distribution map of water quality parameters to achieve wetland water monitoring with remote sensing in terms of variation in space and with time.

  2. Comparative Spectral Analysis and Correlation Properties of Observed and Simulated Total Column Ozone Records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktória Homonnai

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a statistical analysis of total column ozone records obtained from satellite measurements and from two global climate chemistry models on global scale. Firstly, a spectral weight analysis is performed where the relative strength of semiannual, annual and quasi-biennial oscillations are determined with respect to the integrated power spectra. The comparison reveals some anomalies in the model representations at each spectral component. The tails of the spectra demonstrate that both models underestimate high frequency (daily ozone variability, which might have a complex origin, since several dynamical processes affect short time changes of the ozone level at a given location. Secondly, detrended fluctuation analysis is exploited to analyze two-point correlations of anomaly time series. Both models reproduce the characteristic geographic dependence of correlation strength over the overlapping area with empirical observations (latitude band between 60°S and 60°N. The values of precise correlation exponents are hard to obtain over regions where quasi-biennial oscillations or other strong nonstationarities (ozone hole are present. In spite of all the numerical difficulties, significant long range correlations are detected for total ozone over all geographic locations.

  3. Quantitative guidelines for force calibration through spectral analysis of magnetic tweezers data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    te Velthuis, Aartjan J W; Kerssemakers, Jacob W J; Lipfert, Jan; Dekker, Nynke H

    2010-08-09

    Single-molecule techniques are powerful tools that can be used to study the kinetics and mechanics of a variety of enzymes and their complexes. Force spectroscopy, for example, can be used to control the force applied to a single molecule and thereby facilitate the investigation of real-time nucleic acid-protein interactions. In magnetic tweezers, which offer straightforward control and compatibility with fluorescence measurements or parallel tracking modes, force-measurement typically relies on the analysis of positional fluctuations through video microscopy. Significant errors in force estimates, however, may arise from incorrect spectral analysis of the Brownian motion in the magnetic tweezers. Here we investigated physical and analytical optimization procedures that can be used to improve the range over which forces can be reliably measured. To systematically probe the limitations of magnetic tweezers spectral analysis, we have developed a magnetic tweezers simulator, whose outcome was validated with experimental data. Using this simulator, we evaluate methods to correctly perform force experiments and provide guidelines for correct force calibration under configurations that can be encountered in typical magnetic tweezers experiments. 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Spectral analysis of the stick-slip phenomenon in "oral" tribological texture evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanahuja, Solange; Upadhyay, Rutuja; Briesen, Heiko; Chen, Jianshe

    2017-08-01

    "Oral" tribology has become a new paradigm in food texture studies to understand complex texture attributes, such as creaminess, oiliness, and astringency, which could not be successfully characterized by traditional texture analysis nor by rheology. Stick-slip effects resulting from intermittent sliding motion during kinetic friction of oral mucosa could constitute an additional determining factor of sensory perception where traditional friction coefficient values and their Stribeck regimes fail in predicting different lubricant (food bolus and saliva) behaviors. It was hypothesized that the observed jagged behavior of most sliding force curves are due to stick-slip effects and depend on test velocity, normal load, surface roughness as well as lubricant type. Therefore, different measurement set-ups were investigated: sliding velocities from 0.01 to 40 mm/s, loads of 0.5 and 2.5 N as well as a smooth and a textured silicone contact surface. Moreover, dry contact measurements were compared to model food systems, such as water, oil, and oil-in-water emulsions. Spectral analysis permitted to extract the distribution of stick-slip magnitudes for specific wave numbers, characterizing the occurrence of jagged force peaks per unit sliding distance, similar to frequencies per unit time. The spectral features were affected by all the above mentioned tested factors. Stick-slip created vibration frequencies in the range of those detected by oral mechanoreceptors (0.3-400 Hz). The study thus provides a new insight into the use of tribology in food psychophysics. Dynamic spectral analysis has been applied for the first time to the force-displacement curves in "oral" tribology. Analyzing the stick-slip phenomenon in the dynamic friction provides new information that is generally overlooked or confused with machine noise and which may help to understand friction-related sensory attributes. This approach allows us to differentiate samples that have similar friction coefficient

  5. Spectral analysis of IGR J01572-7259 during its 2016 outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Palombara, N.; Esposito, P.; Mereghetti, S.; Pintore, F.; Sidoli, L.; Tiengo, A.

    2018-03-01

    We report on the results of the XMM-Newton observation of IGR J01572-7259 during its most recent outburst in 2016 May, the first since 2008. The source reached a flux f ˜ 10-10 erg cm-2 s-1, which allowed us to perform a detailed analysis of its timing and spectral properties. We obtained a pulse period Pspin = 11.58208(2) s. The pulse profile is double peaked and strongly energy dependent, as the second peak is prominent only at low energies and the pulsed fraction increases with energy. The main spectral component is a power-law model, but at low energies, we also detected a soft thermal component, which can be described with either a blackbody or a hot plasma model. Both the EPIC and RGS spectra show several emission lines, which can be identified with the transition lines of ionized N, O, Ne, and Fe and cannot be described with a thermal emission model. The phase-resolved spectral analysis showed that the flux of both the soft excess and the emission lines vary with the pulse phase: the soft excess disappears in the first pulse and becomes significant only in the second, where also the Fe line is stronger. This variability is difficult to explain with emission from a hot plasma, while the reprocessing of the primary X-ray emission at the inner edge of the accretion disc provides a reliable scenario. On the other hand, the narrow emission lines can be due to the presence of photoionized matter around the accreting source.

  6. Photoacoustic spectral analysis to sense programmed erythrocyte cell death (eryptosis) for monitoring cancer response to treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadhel, Muhannad N.; Kibria, Fayruz; Kolios, Michael C.

    2016-03-01

    Many types of cancer therapies target the tumor microenvironment, causing biochemical and morphological changes in tissues. In therapies using ultrasound activated microbubbles, vascular collapse is typically reported. Red blood cells (RBCs) that leak out of the vasculature become exposed to the ceramide that is released from damaged endothelial cells. Ceramide can induce programmed cell death in RBCs (eryptosis), and is characterized by cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing and scrambling. Since the effect of eryptotic cells on generated photoacoustics (PA) signals has not been reported, we investigated the potential PA may have for cancer treatment monitoring by using PA spectral analysis to sense eryptosis. To induce eryptosis, C2-ceramide was added to RBC suspensions and that were incubated for 24 hours at 37°C. A control and ceramide-induced sample was imaged in a vessel phantom using a high frequency PA system (VevoLAZR, 10 - 45 MHz bandwidth) irradiated with multiple wavelengths ranging from 680 to 900 nm. PA spectral parameters were measured and linked to changes in RBCs as it underwent eryptosis. These samples were examined using optical microscopy, a blood gas analyzer and an integrating sphere setup to measure optical properties (wavelengths 600 - 900 nm). The results of the experiment demonstrate how PA spectral analysis can be used to identify eryptosis at a depth of more than 1 cm into the phantom using ultrasound derived the y-intercept and mid bandfit (MBF) parameters at optical wavelengths of 800 - 900 nm. These parameters were correlated to the morphological and biochemical changes that eryptotic RBCs display. The results establish the potential of PA in cancer treatment monitoring through sensing treatment induced eryptosis.

  7. [Analysis and Correction of Spectral Curvature in Hadamard Transform Spectrometer with DMD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Xiang-qian; Liu, Hua; Lu, Zhen-wu; Wang, Xiao-duo; Dang, Bo-shi; Chen, Xiang-zi; Wang, Fang

    2016-02-01

    Due to the advantages of its low cost and high utilization rate of light energy and no moving parts, Hadamard transform spectrometer with DMD has become a focus in the research of spectrometer. In order to solve the reduction of spectral resolution caused by the spectral curvature of Hadamard transform spectrometer with DMD (Digital Micro-mirror Device), the spectral aliasing in the spectrometer was investigated. Firstly, the mathematical relationship of spectral aliasing to radius of spectral curvature was deduced. Then, two procedures were proposed to solve the spectral aliasing. One is making the DMD encoded spectral band accordant with the standard spectral band as far as possible by adjusting the DMD-encoded stripe, and another is correcting remaining spectral aliasing by means of data processing. Finally, by analyzing and correcting spectral curvature in six situations of the curvature radius of 15.8 x 10⁴, 7.8 x 10⁴, 9.7 x 10⁴ µm and etc, we fit out the relationship of spectral aliasing and spectrum correction effect of spectral-curvature to the curvature radius. The simulation indicates that the spectral resolution increases to the resolution of optical system. It shows that the proposed methods are universal, simple and effective in the improvement of spectral resolution.

  8. Aerodynamic sound generation due to vortex-aerofoil interaction. Part 2: Analysis of the acoustic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasarathy, R.; Karamcheti, K.

    1972-01-01

    The Lighthill method was the basic procedure used to analyze the sound field associated with a vortex of modified strength interacting with an airfoil. A free vortex interacting with an airfoil in uniform motion was modeled in order to determine the sound field due to all the acoustic sources, not only on the airfoil surfaces (dipoles), but also the ones distributed on the perturbed flow field (quadrupoles) due to the vortex-airfoil interaction. Because inviscid flow is assumed in the study of the interaction, the quadrupoles considered in the perturbed flow field are entirely due to an unsteady flow field. The effects of airfoil thickness on the second radiation are examined by using a symmetric Joukowski airfoil for the vortex-airfoil interaction. Sound radiation in a plane, far field simplification, and computation of the sound field are discussed.

  9. [Analysis of the heart sound with arrhythmia based on nonlinear chaos theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaorong; Guo, Xingming; Zhong, Lisha; Xiao, Shouzhong

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, a new method based on the nonlinear chaos theory was proposed to study the arrhythmia with the combination of the correlation dimension and largest Lyapunov exponent, through computing and analyzing these two parameters of 30 cases normal heart sound and 30 cases with arrhythmia. The results showed that the two parameters of the heart sounds with arrhythmia were higher than those with the normal, and there was significant difference between these two kinds of heart sounds. That is probably due to the irregularity of the arrhythmia which causes the decrease of predictability, and it's more complex than the normal heart sound. Therefore, the correlation dimension and the largest Lyapunov exponent can be used to analyze the arrhythmia and for its feature extraction.

  10. Spectro-temporal analysis of complex sounds in the human auditory system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piechowiak, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    Most sounds encountered in our everyday life carry information in terms of temporal variations of their envelopes. These envelope variations, or amplitude modulations, shape the basic building blocks for speech, music, and other complex sounds. Often a mixture of such sounds occurs in natural....... The purpose of the present thesis is to develop a computational auditory processing model that accounts for a large variety of experimental data on CMR, in order to obtain a more thorough understanding of the basic processing principles underlying the processing of across-frequency modulations. The second...... grouping can influence the results in conditions where the processing in the auditory system is dominated by across-channel comparisons. Overall, this thesis provides insights into the specific mechanisms involved in the perception of comodulated sounds. The results are important as a basis for future...

  11. Rapid Holocene coastal change revealed by high-resolution micropaleontological analysis, Pamlico Sound, North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand, Pre C.; Culver, S.J.; Mallinson, D.J.; Farrell, K.M.; Corbett, D.R.; Horton, B.P.; Hillier, C.; Riggs, S.R.; Snyder, S.W.; Buzas, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Foraminiferal analyses of 404 contiguous samples, supported by diatom, lithologic, geochronologic and seismic data, reveal both rapid and gradual Holocene paleoenvironmental changes in an 8.21-m vibracore taken from southern Pamlico Sound, North Carolina. Data record initial flooding of a latest Pleistocene river drainage and the formation of an estuary 9000. yr ago. Estuarine conditions were punctuated by two intervals of marine influence from approximately 4100 to 3700 and 1150 to 500. cal. yr BP. Foraminiferal assemblages in the muddy sand facies that accumulated during these intervals contain many well-preserved benthic foraminiferal species, which occur today in open marine settings as deep as the mid shelf, and significant numbers of well-preserved planktonic foraminifera, some typical of Gulf Stream waters. We postulate that these marine-influenced units resulted from temporary destruction of the southern Outer Banks barrier islands by hurricanes. The second increase in marine influence is coeval with increased rate of sea-level rise and a peak in Atlantic tropical cyclone activity during the Medieval Climate Anomaly. This high-resolution analysis demonstrates the range of environmental variability and the rapidity of coastal change that can result from the interplay of changing climate, sea level and geomorphology in an estuarine setting. ?? 2011 University of Washington.

  12. Swallowing sounds in speech therapy practice: a critical analysis of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrucci, Juliana Lopes; Mangilli, Laura Davison; Sassi, Fernanda Chiarion; Limongi, Suelly Cecilia Olivan; Andrade, Claudia Regina Furquim de

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate international scientific papers published on the subject of cervical auscultation and its use in speech therapy. The study involved a qualitative review of the literature spanning the last 10 years. Articles were selected from the PubMed database using the following keywords: cervical auscultation, swallowing and swallowing disorders. Research was included that was conducted on adult humans (over 18 years of age) and was written in English. Each citation retrieved from the database was analyzed independently by each of the study researchers to ascertain its relevance for inclusion in the study. The methodology involved formulating the research question, locating and selecting studies and critically evaluating the articles according to the precepts of the Cochrane Handbook. As a result, 35 studies were identified; 13 articles were analyzed because they allowed access to the full text and were related directly to the subject. We found that the studies were performed with groups of healthy subjects and subjects with different types of base pathology. Some studies compared the patterns found in the different groups. Some of the research sought to study the pattern of swallowing sounds with different factors - evaluator experience, the specificity and sensitivity of the method and how to improve the technique of cervical auscultation through the use of instruments other than the stethoscope. The conclusion of this critical analysis is that cervical auscultation is an important tool to be used in conjunction with other assessment methods in the routine clinical evaluation of swallowing.

  13. Peripheral bronchial obstruction evaluation in patients with asthma by lung sound analysis and impulse oscillometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Terufumi; Obase, Yasushi; Nagasaka, Yukio; Kishikawa, Reiko; Mukae, Hiroshi; Iwanaga, Tomoaki

    2017-01-01

    Computer-aided lung sound analysis (LSA) has been reported to be useful for evaluating airway inflammation and obstruction in asthma patients. We investigated the relation between LSA and impulse oscillometry with the evaluation of peripheral airway obstruction. A total of 49 inhaled corticosteroid-naive bronchial asthma patients underwent LSA, spirometry, impulse oscillometry, and airway hyperresponsiveness testing. The data were analyzed to assess correlations between the expiration: inspiration lung sound power ratio (dB) at low frequencies between 100 and 195 Hz (E/I LF) and various parameters. E/I LF and X5 were identified as independent factors that affect V˙50,%predicted. E/I LF showed a positive correlation with R5 (r = 0.34, p = 0.017), R20 (r = 0.34, p = 0.018), reactance area (AX, r = 0.40, p = 0.005), and resonant frequency of reactance (Fres, r = 0.32, p = 0.024). A negative correlation was found between E/I LF and X5 (r = -0.47, p = 0.0006). E/I LF showed a negative correlation with FEV1/FVC(%), FEV1,%predicted, V˙50,%predicted, and V˙25,%predicted (r = -0.41, p = 0.003; r = -0.44, p = 0.002; r = -0.49, p = 0.0004; and r = -0.30, p = 0.024, respectively). E/I LF was negatively correlated with log PC20 (r = -0.30, p = 0.024). Log PC20, X5, and past smoking were identified as independent factors that affected E/I LF level. E/I LF as with X5 can be an indicator of central and peripheral airway obstruction in bronchial asthma patients. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Imagining Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark; Garner, Tom Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We make the case in this essay that sound that is imagined is both a perception and as much a sound as that perceived through external stimulation. To argue this, we look at the evidence from auditory science, neuroscience, and philosophy, briefly present some new conceptual thinking on sound...... that accounts for this view, and then use this to look at what the future might hold in the context of imagining sound and developing technology....

  15. Research on the strong optical feedback effects based on spectral analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhaoli; Qu, XueMin; Li, Weina; Zhang, Min; Wang, Hao; Li, Tuo

    2018-01-01

    The strong optical feedback has the advantage of generating high resolution fringes. However, these feedback fringes usually seem like the noise signal when the feedback level is high. This defect severely limits its practical application. In this paper, the generation mechanism of noise fringes with strong optical feedback is studied by using spectral analysis method. The spectral analysis results show that, in most cases, the noise-like fringes are observed owing to the strong multiple high-order feedback. However, at certain feedback cavity condition, there may be only one high-order feedback beam goes back to the laser cavity, the noise-like fringes can change to the cosine-like fringes. And the resolution of this fringe is dozens times than that of the weak optical feedback. This research provides a method to obtain high resolution cosine-like fringes rather than noise signal in the strong optical feedback, which makes it possible to be used in nanoscale displacement measurements.

  16. Spectral analysis of Ahuna Mons from Dawn mission's visible-infrared spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambon, F.; Raponi, A.; Tosi, F.; De Sanctis, M. C.; McFadden, L. A.; Carrozzo, F. G.; Longobardo, A.; Ciarniello, M.; Krohn, K.; Stephan, K.; Palomba, E.; Pieters, C. M.; Ammannito, E.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.

    2017-01-01

    Ahuna Mons is the highest mountain on Ceres. A unique complex in terms of size, shape, and morphology, Ahuna is bordered by flanks of the talus around its summit. Recent work by Ruesch et al. based on Dawn's Framing Camera images shed light on the possible origin of Ahuna Mons. According to Ruesch et al. (2016), Ahuna Mons is formed by a volcanic process involving the ascent of cryomagma and extrusion onto the surface followed by dome development and subsequent spreading. Here we analyzed in detail the composition of Ahuna Mons, using data acquired by the visible and infrared spectrometer aboard Dawn. The spectral analysis reveals a relatively high abundance of carbonates and a nonhomogeneous variation in carbonate composition and abundance along Ahuna's flanks, associated with a lower amount of the Ceres's ubiquitous NH4-phyllosilicates over a large portion of the flanks. The grain size is coarser on the flanks than in the surrounding regions, suggesting the presence of fresher material, also compatible with a larger abundance of carbonates. Thermal variations are seen in Ahuna, supporting the evidence of different compactness of the surface regolith in specific locations. Results of the spectral analysis are consistent with a possible cryovolcanic origin which exposed fresher material that slid down on the flanks.

  17. Spectral analysis of irregular roughness artifacts measured by atomic force microscopy and laser scanning microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuhang; Luo, Tingting; Ma, Chengfu; Huang, Wenhao; Gao, Sitian

    2014-12-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and laser scanning microscopy (LSM) measurements on a series of specially designed roughness artifacts were performed and the results characterized by spectral analysis. As demonstrated by comparisons, both AFM and LSM can image the complex structures with high resolution and fidelity. When the surface autocorrelation length increases from 200 to 500 nm, the cumulative power spectral density spectra of the design, AFM and LSM data reach a better agreement with each other. The critical wavelength of AFM characterization is smaller than that of LSM, and the gap between the measured and designed critical wavelengths is reduced with an increase in the surface autocorrelation length. Topography measurements of surfaces with a near zero or negatively skewed height distribution were determined to be accurate. However, obvious discrepancies were found for surfaces with a positive skewness owing to more severe dilations of either the solid tip of the AFM or the laser tip of the LSM. Further surface parameter evaluation and template matching analysis verified that the main distortions in AFM measurements are tip dilations while those in LSM are generally larger and more complex.

  18. Prediction of traffic convective instability with spectral analysis of the Aw–Rascle–Zhang model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belletti, Francois, E-mail: francois.belletti@berkeley.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley (United States); Huo, Mandy, E-mail: mhuo@berkeley.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley (United States); Department of Mathematics, University of California, Berkeley (United States); Litrico, Xavier, E-mail: xavier.litrico@lyonnaise-des-eaux.fr [LyRE, R& D center of SUEZ environnement, Bordeaux (France); Bayen, Alexandre M., E-mail: bayen@berkeley.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley (United States); Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Berkeley (United States)

    2015-10-09

    Highlights: • We linearize and diagonalize the ARZ model. We give a Froude number for traffic. • Spectral domain transfer functions are derived and decompose the model. • The linearized system is convectively unstable in the free-flow regime. • We conduct experiments with the linearized model on the NGSIM dataset. • We show that the linearization does not destroy the accuracy of the model. - Abstract: This article starts from the classical Aw–Rascle–Zhang (ARZ) model for freeway traffic and develops a spectral analysis of its linearized version. A counterpart to the Froude number in hydrodynamics is defined that enables a classification of the nature of vehicle traffic flow using the explicit solution resulting from the analysis. We prove that our linearization about an equilibrium is stable for congested regimes and unstable otherwise. NGSIM data for congested traffic trajectories is used so as to confront the linearized model's predictions to actual macroscopic behavior of traffic. The model is shown to achieve good accuracy for speed and flow. In particular, it accounts for the advection of oscillations on boundaries into the interior domain where the PDE under study is solved.

  19. Morphological, spectral and chromatography analysis and forensic comparison of PET fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Shady; Tsach, Tsadok; Bentolila, Alfonso; Domb, Abraham J

    2014-06-01

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fiber analysis and comparison by spectral and polymer molecular weight determination was investigated. Plain fibers of PET, a common textile fiber and plastic material was chosen for this study. The fibers were analyzed for morphological (SEM and AFM), spectral (IR and NMR), thermal (DSC) and molecular weight (MS and GPC) differences. Molecular analysis of PET fibers by Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) allowed the comparison of fibers that could not be otherwise distinguished with high confidence. Plain PET fibers were dissolved in hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) and analyzed by GPC using hexafluoroisopropanol:chloroform 2:98 v/v as eluent. 14 PET fiber samples, collected from various commercial producers, were analyzed for polymer molecular weight by GPC. Distinct differences in the molecular weight of the different fiber samples were found which may have potential use in forensic fiber comparison. PET fibers with average molecular weights between about 20,000 and 70,000 g mol(-1) were determined using fiber concentrations in HFIP as low as 1 μg mL(-1). This GPC analytical method can be applied for exclusively distinguish between PET fibers using 1 μg of fiber. This method can be extended to forensic comparison of other synthetic fibers such as polyamides and acrylics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. SVM-Based Spectral Analysis for Heart Rate from Multi-Channel WPPG Sensor Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiping Xiong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Although wrist-type photoplethysmographic (hereafter referred to as WPPG sensor signals can measure heart rate quite conveniently, the subjects’ hand movements can cause strong motion artifacts, and then the motion artifacts will heavily contaminate WPPG signals. Hence, it is challenging for us to accurately estimate heart rate from WPPG signals during intense physical activities. The WWPG method has attracted more attention thanks to the popularity of wrist-worn wearable devices. In this paper, a mixed approach called Mix-SVM is proposed, it can use multi-channel WPPG sensor signals and simultaneous acceleration signals to measurement heart rate. Firstly, we combine the principle component analysis and adaptive filter to remove a part of the motion artifacts. Due to the strong relativity between motion artifacts and acceleration signals, the further denoising problem is regarded as a sparse signals reconstruction problem. Then, we use a spectrum subtraction method to eliminate motion artifacts effectively. Finally, the spectral peak corresponding to heart rate is sought by an SVM-based spectral analysis method. Through the public PPG database in the 2015 IEEE Signal Processing Cup, we acquire the experimental results, i.e., the average absolute error was 1.01 beat per minute, and the Pearson correlation was 0.9972. These results also confirm that the proposed Mix-SVM approach has potential for multi-channel WPPG-based heart rate estimation in the presence of intense physical exercise.

  1. The sounds of nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Norah; Deane, Cormac; Murphy, Padraig

    2017-07-01

    Public perceptions of nanotechnology are shaped by sound in surprising ways. Our analysis of the audiovisual techniques employed by nanotechnology stakeholders shows that well-chosen sounds can help to win public trust, create value and convey the weird reality of objects on the nanoscale.

  2. Spectral analysis software improves confidence in plant and soil water stable isotope analyses performed by isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy (IRIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, A G; Goldsmith, G R; Matimati, I; Dawson, T E

    2011-08-30

    Previous studies have demonstrated the potential for large errors to occur when analyzing waters containing organic contaminants using isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy (IRIS). In an attempt to address this problem, IRIS manufacturers now provide post-processing spectral analysis software capable of identifying samples with the types of spectral interference that compromises their stable isotope analysis. Here we report two independent tests of this post-processing spectral analysis software on two IRIS systems, OA-ICOS (Los Gatos Research Inc.) and WS-CRDS (Picarro Inc.). Following a similar methodology to a previous study, we cryogenically extracted plant leaf water and soil water and measured the δ(2)H and δ(18)O values of identical samples by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and IRIS. As an additional test, we analyzed plant stem waters and tap waters by IRMS and IRIS in an independent laboratory. For all tests we assumed that the IRMS value represented the "true" value against which we could compare the stable isotope results from the IRIS methods. Samples showing significant deviations from the IRMS value (>2σ) were considered to be contaminated and representative of spectral interference in the IRIS measurement. Over the two studies, 83% of plant species were considered contaminated on OA-ICOS and 58% on WS-CRDS. Post-analysis, spectra were analyzed using the manufacturer's spectral analysis software, in order to see if the software correctly identified contaminated samples. In our tests the software performed well, identifying all the samples with major errors. However, some false negatives indicate that user evaluation and testing of the software are necessary. Repeat sampling of plants showed considerable variation in the discrepancies between IRIS and IRMS. As such, we recommend that spectral analysis of IRIS data must be incorporated into standard post-processing routines. Furthermore, we suggest that the results from spectral analysis be

  3. Multisensor Analysis of Spectral Dimensionality and Soil Diversity in the Great Central Valley of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Daniel; Small, Christopher

    2018-02-14

    Planned hyperspectral satellite missions and the decreased revisit time of multispectral imaging offer the potential for data fusion to leverage both the spectral resolution of hyperspectral sensors and the temporal resolution of multispectral constellations. Hyperspectral imagery can also be used to better understand fundamental properties of multispectral data. In this analysis, we use five flight lines from the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) archive with coincident Landsat 8 acquisitions over a spectrally diverse region of California to address the following questions: (1) How much of the spectral dimensionality of hyperspectral data is captured in multispectral data?; (2) Is the characteristic pyramidal structure of the multispectral feature space also present in the low order dimensions of the hyperspectral feature space at comparable spatial scales?; (3) How much variability in rock and soil substrate endmembers (EMs) present in hyperspectral data is captured by multispectral sensors? We find nearly identical partitions of variance, low-order feature space topologies, and EM spectra for hyperspectral and multispectral image composites. The resulting feature spaces and EMs are also very similar to those from previous global multispectral analyses, implying that the fundamental structure of the global feature space is present in our relatively small spatial subset of California. Finally, we find that the multispectral dataset well represents the substrate EM variability present in the study area - despite its inability to resolve narrow band absorptions. We observe a tentative but consistent physical relationship between the gradation of substrate reflectance in the feature space and the gradation of sand versus clay content in the soil classification system.

  4. Multisensor Analysis of Spectral Dimensionality and Soil Diversity in the Great Central Valley of California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Sousa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Planned hyperspectral satellite missions and the decreased revisit time of multispectral imaging offer the potential for data fusion to leverage both the spectral resolution of hyperspectral sensors and the temporal resolution of multispectral constellations. Hyperspectral imagery can also be used to better understand fundamental properties of multispectral data. In this analysis, we use five flight lines from the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS archive with coincident Landsat 8 acquisitions over a spectrally diverse region of California to address the following questions: (1 How much of the spectral dimensionality of hyperspectral data is captured in multispectral data?; (2 Is the characteristic pyramidal structure of the multispectral feature space also present in the low order dimensions of the hyperspectral feature space at comparable spatial scales?; (3 How much variability in rock and soil substrate endmembers (EMs present in hyperspectral data is captured by multispectral sensors? We find nearly identical partitions of variance, low-order feature space topologies, and EM spectra for hyperspectral and multispectral image composites. The resulting feature spaces and EMs are also very similar to those from previous global multispectral analyses, implying that the fundamental structure of the global feature space is present in our relatively small spatial subset of California. Finally, we find that the multispectral dataset well represents the substrate EM variability present in the study area – despite its inability to resolve narrow band absorptions. We observe a tentative but consistent physical relationship between the gradation of substrate reflectance in the feature space and the gradation of sand versus clay content in the soil classification system.

  5. Improved artefact removal from EEG using Canonical Correlation Analysis and spectral slope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janani, Azin S; Grummett, Tyler S; Lewis, Trent W; Fitzgibbon, Sean P; Whitham, Emma M; DelosAngeles, Dylan; Bakhshayesh, Hanieh; Willoughby, John O; Pope, Kenneth J

    2018-01-31

    Contamination of scalp measurement by tonic muscle artefacts, even in resting positions, is an unavoidable issue in EEG recording. These artefacts add significant energy to the recorded signals, particularly at high frequencies. To enable reliable interpretation of subcortical brain activity, it is necessary to detect and discard this contamination. We introduce a new automatic muscle-removal approach based on the traditional Blind Source Separation-Canonical Correlation Analysis (BSS-CCA) method and the spectral slope of its components. We show that CCA-based muscle-removal methods can discriminate between signals with high correlation coefficients (brain, mains artefact) and signals with low correlation coefficients (white noise, muscle). We also show that typical BSS-CCA components are not purely from one source, but are mixtures from multiple sources, limiting the performance of BSS-CCA in artefact removal. We demonstrate, using our paralysis dataset, improved performance using BSS-CCA followed by spectral-slope rejection. This muscle removal approach can reduce high-frequency muscle contamination of EEG, especially at peripheral channels, while preserving steady-state brain responses in cognitive tasks. This approach is automatic and can be applied on any sample of data easily. The results show its performance is comparable with the ICA method in removing muscle contamination and has significantly lower computational complexity. We identify limitations of the traditional BSS-CCA approach to artefact removal in EEG, propose and test an extension based on spectral slope that makes it automatic and improves its performance, and results in performance comparable to competitors such as ICA-based artefact removal. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Synthetic spectral analysis of a kinetic model for slow-magnetosonic waves in solar corona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruan, Wenzhi; He, Jiansen; Tu, Chuanyi; Wang, Linghua [School of Earth and Space Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, China, E-mail: jshept@gmail.com (China); Zhang, Lei [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Vocks, Christian [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam, 14482, Potsdam (Germany); Marsch, Eckart [Institute for Experimental and Applied Physics, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Peter, Hardi [Max Plank Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, 37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2016-03-25

    We propose a kinetic model of slow-magnetosonic waves to explain various observational features associated with the propagating intensity disturbances (PIDs) occurring in the solar corona. The characteristics of slow mode waves, e.g, inphase oscillations of density, velocity, and thermal speed, are reproduced in this kinetic model. Moreover, the red-blue (R-B) asymmetry of the velocity distribution as self-consistently generated in the model is found to be contributed from the beam component, as a result of the competition between Landau resonance and Coulomb collisions. Furthermore, we synthesize the spectral lines and make the spectral analysis, based on the kinetic simulation data of the flux tube plasmas and the hypothesis of the surrounding background plasmas. It is found that the fluctuations of parameters of the synthetic spectral lines are basically consistent with the observations: (1) the line intensity, Doppler shift, and line width are fluctuating in phase; (2) the R-B asymmetry usually oscillate out of phase with the former three parameters; (3) the blueward asymmetry is more evident than the redward asymmetry in the R-B fluctuations. The oscillations of line parameters become weakened for the case with denser surrounding background plasmas. Similar to the observations, there is no doubled-frequency oscillation of the line width for the case with flux-tube plasmas flowing bulkly upward among the static background plasmas. Therefore, we suggest that the “wave + beam flow” kinetic model may be a viable interpretation for the PIDs observed in the solar corona.

  7. Digital signal processing and spectral analysis for scientists concepts and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Alessio, Silvia Maria

    2016-01-01

    This book covers the basics of processing and spectral analysis of monovariate discrete-time signals. The approach is practical, the aim being to acquaint the reader with the indications for and drawbacks of the various methods and to highlight possible misuses. The book is rich in original ideas, visualized in new and illuminating ways, and is structured so that parts can be skipped without loss of continuity. Many examples are included, based on synthetic data and real measurements from the fields of physics, biology, medicine, macroeconomics etc., and a complete set of MATLAB exercises requiring no previous experience of programming is provided. Prior advanced mathematical skills are not needed in order to understand the contents: a good command of basic mathematical analysis is sufficient. Where more advanced mathematical tools are necessary, they are included in an Appendix and presented in an easy-to-follow way. With this book, digital signal processing leaves the domain of engineering to address the ne...

  8. Protein sequence and structure relationship ARMA spectral analysis: application to membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, S; Parthasarathy, R

    1994-06-01

    If it is assumed that the primary sequence determines the three-dimensional folded structure of a protein, then the regular folding patterns, such as alpha-helix, beta-sheet, and other ordered patterns in the three-dimensional structure must correspond to the periodic distribution of the physical properties of the amino acids along the primary sequence. An AutoRegressive Moving Average (ARMA) model method of spectral analysis is applied to analyze protein sequences represented by the hydrophobicity of their amino acids. The results for several membrane proteins of known structures indicate that the periodic distribution of hydrophobicity of the primary sequence is closely related to the regular folding patterns in a protein's three-dimensional structure. We also applied the method to the transmembrane regions of acetylcholine receptor alpha subunit and Shaker potassium channel for which no atomic resolution structure is available. This work is an extension of our analysis of globular proteins by a similar method.

  9. Spectral analysis of stellar light curves by means of neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliaferri, R.; Ciaramella, A.; Milano, L.; Barone, F.; Longo, G.

    1999-06-01

    Periodicity analysis of unevenly collected data is a relevant issue in several scientific fields. In astrophysics, for example, we have to find the fundamental period of light or radial velocity curves which are unevenly sampled observations of stars. Classical spectral analysis methods are unsatisfactory to solve the problem. In this paper we present a neural network based estimator system which performs well the frequency extraction in unevenly sampled signals. It uses an unsupervised Hebbian nonlinear neural algorithm to extract, from the interpolated signal, the principal components which, in turn, are used by the MUSIC frequency estimator algorithm to extract the frequencies. The neural network is tolerant to noise and works well also with few points in the sequence. We benchmark the system on synthetic and real signals with the Periodogram and with the Cramer-Rao lower bound. This work was been partially supported by IIASS, by MURST 40\\% and by the Italian Space Agency.

  10. Analysis of humpback whale sounds in shallow waters of the Southeastern Arabian Sea: An indication of breeding habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanty, Madan M; Latha, G; Thirunavukkarasu, A

    2015-06-01

    The primary objective of this work was to present the acoustical identification of humpback whales, detected by using an autonomous ambient noise measurement system, deployed in the shallow waters of the Southeastern Arabian Sea (SEAS) during the period January to May 2011. Seven types of sounds were detected. These were characteristically upsweeps and downsweeps along with harmonics. Sounds produced repeatedly in a specific pattern were referred to as phrases (PQRS and ABC). Repeated phrases in a particular pattern were referred to as themes, and from the spectrographic analysis, two themes (I and II) were identified. The variation in the acoustic characteristics such as fundamental frequency, range, duration of the sound unit, and the structure of the phrases and themes are discussed. Sound units were recorded from mid-January to mid-March, with a peak in February, when the mean SST is approx. 28 degree C, and no presence was recorded after mid-March. The temporal and thematic structures strongly determine the functions of the humpback whale song form. Given the use of song in the SEAS, this area is possibly used as an active breeding habitat by humpback whales during the winter season.

  11. Robust spectral analysis of videocapsule images acquired from celiac disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagat Govind

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dominant frequency (DF analysis of videocapsule endoscopy images is a new method to detect small intestinal periodicities that may result from mechanical rhythms such as peristalsis. Longer periodicity is related to greater image texture at areas of villous atrophy in celiac disease. However, extraneous features and spatiotemporal phase shift may mask DF rhythms. Method The robustness of Fourier and ensemble averaging spectral analysis to compute DF was tested. Videocapsule images from the distal duodenum of 11 celiac patients (frame rate 2/s and pixel resolution 576 × 576 were analyzed. For patients 1, 2, ... 11, respectively, a total of 10, 11, ..., 20 sequential images were extracted from a randomly selected time epoch. Each image sequence was artificially repeated to 200 frames, simulating periodicities of 0.2, 0.18, ..., 0.1Hz, respectively. Random white noise at four different levels, spatiotemporal phase shift, and frames with air bubbles were added. Power spectra were constructed pixel-wise over 200 frames, and an average spectrum was computed from the 576 × 576 individual spectra. The largest spectral peak in the average spectrum was the estimated DF. Error was defined as the absolute difference between actual DF and estimated DF. Results For Fourier analysis, the mean absolute error between estimated and actual DF was 0.032 ± 0.052Hz. Error increased with greater degree of random noise imposed. In contrast, all ensemble average estimates precisely predicted the simulated DF. Conclusions The ensemble average DF estimate of videocapsule images with simulated periodicity is robust to noise and spatiotemporal phase shift as compared with Fourier analysis. Accurate estimation of DF eliminates the need to impose complex masking, extraction, and/or corrective preprocessing measures.

  12. Modeling and analysis of secondary sources coupling for active sound field reduction in confined spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazeri, Allahyar; Taylor, C. James

    2017-10-01

    This article addresses the coupling of acoustic secondary sources in a confined space in a sound field reduction framework. By considering the coupling of sources in a rectangular enclosure, the set of coupled equations governing its acoustical behavior are solved. The model obtained in this way is used to analyze the behavior of multi-input multi-output (MIMO) active sound field control (ASC) systems, where the coupling of sources cannot be neglected. In particular, the article develops the analytical results to analyze the effect of coupling of an array of secondary sources on the sound pressure levels inside an enclosure, when an array of microphones is used to capture the acoustic characteristics of the enclosure. The results are supported by extensive numerical simulations showing how coupling of loudspeakers through acoustic modes of the enclosure will change the strength and hence the driving voltage signal applied to the secondary loudspeakers. The practical significance of this model is to provide a better insight on the performance of the sound reproduction/reduction systems in confined spaces when an array of loudspeakers and microphones are placed in a fraction of wavelength of the excitation signal to reduce/reproduce the sound field. This is of particular importance because the interaction of different sources affects their radiation impedance depending on the electromechanical properties of the loudspeakers.

  13. Two-Flux Green's Function Analysis for Transient Spectral Radiation in a Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Robert

    1996-01-01

    An analysis is developed for obtaining transient temperatures in a two-layer semitransparent composite with spectrally dependent properties. Each external boundary of the composite is subjected to radiation and convection. The two-flux radiative transfer equations are solved by deriving a Green's function. This yields the local radiative heat source needed to numerically solve the transient energy equation. An advantage of the two-flux method is that isotropic scattering is included without added complexity. The layer refractive indices are larger than one. This produces internal reflections at the boundaries and the internal interface; the reflections are assumed diffuse. Spectral results using the Green's function method are verified by comparing with numerical solutions using the exact radiative transfer equations. Transient temperature distributions are given to illustrate the effect of radiative heating on one side of a composite with external convective cooling. The protection of a material from incident radiation is illustrated by adding scattering to the layer adjacent to the radiative source.

  14. New approach to ECE measurements based on Hilbert-transform spectral analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandya Hitesh Kumar B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectroscopy of Electron Cyclotron Emission (ECE has been established as adequate diagnostic technique for fusion research machines. Among various instruments for ECE diagnostics, only Fourier-transform spectrometers with Martin-Puplett interferometers can measure electron cyclotron radiation in a broadband frequency range from 70 to 1000 GHz. Before these measurements, a complete system including a frontend radiation collector, a transmission line, an interferometer and a radiation detector should be absolutely calibrated. A hot/cold calibration source and data-averaging technique are used to calibrate the total ECE diagnostic system. It takes long time to calibrate the ECE system because of the low power level of the calibration source and high values of the noise equivalent power (NEP of the detection system. A new technique, Hilbert-transform spectral analysis, is proposed for the ITER plasma ECE spectral measurements. An operation principle, characteristics and advantages of the corresponding Hilbert-transform spectrum analyser (HTSA based on a high-Tc Josephson detector are discussed. Due to lower NEP-values of the Josephson detector, this spectrum analyser might demonstrate shorter calibration times than that for the Martin-Puplett interferometer.

  15. Breath Analysis Using Laser Spectroscopic Techniques: Breath Biomarkers, Spectral Fingerprints, and Detection Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peeyush Sahay

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Breath analysis, a promising new field of medicine and medical instrumentation, potentially offers noninvasive, real-time, and point-of-care (POC disease diagnostics and metabolic status monitoring. Numerous breath biomarkers have been detected and quantified so far by using the GC-MS technique. Recent advances in laser spectroscopic techniques and laser sources have driven breath analysis to new heights, moving from laboratory research to commercial reality. Laser spectroscopic detection techniques not only have high-sensitivity and high-selectivity, as equivalently offered by the MS-based techniques, but also have the advantageous features of near real-time response, low instrument costs, and POC function. Of the approximately 35 established breath biomarkers, such as acetone, ammonia, carbon dioxide, ethane, methane, and nitric oxide, 14 species in exhaled human breath have been analyzed by high-sensitivity laser spectroscopic techniques, namely, tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS, cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS, integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS, cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS, cavity leak-out spectroscopy (CALOS, photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS, quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS, and optical frequency comb cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (OFC-CEAS. Spectral fingerprints of the measured biomarkers span from the UV to the mid-IR spectral regions and the detection limits achieved by the laser techniques range from parts per million to parts per billion levels. Sensors using the laser spectroscopic techniques for a few breath biomarkers, e.g., carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, etc. are commercially available. This review presents an update on the latest developments in laser-based breath analysis.

  16. Breath analysis using laser spectroscopic techniques: breath biomarkers, spectral fingerprints, and detection limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuji; Sahay, Peeyush

    2009-01-01

    Breath analysis, a promising new field of medicine and medical instrumentation, potentially offers noninvasive, real-time, and point-of-care (POC) disease diagnostics and metabolic status monitoring. Numerous breath biomarkers have been detected and quantified so far by using the GC-MS technique. Recent advances in laser spectroscopic techniques and laser sources have driven breath analysis to new heights, moving from laboratory research to commercial reality. Laser spectroscopic detection techniques not only have high-sensitivity and high-selectivity, as equivalently offered by the MS-based techniques, but also have the advantageous features of near real-time response, low instrument costs, and POC function. Of the approximately 35 established breath biomarkers, such as acetone, ammonia, carbon dioxide, ethane, methane, and nitric oxide, 14 species in exhaled human breath have been analyzed by high-sensitivity laser spectroscopic techniques, namely, tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS), cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS), integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS), cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS), cavity leak-out spectroscopy (CALOS), photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS), quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS), and optical frequency comb cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (OFC-CEAS). Spectral fingerprints of the measured biomarkers span from the UV to the mid-IR spectral regions and the detection limits achieved by the laser techniques range from parts per million to parts per billion levels. Sensors using the laser spectroscopic techniques for a few breath biomarkers, e.g., carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, etc. are commercially available. This review presents an update on the latest developments in laser-based breath analysis.

  17. A CROSS-COUNTRY ANALYSIS OF THE BANKS’ FINANCIAL SOUNDNESS: THE CASE OF THE CEE-3 COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sargu Alina Camelia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The European integration process has a direct impact on all the components of the macroeconomic environment. The existence of a well functioning and sound banking sector becomes of great importance for the integration process as the European Union economy is financed especially through this channel. The banking sectors of the new EU member countries have undergone through tremendous changes in the last decade, both from an ownership and also from a business strategy point of view, these changes having a direct impact on their financial soundness. Thus, the aim of our research is to empirically examine the financial soundness of the banks operating in Bulgaria, Czech Republic and Romania, three EU members countries from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE-3. In order to achieve this we have employed a combine quantitative analysis based on the CAMELS framework (namely Capital Adequacy, Asset quality, Management soundness, Earnings, Liquidity, Sensitivity to market risk and the Z-score, thus being able to underline simultaneously the financial soundness and the possibility of default for the banks from our sample. The analysed period is 2004-2011 providing us with an evaluation of the impact that the EU ascension and also the global financial crisis had on the financial soundness of the analysed banks. Our sample is composed from 40 commercial banks that operate in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic and Romania, that overall own over 75% of the total banking assets, making this study one of the most comprehensive undertaken to this date. The data that we have employed in our research is obtained from the Bureau Van Dijk Bankscope database and the annual financial statements of the banks from our sample. The paper through its original dual approach contributes to the academic debate by providing not only insight into the financial soundness of the banks operating in the CEE-3 countries but also underling their financial strength through the usage of the Z

  18. ABOUT SOUNDS IN VIDEO GAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denikin Anton A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the aesthetical and practical possibilities for sounds (sound design in video games and interactive applications. Outlines the key features of the game sound, such as simulation, representativeness, interactivity, immersion, randomization, and audio-visuality. The author defines the basic terminology in study of game audio, as well as identifies significant aesthetic differences between film sounds and sounds in video game projects. It is an attempt to determine the techniques of art analysis for the approaches in study of video games including aesthetics of their sounds. The article offers a range of research methods, considering the video game scoring as a contemporary creative practice.

  19. Sound Wave Propagation Analysis Using FDTD for Contaminated Insulator Discharge Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takaie; Shimoda, Takeshi

    Discharge noises caused by contaminated insulator string were studied using anechoic room where the difference of the noise waveform due to insulator shape was found. In this study, sound wave propagation of the discharge noises have been simulated using two-dimensional FDTD method to examine the effect of insulator shape on the observed waveform. In the course of the study, the shape data of the insulator was expressed as the set of elements that typify the media (air and solid), directions of air-solid (porcelain) boundary, and directions of ‘Free Space’ boundary by allocating the colors on the corresponding bitmap image file. The source points of the sound were also arranged into the bitmap. Calculated wave propagation for each time step is again expressed in the form of bitmap for visualization. The nature of the calculated sound waveforms for different insulator shapes and discharge positions are compared with that in the experiment.

  20. Electroencephalogram Similarity Analysis Using Temporal and Spectral Dynamics Analysis for Propofol and Desflurane Induced Unconsciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Important information about the state dynamics of the brain during anesthesia is unraveled by Electroencephalogram (EEG approaches. Patterns that are observed through EEG related to neural circuit mechanism under different molecular targets dependent anesthetics have recently attracted much attention. Propofol, a Gamma-amino butyric acid, is known with evidently increasing alpha oscillation. Desflurane shares the same receptor action and should be similar to propofol. To explore their dynamics, EEG under routine surgery level anesthetic depth is analyzed using multitaper spectral method from two groups: propofol (n = 28 and desflurane (n = 23. The time-varying spectrum comparison was undertaken to characterize their properties. Results show that both of the agents are dominated by slow and alpha waves. Especially, for increased alpha band feature, propofol unconsciousness shows maximum power at about 10 Hz (mean ± SD; frequency: 10.2 ± 1.4 Hz; peak power, −14.0 ± 1.6 dB, while it is approximate about 8 Hz (mean ± SD; frequency: 8.3 ± 1.3 Hz; peak power, −13.8 ± 1.6 dB for desflurane with significantly lower frequency-resolved spectra for this band. In addition, the mean power of propofol is much higher from alpha to gamma band, including slow oscillation than that of desflurane. The patterns might give us an EEG biomarker for specific anesthetic. This study suggests that both of the anesthetics exhibit similar spectral dynamics, which could provide insight into some common neural circuit mechanism. However, differences between them also indicate their uniqueness where relevant.

  1. CROWING SOUND ANALYSIS OF GAGA??? CHICKEN: LOCAL CHICKEN FROM SOUTH SULAWESI INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Aprilita Bugiwati, Sri Rachma; Ashari, Fachri

    2008-01-01

    Gaga??? chicken was known as a local chicken at South Sulawesi Indonesia which has unique, specific, and different crowing sound, especially at the ending of crowing sound which is like the voice character of human laughing, comparing with the other types of singing chicken in the world. 287 birds of Gaga??? chicken at 3 districts at the centre habitat of Gaga??? chicken were separated into 2 groups (163 birds of Dangdut type and 124 birds of Slow type) which is based on the speed...

  2. Perceptual space, pleasantness and periodicity of multi-tone sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Töpken, Stephan; Verhey, Jesko L; Weber, Reinhard

    2015-07-01

    Technical sounds often contain several tonal components, forming a multi-tone sound. The present study investigates the perception of multi-tone sounds consisting of two harmonic complexes with different fundamental frequencies and combination tones with frequencies that are equal to the sum of multiple integers of the two fundamentals. The experimental parameter is the ratio between the two fundamental frequencies ρ. A total of 15 synthetic multi-tone sounds are rated by 37 participants. In the first experiment, the perceptual space is assessed based on 16 adjective scales using categorical scaling. The resulting perceptual space has the four dimensions (i) pleasant, (ii) power, (iii) temporal structure, and (iv) spectral content of the sounds. In the second experiment, the pleasantness is measured with a paired comparison test. The data consistently show that sounds based on ratios of small integers (e.g., ρ=4:3) are significantly less pleasant than sounds with ratios based on large integers which were constructed by a slight detuning from a ratio of small integers. The repetition rate derived from an autocorrelation analysis of the stimuli turns out to be a good predictor of the (un-)pleasantness sensation.

  3. Spectral data de-noising using semi-classical signal analysis: application to localized MRS

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2016-09-05

    In this paper, we propose a new post-processing technique called semi-classical signal analysis (SCSA) for MRS data de-noising. Similar to Fourier transformation, SCSA decomposes the input real positive MR spectrum into a set of linear combinations of squared eigenfunctions equivalently represented by localized functions with shape derived from the potential function of the Schrodinger operator. In this manner, the MRS spectral peaks represented as a sum of these \\'shaped like\\' functions are efficiently separated from noise and accurately analyzed. The performance of the method is tested by analyzing simulated and real MRS data. The results obtained demonstrate that the SCSA method is highly efficient in localized MRS data de-noising and allows for an accurate data quantification.

  4. Are prices of New dwellings different? A spectral analysis of UK property vintages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gray

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The work makes two contributions to the literature on dynamic house prices. First, a house price ripple in cycles from Modern to Older dwellings is revealed and, second, as New housing is shown to have lower volatility than the other two. Using spectral analysis, it is argued that there is a 7½-year repeat buyer-second-hand cycle and a five year, first time buyer-New housing cycle, common to three house price vintages. These cycles reinforce each other every 15 years, which corresponds with a Minsky super-cycle in housing finance. The equity of the owner–occupier is fortified by higher house prices whereas New builds extract embedded equity from the market. Through programmes like Help-to-Buy 1, Government should support builders and facilitate market access to FTBs. However, to address the greater price instability that should follow, Government should impose a capital gains tax on the house seller.

  5. Spectral analysis of Chinese language: Co-occurrence networks from four literary genres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wei; Chen, Guanrong

    2016-05-01

    The eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the adjacency matrix of a network contain essential information about its topology. For each of the Chinese language co-occurrence networks constructed from four literary genres, i.e., essay, popular science article, news report, and novel, it is found that the largest eigenvalue depends on the network size N, the number of edges, the average shortest path length, and the clustering coefficient. Moreover, it is found that their node-degree distributions all follow a power-law. The number of different eigenvalues, Nλ, is found numerically to increase in the manner of Nλ ∝ log N for novel and Nλ ∝ N for the other three literary genres. An ;M; shape or a triangle-like distribution appears in their spectral densities. The eigenvector corresponding to the largest eigenvalue is mostly localized to a node with the largest degree. For the above observed phenomena, mathematical analysis is provided with interpretation from a linguistic perspective.

  6. Spectral Analysis by XANES Reveals that GPNMB Influences the Chemical Composition of Intact Melanosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T Haraszti; C Trantow; A Hedberg-Buenz; M Grunze; M Anderson

    2011-12-31

    GPNMB is a unique melanosomal protein. Unlike many melanosomal proteins, GPNMB has not been associated with any forms of albinism, and it is unclear whether GPNMB has any direct influence on melanosomes. Here, melanosomes from congenic strains of C57BL/6J mice mutant for Gpnmb are compared to strain-matched controls using standard transmission electron microscopy and synchrotron-based X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis (XANES). Whereas electron microscopy did not detect any ultrastructural changes in melanosomes lacking functional GPNMB, XANES uncovered multiple spectral phenotypes. These results directly demonstrate that GPNMB influences the chemical composition of melanosomes and more broadly illustrate the potential for using genetic approaches in combination with nano-imaging technologies to study organelle biology.

  7. Higher-Order Spectral Analysis to Identify Quadratic Nonlinearities in Fluid-Structure Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Akhtar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrodynamic forces on a structure are the manifestation of fluid-structure interaction. Since this interaction is nonlinear, these forces consist of various frequencies: fundamental, harmonics, excitation, sum, and difference of these frequencies. To analyze this phenomenon, we perform numerical simulations of the flow past stationary and oscillating cylinders at low Reynolds numbers. We compute the pressure, integrate it over the surface, and obtain the lift and drag coefficients for the two configurations: stationary and transversely oscillating cylinders. Higher-order spectral analysis is performed to investigate the nonlinear interaction between the forces. We confirmed and investigated the quadratic coupling between the lift and drag coefficients and their phase relationship. We identify additional frequencies and their corresponding energy present in the flow field that appear as the manifestation of quadratic nonlinear interaction.

  8. A graph spectral analysis of the structural similarity network of protein chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnadev, O; Brinda, K V; Vishveshwara, Saraswathi

    2005-10-01

    We present a simple method for the analysis of large networks based on their graph spectral properties. One of the advantages of this method is that it uses a single numerical computation to identify subclusters in a connected graph, which can significantly simplify the complexity involved in analyzing large graphs. This is illustrated using a network of protein chains constructed on the basis of their structural similarities. The large-scale network properties and the cluster and subcluster organization of the protein chain network are presented. We summarize the results of structural and functional analyses of the nodes present in these clusters and elucidate the implications of structural similarity in the protein chain universe. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Contribution of a germanium detector in mobile gamma-ray spectrometry. Spectral analysis and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Gutierrez, S; Bourgeois, C

    2002-01-01

    The sensitivity of the germanium semi-conductor detector is 30 times lower than that of the sodium iodide (NaI) detectors frequently used in airborne spectrometry. Its energy resolution however, is 20 times better, giving more accurate identification of radionuclides, especially when complex spectra are involved. The use of the germanium detector in mobile gamma-ray spectrometry provides a large amount of qualitative and quantitative information. In post-accident situations a germanium detector will be sufficient, and should therefore be used in preference to a NaI detector. An algorithm for detecting the total absorption peaks by studying the variations in the spectral profile of germanium gamma-ray spectra has been developed at the CEA. The use of digital filters that take into account the characteristics of the absorption peaks reduces the statistical fluctuations, making possible detection based on the analysis of the first and second derivatives. The absorption peak is then estimated by subtracting the b...

  10. Spectral analysis of GEOS-3 altimeter data and frequency domain collocation. [to estimate gravity anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, K.

    1980-01-01

    The mathematical background in spectral analysis as applied to geodetic applications is summarized. The resolution (cut-off frequency) of the GEOS 3 altimeter data is examined by determining the shortest wavelength (corresponding to the cut-off frequency) recoverable. The data from some 18 profiles are used. The total power (variance) in the sea surface topography with respect to the reference ellipsoid as well as with respect to the GEM-9 surface is computed. A fast inversion algorithm for matrices of simple and block Toeplitz matrices and its application to least squares collocation is explained. This algorithm yields a considerable gain in computer time and storage in comparison with conventional least squares collocation. Frequency domain least squares collocation techniques are also introduced and applied to estimating gravity anomalies from GEOS 3 altimeter data. These techniques substantially reduce the computer time and requirements in storage associated with the conventional least squares collocation. Numerical examples given demonstrate the efficiency and speed of these techniques.

  11. Improved moving window cross-spectral analysis for resolving large temporal seismic velocity changes in permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, S. R.; Knox, H. A.; Abbott, R. E.; Screaton, E. J.

    2017-05-01

    Cross correlations of seismic noise can potentially record large changes in subsurface velocity due to permafrost dynamics and be valuable for long-term Arctic monitoring. We applied seismic interferometry, using moving window cross-spectral analysis (MWCS), to 2 years of ambient noise data recorded in central Alaska to investigate whether seismic noise could be used to quantify relative velocity changes due to seasonal active-layer dynamics. The large velocity changes (>75%) between frozen and thawed soil caused prevalent cycle-skipping which made the method unusable in this setting. We developed an improved MWCS procedure which uses a moving reference to measure daily velocity variations that are then accumulated to recover the full seasonal change. This approach reduced cycle-skipping and recovered a seasonal trend that corresponded well with the timing of active-layer freeze and thaw. This improvement opens the possibility of measuring large velocity changes by using MWCS and permafrost monitoring by using ambient noise.

  12. Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave for Empirical Elastic Design of Anchored Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Helical anchors are vital support components for power transmission lines. Failure of a single anchor can lead to the loss of an entire transmission line structure which results in the loss of power for downstream community. Despite being important, it is not practical to use conventional borehole method of subsurface exploration, which is labor intensive and costly, for estimating soil properties and anchor holding capacity. This paper describes the use of an empirical and elasticity-based design technique coupled with the spectral analysis of surface wave (SASW technique to provide subsurface information for anchor foundation designs. Based on small-strain wave propagation, SASW determines shear wave velocity profile which is then correlated to anchor holding capacity. A pilot project involving over 400 anchor installations has been performed and demonstrated that such technique is reliable and can be implemented into transmission line structure designs.

  13. Spectral analysis of the Double Pulsar PSR J0737-3039 with XMM-Newton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egron, E.; Pellizzoni, A.; Iacolina, M.

    2014-07-01

    Since its discovery in 2003, the first and unique Double Pulsar system PSR J0737-3039 retains all the attention. This exciting system is composed of two neutron stars: a recycled 23 ms pulsar and a younger pulsar with a period of 2.8 s, revolving in a tight orbit in 2.4 hr. It is the only binary system in which both neutron stars have been detected as radio pulsars. The high-energy study of this system is extremely interesting to understand the physics of the magnetosphere emissions/interactions of both pulsars. We present the spectral analysis of the two XMM-Newton "Large Programs" performed in 2006 and 2011, which result in a total exposure time of about 600 ks.

  14. Coupling spectral analysis and hidden Markov models for the segmentation of behavioural patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heerah, Karine; Woillez, Mathieu; Fablet, Ronan; Garren, François; Martin, Stéphane; De Pontual, Hélène

    2017-01-01

    Movement pattern variations are reflective of behavioural switches, likely associated with different life history traits in response to the animals' abiotic and biotic environment. Detecting these can provide rich information on the underlying processes driving animal movement patterns. However, extracting these signals from movement time series, requires tools that objectively extract, describe and quantify these behaviours. The inference of behavioural modes from movement patterns has been mainly addressed through hidden Markov models. Until now, the metrics implemented in these models did not allow to characterize cyclic patterns directly from the raw time series. To address these challenges, we developed an approach to i) extract new metrics of cyclic behaviours and activity levels from a time-frequency analysis of movement time series, ii) implement the spectral signatures of these cyclic patterns and activity levels into a HMM framework to identify and classify latent behavioural states. To illustrate our approach, we applied it to 40 high-resolution European sea bass depth time series. Our results showed that the fish had different activity regimes, which were also associated (or not) with the spectral signature of different environmental cycles. Tidal rhythms were observed when animals tended to be less active and dived shallower. Conversely, animals exhibited a diurnal behaviour when more active and deeper in the water column. The different behaviours were well defined and occurred at similar periods throughout the annual cycle amongst individuals, suggesting these behaviours are likely related to seasonal functional behaviours (e.g. feeding, migrating and spawning). The innovative aspects of our method lie within the combined use of powerful, but generic, mathematical tools (spectral analysis and hidden Markov Models) to extract complex behaviours from 1-D movement time series. It is fully automated which makes it suitable for analyzing large datasets

  15. Assessing autonomic disturbances of hypertension in the general practitioner's office: a transtelephonic approach to spectral analysis of heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucini, Daniela; Porta, Alberto; Pagani, Massimo

    2003-04-01

    Spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) provides potentially useful information on autonomic disturbances of human hypertension. However, its practical use outside the clinical laboratory is largely unexplored. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of assessing HRV from the general practitioner's (GP's) office, using a novel transtelephonic approach. Parallel study on two similar groups: 150 subjects (100 hypertensives and 50 normotensives) studied in our hospital clinic and compared with 150 subjects studied in an out-of-hospital practice (100 hypertensive subjects from GPs' surgeries and 50 normotensive subjects participating in a multinational company's health maintenance programme). Spectral analysis of RR interval variability was used to assess autonomic regulation of the sino-atrial (SA) node, both at rest and during standing. For the out-of-hospital practice, strings of continuous electrocardiograms (ECGs), recorded with a microminiature instrument, were fed, off line, through standard telephone lines to our laboratory for subsequent spectral analysis. RR spectral profiles obtained from healthy controls or hypertensive patients examined in their GPs' surgeries were similar to those obtained in a hospital clinic, both at rest and when standing up. The present study shows the feasibility of using a transtelephonic approach to perform spectral analysis of heart rate variability from physicians' surgeries. This method could favour a more widespread use of autonomic assessment in the clinical management of hypertension.

  16. Wavelet and Spectral Analysis of Some Selected Problems in Reactor Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunde, Carl

    2004-12-01

    Both spectral and wavelet analysis were successfully used in various diagnostic problems involving non-stationary core processes in nuclear power reactors. Three different problems were treated: two-phase flow identification, detector tube impacting and core-barrel vibrations. The first two problems are of non-stationary nature, whereas the last one is not. In the first problem, neutron radiographic and visible light images of four different vertical two-phase flow regimes, bubbly, slug, chum and annular flow, were analysed and classified with a neuro-wavelet algorithm. The algorithm consists of a wavelet part, using the 2-D discrete wavelet transform and of an artificial neural network. It classifies the different flow regimes with up to 99% efficiency. Detector tubes in a Boiling Water Reactor may execute vibrations and may also impact on nearby fuel-assemblies. Signals from in-core neutron detectors in Ringhals-1 were analysed, for detection of impacting, with both a classical spectral method and wavelet-based methods. The wavelet methods include both the discrete and the continuous 1-D wavelet transform. It was found that there is agreement between the different methods as well as with visual inspections made during the outage at the plant. However, the wavelet technique has the advantage that it does not require expert judgement for the interpretation of the analysis. In the last part two analytical calculations of the neutron noise, induced by shell-mode core-barrel vibrations, were carried out. The results are in good agreement with calculations from a numerical simulator. An out-of-phase behaviour between in-core and ex-core positions was found, which is in agreement with earlier measurements from the Pressurised Water Reactor Ringhals-3. The results from these calculations are planned to be used when diagnosing the shell-mode core-barrel vibrations in an operating plant.

  17. Spectral Entropy Based Neuronal Network Synchronization Analysis Based on Microelectrode Array Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapucu, Fikret E; Välkki, Inkeri; Mikkonen, Jarno E; Leone, Chiara; Lenk, Kerstin; Tanskanen, Jarno M A; Hyttinen, Jari A K

    2016-01-01

    Synchrony and asynchrony are essential aspects of the functioning of interconnected neuronal cells and networks. New information on neuronal synchronization can be expected to aid in understanding these systems. Synchronization provides insight in the functional connectivity and the spatial distribution of the information processing in the networks. Synchronization is generally studied with time domain analysis of neuronal events, or using direct frequency spectrum analysis, e.g., in specific frequency bands. However, these methods have their pitfalls. Thus, we have previously proposed a method to analyze temporal changes in the complexity of the frequency of signals originating from different network regions. The method is based on the correlation of time varying spectral entropies (SEs). SE assesses the regularity, or complexity, of a time series by quantifying the uniformity of the frequency spectrum distribution. It has been previously employed, e.g., in electroencephalogram analysis. Here, we revisit our correlated spectral entropy method (CorSE), providing evidence of its justification, usability, and benefits. Here, CorSE is assessed with simulations and in vitro microelectrode array (MEA) data. CorSE is first demonstrated with a specifically tailored toy simulation to illustrate how it can identify synchronized populations. To provide a form of validation, the method was tested with simulated data from integrate-and-fire model based computational neuronal networks. To demonstrate the analysis of real data, CorSE was applied on in vitro MEA data measured from rat cortical cell cultures, and the results were compared with three known event based synchronization measures. Finally, we show the usability by tracking the development of networks in dissociated mouse cortical cell cultures. The results show that temporal correlations in frequency spectrum distributions reflect the network relations of neuronal populations. In the simulated data, CorSE unraveled the

  18. Robust SERS spectral analysis for quantitative detection of pycocyanin in biological fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cuong; Thrift, Will; Bhattacharjee, Arunima; Whiteson, Katrine; Hochbaum, Allon; Ragan, Regina

    2017-09-01

    We demonstrate the advantage of using machine learning for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectral analysis for quantitative detection of pyocyanin in Luria-Bertani media. Planar Au nanoparticle clusters were selfassembled on PS-b-PMMA diblock copolymer template using EDC crosslinking chemistry and electrohydrodynamic flow to fabricate SERS substrates. Resulting substrates produce uniform SERS response over large area with signal relative standard deviation of 10.8 % over 50 μm × 50 μm region. Taking advantage of the uniformity, 400 SERS spectra were collected at each pyocyanin concentration as training dataset. Tracking the intensity of pyocyanin 1350 cm-1 vibrational band shows linear regime beginning at 10 ppb. PLS analysis was also performed on the same training dataset. Without being explicitly "told" which spectrum to look for, PLS analysis recognizes the SERS spectrum of pyocyanin as its first loading vector even in the presence of other molecules in LB media. PLS regression enables quantitative detection at 1 ppb, 1 order of magnitude earlier than univariate regression. We hope this work will fuel a push toward wider adoption of more sophisticated machine learning algorithms for quantitative analysis of SERS spectra.

  19. Synthesis, spectral characterization and computed optical analysis of potent triazole based compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumrra, Sajjad H.; Mushtaq, Fazila; Khalid, Muhammad; Raza, Muhammad Asam; Nazar, Muhammad Faizan; Ali, Bakhat; Braga, Ataualpa A. C.

    2018-02-01

    Biologically active triazole Schiff base ligand (L) and metal complexes [Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II)] are reported herein. The ligand acted as tridentate and coordinated towards metallic ions via azomethine-N, triazolic-N moiety and deprotonated-O of phenyl substituents in an octahedral manner. These compounds were characterized by physical, spectral and analytical analysis. The synthesized ligand and metal complexes were screened for antibacterial pathogens against Chromohalobacter salexigens, Chromohalobacter israelensi, Halomonas halofila and Halomonas salina, antifungal bioassay against Aspergillus niger and Aspergellus flavin, antioxidant (DPPH, phosphomolybdate) and also for enzyme inhibition [butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE)] studies. The results of these activities indicated the ligand to possess potential activity which significantly increased upon chelation. Moreover, vibrational bands, frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs) and natural bond analysis (NBO) of ligand (1) were carried out through density functional theory (DFT) with B3lYP/6-311 ++G (d,p) approach. While, UV-Vis analysis was performed by time dependent TD-DFT with B3lYP/6-311 ++G (d,p) method. NBO analysis revealed that investigated compound (L) contains enormous molecular stability owing to hyper conjugative interactions. Theoretical spectroscopic findings showed good agreement to experimental spectroscopic data. Global reactivity descriptors were calculated using the energies of FMOs which indicated compound (L) might be bioactive. These parameters confirmed the charge transfer phenomenon and reasonable correspondence with experimental bioactivity results.

  20. Unsound Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knakkergaard, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the change in premise that digitally produced sound brings about and how digital technologies more generally have changed our relationship to the musical artifact, not simply in degree but in kind. It demonstrates how our acoustical conceptions are thoroughly challenged...... by the digital production of sound and, by questioning the ontological basis for digital sound, turns our understanding of the core term substance upside down....

  1. Distinction of cough from other sounds produced by daily activities in the upper airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinek, J; Zatko, T; Tatar, M; Javorka, M

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the successfulness of our developed system for distinction between cough and other sounds which are present in daily human activities from the upper airways. To date, methods used for monitoring of cough sound were primarily subjective. A reliable measure of cough is needed so that the severity of cough in various patients and the effectiveness of treatment can be assessed. Sounds of induced cough and sneezing, voluntary throat and nasopharynx clearing, forced ventilation and laughing, snoring, eructation, loud swallowing, and nasal blowing were studied. Characteristics of the sound events in 20 volunteers were calculated using the time-domain, spectral and non-linear analysis. The classification tree was constructed for classification between cough and non-cough sounds. We have validated the usefulness of our developed algorithm against subjective cough counts, which were performed by two trained observers. The value of sensitivity for distinction between cough and other sounds was 86% and the value of specificity was 91%. The value of sensitivity for distinction between voluntary and induced cough sounds was 96% and specificity was 43%. The value of sensitivity between cough sounds and voluntary throat clearing was 96% and specificity was 85%. The value of sensitivity between cough sounds and induced sneezing was 95% and specificity was 93%. We have developed an algorithm for distinction between cough and other sounds with a relatively high degree of accuracy (Tab. 1, Fig. 5, Ref. 15).

  2. Development of a hybrid wave based-transfer matrix model for sound transmission analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijckmans, A; Vermeir, G

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, a hybrid wave based-transfer matrix model is presented that allows for the investigation of the sound transmission through finite multilayered structures placed between two reverberant rooms. The multilayered structure may consist of an arbitrary configuration of fluid, elastic, or poro-elastic layers. The field variables (structural displacements and sound pressures) are expanded in terms of structural and acoustic wave functions. The boundary and continuity conditions in the rooms determine the participation factors in the pressure expansions. The displacement of the multilayered structure is determined by the mechanical impedance matrix, which gives a relation between the pressures and transverse displacements at both sides of the structure. The elements of this matrix are calculated with the transfer matrix method. First, the hybrid model is numerically validated. Next a comparison is made with sound transmission loss measurements of a hollow brick wall and a sandwich panel. Finally, numerical simulations show the influence of structural damping, room dimensions and plate dimensions on the sound transmission loss of multilayered structures.

  3. Internal-state analysis in layered artificial neural network trained to categorize lung sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oud, M

    2002-01-01

    In regular use of artificial neural networks, only input and output states of the network are known to the user. Weight and bias values can be extracted but are difficult to interpret. We analyzed internal states of networks trained to map asthmatic lung sound spectra onto lung function parameters.

  4. A descriptive analysis of temporal and spatial patterns of variability in Puget Sound oceanographic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanie Moore; Nathan J. Mantua; Jan A. Newton; Mitsuhiro Kawase; Mark J. Warner; Jonathan P. Kellogg

    2008-01-01

    Temporal and spatial patterns of variability in Puget Sound's oceanographic properties are determined using continuous vertical profile data from two long-term monitoring programs; monthly observations at 16 stations from 1993 to 2002, and biannual observations at 40 stations from 1998 to 2003. Climatological monthly means of temperature, salinity, and density...

  5. Analysis of sound propagation in ducts using the wave envelope concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, K. J.

    1974-01-01

    A finite difference formulation is presented for sound propagation in a rectangular two-dimensional duct without steady flow for plane wave input. Before the difference equations are formulated, the governing Helmholtz equation is first transformed to a form whose solution does not oscillate along the length of the duct. This transformation reduces the required number of grid points by an order of magnitude, and the number of grid points becomes independent of the sound frequency. Physically, the transformed pressure represents the amplitude of the conventional sound wave. Example solutions are presented for sound propagation in a one-dimensional straight hard-wall duct and in a two-dimensional straight soft-wall duct without steady flow. The numerical solutions show evidence of the existence along the duct wall of a developing acoustic pressure diffusion boundary layer which is similar in nature to the conventional viscous flow boundary layer. In order to better illustrate this concept, the wave equation and boundary conditions are written such that the frequency no longer appears explicitly in them. The frequency effects in duct propagation can be visualized solely as an expansion and stretching of the suppressor duct.

  6. The Reduction of Vertical Interchannel Crosstalk: The Analysis of Localisation Thresholds for Natural Sound Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory Wallis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In subjective listening tests, natural sound sources were presented to subjects as vertically-oriented phantom images from two layers of loudspeakers, ‘height’ and ‘main’. Subjects were required to reduce the amplitude of the height layer until the position of the resultant sound source matched that of the same source presented from the main layer only (the localisation threshold. Delays of 0, 1 and 10 ms were applied to the height layer with respect to the main, with vertical stereophonic and quadraphonic conditions being tested. The results of the study showed that the localisation thresholds obtained were not significantly affected by sound source or presentation method. Instead, the only variable whose effect was significant was interchannel time difference (ICTD. For ICTD of 0 ms, the median threshold was −9.5 dB, which was significantly lower than the −7 dB found for both 1 and 10 ms. The results of the study have implications both for the recording of sound sources for three-dimensional (3D audio reproduction formats and also for the rendering of 3D images.

  7. Short communication. Platform for bee-hives monitoring based on sound analysis. A perpetual warehouse for swarms daily activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atauri Mezquida, D.; Llorente Martinez, J.

    2009-07-01

    Bees and beekeeping are suffering a global crisis. Constant information on swarms conditions would be a key to study new diseases like colony collapse disorder and to develop new beekeeping tools to improve the hive management and make it more efficient. A platform for beehives monitoring is presented. It is based on the analysis of the colonies buzz which is registered by a bunch of sensors sending the data to a common database. Data obtained through sound processing shows plenty of patterns and tendency lines related to colonies activities and their conditions. It shows the potential of the sound as a swarm activity gauge. The goal of the platform is the possibility to store information about the swarms activity. The objective is to build a global net of monitored hives covering apiaries with different climates, razes and managements. (Author) 21 refs.

  8. Community Response to Multiple Sound Sources: Integrating Acoustic and Contextual Approaches in the Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Lercher

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sufficient data refer to the relevant prevalence of sound exposure by mixed traffic sources in many nations. Furthermore, consideration of the potential effects of combined sound exposure is required in legal procedures such as environmental health impact assessments. Nevertheless, current practice still uses single exposure response functions. It is silently assumed that those standard exposure-response curves accommodate also for mixed exposures—although some evidence from experimental and field studies casts doubt on this practice. The ALPNAP-study population (N = 1641 shows sufficient subgroups with combinations of rail-highway, highway-main road and rail-highway-main road sound exposure. In this paper we apply a few suggested approaches of the literature to investigate exposure-response curves and its major determinants in the case of exposure to multiple traffic sources. Highly/moderate annoyance and full scale mean annoyance served as outcome. The results show several limitations of the current approaches. Even facing the inherent methodological limitations (energy equivalent summation of sound, rating of overall annoyance the consideration of main contextual factors jointly occurring with the sources (such as vibration, air pollution or coping activities and judgments of the wider area soundscape increases the variance explanation from up to 8% (bivariate, up to 15% (base adjustments up to 55% (full contextual model. The added predictors vary significantly, depending on the source combination. (e.g., significant vibration effects with main road/railway, not highway. Although no significant interactions were found, the observed additive effects are of public health importance. Especially in the case of a three source exposure situation the overall annoyance is already high at lower levels and the contribution of the acoustic indicators is small compared with the non-acoustic and contextual predictors. Noise mapping needs to go down to

  9. Community Response to Multiple Sound Sources: Integrating Acoustic and Contextual Approaches in the Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lercher, Peter; De Coensel, Bert; Dekonink, Luc; Botteldooren, Dick

    2017-06-20

    Sufficient data refer to the relevant prevalence of sound exposure by mixed traffic sources in many nations. Furthermore, consideration of the potential effects of combined sound exposure is required in legal procedures such as environmental health impact assessments. Nevertheless, current practice still uses single exposure response functions. It is silently assumed that those standard exposure-response curves accommodate also for mixed exposures-although some evidence from experimental and field studies casts doubt on this practice. The ALPNAP-study population ( N = 1641) shows sufficient subgroups with combinations of rail-highway, highway-main road and rail-highway-main road sound exposure. In this paper we apply a few suggested approaches of the literature to investigate exposure-response curves and its major determinants in the case of exposure to multiple traffic sources. Highly/moderate annoyance and full scale mean annoyance served as outcome. The results show several limitations of the current approaches. Even facing the inherent methodological limitations (energy equivalent summation of sound, rating of overall annoyance) the consideration of main contextual factors jointly occurring with the sources (such as vibration, air pollution) or coping activities and judgments of the wider area soundscape increases the variance explanation from up to 8% (bivariate), up to 15% (base adjustments) up to 55% (full contextual model). The added predictors vary significantly, depending on the source combination. (e.g., significant vibration effects with main road/railway, not highway). Although no significant interactions were found, the observed additive effects are of public health importance. Especially in the case of a three source exposure situation the overall annoyance is already high at lower levels and the contribution of the acoustic indicators is small compared with the non-acoustic and contextual predictors. Noise mapping needs to go down to levels of 40 d

  10. Community Response to Multiple Sound Sources: Integrating Acoustic and Contextual Approaches in the Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lercher, Peter; De Coensel, Bert; Dekonink, Luc; Botteldooren, Dick

    2017-01-01

    Sufficient data refer to the relevant prevalence of sound exposure by mixed traffic sources in many nations. Furthermore, consideration of the potential effects of combined sound exposure is required in legal procedures such as environmental health impact assessments. Nevertheless, current practice still uses single exposure response functions. It is silently assumed that those standard exposure-response curves accommodate also for mixed exposures—although some evidence from experimental and field studies casts doubt on this practice. The ALPNAP-study population (N = 1641) shows sufficient subgroups with combinations of rail-highway, highway-main road and rail-highway-main road sound exposure. In this paper we apply a few suggested approaches of the literature to investigate exposure-response curves and its major determinants in the case of exposure to multiple traffic sources. Highly/moderate annoyance and full scale mean annoyance served as outcome. The results show several limitations of the current approaches. Even facing the inherent methodological limitations (energy equivalent summation of sound, rating of overall annoyance) the consideration of main contextual factors jointly occurring with the sources (such as vibration, air pollution) or coping activities and judgments of the wider area soundscape increases the variance explanation from up to 8% (bivariate), up to 15% (base adjustments) up to 55% (full contextual model). The added predictors vary significantly, depending on the source combination. (e.g., significant vibration effects with main road/railway, not highway). Although no significant interactions were found, the observed additive effects are of public health importance. Especially in the case of a three source exposure situation the overall annoyance is already high at lower levels and the contribution of the acoustic indicators is small compared with the non-acoustic and contextual predictors. Noise mapping needs to go down to levels of 40 d

  11. Sound Absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, H. V.; Möser, M.

    Sound absorption indicates the transformation of sound energy into heat. It is, for instance, employed to design the acoustics in rooms. The noise emitted by machinery and plants shall be reduced before arriving at a workplace; auditoria such as lecture rooms or concert halls require a certain reverberation time. Such design goals are realised by installing absorbing components at the walls with well-defined absorption characteristics, which are adjusted for corresponding demands. Sound absorbers also play an important role in acoustic capsules, ducts and screens to avoid sound immission from noise intensive environments into the neighbourhood.

  12. Fluvial reservoir characterization using topological descriptors based on spectral analysis of graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viseur, Sophie; Chiaberge, Christophe; Rhomer, Jérémy; Audigane, Pascal

    2015-04-01

    computed for each reservoir rock geobody and studied through a graph spectral analysis. To achieve this, the skeleton is converted into a graph structure. The spectral analysis applied on this graph structure allows a distance to be defined between pairs of graphs. Therefore, this distance is used as support for clustering analysis to gather models that share the same reservoir rock topology. To show the ability of the defined distances to discriminate different types of reservoir connectivity, a synthetic data set of fluvial models with different geological settings was generated and studied using the proposed approach. The results of the clustering analysis are shown and discussed.

  13. The characteristic analysis of spectral image for cabbage leaves damaged by diamondback moth pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-bo; Li, Hong-ning; Cao, Peng-fei; Qin, Feng; Yang, Shu-ming; Feng, Jie

    2015-02-01

    Cabbage growth and health diagnosis are important parts for cabbage fine planting, spectral imaging technology with the advantages of obtaining spectrum and space information of the target at the same time, which has become a research hotspot at home and abroad. The experiment measures the reflection spectrum at different stages using liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF) and monochromatic CMOS camera composed of spectral imaging system for cabbage leaves damaged by diamondback moth pests, and analyzes its feature bands and the change of spectral parameters. The study shows that the feature bands of cabbage leaves damaged by diamondback moth pests have a tendency to blue light direction, the red edge towards blue shift, and red valley raising in spectral characteristic parameters, which have a good indication in diagnosing the extent of cabbage damaged by pests. Therefore, it has a unique advantage of monitoring the cabbage leaves damaged by diamondback moth pests by combinating feature bands and spectral characteristic parameters in spectral imaging technology.

  14. Comparative Analysis of Mass Spectral Similarity Measures on Peak Alignment for Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongho Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Peak alignment is a critical procedure in mass spectrometry-based biomarker discovery in metabolomics. One of peak alignment approaches to comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC×GC-MS data is peak matching-based alignment. A key to the peak matching-based alignment is the calculation of mass spectral similarity scores. Various mass spectral similarity measures have been developed mainly for compound identification, but the effect of these spectral similarity measures on the performance of peak matching-based alignment still remains unknown. Therefore, we selected five mass spectral similarity measures, cosine correlation, Pearson’s correlation, Spearman’s correlation, partial correlation, and part correlation, and examined their effects on peak alignment using two sets of experimental GC×GC-MS data. The results show that the spectral similarity measure does not affect the alignment accuracy significantly in analysis of data from less complex samples, while the partial correlation performs much better than other spectral similarity measures when analyzing experimental data acquired from complex biological samples.

  15. Quantitative Analysis of Spectral Interference of Spontaneous Raman Scattering in High-Pressure Fuel-Rich H2-Air Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Jun; Nguyen, Quang-Viet

    2004-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of the spectral interferences in the spontaneous Raman scattering spectra of major combustion products in 30-atm fuel-rich hydrogen-air flames. An effective methodology is introduced to choose an appropriate line-shape model for simulating Raman spectra in high-pressure combustion environments. The Voigt profile with the additive approximation assumption was found to provide a reasonable model of the spectral line shape for the present analysis. The rotational/vibrational Raman spectra of H2, N2, and H2O were calculated using an anharmonic-oscillator model using the latest collisional broadening coefficients. The calculated spectra were validated with data obtained in a 10-atm fuel-rich H2-air flame and showed excellent agreement. Our quantitative spectral analysis for equivalence ratios ranging from 1.5 to 5.0 revealed substantial amounts of spectral cross-talk between the rotational H2 lines and the N2 O-/Q-branch; and between the vibrational H2O(0,3) line and the vibrational H2O spectrum. We also address the temperature dependence of the spectral cross-talk and extend our analysis to include a cross-talk compensation technique that removes the nterference arising from the H2 Raman spectra onto the N2, or H2O spectra.

  16. A theoretical-experimental methodology for assessing the sensitivity of biomedical spectral imaging platforms, assays, and analysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavesley, Silas J; Sweat, Brenner; Abbott, Caitlyn; Favreau, Peter; Rich, Thomas C

    2018-01-01

    Spectral imaging technologies have been used for many years by the remote sensing community. More recently, these approaches have been applied to biomedical problems, where they have shown great promise. However, biomedical spectral imaging has been complicated by the high variance of biological data and the reduced ability to construct test scenarios with fixed ground truths. Hence, it has been difficult to objectively assess and compare biomedical spectral imaging assays and technologies. Here, we present a standardized methodology that allows assessment of the performance of biomedical spectral imaging equipment, assays, and analysis algorithms. This methodology incorporates real experimental data and a theoretical sensitivity analysis, preserving the variability present in biomedical image data. We demonstrate that this approach can be applied in several ways: to compare the effectiveness of spectral analysis algorithms, to compare the response of different imaging platforms, and to assess the level of target signature required to achieve a desired performance. Results indicate that it is possible to compare even very different hardware platforms using this methodology. Future applications could include a range of optimization tasks, such as maximizing detection sensitivity or acquisition speed, providing high utility for investigators ranging from design engineers to biomedical scientists. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Spectral analysis of magnetic anomalies in and around the Philippine Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, A.; Ishihara, T.

    2009-12-01

    Regional compilations of lithospheric structure from various methods and data and comparison among them are useful to understand lithospheric structure and the processes behind its formation and evolution. We present constraints on the regional variations of the magnetic thicknesses in and around the Philippine Sea. We used a new global magnetic anomaly data [Quesnel et al, 2009], which is CM4-corrected [Comprehensive Model 4; Sabaka et al., 2004], cleaned and leveled to clarify the three-dimensional crustal magnetic structure of the Philippine Sea. The Philippine Sea is one of the largest marginal seas of the world. The north-south-trending Kyushu-Palau Ridge divides it into two parts: the West Philippine Basin and the Daito Ridge province in the west and the Shikoku and Parece Vela Basins in the east. The age of the basins increases westward [Karig, 1971]. And, there are three ridges in the Daito Ridge province west of the Kyushu-Palau Ridge; the Oki-Daito, Daito Ridges and the Amami Plateau from south to north, and small basins among them. Two-dimensional spectral analysis of marine magnetic anomalies is used to estimate the centroid of magnetic sources (Zo) to constrain the lithospheric structure [Tanaka and Ishihara, 2008]. The method is based on that of Spector and Grant [1970]. Zo distribution of the Philippine Sea shows occurrence of shallow magnetic layer areas with approximately less than 10 km in the Shikoku Basin. It also shows variations in deep and shallow magnetic layer areas in the Amami-Daito Province. These patters correspond to spatial variations of the crustal thickness deduced from the three-dimensional gravity modeling [Ishihara and Koda, 2007] and acoustic basement structures [Higuchi et al., 2007]. These three spatial distributions are roughly consistent with each other, although they may contain some scatters and bias due to the different characteristics and errors. This two-dimensional spectral analysis method is based upon an assumption

  18. Sound transmission analysis of plate structures using the finite element method and elementary radiator approach with radiator error index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Jaesoon; Kook, Junghwan; Goo, Seongyeol

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an accurate and efficient numerical method for sound transmission analysis is presented. As an alternative to conventional numerical methods, such as the Finite Element Method (FEM), Boundary Element Method (BEM) and Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA), the FE-ERA method, which...... and efficiency of the FE-ERA method, a novel criterion for the optimal number of elementary radiators is proposed. The criterion is based on the radiator error index that is derived to estimate the accuracy of the computation with used number of radiators. Using the proposed criterion a radiator selection method...

  19. Quasi-optical analysis of a far-infrared spatio-spectral space interferometer concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, C.; O'Sullivan, C.; Murphy, J. A.; Donohoe, A.; Savini, G.; Lightfoot, J.; Juanola-Parramon, R.; Fisica Consortium

    2016-07-01

    FISICA (Far-Infrared Space Interferometer Critical Assessment) was a three year study of a far-infrared spatio-spectral double-Fourier interferometer concept. One of the aims of the FISICA study was to set-out a baseline optical design for such a system, and to use a model of the system to simulate realistic telescope beams for use with an end-to-end instrument simulator. This paper describes a two-telescope (and hub) baseline optical design that fulfils the requirements of the FISICA science case, while minimising the optical mass of the system. A number of different modelling techniques were required for the analysis: fast approximate simulation tools such as ray tracing and Gaussian beam methods were employed for initial analysis, with GRASP physical optics used for higher accuracy in the final analysis. Results are shown for the predicted far-field patterns of the telescope primary mirrors under illumination by smooth walled rectangular feed horns. Far-field patterns for both on-axis and off-axis detectors are presented and discussed.

  20. Structural and spectral analysis of 3-metoxytyramine, an important metabolite of dopamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimić, Dušan; Milenković, Dejan; Marković, Zoran; Marković, Jasmina Dimitrić

    2017-04-01

    Density functional theory calculations, with B3LYP functional and 6-311++G(d,p) basis set are performed with the aim to support the molecular structure and the spectroscopic characteristics of 3-methoxytyramine, the major extracellular metabolite of dopamine. Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) and Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM) analysis were used to explain the specific interactions in the most stable conformations in vacuum and water. The conformer resembling the crystallographic structure was compared to the experimentally available data and NMR spectra. The detailed vibrational spectral analysis and the assignments of the bands, done on the best-fit basis comparison of the experimentally obtained and theoretically calculated IR and Raman spectra, match quite well indicating DFT calculations as very accurate source of normal mode assignments. The obtained results demonstrate the applicability and performance of DFT calculations in conformational analysis of 3-methoxytyramine at the state of the isolated molecule. The molecular docking showed that the most stable conformation in vacuum was not the most stable one when docked in protein, proving that only the weak interactions stabilize the gaseous phase conformations.